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Sample records for studies utilising dehydroabietic

  1. Laboratory study on OH-initiated degradation kinetics of dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chengyue; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Jinzhu; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2015-04-28

    Dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) is a specific organic tracer for the pyrolysis of conifer resin. To understand its atmospheric stability, the degradation behavior of particulate DHAA in the presence of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was investigated under different environmental conditions using a stainless steel reactor with volume of 30 cm(3), in the dark. At 25 °C and 40% relative humidity (RH), the second-order rate constant (k2) of pure DHAA with OH was measured to be 5.72 ± 0.87 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The influence of temperature, RH and mixing state on the degradation kinetics of DHAA were also investigated. At 40% RH, k2 of pure DHAA increases with increasing temperature and follows the Arrhenius equation k2 = (8.9 ± 1.9) × 10(-10)?exp[-(1508.2 ± 64.2)/T], while RH does not have significant impact on k2 at 25 °C. At 25 °C and 40% RH, compared with pure DHAA, the corresponding k2 for DHAA mixed with (NH4)2SO4 decreased to 4.58 ± 0.95 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), while the value was 3.30 ± 0.79 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) when mixed with soot. The atmospheric lifetime of DHAA varied from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 4.4 ± 0.8 days under different environmental conditions. This study indicates that degradation of DHAA by OH radicals is appreciable, and a significant error in source apportionment should be introduced if the contribution of degradation to DHAA concentration is not considered during air mass aging. PMID:25824374

  2. The synthesis and BK channel-opening activity of N-acylaminoalkyloxime derivatives of dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong-Mei; Liu, Xin-Lan; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Lin, Hai-Xia; Ohwada, Tomohiko; Ido, Katsutoshi; Sawada, Kohei

    2016-01-15

    A series of N-acylaminoalkyloxime derivatives of dehydroabietic acid were synthesized and evaluated for BK channel-opening activities in an assay system of CHO-K1 cells expressing hBK? channels. The structure-activity relationship study revealed that a non-covalent interaction between the S atom of the 2-thiophene and the carbonyl O atom may contribute to conformation restriction for interaction with the ion channel. This research could guide the design and synthesis of novel abietane-based BK channel opener. PMID:26707391

  3. EIMS Fragmentation Pathways and MRM Quantification of 7?/?-Hydroxy-Dehydroabietic Acid TMS Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontani, Jean-François; Aubert, Claude; Belt, Simon T.

    2015-09-01

    EI mass fragmentation pathways of TMS derivatives ?f 7?/?-hydroxy-dehydroabietic acids resulting from NaBH4-reduction of oxidation products of dehydroabietic acid (a component of conifers) were investigated and deduced by a combination of (1) low energy CID-GC-MS/MS, (2) deuterium labeling, (3) different derivatization methods, and (4) GC-QTOF accurate mass measurements. Having identified the main fragmentation pathways, the TMS-derivatized 7?/?-hydroxy-dehydroabietic acids could be quantified in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode in sea ice and sediment samples collected from the Arctic. These newly characterized transformation products of dehydroabietic acid constitute potential tracers of biotic and abiotic degradation of terrestrial higher plants in the environment.

  4. Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Barton, Michael; Mackillop, William; Fidarova, Elena; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Abad, Anthony; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kobachi, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution. PMID:26164776

  5. Illness behaviour and general practice utilisation: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pilowsky, I; Smith, Q P; Katsikitis, M

    1987-01-01

    The Illness Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ) was used to compare general practice patients who presented physical complaints in the absence of objective pathology, with those in whom the presence of pathology was established. Patients without pathology showed a greater conviction as to the presence of disease, and greater degrees of anxiety, depression and irritability. Males and females differed on their IBQ scores: males showing more disease conviction, somatic focusing and hypochondriasis. Utilisation of general practitioner services (as indicated by the number of visits in the six months subsequent to completing the IBQ) was associated with greater age, and for the group as a whole, utilisation was predicted by higher scores on the following IBQ scales: disease conviction, affective disturbance and disease affirmation. This was also the case for males, but in females only affective disturbance correlated with a greater number of visits. Four patterns were delineated in the relationship between age, illness behaviour variables, the presence or absence of objective pathology, and G.P. contacts. PMID:3585819

  6. Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

    2012-02-01

    Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

  7. Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented to improve communication on all levels and reduce systemic barriers operating within the health system. PMID:23497140

  8. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Dehydroabietic Acid Derivatives Conjugated with Acyl-Thiourea Peptide Moiety as Antitumor Agents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Le; Qu, Hong-En; Huang, Xiao-Chao; Pan, Ying-Ming; Liang, Dong; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Heng-Shan; Zhang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    A series of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) acyl-thiourea derivatives were designed and synthesized as potent antitumor agents. The in vitro pharmacological screening results revealed that the target compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HeLa, SK-OV-3 and MGC-803 tumor cell lines, while they showed lower cytotoxicity against HL-7702 normal human river cells. Compound 9n (IC50 = 6.58 ± 1.11 ?M) exhibited the best antitumor activity against the HeLa cell line and even displayed more potent inhibitory activity than commercial antitumor drug 5-FU (IC50 = 36.58 ± 1.55 ?M). The mechanism of representative compound 9n was then studied by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33,258 staining, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining, TUNEL assay and flow cytometry, which illustrated that this compound could induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that compound 9n mainly arrested HeLa cells in the S phase stage. Further investigation demonstrated that compound 9n induced apoptosis of HeLa cells through a mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26132564

  9. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Dehydroabietic Acid Derivatives Conjugated with Acyl-Thiourea Peptide Moiety as Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Le; Qu, Hong-En; Huang, Xiao-Chao; Pan, Ying-Ming; Liang, Dong; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Heng-Shan; Zhang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    A series of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) acyl-thiourea derivatives were designed and synthesized as potent antitumor agents. The in vitro pharmacological screening results revealed that the target compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HeLa, SK-OV-3 and MGC-803 tumor cell lines, while they showed lower cytotoxicity against HL-7702 normal human river cells. Compound 9n (IC50 = 6.58 ± 1.11 ?M) exhibited the best antitumor activity against the HeLa cell line and even displayed more potent inhibitory activity than commercial antitumor drug 5-FU (IC50 = 36.58 ± 1.55 ?M). The mechanism of representative compound 9n was then studied by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33,258 staining, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining, TUNEL assay and flow cytometry, which illustrated that this compound could induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that compound 9n mainly arrested HeLa cells in the S phase stage. Further investigation demonstrated that compound 9n induced apoptosis of HeLa cells through a mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26132564

  10. The natural phytochemical dehydroabietic acid is an anti-aging reagent that mediates the direct activation of SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juewon; Kang, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jee-young; Choi, Dong-hwa; Cho, Young-uk; Shin, Jae-Min; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, John Hwan; Kim, Wan Gi; Seo, Dae Bang; Lee, Tae Ryong; Miyamoto, Yusei; No, Kyoung Tai

    2015-09-01

    Dehydroabietic acid (DAA) is a naturally occurring diterpene resin acid of confers, such as pinus species (P. densiflora, P.?sylvestris) and grand fir (Abies?grandis), and it induces various biological actions including antimicrobial, antiulcer, and cardiovascular activities. The cellular targets that mediate these actions are largely unknown yet. In this report, we suggest that DAA is an anti-aging reagent. DAA has lifespan extension effects in Caenorhabditis?elegans, prevents lipofuscin accumulation, and prevents collagen secretion in human dermal fibroblasts. We found that these anti-aging effects are primarily mediated by SIRT1 activation. Lifespan extension effects by DAA were ameliorated in sir-2.1 mutants and SIRT1 protein expression was increased, resulting in the deacetylation of SIRT1 target protein PGC-1?. Moreover, DAA binds directly to the SIRT1 protein independent of the SIRT1 substrate NAD(+) levels. Through a molecular docking study, we also propose a binding model for DAA-SIRT1. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the anti-aging effects are the first identified biological property of DAA and that the direct activation of SIRT1 enzymatic activity suggests the potential use of this natural diterpene, or related compounds, in age-related diseases or as a preventive reagent against the aging process. PMID:25976661

  11. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC2 Induces Oncosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guang; Jiang, Chunping; Wang, Zhongxia; Chen, Weibo; Gu, Wen; Ding, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Rosin, the traditional Chinese medicine, is reported to be able to inhibit skin cancer cell lines. In this report, we investigate the inhibitory effect against HCC cells of QC2, the derivative of rosin's main components dehydroabietic acid. Methods. MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of QC2. Morphological changes were observed by time-lapse microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the cytoskeleton changes were observed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by detection of the reactive oxygen (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). The underlying mechanism was manifested by Western blotting. The oncotic cell death was further confirmed by detection of oncosis related protein calpain. Results. Swelling cell type and destroyed cytoskeleton were observed in QC2-treated HCC cells. Organelle damage was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The detection of ROS accumulation, increased LDH release, and decreased ATP and ??m confirmed the cell death. The oncotic related protein calpain was found to increase time-dependently in QC2-treated HCC cells, while its inhibitor PD150606 attenuated the cytotoxicity. Conclusions. Dehydroabietic acid derivative QC2 activated oncosis related protein calpain to induce the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis in HCC cells. PMID:25110686

  12. Drug Utilisation Study in a Tertiary Care Center: Recommendations for Improving Hospital Drug Dispensing Policies

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R.; Singh, I.; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

  13. Healthcare utilisation by pregnant patients with asthma in South Korea: a cohort study using nationwide claims data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Jimin; Jang, Eun Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Choi, Seongmi; Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoon, Ho Il

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Few nationwide population-based studies have examined the burden of asthma during pregnancy. Here, we investigated the burden and medical treatment of asthma during pregnancy requiring healthcare utilisation in South Korea. Design Cohort study. Setting Nationwide insurance claims database. Participants A total of 1?306?281 pregnant women who delivered in South Korea in 2009–2011. Outcomes The prevalence and exacerbation rates of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation, and the prescription of antiasthmatic drugs during pregnancy. Results The prevalence of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation was 0.43% among pregnant women. Among those with asthma requiring healthcare utilisation, 6.9% were hospitalised and treated with systemic steroids and short-acting ?2-agonists during pregnancy. Oral drugs were prescribed less during the third trimester than during the first trimester (all p values for trends were <0.001). A significant number of patients with asthma were likely to stop taking antiasthmatic drugs after becoming pregnant. Conclusions The prevalence of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation during pregnancy was not very high. However, a significant number of women were likely to stop taking antiasthmatic drugs, and those who did tended to experience exacerbations. PMID:26546138

  14. Regulation of liver cell glucose homeostasis by dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid and squalene isolated from balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) a plant of the Eastern James Bay Cree traditional pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Nachar, Abir; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2015-09-01

    In our previous study, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., a plant used in Cree traditional medicine, had a strong effect on the regulation of glucose homeostasis in liver cells. This study aimed to isolate and identify its active constituents using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach as well as to elucidate their mechanism(s) of action. The effect of the crude extract and its constituents was evaluated on the activity of Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G6Pase) and Glycogen Synthase (GS) and phosphorylation of three kinases, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Akt and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). Three compounds, abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and squalene, were isolated from the most active fraction in the bioassays (hexane). The compounds were able to decrease the activity of G6Pase and to stimulate GS. Their effect on G6Pase activity involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation with significant correlations between insulin-dependent and -independent pathways and the bioassay. In addition, the compounds were able to stimulate GS through GSK-3 phosphorylation with a significant correlation between the signaling pathway and the bioassay. Dehydroabietic acid stood out for its strongest effect in all the experiments close to that of the crude extract. These compounds may have potential applications in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. PMID:26164238

  15. In their own words: qualitative study of high-utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dwamena, Francesca C; Lyles, Judith S; Frankel, Richard M; Smith, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Background High utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) often frustrate their primary care providers. Studies that elucidate the attitudes of these patients may help to increase understanding and improve confidence of clinicians who care for them. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze perceptions and lived experiences of high utilising primary care patients with MUS. Methods A purposive sample of 19 high utilising primary care patients for whom at least 50% (69.6% in this sample) of visits for two years could not be explained medically, were encouraged to talk spontaneously about themselves and answer semi-structured questions. Verbatim transcripts of interviews were analyzed using an iterative consensus building process. Results Patients with MUS almost universally described current and/or past family dysfunction and were subjected to excessive testing and ineffective empirical treatments. Three distinct groups emerged from the data. 1) Some patients, who had achieved a significant degree of psychological insight and had success in life, primarily sought explanations for their symptoms. 2) Patients who had less psychological insight were more disabled by their symptoms and felt strongly entitled to be excused from normal social obligations. Typically, these patients primarily sought symptom relief, legitimization, and support. 3) Patients who expressed worry about missed diagnoses demanded excessive care and complained when their demands were resisted. Conclusion High utilising primary care patients are a heterogeneous group with similar experiences and different perceptions, behaviours and needs. Recognizing these differences may be critical to effective treatment and reduction in utilisation. PMID:19772582

  16. A retrospective study of resource utilisation in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer in Europe.

    PubMed

    Torfs, K; Pocceschi, S

    1996-01-01

    An estimation of resource utilisation in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer has been carried out by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Data on resource utilisation were collected retrospectively from 10 European centres, examining 20 consecutive patient files in each centre. Data from eight centres are reported in this paper. 160 patients were included in the sample, followed up for a median of 530 days. All patients were hospitalised and almost all underwent surgery. Fifty-four per cent received chemotherapy, and most visited the hospital as an outpatient. Including hospital stay and outpatient visits, patients spent almost 10% of their time in hospital or associated travelling. The most common diagnostic tests were chest X-ray, electrocardiogram and abdomen ultrasound. There was considerable variation between hospitals in resource utilisation, both within and between countries. Surgical procedures, chemotherapy, hospitalisation, diagnostic tests and outpatient visits are major cost determinants in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The variation in resource utilisation suggests that efficiency could be improved. PMID:8958040

  17. Low utilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran, despite their affordability (2000–2012): a time-series and benchmarking study

    PubMed Central

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited data exist on the status of access to diabetes medicines in LMICs. We assessed the utilisation and affordability of diabetes medicines in Iran as a middle-income country. Design We used a retrospective time-series design (2000–2012) and assessed national diabetes medicines’ utilisation using pharmaceuticals wholesale data. Methods We calculated defined daily dose consumptions per population days (DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day; DIDs) indicator. Findings were benchmarked with data from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We also employed Drug Utilization-90% (DU-90) method to compare DU-90s with the Essential Medicines List published by the WHO. We measured affordability using number of minimum daily wage required to purchase a treatment course for 1?month. Results Diabetes medicines’ consumption increased from 4.47 to 33.54 DIDs. The benchmarking showed that medicines’ utilisation in Iran in 2011 was only 54% of the median DIDs of 22 OECD countries. Oral hypoglycaemic agents consisted over 80% of use throughout the study period. Regular and isophane insulin (NPH), glibenclamide, metformin and gliclazide were the DU-90 drugs in 2012. Metformin, glibenclamide and regular/NPH insulin combination therapy were affordable throughout the study period (?0.4, ?0.1, ?0.3 of minimum daily wage, respectively). While the affordability of novel insulin preparations improved over time, they were still unaffordable in 2012. Conclusions The utilisation of diabetes medicines was relatively low, perhaps due to underdiagnosis and inadequate management of patients with diabetes. This had occurred despite affordability of essential diabetes medicines in Iran. Appropriate policies are required to address the underutilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran. PMID:25324322

  18. Utilisation of Healthcare and Associated Services in Huntington’s disease: a data mining study

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Monica; Al-Madfai, Dr. Hasan; Kenkre, Joyce; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Bentivoglio, AnnaRita; Rosser, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with Huntington’s disease (HD) often require tailored healthcare and support packages that develop as the disease progresses. The Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI) gathers retrospective information on service utilization. This study investigated the use of formal services and informal care as measured by the CSRI and explored associations between informal care, disease severity and functional ability as measured by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS) and functional scales. Methods: All monitored longitudinal data from annual clinical assessments of UHDRS-TMS and functional assessments and CSRI collected under the auspices of the European Huntington’s Disease Network (EHDN) REGISTRY study between the years 2004 and 2009 were utilised in the analyses. Disease severity was reflected by UHDRS-TMS. Functional ability was measured using the UHDRS functional scales. CSRI data were analysed according to percentage use of individual formal services and total estimated hours per week of informal care. Regression analyses were conducted to identify any associations between disease severity, functional ability and hours of informal care. Results: 451 HD patients (212 female; 239 male) completed one visit; 105 patients (54 females; 51 males) completed two visits and 47 patients (20 females; 27 males) completed three visits in total over the 5 year period. The mean time between visits was 1.2 years. At visit one, 74% of the participants reported being in receipt of at least one formal hospital-based service in the previous six months, and 89% reported receipt of formal primary and community care services. In contrast, at the third visit, 62% of people had used hospital based services and 94% formal community based services in the previous six months. Fifty % of individuals required some form of informal care in the home at visit 1; this increased to 68% at visits 2 and 3. The mean (SD) estimated weekly total informal care hours at visits 1, 2 and 3 were 32.8 (49.4); 21.6 (53.6) and 21.3 (62.4) respectively. Only the scores on the Functional Assessment Scale (FAS) accounted for the variance in the weekly total informal care hours at each visit. Conclusions: Although it must be acknowledged that service use is supply driven, most HD patients across Europe surveyed as part of this study were in receipt of formal primary and community care services and to a lesser extent formal hospital based services. There was however a large reliance on informal care in the home. The FAS appear to have predictive value on informal care requirements and may have utility in facilitating pro-active service provision and in particular when managing carer burden in this population. PMID:21304753

  19. Investigating public perceptions of carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technology: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Jones, C R; Kaklamanou, D; Stuttard, W M; Radford, R L; Burley, J

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technologies hold promise for helping to limit atmospheric releases of CO2 while generating saleable products. However, while there is growing investment in the research and development required to bring CDU to the market, to date there has been very little systematic research into public perceptions of the technology. The current research reports upon the findings of a series of six qualitative focus groups (and an associated questionnaire) held with members of the UK public in order to discuss the perceived benefits and risks of CDU technology. The findings reveal that public awareness of CDU is currently very low and that there is a desire to learn more about the technology. While our participants did, on average, appear to develop an overall positive attitude towards CDU, this attitude was tentative and was associated with a number of caveats. The implications for the findings in terms of the development of communication and broader strategies of public engagements are outlined. PMID:26400247

  20. Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4th and 5th quintile, ?1257 meters) from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status). When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56). Conclusion Distance to the closest health facility was negatively associated with neonatal mortality risk. Health care utilisation in the prenatal period could partly explain this risk elevation since there was a distance decay in health system usage prior to and at delivery. The geographical dimension must be taken into consideration when planning interventions for improved neonatal survival, especially when targeting socio-economically disadvantaged groups. PMID:21144058

  1. Utilisation of primary total knee joint replacements across socioeconomic status in the Barwon Statistical Division, Australia, 2006–2007: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Sharon Lee; Stanford, Tyman; Wluka, Anita E; Page, Richard S; Graves, Stephen E; Kotowicz, Mark A; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Pasco, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There are few Australian data that examine the association between total knee joint replacement (TKR) utilisation and socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined TKR surgeries with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) performed for residents of Barwon Statistical Division (BSD) for 2006–2007. Design Cross-sectional. Setting BSD, South-eastern Victoria, Australia Participants All patients who underwent a TKR for OA, 2006–2007, and whose residential postcode was identified as within the BSD of Australia, and for whom SES data were available, were eligible for inclusion. Primary outcome measure Primary TKR data ascertained from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Residential addresses were matched with the Australian Bureau of Statistics census data, and the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to determine SES, categorised into quintiles whereby quintile 1 indicated the most disadvantaged and quintile 5 the least disadvantaged. Age-specific and sex-specific rates of TKR utilisation per 1000 person-years were reported for 10-year age bands. Results Females accounted for 62.7% of the 691 primary TKR surgeries performed during 2006–2007. The greatest utilisation rates of TKR in males was 7.6 observed in those aged >79?years, and in 10.2 in females observed in those aged 70–79?years. An increase in TKR was observed for males in SES quintile four compared to quintile 1 in which the lowest utilisation which was observed (p=0.04). No differences were observed in females across SES quintiles. Conclusions Further investigation is warranted on a larger scale to examine the role that SES may play in TKR utilisation, and to determine whether any social disparities in TKR utilisation reflect health system biases or geographic differences. PMID:23035014

  2. Stroke patients’ utilisation of extrinsic feedback from computer-based technology in the home: a multiple case study realistic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that post???stroke rehabilitation improves function, independence and quality of life. A key aspect of rehabilitation is the provision of appropriate information and feedback to the learner. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have allowed for the development of various systems to complement stroke rehabilitation that could be used in the home setting. These systems may increase the provision of rehabilitation a stroke survivor receives and carries out, as well as providing a learning platform that facilitates long-term self-managed rehabilitation and behaviour change. This paper describes the application of an innovative evaluative methodology to explore the utilisation of feedback for post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home. Methods Using the principles of realistic evaluation, this study aimed to test and refine intervention theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes that arise from technology deployment in the home. Methods included focus groups followed by multi-method case studies (n?=?5) before, during and after the use of computer-based equipment. Data were analysed in relation to the context-mechanism-outcome hypotheses case by case. This was followed by a synthesis of the findings to answer the question, ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances and respects?’ Results Data analysis reveals that to achieve desired outcomes through the use of ICT, key elements of computer feedback, such as accuracy, measurability, rewarding feedback, adaptability, and knowledge of results feedback, are required to trigger the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the intervention. In addition, the pre-existing context and the personal and environmental contexts, such as previous experience of service delivery, personal goals, trust in the technology, and social circumstances may also enable or constrain the underpinning theory-driven mechanisms. Conclusions Findings suggest that the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the utilisation of feedback from computer-based technology for home-based upper-limb post-stroke rehabilitation are dependent on key elements of computer feedback and the personal and environmental context. The identification of these elements may therefore inform the development of technology; therapy education and the subsequent adoption of technology and a self-management paradigm; long-term self-managed rehabilitation; and importantly, improvements in the physical and psychosocial aspects of recovery. PMID:24903401

  3. School Reform for Positive Behaviour Support through Collaborative Learning: Utilising Lesson Study for a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Watanabe, Miki; Gillies, Robyn; Someya, Ikuo; Nagashima, Takashi; Sato, Masaaki; Murase, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has emphasised educating children about positive behaviours to overcome delinquency issues, but there is little clarification of what factors lead to positive behaviours. This study analyses factors that led to children's positive behaviours at a junior high school in Japan, which experienced a dramatic turnaround after…

  4. Study of calcification formation and disease diagnostics utilising advanced vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerssens, Marleen Maartje

    The accurate and safe diagnosis of breast cancer is a significant societal issue, with annual disease incidence of 48,000 women and around 370 men in the UK. Early diagnosis of the disease allows more conservative treatments and better patient outcomes. Microcalcifications in breast tissue are an important indicator for breast cancers, and often the only sign of their presence. Several studies have suggested that the type of calcification formed may act as a marker for malignancy and its presence may be of biological significance. In this work, breast calcifications are studied with FTIR, synchrotron FTIR, ATR FTIR, and Raman mapping to explore their disease specific composition. From a comparison between vibrational spectroscopy and routine staining procedures it becomes clear that calcium builds up prior to calcification formation. Raman and FTIR indicate the same size for calcifications and are in agreement with routine staining techniques. From the synchrotron FTIR measurements it can be proven that amide is present in the centre of the calcifications and the intensity of the bands depends on the pathology. Special attention is paid to the type of carbonate substitution in the calcifications relating to different pathology grades. In contrast to mammography, Raman spectroscopy has the capability to distinguish calcifications based on their chemical composition. The ultimate goal is to turn the acquired knowledge from the mapping studies into a clinical tool based on deep Raman spectroscopy. Deep Raman techniques have a considerable potential to reduce large numbers of normal biopsies, reduce the time delay between screening and diagnosis and therefore diminish patient anxiety. In order to achieve this, a deep Raman system is designed and after evaluation of its performance tested on buried calcification standards in porcine soft tissue and human mammary tissue. It is shown that, when the calcification is probed through tissue, the strong 960 cm-1 phosphate band can be used as a pseudo marker for carbonate substitution which is related to the pathology of the surrounding tissue. Furthermore, the first study in which human breast calcifications are measured in bulk tissue with a thickness of several millimetres to centimetres is presented. To date, measurements have been performed at 41 specimens with a thickness up to 25 mm. Measurements could be performed through skin and blue dye. The proposed deep Raman technique is promising for probing of calcifications through tissue but will need refinement before being adopted in hospitals.

  5. Association between secure patient–clinician email and clinical services utilisation in a US integrated health system: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Di; Palen, Ted E; Tsai, Joanne; McLeod, Melanie; Garrido, Terhilda; Qian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between secure patient–clinician email use and clinical services utilisation over time. Design Retrospective cohort study between July 2010 and December 2013. Controlling for a utilisation surge around first secure email use, we analysed difference of differences between propensity score-matched groups of secure patient–clinician email users and non-users for utilisation 1–12?months before and 7–18?months after first email (users) or a randomly assigned index date (non-users). Setting US integrated healthcare delivery system. Participants 9345 adults with first secure email use between July 2011 and July 2012 and continuous enrolment for ?30?months and 9345 adults without secure email use between July 2010 and July 2012 matched to users on demographics, health status, and baseline utilisation. Primary Outcome Measures Rates of office visits, patient-initiated phone calls, scheduled telephone visits, after-hours clinic visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalisations. Results After controlling for multiple factors, no statistically significant differences in utilisation between secure email users and non-users occurred. Utilisation transiently increased by 88–237% around first email use. Annual rates of patient-initiated phone calls decreased among secure email users, 0.2 fewer calls per person (95% CI ?0.3 to ?0.1), from a mean of 4.1 calls per person 1–12?months before first use to a mean of 3.8 calls per person 7–18?months after first use. Rates of patient-initiated phone calls also decreased among non-users, 0.1 fewer calls per person (95% CI ?0.2 to 0.0), from a mean of 4.2 calls per person 1–12?months before the index date to mean of 4.1 calls per person 7–18?months after the index date. Conclusions Compared with non-users, patient use of secure email with clinicians was not associated with statistically significant differences in clinical services utilisation 7–18?months after first use. PMID:26553841

  6. Early primary care physician contact and health service utilisation in a large sample of recently released ex-prisoners in Australia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold-Reed, Diane; Preen, David; Bulsara, Max; Lennox, Nick; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between ex-prisoner primary care physician contact within 1?month of prison release and health service utilisation in the 6?months following release. Design A cohort from the Passports study with a mean follow-up of 219 (±44) days postrelease. Associations were assessed using a multivariate Andersen-Gill model, controlling for a range of other factors. Setting Face-to-face, baseline interviews were conducted in a sample of prisoners within 6?weeks of expected release from seven prisons in Queensland, Australia, from 2008 to 2010, with telephone follow-up interviews 1, 3 and 6?months postrelease. Participants From an original population-based sample of 1325 sentenced adult (?18?years) prisoners, 478 participants were excluded due to not being released from prison during follow-up (n=7, 0.5%), loss to follow-up (n=257, 19.4%), or lacking exposure data (n=214, 16.2%). A total of 847 (63.9%) participants were included in the analyses. Exposure Primary care physician contact within 1 month of follow-up as a dichotomous measure. Main outcome measures Adjusted time-to-event hazard rates for hospital, mental health, alcohol and other drug and subsequent primary care physician service utilisations assessed as multiple failure time-interval data. Results Primary care physician contact prevalence within 1 month of follow-up was 46.5%. One-month primary care physician contact was positively associated with hospital (adjusted HR (AHR)=2.07; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.09), mental health (AHR=1.65; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.19), alcohol and other drug (AHR=1.48; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.90) and subsequent primary care physician service utilisation (AHR=1.47; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.72) over 6?months of follow-up. Conclusions Engagement with primary care physician services soon after prison release increases health service utilisation during the critical community transition period for ex-prisoners. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000232336). PMID:26068513

  7. Increased utilisation of primary healthcare in persons exposed to severe stress in prenatal life: a national population-based study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiong; Yang, Hu; Guldin, Mai-Britt; Vedsted, Peter; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that stress in a pregnant mother may affect the future health of the unborn child negatively. An excellent proxy for health problems is the use of healthcare resources. Using nationwide data, we examined whether persons born to mothers who lost a close relative during pregnancy have more contacts to general practice. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants We included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2002 (N=2?032?528). Exposure of prenatal stress was defined as maternal bereavement by the death of a close relative during the antenatal period. The outcome of interest was contact with general practice between 2003 and 2009 when the participants were between 1 and 35?years of age. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between exposure and outcome. Outcome measures Contacts to general practitioner. Results Overall, persons exposed to prenatal stress had 2% more GP contacts than those not exposed, primarily due to increased utilisation of healthcare services during late adolescence and early adulthood. The exposed persons born to mothers who had lost a spouse had a higher risk (relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.14) and so did those born to mothers who had lost a close relative due to unexpected death (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.06). Exposed persons had more contacts to general practice in daytime and more psychometric tests, talk therapies and C reactive protein tests than unexposed persons. Conclusions Prenatal stress following maternal bereavement was associated with a slightly increased utilisation of primary healthcare, mainly due to increased healthcare needs related to mental health and infections. Understanding how stress during pregnancy influences the future health of the child is an important aspect of prenatal care. PMID:25573520

  8. The experience of palliative patients and their families of a family meeting utilised as an instrument for spiritual and psychosocial care: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study explores the experience of palliative patients and their family members of a family meeting model, utilised as an instrument for the provision of spiritual and psychosocial care. In doing so the study embraces a broad understanding of spirituality which may or may not include formal religious practice and a concept of psychosocial care that includes: social and emotional well-being, communication, self esteem, mental health and adaptation to illness. The meeting of spiritual and psychosocial needs is considered to be an important aspect of palliative care. Methods This qualitative study, philosophically underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology, investigates the participatory experience of palliative care patients and their significant family members of such a family meeting. People registered with two large metropolitan palliative care services, who met selection criteria, were referred by medical staff. Twelve of the 66 referred took part in family meetings which also included significant others invited by the patient. A total of 36 family members participated. The number of participants of individual family meetings ranged from two to eleven. After the family meeting every participant was invited to take part in an individual in-depth interview about their experience of the meeting. Forty seven interviews were conducted. These were audio recorded and transcribed. Results Data analysis, utilising Ricoeur's theory of interpretation, revealed seven main themes: personal experience of the meeting, personal outcomes, observation of others' experience, observation of experience and outcomes for the family unit, meeting facilitation, how it could have been different and general applicability of the family meeting. Throughout these themes were numerous references to aspects of the web of relationships which describe the concept of spirituality as it is defined for the purpose of this study. Conclusions The findings indicate the potential of the type of family meeting reported for use in the spiritual and psychosocial care of people receiving palliative care and their families. However further research is needed to explore its application to more culturally diverse groups and its longer term impact on family members. PMID:21435259

  9. Utilising a Collaborative Macro-Script to Enhance Student Engagement: A Mixed Method Study in a 3D Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouta, Hara; Retalis, Symeon; Paraskeva, Fotini

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of using an online 3D virtual environment in teaching Mathematics in Primary Education. In particular, it explores the extent to which student engagement--behavioral, affective and cognitive--is fostered by such tools in order to enhance collaborative learning. For the study we used a purpose-created 3D virtual…

  10. End of life care for frail older patients in family practice (ELFOP) – protocol of a longitudinal qualitative study on needs, appropriateness and utilisation of services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Frail elderly people represent a major patient group in family practice. Little is known about the patients’ needs, and how their needs evolve over time with increasing frailty towards the end of life. This study will address end-of-life care needs, service utilisation, and experiences of frail elderly patients and their informal caregivers, with regard to family practice. This paper aims to introduce the research protocol. Methods/Design The study uses a multiple perspective approach qualitative design. The first study part consists of serial six-monthly in-depth interviews with 30 community-dwelling elderly patients (?70?years) with moderate to severe frailty and their key informal caregivers, over a period of 18?months. Additionally, semi-structured interviews with the patients’ family physician will be conducted. The serial interviews will be analysed with grounded theory and narrative approaches. Special attention will be paid to the comparison of distinct views of the patients’, informal caregivers’, and family physicians’ as well as on chronological aspects. In the second study part, five focus groups with experts in family medicine, geriatrics, palliative medicine, and nursing will be conducted. Finally, the implications for family practice and health care policy will be discussed in an expert workshop. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first prospective, longitudinal qualitative study on the needs of elderly patients with advanced frailty towards the end of life in German family practice, which integrates the perspectives of patients, informal caregivers, family physicians and other health professionals. The study will contribute to the understanding of the clinical, psychosocial and information needs of patients and their caregivers, and of respective changes of experiences and needs along the illness/frailty trajectory including the last phase of life. It will provide an empirical basis for improving patient-centred care for this increasingly relevant target group. PMID:23642254

  11. Facilitating professional liaison in collaborative care for depression in UK primary care; a qualitative study utilising normalisation process theory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Collaborative care (CC) is an organisational framework which facilitates the delivery of a mental health intervention to patients by case managers in collaboration with more senior health professionals (supervisors and GPs), and is effective for the management of depression in primary care. However, there remains limited evidence on how to successfully implement this collaborative approach in UK primary care. This study aimed to explore to what extent CC impacts on professional working relationships, and if CC for depression could be implemented as routine in the primary care setting. Methods This qualitative study explored perspectives of the 6 case managers (CMs), 5 supervisors (trial research team members) and 15 general practitioners (GPs) from practices participating in a randomised controlled trial of CC for depression. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data was analysed using a two-step approach using an initial thematic analysis, and a secondary analysis using the Normalisation Process Theory concepts of coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring with respect to the implementation of CC in primary care. Results Supervisors and CMs demonstrated coherence in their understanding of CC, and consequently reported good levels of cognitive participation and collective action regarding delivering and supervising the intervention. GPs interviewed showed limited understanding of the CC framework, and reported limited collaboration with CMs: barriers to collaboration were identified. All participants identified the potential or experienced benefits of a collaborative approach to depression management and were able to discuss ways in which collaboration can be facilitated. Conclusion Primary care professionals in this study valued the potential for collaboration, but GPs’ understanding of CC and organisational barriers hindered opportunities for communication. Further work is needed to address these organisational barriers in order to facilitate collaboration around individual patients with depression, including shared IT systems, facilitating opportunities for informal discussion and building in formal collaboration into the CC framework. Trial registration ISRCTN32829227 30/9/2008. PMID:24885746

  12. Portrait of rural emergency departments in Quebec and utilisation of the Quebec Emergency Department Management Guide: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Richard; Archambault, Patrick; Légaré, France; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Ouimet, Mathieu; Dupuis, Gilles; Haggerty, Jeannie; Poitras, Julien; Tanguay, Alain; Simard-Racine, Geneviève; Gauthier, Josée

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Emergency departments are important safety nets for people who live in rural areas. Moreover, a serious problem in access to healthcare services has emerged in these regions. The challenges of providing access to quality rural emergency care include recruitment and retention issues, lack of advanced imagery technology, lack of specialist support and the heavy reliance on ambulance transport over great distances. The Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services published a new version of the Emergency Department Management Guide, a document designed to improve the emergency department management and to humanise emergency department care and services. In particular, the Guide recommends solutions to problems that plague rural emergency departments. Unfortunately, no studies have evaluated the implementation of the proposed recommendations. Methods and analysis To develop a comprehensive portrait of all rural emergency departments in Quebec, data will be gathered from databases at the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services, the Quebec Trauma Registry and from emergency departments and ambulance services managers. Statistics Canada data will be used to describe populations and rural regions. To evaluate the use of the 2006 Emergency Department Management Guide and the implementation of its various recommendations, an online survey and a phone interview will be administered to emergency department managers. Two online surveys will evaluate quality of work life among physicians and nurses working at rural emergency departments. Quality-of-care indicators will be collected from databases and patient medical files. Data will be analysed using statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the CSSS Alphonse–Desjardins research ethics committee (Project MP-HDL-1213-011). The results will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at one or more scientific conferences. PMID:23633423

  13. Direct targeting of risk factors significantly increases the detection of liver cirrhosis in primary care: a cross-sectional diagnostic study utilising transient elastography

    PubMed Central

    Harman, David J; Ryder, Stephen D; James, Martin W; Jelpke, Matthew; Ottey, Dominic S; Wilkes, Emilie A; Card, Timothy R; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Guha, Indra Neil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of a novel diagnostic algorithm targeting patients with risk factors for chronic liver disease in a community setting. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting Two primary care practices (adult patient population 10?479) in Nottingham, UK. Participants Adult patients (aged 18?years or over) fulfilling one or more selected risk factors for developing chronic liver disease: (1) hazardous alcohol use, (2) type 2 diabetes or (3) persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver function enzyme with negative serology. Interventions A serial biomarker algorithm, using a simple blood-based marker (aspartate aminotransferase:ALT ratio for hazardous alcohol users, BARD score for other risk groups) and subsequently liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography (TE). Main outcome measures Diagnosis of clinically significant liver disease (defined as liver stiffness ?8?kPa); definitive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Results We identified 920 patients with the defined risk factors of whom 504 patients agreed to undergo investigation. A normal blood biomarker was found in 62 patients (12.3%) who required no further investigation. Subsequently, 378 patients agreed to undergo TE, of whom 98 (26.8% of valid scans) had elevated liver stiffness. Importantly, 71/98 (72.4%) patients with elevated liver stiffness had normal liver enzymes and would be missed by traditional investigation algorithms. We identified 11 new patients with definite cirrhosis, representing a 140% increase in the number of diagnosed cases in this population. Conclusions A non-invasive liver investigation algorithm based in a community setting is feasible to implement. Targeting risk factors using a non-invasive biomarker approach identified a substantial number of patients with previously undetected cirrhosis. Trial registration number The diagnostic algorithm utilised for this study can be found on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02037867), and is part of a continuing longitudinal cohort study. PMID:25941185

  14. Estimation of the real population and its impact on the utilisation of healthcare services in Mediterranean resort regions: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Milla, Emilio; Pons, Sergi Mari; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Gallofre, Anna; Jurado, Enrique Navarro; Ales, Marco A Navarro; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto; Fernandez-Nieto, Fidel; Cerda, Joan C March; Carrasco, Manuel; Martin, Lydia; Cano, Damian Lopez; Gutierrez, Gonzalo E; Macías, Rafael Cortes; Garcia-Ruiz, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    Background The demographic structure has a significant influence on the use of healthcare services, as does the size of the population denominators. Very few studies have been published on methods for estimating the real population such as tourist resorts. The lack of information about these problems means there is a corresponding lack of information about the behaviour of populational denominators (the floating population or tourist load) and the effect of this on the use of healthcare services. The objectives of the study were: a) To determine the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ratio, per person per day, among populations of known size; b) to estimate, by means of this ratio, the real population in an area where tourist numbers are very significant; and c) to determine the impact on the utilisation of hospital emergency healthcare services of the registered population, in comparison to the non-resident population, in two areas where tourist numbers are very significant. Methods An ecological study design was employed. We analysed the Healthcare Districts of the Costa del Sol and the island of Menorca. Both are Spanish territories in the Mediterranean region. Results In the two areas analysed, the correlation coefficient between the MSW ratio and admissions to hospital emergency departments exceeded 0.9, with p < 0.001. On the basis of MSW generation ratios, obtained for a control zone and also measured in neighbouring countries, we estimated the real population. For the summer months, when tourist activity is greatest and demand for emergency healthcare at hospitals is highest, this value was found to be double that of the registered population. Conclusion The MSW indicator, which is both ecological and indirect, can be used to estimate the real population in areas where population levels vary significantly during the year. This parameter is of interest in planning and dimensioning the provision of healthcare services. PMID:17266744

  15. Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternity care provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little known about women’s concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners. Methods A sub-study of pregnant women (n=2445) was undertaken from the nationally-representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Women’s consultations with conventional practitioners (obstetricians, GPs and midwives) and CAM practitioners for pregnancy-related health conditions were analysed. The analysis included Pearson chi-square tests to compare categorical variables. Results The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate = 79.2%). A substantial number (49.4%) of respondents consulted with a CAM practitioner for pregnancy-related health conditions. Many participants consulted only with a CAM practitioner for assistance with certain conditions such as neck pain (74.6%) and sciatica (40.4%). Meanwhile, women consulted both CAM practitioners and conventional maternity health professionals (obstetricians, midwives and GPs) for back pain (61.8%) and gestational diabetes (22.2%). Women visiting a general practitioner (GP) 3–4 times for pregnancy care were more likely to consult with acupuncturists compared with those consulting a GP less often (p=<0.001, x2=20.5). Women who had more frequent visits to a midwife were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist (p=<0.001, x2=18.9) or a doula (p=<0.001, x2=23.2) than those visiting midwives less frequently for their pregnancy care. Conclusions The results emphasise the necessity for a considered and collaborative approach to interactions between pregnant women, conventional maternity health providers and CAM practitioners to accommodate appropriate information transferral and co-ordinated maternity care. The absence of sufficient clinical evidence regarding many commonly used CAM practices during pregnancy also requires urgent attention. PMID:23231765

  16. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  17. Effect of Paying for Performance on Utilisation, Quality, and User Costs of Health Services in Tanzania: A Controlled Before and After Study

    PubMed Central

    Binyaruka, Peter; Patouillard, Edith; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Greco, Giulia; Maestad, Ottar; Borghi, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite widespread implementation across Africa, there is limited evidence of the effect of payment for performance (P4P) schemes in low income countries on the coverage of quality services and affordability, consistent with universal health coverage objectives. We examined the effect of a government P4P scheme on utilisation, quality, and user costs of health services in Tanzania. Methods We evaluated the effects of a P4P scheme on utilisation of all maternal and child immunization services targeted by the scheme, and non-targeted general outpatient service use. We also evaluated effects on patient satisfaction with care and clinical content of antenatal care, and user costs. The evaluation was done in 150 facilities across all 7 intervention districts and 4 comparison districts with two rounds of data collection over 13-months in January 2012 and February 2013. We sampled 3000 households of women who had delivered in the 12 months prior to interview; 1500 patients attending health facilities for targeted and non-targeted services at each round of data collection. Difference-in-difference regression analysis was employed. Findings We estimated a significant positive effect on two out of eight targeted indicators. There was an 8.2% (95% CI: 3.6% to 12.8%) increase in coverage of institutional deliveries among women in the intervention area, and a 10.3% (95% CI: 4.4% to 16.1%) increase in the provision of anti-malarials during pregnancy. Use of non-targeted services reduced at dispensaries by 57.5 visits per month among children under five (95% CI: -110.2 to -4.9) and by 90.8 visits per month for those aged over five (95% CI: -156.5 to -25.2). There was no evidence of an effect of P4P on patient experience of care for targeted services. There was a 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) increase in the patient satisfaction score for non-targeted services. P4P was associated with a 5.0% reduction in those paying out of pocket for deliveries (95% CI: -9.3% to -0.7%) but there was no evidence of an effect on the average amount paid. Conclusion This study adds to the very limited evidence on the effects of P4P at scale and highlights the potential risks of such schemes in relation to non-targeted service use. Further consideration of the design of P4P schemes is required to enhance progress towards universal health coverage, and close monitoring of effects on non-targeted services and user costs should be encouraged. PMID:26317510

  18. Utilising inorganic nanocarriers for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Loh, Xian Jun; Lee, Tung-Chun; Dou, Qingqing; Deen, G Roshan

    2015-12-15

    The delivery of genetic materials into cells to elicit cellular responses has been extensively studied by biomaterials scientists globally. Many materials such as lipids, peptides, viruses, synthetically modified cationic polymers and certain inorganic nanomaterials could be used to complex the negatively charged plasmids and deliver the formed package into cells. The recent literature on the delivery of genetic materials utilising inorganic nanoparticles is carefully examined in this review. We have picked out the most relevant references and concisely summarised the findings with illustrated examples. We further propose alternative approaches and suggest future pathways towards the practical use of multifunctional nanocarriers. PMID:26484365

  19. Modular operation of membrane bioreactors for higher hydraulic capacity utilisation.

    PubMed

    Veltmann, K; Palmowski, L M; Pinnekamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Using data from 6 full-scale municipal membrane bioreactors (MBR) in Germany the hydraulic capacity utilisation and specific energy consumption were studied and their connexion shown. The average hydraulic capacity utilisation lies between 14% and 45%. These low values are justified by the necessity to deal with intense rain events and cater for future flow increases. However, this low hydraulic capacity utilisation leads to high specific energy consumption. The optimisation of MBR operation requires a better utilisation of MBR hydraulic capacity, particularly under consideration of the energy-intensive membrane aeration. A first approach to respond to large influent flow fluctuations consists in adjusting the number of operating modules. This is practised by most MBR operators but so far mostly with variable flux and constant membrane aeration. A second approach is the real-time adjustment of membrane aeration in line with flux variations. This adjustment is not permitted under current manufacturers' warranty conditions. A further opportunity is a discontinuous operation, in which filtration takes place over short periods at high flux and energy for membrane aeration is saved during filtration pauses. The integration of a buffer volume is thereby indispensable. Overall a modular design with small units, which can be activated/ inactivated according to the influent flow and always operate under optimum conditions, enables a better utilisation of MBR hydraulic capacity and forms a solid base to reduce MBR energy demand. PMID:21436563

  20. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    PubMed

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. PMID:19362462

  1. Ethnic Variation in Service Utilisation among Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…

  2. Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged?>?21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in moderating these associations. Findings from the study have the potential to inform more effective pharmacological, psychological and behavioural interventions and better guide health policy on the use of health care resources. PMID:24237848

  3. Comparative assessment of compost and zeolite utilisation for the simultaneous removal of BTEX, Cd and Zn from the aqueous phase: Batch and continuous flow study.

    PubMed

    Simantiraki, Fotini; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-08-15

    The present study focuses on the comparison of two materials, compost from municipal solid waste and natural zeolite for the simultaneous removal of petroleum hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes - BTEX) and toxic metals from groundwater. First, batch experiments were conducted to identify the optimal removal conditions. All of the kinetic experiments were fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model; equilibrium was reached within approximately 8 h for the zeolite and 12 h for the compost. An increase in the adsorbent dose and the pH value as well as a decrease in the initial concentration enhanced the pollutants' removal. The removal selectivity of both materials with slight differences follows the order Cd > Zn & toluene > ethylbenzene > m- & p-xylene > o-xylene > benzene. According, to the results derived from the continuous flow experiments the maximum adsorption capacity of the compost (90%) referred to Cd (0.88 mmol/g) whereas the minimum refers to benzene (65%) with a capacity up to 0.065 mmol/g. Zeolite had lower efficiencies for the studied pollutants with a higher performance corresponding to Cd (0.26 mmol/g), whereas the minimum zeolite capacity (63%) corresponds to toluene (0.045 mmol/g). Thus, this paper provides evidence that compost, a low cost material produced from waste, is capable for the simultaneous removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater, and its performance is superior to zeolite. PMID:26024993

  4. Plutonium utilisation in future UK PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G. M.; Worrall, A.

    2006-07-01

    Plutonium recycling in the form of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuels is already a reality in over 30 reactors in Europe (in Belgium, Switzerland, Germany and France). Japan also plans to use MOX in approximately 30% of its reactors in the near future[1]. This paper describes potential near to mid-term disposition strategies for the United Kingdom's stockpile of plutonium. In order to be confident that MOX fuel can be utilised effectively in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) in the UK, details are given of studies carried out recently at Nexia Solutions on PWR cores loaded with MOX containing typical UK plutonium isotopic compositions. Three dimensional steady state neutronic models of a standard Westinghouse four loop PWR design are constructed using state of the art tools (Studsvik of America's Core Management System[2, 3, 4]). Initially, a standard 18-month equilibrium UO{sub 2} fuel cycle is generated, followed by safety analyses and fuel performance calculations to demonstrate its feasibility. This equilibrium UO{sub 2} core is then gradually transitioned through loading patterns containing increasing MOX core loading fractions. Finally, an equilibrium MOX core loading pattern is determined. Technical safety analyses are also carried out on the transition cores and the final equilibrium scenario to ensure that all of the MOX cores are robust from a technical and safety viewpoint. Once these studies are completed the annual fuel throughputs for each scenario can be determined and used to produce options for managing the UK's plutonium stockpile. This work is part of a wider exercise currently being carried out by Nexia Solutions to explore the options for the safe disposition of the UK civil stockpile of separated PUO{sub 2}. (authors)

  5. The experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people from culturally and linguistically diverse groups are underrepresented in residential aged care but overrepresented in community aged care in Australia. However, little is known about culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia because previous studies mainly focused on the majority cultural group. Experiences of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups who are eligible to utilise dementia services in Australia are needed in order to optimize the utilisation of dementia services for these caregivers. Methods The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of family caregivers from Chinese, Greek, Italian and Vietnamese groups in utilising dementia services. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret the experiences of the participants. Focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data collection was conducted over a six month period in 2011. In total, 46 family caregivers who were caring for 39 persons with dementia participated. Results Four themes were revealed: (1) negotiating services for the person with dementia; (2) the impact of acculturation on service utilisation; (3) the characteristics of satisfactory services; and (4) negative experiences in utilising services. The present study revealed that the participation of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups in planning and managing dementia services ranged markedly from limited participation to full participation. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups need to be fully prepared so they can participate in the utilisation of dementia services available to them in Australia. PMID:24148155

  6. Utilisation of magnets to enhance gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-12-25

    Methods to assess, access and treat pathology within the gastrointestinal tract continue to evolve with video endoscopy replacing radiology as the gold standard. Whilst endoscope technology develops further with the advent of newer higher resolution chips, an array of adjuncts has been developed to enhance endoscopy in other ways; most notable is the use of magnets. Magnets are utilised in many areas, ranging from endoscopic training, lesion resection, aiding manoeuvrability of capsule endoscopes, to assisting in easy placement of tubes for nutritional feeding. Some of these are still at an experimental stage, whilst others are being increasingly incorporated in our everyday practice. PMID:26722611

  7. Utilisation of magnets to enhance gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Methods to assess, access and treat pathology within the gastrointestinal tract continue to evolve with video endoscopy replacing radiology as the gold standard. Whilst endoscope technology develops further with the advent of newer higher resolution chips, an array of adjuncts has been developed to enhance endoscopy in other ways; most notable is the use of magnets. Magnets are utilised in many areas, ranging from endoscopic training, lesion resection, aiding manoeuvrability of capsule endoscopes, to assisting in easy placement of tubes for nutritional feeding. Some of these are still at an experimental stage, whilst others are being increasingly incorporated in our everyday practice. PMID:26722611

  8. Utilisation of specialist medical manpower in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S L; Mohan, A J; Suleiman, A B

    1998-09-01

    One hundred and twenty specialists from the Ministry of Health, the Universities and the private sector provided information on 4,802 patients seen over a total of two hundred and forty working days. This information was used to classify the patients into four categories based on a disease complexity classification. Each specialist's perception on the appropriateness of utilisation of his expertise was obtained. Complex cases requiring specialist expertise in management made up 69.8%, 73.5% and 19.1% of the cases of the Ministry of Health, University and private sector specialists respectively. Underutilisation was most marked with paediatricians and obstetricians in the private sector. The Specialist Register, the Programme for Accreditation of Hospitals and a National Health Financing Plan can be used to influence positively the case-mix of specialists. PMID:10968161

  9. Perspectives and visions on CO2 capture and utilisation.

    PubMed

    North, M; Styring, P

    2015-12-01

    This article summarises and contextualises the debates which occurred during the Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Faraday Discussion meeting. The utilisation of carbon dioxide is discussed in terms of both conversion to fuel, with a potential impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and conversion to chemicals with a potential impact on sustainability. PMID:26527125

  10. Guide d'utilisation de SSJ Langage Java

    E-print Network

    Vázquez-Abad, Felisa J.

    Guide d'utilisation de SSJ Langage Java 15 Janvier 2001 ­ Dans votre .cshrc, rajouter la ligne'un de xdvi guide.dvi & acroread guide.pdf & 1 Version Java Nous utilisons la version 1.2 de Java. Elle votre programme (par exemple Tulipe.java) utilisant les objets de SSJ, compiler simplement avec la

  11. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes. PMID:25444096

  12. Utilisation of chip thickness models in grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Roger

    Grinding is now a well established process utilised for both stock removal and finish applications. Although significant research is performed in this field, grinding still experiences problems with burn and high forces which can lead to poor quality components and damage to equipment. This generally occurs in grinding when the process deviates from its safe working conditions. In milling, chip thickness parameters are utilised to predict and maintain process outputs leading to improved control of the process. This thesis looks to further the knowledge of the relationship between chip thickness and the grinding process outputs to provide an increased predictive and maintenance modelling capability. Machining trials were undertaken using different chip thickness parameters to understand how these affect the process outputs. The chip thickness parameters were maintained at different grinding wheel diameters for a constant productivity process to determine the impact of chip thickness at a constant material removal rate.. Additional testing using a modified pin on disc test rig was performed to provide further information on process variables. The different chip thickness parameters provide control of different process outputs in the grinding process. These relationships can be described using contact layer theory and heat flux partitioning. The contact layer is defined as the immediate layer beneath the contact arc at the wheel workpiece interface. The size of the layer governs the force experienced during the process. The rate of contact layer removal directly impacts the net power required from the system. It was also found that the specific grinding energy of a process is more dependent on the productivity of a grinding process rather than the value of chip thickness. Changes in chip thickness at constant material removal rate result in microscale changes in the rate of contact layer removal when compared to changes in process productivity. This is a significant piece of information in relation to specific grinding energy where conventional theory states it is primarily dependent on chip thickness..

  13. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2?mm, 2-5?mm, 5-12?mm and 12-50?mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5?mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. PMID:26330401

  14. Microbial utilisation of biochar-derived carbon.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Mark; Kuhn, Thomas K; Macdonald, Lynne M; Maddern, Todd M; Murphy, Daniel V; Hall, Phillip A; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Baumann, Karen; Krull, Evelyn S; Baldock, Jeff A

    2013-11-01

    Whilst largely considered an inert material, biochar has been documented to contain a small yet significant fraction of microbially available labile organic carbon (C). Biochar addition to soil has also been reported to alter soil microbial community structure, and to both stimulate and retard the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM). We conducted a short-term incubation experiment using two (13)C-labelled biochars produced from wheat or eucalypt shoots, which were incorporated in an aridic arenosol to examine the fate of the labile fraction of biochar-C through the microbial community. This was achieved using compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). A proportion of the biologically-available fraction of both biochars was rapidly (within three days) utilised by gram positive bacteria. There was a sharp peak in CO2 evolution shortly after biochar addition, resulting from rapid turnover of labile C components in biochars and through positive priming of native SOM. Our results demonstrate that this CO2 evolution was at least partially microbially mediated, and that biochar application to soil can cause significant and rapid changes in the soil microbial community; likely due to addition of labile C and increases in soil pH. PMID:23623696

  15. Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

    1984-02-01

    In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

  16. Biological carbon dioxide utilisation in food waste anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Green, K; Schuler, K; Soares, A; Vale, P; Alibardi, L; Cartmell, E

    2015-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment of anaerobic digesters (AD) was previously identified as a potential on-site carbon revalorisation strategy. This study addresses the lack of studies investigating this concept in up-scaled units and the need to understand the mechanisms of exogenous CO2 utilisation. Two pilot-scale ADs treating food waste were monitored for 225 days, with the test unit being periodically injected with CO2 using a bubble column. The test AD maintained a CH4 production rate of 0.56 ± 0.13 m(3) CH4·(kg VSfed d)(-1) and a CH4 concentration in biogas of 68% even when dissolved CO2 levels were increased by a 3 fold over the control unit. An additional uptake of 0.55 kg of exogenous CO2 was achieved in the test AD during the trial period. A 2.5 fold increase in hydrogen (H2) concentration was observed and attributed to CO2 dissolution and to an alteration of the acidogenesis and acetogenesis pathways. A hypothesis for conversion of exogenous CO2 has been proposed, which requires validation by microbial community analysis. PMID:26143589

  17. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products. PMID:12492637

  18. Life cycle assessment of biohydrogen and biomethane production and utilisation as a vehicle fuel.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Tim; Esteves, Sandra; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Maddy, Jon

    2013-03-01

    Environmental burdens for the production and utilisation of biomethane vehicle fuel or a biohydrogen/biomethane blend produced from food waste or wheat feed, based on data from two different laboratory experiments, have been compared. For food waste treated by batch processes the two stage system gave high hydrogen yields (84.2l H2kg(-1) VS added) but a lower overall energy output than the single stage system. Reduction in environmental burdens compared with diesel was achieved, supported by the diversion of waste from landfill. For wheat feed, the semi continuously fed two stage process gave low hydrogen yields (7.5l H2kg(-1) VS added) but higher overall energy output. The process delivers reduction in fossil fuel burdens, and improvements in process efficiencies will lead to reduction in CO2 burdens compared with diesel. The study highlights the importance of understanding and optimising biofuel production parameters according to the feedstock utilised. PMID:23353037

  19. The use of secure anonymised data linkage to determine changes in healthcare utilisation following severe open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Page, Piers R J; Trickett, Ryan W; Rahman, Shakeel M; Walters, Angharad; Pinder, Leila M; Brooks, Caroline J; Hutchings, Hayley; Pallister, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Severe open fractures of the lower limbs are complex injuries requiring expert multidisciplinary management in appropriate orthoplastic centres. This study aimed to assess the impact of open fractures on healthcare utilisation and test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation between the year before and year after injury, and that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation in the year post-injury between patients admitted directly to an orthoplastic centre in keeping with the joint BOA/BAPRAS standards and those having initial surgery elsewhere. This retrospective cohort study utilising secure anonymised information linkage (SAIL), a novel databank of anonymised nationally pooled health records, recruited patients over 18 years of age sustaining severe open lower limb fractures managed primarily or secondarily at our centre and who had data available in the SAIL databank. 101 patients met inclusion criteria and 90 of these had records in the SAIL databank. The number of days in hospital, number of primary care attendances, number of outpatient attendances and number of emergency department attendances in the years prior and subsequent to injury were recorded. Patients sustaining open fractures had significantly different healthcare utilisation in the year after injury when compared with the year before, in terms of days spent in hospital (23.42 vs. 1.70, p=0.000), outpatient attendances (11.98 vs. 1.05, p=0.000), primary care attendances (29.48 vs. 11.99, p=0.000) and emergency department presentations (0.2 vs. 0.01, p=0.025). Patients admitted directly to orthoplastic centres had significantly fewer operations (1.78 vs. 3.31) and GP attendances (23.6 vs. 33.52) than those transferred in subsequent to initial management in other units. There is a significant increase in healthcare utilisation after open tibial fracture. Adherence to national standards minimises the impact of this on both patients and health services. PMID:25916805

  20. Utilising Human Audio Visual Response for Lip Synchronisation in

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    communication coexist in a facial multimodal interface have been the subject of much research. A significant and M.A. Jack Centre for Communication Interface Research Dept. of Electrical Engineering University, Speech 1. Introduction With the increasing utilisation of novel multimedia interfaces through the use

  1. Utilisation d'OPAVAR avec PALM CERFACS, septembre 2005, Toulouse.

    E-print Network

    Utilisation d'OPAVAR avec PALM CERFACS, septembre 2005, Toulouse. Nicolas Daget CERFACS, Toulouse #12;Unité PALM Unité Entrées Sorties Communicatio n directe Communication avec un buffer Priorité A l (tris, contrôle qualité...) #12;Branche Modèle Lecture du fichier restart et de la date et pas de temps

  2. Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

  3. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Methods Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. Results During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%), and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Conclusion Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice. PMID:19878562

  4. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room Walls PDM/CAD Tele-operations Product Control room External World

  5. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch. PMID:25692978

  6. Impediments to Effective Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology Tools in Selected Universities in the North-Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impediments to effective use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in Nigerian universities. Series of research conducted on the factors militating against computerisation indicated that, there were impediments to effective utilisation of ICT tools in most developing countries. In the light of this, the…

  7. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  8. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.

    PubMed

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

    2013-01-01

    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed. PMID:23163241

  9. Improved sugar co-utilisation by encapsulation of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in alginate-chitosan capsules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two major hurdles for successful production of second-generation bioethanol are the presence of inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic media, and the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally utilise pentoses. There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. A non-recombinant way to increase yeast tolerance to hydrolysates is by encapsulation of the yeast. This can be explained by concentration gradients occuring in the cell pellet inside the capsule. In the current study, we hypothesised that encapsulation might also lead to improved simultaneous utilisation of hexoses and pentoses because of such sugar concentration gradients. Results In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. Simulations also showed pronounced concentration gradients of sugars, which resulted in simultaneous xylose and glucose consumption and a steady state xylose consumption rate up to 220-fold higher than that found in suspension culture. To validate the results experimentally, a xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae strain, CEN.PK XXX, was constructed and encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan liquid core gel capsules. In defined media, encapsulation not only increased the tolerance of the yeast to inhibitors, but also promoted simultaneous utilisation of glucose and xylose. Encapsulation of the yeast resulted in consumption of at least 50% more xylose compared with suspended cells over 96-hour fermentations in medium containing both sugars. The higher consumption of xylose led to final ethanol titres that were approximately 15% higher. In an inhibitory dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, freely suspended yeast cells consumed the sugars in a sequential manner after a long lag phase, whereas no lag phase was observed for the encapsulated yeast, and glucose, mannose, galactose and xylose were utilised in parallel from the beginning of the cultivation. Conclusions Encapsulation of xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae leads to improved simultaneous and efficient utilisation of several sugars, which are utilised sequentially by suspended cells. The greatest improvement is obtained in inhibitory media. These findings show that encapsulation is a promising option for production of second-generation bioethanol. PMID:25050138

  10. Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

    2004-03-01

    The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate. The microbial studies of biodegradation process revealed following peculiarities: gradual quantitative increasing of Lactobacillus sp. (from 10 3 to 10 5 colony forming units (CFU) per ml), activation of Clostridia sp. (from 10 2 to 10 4 CFU/ml) and elimination of aerobic conventional pathogens ( Enterobacteriaceae sp., Protea sp., staphylococci). The obtained results allow to evaluate effectiveness of proposed technology and to determine the leading role of lactobacilli and clostridia in process of natural wastes biodegradation. Our further investigations shall further be concentrated on creation of artificial inoculi for launching of food wastes biodegradation. These inoculi will include active and adapted strains of clostridia and lactobacilli.

  11. The utilisation of the MUST nutritional screening tool on vascular surgical wards

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Nilanjana; Rodrigues, Jeremy; Bothamley, Lydia; Altaf, Nishath; Awad, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Whilst malnutrition is prevalent in approximately 40% of general surgical patients, the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional screening practices amongst vascular patients remain unknown. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) is recommended for risk screening and provides 3 scores for risk classification: 0=low risk, 1=intermediate risk, 2=high risk. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the use of MUST on vascular wards. This prospective study was undertaken in a tertiary referral vascular unit in the UK. Patient demographics, utilisation of MUST by nursing staff (N-MUST) and referral to nutritional support teams (NST) were studied. When MUST was not completed by nursing staff, the study team (S-MUST) performed it. Fifty-three patients, median (interquartile range, IQR) age 67 (59-75) years were initially studied. For N-MUST: Overall MUST score was recorded in 18/25 (72%) patients, of whom 1 (4%) scored 2, whilst the remainder scored 0. For S-MUST: Overall MUST scores were recorded in 28 patients, MUST=0 in 75% and ?2 in 21%. An educational session on use of MUST was delivered to nursing staff, as well as a Trust-wide educational initiative to improve assessment of nutritional status and, after a 2-month period, the study was repeated. The second cohort comprised forty-two patients, median (IQR) age 72 (64–79) years. For N-MUST: Overall MUST score was recorded in 37/40 (93%) patients, of whom 3 (8%) scored ?2. For S-MUST: Overall MUST scores were recorded in 2 patients, MUST = 0 in 67% and ?2 in 33%. Despite the ease of use of MUST, it was under-utilised on vascular wards. However, following provision of a dedicated educational programme to ward nursing staff, utilisation of MUST for risk scoring patients on admission increased to over 90%.

  12. The European Space Agency standard for space packet utilisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Parkes, A.; Pidgeon, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the ESA concept for the use of CCSDS defined Telemetry and Telecommand Packets at the application level. These Packets are used to monitor and control remotely a space born application. This concept is defined in a Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS) which should become applicable for all ESA missions using Packets. The production of this standard is under the responsibility of an ESA standardization group called 'COES'.

  13. Paediatric inpatient utilisation in a district general hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Y; Sheldon, T A; Long, R; MacFaul, R

    1994-01-01

    Paediatric inpatient utilisation in a district general hospital was studied for 20 general practices covering a population of 26,433 children. The factors influencing the rate and route of admission (general practitioner (GP) or accident and emergency department) were analysed for 894 emergency non-traumatic admissions over a 12 month period. The overall rate of acute, nontraumatic admission was 33.8/1000; 35% of these admissions were via the accident and emergency department. Asthma was the most common reason for admission (16.1%); 56.9% of the admissions resulted from respiratory tract illness and 44% were for an infective illness. There was a significant variation in the route and rate of admission across practices. Admission rates ranged from 10 to 70/1000 children under 15 and the proportion via the accident and emergency department from 19% to 85%. The proportion of admissions via the accident and emergency department for each practice was highly negatively correlated with the number of GPs in the practice, the number of children under 15 registered, and positively correlated with the unemployment rate attributed to the list. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of being admitted via the accident and emergency department relative to GP admission was shown to be higher for older children (odds ratio for each year of age 1.05) and less for children registered with large practices with more GPs (odds ratio for each extra GP 0.36) or practices with more children under 15 (odds ratio per extra child 0.9991). Access to hospital as measured by isochrone bars and social characteristics of the ward of residence of each child admitted were not associated with the route of admission. The admission rate for each practice was positively, but not statistically significantly, associated with the unemployment rate attributed to the list, the unemployment rate of the ward where the practice was located, and the percentage of admissions via accident and emergency, and negatively associated with the percentage of the list under 15 years. PMID:8048817

  14. Manchester Triage System version II and resource utilisation in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Santos, André Peralta; Freitas, Paulo; Martins, Henrique Manuel Gil

    2014-02-01

    Emergency department (ED) triage systems aim to direct the best clinical assistance to those who are in the greatest urgency and guarantee that resources are efficiently applied. The study's purpose was to determine whether the Manchester Triage System (MTS) second version is a useful instrument for determining the risk of hospital admission, intrahospital death and resource utilisation in ED and to compare it with the MTS first version. This was a prospective study of patients that attended the ED at a large hospital. It comprised a total of 25,218 cases that were triaged between 11 July and 13 October 2011. The MTS codes were grouped into two clusters: red and orange into a 'high acuity/priority' (HP) cluster, and yellow, green and blue into a 'low acuity/priority' cluster. The risk of hospital admission in the HP cluster was 4.86 times that of the LP cluster for both admission route and ages. The percentage of patient hospital admission between medical and surgical specialties, in high and low priority clusters, was similar. We found the risk of death in the HP cluster to be 5.58 times that of the risk of the low acuity/priority cluster. The MTS had an inconsistent association relative to the utilisation of x-ray, while it seemed to portray a consistent association between ECG and laboratory utilisation and MTS cluster. There were no differences between medical and surgical specialities risk of admission. This suggests that improvements were made in the second version of MTS, particularly in the discriminators of patients triaged to surgical specialties, because this was not true for the first version of MTS. PMID:23345313

  15. New Zealand resident Tongan peoples' health and illness beliefs and utilisation of the health care system.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sandra F; Holt, Elizabeth A L

    2002-03-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of health and illness, and the utilisation of the health care system, over the last five years, of Tongan people who reside in New Zealand. A descriptive qualitative approach was used, with the study being implemented by networking with representatives of the Tongan community and health care workers. Twenty adult Tongan people volunteered and were given the interview questions in advance. The individual face to face semi-structured interviews took approximately 30 to 45 minutes. Participants verified the transcription of their interviews. Answers were analysed by identifying themes in response to each interview question. Most participants considered health to be a state of physical, mental, social and spiritual well being. Illness beliefs were predominantly either a biological malfunction of the body, or a breakdown of the holistic state of well being. All participants had used the western orthodox medical system, with the general practitioner being consulted more than other services. A high level of satisfaction was expressed with this service. Traditional Tongan healing was utilised by about half the participants, and most were happy with its outcomes. A lesser number of participants had used alternative health care, but the levels of satisfaction with it were mixed. PMID:12737416

  16. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojt?ch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P?

  17. The effects of China’s urban basic medical insurance schemes on the equity of health service utilisation: evidence from Shaanxi Province

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In order to alleviate the problem of “Kan Bing Nan, Kan Bing Gui” (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive) and improve the equity of health service utilisation for urban residents in China, the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance scheme (UEBMI) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme (URBMI) were established in 1999 and 2007, respectively. This study aims to analyse the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on the equity of outpatient and inpatient utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China. Methods Using the data from the fourth National Health Services Survey in Shaanxi Province, the method of Propensity Score Matching was employed to generate comparable samples between the insured and uninsured residents, through a one-to-one match algorithm. Next, based on the matched data, the method of decomposition of the concentration index was employed to compare the horizontal inequity indexes of health service utilisation between the UEBMI/URBMI insured and the matched uninsured residents. Results For the UEBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are 0.1256 and -0.0511 respectively, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1222 and 0.2746 respectively. Meanwhile, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are -0.1593 and 0.0967 for the URBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1931 and 0.3199 respectively. Conclusions The implementation of UEBMI increased the pro-rich inequity of outpatient utilisation (rich people utilise outpatient facilities more than the poor people) and the implementation of URBMI increased the pro-poor inequity of outpatient utilisation. Both of these two health insurance schemes reduced the pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilisation. PMID:24606592

  18. Self-Assembled Hydrogels Utilising Polymer-Nanoparticle Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Eric A.; Tibbitt, Mark W.; Webber, Matthew J.; Mattix, Bradley A.; Veiseh, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Mouldable hydrogels that flow upon applied stress and rapidly self-heal are increasingly utilised as they afford minimally invasive delivery and conformal application. Here we report a new paradigm for the fabrication of self-assembled hydrogels with shear-thinning and self-healing properties employing rationally engineered polymer-nanoparticle interactions. Biopolymer derivatives are linked together by selective adsorption to nanoparticles. The transient and reversible interactions between biopolymers and nanoparticles enable flow under applied shear stress, followed by rapid self-healing when the stress is relaxed. We develop a physical description of polymer-nanoparticle gel formation that is utilised to design biocompatible gels for minimally-invasive drug delivery. Owing to the hierarchical structure of the gel, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs can be entrapped and delivered with differential release profiles, both in vitro and in vivo. The work introduces a facile and generalizable class of mouldable hydrogels amenable to a range of biomedical and industrial applications. PMID:25695516

  19. The Effect of Children's Rights Training on Primary School Students' Utilisation and Knowledge Level about Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Suna Kaymak; Ocal, Tugba; Ozmen, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently, children's rights issue has taken attention. In this study, main purpose was to investigate the utilisation and knowledge level of 4th and 5th grade primary school students after children's rights training. The participants of this survey study were selected randomly from 10 schools. Results indicated that students had the…

  20. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  1. Effects of cadmium on growth and glucose utilisation of ectomycorrhizal fungi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kim, C-G; Power, S A; Bell, J N B

    2003-08-01

    Effects of Cd on growth and glucose utilisation of Paxillus involutus, Rhizopogon subcaerulescens and Suillus bovinus were investigated in vitro in liquid culture. S. bovinus was the species most sensitive to Cd in terms of dry matter production and P. involutus was less sensitive than R. subcaerulescens. Greater production of hyphae of P. involutus than the other fungi appeared to confer some degree of Cd resistance, possibly by binding Cd onto cell walls. Growth of the three fungi was increased by glucose addition. While Cd significantly reduced dry matter production of the fungi, there were no significant differences in glucose consumption caused by Cd treatment. This suggests that the use of glucose might have been diverted to detoxification and/or repair mechanisms. Further studies on respiration rates and energy metabolites of these fungi under Cd exposure are needed in order to clarify the results of the present study. PMID:12687448

  2. Effects of drug price reduction and prescribing restrictions on expenditures and utilisation of antihypertensive drugs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ki-Bong; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Sohee; Kim, Tae Hyun; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the quantitative effects of the drug price reduction on pharmaceutical expenditures and the new guidelines to restrict prescribing on drug utilisation for antihypertensive drugs. Design We used an interrupted time series design with the National patient sample data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea. Methods 54?295 participants who were with primary hypertension from the National patient sample data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service were included. The study period was from March 2011 to December 2013. The dependent variables were antihypertensive drug costs, antihypertensive drug cost per prescribing day, daily drug utilisation, average number of drugs per month, percentage of original drugs per prescription, drug overutilisation and prohibited combinations. Segmented regression analysis was used. Results The drug price reduction reduced expenditure (US$?1.51, ?10.2%), and the new guidelines reduced expenditures even more (US$?2.13; ?16.2%). These policies saved US$4.22 (28%) of antihypertensive drug costs per patient in December 2013 compared to March 2012. Drug price reduction policy was introduced in April 2012. We established the policy effect by comparing it before (March 2012) with after(21 months later-December 2012). The effects of the guidelines decreased expenditures, daily drug utilisation and the average number of drugs per month more than did the drug price reduction. Conclusions Both policies saved money. The guidelines were more effective over time and had fewer side effects such as increasing daily drug utilisation and number of drugs than the effects of drug price reduction. PMID:26179644

  3. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ? R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape Province (rural). In that financial year, a total of 5369 registered nurses could have been employed in lieu of nursing agency expenditure. Conclusions The study findings should inform workforce planning in South Africa. There is a need for uniform policies and improved management of commercial nursing agencies in the public health sector. PMID:25537936

  4. Influence of spices on protein utilisation of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and horsegram (Dolichos biflorus).

    PubMed

    Pradeep, K U; Geervani, P

    1994-10-01

    The influence of a mixture of eleven spices commonly consumed in India on the utilisation of protein from boiled winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and horsegram (Dolichos biflorus) was studied at 10 and 20 percent level of protein intake in experimental rats. Spices used in the mixture include red chillies (Capsicum annum), black pepper (Piper nigrum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), garlic (Allium sativum), ajowan (Carum copticum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), caraway seeds (Carum carui) and fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare). Addition of this spice mixture at 1.5% level of the diet decreased the TD of both legumes, significantly only in the case of horsegram. A significant increase was observed in the BV of both the legumes at both levels of protein tested. PMID:7855088

  5. How can qualitative research be utilised in the NHS when re-designing and commissioning services?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patient experience is acknowledged as a key quality metric of healthcare quality and can be used to identify problems with healthcare delivery, to drive quality improvements and to inform commissioning of services that promote patient choice. In this article, the contribution of qualitative research studies to inform the redesign and patient-focussed commissioning of services is considered, illustrated with particular reference to elective orthopaedic surgical services. To fully embrace the concept of patient and public involvement (PPI) and to embed it in service delivery, health service design and informing commissioners to purchase healthcare that truly meets patient need and expectations, qualitative research has an increasingly important role to play. Through well-conducted qualitative research exploring patients’ experiences, their knowledge and experiences of conditions can be utilised for the benefit of others and the impact of the patient voice truly heard when designing and commissioning healthcare services. PMID:26516559

  6. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

  7. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions. These include infertility, gastro-intestinal disorders, safe parturition, stomach ulcers, rheumatism and fibroid. Traditional Yorubic medicine also accommodated some situations that are out of the range of conventional medicine like boosting sales, conferring invisibility, removing bad luck, appeasing/wading off witches cum evil forces and money rituals. Some of these situations specifically require juvenile, or even pregnant female animals. Conclusion Traditional Yorubic medical practices eats deep into the reproductive base of the species, presently listed in Appendix II of CITES and Schedule I of the Nigerian Decree 11 (1985), both of which recommended strict control in sales and utilisation of this species. Its numerous medicinal values, folk culture and financial benefits of these activities are the main factors promoting the commercialisation and use of this species. Pharmacological studies on the various preparations are required to identify the bioactive compounds in them. There is a need for improved and urgent measures to conserve populations of this species in-situ. Massive education and enlightenment is urgently needed for the populace to have the necessary awareness and orientation about the conservation of this species. PMID:19961597

  8. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top are decreased by almost 10 %. Furthermore, if the vertical location of the open well section is directly located below the caprock, vertical displacements at the ground surface are significantly higher compared to a lower open hole position. Consequently, a focus in site characterisation in the scope of geological underground utilisation should be on detailed assessment of caprock permeability. These data may be derived by well logs and hydraulic tests as well as laboratory tests on core samples. Kempka, T., Nielsen, C.M., Frykman, P., Shi, J.-Q., Bacci, G., Dalhoff, F. Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Simulations of CO2 Storage Supported by Pressure Management Demonstrate Synergy Benefits from Simultaneous Formation Fluid Extraction (2014) Oil Gas Sci Technol, doi:10.2516/ogst/2014029. Klimkowski, ?., Nagy, S., Papiernik, B., Orlic, B., Kempka, T. Numerical simulations of enhanced gas recovery at the Za??cze gas field in Poland confirm high storage capacities and mechanical integrity (2015) Oil Gas Sci Technol (accepted). Tillner, E., Shi, J-.Q., Bacci, G., Nielsen, C.M., Frykman, P., Dalhoff, F., Kempka, T. Coupled Dynamic Flow and Geomechanical Simulations for an Integrated Assessment of CO2 Storage Impacts in a Saline Aquifer (2014) Energy Procedia, 63:2879-2893, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.311.

  9. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepa?ski, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters. PMID:24903247

  10. A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

  11. The Effects on Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence from Utilising Community Health Workers: A Comparison of Selected Rural and Urban Settings in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ong'ang'o, Jane Rahedi; Mwachari, Christina; Kipruto, Hillary; Karanja, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been utilised for various primary health care activities in different settings especially in developing countries. Usually when utilised in well defined terms, they have a positive impact. To support Kenya's policy on engagement of CHWs for tuberculosis (TB) control, there is need to demonstrate effects of utilising them. Objectives This study assessed TB treatment adherence among patients who utilised CHWs in management of their illness in comparison to those who did not in urban and rural settings. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in selected health facilities using standard clinical records for each TB patient registered for treatment between 2005 to 2011. Qualitative data was collected from CHWs and health care providers. Results The study assessed 2778 tuberculosis patients and among them 1499 (54%) utilized CHWs for their TB treatment. The urban setting in comparison with the rural setting contributed 70% of patients utilising the CHWs (p<0.001). Overall treatment adherence of the cohort was 79%. Categorizing by use of CHWs, adherence among patients who had utilized CHWs was 83% versus 68% among those that had not (p<0.001). In comparison between the rural and urban settings adherence was 76% and 81.5% (p<0.001) respectively and when categorized by use of CHWs it was 73% and 90% (p<0.001) for the rural and urban set ups respectively. Utilisation of CHWs remained significant in enhancing treatment adherence in the cohort with unadjusted and adjusted ORs; OR 2.25, (95% 1.86–2.73) p<0.001 and OR 1.98 (95% 1.51–2.5) p<0.001 respectively. It was most effective in the urban set-up, OR 2.65 (95% 2.02–3.48, p<0.001) in comparison to the rural set up, OR 0.74 (95% 0.56–0.97) p?=?0.032. Conclusion Utilisation of CHWs enhanced TB treatment adherence and the best effects were in the urban set-up. PMID:24558452

  12. Improved analytical capacity for determination of forage quality, utilising the gas production technique

    E-print Network

    Improved analytical capacity for determination of forage quality, utilising the gas production of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden Rapport 2:2008 #12;#12;Contents Page ABSTRACT method.............................................................. 12 THE GAS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUE

  13. Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane by carbon dioxide: a medium-temperature thermochemical process for carbon dioxide utilisation.

    PubMed

    Du, X; Yao, B; Gonzalez-Cortes, S; Kuznetsov, V L; AlMegren, Hamid; Xiao, T; Edwards, P P

    2015-12-01

    The dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 is an attractive catalytic route for C3H6 production. In studying the various possibilities to utilise CO2 to convert hydrocarbons using the sustainable energy source of solar thermal energy, thermodynamic calculations were carried out for the dehydrogenation of C3H8 using CO2for the process operating in the temperature range of 300-500 °C. Importantly, the results highlight the enhanced potential of C3H8 as compared to its lighter and heavier homologues (C2H6 and C4H10, respectively). To be utilised in this CO2 utilisation reaction the Gibbs free energy (?rG) of each reaction in the modelled, complete reacting system of the dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 also indicate that further cracking of C3H6 will affect the ultimate yield and selectivity of the final products. In a parallel experimental study, catalytic tests of the dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 over 5 wt%-Cr2O3/ZrO2 catalysts operating at 500 °C, atmospheric pressure, and for various C3H8 partial pressures and various overall GHSV (Gas Hourly Space Velocity) values. The results showed that an increase in the C3H8 partial pressure produced an inhibition of C3H8 conversion but, importantly, a promising enhancement of C3H6 selectivity. This phenomenon can be attributed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst between the generated C3H6 and inactivated C3H8, which inhibits any further cracking effect on C3H6 to produce by-products. As a comparison, the increase of the overall GHSV can also decrease the C3H8 conversion to a similar extent, but the further cracking of C3H6 cannot be limited. PMID:26392020

  14. Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

  15. Analysis of the diversity of substrate utilisation of soil bacteria exposed to Cd and earthworm activity using generalised additive models.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  16. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  17. Utilisation rates and expenditure for public and private, curative-care services in semi-urban Guatemala.

    PubMed

    van der Stuyft, P; Delgado, E; Sorensen, S C

    1997-03-01

    In November 1994, a retrospective survey was conducted for two purposes; to investigate patterns of health-care uptake for childhood and maternal illness in semi-urban Guatemala; and to gain an insight into the expenditure incurred by the subjects when they consulted the various health-care providers. The subjects, who all belonged to a semi-urban ladina community, had easy geographical access to the health-care providers, of all types, operating in Sacatepequez, in the central highlands of Guatemala. The community was divided into clusters of roughly equal population size and 20 of these were selected. Within each selected cluster, eight households that had at least one young child (< 5 years of age) were investigated. Mothers belonging to each household were asked whether, how frequently, and where they had sought outside help for any health problem that had possibly affected them or their children during the past year. Subsequently, they were also invited to recall the expenditure incurred on the last visit, if any, to each type of health-care provider established in the area. The crude utilisation rates, for all providers combined, were 1.0/women.year and 0.8/child.year. Overall, 61% of women had no uptake of curative care for themselves and 12% of families no such uptake for their children. Lay curers and clinics run by non-governmental organizations were hardly utilised. Drug vendors accounted for 38% of contacts by women and 26% by children, private physicians for 34% and 38%, and public services for 22% and 33%, respectively. The utilisation rate of the official sector attained roughly 0.3/person.year in both women and children. Dissatisfaction with the treatment received and the lack of drugs were often given as reasons for not attending public services. The median total expenditure incurred per curative, health-care contact ranged from 0 quetzales in the official health centres to 63 quetzales with private physicians (a U.S.$ being equivalent to 5.5 quetzales at the time of the study). Although for each type of provider (except the health centres), expenditure was nearly equal for a woman or for a child contact, it consisted of a different mix of cost elements (consultation fee, drugs and transport) for each of the various categories of provider. The willingness for a more prominent role of the public sector. It would seem that there is, in the socio-economic environment of semi-urban Sacatepequez, room for experimenting with alternative modes of health-care financing to increase the quality and attractiveness of public services and their utilisation. PMID:9307663

  18. The Effect of Obesity on Theatre Utilisation Time During Primary Hip and Knee Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Sawalha, Seif; Ralte, Peter; Chan, Carol; Chandran, Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : The aim of this study is to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) and body weight on theatre utilisation time during primary total hip (THR) and knee replacements (TKR). Methods : A total of 1859 cases were included (820 THR and 1039 TKR). Patients were divided into groups based on BMI and body weight. The time interval from ‘starting anaesthesia’ to ‘transfer back to recovery’ was used as total theatre time. Hierarchal regression analysis was then used to study the effect of BMI and body weight while controlling the effect of any confounding variables. Results : In THR cases, the median theatre time was significantly different between BMI and body weight subgroups (p=0.001). In TKR cases, the median theatre time was more significantly different between weight subgroups (p<0.001) than BMI subgroups (p=0.021). Regression analysis showed that only weight remained a significant predictor (p=0.018) of theatre time in THR cases after controlling for other variables. In TKR cases, body weight and BMI were not predictors of theatre time after controlling for other variables. Conclusion : Body weight is a significant predictor of theatre time during THR. Neither weight nor BMI predicted theatre time during TKR. PMID:25861407

  19. Space resource utilisation: a novel indicator to quantify species competitive ability for light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Li, Junyong; Guo, Zhi; Du, Guozhen

    2015-01-01

    Species richness and productivity are two fundamental aspects of ecosystems. As a result, the relationship between species richness and productivity has been widely studied. A series of fertilisation experiments in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau were performed to study the relationship between species richness and productivity. In this paper, we present a novel indicator, i.e., space resource utilisation (SRU), which is calculated by a volume formula (Vi ?=? hi · Si; hi?=?plant height of species i, Si?=?quadrat area?×?percent cover of species i). SRU more fully reflected species competitive ability for light in both horizontal and vertical dimensions compared with plant height and cover. We used this novel indicator to investigate the effects of SRU on the changes in species richness and productivity following fertilisation. We found that the SRU of the community was correlated with increasing productivity and decreasing species richness following fertilisation and was a better predictor of species richness than productivity. The changes in SRU following fertilisation vary among species. These results demonstrate that SRU can be a more useful tool in explaining plant biodiversity loss and predicting the fate of different species than each of height, cover and productivity. PMID:26593068

  20. Space resource utilisation: a novel indicator to quantify species competitive ability for light

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Li, Junyong; Guo, Zhi; Du, Guozhen

    2015-01-01

    Species richness and productivity are two fundamental aspects of ecosystems. As a result, the relationship between species richness and productivity has been widely studied. A series of fertilisation experiments in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau were performed to study the relationship between species richness and productivity. In this paper, we present a novel indicator, i.e., space resource utilisation (SRU), which is calculated by a volume formula (Vi ?=? hi · Si; hi?=?plant height of species i, Si?=?quadrat area?×?percent cover of species i). SRU more fully reflected species competitive ability for light in both horizontal and vertical dimensions compared with plant height and cover. We used this novel indicator to investigate the effects of SRU on the changes in species richness and productivity following fertilisation. We found that the SRU of the community was correlated with increasing productivity and decreasing species richness following fertilisation and was a better predictor of species richness than productivity. The changes in SRU following fertilisation vary among species. These results demonstrate that SRU can be a more useful tool in explaining plant biodiversity loss and predicting the fate of different species than each of height, cover and productivity. PMID:26593068

  1. An alternative n-3 fatty acid elongation pathway utilising 18:3n-3 in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Tu, Wei-Chun; Mühlhäusler, Beverly S; James, Michael J; Stone, David A J; Gibson, Robert A

    2012-06-22

    Desaturase and elongase are two key enzyme categories in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) pathway that convert dietary ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The ?6 desaturase is considered as rate limiting in the conversion. In a previous study in barramundi we demonstrated that the desaturase had a low ?6 activity but noted that the enzyme also possessed ?8 ability that utilised 20-carbon fatty acids. This observation suggests that an alternative pathway may exist in the barramundi via elongases to form 20-carbon metabolites from 18:3n-3 to 20:3n-3 and then ?6/8 desaturase to 20:4n-3. Cloning of the barramundi elongation of very long-chain fatty acid gene (ELOVL) and heterologous expression of the corresponding elongase were performed to examine activity with regard to time course, substrate concentration and substrate preference. Results revealed that the barramundi elongase showed a broad range of substrate specificity including 18-carbon PUFA (including 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6), 20- and 22-carbon LCPUFA, with greater activity towards omega-3 (n-3) than n-6 fatty acids. The findings from this study provide molecular evidence for an alternative n-3 fatty acid elongation pathway utilising 18:3n-3 in barramundi. PMID:22640739

  2. Generation and utilisation of quality indicators for satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlund, Kenneth

    The extraction of Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) from cloud and moisture features from successive geostationary satellite images is an established and important part of the global observing system. One of the main problems in the utilisation of this data is the variable quality of the derived displacement vectors. Furthermore the AMVs are still currently used as single point measurements, even though they are generally based on targets that represent large areas and the height that is assigned to the vectors often represents a layer mean. In the early AMV derivation schemes the derived vector fields were quality controlled by experienced meteorologists and poor vectors were removed. Furthermore any suspect vector showing any kind of deviations in time and space was rejected and hence only about 17% of all possible vectors were disseminated. Today the high production frequency and the increased resolution make manual quality control unfeasible. Furthermore the new assimilation schemes utilised in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) require qualitative information on the errors of the individual AMVs. This Thesis describes an Automatic Quality Control (AQC) scheme that is based on the statistical properties of the derived AMVs. The properties of the AMVs, i.e. their consistency in time and space, are interpreted with a number of tests. The outcome of each test is normalised such that they can be combined to a Quality Indicator (QI) that gives an estimation of the expected quality of every individual vector as is shown by statistics against radiosondes and verified by the positive impact in data assimilation schemes. The QIs are currently derived and disseminated together with the derived AMVs by several operational AMV derivation centres. Only a small number of vectors are now removed before dissemination. The QIs are used operationally for data selection at various NWT centres and have alleviated some of the problems related to the assimilation of this data in NWT. QIs can also be used in other application in order to provide a better determination of the atmospheric flow facilitating a more efficient use of the AMVs e.g. for climate studies and nowcasting applications.

  3. Energy utilisation of carbohydrate, fat and protein sources in newly hatched broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Sulistiyanto, B; Akiba, Y; Sato, K

    1999-12-01

    1. TME, TMEn and metabolisability (TME/gross energy) of energy-yielding foodstuffs were determined in 1, 3 and 10 d old broiler chicks, using the assay method developed by Murakami et al. (1994), in order to characterise energy utilisation during the 10 d after hatching. 2. TME, TMEn and metabolisability of dextrin and starch were low in chicks aged 1 d, and increased with age up to 10 d. Energy values of glucose and maltose at days 1 and 3 could not be determined because of the sudden death of birds soon after the feeding. TMEn and metabolisability of cereal sources were lower in d-old chicks than in those aged 3 and 10 d. At all ages, maize was better utilised than wheat and sorghum. 3. In the fat sources (coconut oil, beef tallow and safflower oil) no age dependency was observed in TME, TMEn and metabolisability. 4. Bioavailability of soyabean meal and fish meal was lower at 1 d than at 3 d and 10 d. Energy utilisation from casein was the highest among the protein sources tested and it was not age dependent. 5. It is concluded that energy utilisation of carbohydrate and protein sources during 10 d post-hatch tended to increase with age. Among the energy yielding foodstuffs fat sources seem to be better utilised, with no age dependency. PMID:10670678

  4. Relationship between Health Insurance Status and the Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilisation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance status and the pattern of traditional medicine (TRM) use among the general population in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled adults, aged ?18 years (N = 324), was conducted. The results indicate that TRM use was high with prevalence of over 86%. The study found no statistically significant association between national health insurance status and TRM utilisation (P > 0.05). Paradoxically, major sources of TRM, frequency of TRM use, comedical administration, and disclosure of TRM use to health care professionals differed significantly between the insured and uninsured subgroups (P < 0.001). Whereas effectiveness of TRM predicted its use for both insured [odds ratio (OR) = 4.374 (confidence interval (CI): 1.753–10.913; P = 0.002)] and uninsured [OR = 3.383 CI: 0.869–13.170; P = 0.039)], work experience predicted TRM use for the insured [OR = 1.528 (95% CI: 1.309–1.900; P = 0.019)]. Cultural specific variables and health philosophies rather than health insurance status may influence health care-seeking behaviour and TRM use. The enrollment of herbal-based therapies on the national health insurance medicine plan is exigent to ensure monitoring and rational use of TRM towards intercultural health care system in Ghana. PMID:26347791

  5. Relationship between Health Insurance Status and the Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilisation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance status and the pattern of traditional medicine (TRM) use among the general population in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled adults, aged ?18 years (N = 324), was conducted. The results indicate that TRM use was high with prevalence of over 86%. The study found no statistically significant association between national health insurance status and TRM utilisation (P > 0.05). Paradoxically, major sources of TRM, frequency of TRM use, comedical administration, and disclosure of TRM use to health care professionals differed significantly between the insured and uninsured subgroups (P < 0.001). Whereas effectiveness of TRM predicted its use for both insured [odds ratio (OR) = 4.374 (confidence interval (CI): 1.753-10.913; P = 0.002)] and uninsured [OR = 3.383 CI: 0.869-13.170; P = 0.039)], work experience predicted TRM use for the insured [OR = 1.528 (95% CI: 1.309-1.900; P = 0.019)]. Cultural specific variables and health philosophies rather than health insurance status may influence health care-seeking behaviour and TRM use. The enrollment of herbal-based therapies on the national health insurance medicine plan is exigent to ensure monitoring and rational use of TRM towards intercultural health care system in Ghana. PMID:26347791

  6. Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Gstrauntaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2010-10-15

    Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

  7. Influence of phenolic substrates utilised by yeast Trichosporon cutaneum on the degradation kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gerginova, Maria; Zlateva, Plamena; Peneva, Nadejda; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2014-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of different phenolic substrates utilised by Trichosporon cutaneum R57 was studied. The following compounds were used as substrates: phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, 3-nitrophenol, 2,6-dinitrophenol, 3-chloro phenol and p-cresol. The specific degradation rates (Qs) were described by a Haldane kinetic model. The unknown model parameters were estimated using the mathematical optimisation procedure for direct search. The results obtained demonstrated that Qs varied greatly in the experiments carried out. The level of biodegradability depended on the different structure and toxicity of compounds used as carbon substrates. The highest Qs values were observed for less toxic hydroxylated phenols (0.77–0.85 h?1), while the most toxic chlorinated phenols were characterised with the lowest Qs values (0.224 h?1). The results obtained with different concentrations of resorcinol (from 0.2 to 0.8 g L?1) and 2,6-dinitrophenol (from 0.2 to 0.7 g L?1) demonstrated a growing inhibitory effect directly correlating with the extended time necessary for complete degradation of both compounds.

  8. How can model error characteristics be utilised to improve climate projections?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Suklitsch, Martin; Heinrich, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The discussion on how to improve climate projections of a multi-model ensemble by exploiting information on model errors has a long tradition. Most studies follow the strategy to weight simulations according to their error characteristics or in a Bayesian framework. However, the potential to find optimal weights is currently very limited and none of the weighting approaches gained widespread acceptance so far. In this study, an alternative strategy is pursued: The systematic effect of a particular type of model error ("intensity-dependent error") on the expected climate change signal of a multi-model ensemble and its spread is utilised. A theory of the influence of intensity-dependent model errors on the climate change signal is developed and it is investigated, whether expected climate change is biased and uncertainty is inflated due to such errors. In addition, empirical correction methods are analysed in order to mitigate potential biases in expected climate change and to constrain uncertainty. The theory is applied to the ENSEMBLES regional multi-model ensemble. The results indicate that expected temperature change at the end of the 21st century from the ENSEMBLES ensemble is regionally biased with an over-estimation of up to +0.5 K in Eastern Europe and France in summer and an underestimation of about -0.4 K in Scandinavia. In addition, it is shown that intensity-dependent errors tend to increase the spread of a multi-model ensemble, which indicates the potential to reduce uncertainty in climate projections by a suitable correction.

  9. Sociodemographic and health behavioural factors associated with access to and utilisation of eye care in Korea: Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Choi, Moonjung; Yoon, Jin Sook; Kim, Sung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the sociodemographic and health behavioural factors associated with access to and utilisation of eye care in Korea. Design Nationwide cross-sectional study Methods 25?752 Koreans over the age of 30 were assessed from a national representative survey. We analysed independent variables of self-reporting eye clinic visits through multivariable analyses of sociodemographic factors. The time since the last visit to an eye clinic was used to assess access to and utilisation of eye care. Results Of the 25?752 respondents, 8237 (32.0%) visited an eye clinic in the past year, 11?028 (42.8%) were seen more than 1?year ago, while 6487 (25.2%) had never seen an ophthalmologist. Eye clinic utilisation was statistically associated with older age, female sex, higher household income, higher education levels, living in an urban area, and having comorbidities including diabetes and hypertension. Middle-aged men between 30 and 49?years were found to be less likely to receive eye care compared to the rest of the population, and the proportion that did plummeted after the financial crisis of 2007. Conclusions There is a substantial sociodemographic disparity in eye care utilisation in Korea, and men with low financial income and education level are especially at risk. Use of eye care among middle-aged men has decreased since the global financial crisis that began in 2007, and therefore healthcare policies and public interventions should be targeted at vulnerable groups to promote access to medical care. PMID:26185177

  10. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  11. UTILISATION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY JOx STEiAR GuTm1uNossoN

    E-print Network

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    UTILISATION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN ICELAND JOx STEiAR GuTm1uNossoN C'he,nical Engineering Division of geothermal energy in Iceland are reviewed. Thec!assJlcation of geothermal areas is mentioned purposes and a 60 MW geothermal power plant is beingconstructed. INTRODUCTION lceand is orobaby unique

  12. Utilisation of Local Inputs in the Funding and Administration of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiri, Agharuwhe A.

    2014-01-01

    The article discussed how, why and who is in charge of administering and funding schools in Nigeria. The author utilised the relevant statistical approach which examined and discussed various political and historical trends affecting education. Besides this, relevant documented statistical data were used to both buttress and substantiate related…

  13. A FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    A FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange, Resources, Roughness, Coastal Sea Areas, Waves, Rødsand 1 INTRODUCTION Large offshore wind farms are being wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has to compensate the additional

  14. Optimal utilisation of renewable electricity generation Location: School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, UK

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    Optimal utilisation of renewable electricity generation Location: School of Mathematics, University will be motivated and applicable to balancing of electricity network. There will be an opportunity to give more. Supervisor welcomes informal enquiries by email. Overview Extensive use of renewable electricity generation

  15. Tutoriel d'utilisation du service APIS http://obspm.fr/apis/

    E-print Network

    Demoulin, Pascal

    Tutoriel d'utilisation du service APIS http://obspm.fr/apis/ Formation Post-master OV, Paris, 27 d'accélération du plasma et du transfert d'énergie vers l'atmosphère planétaire. Le service APIS'accès en ligne. Coïncidence (ou presque), Apis est aussi le dieu égyptien de la fertilité (des données dans

  16. Utilising Year Three NAPLAN Results to Improve Queensland Teachers' Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Klinken, Eduarda

    2010-01-01

    Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…

  17. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as unmanned airborne systems (UAS) or remotely piloted airborne systems (RPAS), are an established platform for close range airborne photogrammetry. Compared to manned platforms, the acquisition of local remote sensing data by UAVs is a convenient and very flexible option. For the application in photogrammetry UAVs are typically equipped with an autopilot and a lightweight digital camera. The autopilot includes several navigation sensors, which might allow an automated waypoint flight and offer a systematic data acquisition of the object resp. scene of interest. Assuming a sufficient overlap between the captured images, the position (3 coordinates: x, y, z) and the orientation (3 angles: roll, pitch, yaw) of the images can be estimated within a bundle block adjustment. Subsequently, coordinates of observed points that appear in at least two images, can be determined by measuring their image coordinates or a dense surface model can be generated from all acquired images by automated image matching. For the bundle block adjustment approximate values of the position and the orientation of the images are needed. To gather this information, several methods exist. We introduce in this contribution one of them: the direct georeferencing of images by using the navigation sensors (mainly GNSS and INS) of a low-cost on-board autopilot. Beside automated flights, the autopilot offers the possibility to record the position and the orientation of the platform during the flight. These values don't correspond directly to those of the images. To compute the position and the orientation of the images two requirements must be fulfilled. First the misalignment angles and the positional differences between the camera and the autopilot must be determined (mounting calibration). Second the synchronization between the camera and the autopilot has to be established. Due to the limited accuracy of the navigation sensors, a small number of ground control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

  18. Energy utilisation and growth performance of chicken fed diets containing graded levels of supplementary bacterial phytase.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bedford, M R

    2013-01-28

    A total of 364 female Ross 308 chicks (1 d old) were used in the present study conducted in floor pens to investigate the effects of graded levels of supplementary bacterial phytase on dietary energy utilisation and growth performance. For this purpose, four maize-soyabean-based diets were offered to the birds from 0 to 21 d of age. These included a suboptimal P negative control (NC, 3.0 g/kg non-phytate P), NC+250 phytase units (FTU)/kg feed, NC+500 FTU and NC+2500 FTU. The effect of phytase activity on bird growth performance was best described as a linear relationship between increasing dose and increased feed intake (P< 0.001), but was quadratic for body-weight gain (P= 0.002) and feed efficiency (P= 0.023). There was no significant response (P>0.05) of dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AME) to supplementary phytase. The birds fed phytase increased their retention of total carcass energy in a linear fashion (P= 0.009) with increased phytase dose. The efficiency of dietary AME used for overall carcass energy retention also improved (P= 0.007) in a linear manner with increased dietary phytase activity. Dietary net energy for production (NEp) increased (P= 0.047) with an increase in phytase dose following a linear pattern, as an increase of 100 FTU increased dietary net energy by 15.4 J (estimated within the range of doses used in the present experiment). Dietary NEp was more highly correlated with performance criteria than dietary AME, and it seems to be a more sensitive way to evaluate broiler response to phytase supplementation. PMID:22716908

  19. Effects of glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Bochenek, Maciej; Samuelsson, Anne-Cathrine; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A completely randomised design study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to observe effects of an emulsifier (glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate (GPR)) on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were used to determine the influence of GPR (without addition or added at 0.04% of diet) and two levels of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) (according to standard requirements (Diets SE) or energy reduced by 0.4 MJ/kg diet (Diets LE)) on birds' performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). ATTD of ether extract (EE) and AMEN were measured on d 14 and 35, and ATTD of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was measured on d 35. All diets were based on wheat-maize-soybean meal with rapeseed oil and lard (blend of 50:50) as fat sources. During the grower period and the whole trial, birds fed Diets supplemented with GPR were characterised by higher body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to chicken receiving diets without GPR (p < 0.05). At the end of experiment, birds fed Diet LE without GPR were characterised by lower BWG and higher FCR (p < 0.05). Supplementation with GPR caused a higher ATTD of EE for diets SE and LE at d 14 and 35 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GPR addition to Diet LE improved ATTD of NDF at d 35 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings suggest that GPR effects the digestion of a blend of animal fat/rapeseed oil positively, even in a practical maize-wheat-based broiler diet with decreased AMEN level. PMID:26147512

  20. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that labour availability should be used to estimate compost demand beside cash. PMID:26239937

  1. Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Top, Y

    2015-01-01

    The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system. PMID:25453314

  2. The POPPY Research Programme protocol: investigating opioid utilisation, costs and patterns of extramedical use in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Blanch, Bianca; Gisev, Natasa; Larance, Briony; Pearson, Sallie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Opioid prescribing is increasing in many countries. In Australia, there is limited research on patterns of prescribing and access, or the outcomes associated with this use. The aim of this research programme is to use national dispensing data to estimate opioid use and costs, including problematic or extramedical use in the Australian population. Methods and analysis In a cohort of persons dispensed at least one opioid in 2013, we will estimate monthly utilisation and costs of prescribed opioids, overall and according to individual opioid formulations and strengths. In a cohort of new opioid users, commencing therapy between 1 July 2009 and 31 December 2013, we will examine patterns of opioid use including initiation of therapy, duration of treatment and concomitant use of opioids and other prescribed medicines. We will also examine patterns of extramedical opioid use based on indicators including excess dosing, use of more than one opioid concomitantly, doctor/pharmacy shopping and accelerated time to prescription refill. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the NSW Population and Health Services Ethics Committee (March 2014) and data access approved by the Department of Human Services External Review Evaluation Committee (June 2014). This will be one of the first comprehensive Australian studies with the capability to investigate individual patterns of use and track extramedical use. In the first instance our analysis will be based on 5?years of dispensing data but will be expanded with ongoing annual data updates. This research has the capability to contribute significantly to pharmaceutical policy within Australia and globally. In particular, the trajectory of extramedical prescription-opioid use has been the subject of limited research to date. The results of this research will be published widely in general medical, pharmacoepidemiology, addiction and psychiatry journals. PMID:25631315

  3. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  4. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  5. Computational Prediction of One-Step Synthesis of Seven-membered Fused Rings by (5+2) Cycloaddition Utilising Cycloalkenes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chen-Chen; Ke, Xiao-Na; Xu, Xiu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The (5+2) cycloaddition reaction utilising cycloalkenes is rare, although it is one of the most efficient methods of constructing seven-membered fused rings because of its high atom- and step-economy. In this study, we used quantum mechanical calculations to predict the plausibility of using the Rh-catalysed intermolecular (5+2) cycloaddition of 3-acyloxy-1,4-enynes and cycloalkenes to produce fused seven-membered carbocycles. The calculation results suggest a convenient, highly efficient and energetically practical approach. Strained cycloalkenes, such as cyclopropene, have been predicted to be active, and the desired bicyclic product should be favoured, accompanied by the formation of byproducts from rearrangement reactions. The energy barriers of the alkene insertion step were analysed by the distortion/interaction model to disclose the origins of the different reactivities of cycloalkenes with different ring sizes. PMID:26198317

  6. Utilising the Work Experiences of Adults in the Learning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej

    1979-01-01

    Part-time courses for adults often claim the benefits of linking classroom learning to students' work experiences. Author discusses obstacles to the use of learners' experiences in the classroom and argues that attitude changes in learners and lecturers need to occur before full benefits of part-time study can be reaped. (Author/CSS)

  7. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

  8. Performance of biofuel processes utilising separate lignin and carbohydrate processing.

    PubMed

    Melin, Kristian; Kohl, Thomas; Koskinen, Jukka; Hurme, Markku

    2015-09-01

    Novel biofuel pathways with increased product yields are evaluated against conventional lignocellulosic biofuel production processes: methanol or methane production via gasification and ethanol production via steam-explosion pre-treatment. The novel processes studied are ethanol production combined with methanol production by gasification, hydrocarbon fuel production with additional hydrogen produced from lignin residue gasification, methanol or methane synthesis using synthesis gas from lignin residue gasification and additional hydrogen obtained by aqueous phase reforming in synthesis gas production. The material and energy balances of the processes were calculated by Aspen flow sheet models and add on excel calculations applicable at the conceptual design stage to evaluate the pre-feasibility of the alternatives. The processes were compared using the following criteria: energy efficiency from biomass to products, primary energy efficiency, GHG reduction potential and economy (expressed as net present value: NPV). Several novel biorefinery concepts gave higher energy yields, GHG reduction potential and NPV. PMID:26056782

  9. Utilising polyphenols for the clinical management of Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Sherry, Leighann; Rajendran, Ranjith; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ramage, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    Polyphenols (PPs) are secondary metabolites abundant in plant-derived foods. They are reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity that may offer an alternative to existing antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal potential of PPs against Candida albicans biofilms that are commonly recalcitrant to antifungal therapy. The antifungal activity of 14 PPs was assessed in terms of planktonic and sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (PMICs and SMICs, respectively) against various C. albicans clinical isolates. The most active PPs were further tested for their effect on C. albicans adhesion and biofilm growth using standard biomass assays, microscopy and quantitative gene expression. Of the 14 PPs tested, 7 were effective inhibitors of planktonic growth, of which pyrogallol (PYG) was the most effective (PMIC??=78 ?g/mL), followed by curcumin (CUR) (PMIC??=100 ?g/mL) and pyrocatechol (PMIC??=625 ?g/mL). Both PYG and CUR displayed activity against C. albicans biofilms (SMIC??=40 ?g/mL and 50 ?g/mL, respectively), although they did not disrupt the biofilm or directly affect the cellular structure. Overall, CUR displayed superior biofilm activity, significantly inhibiting initial cell adhesion following pre-coating (P<0.01), biofilm growth (P<0.05) and gene expression (P<0.05). This inhibitory effect diminished with prolonged CUR exposure, although it still inhibited by 50% after 4h adhesion. Overall, CUR exhibited positive antibiofilm properties that could be used at the basis for development of similar molecules, although further cellular and in vivo studies are required to explore its precise mechanism of action. PMID:25104135

  10. An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.D.

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems, even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.

  11. Solar energy utilisation and evacuated tubular solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parand, Foroutan

    Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been constructed and their performance evaluated. The characteristics of the collectors are then compared and their design strengths assessed. One of the designs, a flat absorber with a single glass cover using glass to metal seals was found to have the best performance among the four designs which included a dewar vessel type collector, a heat pipe collector and a black liquid collector with an optical efficiency of 87.7 pct. and an overall heat loss coefficient of 12.3 Wm(exp -2)/C. The performance of the dewar vessel type and black liquid collectors was found to be comparable to the glass to metal seal collector. A detailed analysis of the optical and thermal processes in evacuated tubular collectors was made. On the basis of this analysis a computer simulation model using a finite difference technique has been developed to predict the performance of evacuated tubular collectors. The computer simulation results are then compared with the test results. For the majority of the tests the discrepancy between the simulation and the test results was within the error band of the test results (maximum 12 pct.). For the published test results the maximum discrepancy for operating temperature below 100 C was found to be 6 pct. The computer simulation model was compared with other published models and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. In some analytical and semi-analytical simulation models the energy absorbed by the glass cover and the heat loss from joints and supports has to be ignored. The present model has none of these deficiencies and more complex designs can be simulated. The developed computer simulation program might be used as an aid in the design of evacuated tubular collectors. Using the computer simulation, a parametric study of the three commmercially available collectors was made. The results are discussed and the areas of improvement are identified.

  12. Guide d'utilisation de SSC sous SunOS ou Linux Auteur: Richard Simard

    E-print Network

    Vázquez-Abad, Felisa J.

    Guide d'utilisation de SSC sous SunOS ou Linux Langage C Auteur: Richard Simard Adresse: simardr consulter les fichiers-source de SSC cd $SSCHOME/mylib cd $SSCHOME/ssc vous emm`enera dans le bon r guide.pdf & 3 Compilation D'abord inclure les fichiers d'en-t^ete de ssc ou de mylib ; par exemple, si

  13. Utilisation of ART in single women and lesbian couples since the 2010 change in Victorian legislation.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Emily; Weston, Gareth

    2014-10-01

    Enactment of the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act (Vic) 2008 in January 2010 allowed single persons and same sex couples in Victoria to access reproductive treatments. A retrospective cohort analysis of Monash IVF patients was conducted to identify trends in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) use amongst single women and lesbian couples after January 2010. A 102.8% increase in the utilisation of ART was observed amongst the single women group and a 248.8% increase in the lesbian couple population. PMID:25287570

  14. Utilisation and Off-Label Prescriptions of Respiratory Drugs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedl, Sven; Fischer, Rainald; Ibáñez, Luisa; Fortuny, Joan; Klungel, Olaf H.; Reynolds, Robert; Gerlach, Roman; Tauscher, Martin; Thürmann, Petra; Hasford, Joerg; Rottenkolber, Marietta

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ?18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children) between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs) per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374–575 per 10,000 children) and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378–527 per 10,000 children). Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold) whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (?97%). Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3%) and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%). The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n?=?67,084; 42.0%) and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n?=?18,897; 20.7%). Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections underlining the essential need for a more rational prescribing in this area. PMID:25180704

  15. Obesity in pregnancy: infant health service utilisation and costs on the NHS

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kelly L; Rahman, Muhammad A; Hill, Rebecca A; Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Lyons, Ronan A; Brophy, Sinead T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the direct healthcare cost of infants born to overweight or obese mothers to the National Health Service in the UK. Design Retrospective prevalence-based study. Setting Combined linked anonymised electronic data sets on a cohort of mother–child pairs enrolled on the Growing Up in Wales: Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) study. Infants were categorised according to maternal early-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): healthy weight mother (18.5?BMI<25?kg/m2; n=342), overweight mother (25?BMI?29.9?kg/m2; n=157) and obese mother (BMI?30; n=110). Participants 609 singleton pregnancies with available health service records and an antenatal maternal BMI. Primary outcome measure Total health service utilisation and direct healthcare costs for providing these services in the year 2012–2013. Costs are calculated as cost of the infant (no maternal costs considered) and are related to health service usage from birth to age 1?year. Results A strong association existed between healthcare usage cost and BMI (p<0.001). Mean total costs were 72% higher among children born to obese mothers (rate ratio (RR) 1.72, 95% CI 1.71 to 1.73) compared with infants born to healthy weight mothers. Higher costings were attributed to a significantly greater number (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.84) and duration (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.74) of inpatient visits and a higher number of general practitioner visits (RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16). Total mean additional resource cost was estimated at £65.13 for infants born to overweight mothers and £1138.11 for infants born to obese mothers, when compared with infants of healthy weight mothers. Conclusions Increasingly infants born to mothers with high BMIs consume additional health service resources in the first year of life; this was apparent across inpatient and general practitioner services. Considering both maternal and infant health service use, interventions that cost less than £2310 per person in reducing obesity early pregnancy could be cost-effective. PMID:26610756

  16. L’utilisation d’objets comme outils: un développement continu

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Björn Alexander; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Le débat autour des origines développementales de la capacité humaine à utiliser des outils de manière souple reste ouvert. Alors que l’approche dominante se focalise sur un changement qualitatif cognitif vers la fin de la première année, la théorie perception-action fournit des indices importants sur la manière dont les comportements exploratoires plus précoces des nourrissons jettent les bases pour l’émergence de cette capacité. En particulier, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont les tentatives des nourrissons de mettre en rapport les objets et les surfaces leur permettent d’apprendre comment les objets peuvent servir d’extension de la main et fournissent l’occasion d’exercer des actions qui seront recrutées plus tard pour l’utilisation d’outils. Dans ce contexte, nous discutons des études comportementales et cinématiques portant sur la manipulation d’objets, qui montrent que les nourrissons font interagir les objets et les surfaces avec discernement et que leur contrôle de la frappe (banging) augmente au cours de leur première année. En conclusion, une perspective perception-action suggère que l’utilisation d’outils émerge de manière plus continue au cours du développement que ce qui a été traditionnellement envisagé. PMID:24511151

  17. Effects of demand-side financing on utilisation, experiences and outcomes of maternity care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Demand-side financing, where funds for specific services are channelled through, or to, prospective users, is now employed in health and education sectors in many low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review aimed to critically examine the evidence on application of this approach to promote maternal health in these settings. Five modes were considered: unconditional cash transfers, conditional cash transfers, short-term payments to offset costs of accessing maternity services, vouchers for maternity services, and vouchers for merit goods. We sought to assess the effects of these interventions on utilisation of maternity services and on maternal health outcomes and infant health, the situation of underprivileged women and the healthcare system. Methods The protocol aimed for collection and synthesis of a broad range of evidence from quantitative, qualitative and economic studies. Nineteen health and social policy databases, seven unpublished research databases and 27 websites were searched; with additional searches of Indian journals and websites. Studies were included if they examined demand-side financing interventions to increase consumption of services or goods intended to impact on maternal health, and met relevant quality criteria. Quality assessment, data extraction and analysis used Joanna Briggs Institute standardised tools and software. Outcomes of interest included maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, service utilisation, factors required for successful implementation, recipient and provider experiences, ethical issues, and cost-effectiveness. Findings on Effectiveness, Feasibility, Appropriateness and Meaningfulness were presented by narrative synthesis. Results Thirty-three quantitative studies, 46 qualitative studies, and four economic studies from 17 countries met the inclusion criteria. Evidence on unconditional cash transfers was scanty. Other demand-side financing modes were found to increase utilisation of maternal healthcare in the index pregnancy or uptake of related merit goods. Evidence of effects on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity outcomes was insufficient. Important implementation aspects include targeting and eligibility criteria, monitoring, respectful treatment of beneficiaries, suitable incentives for providers, quality of care and affordable referral systems. Conclusions Demand-side financing schemes can increase utilisation of maternity services, but attention must be paid to supply-side conditions, the fine-grain of implementation and sustainability. Comparative studies and research on health impact and cost-effectiveness are required. PMID:24438560

  18. L’utilisation du prémélange de monensin chez les vaches laitières : un suivi simple et essentiel pour s’assurer d’une utilisation adéquate

    PubMed Central

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; Baril, Jean; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Le prémélange de monensin est utilisé fréquemment sur les fermes laitières canadiennes. L’ingrédient actif de ce produit est le monensin sodique. Bien que son utilisation chez les vaches laitières soit sécuritaire, des cas de surdose ont été rapportés à la suite de consommation de niveaux de monensin plus élevés que ceux recommandés. Un suivi hebdomadaire du pourcentage de matières grasses du réservoir de lait de la ferme devrait être fait de routine suite à la livraison d’aliment médicamenteux contenant du monensin pour détecter rapidement les situations de surdose. L’observation d’une baisse soudaine de la consommation volontaire de matière sèche et l’apparition de diarrhée dans un troupeau sont d’autres signes cliniques de surdose de monensin. Une détection rapide de ces cas permettra de corriger la situation. PMID:19721781

  19. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourva, L. C.-A.; Croft, S.

    1999-07-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP TM, has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents a new evaluation technique for the estimation of gate utilisation factors. It uses the die-away profile of a neutron coincidence chamber generated either by MCNP TM, or by other means, to simulate the neutron detection arrival time pattern originating from independent spontaneous fission events. A shift register simulation algorithm, embedded in the MCF code, then calculates the coincidence counts scored within the electronics gate. The gate utilisation factor is then deduced by dividing the coincidence counts obtained with that obtained in the same Monte Carlo run, but for an ideal detection system with a coincidence gate utilisation factor equal to unity. The MCF code has been benchmarked against analytical results calculated for both single and double exponential die-away profiles. These results are presented along with the development of the closed form algebraic expressions for the two cases. Results of this validity check showed very good agreement. On this basis, previously published analytical results for the double exponential case are thought to be in error. As derived analytically, the numerical calculations have been found to be both independent of the detector's efficiency and of the spontaneous fission neutron multiplicity distribution used in the Monte Carlo calculations. Extension of the MCF calculations to multiplicity counting, and in particular to triple coincidence counting, confirmed that, for a single exponential die-away profile, the triple gate utilisation factor is equal to the square of the real gate utilisation factor. For other profiles this relation no longer holds. An analytical expression is given for the case of a double exponential profile. Comparison of the MCF results with earlier calculated estimates of the gate utilisation factor for the on-site laboratory neutron coincidence chamber showed a significant difference. Use of the MCF results led to much better agreement between the observed and calculated specific reals coincidence rate of the on-site laboratory counter for the assay of plutonium samples. Moreover, the present work constitutes a further step towards the improvement of the accuracy of absolute Monte Carlo calculations for active or passive neutron measurements of nuclear materials.

  20. Effects of Pre-Natal Vitamin D Supplementation with Partial Correction of Vitamin D Deficiency on Early Life Healthcare Utilisation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Chris; Shaheen, Seif O.; Martineau, Adrian; Cross, Louise; Robinson, Stephen; Warner, John O.; Devine, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background Some observational studies have suggested that higher prenatal Vitamin D intake may be associated with improved health outcomes in childhood. However there have been mixed results in this area with some negative studies, especially for effects on atopic and respiratory outcomes. We examined the effect of prenatal Vitamin D on healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life. Methods In an ethnically stratified randomised controlled trial conducted at St Mary’s Hospital London, 180 women at 27 weeks gestation were allocated to no Vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery, or a single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol. Participants were randomised in blocks of 15 using computer-generated numbers and investigators were blinded to group assignment. Supplementation increased maternal and cord blood 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations, but levels remained lower than current recommendations. Primary health economic outcome was overall cost of unscheduled healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life as documented in the child’s electronic health record. Secondary outcomes included cost attributable to: primary and secondary healthcare visits, respiratory and atopic complaints, cost in years 1, 2 and 3 of life and cost and frequency of prescribed medication. All costs were calculated as pounds sterling. Differences between groups were analysed using unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, and analysis of variance for adjusted analyses. Results We assessed 99/180 (55%) complete electronic health records, control (n = 31), daily (n = 36) and bolus (n = 32). We found no difference in total healthcare utilisation costs between the control and daily (mean difference in costs in pounds sterling 1.02, 95%CI -1.60, 1.65; adjusted 1.07, 95%CI -1.62, 1.86) or control and bolus groups (mean difference -1.58, 95%CI -2.63, 1.06; adjusted –1.40, 95%CI -2.45, 1.24). There were no adverse effects of supplementation reported during the trial. Conclusions We found no evidence that prenatal vitamin D supplementation from 27 weeks gestation to delivery, at doses which failed to completely correct maternal vitamin D deficiency, influence overall healthcare utilisation in children in the first 3 years. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68645785 PMID:26698303

  1. Anthelmintic utilisation practices and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep kept in the urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town.

    PubMed

    Datiko, Jallale; Terefe, Getachew; Bekele, Jemere

    2013-02-01

    Assessment of the anthelmintic (AH) utilisation practices and estimation of the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep were carried out from November 2010 to April 2011 in urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town, central Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was employed to assess the AH utilisation practices in sheep of 310 owners/households, while floatation and sedimentation techniques were used to study the prevalence of helminth infections. Faecal examinations revealed that 53.9 % of sheep harboured gastrointestinal helminth infections with a high frequency due to strongyles (77.3 %). The questionnaire survey revealed that sources of AH for sheep were government and private veterinary clinics for 98.5 % of urban and 65.4 % peri-urban respondents. In peri-urban areas, AH were also purchased from open markets and illegal dealers. Albendazole was the most common (75.5 %) drug used in sheep followed by ivermectin (18.7 %) and tetramisole (5.8 %). The criteria for selecting AH were: prescription by veterinarians (51.6 %), efficacy (31.9 %), price (12.3 %) and arbitrary reasons (4.2 %). Treatment frequency was minimal with 51.3, 32.3 and 15.8 % of the owners treating their sheep once, twice and less than once per year, respectively. Treatments mainly depended on manifestations of general (45.8 %) and digestive (23.3 %) symptoms. Irrespective of the body weight of the sheep, albendazole was the only drug reported to be given at half bolus/sheep (14.1 %). Owing to this practice, albendazole faces the risk of reduced efficacy or AH resistance due to its wide spread utilisation, handling by untrained personnel and suspected underdosage, which altogether support the perception of sheep owners on its lower effect on the performance of treated sheep. PMID:23015354

  2. Layer specific geostatistical coregionalisation of soil organic carbon utilising terrain attributes and spatial patterns of soil redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugoß, V.; Fiener, P.; Schneider, K.

    2009-04-01

    High-resolution soil organic carbon (SOC) maps are a major prerequisite for many environmental studies dealing with carbon stocks and fluxes as well as for biogeochemical modelling. Hence, the development of time and cost effective mapping methods is an important issue. In most cases these maps are interpolated based on measured point SOC data with different horizontal resolution, whereas additional secondary (terrain) information is often utilised. In this study the potential of external drift kriging (EDK) to improve the soil layer specific (I: 0-0.25 m, II: 0.25-0.5 m and III: 0.5-0.9 m) interpolation of SOC concentrations in a hilly 4.2 ha agriculturally used catchment was tested using three different input data densities (6, 16.9, and 37.9 soil samples/ha). A number of covariables were used in EDK with a special focus on those representing processes of soil moisture distribution and soil redistribution. The later was, among others, represented by the results of a relatively simple and robust water and tillage erosion model (WaTEM/SEDEM). With the EDK method a significant improvement of the precision of SOC maps derived from different input data densities was observed particularly for deeper soil layers. While in the plough layer only slight improvements could be found, covariables representing soil moisture distribution and especially soil redistribution substantially improved predictions in the two subsoil layers. A maximum relative improvement of 15.5% was found for soil layer III (16.9 soil samples/ha; Root Mean Square Error 0.153% kg kg-1). Comparing EDK results of medium and low resolution SOC input data (16.9 and 6 samples/ha) with OK results of high resolution inputs (37.9 samples/ha) shows a similar or even improved precision for soil layers I and III, while the reduction of input data density could not be fully compensated utilising covariables in soil layer II. In general, the results indicate the potential of EDK to improve SOC maps and to reduce sampling density without substantial precision loss, especially when using more complex process-oriented covariables such as spatial patterns of soil redistribution. Especially, patterns of tillage erosion show a significant influence upon the spatial distribution of SOC and hence show some potential to improve SOC maps of agriculturally used land also on larger scales. However, it has to be recognised that the optimal covariables vary between different soil layers indicating different processes responsible for the soil layer specific SOC distribution. Hence, no general covariable is successfully applicable for bulk samples.

  3. Resource Utilisation and Costs of Depressive Patients in Germany: Results from the Primary Care Monitoring for Depressive Patients Trial

    PubMed Central

    Krauth, Christian; Petersen, Juliana J.; Freytag, Antje; Gerlach, Ferdinand M.; Gensichen, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Background. Depression is the most common type of mental disorder in Germany. It is associated with a high level of suffering for individuals and imposes a significant burden on society. The aim of this study was to estimate the depression related costs in Germany taking a societal perspective. Materials and Methods. Data were collected from the primary care monitoring for depressive patients trial (PRoMPT) of patients with major depressive disorder who were treated in a primary care setting. Resource utilisation and days of sick leave were observed and analysed over a 1-year period. Results. Average depression related costs of €3813 were calculated. Significant differences in total costs due to sex were demonstrated. Male patients had considerable higher total costs than female patients, whereas single cost categories did not differ significantly. Further, differences in costs according to severity of disease and age were observed. The economic burden to society was estimated at €15.6 billion per year. Conclusion. The study results show that depression poses a significant economic burden to society. There is a high potential for prevention, treatment, and patient management innovations to identify and treat patients at an early stage. PMID:25295184

  4. Utilising DualEELS to probe the nanoscale mechanisms of the corrosion of Zircaloy-4 in 350 °C pressurised water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annand, Kirsty J.; MacLaren, Ian; Gass, Mhairi

    2015-10-01

    Characterisation of materials utilised for fuel cladding in nuclear reactors prior to service is integral in order to understand corrosion mechanisms which would take place in reactor. Zircaloy-4 is one such material of choice for nuclear fuel containment in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). In particular, the metal-oxide interface has been a predominant focus of previous research, however, due to the complex oxidation process of zirconium cladding, there is still no clear understanding of what is present at the interface. Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and Dual Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (DualEELS), we have studied the corrosion of this material under conditions similar to those that could be encountered in service. It is shown that under all conditions, whether during faster oxidation in the early stages, slow growth just prior to the transition to a new growth regime, or in the faster growth that happens after this transition, the surface of the metal below the scale is loaded with oxygen up to around 33 at%. Approaching transition, in conditions of slow growth and slow oxygen supply, an additional metastable suboxide is apparent with a thickness of tens of nm. By studying changes in both chemical composition and dielectric function of the material at the oxide scale - metal interface with nanometre resolution, quantitative mapping could be achieved, clearly showing that this is a suboxide composition of ZrO and a Zr oxidation state close to +2.

  5. 'Sometimes they fail to keep their faith in us': community health worker perceptions of structural barriers to quality of care and community utilisation of services in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Puett, Chloe; Alderman, Harold; Sadler, Kate; Coates, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) have strong potential to extend health and nutrition services to underserved populations. However, CHWs face complex challenges when working within weak health systems and among communities with limited abilities to access and utilise CHW services. It is crucial to understand these challenges to improve programme support mechanisms. This study describes the results of qualitative investigations into CHW perceptions of barriers to quality of care among two groups of workers implementing community case management of acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea and severe acute malnutrition in southern Bangladesh. We explored systemic barriers to service delivery, pertaining to communities and health systems, which limited the usefulness and effectiveness of CHW services. Focus group discussions (n?=?10) were conducted in March 2010. Discussions were analysed for themes related to CHWs' work challenges. Findings highlight several perceived barriers to effective service provision, including community poverty constraining uptake of recommended practices, irregular supplies of medicine from the health facility and poor quality of care for CHW referrals sent there. This study further documents interactions between demand-side and supply-side constraints including the influence of health system resource constraints on community trust in CHW services, and the influence of community resource constraints on the utilisation and effectiveness of CHW services. By documenting service delivery challenges from the perspective of the frontline workers themselves, this article contributes evidence to help identify appropriate support mechanisms for these workers, in order to develop scalable and sustainable CHW programmes in countries with under-resourced public health care infrastructure. PMID:23941290

  6. Comprehension and utilisation of pointing gestures and gazing in dog-human communication in relatively complex situations.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Miklósi, Adám

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the visual communication between humans and dogs in relatively complex situations. In the present research, we have modelled more lifelike situations in contrast to previous studies which often relied on using only two potential hiding locations and direct association between the communicative signal and the signalled object. In Study 1, we have provided the dogs with four potential hiding locations, two on each side of the experimenter to see whether dogs are able to choose the correct location based on the pointing gesture. In Study 2, dogs had to rely on a sequence of pointing gestures displayed by two different experimenters. We have investigated whether dogs are able to recognise an 'indirect signal', that is, a pointing toward a pointer. In Study 3, we have examined whether dogs can understand indirect information about a hidden object and direct the owner to the particular location. Study 1 has revealed that dogs are unlikely to rely on extrapolating precise linear vectors along the pointing arm when relying on human pointing gestures. Instead, they rely on a simple rule of following the side of the human gesturing. If there were more targets on the same side of the human, they showed a preference for the targets closer to the human. Study 2 has shown that dogs are able to rely on indirect pointing gestures but the individual performances suggest that this skill may be restricted to a certain level of complexity. In Study 3, we have found that dogs are able to localise the hidden object by utilising indirect human signals, and they are able to convey this information to their owner. PMID:21927851

  7. Analysis of healthcare financing, supply and utilisation trends in the new EU countries.

    PubMed

    Ruseski, Jane E

    2006-01-01

    The EU expanded in 2004 to include eight transition countries, i.e. Central and Eastern European (CEE) and newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, and two other CEE countries are scheduled to join the EU in 2007. Each of these countries has undertaken substantial healthcare reform efforts over the past 15 years. The paths of healthcare reform are diverse for a number of reasons including differences in initial economic, political and structural conditions. The objective of this article is to evaluate the process and preliminary outcomes of healthcare reform in the new EU and candidate countries by analysing trends in aggregate financing, supply and utilisation indicators using data drawn from the WHO Health for All database. The analysis is done in the context of an analytical framework built around common healthcare reform themes. The key reform measures examined include implementing social insurance systems, implementing payment systems that promote efficiency, and removal of excess capacity. The trend analysis highlights the importance of the economic, political and social context in driving the direction and pace of healthcare reform. For example, the transition to social insurance systems was smoother in countries with stronger economies and political commitment to reform. Policies aimed at improving the efficiency of the healthcare system, reducing utilisation and reducing excess capacity were met with some success in all of the countries. However, the reform effort continues as the countries are still addressing the initial challenges of insufficient funding, informal payments, excess capacity and inefficiencies in the provision of healthcare. PMID:17249839

  8. Utilisation of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus Is Strain-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Tailford, Louise E.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ?90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease. PMID:24204617

  9. Utilisation of short rotation forestry for on-site boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, R.E.H.; Lowe, H.T.

    1995-11-01

    A New Zealand meat processing company has planted 100 ha of land adjacent to its plant in short rotation coppice eucalyptus trees for land treatment of the effluent stream (5000+ m{sup 3}/day). To be effective this necessitates removal of the accumulate biomass from the site at regular intervals (every 3-4 years). Using the biomass for fuelwood on site could offset the cost of effluent treatment if it could substitute for the existing energy supplies bought into the plant. A wide range of harvesting, drying, processing, storage and conversion options were identified with the objective of using the biomass produced on site to partly displace the coal currently fuelling a 4.2 MW boiler to provide process steam. A computer model was developed to identify the optimum biomass utilisation system from the variety of combinations of options possible including use of contractors. The objective was to match the work capacity of the various equipment components and to minimise the investment payback period for the company. Boiler options to convert or replace the current boiler or to purchase an additional wood-fired boiler were also included. The model was based around the specific requirements of this particular meat plant but it could be adapted to suit other similar short rotation forestry, biomass utilisation schemes.

  10. A systematic review of the predictors of health service utilisation by adults with mental disorders in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Conal D; Baldwin, David S; Hopfe, Maren; Cieza, Alarcos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify variables that predict health service utilisation (HSU) by adults with mental disorders in the UK, and to determine the evidence level for these predictors. Design A narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed studies published after the year 2000. The search was conducted using four databases (ie, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus with full text, MEDLINE and EMBASE) and completed on 25 March 2014. Setting The majority of included studies were set in health services across primary, secondary, specialist and inpatient care. Some studies used data from household and postal surveys. Participants Included were UK-based studies that predicted HSU by adults with mental disorders. Participants had a range of mental disorders including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and dementia. Primary outcome A wide range of HSU outcomes were examined, including general practitioner (GP) contacts, medication usage, psychiatrist contacts, psychotherapy attendances, inpatient days, accident and emergency admissions and ‘total HSU’. Results Taking into account study quality, 28 studies identified a range of variables with good preliminary evidence supporting their ability to predict HSU. Of these variables, comorbidity, personality disorder, age (heterogeneous age ranges), neurotic symptoms, female gender, a marital status of divorced, separated or widowed, non-white ethnicity, high previous HSU and activities of daily living, were associated with increased HSU. Moreover, good preliminary evidence was found for associations of accessing a primary care psychological treatment service and medication use with decreased HSU. Conclusions The findings can inform decisions about which variables might be used to derive mental health clusters in ‘payment by results’ systems in the UK. The findings also support the need to investigate whether combining broad diagnoses with care pathways is an effective method for mental health clustering, and the need for research to further examine the association between mental health clusters and HSU. PMID:26150142

  11. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Melba; Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia , Barcelona, 08028 ; Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A.

    2012-02-15

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  12. Detection of Sialic Acid-Utilising Bacteria in a Caecal Community Batch Culture Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Young, Wayne; Egert, Markus; Bassett, Shalome A.; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health. PMID:25816158

  13. Detection of sialic acid-utilising bacteria in a caecal community batch culture using RNA-based stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Young, Wayne; Egert, Markus; Bassett, Shalome A; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health. PMID:25816158

  14. Utilising Six Sigma for Improving Pass Percentage of Students: A Technical Institute Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushik, Prabhakar; Khanduja, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Service sector accounts for a substantial share in Indian economy and among the service industries, education sector is emerging as a major commercial activity in the nation. Globalization, growing competition among institutions, emergence of new technologies, changing socio-economic profiles of nations and knowledge driven economies have created…

  15. Endothelin-1 directly modulates its own secretion: studies utilising the cell immunoblot technique.

    PubMed

    Evans, John J; Youssef, Alber H; Yandle, Timothy G; Lewis, Lynley K; Nicholls, M Gary

    2003-05-15

    Endothelin-1 is an important factor in vasoregulation and circulating levels of the peptide are increased in a number of cardiovascular disorders. However, control of endothelin-1 secretion is only sketchily understood. The possibility that endothelin-1 influences its own release was investigated. A cell immunoblot method, which can detect local secretion of peptide from individual human vascular endothelial cells, was employed. Cells were dispersed onto a protein-binding membrane. Endothelin-1 in cells or secreted and adhering to the protein-binding membrane outside the cells was detected using immunohistochemical techniques. The numbers of cells that contained endothelin-1 and secreted endothelin-1 were counted after the cells had been incubated in control conditions, or with added endothelin-1, angiotensin-II, or endothelin receptor antagonists, bosentan and BQ788. Endothelin-1 and angiotensin-II increased the numbers of cells that secreted endothelin-1. On the other hand, bosentan and BQ788 caused a reduction in the numbers of endothelin-1-secreting cells. These results indicate that human endothelial cells contain a pathway by which endothelin-1 induces its own release. The receptor antagonists, bosentan and BQ788, inhibited basal secretion of endothelin-1. PMID:12686474

  16. Intranet-Based Learning: A One-Year Study of Student Utilisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herson, Katie; Sosabowski, M. H.; Lloyd, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the undergraduate utilization and evaluation of an Intranet learning resource developed at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Brighton (United Kingdom). Topics include advantages of Intranets over the Internet, including software licensing and confidentiality; barriers to implementation; and future proposals. (LRW)

  17. Tracing diatom utilisation, and its fate, in Lake Baikal, Siberia: the application of silicon isotope geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzo, V. N.; Swann, G. E. A.; Mackay, A. W.; Roberts, S.; Vologina, E.; Sturm, M.; Horstwood, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The global biogeochemical cycling of silicon (Si) is intrinsically linked to the fate of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere. To date, most research has focused on the oceanic cycling of Si over glacial/interglacial timescales although, the importance of continental Si cycling (via abiotic and biotic processes) is now being addressed. Especially as the significant potential for Si sequestration in continental lake systems has been recently highlighted [1]. We present the first large-scale silicon isotope (?30SiDSi) profiles of Lake Baikal's water column, where a comparison between both pre- and post-diatom growing season ?30SiDSi signatures are made. Samples were collected along a water profile (surface to 180 m) at numerous sites across Lake Baikal, with deep-water endmembers at 400 m and c. 1,500 m. All isotopic analyses were conducted on a Neptune + Multi-Collector ICP-MS at NIGL, UK, using wet plasma mode with Mg doping of samples and standard-sample-standard bracketing. Analytical reproducibility is 0.12‰ (2?) and blanks are <1% of signal intensity. DSi concentrations of March water surface samples (South Basin only) range between c. 0.74 and 1.23 ppm while those collected in August are all <0.70 ppm, following seasonal biological utilisation. In turn Chlorophyll a values from South Basin profiles in August are greater (between c. 1.46 to 3.18 mg l-1) than March surface values (<0.70 mg l-1). Indeed, March ?30SiDSi surface values range between c. +2.16 and +2.45‰ while summer surface values range between c. +2.20 and +2.84‰, reflecting residual pool depletion after summer biological utilisation. ?30SiDSi values are >1‰ more enriched than dominant lake water inflows again reflecting diatom Si uptake. Annual open sediment traps deployed down Lake Baikal's water column yield ?30Sidiatom signatures of +1.25‰, which suggests that down-column diatom dissolution is minimal. Applying the diatom fractionation factor of -1.1‰[2] and adopting a closed system model approach, these data are applied to mass balance diatom utilisation in Lake Baikal. [1]Frings at al, 2014. Biogeochemistry, 117, 255-277; [2]De La Rocha, et al. 1997. GCA, 61, 5051-5056.

  18. Bactériophages et phagothérapie: utilisation de virus naturels pour traiter les infections bactériennes

    PubMed Central

    Ravat, F.; Jault, P.; Gabard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’utilisation des bactériophages, prédateurs naturels des bactéries, est une technique pionnière efficace de lutte contre les infections bactériennes. Tombée dans l’oubli depuis un demi-siècle du coté occidental de l’ex-rideau de fer, elle fait toujours partie de l’arsenal thérapeutique des pays de l’ex-Europe de l’Est, au point de constituer une arme de choix dans la politique de santé publique de ces pays. l’émergence de bactéries multirésistantes et le risque de revenir à l’ère pré-antibiotique ont fait ressortir la phagothérapie de l’oubli injuste auquel elle avait été confinée. la biologie et la place du bactériophage dans la nature sont décrites ici. les tenants et les aboutissants de la phagothérapie et les conditions de son retour sur le devant de la scène sont explicitées. PMID:26668557

  19. L’utilisation des probiotiques au sein de la population pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Plus on en sait sur l’importance du microbiome intestinal pour la santé humaine, plus on s’intéresse aux bienfaits potentiels des probiotiques. Les probiotiques sont des microorganismes vivants qui, lorsqu’on les consomme en quantité suffisante, ont un effet sur la santé de l’hôte en en altérant la microflore. Les probiotiques sont administrés en prophylaxie ou pour le traitement de divers problèmes de santé. Le présent document de principes définit l’évolution et le rôle de la microflore intestinale et s’attarde sur les données probantes étayant l’utilisation de divers probiotiques pour traiter des troubles courants en pédiatrie, tels que la diarrhée, l’atopie, les troubles intestinaux fonctionnels et l’entérocolite nécrosante.

  20. The possibilities of utilisation of heat from Tattapani Geothermal field, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarolkar, P.B.; Pitale, U.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Tattapani Geothermal field produces + 1800 1pm thermal water of 100{degrees}C from five production wells. The hot water production can sustain electricity production of 300 kWe by using a binary cycle power plant. The heat energy of effluent water from power plant can be utilized for direct heat utilization on horticulture, aquaculture, cold storage, silviculture etc; to augment the economics of the power plant be spot can be developed as a centre for tourist attraction by constructing botanical park, greenhouse, geyser show and crocodile farm. The direct heat utilization shemes can be planned in cascading order to achieve maximum utility of thermal water. Additional deep drilling is essential for optimum commercial utilization of the Geothermal energy. The direct heat utilisation shemes along with binary cycle power plant may help in development of the geothermal energy and boosting the economy of this region.

  1. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR. PMID:16115724

  2. Ethnic Factors in Mental Health Service Utilisation among People with Intellectual Disability in High-Income Countries: Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. Aims: To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income…

  3. Sur les extensions et les utilisations en Informatique d'un resultat Mathematique : Les polyn^omes d'Ehrhart

    E-print Network

    Genaud, Stéphane

    Sur les extensions et les utilisations en Informatique d'un resultat Mathematique : Les polyn^omes d'Ehrhart Philippe Clauss Les polyn^omes d'Ehrhart constituent un resultat mathematique important domaine d'investigations, tant en mathematique, permettant d'interessantes extensions, qu'en informatique

  4. Impact of Noncommunicable Disease Multimorbidity on Healthcare Utilisation and Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures in Middle-Income Countries: Cross Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Tayu; Hamid, Fozia; Pati, Sanghamitra; Atun, Rifat; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs) has grown rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where populations are ageing, with rising prevalence of multimorbidity (more than two co-existing chronic conditions) that will significantly increase pressure on already stretched health systems. We assess the impact of NCD multimorbidity on healthcare utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditures in six middle-income countries: China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Methods Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from adult participants (>18 years) in the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) 2007–2010. We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic correlates of multimorbidity. Association between the number of NCDs and healthcare utilisation as well as out-of-pocket spending was assessed using logistic, negative binominal and log-linear models. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity in the adult population varied from 3?9% in Ghana to 33?6% in Russia. Number of visits to doctors in primary and secondary care rose substantially for persons with increasing numbers of co-existing NCDs. Multimorbidity was associated with more outpatient visits in China (coefficient for number of NCD = 0?56, 95% CI = 0?46, 0?66), a higher likelihood of being hospitalised in India (AOR = 1?59, 95% CI = 1?45, 1?75), higher out-of-pocket expenditures for outpatient visits in India and China, and higher expenditures for hospital visits in Russia. Medicines constituted the largest proportion of out-of-pocket expenditures in persons with multimorbidity (88?3% for outpatient, 55?9% for inpatient visit in China) in most countries. Conclusion Multimorbidity is associated with higher levels of healthcare utilisation and greater financial burden for individuals in middle-income countries. Our study supports the WHO call for universal health insurance and health service coverage in LMICs, particularly for vulnerable groups such as the elderly with multimorbidity. PMID:26154083

  5. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Significant Contribution of Methyl/Methanol-Utilising Methanogenic Pathway in a Subsurface Biogas Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Str?po?, Dariusz; Ashby, Matt; Wood, Ladonna; Levinson, Rick; Huizinga, Bradley

    Methanogenesis is considered the main terminal process of subsurface anaerobic organic-matter degradation. Previous geochemical studies have reported CO2-reducing and acetoclastic methanogenesis as the predominant subsurface methanogenic pathways for primary and secondary biogenic gas generation (i.e. in oil biodegradation or coalbed methane settings). In lab-scale experiments and microbiology literature, however, methanogens have been shown to be able to utilise a wider variety of substrates, typically containing methyl groups, i.e. dimethyl sulphide (DMS), methyl amines (e.g. TMA), formate, and methanol. Additional methanogenic substrates include CO and other primary alcohols and secondary alcohols (Whitman et al., 2006; Fig. 25.1). Here, we describe a volumetrically important natural biogenic gas field in which these methylotrophic pathways have contributed significantly to biomethane formation.

  6. Tolerance of pentose utilising yeast to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol fermentations follow traditional beverage fermentations where the yeast is exposed to adverse conditions such as oxidative stress. Lignocellulosic bioethanol fermentations involve the conversion of pentose and hexose sugars into ethanol. Environmental stress conditions such as osmotic stress and ethanol stress may affect the fermentation performance; however, oxidative stress as a consequence of metabolic output can also occur. However, the effect of oxidative stress on yeast with pentose utilising capabilities has yet to be investigated. Results Assaying for the effect of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on Candida, Pichia and Scheffersomyces spp. has demonstrated that these yeast tolerate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in a manner consistent with that demonstrated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia guillermondii appears to be more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress when compared to Candida shehatae, Candida succiphila or Scheffersomyces stipitis. Conclusions Sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress increased in the presence of minimal media; however, addition of amino acids and nucleobases was observed to increase tolerance. In particular adenine increased tolerance and methionine reduced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24636079

  7. Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.

    PubMed

    Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. PMID:21550223

  8. Mise à jour sur l’utilisation clinique de la buprénorphine

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Examiner les données scientifiques actuelles sur la buprénorphine-naloxone pour le traitement des troubles liés aux opioïdes, en insistant sur le contexte des soins primaires. Qualité des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE et la base de données Cochrane des synthèses critiques. Les données probantes sont surtout de niveau I. Message principal La buprénorphine est un agoniste partiel des récepteurs ? des opioïdes et un antagoniste des récepteurs ? des opioïdes ayant une longue demi-vie et un potentiel moins grand que la méthadone d’entraîner un usage abusif. Pour une désintoxication, la buprénorphine est au moins équivalente à la méthadone et supérieure à la clonidine. Comme thérapie de substitution, la buprénorphine est clairement supérieure au placebo. La méthadone comporte de légers avantages en ce qui a trait à la rétention en thérapie, mais une approche par étape en utilisant initialement la buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi efficace. Il est possible, sécuritaire et efficace de recourir à la buprénorphine en milieu de soins primaires. On peut obtenir l’autorisation de prescrire de la buprénorphine après avoir suivi une formation en ligne. Conclusion La buprénorphine est un agent sécuritaire et efficace pour la désintoxication en cas de dépendance aux opioïdes. Elle peut servir d’agent de première intention dans les programmes de thérapie de substitution, en raison de son potentiel plus faible d’usage abusif en comparaison d’autres opioïdes. Son efficacité en milieux de soins primaires en fait un outil thérapeutique utile pour les médecins de famille.

  9. Differential utilisation of health facilities and services for childbirth in Peninsula Malaysia--the ethnic factor.

    PubMed

    Arhsat, H; Tan Boon Ann; Tey Nai Peng

    1985-12-01

    The ethnic factor in the differential utilization of the health facilities in Peninsular Malaysia is examined. Data from the Malaysian Population and Family Survey 1984/85 show that about 45% of the births were delivered in the government hospitals, 15% in the private hospitals/clinics and the remaining 40% were delivered at home. Utilisation of these facilities varies greatly by ethnicity. The Malays have the greatest tendency to choose home delivery (60%), as opposed to institutional delivery (40%). Although urbanization and better socioeconomic conditions have led to an increase in institutional delivery, social customs continue to exert an influence on their behavior in favor of home delivery. Almost all Chinese babies are delivered in hospitals or clinics, with those from the higher social class showing a tendency to resort to the use of private hospitals/clinics for delivery. Indians were the most frequent users of government hospital across nearly all the social strata. While institutional deliveries were all attended by trained personnel, about 71% of the home deliveries were attended by government midwives and 24% by village midwives or other untrained persons, and only 5% were delivered by a doctor or a nurse. PMID:12314737

  10. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a suitable technique in the study of the materials used in waterproofing of archaeological amphorae.

    PubMed

    Font, J; Salvadó, N; Butí, S; Enrich, J

    2007-08-13

    The resinous materials from the interior surfaces of two Roman and one Iberian amphora were studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results were then compared with those obtained by synchrotron radiation-FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The FTIR spectra obtained by the technique of KBr micropellets, prepared directly with the materials scraped from the amphora without any further sample preparation, provided enough information to establish their diterpenoic nature, and even to differentiate between the two main materials employed for waterproofing purposes, pitch and wood tar. Methyl dehydroabietic acid (DHAM) is the main chemical marker that allows a distinction to be made between these two materials. Pitch and wood tar were prepared in the laboratory heating pine resin and resinous pine wood, respectively. These resinous waterproofing materials were compared with the coatings extracted from the amphorae. The samples whose direct FTIR spectra showed a signal at approximately 1740 cm(-1), attributed to a carbonyl group of methyl ester, presented as well a peak of DHAM in the GC-MS chromatogram of the neutral fraction of their extract. Samples without this signal in their spectra did not present DHAM in their chromatogram. This work studies, for the first time, waterproofing of an amphora attributed to the Iberian culture. PMID:17693315

  11. Investigation of pulse oximeter failure rates during artificial hypoperfusion utilising a custom made multimode pulse oximetery sensor.

    PubMed

    Shafique, M; Kyriacou, P A; Pal, S K

    2011-01-01

    Pulse oximetry utilises the technique of photoplethysmography (PPG) to estimate arterial oxygen saturation values (SpO2). In poorly perfused tissues, SpO2 readings may be compromised due to the poor quality of the PPG signals. In order to investigate further the threshold where pulse oximetry fails to produce accurate SpO2 values, we have developed a custom made multimode finger pulse oximetry probe that operates in conventional, reflectance and transmittance mode independently and also in a combined mode called transreflectance. Experiments on twenty healthy volunteers undergoing induced artificial hypoperfusion utilising a brachial blood pressure cuff were performed in order to investigate the possible threshold of failure to accurately estimate SpO2 values from all pulse oximetry modes. The results suggest that the transreflectance pulse oximeter endures more in estimating accurately SpO2 values when compared with the other two custom made pulse oximeters and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. PMID:22255303

  12. Investigation of Matlab® as Platform in Navigation and Control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle Utilising an Omnivision Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed. PMID:25157548

  13. Investigation of Matlab® as platform in navigation and control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle utilising an omnivision sensor.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed. PMID:25157548

  14. Première expérience de l'utilisation du Misoprostol comme soin après avortement (SAA) à Libreville, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Mayi-Tsonga, Sosthène; Minkobame, Ulysse; Mbila, Arielle; Assoumou, Pamphile; Diop, Ayisha; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Une étude a été menée afin de déterminer le taux d'acceptabilité de 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale comme traitement de première intention de l'avortement incomplet et de préciser le taux d'avortement complet ou vacuité utérine. Méthodes Les femmes éligibles avaient un diagnostic clinique d'avortement incomplet avec une taille utérine inférieure à celle d'un utérus de 12 semaines d'aménorrhées (SA). Chacune a reçu 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale. Les femmes ont été revues après une semaine. A J7, celles qui n'avaient pas complètement expulsé ont eu le choix entre une nouvelle consultation de suivi à J14 et la pratique d'une évacuation chirurgicale immédiate. Résultats 145 patientes ont été éligibles et ont toutes accepté la méthode (100%). L’âge moyen était de 25,9 ± 6 ans. A J7, 120 patientes étaient guéries (85,7%). A J14, le taux de réussitea été de 95,7% soit 134 patientes guéries. Les patientes guéries ont déclaré être très satisfaites (57,5%), satisfaites (41,8%) et insatisfaite (0,7%). Au total,128 femmes (95,5%) ont dit être prêtes à utiliser de nouveau le misoprostol comme méthode d’évacuation utérine en cas d'avortement incomplet. Conclusion L’étude démontre que le 400µg misoprostol par voie sublinguale nous permet de prendre en charge d'une manière adéquate l'avortement incomplet surtout dans les pays à faible ressource et notamment dans les structures sanitaires de première ligne ou éloignées. PMID:25469194

  15. Can silicon isotopes be used to assess anthropogenic impacts and nutrient utilisation in Lake Baikal, Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G. E. A.; Panizzo, V. N.; Mackay, A. W.; Roberts, S.; Vologina, E.; Horstwood, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Silicon isotope geochemistry (28Si, 29Si, 30Si) represents a growing field in Earth Sciences providing information to constrain and understand biogeochemical cycling on land and in oceans. Here we present records of ?30Si (30Si/28Si) from the Lake Baikal drainage basin in central Siberia to understand silicon cycling through the dominant river tributaries and into Lake Baikal itself, the world's deepest and most voluminous lake containing one fifth of all freshwater not stored in glaciers and ice caps.Waters were collected along an upstream transect for the five dominant Lake Baikal inflows as well as from the Selenga Delta which account for >50% of the annual riverine flow to the lake. Samples for dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations and silicon isotopic signatures (?30SiDSi) were filtered and acidified in the field with isotopic analyses conducted on a Neptune + Multi-Collector ICP-MS using wet plasma mode with Mg doping of samples and standard-sample-standard bracketing. Analytical reproducibility is 0.11‰ (2?) and blanks are <1% of signal intensity. The DSi concentration of all river inflow samples varies from c. 2.5-6.3 ppm, which contrasts with concentrations of < 1ppm from the Angara River, the lake's only outflow. Combined with river ?30SiDSi values of c. + 0.94 to +1.52‰ and lake water and outflow values of c. +2.50‰, the results show significant (up to 60%) biological utilisation of silicon entering the lake.With the Lake Baikal having been designated a World Heritage Site since 1996, due to its high level of biological endemicity, the work in combination with sediment cores from the lake provides an insight into the transportation and fate of silicon in the basin and an assessment of how climate change and expanding anthropogenic activities in the region including urbanisation, deforestation, agriculture and mining have impacted biogeochemical cycling.

  16. Utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement de santé

    PubMed Central

    Brisseau, Lionel; Bussières, Jean-François; Lebel, Denis; Atkinson, Suzanne; Robinette, Louise; Fortin, Sylvie; Lemay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Il existe peu de données sur les conséquences de l’utilisation des cabinets automatisés décentralisés (CAD) en établissements de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive de la conformité des pratiques par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées dans le cadre de l’implantation de CAD. L’objectif principal de l’étude est d’évaluer la conformité globale et celle de chaque processus du circuit du médicament. L’étude se déroule au sein du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère–enfant de 500 lits. À partir des lignes directrices portant sur l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD de l’Institute for Safe Medication Practice (aux États-Unis) (2008) et de son outil d’autoévaluation (2009), nous avons évalué la conformité de la pratique à 30 jours et à 120 jours après l’implantation. Résultats : Nous avons procédé de novembre 2009 à avril 2010 à l’implantation de sept stations de CAD au sein du CHU Sainte-Justine. Le profil de conformité est passé de 66 % à 74 % de janvier à avril 2010. Pour chaque processus relatif à l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD, nous présentons une brève description des critères ainsi que les éléments de non-conformité liés à la technologie ou aux aspects organisationnels. Pour chaque élément de non-conformité, nous avons déterminé les actions requises auprès du fabricant afin de modifier l’équipement (c. à .d. aspects technologiques) et auprès de l’établissement afin de modifier les modalités d’utilisation (aspects organisationnels) en précisant le ou les processus impliqués. Conclusion : Cette étude décrit la conformité des pratiques au CHU Sainte-Justine par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées par l’Institute for Safe Medication Practices. L’utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement peut aider à guider les actions tant sur le plan technologique qu’organisationnel. PMID:22479039

  17. Without gaps - 3D photo-reconstruction of gully headcuts by combined utilisation of UAV and close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, Claudia; Karrasch, Pierre; Eltner, Anette

    2015-04-01

    Gully erosion is a worldwide phenomenon causing permanent degradation of fertile land. Especially in the Mediterranean, gullies contribute to high soil loss rates which necessitate multi-temporal and high resolution monitoring. Gullies naturally exhibit complex surface morphologies and hence are difficult to measure. Images acquired airborne or terrestrial are possible data sources for digital gully modelling due to availing of photogrammetric methods to achieve 3D models. In this regard unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) allow for low cost, flexible and frequent areal gully monitoring, but exhibit limitations as a result of the birds-eye view - i.e. at steep sidewalls and overhanging areas. Terrestrial images offer advantages at local assessments and can be obtained spontaneously as needed. However, images acquired from ground are not able to ensure areal coverage. To integrate the advantages of both data sources and to overcome the above mentioned limitations, this study introduces a methodological approach of combined utilisation of nadir UAV data and oblique terrestrial images for 3D photo reconstruction. Two gully headcuts in Andalusia (Spain) are analysed to confirm the suitability of the synergetic data usage. The results show that the UAV model of the gully, generated from images from flying heights of 15 m, implies inconsistency of data at slope gradients of 50 to 60 °. To eliminate these gaps additional terrestrial images can be integrated, which are geo-referenced solely using information of the already calculated 3D model and orthophoto from the UAV images. Referencing errors of the terrestrial point clouds are fixed by applying fine registration. The final merged digital gully model reveals a resolution of 0.5 cm and an accuracy of 1 cm. Concluding, high density point clouds based on the fusion of UAV and terrestrial image data show a significant improvement of 3D photo-reconstruction of two gully headcuts compared to detached processing of single data sources. This allows for new insights into gully morphology because comprehensive gully models can be calculated with high spatial resolution and at frequent intervals, which enables multi-temporal monitoring and 3D volume change computations.

  18. Sujet : Recherche d'information distribue : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr

    E-print Network

    Grigoras, .Romulus

    Sujet : Recherche d'information distribuée : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr Ce projet s'inscrit dans le cadre des moteurs de

  19. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The wide-ranging utilisation of Rapakivi Granite in St Petersburg is typified by the the famous Alexander Column, and 114 stone columns of St Isaac's Cathedralas well as the pedestal of the Nicholas I monument, and portals and basements of buildings of the Admiralty, General Staff, Senate and Synod. The stone is also frequently seen among pavement slabs and in parapets of embankments and bridges around the city. This list of examples where Rapakivi Granite has been used could be expanded further. All Rapakivi Granites used in the buildings of St.Petersburg were quarried from the so-called Vyborg massif. At present it has been found that the massif occupies an area of about 18 000 km2. In the past granite of the Vyborg massif was worked from several quarries in the vicinity of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) in Finland for use in St Peterburg. The best known granite quarries are at Piterlaks (Piuterlahti) and Gimmekyul (Hämeenkylä). Sometimes Rapakivi Granite form Finland differs in appearance from typical varieties. Thus columns of a classical portal in the house at N 7 in Pochtamtskaya Street are hewn from this greyish variety. Other examples are the plinth of the General Staff and Trade Store buildings. After the 1960s varieties from the Leningrad district, and Korosten (Ukraine) massifs were used in St Petersburg. Today it is possible to find examples of Rapakivi Granite from Finland in cities in the USA, South Africa, United Kingdom and Germany. It is a long used stone as demonstrated by its cultural heritage. It is also used as an ornamental or decorative stone in modern architecture. References: 1) Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English). 2) Tutakova, A.Ya., Romanovskiy, A.Z., Bulakh, A.G., and Leer, V.I. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p. (In Russian). 3) Bulakh, A. G. Stone Town Guide, St Petersburg, 1-5. URL: [PDF] stone - GTK - Projects projects.gtk.fi/export/.../Bulakh_Stone_Guide 4) Paavo, H, Selonen, O, Luodes, H. The Wiborg Granite Batholith. The Main Production Area for Granite in Finland. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 5. Springer. 2015. P. 259-262. 5) Bulakh, A. G. Ornamental Stone in the History of St Petersburg Architecture. Geological Society, London, 2015. SP407. Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones.

  20. Factors associated with awareness and utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Burroway, Rebekah; Reed, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Examine factors associated with awareness and active utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention (CMI) to address HIV risk in female sex workers (FSWs) in a context characterised by multiple forms of sex work. Design Data came from two rounds, conducted in Spring 2006 and Spring 2007, of a serial cross-sectional survey of FSWs (n=812 in round 1, n=673 in round 2) recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Descriptive statistics compared characteristics of programme aware and unaware FSWs and from among the aware, to characterise active program users. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with programme exposure. Results Between Rounds 1 and 2, programme awareness increased from 41.8% to 69.6% of respondents, and active utilisation (among those who were aware) increased from 49.2% to 61.0%. Street-based FSWs were under-represented and brothel-based FSWs overrepresented in both groups and rounds. Geographic proximity and literacy were associated with programme awareness but not utilisation. The most important factor associated with both forms of intervention exposure across rounds was willingness to be identified in public as a FSWs (OR 2.2–4.8). Conclusion Public visibility is a critical component of CMIs. Such interventions should develop strategies for involving FSWs that allow them to remain invisible, while also working to reduce the threat associated with public visibility. In contexts where sex work occurs in multiple venues, it is important to develop CMIs that include and address the needs of FSWs working in them all. PMID:20167735

  1. Utilising established SDL-screening methods as a tool for the functional genomic characterisation of model and non-model organisms.

    PubMed

    Usher, Jane; Thomas, Graham; Haynes, Ken

    2015-12-01

    The trend for large-scale genetic and phenotypic screens has revealed a wealth of information on biological systems. A major challenge is understanding how genes function and putative roles in networks. The majority of current gene knowledge is garnered from studies utilising the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that synthetic dosage lethal genetic array methodologies can be used to study genetic networks in other yeasts, namely the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata, which has limited forward genetic tools, due to the lack of 'natural' mating. We performed two SDL screens in S. cerevisiae, overexpressing the transcriptional regulator UME6 as bait in the first screen and its C. glabrata ortholog CAGL0F05357g in the second. Analysis revealed that SDL maps share 204 common interactors, with 10 genetic interactions unique to C. glabrata indicating a level of genetic rewiring, indicative of linking genotype to phenotype in fungal pathogens. This was further validated by incorporating our results into the global genetic landscape map of the cell from Costanzo et al. to identify common and novel gene attributes. This data demonstrated the utility large data sets and more robust analysis made possible by interrogating exogenous genes in the context of the eukaryotic global genetic landscape. PMID:26472754

  2. The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility and increase C stocks of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines, abandoned industrial zones, degraded natural areas and exhausted landfill sites. Such land management options may serve as a precondition for landscaping and reclamation of degraded areas, reforestation or agriculture. In fact, previous results have shown that compost application to the capping layer of a landfill covering soil significantly enhanced the fertility, evidenced by an improvement in soil structure, porosity and water holding capacity, an increase in the relative proportion of recalcitrant C pools and an increase in soil nutrient content, microbial activity and soil microbial biomass. Proper management of MWC requires a capacity to understand and predict their impacts on C dynamics in the field subsequent to application. Although numerous works deal with the effects of compost application in agricultural systems, little is known on how land rehabilitation practices effect C dynamics in such relatively young soil systems. The estimation of SOC pools and their potential turnover rates in land reclamation activities is fundamental to our understanding of terrestrial C dynamics. In the framework of a long-term field experiment, the objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal and spatial dynamics of compost-derived organic matter with respect to the major processes involved in organic matter cycling in an anthropogenic landfill covering soil originally amended with a single dose of MWC. We investigated long-term organic C dynamics in such systems by collecting samples at different depths over a 10 year chronosequence subsequent to compost application to the top layer of the landfill covering soil. Variations in the stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of the soil samples show that even after 10 years, amended topsoils were significantly enriched in compost-derived organic matter, confirming that the utilisation of such organic inputs in land reclamation activities has the potential to enhance the C stocks of degraded areas. The addition of compost to the superficial layer also resulted in a significant input of soluble organic compounds subject to leaching along the soil profile. Sorption isotherms for compost-derived water-extractable organic matter onto mineral materials used for landfill covering suggest that sorptive preservation was primarily responsible for the increase in C content and the shift in the C isotopic signature to values similar to that of the applied compost, in the deeper soil horizons over the 10 year experimental period. This was also confirmed by the accumulation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, analysis for non-cellulosic carbohydrates in soils samples and their respective water-extractable fractions suggest that a proportion of compost-derived, labile organic matter fraction is leached through the soil profile and potentially lost from the soil system, particularly in the years immediately after compost application.

  3. Utilisation of Blood Components in Trauma Surgery: A Single-Centre, Retrospective Analysis before and after the Implementation of an Educative PBM Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Kösters, Clemens; Franz, Dominik; Buddendick, Hubert; Borowski, Matthias; Juhra, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Sibrowski, Walter; Raschke, Michael J.; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our single-centre retrospective study presented here is to further analyse the utilisation of allogeneic blood components within a 5-year observation period (2009-2013) in trauma surgery (15,457 patients) under the measures of an educational patient blood management (PBM) initiative. Methods After the implementation of the PBM initiative in January 2012, the Institute of Transfusion Medicine und Transplantation Immunology educates surgeons and nurses at the Department of Trauma Surgery to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions. A standardised reporting system was used to document the utilisation of blood components carefully for the most frequent diagnoses and surgical interventions in trauma surgery. These measures served as basis for the implementation of an interdisciplinary systematic exchange of information to foster decision-making processes in favour of patient blood management. Results Since January 2012, the proportion of patients who received a transfusion as well as the number of transfused red blood cell (RBC) (7.3%/6.4%; p = 0.02), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) (1.7%/1.3%; p < 0.05) and platelet (PLT) (1.0%/0.5%; p < 0.001) units were reduced as a result of our PBM initiative. However, among the transfused patients, the number of administered RBC, FFP and PLT units did not decrease significantly. Overall, patients who did not receive transfusions were younger than transfused patients (p = 0.001). The subgroup with the highest probability of blood transfusion administered included patients with intensive care and long-term ventilation (before/after implementation of PBM: RBC 81.5%/75.9%; FFP 33.3%/20.4%; PLT 24.1%/13.0%). Only a total of 60 patients of 531 patients suffering multiple traumas were massively transfused (before/after implementation of PBM: RBC 55.6%/49.8%; FFP 28.4%/20.4%; PLT 17.6%/8.9%). Conclusion According to our educational PBM initiative, at least the proportion of trauma patients who received allogeneic blood transfusions could be reduced significantly. However, in case of blood transfusions, the total consumption of RBC, FFP and PLT units remained stable in both time periods. This phenomenon might indicate that the actual need of blood transfusions rather depends on the severity of trauma-related blood loss, the coagulopathy rates or the complexity of the surgical intervention which mainly determines the intra-operative blood loss. Taken together, educational training sessions and systematic reporting systems are suitable measures to avoid unnecessary allogeneic blood transfusions and to continuously improve their restrictive application. PMID:26019703

  4. Utilisation of health services and geography: deconstructing regional differences in barriers to facility-based delivery in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Andrew; Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-03-01

    While established that geographical inaccessibility is a key barrier to the utilisation of health services, it remains unknown whether disparities are driven only by limited access to these services, or are also attributable to health behaviour. Significant disparities exist in health outcomes and the coverage of many critical health services between the mountains region of Nepal and the rest of the country, yet the principal factors driving these regional disparities are not well understood. Using national representative data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the extent to which observable factors explain the overall differences in the utilisation of maternal health services. We apply nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca-type decomposition methods to quantify the effect that differences in measurable characteristics have on the regional coverage gap in facility-based delivery. The mean coverage of facility-based deliveries was 18.6 and 36.3 % in the mountains region and the rest of Nepal, respectively. Between 54.8 and 74.1 % of the regional coverage gap was explained by differences in observed characteristics. Factors influencing health behaviours (proxied by mothers' education, TV viewership and tobacco use, and household wealth) and subjective distance to the health facility were the major factors, contributing between 52.9 and 62.5 % of the disparity. Mothers' birth history was also noteworthy. Policies simultaneously addressing access and health behaviours appear necessary to achieve greater coverage and better health outcomes for women and children in isolated areas. PMID:24927787

  5. Progrès récents dans l'utilisation de la Chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse pour la détermination des propriétés acide-base des surfaces solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papirer, E.; Brendlé, E.

    1998-01-01

    Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) is a method well suited for the study of divided solids, but also of fibres. In this paper, the principles of IGC, its advantages such as ease and rapidity of measurement, but also limitations due essentially to the energetic heterogeneity of the solid surfaces are discussed. Finally, a new procedure allowing to estimate the acidity and basicity of the surface involving topology concepts of the molecules used to probe the surface is presented. Experimental results of the Laboratory, but also results extracted from the literature concerning silica, titanium dioxide, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ethylene) fibers, are taken to verify the proposed method. La chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse (CGI) s'avère comme une méthode de choix pour l'étude des solides divisés, mais aussi de fibres. Après avoir rappelé quelques principes de base de la CGI, les avantages de la méthode comme la facilité de mise en oeuvre, sa rapidité..., nous soulignerons ses limites qui sont essentiellement à attribuer à l'hétérogénéité énergétique des surfaces solides. Finalement, nous décrirons une nouvelle approche de l'acidité et de la basicité de surface grâce à l'utilisation des concepts de topologie des molécules employées pour sonder la surface. Des résultats expérimentaux obtenus au Laboratoire, mais aussi tirés de la littérature et concernant la silice, l'oxyde de titane, la poly(méthacrylate de méthyle) et les fibres de poly(éthylène), permettent d'illustrer la pertinence de la méthode proposée.

  6. Healthcare provider perspectives on barriers to HIV-care access and utilisation among Latinos living with HIV in the US-Mexico border

    PubMed Central

    Servin, Argentina E.; Muñoz, Fátima A.; Zúñiga, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Latinos living with HIV residing in the US-Mexico border region frequently seek care on both sides of the border. Given this fact, a border health perspective to understanding barriers to care is imperative to improve patient health outcomes. This qualitative study describes and compares experiences and perceptions of Mexican and US HIV care providers regarding barriers to HIV care access for Latino patients living in the US-Mexico border region. In 2010, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with HIV care providers in Tijuana (n = 10) and San Diego (n = 9). We identified important similarities and differences between Mexican and US healthcare provider perspectives on HIV care access and barriers to service utilisation. Similarities included the fact that HIV-positive Latino patients struggle with access to ART medication, mental health illness, substance abuse and HIV-related stigma. Differences included Mexican provider perceptions of medication shortages and US providers feeling that insurance gaps influenced medication access. Differences and similarities have important implications for cross-border efforts to coordinate health services for patients who seek care in both countries. PMID:24592920

  7. Merging and scoring molecular interactions utilising existing community standards: tools, use-cases and a case study

    PubMed Central

    Villaveces, J. M.; Jiménez, R. C.; Porras, P.; del-Toro, N.; Duesbury, M.; Dumousseau, M.; Orchard, S.; Choi, H.; Ping, P.; Zong, N. C.; Askenazi, M.; Habermann, B. H.; Hermjakob, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The evidence that two molecules interact in a living cell is often inferred from multiple different experiments. Experimental data is captured in multiple repositories, but there is no simple way to assess the evidence of an interaction occurring in a cellular environment. Merging and scoring of data are commonly required operations after querying for the details of specific molecular interactions, to remove redundancy and assess the strength of accompanying experimental evidence. We have developed both a merging algorithm and a scoring system for molecular interactions based on the proteomics standard initiative–molecular interaction standards. In this manuscript, we introduce these two algorithms and provide community access to the tool suite, describe examples of how these tools are useful to selectively present molecular interaction data and demonstrate a case where the algorithms were successfully used to identify a systematic error in an existing dataset. PMID:25652942

  8. Utilising Enterprise Risk Management Strategies to Develop a Governance and Operations Framework for a New Research Complex: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde-Smith, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise risk management strategies were used to develop a regulatory and operational framework for a new multi-partner Research Institute that will house up to 900 staff from four different institutions in Queensland, Australia. The Institute will operate in a business environment while functioning as a research resource for the higher…

  9. COMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1), Jrgen Hjstrup(2), Sren Larsen(2), Rebecca Barthelmie(2)

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    COMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1 Large offshore wind farms are being built in several countries in Europe. The economic viability of such projects depends on the favourable wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has

  10. Optimal cosmology from gravitational lensing: utilising the magnification and shear signals 

    E-print Network

    Duncan, Christopher Alexander James

    2015-07-01

    Gravitational lensing studies the distortions of a distant galaxy’s observed size, shape or flux due to the tidal bending of photons by matter between the source and observer. Such distortions can be used to infer knowledge ...

  11. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

  12. Utilising a Construct of Teacher Capacity to Examine National Curriculum Reform in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qinqiong; Stephens, Max

    2013-01-01

    This study involving 120 Australian and Chinese teachers introduces a construct of teacher capacity to analyse how teachers help students connect arithmetic learning and emerging algebraic thinking. Four criteria formed the basis of our construct of teacher capacity: knowledge of mathematics, interpretation of the intentions of official curriculum…

  13. The Applied Music Lesson: Teaching Gifted and Talented Students Utilising Principles of Comprehensive Musicianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavner, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive musicianship is a term used to describe the intradisciplinary study of music. The comprehensive musicianship approach is closely related to Gestalt psychology in that music is approached as a totality, with a concern for constituent parts and how they relate to the whole (Willoughby, 1971). The concept of integration is central to…

  14. Potentiel de l'utilisation des melanges hydrocarbures/alcools pour les moteurs a allumage commande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broustail, Guillaume

    For the past few years, the oil stock decrease encourages the different countries to increase their energy independence. Moreover, reducing the environmental impact of transportation became one of the priorities of our society. In this way, European emissions standards are stricter while several pollutants have been identified to have a negative impact on health and the environment. To answer this double problem, the use of alcohols biofuels in sparkignition engines is one the promising ways. The European Union have already taken a small step in that direction by allowing a maximum of 10% of ethanol into gasoline. As well as ethanol is already marketed, Biobutanol, a 2nd generation biofuel, appears as a serious candidate with a strong potential for a spark-ignition engines use. The objective of this dissertation is to study the potential of the iso-octane/butanol blends use in spark-ignition engines, in terms of performance and pollutants emissions. Moreover, these results are compared to iso-octane/ethanol blends. The heat release in spark-ignition engine is piloted for a part by laminar burning velocity. This characteristic was studied experimentally and numerically for different initial conditions (pressure and equivalence ratio) in a constant volume bomb. Then, the early flame kernel growth was studied in an spark-ignition single cylinder engine equipped with optical accesses. Those results were correlated with the results on the laminar burning velocity. Finally, regulated and non-regulated pollutants emissions and engine performance were investigated in a spark-ignition single cylinder engine. A decrease of most pollutant emissions was observed with both alcohols addition.

  15. Utilising a construct of teacher capacity to examine national curriculum reform in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinqiong; Stephens, Max

    2013-12-01

    This study involving 120 Australian and Chinese teachers introduces a construct of teacher capacity to analyse how teachers help students connect arithmetic learning and emerging algebraic thinking. Four criteria formed the basis of our construct of teacher capacity: knowledge of mathematics, interpretation of the intentions of official curriculum documents, understanding of students' thinking, and design of teaching. While these key elements connect to what other researchers refer to as mathematical knowledge for teaching, several differences are made clear. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that our construct was robust and effective in distinguishing between different levels of teacher capacity.

  16. Optimising dosing strategies of antibacterials utilising pharmacodynamic principles: impact on the development of resistance.

    PubMed

    DeRyke, C Andrew; Lee, Su Young; Kuti, Joseph L; Nicolau, David P

    2006-01-01

    Evolving antimicrobial resistance is of global concern. The impact of decreased susceptibility to current antibacterials coupled with the decline in the marketing of new agents with novel mechanisms of action places a tremendous burden on clinicians to appropriately use available agents. Optimising antibacterial dose administration through the use of pharmacodynamic principles can aid clinicians in accomplishing this task more effectively. Methods to achieve this include: continuous or prolonged infusion, or the use of smaller doses administered more frequently for the time-dependent beta-lactam agents; or higher, less frequent dose administration of the concentration-dependent aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Pharmacodynamic breakpoints, which are predictive of clinical and/or microbiological success in the treatment of infection, have been determined for many classes of antibacterials, including the fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and beta-lactams. Although surpassing these values may predict efficacy, it may not prevent the development of resistance. Recent studies seek to determine the pharmacodynamic breakpoints that prevent the development of resistance. Numerous studies to this point have determined these values in fluoroquinolones in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, among the other antibacterial classes, there is a lack of sufficient data. Additionally, a new term, the mutant prevention concentration, has been based on the concentrations above which resistance is unlikely to occur. Future work is needed to fully characterise these target concentrations that prevent resistance. PMID:16398565

  17. Cerebral glucose utilisation in hepatitis C virus infection-associated encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, Meike; Weissenborn, Karin; Arvanitis, Dimitrios; Bokemeyer, Martin; Goldbecker, Annemarie; Tountopoulou, Argyro; Peschel, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Hecker, Hartmut; Buchert, Ralph; Berding, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently show neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study aims to help clarify the neurochemical mechanisms behind these symptoms and to add further proof to the hypothesis that HCV may affect brain function. Therefore, 15 patients who reported increasing chronic fatigue, mood alterations, and/or cognitive decline since their HCV infection underwent neurologic and neuropsychological examination, magnetic resonance imaging, 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography of the brain, and single photon emission tomography of striatal dopamine and midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) availability. None of the patients had liver cirrhosis. Patients' data were compared with data of age-matched controls. In addition, regression analysis was performed between cognitive deficits, and mood and fatigue scores as dependent variables, and cerebral glucose metabolism, dopamine, or SERT availability as predictors. Patients showed significant cognitive deficits, significantly decreased striatal dopamine and midbrain SERT availability, and significantly reduced glucose metabolism in the limbic association cortex, and in the frontal, parietal, and superior temporal cortices, all of which correlated with dopamine transporter availability and psychometric results. Thus, the study provides further evidence of central nervous system affection in HCV-afflicted patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Data indicate alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission as a possible mechanism of cognitive decline. PMID:21629258

  18. Cerebral glucose utilisation in hepatitis C virus infection-associated encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Meike; Weissenborn, Karin; Arvanitis, Dimitrios; Bokemeyer, Martin; Goldbecker, Annemarie; Tountopoulou, Argyro; Peschel, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Hecker, Hartmut; Buchert, Ralph; Berding, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently show neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study aims to help clarify the neurochemical mechanisms behind these symptoms and to add further proof to the hypothesis that HCV may affect brain function. Therefore, 15 patients who reported increasing chronic fatigue, mood alterations, and/or cognitive decline since their HCV infection underwent neurologic and neuropsychological examination, magnetic resonance imaging, (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography of the brain, and single photon emission tomography of striatal dopamine and midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) availability. None of the patients had liver cirrhosis. Patients' data were compared with data of age-matched controls. In addition, regression analysis was performed between cognitive deficits, and mood and fatigue scores as dependent variables, and cerebral glucose metabolism, dopamine, or SERT availability as predictors. Patients showed significant cognitive deficits, significantly decreased striatal dopamine and midbrain SERT availability, and significantly reduced glucose metabolism in the limbic association cortex, and in the frontal, parietal, and superior temporal cortices, all of which correlated with dopamine transporter availability and psychometric results. Thus, the study provides further evidence of central nervous system affection in HCV-afflicted patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Data indicate alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission as a possible mechanism of cognitive decline. PMID:21629258

  19. Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

    2011-04-01

    The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the socio-cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection" 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of the Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. PMID:21710911

  20. Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

    2012-03-01

    The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the social cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with M?ori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international nursing students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection', 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of The Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. PMID:22225732

  1. Phase-space properties of magneto-optical traps utilising micro-fabricated gratings.

    PubMed

    McGilligan, J P; Griffin, P F; Riis, E; Arnold, A S

    2015-04-01

    We have used diffraction gratings to simplify the fabrication, and dramatically increase the atomic collection efficiency, of magneto-optical traps using micro-fabricated optics. The atom number enhancement was mainly due to the increased beam capture volume, afforded by the large area (4cm(2)) shallow etch (~ 200nm) binary grating chips. Here we provide a detailed theoretical and experimental investigation of the on-chip magneto-optical trap temperature and density in four different chip geometries using (87)Rb, whilst studying effects due to MOT radiation pressure imbalance. With optimal initial MOTs on two of the chips we obtain both large atom number (2×10(7)) and sub-Doppler temperatures (50 ?K) after optical molasses. PMID:25968732

  2. Phase-space properties of magneto-optical traps utilising micro-fabricated gratings

    E-print Network

    McGilligan, James P; Riis, Erling; Arnold, Aidan S

    2015-01-01

    We have used diffraction gratings to simplify the fabrication, and dramatically increase the atomic collection efficiency, of magneto-optical traps using micro-fabricated optics. The atom number enhancement was mainly due to the increased beam capture volume, afforded by the large area (4cm^2) shallow etch (200nm) binary grating chips. Here we provide a detailed theoretical and experimental investigation of the on-chip magneto-optical trap temperature and density in four different chip geometries using 87Rb, whilst studying effects due to MOT radiation pressure imbalance. With optimal initial MOTs on two of the chips we obtain both large atom number (2x10^7) _and_ sub-Doppler temperatures (50uK) after optical molasses.

  3. Functional tooth restoration utilising split germs through re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Chie; Ogawa, Miho; Nakajima, Kei; Ishida, Kentaro; Moriyama, Keiji; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The tooth is an ectodermal organ that arises from a tooth germ under the regulation of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Tooth morphogenesis occurs in the tooth-forming field as a result of reaction-diffusion waves of specific gene expression patterns. Here, we developed a novel mechanical ligation method for splitting tooth germs to artificially regulate the molecules that control tooth morphology. The split tooth germs successfully developed into multiple correct teeth through the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field, which is regulated by reaction-diffusion waves in response to mechanical force. Furthermore, split teeth erupted into the oral cavity and restored physiological tooth function, including mastication, periodontal ligament function and responsiveness to noxious stimuli. Thus, this study presents a novel tooth regenerative technology based on split tooth germs and the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field by artificial mechanical force. PMID:26673152

  4. Enhancement options for the utilisation of nitrogen rich animal by-products in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Resch, Christoph; Wörl, Alexander; Waltenberger, Reinhold; Braun, Rudolf; Kirchmayr, Roland

    2011-02-01

    This study focuses on the enhancement of an Austrian anaerobic digestion plant at a slaughterhouse site which exclusively uses animal by-products as substrate. High ammonia concentrations from protein degradation cause severe inhibitions of anaerobic microorganisms. For improving the current situation the COD:TKN ratio is widened by (a) ammonia stripping directly out of the process and (b) addition of a C source to the substrate. Different OLR and HRT were tested in continuous experiments to simulate new operating conditions. The results show that the addition of carbon cannot improve fermentation capacity. The reduction of ammonia boosts the degradation: After reduction of TKN from 7.5 to 4.0 g kg(-1) the initially high VFA concentration decreased and the COD degradation was improved by 55.5%. Hence, the implementation of the new N reduction process facilitates either the increase of the OLR by 61% or the reduction of the HRT by 25%. PMID:21134743

  5. Functional tooth restoration utilising split germs through re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Chie; Ogawa, Miho; Nakajima, Kei; Ishida, Kentaro; Moriyama, Keiji; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The tooth is an ectodermal organ that arises from a tooth germ under the regulation of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Tooth morphogenesis occurs in the tooth-forming field as a result of reaction-diffusion waves of specific gene expression patterns. Here, we developed a novel mechanical ligation method for splitting tooth germs to artificially regulate the molecules that control tooth morphology. The split tooth germs successfully developed into multiple correct teeth through the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field, which is regulated by reaction-diffusion waves in response to mechanical force. Furthermore, split teeth erupted into the oral cavity and restored physiological tooth function, including mastication, periodontal ligament function and responsiveness to noxious stimuli. Thus, this study presents a novel tooth regenerative technology based on split tooth germs and the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field by artificial mechanical force. PMID:26673152

  6. Financial and environmental modelling of water hardness--implications for utilising harvested rainwater in washing machines.

    PubMed

    Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Lurueña, Rodrigo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the financial and environmental effects of water quality on rainwater harvesting systems. The potential for replacing tap water used in washing machines with rainwater was studied, and then analysis presented in this paper is valid for applications that include washing machines where tap water hardness may be important. A wide range of weather conditions, such as rainfall (284-1,794 mm/year); water hardness (14-315 mg/L CaCO3); tap water prices (0.85-2.65 Euros/m(3)) in different Spanish urban areas (from individual buildings to whole neighbourhoods); and other scenarios (including materials and water storage capacity) were analysed. Rainfall was essential for rainwater harvesting, but the tap water prices and the water hardness were the main factors for consideration in the financial and the environmental analyses, respectively. The local tap water hardness and prices can cause greater financial and environmental impacts than the type of material used for the water storage tank or the volume of the tank. The use of rainwater as a substitute for hard water in washing machines favours financial analysis. Although tap water hardness significantly affects the financial analysis, the greatest effect was found in the environmental analysis. When hard tap water needed to be replaced, it was found that a water price of 1 Euro/m(3) could render the use of rainwater financially feasible when using large-scale rainwater harvesting systems. When the water hardness was greater than 300 mg/L CaCO3, a financial analysis revealed that an net present value greater than 270 Euros/dwelling could be obtained at the neighbourhood scale, and there could be a reduction in the Global Warming Potential (100 years) ranging between 35 and 101 kg CO2 eq./dwelling/year. PMID:24262990

  7. A submaximal back extension endurance test utilising subjective perception of low back fatigue.

    PubMed

    Taimela, S; Kankaanpää, M; Airaksinen, O

    1998-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic value of a new submaximal back extension endurance test in the classification between patients with non-specific chronic/recurrent low back trouble (LBT) and controls. The back pain questionnaires included pain duration, intensity, regularity and the Pain & Disability Index. The subjects performed dynamic back extensions on a specially designed measurement and training unit at a fixed repetition rate with a load that was based on the subject's estimated upper body mass. The degree of perceived fatigue (unmodified Borg scale, 6-20) was inquired in 15 second intervals throughout the protocol and the slope (change/minute) was calculated. The Borg scale slope increased faster and the score at the end of the test was higher in the LBT group than in the control group during the test. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed significant diagnostic value for the Borg scale slope (0.74) and for the Borg scale at the end of the test (0.70). We conclude that LBT patients experience fatigue faster than controls during a repetitive submaximal back extension task. The test may offer a low-risk, low-cost evaluation method for assessing the severity of LBT when combined with other relevant clinical data. PMID:9606773

  8. Quality of core collections for effective utilisation of genetic resources review, discussion and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Odong, T L; Jansen, J; van Eeuwijk, F A; van Hintum, T J L

    2013-02-01

    Definition of clear criteria for evaluation of the quality of core collections is a prerequisite for selecting high-quality cores. However, a critical examination of the different methods used in literature, for evaluating the quality of core collections, shows that there are no clear guidelines on the choices of quality evaluation criteria and as a result, inappropriate analyses are sometimes made leading to false conclusions being drawn regarding the quality of core collections and the methods to select such core collections. The choice of criteria for evaluating core collections appears to be based mainly on the fact that those criteria have been used in earlier publications rather than on the actual objectives of the core collection. In this study, we provide insight into different criteria used for evaluating core collections. We also discussed different types of core collections and related each type of core collection to their respective evaluation criteria. Two new criteria based on genetic distance are introduced. The consequences of the different evaluation criteria are illustrated using simulated and experimental data. We strongly recommend the use of the distance-based criteria since they not only allow the simultaneous evaluation of all variables describing the accessions, but they also provide intuitive and interpretable criteria, as compared with the univariate criteria generally used for the evaluation of core collections. Our findings will provide genebank curators and researchers with possibilities to make informed choices when creating, comparing and using core collections. PMID:22983567

  9. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Steven T H; Woo, David M; Chong, Calum W K; Liu, Ying; Francis, Katherine E; Shah, Saumil A; Agar, Ashish; Francis, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient's PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual's PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB. PMID:26347811

  10. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Steven T. H.; Woo, David M.; Chong, Calum W. K.; Liu, Ying; Francis, Katherine E.; Shah, Saumil A.; Agar, Ashish; Francis, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient's PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual's PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB. PMID:26347811

  11. Cost and utilisation of hospital based delivery care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

    2013-10-01

    Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India. PMID:23054455

  12. Plutonium and minor actinide utilisation in a pebble-bed high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, B. Y.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.; De Haas, J. B. M.

    2012-07-01

    This paper contains results of the analysis of the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled PUMA reactor loaded with plutonium and minor actinide (Pu/MA) fuel. Starting from knowledge and experience gained in the Euratom FP5 projects HTR-N and HTR-N1, this study aims at demonstrating the potential of high temperature reactors to utilize or transmute Pu/MA fuel. The work has been performed within the Euratom FP6 project PUMA. A number of different fuel types and fuel configurations have been analyzed and compared with respect to incineration performance and safety-related reactor parameters. The results show the excellent plutonium and minor actinide burning capabilities of the high temperature reactor. The largest degree of incineration is attained in the case of an HTR fuelled by pure plutonium fuel as it remains critical at very deep burnup of the discharged pebbles. Addition of minor actinides to the fuel leads to decrease of the achievable discharge burnup and therefore smaller fraction of actinides incinerated during reactor operation. The inert-matrix fuel design improves the transmutation performance of the reactor, while the 'wallpaper' fuel does not have advantage over the standard fuel design in this respect. After 100 years of decay following the fuel discharge, the total amount of actinides remains almost unchanged for all of the fuel types considered. Among the plutonium isotopes, only the amount of Pu-241 is reduced significantly due to its relatively short half-life. (authors)

  13. Variation in medical resource utilisation in the management of pulmonary embolism in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Annemans, L; Robays, H; Bruart, J; Verstraeten, P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate, through a patient chart analysis, the average and the variation in the medical resource use in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients in Belgium, and to find explanatory variables for the possible variation. A sample of patients with confirmed PE (n = 54) from 5 centres was selected. The centres were representative for size and region. The charts were selected at random after applying a set of exclusion criteria, in order to avoid heterogeneity of the sample characteristics. Charts were analysed using a standardised case report form, and medical resource use was collected by an independent researcher. Only medical resources related to the PE were included. On average, it appeared that the management of PE was fairly consistent between the different centres. The total average cost of PE was [symbol: see text] 3394 (St. Err. = [symbol: see text] 323). Nevertheless, large differences were found in the number of diagnostic and follow-up tests. Also, a wide variation in duration of hospital stay was found (average = 14.6, p75-p25 = 9.0), but this effect was not explained by the type of centre nor the region. The two factors that explain duration of hospital stay are the number of days of IV heparin use and the intensity of diagnostic follow-up, as expressed by the number of VQ-scans. PMID:12017750

  14. The "5 a day" game: a nutritional intervention utilising innovative methodologies with primary school children.

    PubMed

    Rosi, Alice; Scazzina, Francesca; Ingrosso, Lisa; Morandi, Angelica; Del Rio, Daniele; Sanna, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was observing and improving children's eating habits through an edutainment technological platform. A single-group education intervention was carried out in primary schools in Parma and Milano, Italy. A total of 76 children (32 females and 44 males, 8-10 years old) were involved in a 3-month nutritional program including lessons and educational videogames. Intakes of fruits, vegetables, juices and dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured using 3-day food diaries before and after the intervention. The daily total consumption of fruit and vegetables increased from 421.8 (320.3) to 484.3 (337.2) g/day (p?=?0.016). Consequently, daily dietary TAC increased by 26%, rising from 1.4 (1.3) to 1.6 (1.3) mmol of Trolox equivalents (p?=?0.006). The methods and, particularly, the use of technological tools proved to be effective in conducting an educational intervention in children aged 8-10 years old. PMID:26307556

  15. Fate of organic matter in Arctic intertidal sediments: Is utilisation by meiofauna important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Moens, Tom

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents (1) a study of the fate of high-quality detritus in Arctic sandy beaches, in particular its use by the sandy beach meiobenthos, and (2) a comparison of organic matter mineralisation rates with those in other climatic regions. We performed a tracer experiment in which lyophilised 13C-labelled cyanobacteria were added to sediments of two intertidal beaches (Tyskehytte and Breoyane) at Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) with contrasting sediment properties, benthic metabolic rates and meiobenthic communities. Tyskehytte was characterised by coarse sands on an exposed beach and Breoyane by medium sands on a relatively sheltered beach. Organic matter addition stimulated benthic metabolism in the coarser sediment but not in the finer one. Correspondingly, the added carbon was metabolised faster in the coarser sediment, respiration being its major short-term fate. Faster mineralisation of organic matter in coarser sediments was probably linked to a better availability to microbes and fauna in deeper sediment strata, resulting from a higher sediment porosity and a faster penetration of (labelled) organic matter to deeper sediment layers. Overall, organic matter mineralisation rates at both beaches compared favourably with those in temperate sediments. All major meiofauna taxa incorporated the added carbon source on both beaches, but specific uptake was substantially higher in the coarser sediment than in the finer one. Oligochaetes accounted for the largest share of meiobenthic carbon uptake. Despite a very high specific uptake, meiofaunal consumption accounted for but a small portion (< 5% at both beaches) of the total 13C-mineralisation. Thus our results do not support the hypothesis that meiofauna have a comparatively larger role in Arctic sandy beaches impoverished in macrofauna. However, more research including analyses on different spatial and temporal scales is needed before generalisations can be made.

  16. Identification, utilisation and mapping of novel transcriptome-based markers from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deep-level second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies are now being applied to non-model species as a viable and favourable alternative to Sanger sequencing. Large-scale SNP discovery was undertaken in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) using transcriptome-based 2GS 454 sequencing on the parental genotypes of a reference mapping population, to generate large numbers of novel markers for the construction of a high-density linkage map. Results Over 700,000 reads were produced, from which a total of 7,000 SNPs were found. A subset of polymorphic SNPs was selected to develop a 384-SNP OPA assay using the Illumina BeadXpress platform. Additionally, the data enabled identification of 3,000 novel EST-SSRs. The selected SNPs and SSRs were validated across diverse Ribes germplasm, including mapping populations and other selected Ribes species. SNP-based maps were developed from two blackcurrant mapping populations, incorporating 48% and 27% of assayed SNPs respectively. A relatively high proportion of visually monomorphic SNPs were investigated further by quantitative trait mapping of theta score outputs from BeadStudio analysis, and this enabled additional SNPs to be placed on the two maps. Conclusions The use of 2GS technology for the development of markers is superior to previously described methods, in both numbers of markers and biological informativeness of those markers. Whilst the numbers of reads and assembled contigs were comparable to similar sized studies of other non-model species, here a high proportion of novel genes were discovered across a wide range of putative function and localisation. The potential utility of markers developed using the 2GS approach in downstream breeding applications is discussed. PMID:22035129

  17. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8?months of age, 152?±?12.6?kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n?=?5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180?days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180?days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p?

  18. Hospital admissions for severe mental illness in England: Changes in equity of utilisation at the small area level between 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    White, Jonathan; Gutacker, Nils; Jacobs, Rowena; Mason, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Severe Mental Illness (SMI) encompasses a range of chronic conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychoses. Patients with SMI often require inpatient psychiatric care. Despite equity being a key objective in the English National Health Service (NHS) and in many other health care systems worldwide, little is known about the socio-economic equity of hospital care utilisation for patients with SMI and how it has changed over time. This analysis seeks to address that gap in the evidence base. We exploit a five-year (2006–2010) panel dataset of admission rates at small area level (n = 162,410). The choice of control variables was informed by a systematic literature search. To assess changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation, OLS-based standardisation was first used to conduct analysis of discrete deprivation groups. Geographical inequity was then illustrated by plotting standardised and crude admission rates at local purchaser level. Lastly, formal statistical tests for changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation were applied to a continuous measure of deprivation using pooled negative binomial regression analysis, adjusting for a range of risk factors. Our results suggest that one additional percentage point of area income deprivation is associated with a 1.5% (p < 0.001) increase in admissions for SMI after controlling for population size, age, sex, prevalence of SMI in the local population, as well as other need and supply factors. This finding is robust to sensitivity analyses, suggesting that a pro-poor inequality in utilisation exists for SMI-related inpatient services. One possible explanation is that the supply or quality of primary, community or social care for people with mental health problems is suboptimal in deprived areas. Although there is some evidence that inequity has reduced over time, the changes are small and not always robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:25262312

  19. RGLEMENTS SUR L'UTILISATION DES SALLES DE TRAVAIL D'QUIPE 1) Les salles de travail d'quipe sont rserves uniquement aux membres de la communaut

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    R�GLEMENTS SUR L'UTILISATION DES SALLES DE TRAVAIL D'�QUIPE 1) Les salles de travail d'équipe sont réservées uniquement aux membres de la communauté universitaire de l'Université Laval. 2) Les espaces recherche de l'Université Laval. 3) Les salles de travail en équipe sont réservées aux groupes de 3

  20. Modelling the market uptake of new drugs following listing for subsidy in Australia. A report from the Drug Utilisation Subcommittee of the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee.

    PubMed

    Birkett, D J; McManus, P

    1995-10-01

    The market uptake of five drugs following subsidy listing in Australia during the period 1990 to 1992 has been modelled using the sigmoid Emax model for drug-receptor binding. Utilisation trends for simvastatin, omeprazole, budesonide, fluoxetine and moclobemide in defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 population per day were smoothed by expressing as rolling annual averages. The results indicate good fits of the model to the data except for omeprazole, with good estimates of uptake rate and eventual maximum utilisation. Substantial differences between the drugs occurred in uptake rate which may be related to public education campaigns on asthma and coronary heart disease occurring during the release period. The very slow uptake of omeprazole relative to other drugs is likely to be due to restrictions on subsidised use. Modelling the market uptake rate and eventual utilisation of new drugs is useful as an aid to regulatory, quality use of medicines and financial decisions and allows comparisons between drugs to investigate factors important in market uptake. PMID:8554945

  1. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la sédation, les chutes et la surdose peuvent être minimisées en utilisant des doses initiales faibles, un titrage plus lent, un sevrage des benzodiazépines et une bonne éducation des patients. Dans le cas des femmes enceintes qui prennent des opioïdes chaque jour, il faut faire un sevrage progressif et cesser complètement. Si ce n’est pas possible, il faut administrer la dose efficace la plus faible. Les femmes enceintes qui ont une dépendance aux opioïdes devraient recevoir un traitement à la méthadone. Les adolescents sont à risque élevé de surdose d’opioïdes, d’usage abusif et de dépendance. Les patients qui ont des adolescents qui vivent à la maison devraient entreposer leurs opioïdes dans un lieu sûr. Les adolescents ont rarement besoin d’une thérapie à long terme aux opioïdes. Conclusion Les médecins de famille doivent tenir compte de l’âge, de la condition psychiatrique, du degré de risque de dépendance du patient et d’autres facteurs quand ils prescrivent des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique.

  2. A framework for the analysis of the security of supply of utilising carbon dioxide as a chemical feedstock.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Eric S; Ng, Melvin

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in catalysts have enhanced the potential for the utilisation of carbon dioxide as a chemical feedstock. Using the appropriate energy efficient catalyst enables a range of chemical pathways leading to desirable products. In doing so, CO2 provides an economically and environmentally beneficial source of C1 feedstock, while improving the issues relating to security of supply that are associated with fossil-based feedstocks. However, the dependence on catalysts brings other supply chains into consideration, supply chains that may also have security of supply issues. The choice of chemical pathways for specific products will therefore entail an assessment not only of economic factors but also the security of supply issues for the catalysts. This is a multi-criteria decision making problem. In this paper, we present a modified 4A framework based on the framework suggested by the Asian Pacific Energy Research centre for macro-economic applications. The 4A methodology is named after the criteria used to compare alternatives: availability, acceptability, applicability and affordability. We have adapted this framework for the consideration of alternative chemical reaction processes using a micro-economic outlook. Data from a number of sources were collected and used to quantify each of the 4A criteria. A graphical representation of the assessments is used to support the decision maker in comparing alternatives. The framework not only allows for the comparison of processes but also highlights current limitations in the CCU processes. The framework presented can be used by a variety of stakeholders, including regulators, investors, and process industries, with the aim of identifying promising routes within a broader multi-criteria decision making process. PMID:26534861

  3. Ash utilisation This lecture

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    ­ Higher content unburnt organic material Bottom ash from grid boilers Fly ash from CFB and spread stoker.varmeforsk.se/files/program/askor/Korpijrvi_workshop_Finland.pdf #12;Different boilers produce different types of ash Boiler Bottom ash (%) Fly ash (%) Grid 70-80 20-30 Spread Stoker 40-50 50-60 CFB 10-20 80-90 #12;http://www

  4. Retrieving the availability of light in the ocean utilising spectral signatures of Vibrational Raman Scattering in hyper-spectral satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinter, T.; Rozanov, V. V.; Burrows, J. P.; Bracher, A.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of light in the ocean is an important parameter for the determination of phytoplankton photosynthesis processes and primary production from satellite data. It is also a useful parameter for other applications, e.g. the determination of heat fluxes. In this study, a method was developed utilising the vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) effect of water molecules to determine the amount of photons available in the ocean water, which is expressed by the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0. Radiative transfer simulations with the fully coupled ocean-atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) SCIATRAN show clearly the relationship of E0 to the strength of the VRS signal measured at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Taking advantage of VRS structures in hyper-spectral satellite measurements a retrieval technique to derive E0 in the wavelength region from 390 to 444.5 nm was developed. This approach uses the Weighting Function Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WF-DOAS) technique, applied to TOA radiances, measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Based on the approach of Vountas et al. (2007), where the DOAS method was used to fit modelled spectra of VRS, the method was improved by using the weighting function of VRS (VRS-WF) in the DOAS fit. This was combined with a look-up table (LUT) technique, where the E0 value was obtained for each VRS satellite fit directly. The VRS-WF and the LUT were derived from calculations with the RTM SCIATRAN (Rozanov et al., 2014). RTM simulations for different chlorophyll a concentrations and illumination conditions clearly show, that low fit factors of VRS retrieval results correspond to low amounts of light in the water column and vice versa. Exemplary, one month of SCIAMACHY data were processed and a global map of the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0 was retrieved. Spectral structures of VRS were clearly identified in the radiance measurements of SCIAMACHY. The fitting approach led to consistent results and the WF-DOAS algorithm results of VRS correlated clearly with the chlorophyll concentration in case-I water. Comparisons of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, extracted by VRS fit results, with the established GlobColour Kd (490) product show consistent results.

  5. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices canadiennes offrent des conseils dont les médecins avaient grand besoin pour les aider à en arriver à un juste équilibre entre le contrôle optimal de la douleur et la sécurité.

  6. Investigating Over Critical Thresholds of Forest Megafires Danger Conditions in Europe Utilising the ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroliagkis, Thomas I.; Camia, Andrea; Liberta, Giorgio; Durrant, Tracy; Pappenberger, Florian; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus

    2014-05-01

    The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) has been established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment (DG ENV) of the European Commission (EC) to support the services in charge of the protection of forests against fires in the EU and neighbour countries, and also to provide the EC services and the European Parliament with information on forest fires in Europe. Within its applications, EFFIS provides current and forecast meteorological fire danger maps up to 6 days. Weather plays a key role in affecting wildfire occurrence and behaviour. Meteorological parameters can be used to derive meteorological fire weather indices that provide estimations of fire danger level at a given time over a specified area of interest. In this work, we investigate the suitability of critical thresholds of fire danger to provide an early warning for megafires (fires > 500 ha) over Europe. Past trends of fire danger are analysed computing daily fire danger from weather data taken from re-analysis fields for a period of 31 years (1980 to 2010). Re-analysis global data sets coming from the construction of high-quality climate records, which combine past observations collected from many different observing and measuring platforms, are capable of describing how Fire Danger Indices have evolved over time at a global scale. The latest and most updated ERA-Interim dataset of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) was used to extract meteorological variables needed to compute daily values of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI) over Europe, with a horizontal resolution of about 75x75 km. Daily time series of CFWI were constructed and analysed over a total of 1,071 European NUTS3 centroids, resulting in a set of percentiles and critical thresholds. Such percentiles could be used as thresholds to help fire services establish a measure of the significance of CFWI outputs as they relate to levels of fire potential, fuel conditions and fire danger. Median percentile values of fire days accumulated over the 31-year period were compared to median values of all days from that period. As expected, the CWFI time series exhibit different values on fire days than on all days. In addition, a percentile analysis was performed in order to determine the behaviour of index values corresponding to fire events falling into the megafire category. This analysis resulted in a set of critical thresholds based on percentiles. By utilising such thresholds, an initial framework of an early warning system has being established. By lowering the value of any of these thresholds, the number of hits could be increased until all extremes were captured (resulting in zero misses). However, in doing so, the number of false alarms tends to increase significantly. Consequently, an optimal trade-off between hits and false alarms has to be established when setting different (critical) CFWI thresholds.

  7. Study-MATE: Using Text Messaging to Support Student Transition to University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahir, Jayde; Huber, Elaine; Handal, Boris; Dutch, Justin; Nixon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students are most likely to drop out of university when first attending. This article analyses the use of technology in supporting the transition process of "first time" university students enrolled in a second-year accounting course. Study-MATE, a study skills program utilising the university's learning management system (LMS)--Blackboard, Google…

  8. HIV-related knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and utilisation of HIV counselling and testing: a venue-based intercept commuter population survey in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chimoyi, Lucy; Tshuma, Ndumiso; Muloongo, Keith; Setswe, Geoffrey; Sarfo, Bismark; Nyasulu, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. Objective To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. Design A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. Results 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5%) were females and (n=780, 68.1%) were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83%) with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001). For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.78, p-value: 0.041) and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15–3.47, p-value: 0.014), whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31–0.62, p-value: <0.001). For females, having one sexual partner (aOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.19–5.90, p-value: 0.017) and a low perceived benefit for HIV testing (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.96, p-value: 0.035) were associated with HIV testing. Conclusion The overall HIV/AIDS knowledge was generally high. Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services. One favourable intervention would be the use of home-based HCT programmes. PMID:25925192

  9. The bounds on tracking performance utilising a laser-based linear and angular sensing and measurement methodology for micro/nano manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Leon; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Tian, Yanling; Zhong, Yongmin

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the tracking performance of a planar three degrees of freedom (DOF) flexure-based mechanism for micro/nano manipulation, utilising a tracking methodology for the measurement of coupled linear and angular motions. The methodology permits trajectories over a workspace with large angular range through the reduction of geometric errors. However, when combining this methodology with feedback control systems, the accuracy of performed manipulations can only be stated within the bounds of the uncertainties in measurement. The dominant sources of error and uncertainty within each sensing subsystem are therefore identified, which leads to a formulation of the measurement uncertainty in the final system outputs, in addition to methods of reducing their magnitude. Specific attention is paid to the analysis of the vision-based subsystem utilised for the measurement of angular displacement. Furthermore, a feedback control scheme is employed to minimise tracking errors, and the coupling of certain measurement errors is shown to have a detrimental effect on the controller operation. The combination of controller tracking errors and measurement uncertainty provides the bounds on the final tracking performance.

  10. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche constructiviste en enseignement representent les plus grands obstacles a la construction des modeles en classe. Mots-cles : Modeles et modelisation, biologie, conceptions, modes d'utilisation, constructivisme, enseignement, secondaire.

  11. Les recommandations thérapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associés à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il faudrait évaluer ces recommandations d’après les avis d’experts plutôt que d’après les données probantes. CONCLUSION : Les cliniciens doivent savoir que les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération ont le potentiel d’induire des effets secondaires neurologiques et devraient faire preuve d’une extrême vigilance lorsqu’ils en prescrivent. PMID:24082814

  12. Association between daily antiretroviral pill burden and treatment adherence, hospitalisation risk, and other healthcare utilisation and costs in a US medicaid population with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Calvin J; Meyers, Juliana L; Davis, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Lower pill burden leads to improved antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV patients. Simpler dosing regimens have not been widely explored in real-world populations. We retrospectively assessed ART adherence, all-cause hospitalisation risk and costs, and other healthcare utilisation and costs in Medicaid enrollees with HIV treated with ART as a once-daily single-tablet regimen (STR) or two or more pills per day (2+PPD). Design Patients with an HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 receiving complete ART (ie, two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus a third agent) for ?60?days as STR or 2+PPD were selected and followed until the first of (1) discontinuation of the complete ART, (2) loss of enrolment or (3) end of database. Adherence was measured using the medication possession ratio. Monthly all-cause healthcare utilisation and costs were observed from regimen initiation until follow-up end. Results Of the 7381 patients who met inclusion criteria, 1797 were treated with STR and 5584 with 2+PPD. STR patients were significantly more likely to reach 95% adherence and had fewer hospitalisations than 2+PPD patients (both p<0.01). STR patients had mean (SD) total monthly costs of $2959 ($4962); 2+PPD patients had $3544 ($5811; p<0.001). Hospital costs accounted for 53.8% and pharmacy costs accounted for 32.5% of this difference. Multivariate analyses found that STR led to a 23% reduction in hospitalisations and a 17% reduction in overall healthcare costs. ART adherence appears to be a key mechanism mediating hospitalisation risk, as patients with ?95% adherence (regardless of regimen type) had a lower hospitalisation rate compared with <95% adherence. Conclusions While it was expected that STR patients would have lower pharmacy costs, we also found that STR patients had fewer hospitalisations and lower hospital costs than 2+PPD patients, resulting in significantly lower total healthcare costs for STR patients. PMID:23906955

  13. Utilisation of a thoracic oncology database to capture radiological and pathological images for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Carey, George B; Kazantsev, Stephanie; Surati, Mosmi; Rolle, Cleo E; Kanteti, Archana; Sadiq, Ahad; Bahroos, Neil; Raumann, Brigitte; Madduri, Ravi; Dave, Paul; Starkey, Adam; Hensing, Thomas; Husain, Aliya N; Vokes, Everett E; Vigneswaran, Wickii; Armato, Samuel G; Kindler, Hedy L; Salgia, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Objective An area of need in cancer informatics is the ability to store images in a comprehensive database as part of translational cancer research. To meet this need, we have implemented a novel tandem database infrastructure that facilitates image storage and utilisation. Background We had previously implemented the Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project (TOPDP) database for our translational cancer research needs. While useful for many research endeavours, it is unable to store images, hence our need to implement an imaging database which could communicate easily with the TOPDP database. Methods The Thoracic Oncology Research Program (TORP) imaging database was designed using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform, which was developed by Vanderbilt University. To demonstrate proof of principle and evaluate utility, we performed a retrospective investigation into tumour response for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients treated at the University of Chicago Medical Center with either of two analogous chemotherapy regimens and consented to at least one of two UCMC IRB protocols, 9571 and 13473A. Results A cohort of 22 MPM patients was identified using clinical data in the TOPDP database. After measurements were acquired, two representative CT images and 0–35 histological images per patient were successfully stored in the TORP database, along with clinical and demographic data. Discussion We implemented the TORP imaging database to be used in conjunction with our comprehensive TOPDP database. While it requires an additional effort to use two databases, our database infrastructure facilitates more comprehensive translational research. Conclusions The investigation described herein demonstrates the successful implementation of this novel tandem imaging database infrastructure, as well as the potential utility of investigations enabled by it. The data model presented here can be utilised as the basis for further development of other larger, more streamlined databases in the future. PMID:23103606

  14. Etude comparative des complications liées à l'utilisation du cathéter veineux périphérique avec et sans système clos à bouchon hépariné

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying Chun; Seydou, Togo; Sadio, Yéna; Liang, Tu Zheng; Ge, jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'utilisation correcte du système clos à bouchon hépariné sur les cathéters périphériques pendant les perfusions est une pratique courante dans les pays développés et aussi dans plusieurs pays en développement selon un consensus international établi. Nous comparons les résultats de la formation de thrombus et de l'infection liées au cathéter veineux périphérique chez les patients ayant bénéficié de perfusion avec système clos à bouchon hépariné (groupe expérimentale) et ceux qui ont été perfusé sans bouchon hépariné (groupe témoin). Méthodes Nous avons colligé 100 patients hospitalisés pendant la période de Juillet 2014 à Décembre 2014 dans le service d'hospitalisation de chirurgie thoracique de l'hôpital du Mali qui ont été repartis en 2 groupes de 50 patients chacun pour une analyse comparative. L'observation du thrombus dans la lumière du cathéter est effectuée puis enregistré et tous les cathéters ont été repris pour réalisation de culture bactérienne au laboratoire dans les 2 groupes. Résultats Dans le groupe témoin, il existe un thrombus dans la lumière du cathéter dans 36 cas (72%) et l'examen de culture bactérienne était positif dans 90%. Tandis que dans le groupe expérimental on retrouve 3 cas (6%) de thrombose du cathéter et on note une absence de germe dans l'examen bactériologique. Conclusion L'utilisation correcte du système clos à bouchon hépariné lors des perfusions peut réduire et prévenir de façon significative les complications liées au cathéter notamment l'occlusion par thrombus, leur migration et la survenue de l'infection. PMID:26600900

  15. The impact of the fee-for-service reimbursement system on the utilisation of health services. Part I. A review of the determinants of doctors' practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Broomberg, J; Price, M R

    1990-08-01

    The impact of different methods of reimbursement on the practice patterns of doctors has received little attention in the local literature. This series of three papers attempts to address this gap. Here the international evidence on this issue is reviewed. The 'information gap' between doctors and their patients allows doctors to induce demand for their services. This leads to the potential for doctors to increase the supply of services when they stand to gain financially from doing so, as is the case in the fee-for-service system. There is extensive international evidence, at both national and micro levels, of the link between increased utilisation and the fee-for-service payment system. This is in contrast with the pattern noted in the salary system, used in some health maintenance organisations (HMOs) in the USA, or in the capitation system, used in the British National Health Service. The 'practice setting' in which doctors operate also affects patterns of practice. In the local fee-for-service sector, 'third-party payment' means that both doctors and patients have little awareness of the direct costs of services. In other systems, such as HMOs, there is a strong cost consciousness on the part of practitioners. These differences in practice setting account in part for the different patterns of utilisation in these systems. The fee-for-service system, as it is structured in South Africa, thus leads to extreme inefficiency, and the development of alternatives is becoming an urgent necessity. All systems of reimbursement have certain problems, and some combination may be the best solution. PMID:2198667

  16. The Effect of an Education Program Utilising PRECEDE Model on the Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…

  17. Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The article…

  18. L'Utilisation de l'ordinateur en lexicometrie (The Use of the Computer in Lexicometry). Series B-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savard, Jean-Guy

    This report treats some of the technical difficulties encountered in lexicological studies that were undertaken in order to establish a basic vocabulary. Its purpose is to show that the computer can overcome some of these difficulties, and specifically that computer programming can serve to establish a vocabulary common to scientific and technical…

  19. The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

  20. Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilisation by broilers receiving corn-soyabean meal diets: influence of dietary calcium and microbial phytase.

    PubMed

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Lescoat, P; Bernier, J F; Magnin, M; Pomar, C; Nys, Y; Sauvant, D; Jondreville, C

    2010-11-01

    Pollution relative to phosphorus excretion in poultry manure as well as the soaring prices of phosphate, a non-renewable resource, remain of major importance. Thus, a good understanding of bird response regarding dietary phosphorus (P) is a prerequisite to optimise the utilisation of this essential element in broiler diets. A database built from 15 experiments with 203 treatments was used to predict the response of 21-day-old broilers to dietary non-phytate P (NPP), taking into account the main factors of variation, calcium (Ca) and microbial phytase derived from Aspergillus niger, in terms of average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed (G:F) and tibia ash concentration. All criteria evolve linearly (P < 0.001) and quadratically (P < 0.001) with dietary NPP concentration. Dietary Ca affected the intercept and linear component for ADG (P < 0.01), G:F (P < 0.05) and tibia ash concentration (P < 0.001), whereas for ADFI, it affected only the intercept (P < 0.01). Microbial phytase addition impacted on the intercept, the linear and the quadratic coefficient for ADFI (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.001) and G:F (P < 0.05), and on the intercept and the linear component (P < 0.001) for tibia ash concentration. An evaluation of these models was then performed on a database built from 28 experiments and 255 treatments that were not used to perform the models. Results showed that ADFI, ADG and Tibia ash concentration were predicted fairly well (slope and intercept did not deviate from 0 to 1, respectively), whereas this was not the case for G:F. The increase in dietary Ca concentration aggravated P deficiency for all criteria while phytase addition had a positive effect. The more P deficiency was marked, the more the bird response to ADFI, ADG, G:F and tibia ash concentration was exacerbated. It must also be considered that even if the decrease in dietary Ca may improve P utilisation, it could in turn become limiting for bone mineralisation. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides ways to reduce dietary P in broiler diets without impairing performance, taking into account dietary Ca and microbial phytase. PMID:22445145

  1. Health Facility Utilisation Changes during the Introduction of Community Case Management of Malaria in South Western Uganda: An Interrupted Time Series Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Alexander, Neal D.; Lagarde, Mylene; Paintain, Lucy; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandramohan, Daniel; Clarke, Siân E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria endemic countries have scaled-up community health worker (CHW) interventions, to diagnose and treat malaria in communities with limited access to public health systems. The evaluations of these programmes have centred on CHW’s compliance to guidelines, but the broader changes at public health centres including utilisation and diagnoses made, has received limited attention. Methods This analysis was conducted during a CHW–intervention for malaria in Rukungiri District, Western Uganda. Outpatient department (OPD) visit data were collected for children under-5 attending three health centres one year before the CHW-intervention started (pre-intervention period) and for 20 months during the intervention (intervention-period). An interrupted time series analysis with segmented regression models was used to compare the trends in malaria, non-malaria and overall OPD visits during the pre-intervention and intervention-period. Results The introduction of a CHW-intervention suggested the frequency of diagnoses of diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and helminths increased, whilst the frequency of malaria diagnoses declined at health centres. In May 2010 when the intervention began, overall health centre utilisation decreased by 63% compared to the pre-intervention period and the health centres saw 32 fewer overall visits per month compared to the pre-intervention period (p<0.001). Malaria visits also declined shortly after the intervention began and there were 27 fewer visits per month during the intervention-period compared with the pre-intervention period (p<0.05). The declines in overall and malaria visits were sustained for the entire intervention-period. In contrast, there were no observable changes in trends of non-malarial visits between the pre-intervention and intervention-period. Conclusions This analysis suggests introducing a CHW-intervention can reduce the number of child malaria visits and change the profile of cases presenting at health centres. The reduction in workload of health workers may allow them to spend more time with patients or undertake additional curative or preventative roles. PMID:26356099

  2. The PEGS Scheduling System: A Case Study With Environmental Optimisation

    E-print Network

    McCollum, Barry

    The PEGS Scheduling System: A Case Study With Environmental Optimisation Kieran Greer1 , John and Environmental Generic Scheduler) program is a new generic scheduling program for manufacturing companies. Test results are presented illustrating how makespan and machine utilisation vary with job batch sizes

  3. Researching Primary Engineering Education: UK Perspectives, an Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of…

  4. Utilisation of MR spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging in predicting and monitoring of breast cancer response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leong, Kin Men; Lau, Peter; Ramadan, Saadallah

    2015-06-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is the standard treatment option for breast cancer as more data shows that pathologic complete response (pCR) after NACT correlates with improved prognosis. MRI is accepted as the best imaging modality for evaluating the response to NACT in many studies as compared with clinical examination and other imaging modalities. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) studies have both emerged as potential tools to provide early response indicators based on the changes in the metabolites and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) respectively. In this review article, we aim to discuss the strength and limitations of MRS and DWI in monitoring of early response breast cancer to NACT. PMID:25913106

  5. Knowledge and Knowing in Mathematics and Pedagogy: A Case Study of Mathematics Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Erika; Pursiainen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on mathematics student teachers' epistemological beliefs in mathematics and education. The study aimed at gaining insight into the challenges that students experience in the consolidation of knowledge in the two disciplines. The case study with three mathematics pre-service teachers utilised mathematical and pedagogical…

  6. Utilisation of satellite data in identification of geomorphic landform and its role in arsenic release in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Singh, N.; Shashtri, S.; Mukherjee, S.

    2014-11-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the influence of geomorphic features of the area on the mobilization of arsenic in groundwater. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to prepare the geomorphic and slope map of the area. Different geomorphic features were identified on the basis of spectral signature on the LISS III and Landsat satellite image and field survey. Groundwater samples were collected from each representative geomorphic feature to inspect the arsenic contamination in the area. The study area is drained by the Brahmaputra river and its tributaries and contain mainly fluvial geomorphic units especially older flood plain, palaeochannels, oxbow lakes, channel islands; and hilly areas at some of the places. In this study it was observed that enrichment of arsenic in groundwater varies along the geomorphic units in following trends Paleochannel> Younger alluvial plain> Active flood plain> channel island > dissected hills. The above trend shows that a higher concentration of arsenic is found in the groundwater samples collected from the fluvial landforms as compared to those collected from structural landforms. Brahmaputra River and its tributaries carry the sediment load from the Himalayan foothills, which get deposited in these features during the lateral shift of the river's courses. Arsenic bearing minerals may get transported through river and deposit in the geomorphological features along with organic matter. The flat terrain of the area as seen from the slope map provides more residence time to water to infiltrate into the aquifer. The microbial degradation of organic matter generates the reducing environment and facilitates the dissolution of iron hydroxide thus releasing the adsorbed arsenic into the groundwater.

  7. Improvement in mechanical properties of jute fibres through mild alkali treatment as demonstrated by utilisation of the Weibull distribution model.

    PubMed

    Roy, Aparna; Chakraborty, Sumit; Kundu, Sarada Prasad; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Majumder, Subhasish Basu; Adhikari, Basudam

    2012-03-01

    Chemically modified jute fibres are potentially useful as natural reinforcement in composite materials. Jute fibres were treated with 0.25%-1.0% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 0.5-48 h. The hydrophilicity, surface morphology, crystallinity index, thermal and mechanical characteristics of untreated and alkali treated fibres were studied.The two-parameter Weibull distribution model was applied to deal with the variation in mechanical properties of the natural fibres. Alkali treatment enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break by 82% and 45%, respectively but decreased the hydrophilicity by 50.5% and the diameter of the fibres by 37%. PMID:22209134

  8. Prévalence de l'utilisation des anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens chez les femmes enceintes à Lubumbashi (République Démocratique du Congo)

    PubMed Central

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Shamashanga, Laurent Kwete; Mwaba, Jean-Jacques Mulubwa; Kasongo, Christian Busambwa; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    Malgré l'importance de leurs effets secondaires sur la femme enceinte et le fœtus, les anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) continuent à être largement utilisés par les femmes enceintes. Leur rapport bénéfice-risque n'est pas toujours bien évalué en pratique courante. L'objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer l'usage des AINS chez la femme enceinte, de discuter les risques potentiels encourus aussi bien par la mère que par le fœtus, et enfin d'en tirer des recommandations éventuelles à la femme enceinte. Du 22 août au 11 septembre 2012, une enquête a été menée auprès de 145 femmes enceintes suivies en consultation prénatale à l'Hôpital Sendwe. Un formulaire reprenant les informations sur les AINS consommés a été remis à chacune d'elle. Les résultats montrent que 75% des femmes interrogées reconnaissent avoir consommé des AINS surtout en automédication et principalement pendant les deux derniers trimestres de la grossesse pour soulager des douleurs d'origines diverses. Cette étude montre que des efforts restent encore à déployer à Lubumbashi afin de combattre l'utilisation des AINS surtout en automédication chez la femme enceinte. PMID:25419270

  9. A new biological test utilising the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the rapid detection of toxic substances in water.

    PubMed

    Rumlova, Lubomira; Dolezalova, Jaroslava

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluates the toxic effects of five substances (atropine, fenitrothion, potassium cyanide, mercuric chloride and lead nitrate) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It describes a new biological toxicity test based on inhibition of S. cerevisiae viability and compares it with two standard toxicity tests based on Daphnia magna mobility inhibition (EN ISO 6341) and Vibrio fischeri bioluminiscence inhibition (EN ISO 11348-2). The new biological test -S. cerevisiae lethal test - is cheaper and 24 times faster than the D. magna test. The test speed is comparable with the V. fischeri test but the new test is more sensitive for some substances. The test indicates reliably the presence of all used toxicants in water in concentrations which are significantly lower than the concentration in toxic or lethal doses for man. Therefore, this new toxicity test could be proposed for rapid detection of toxic substances in water. PMID:22407169

  10. Psychosocial predictors of health-related quality of life and health service utilisation in people with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Philip; Creed, Francis; Tomenson, Barbara; Todd, Chris; Borglin, Gunilla; Dickens, Chris

    2008-03-01

    Psychological and social factors have been shown, separately, to predict outcome in individuals with chronic low back pain. Few previous studies, however, have integrated both psychological and social factors, using prospective study of clinic populations of low back pain patients, to identify which are the most important targets for treatment. One hundred and eight patients with chronic low back pain, newly referred to an orthopaedic outpatient clinic, completed assessments of demographic characteristics, details of back pain, measures of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS), fearful beliefs about pain (Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire), social stresses (Life Events and Difficulties Schedule) and physical aspects of health-related quality of life [SF-36 Physical Component summary Score scale (PCS)]. Six months later subjects completed the SF-36 PCS and the number of healthcare contacts during follow-up was recorded. Independent predictors of SF-36 PCS at 6-month follow-up were duration of pain [(standardised regression coefficient (beta)=-0.18, p=0.04), HADS score (beta)=-0.27, p=0.003] and back pain related social difficulties (beta=-0.42, p<0.0005). Number of healthcare contacts over the 6 months ranged from 1 to 29, and was independently predicted by perceived cause of pain [Incident Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.46, p=0.03], Fear Avoidance Beliefs about work (IRR=1.02, p=0.009) and back pain related social difficulties (IRR=1.16, p=0.03). To conclude, anxiety, depression, fear avoidance beliefs relating to work and back pain related stresses predict impairment in subsequent physical health-related quality of life and number of healthcare contacts. Interventions targeting these psychosocial variables in clinic patients may lead to improved quality of life and healthcare costs. PMID:17611036

  11. Biodegradation of free cyanide and subsequent utilisation of biodegradation by-products by Bacillus consortia: optimisation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Ntwampe, Seteno Karabo Obed; Jackson, Vanessa Angela

    2015-07-01

    A mesophilic alkali-tolerant bacterial consortium belonging to the Bacillus genus was evaluated for its ability to biodegrade high free cyanide (CN(-)) concentration (up to 500 mg CN(-)/L), subsequent to the oxidation of the formed ammonium and nitrates in a continuous bioreactor system solely supplemented with whey waste. Furthermore, an optimisation study for successful cyanide biodegradation by this consortium was evaluated in batch bioreactors (BBs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The input variables, that is, pH, temperature and whey-waste concentration, were optimised using a numerical optimisation technique where the optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pH 9.88, temperature 33.60 °C and whey-waste concentration of 14.27 g/L, under which 206.53 mg CN(-)/L in 96 h can be biodegraded by the microbial species from an initial cyanide concentration of 500 mg CN(-)/L. Furthermore, using the optimised data, cyanide biodegradation in a continuous mode was evaluated in a dual-stage packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) connected in series to a pneumatic bioreactor system (PBS) used for simultaneous nitrification, including aerobic denitrification. The whey-supported Bacillus sp. culture was not inhibited by the free cyanide concentration of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L, with an overall degradation efficiency of ? 99 % with subsequent nitrification and aerobic denitrification of the formed ammonium and nitrates over a period of 80 days. This is the first study to report free cyanide biodegradation at concentrations of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L in a continuous system using whey waste as a microbial feedstock. The results showed that the process has the potential for the bioremediation of cyanide-containing wastewaters. PMID:25721526

  12. Landscape Management of Fire and Grazing Regimes Alters the Fine-Scale Habitat Utilisation by Feral Cats

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores. PMID:25329902

  13. Dynamics of a flexible tethered satellite system utilising various materials for coplanar and non-coplanar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Aaron Aw Teik; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of mathematical models for a flexible tethered satellite system (TSS) in both planar and co-planar states. The flexible tethered satellite system consists of three rigid bodies with two flexible tethers, each connecting two rigid bodies with one located in the centre and serving as the mothership. The TSS motion includes tether deformations, rotational dynamics, and orbital mechanics. The three materials that are possible to be used for a space tether are tungsten wire, Spectra-2000, and diamond; it should be noted that the diamond used here is in a form of a nanotube thread. The tether will undergo a spinning motion as well in the motorised option. In addition, the air drag perturbation is also considered since the entire TSS is flown around the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), where the air-drag perturbation is dominant. A survival analysis was then performed for planar and non-coplanar models in order to establish a dynamic performance envelope with respect to the tether's tension at different altitudes under the air-drag perturbation. The proposed models were treated numerically and analysed accordingly. Then a comparison study between the coplanar and non-coplanar models were conducted and the difference in their performances was observed and discussed. Although all materials have their own safe operation boundaries, the flexible TSS using tungsten shows a better dynamic performance than the other TSS options in a non-coplanar model.

  14. Forces and shapes as determinants of micro-swimming: effect on synchronisation and the utilisation of drag.

    PubMed

    Pande, Jayant; Smith, Ana-Sun?ana

    2015-03-28

    In this analytical study we demonstrate the richness of behaviour exhibited by bead-spring micro-swimmers, both in terms of known yet not fully explained effects such as synchronisation, and hitherto undiscovered phenomena such as the existence of two transport regimes where the swimmer shape has fundamentally different effects on the velocity. For this purpose we employ a micro-swimmer model composed of three arbitrarily-shaped rigid beads connected linearly by two springs. By analysing this swimmer in terms of the forces on the different beads, we determine the optimal kinematic parameters for sinusoidal driving, and also explain the pusher/puller nature of the swimmer. Moreover, we show that the phase difference between the swimmer's arms automatically attains values which maximise the swimming speed for a large region of the parameter space. Apart from this, we determine precisely the optimal bead shapes that maximise the velocity when the beads are constrained to be ellipsoids of a constant volume or surface area. On doing so, we discover the surprising existence of the aforementioned transport regimes in micro-swimming, where the motion is dominated by either a reduction of the drag force opposing the beads, or by the hydrodynamic interaction amongst them. Under some conditions, these regimes lead to counter-intuitive effects such as the most streamlined shapes forming locally the slowest swimmers. PMID:25675985

  15. An ecological approach to seeking and utilising the views of young people with intellectual disabilities in transition planning.

    PubMed

    Small, Neil; Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Transition planning using a person-centred approach has, in the main, failed to shape service provision. We offer an alternative based on an ecological understanding of human development linked to public health approaches that prioritise whole system planning. A total of 43 young people with intellectual disabilities, in Bradford, England, who were approaching transition from school or college were recruited to a qualitative study. Their ethnic breakdown was as follows: 16 white British, 24 Pakistani, 2 Bangladeshi and 1 Black African. Each young person was interviewed twice, at recruitment and a year later, to observe any changes in their social networks during transition. Interviews were undertaken with a semi-structured interview schedule and with the pictorial approach of Talking Mats. Both the networks the young people live within, and their sense of what the future might hold for them, are described and linked to Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development. The importance of the family and school is emphasised, as is the absence of engagement in leisure activities and work. Transition planning needs to start with mapping the systems individuals live within, areas of strength should be supported and parts of the system, which are not fit for purpose for these young people, should be prioritised for interventions. PMID:23940112

  16. Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

  17. Home Range Utilisation and Long-Range Movement of Estuarine Crocodiles during the Breeding and Nesting Season

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Hamish A.; Dwyer, Ross G.; Irwin, Terri R.; Franklin, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92±0.013 metres total length (TL), mean ± S.E., n?=?4) occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49±0.9 km d?1; n?=?8) during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17±0.14 m TL) exhibited a ‘site-fidelic’ strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81±0.08 m TL) exhibited ‘nomadic’ behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the ‘site-fidelic’ males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the ‘nomadic’ males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions. PMID:23650510

  18. Differences in utilisation of asthma drugs between two neighbouring Swedish provinces: relation to prevalence of obstructive airway disease.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, L.; Boëthius, G.; Uddenfeldt, M.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Considerable variation exists in the use of antiasthmatic drugs in different counties in Sweden. The reasons for this variation are unknown. A study was performed to determine if there is an association between sales of antiasthmatic drugs and the prevalence of obstructive airway diseases in two adjoining Swedish counties. METHOD--The prevalence of asthma-associated symptoms in the county of Jämtland where there is high drug use, and the county of Gävleborg where it is lower, was assessed in 1990 by a postal questionnaire answered by 11,300 subjects. Three age groups were included: all 16 year olds, 13% of those aged 30-39 years, and 13% of 60-69 year olds. A total of 2100 subjects reporting airway symptoms in a questionnaire and 450 asymptomatic controls were further investigated at an interview with lung function tests and, in 500 cases, with a methacholine challenge. Asthma was diagnosed in subjects reporting a typical history or repeated episodes of dyspnoea and wheezing, or dry cough combined with reversibility in FEV1, variability in peak expiratory flow, or a PC20 value of < or = 4 mg/ml. RESULTS--The prevalence of current asthma was close to 8% in all age groups in Jämtland and significantly lower (close to 6%) in all age groups in the warmer, more industrialised and more densely populated county of Gävleborg. A gender difference with a higher prevalence in women was found in Gävleborg but not in Jämtland. There was no significant difference in the use of inhaled beta 2 stimulants among subjects with asthma in the two counties. Inhaled steroids were used more often in Jämtland. However, they were used regularly by fewer than 10% of asthmatic subjects in the two younger age groups. CONCLUSION--The differences in the use of antiasthmatic drugs in these two counties reflect a difference in the prevalence of obstructive airway disease. Images PMID:7908763

  19. Utilisation of combined 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant adrenal enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H J; Cho, S H; Won, K S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of adrenal lesions with and without known primary cancer and investigate predictors for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant adrenal enlargement. Methods: This retrospective study used fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in 325 patients with adrenal lesions (229 with known primary cancer and 96 without primary cancer). Age, sex, the presence of right and left masses, nodules or hyperplasia, unenhanced attenuation, maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) ratio, and the presence of metastasis in other body parts and locations of the primary cancer were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess variables associated with risk of adrenal metastasis. Results: Patients with adrenal metastasis vs those without had a higher frequency of primary lung cancer (52.3% vs 30.7%) but a lower frequency of gastrointestinal cancer (7.9% vs 16.6%). The frequency of other abnormalities, including adenoma and hyperplasia, was similar between patients with and without known primary cancer. A higher proportion of patients with adrenal metastasis regardless of primary cancer site were younger, had a nodule or a mass, had an unenhanced attenuation of >10?HU, had an SUVmax ratio of >2.5, and had metastasis in other body parts. Analysis found independent associations of age, unenhanced attenuation of >10 HU, SUVmax ratio of >2.5 and the presence of metastasis in other body parts with adrenal metastasis. The combination of the four variables was strongly associated with adrenal metastasis. Conclusion: PET/CT was useful in characterising adrenal lesions as benign or malignant and helpful in identifying adrenal metastasis and cancer severity. Advances in knowledge: PET/CT can help in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant adrenal enlargement. PMID:23833032

  20. Utilisation of the GMES Sentinel satellites for off-shore platform oil spills and gas flaring monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Erasmo, Daniele; Casadio, Stefano; Cardaci, Massimo; Del Frate, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Oil spills and gas flaring are serious issues for ecosystem, economy and people working on the extraction sites. Oil spill is known. Gas Flaring is the disposal of poison waste gases generated in the oil extraction process. High volumes (every year gas flaring burns worldwide the equivalent of 25% of the overall gas burned in Europe), significantly contributing to the global carbon emission budget (0.5% of total, 2008). European and worldwide legislation pays an increasing attention to it. Our Sentinel1 and 3 SAR and SLSTR usage for this objective won the GMES Masters 2012 IDEAS Challenge. In this study, we use SAR and infrared/thermal (SLSTR) data to identify unexpected misbehaviours of oil platforms, like switch on of the flare and oil spill in the ocean. On one side, the detection and characterization of gas flaring is achieved by analysing the infrared/thermal radiances measured by the SLSTR instrument on-board SENTINEL-3. This technique has been developed and tested using the ENVISAT Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) dataset and proved to be adequate for long term monitoring of oil extraction for both off-shore and in-shore drilling stations. The spatial/temporal coverage provided by SENTINEL-3 will allow an unprecedented daily monitoring of the oil extraction platforms. On the other side, the detection of oil spills and ships can be performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Both for oil spills and ships, many techniques have been published in the dedicated literature and validated to make the process of detection from SAR automatic. The extension of these techniques to the future SENTINEL-1 data is feasible. The service is mainly addressed to governments (in charge of controlling respect of the rules), civil protection authorities (to promote prevention of pollution damages), oil companies (that want to prove their respect of rules and attention to the environment), and ONGs (involved in the monitoring of the environment). The methodology applied, the tests performed, and the foreseen development of the service will be presented at the conference.

  1. Utilisation d'analyse de concepts formels pour la gestion de variabilite d'un logiciel configure dynamiquement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menguy, Theotime

    Because of its critical nature, avionic industry is bound with numerous constraints such as security standards and certifications while having to fulfill the clients' desires for personalization. In this context, variability management is a very important issue for re-engineering projects of avionic softwares. In this thesis, we propose a new approach, based on formal concept analysis and semantic web, to support variability management. The first goal of this research is to identify characteristic behaviors and interactions of configuration variables in a dynamically configured system. To identify such elements, we used formal concept analysis on different levels of abstractions in the system and defined new metrics. Then, we built a classification for the configuration variables and their relations in order to enable a quick identification of a variable's behavior in the system. This classification could help finding a systematic approach to process variables during a re-engineering operation, depending on their category. To have a better understanding of the system, we also studied the shared controls of code between configuration variables. A second objective of this research is to build a knowledge platform to gather the results of all the analysis performed, and to store any additional element relevant in the variability management context, for instance new results helping define re-engineering process for each of the categories. To address this goal, we built a solution based on a semantic web, defining a new ontology, very extensive and enabling to build inferences related to the evolution processes. The approach presented here is, to the best of our knowledge, the first classification of configuration variables of a dynamically configured software and an original use of documentation and variability management techniques using semantic web in the aeronautic field. The analysis performed and the final results show that formal concept analysis is a way to identify specific properties and behaviors and that semantic web is a good solution to store and explore the results. However, the use of formal concept analysis with new boolean relations, such as the link between configuration variables and files, and the definition of new inferences may be a way to draw better conclusions. The use of the same methodology with other systems would enable to validate the approach in other contexts.

  2. The Applicability of Social Network Analysis to the Study of Networked Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toikkanen, Tarmo; Lipponen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    Studying networked learning (NL) by applying social network analysis (SNA) has gained popularity in recent years. However, it appears that in the context of NL the choice of SNA indices is very often dictated by using easily achievable SNA tools. Most studies in this field only involve a single group of students and utilise simple indices, such as…

  3. Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

  4. Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of ?13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest ?13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during the vegetation period the values were much lower (-21.85 o). This coincided with a strong increase of the PLFA 18:2 (from 0.99 up to 2.37 nmol g dry wt soil-1), indicating utilisation of old organic matter by fungi, while mono-unsaturated PLFAs, indicating Gram-negative bacteria, were more frequent before and after the growing season. Microbial dynamics in the unfertilised control followed the same seasonal pattern but PLFAs were less enriched in 13C due to lower yields compared with the N-fertilised treatment. The addition of organic amendments (straw or sewage sludge) lowered ?13C-values in PLFAs below values of the control due to input of labile material with C3-origin. PLFAs in the bare fallow treatment, that had not received plant carbon inputs during twelve years, were most 13C depleted among the treatments but still enriched by about 2o compared with SOM, indicating a degree of microbial fractionation.

  5. Morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation in HIV-infected children following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in Côte d’Ivoire, 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Desmonde, S.; Essanin, J.B; Aka, E.A; Messou, E.; Amorissani-Folquet, M.; Rondeau, V.; Ciaranello, A.; Leroy, V.

    2013-01-01

    Background We describe severe morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU) among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Methods All HIV-infected children enrolled in an HIV-care programme (2004–2009) were eligible from ART initiation until database closeout, death, ART interruption, or loss to follow-up. We calculated incidence density rates (IR) per 100 child-years (CY) for severe morbidity, HCRU (outpatient and inpatient care), and associated factors using frailty models with a Weibull distribution. Results Of 332 children with median age 5.7 years and median follow-up 2.5 years, 65.4% were severely immunodeficient by WHO criteria and all received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. We recorded 464 clinical events in 228 children; the overall IR was 57.6/100 CY (95%CI: 52.1–62.5). Severe morbidity was more frequent in children on protease inhibitor-based ART compared to those on other regimens (aHR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.35–2.47) and those moderately/severely immunodeficient compared to those not (aHR: 1.57; 95%CI: 1.13–2.18 and aHR: 2.53, 95%CI: 1.81–3.55 respectively). Of the 464 events, 371 (80%) led to outpatient care (IR: 45.6/100CY) and 164 (35%) to inpatient care (IR: 20.2/100CY). In adjusted analyses, outpatient care was significantly less frequent in children >10 years compared to children <2 years (aHR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.31–0.78) and in those living furthest from clinic compared to those living closest (aHR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.47–0.90). Both inpatient and outpatient HCRU were negatively associated with cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Conclusion Despite ART, HIV-infected children still require substantial utilization of healthcare services. PMID:24525473

  6. Impact of the dual defence system of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) on performance, nutrient utilisation and feeding choice behaviour of Amata mogadorensis larvae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Gehring, René; Müller, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Iridoid glycosides are plant defence compounds with potentially detrimental effects on non-adapted herbivores. Some plant species possess ?-glucosidases that hydrolyse iridoid glycosides and thereby release protein-denaturing aglycones. To test the hypothesis that iridoid glycosides and plant ?-glucosidases form a dual defence system, we used Plantago lanceolata and a polyphagous caterpillar species. To analyse the impact of leaf-age dependent differences in iridoid glycoside concentrations and ?-glucosidase activities on insect performance, old or young leaves were freeze-dried and incorporated into artificial diets or were provided freshly to the larvae. We determined larval consumption rates and the amounts of assimilated nitrogen. Furthermore, we quantified ?-glucosidase activities in artificial diets and fresh leaves and the amount of iridoid glycosides that larvae feeding on fresh leaves ingested and excreted. Compared to fresh leaves, caterpillars grew faster on artificial diets, on which larval weight gain correlated positively to the absorbed amount of nitrogen. When feeding fresh young leaves, larvae even lost weight and excreted only minute proportions of the ingested iridoid glycosides intact with the faeces, indicating that the hydrolysis of these compounds might have interfered with nitrogen assimilation and impaired larval growth. To disentangle physiological effects from deterrent effects of iridoid glycosides, we performed dual choice feeding assays. Young leaves, their methanolic extracts and pure catalpol reduced larval feeding in comparison to the respective controls, while aucubin had no effect on larval consumption. We conclude that the dual defence system of P. lanceolata consisting of iridoid glycosides and ?-glucosidases interferes with the nutrient utilisation via the hydrolysis of iridoid glycosides and also mediates larval feeding behaviour in a concentration- and substance-specific manner. PMID:26306994

  7. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  8. Promotion of Autonomy for Participation in Physical Activity: A Study Based on the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Andrés-Fabra, José A.; Montero-Carretero, Carlos; Cervelló, Eduardo; Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a school-based intervention to promote physical activity, utilising the postulates of the trans-contextual model of motivation. The study examined two separate classes of elementary school students (mean age 11.28?years), one of which served as the control group (n?=?26) and the other as the…

  9. Warranting Disbelief: A Discourse Analytic Study of the Justification of Modern Scepticism 

    E-print Network

    McMeddes, Rurigdh

    2013-07-02

    many flaws with such an approach. Answering a perceived gap in the research the present study utilises Discourse Analysis (DA) to examine how scepticism is justified. To this end the Editor’s Note section of the magazine, Skeptical Inquirer has been...

  10. A Third Use of Sociology of Scientific Knowledge: A Lens for Studying Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Avery, Leanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, science educators and science education researchers have grown increasingly interested in utilising insights from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) to inform their work and research. To date, researchers in science education have focused on two applications: results of sociological studies of science have been…

  11. Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

  12. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  13. Changes in BSc Business Administration and Psychology Students' Learning Styles over One, Two and Three Years of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on general or discipline-specific changes in the learning styles of university students can be utilised in the design and execution of courses, but little is known of such changes. The study examined the changes in the learning styles of three year groups of BSc Business Administration and Psychology students from admittance to one, two…

  14. Does School-to-School Collaboration Promote School Improvement? A Study of the Impact of School Federations on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Christopher; Muijs, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study adopted a quantitative methodology involving a matched sample of federated and non-federated schools and utilising multilevel modelling techniques to explore the impact of federations on student outcomes. The sample involves a total of 50 school districts and 264 schools. These are grouped into 122 federations; 264 comparator schools…

  15. Exploring the Evolution of a Teacher Professional Learning Community: A Longitudinal Case Study at a Taiwanese High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peiying; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings of a longitudinal case study conducted at a Taiwanese high school from 2006 to 2010. This school participated in the 'High Scope Programme' (HSP), which was sponsored by the Taiwanese National Science Council to promote curricular innovation in science education. Utilising interview data with 11 participating…

  16. Multilingual Literacies in Transnational Digitally Mediated Contexts: An Exploratory Study of Immigrant Teens in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Rosario-Ramos, Enid

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships…

  17. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings III. Utilisation of a high-throughput multiwell plate screening method to rapidly assess bacterial biofilm retention on antifouling surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stafslien, Shane; Daniels, Justin; Chisholm, Bret; Christianson, David

    2007-01-01

    The authors recently reported on the development of a novel multiwell plate screening method for the high-throughput assessment of bacterial biofilm retention on surfaces. Two series of biocide containing coatings were prepared to assess the ability of the developed assay to adequately discern differences in antifouling performance: i) a commercially available poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silicone elastomer (DC) physically blended with an organic antifouling biocide Sea-Nine 211 (SN211) (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone), and ii) a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-OH) reacted with an alkoxy silane-modified polyethylenimine containing bound ammonium salt groups (PEI-AmCl). Three marine bacteria were utilised to evaluate the SN211 blended coatings (Pseudoalteromonas atlantica ATCC 19262, Cobetia marina ATCC 25374, Halomonas pacifica ATCC 27122) and the marine bacterium Cytophaga lytica was utilised to evaluate the PEI-AmCl/PDMS-OH coatings. The SN211 blended coatings showed a general trend of decreasing biofilm retention as the concentration of SN211 increased in both PMMA and DC. HPLC analysis revealed that reduction in biofilm retention was positively correlated with the amount of SN211 released into the growth medium over the length of the bacterial incubation. When compared to PMMA, DC consistently showed an equal or greater percent reduction in biofilm retention as the level of SN211 loading increased, although at lower loading concentrations. Evaluations of the PEI-AmCl/PDMS-OH coatings with C. lytica showed that all PEI-AmCl loading concentrations significantly reduced biofilm retention (p<0.0001) by a surface contact phenomenon. The high-throughput bacterial biofilm growth and retention assay has been shown to be useful as an effective primary screening tool for the rapid assessment of antifouling materials. PMID:17453727

  18. "There Is No Alternative?": Challenging Dominant Understandings of Youth Politics in Late Modernity through a Case Study of the 2010 UK Student Occupation Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingans, Rowan; Hollands, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Utilising an in-depth case study of a student occupation at Newcastle University as its focus, this article makes a critical appraisal of Beck, Giddens and Inglehart's ideas about youth and political agency in late modernity. In short, we argue that when considering the case of the 2010 UK student occupation movement, dominant theoretical thinking…

  19. The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

    The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 ?g m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 ?g m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/dehydroabietic acid and retene were not found in the samples suggesting there is a difference in the long-distance transport samples of an Asian forest fire and the controlled experiments reported in the literature. Similar to the biomass burning in Amazonia (Abas et al., 1995), the present study also showed an absence of conifer tracers in the smoke aerosols indicating tropical wood sources. Abundant friedelin, a specific biomarker for smoke from oak wood fires (Standley and Simoneit, 1990), was present in the late September samples when the fire was more intense. The results were compared to literature values from an earlier study of the haze episode on 29 September 1991 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Abas and Simoneit, 1996).

  20. EVITEACH: a study exploring ways to optimise the uptake of evidence-based practice to undergraduate nurses.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Louise D; Kelly, Helen; Phillips, Jane L

    2014-11-01

    EVITEACH aimed to increase undergraduate nursing student's engagement with evidence-based practice and enhance their knowledge utilisation and translation capabilities. Building students capabilities to apply evidence in professional practice is a fundamental university role. Undergraduate nursing students need to actively engage with knowledge utilisation and translational skill development to narrow the evidence practice gap in the clinical setting. A two phase mixed methods study was undertaken over a three year period (2008-2010, inclusive) utilizing a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) approach. Three undergraduate nursing cohorts (N = 188) enrolled in a compulsory knowledge translation and utilisation subject at one Australian university participated. Data collection comprised of subject evaluation data and reflective statements. Preliminary investigations identified priority areas related to subject: materials, resources, teaching and workload. These priority areas became the focus of action for two PDSA cycles. PDSA cycle 1 demonstrated significant improvement of the subject overall (p > 0.05), evaluation of the materials used (p > 0.001) and teaching sub-groups (p > 0.05). PDSA cycle 2 continued to sustain improvement of the subject overall (p > 0.05). Furthermore reflective statements collected during PDSA cycle 2 identified four themes: (1) What engages undergraduate nurses in the learning process; (2) The undergraduate nurses learning trajectory; (3) Undergraduate nurses' preconceptions of research and evidenced-based practice; and (4) Appreciating the importance of research and evidence-based practice to nursing. There is little robust evidence to guide the most effective way to build knowledge utilisation and translational skills. Effectively engaging undergraduate nursing students in knowledge translation and utilisation subjects could have immediate and long term benefits for nursing as a profession and patient outcomes. Developing evidence-based practice capabilities is important in terms of improving patient outcomes, organisational efficiencies and creating satisfying work environments. PMID:24953061

  1. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par le BrdU au niveau cellulaire. Notre hypothese (basee sur des resultats preliminaires effectues dans notre laboratoire) est que l'irradiation de l'ADN cellulaire en presence de BrdU augmentera le nombre de bris simple brin sans toutefois augmenter le nombre de bris double brin. Les resultats presentes dans ce memoire semblent corroborer cette hypothese. Les nouvelles methodes d'analyse, soient l'essai comete et la detection des foci gamma-H2AX remettent en question ce qui a ete dit sur le BrdU au sujet de l'induction des cassures double brin depuis plusieurs annees. L'ensemble de ces nouveaux resultats effectue a l'aide de cellules ayant incorporees du BrdU sont en correlation avec de precedents resultats obtenus dans notre laboratoire sur des oligonucleotides bromes. Ils reaffirment que l'irradiation combinee au BrdU augmente l'induction de bris simple brin mais pas de bris double brin. L'investigation approfondie des mecanismes d'action non elucides du BrdU au niveau cellulaire et son utilisation a des moments strategiques pendant le traitement de radiotherapie pourraient accroitre son efficacite a des fins d'utilisation clinique. Mots cles : 5-bromodeoxyuridine, dimeres interbrins, dommage a l'ADN, essai comete, H2AX, radiosensibilisateur, radiotherapie

  2. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a screening tool for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities in a group of pregnant women in Khayelitsha

    PubMed Central

    Davies, HR; Visser, J; Tomlinson, M; Rotheram-Borus, MJ; Gissane, C; Harwood, J; LeRoux, I

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the gestational body mass index (BMI) method to screen for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities. Design This was a substudy of a randomised controlled trial, the Philani Mentor Mothers’ study. Setting and subjects The Philani Mentor Mothers’ study took place in a peri-urban settlement, Khayelitsha, between 2009 and 2010. Pregnant women living in the area in 2009-2010 were recruited for the study. Outcome measures Maternal anthropometry (height and weight) and gestational weeks were obtained at baseline to calculate the gestational BMI, which is maternal BMI adjusted for gestational age. Participants were classified into four gestational BMI categories: underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Birth outcomes and maternal morbidities were obtained from clinic cards after the births. Results Pregnant women were recruited into the study (n = 1 058). Significant differences were found between the different gestational BMI categories and the following birth outcomes: maternal (p-value = 0.019), infant hospital stay (p-value = 0.03), infants staying for over 24 hours in hospital (p-value = 0.001), delivery mode (p-value = 0.001), birthweight (p-value = 0.006), birth length (p-value = 0.007), birth head circumference (p-value = 0.007) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (p-value = 0.001). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has used the gestational BMI method in a peri-urban South African pregnant population. Based on the findings that this method is able to identify unfavourable birth outcomes, it is recommended that it is implemented as a pilot study in selected rural, peri-urban and urban primary health clinics, and that its ease and effectiveness as a screening tool is evaluated. Appropriate medical and nutritional advice can then be given to pregnant women to improve both their own and their infants’ birth-related outcomes and maternal morbidities. PMID:25324710

  3. Résection endoscopique des polypes colorectaux pédiculés en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé: une alternative a la polypectomie conventionnelle? A propos d'une série de cas

    PubMed Central

    Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Tagni-Sartre, Michèle; Modjo, Gabriel; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap

    2014-01-01

    L'intérêt de l'endoscopie dans la résection des polypes colorectaux a été rapporté dans plusieurs études. Les techniques de résection endoscopique sont multiples et maîtrisées dans les pays occidentaux. La technique de mucosectomie endoscopique et celle de la pose d'une anse largable en nylon (endoloop) ont élargi le champ des lésions résécables par endoscopie. Toutefois, malgré cette évolution, la vulgarisation de la polypectomie n'est pas effective. En Afrique subsaharienne, la prise en charge de ces polypes de grande taille nécessite souvent une intervention chirurgicale à ciel ouvert ou une évacuation sanitaire onéreuse dans un pays en Occident. Nous rapportons une nouvelle approche de polypectomie endoscopique des polypes pédiculés colorectaux, en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé 2/0. Les polypes pédiculés étaient situés soit au niveau du sigmoïde soit au rectum. Après avoir passé le lasso autour du pédicule, le n'ud du lasso est serré autour de celui-ci pour strangulation. En moyenne 6 jours après la procédure, le polype est récupéré dans les selles. Une colonoscopie de contrôle est nécessaire pour confirmer la résection du polype. Cette technique peu coûteuse et accessible, devrait être vulgarisée dans les pays en voie de développement avec des plateaux techniques pauvres. Elle a ses limites et ses inconvénients qui doivent être connus de l'opérateur. PMID:25360198

  4. Development of symptom assessments utilising item response theory and computer-adaptive testing--a practical method based on a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jochen; Böhnke, Jan R; Cerny, Thomas; Strasser, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of individual patients' distress is a cornerstone of clinical care for advanced cancer. Patients' ability to fill out lengthy questionnaires is compromised by many factors. Computer-adaptive tests (CAT) offer a promising approach to developing tailored instruments, that administer only items relevant to the individual patient. A systematic review of the literature about CATs in medical databases was conducted. Based on the results, a method for developing a CAT was designed that requires nine steps: (1) build an item pool; (2) administer the items to a predefined sample in a calibration study; (3) eliminate inappropriate items; (4) examine whether all items are influenced by a single dominant trait; (5) calibrate the items to the best-fitting item response theory (IRT) model; (6) evaluate items' parameter equivalence across subgroups; (7) build an item bank with the calibrated items; (8) develop the CAT; and (9) pilot test the developed CAT. CAT offers the chance to extend the usefulness of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measurements from clinical studies to daily clinical practice. PMID:19375939

  5. Utilisation, contents and costs of prenatal care under a rural health insurance (New Co-operative Medical System) in rural China: lessons from implementation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In China, the New Co-operative Medical System (NCMS), a rural health insurance system, has expanded nationwide since 2003. This study aims to describe prenatal care use, content and costs of care in one county where prenatal care is included in the NCMS and two counties where it is not. It also explores the perceptions of stakeholders of the prenatal care benefit package in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach in the context of rural China and to draw lessons from early implementation. Methods This study is based on the data from a cross-sectional survey and a qualitative investigation conducted in 2009. A survey recruited women giving birth in 2008, including 544 women in RC County (which covered prenatal care) and 619, and 1071 in other two counties (which did not). The qualitative investigation in RC included focus group discussions with women giving birth before or after 2007, individual interviews with local policy makers and health managers, NCMS managers and obstetric doctors in township hospitals. Results There were no significant differences in prenatal care use between RC County (which covered prenatal care) and other two counties (which did not): over 70% of women started prenatal visits early and over 60% had five or more visits. In the three counties: a small proportion of women received the number of haemoglobin and urine tests recommended by the national guideline; 90% of women received more ultrasound tests than recommended; and the out-of-pocket expenditure for prenatal care consumed a high proportion of women's annual income in the low income group. In RC: only 20% of NCMS members claimed the reimbursement; the qualitative study found that the reimbursement for prenatal care was not well understood by women and had little influence on women's decisions to make prenatal visits; and several women indicated that doctors suggested them taking more expensive tests. Conclusions Whether or not prenatal care was included in the NCMS, prenatal care use was high, but the contents of care were not provided following the national guideline and more expensive tests were recommended by doctors. Costs were substantial for the poor. PMID:21040560

  6. Utilisation of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) data for assessment of soil erosion process of a watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod Krishna, Akhouri

    A watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region was investigated utilizing space data from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite towards spatial and temporal soil erosion process study. Geomorphologically, this plateau region is an undulating pediplain. The watershed namely Potpoto river watershed covering an area of 8160 hectares is situated in the vicinity of Ranchi, capital city of newly created Jharkahnd state. As per the national watershed atlas, Potpoto river is a tributary of Subarnarekha river system within the Upper Subarnarekha river basin under watershed no. 4H3C8. This rural to semi-urban watershed is important towards various services to Ranchi city as well as experiencing direct or indirect pressures of development. Drivers of land use changes at ground level are responsible for change in soil erosion rates in any watershed in coupled human-environment systems. This may adversely affect the soil cover of such watersheds depicted through changed rates of erosion. In a rural to semi-urban watershed like this, there are general tendencies of land use and thereby land cover changes from forests to agricultural lands, within agricultural land in terms of cropping pattern changes to cash-crops, orchards, commercial plantations and conversions to other land use categories as well towards infrastructure expansions. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used as a basis to observe the intensity of erosion using remote sensing, rainfall data, soil data and land use/land cover map. IRS1C LISSIII and IRSP6 LISSIII data were used to identify land use status for the years 1996 and 2004 respectively. LISSIII sensor provides data in the visible to near infrared (Bands 2, 3, 4) as well as short wave infrared (Band 5) range of electromagnetic spectrum. In this study, bands 2 (0.52-0.59 microns), 3 (0.62-0.68 microns) and 4 (0.77-0.86 microns) were used with spatial resolution of 23.5 meters at nadir. Digital image processing was carried out using ERDAS Imagine software. Based on maximum likelihood classifier, the study area was classified into suitable land use/land cover classes. Digital elevation model (DEM) was created through contour heights from topographic maps. Watershed based erosion estimation was carried out including assessment of soil erosion due to land use land cover changes. This provides predictive assessment capability in soil erosion studies particularly with methods such as USLE. Soil erosion problem varies largely depending upon climate, topography, soil and land use etc. Multi-factor computations on rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topographic, cover and management, and conservation practice were carried out. Quantified details on soil erosion rates were generated in terms of land use land cover classes of the watershed for the years 1996 and 2004. Annual average soil loss for the watershed was calculated and erosion intensity maps were generated. Thus, space data utilized from the satellites IRS1C LISSIII and IRSP6 LISSIII greatly helped in important research assessment of an important land surface process like soil erosion spatially as well as temporally for a watershed under pressures of development, land use changes and land cover fragmentations.

  7. An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk. PMID:20384996

  8. Utilising monitoring and modelling of estuarine environments to investigate catchment conditions responsible for stratification events in a typically well-mixed urbanised estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Serena B.; Birch, Gavin F.

    2012-10-01

    Estuarine health is affected by contamination from stormwater, particularly in highly-urbanised environments. For systems where catchment monitoring is insufficient, novel techniques must be employed to determine the impact of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. In the present work, estuarine monitoring and modelling were successfully employed to determine stormwater runoff volumes and establish an appropriate rainfall/runoff relationship capable of replicating fresh-water discharge due to the full range of precipitation conditions in the Sydney Estuary, Australia. Using estuary response to determine relationships between catchment rainfall and runoff is a widely applicable method and may be of assistance in the study of waterways where monitoring fluvial discharges is not practical or is beyond the capacity of management authorities. For the Sydney Estuary, the SCS-CN method replicated rainfall/runoff and was applied in numerical modelling experiments investigating the hydrodynamic characteristics affecting stratification and estuary recovery following high precipitation. Numerical modelling showed stratification in the Sydney Estuary was dominated by fresh-water discharge. Spring tides and up-estuary winds contributed to mixing and neap tides and down-estuary winds enhanced stratification.

  9. Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 ?M and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

  10. Prévisions des taux d'érosion à l'échelle du paysage par l'utilisation de modèles numériques d'altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.

    2003-12-01

    Functional relationships between erosion rates and topography are central to understanding controls on global sediment flux and interactions among tectonics, climate, and erosion in shaping topography. Based on such relations digital elevation models (DEMs) allow predicting landscape-scale erosion rates to the degree that process models can be calibrated and to the extent that such processes reflect elevation, drainage area, and aspect, or their derivatives such as slope and curvature. Digital elevation models allow investigating the influence of erosional processes on landscape form and evolution through generalized quantitative expressions often referred to as 'erosion laws'. The analytical forms of such expressions are derived from physical principles, but only limited data are available to guide calibration to particular landscapes. In addition, few studies have addressed how different transport laws interact to set landscape-scale erosion rates in different environments. Conventionally, landscape-scale sediment flux is considered to be linearly related to slope or relief, but recent analyses point toward non-linear relations for steep terrain in which changes in the frequency of landsliding accommodate increased rates of rock uplift. In such situations, landscape-scale erosion rates are more closely tied to erosion potential predicted by models of bedrock river incision. Consequently, I propose that using DEMs to predict absolute or relative erosion rates at the landscape-scale counter-intuitively involves the rate of fluvial processes as governing the sediment flux from steep landscapes, and rates of hillslope processes as governing sediment flux from low-gradient landscapes. To cite this article: D.R. Montgomery, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  11. Utilisation of preventative health check-ups in the UK: findings from individual-level repeated cross-sectional data from 1992 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank; Baker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To analyse and compare the determinants of screening uptake for different National Health Service (NHS) health check-ups in the UK. Design Individual-level analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys with balanced panel data. Setting The UK. Participants Individuals taking part in the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), 1992–2008. Outcome measure Uptake of NHS health check-ups for cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, blood pressure checks, cholesterol tests, dental screening and eyesight tests. Methods Dynamic panel data models (random effects panel probit with initial conditions). Results Having had a health check-up 1?year before, and previously in accordance with the recommended schedule, was associated with higher uptake of health check-ups. Individuals who visited a general practitioner (GP) had a significantly higher uptake in 5 of the 6 health check-ups. Uptake was highest in the recommended age group for breast and cervical cancer screening. For all health check-ups, age had a non-linear relationship. Lower self-rated health status was associated with increased uptake of blood pressure checks and cholesterol tests; smoking was associated with decreased uptake of 4 health check-ups. The effects of socioeconomic variables differed for the different health check-ups. Ethnicity did not have a significant influence on any health check-up. Permanent household income had an influence only on eyesight tests and dental screening. Conclusions Common determinants for having health check-ups are age, screening history and a GP visit. Policy interventions to increase uptake should consider the central role of the GP in promoting screening examinations and in preserving a high level of uptake. Possible economic barriers to access for prevention exist for dental screening and eyesight tests, and could be a target for policy intervention. Trial registration This observational study was not registered. PMID:24366576

  12. Assessing blue and green water utilisation in wheat production of China from the perspectives of water footprint and total water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X. C.; Wu, P. T.; Wang, Y. B.; Zhao, X. N.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the green and blue water footprint (WF) and the total water use (TWU) of wheat crop in China in both irrigated and rainfed productions. Crop evapotranspiration and water evaporation loss are both considered when calculating the water footprint in irrigated fields. We compared the water use for per-unit product between irrigated and rainfed crops and analyzed the relationship between promoting the yield and conserving water resources. The national total and per-unit-product WF of wheat production in 2010 were approximately 111.5 Gm3 (64.2% green and 35.8% blue) and 0.968 m3 kg-1, respectively. There is a large difference in the water footprint of the per-kilogram wheat product (WFP) among different provinces: the WFP is low in the provinces in and around the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, while it is relatively high in the provinces south of the Yangtze River and in northwestern China. The major portion of WF (80.9%) comes from irrigated farmland, and the remaining 19.1% is rainfed. Green water dominates the area south of the Yangtze River, whereas low green water proportions are found in the provinces located in northern China, especially northwestern China. The national TWU and total water use of the per-kilogram wheat product (TWUP) are 142.5 Gm3 and 1.237 m3 kg-1, respectively, containing approximately 21.7% blue water percolation (BWp). The values of WFP for irrigated (WFPI) and rainfed (WFPR) crops are 0.911 and 1.202 m3 kg-1, respectively. Irrigation plays an important role in food production, promoting the wheat yield by 170% and reducing the WFP by 24% compared to those of rainfed wheat production. Due to the low irrigation efficiency, more water is needed per kilogram in irrigated farmland in many arid regions, such as the Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu Provinces. We divided the 30 provinces of China into three categories according to the relationship between the TWUPI (TWU for per-unit product in irrigated farmland) and TWUPR (TWU for per-unit product in rainfed farmland): (I) TWUPI < TWUPR, (II) TWUPI = TWUPR, and (III) TWUPI > TWUPR. Category II, which contains the major wheat-producing areas in the North China Plain, produces nearly 75% of the wheat of China. The double benefits of conserving water and promoting production can be achieved by irrigating wheat in Category I provinces. Nevertheless, the provinces in this category produce only 1.1% of the national wheat yield.

  13. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (?150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ?14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  14. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (? 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ? 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  15. Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour l'évaluation du recrutement des leucocytes et des échanges vasculaires au niveau d'organes in~vivo. Description d'une méthode et discussion des problèmes d'interprétation sur quelques exemples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, M. F.

    1997-03-01

    An experimental method using simultaneously different ? emiter tracers was developed to evaluate inflammation in vivo. Experiments were performed on the anaesthetized guinea-pig to test pulmonary effects of inflammatory agents. Red blood cells, albumin and inflammatory cells (platelets or leucocytes) radiolabelled with 99m technetium, 131 iodine and 111 indium respectively were injected i.v. Their radioactivities were measured on a pulmonary region by external detection and on blood samples in a well type counter. From these measurements variations of the lung contents in red blood cells, extravascular albumin and non circulating leucocytes during inflammatory stimulation were evaluated. These parameters axe indexes of blood perfusion, vascular exchanges and leucocyte sequestration respectively. Fiability of the method and meaning of the parameters evaluated are discussed. Une méthode expérimentale utilisant simultanément différents traceurs ? a été développée pour évaluer l'inflammation in vivo. Des expériences ont été réalisées chez le cobaye anesthésié pour tester l'effet pulmonaire d'agents inflammatoires. Des globules rouges, de l'albumine et des cellules inflammatoires (plaquettes ou leucocytes) radiomarqués respectivement au technetium 99m, à l'iode 131 et à l'indium 111 sont injectés i.v. Leurs radioactivités sont mesurées sur une région pulmonaire par détection externe et sur des échantillons sanguins au compteur puit. À partir de ces mesures sont évaluées les variations des contenus pulmonaires en globules rouges, en albumine extravasculaire et en leucocytes non circulants lors d'une stimulation inflammatoire. Ces paramètres sont corrélés aux modifications de la perfusion, des échanges vasculaires et de la séquestration leucocytaire. La fiabilité de la méthode et la signification des paramètres évalués sont discutées.

  16. [Pilot study on a modular outpatient treatment programme following public order placements because of endangerment in patients with psychotic disorders].

    PubMed

    Luckhaus, C; Kampka, N; Frommann, N; Dönisch-Seidel, U; Gaebel, W; Janssen, B

    2014-08-01

    Patients with psychotic disorders who were detained by public order because of endangerment, can be regarded as a population at risk of further endangerment, public order placements and a forensic course. Concepts of specific aftercare for this subgroup are lacking thus far. The present pilot study explores the feasibility of a modular therapeutic outpatient programme that is tailored to specific subgroup needs and is applied over six months. Readmission rates during the intervention period are regarded exploratively.Consecutive screening of all patients placed in general psychiatry by public order during 05 to 11/2012. Included patients received baseline measurements followed by six-month intervention. Individual utilisation of treatment modules and number of readmissions, differentiated according to legal bases were assessed.Inclusion rate: 17.4?% of all screened subjects (115) and 57?% of all potentially includable subjects, dropout rate: 15?%. Mean utilisation rate: 23.5 therapeutic contacts per 6 months. Readmission rate: 50?%, of these 60?% on voluntary legal basis.Study inclusion, mean utilisation and dropout rates attest the feasibility and acceptance of the intervention in the population under study. A preponderance of voluntary vs. compulsory readmissions to hospital during the intervention indicates that in the majority of patients a higher degree of therapeutic cooperativeness can be reached. Further study on reduction of compulsory readmissions and on avoidance of a forensic course by application of the here introduced intervention in combination with methods of risk assessment in a consecutive main project seems justified. PMID:25105433

  17. The Neighbourhood Effects on Health and Well-being (NEHW) study.

    PubMed

    O'Campo, Patricia; Wheaton, Blair; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Glazier, Richard H; Dunn, James R; Chambers, Catharine

    2015-01-01

    Many cross-sectional studies of neighbourhood effects on health do not employ strong study design elements. The Neighbourhood Effects on Health and Well-being (NEHW) study, a random sample of 2412 English-speaking Toronto residents (age 25-64), utilises strong design features for sampling neighbourhoods and individuals, characterising neighbourhoods using a variety of data sources, measuring a wide range of health outcomes, and for analysing cross-level interactions. We describe here methodological issues that shaped the design and analysis features of the NEHW study to ensure that, while a cross-sectional sample, it will advance the quality of evidence emerging from observational studies. PMID:25463919

  18. ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES UTILISING HIGH DENSITY INFRARED

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    by mechanical testing and microstructural investigation. Micrographs of softened aluminium show that Mg2Si for a predetermined response to dynamic loading or other environmental situations. SE/S282 Drs Rivard (rivardjd and Mining. INTRODUCTION Vehicle occupant safety is of the utmost concern for the automotive industry. Years

  19. Infrared single-pixel imaging utilising microscanning

    E-print Network

    Sun, Ming-Jie; Phillips, David B; Gibson, Graham M; Padgett, Miles J

    2015-01-01

    Since the invention of digital cameras there has been a concerted drive towards detector arrays with higher spatial resolution. Microscanning is a technique that provides a final higher resolution image by combining multiple images of a lower resolution. Each of these low resolution images is subject to a sub-pixel sized lateral displacement. In this work we apply the microscanning approach to an infrared single-pixel camera. For the same final resolution and measurement resource, we show that microscanning improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of reconstructed images by approximately 50%. In addition, this strategy also provides access to a stream of low-resolution 'preview' images throughout each high-resolution acquisition. Our work demonstrates an additional degree of flexibility in the trade-off between SNR and spatial resolution in single-pixel imaging techniques.

  20. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. PMID:16010760

  1. Capture and Utilisation of Landfill Gas

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    . In his 2003 review of energy recovery from landfill gas, Willumsen1 reported that as of 2001, there were estimated6 that biomass materials such as paper, food and wood, constitute about 70% of the MSW, compiles the Methane Recovery from Landfills Yearbook9 . The data presented in Table 3 is from the 1999

  2. D'UTILISATION VOTRE ESPACE ABONNES

    E-print Network

    Greff, Isabelle

    abonnés ? p.4 · Page d'accueil « Votre espace de travail » p.5 · Organiser votre espace de travail p.6 accès unique et simplifié à tous vos produits Votre espace de travail est le point d'entrée pour tous espace de travail » VOTRE PROFIL : Passer la souris sur votre nom et prénom pour afficher un menu

  3. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required ?v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  4. Cell-Based Therapies Used to Treat Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies and Human Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Oehme, David; Goldschlager, Tony; Ghosh, Peter; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.; Jenkin, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain and degenerative disc disease are a significant cause of pain and disability worldwide. Advances in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies, particularly the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and intervertebral disc chondrocytes, have led to the publication of numerous studies and clinical trials utilising these biological therapies to treat degenerative spinal conditions, often reporting favourable outcomes. Stem cell mediated disc regeneration may bridge the gap between the two current alternatives for patients with low back pain, often inadequate pain management at one end and invasive surgery at the other. Through cartilage formation and disc regeneration or via modification of pain pathways stem cells are well suited to enhance spinal surgery practice. This paper will systematically review the current status of basic science studies, preclinical and clinical trials utilising cell-based therapies to repair the degenerate intervertebral disc. The mechanism of action of transplanted cells, as well as the limitations of published studies, will be discussed. PMID:26074979

  5. Carbohydrate catabolic flexibility in the mammalian intestinal commensal Lactobacillus ruminis revealed by fermentation studies aligned to genome annotations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus ruminis is a poorly characterized member of the Lactobacillus salivarius clade that is part of the intestinal microbiota of pigs, humans and other mammals. Its variable abundance in human and animals may be linked to historical changes over time and geographical differences in dietary intake of complex carbohydrates. Results In this study, we investigated the ability of nine L. ruminis strains of human and bovine origin to utilize fifty carbohydrates including simple sugars, oligosaccharides, and prebiotic polysaccharides. The growth patterns were compared with metabolic pathways predicted by annotation of a high quality draft genome sequence of ATCC 25644 (human isolate) and the complete genome of ATCC 27782 (bovine isolate). All of the strains tested utilized prebiotics including fructooligosaccharides (FOS), soybean-oligosaccharides (SOS) and 1,3:1,4-?-D-gluco-oligosaccharides to varying degrees. Six strains isolated from humans utilized FOS-enriched inulin, as well as FOS. In contrast, three strains isolated from cows grew poorly in FOS-supplemented medium. In general, carbohydrate utilisation patterns were strain-dependent and also varied depending on the degree of polymerisation or complexity of structure. Six putative operons were identified in the genome of the human isolate ATCC 25644 for the transport and utilisation of the prebiotics FOS, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), SOS, and 1,3:1,4-?-D-Gluco-oligosaccharides. One of these comprised a novel FOS utilisation operon with predicted capacity to degrade chicory-derived FOS. However, only three of these operons were identified in the ATCC 27782 genome that might account for the utilisation of only SOS and 1,3:1,4-?-D-Gluco-oligosaccharides. Conclusions This study has provided definitive genome-based evidence to support the fermentation patterns of nine strains of Lactobacillus ruminis, and has linked it to gene distribution patterns in strains from different sources. Furthermore, the study has identified prebiotic carbohydrates with the potential to promote L. ruminis growth in vivo. PMID:21995520

  6. Genomics and disease resistance studies in livestock?

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Stephen C; Woolliams, John A

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the application of genetic and genomic techniques to disease resistance, the interpretation of data arising from such studies and the utilisation of the research outcomes to breed animals for enhanced resistance. Resistance and tolerance are defined and contrasted, factors affecting the analysis and interpretation of field data presented, and appropriate experimental designs discussed. These general principles are then applied to two detailed case studies, infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon and bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle, and the lessons learnt are considered in detail. It is concluded that the rate limiting step in disease genetic studies will generally be provision of adequate phenotypic data, and its interpretation, rather than the genomic resources. Lastly, the importance of cross-disciplinary dialogue between the animal health and animal genetics communities is stressed. PMID:26339300

  7. SU-E-T-215: Interactive Dose Shaping: Proof of Concept Study for Six Prostate Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerling, CP; Ziegenhein, P; Oelfke, U; Sterzing, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide a proof of concept study for IMRT treatment planning through interactive dose shaping (IDS) by utilising the respective tools to create IMRT treatment plans for six prostate patients. Methods: The IDS planning paradigm aims to perform interactive local dose adaptations of an IMRT plan without compromising already established valuable dose features in real-time. Various IDS tools are available in our in-house treatment planning software Dynaplan and were utilised to create IMRT treatment plans for six patients with an adeno-carcinoma of the prostate. The sequenced IDS treatment plans were compared to conventionally optimised clinically approved plans (9 beams, co-planar). The starting point consisted of open fields. The IDS tools were utilised to sculpt dose out of the rectum and bladder. For each patient, several IDS plans were created, with different trade-offs between organ sparing and target coverage. The reference dose distributions were imported into Dynaplan. For each patient, the IDS treatment plan with a similar or better trade-off between target coverage and OAR sparing was selected for plan evaluation, guided by a physician. Pencil beam dose calculation was performed on a grid with a voxel size of 1.95×1.95×2.0 mm{sup 3}. D98%, D2%, mean dose and dose-volume indicators as specified by Quantec were calculated for plan evaluation. Results: It was possible to utilise the software prototype to generate treatment plans for prostate patient geometries in 15–45 minutes. Individual local dose adaptations could be performed in less than one second. The average differences compared to the reference plans were for the mean dose: 0.0 Gy (boost) and 1.2 Gy (CTV), for D98%: ?1.1 Gy and for D2%: 1.1 Gy (both target volumes). The dose-volume quality indicators were well below the Quantec constraints. Conclusion: Real-time treatment planning utilising IDS is feasible and has the potential to be implemented clinically. Research at The Institute of Cancer Research is supported by Cancer Research UK under Programme C46/A10588.

  8. Utilisation de faisceaux d'ions oxygène réactifs pour la gravure de polymères utilisables en optoélectronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussant, C.; Lucas, B.; Ratier, B.; Moliton, A.; François, B.

    1998-06-01

    Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) of a fluorinated polyimide (6FDA-ODA) has been achieved with Oxygene ions. A 5keV and 0.5mA/cm2 ion beam leads to a 500 Å/mn sputtering speed of the material. A similar behavior was also observed in the case of PPP. La gravure d'un polyimide fluoré (6FDA-ODA) a été réalisée par un faisceau parallèle d'ions oxygène réactifs (Réactive Ion Beam Etching : RIBE). Pour une énergie des ions de 5keV et à des densités de courant de l'ordre de 0.5mA/cm2 une vitesse de gravure de 500 Å/mn a été obtenue pour ce matériau. Avec le PPP un comportement voisin a été également observé.

  9. Does conurbation affect the risk of poor mental health? A population based record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Maguire, A; O'Reilly, D

    2015-07-01

    To determine if urban residence is associated with an increased risk of anxiety/depression independent of psychosocial stressors, concentrated disadvantage or selective migration between urban and rural areas, this population wide record-linkage study utilised data on receipt of prescription medication linked to area level indicators of conurbation and disadvantage. An urban/rural gradient in anxiolytic and antidepressant use was evident that was independent of variation in population composition. This gradient was most pronounced amongst disadvantaged areas. Migration into increasingly urban areas increased the likelihood of medication. These results suggest increasing conurbation is deleterious to mental health, especially amongst residents of deprived areas. PMID:26022773

  10. The Muon LINAC for the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    A. Kurup, C. Bontoiu, Morteza Aslaninejad, J. Pozimski, A. Bogacz, V.S. Morozov, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

    2011-09-01

    The first stage of muon acceleration in the Neutrino Factory utilises a superconducting linac to accelerate muons from 244 MeV to 900 MeV. The linac was split into three types of cryomodules with decreasing magnetic fields and increasing amounts of RF voltage but with the design of the superconducting solenoid and RF cavities being the same for all cryomodules. The current status of the muon linac for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory will be presented including a final lattice design of the linac and tracking simulations.

  11. An electron microscopy study of the effect of Ce on plasma sprayed bronze coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensheng, Li; Wang, S. C.; Ma, Chao; Zhiping, Wang

    2012-07-01

    The Cu-Al eutectoid alloy is an excellent material for mould due to its superior low friction. The conventional sand casting technique, however, is not feasible to fabricate high Al bronze because of high hardness and brittleness. Plasma arc spray has been used to produce high Al/Fe bronze coatings for mould. The inherent impurities such as H, O, N, S during the spray, however, may affect the coating's mechanical strength. One approach is to utilise the active rare earth Ce to clean up these impurities. The study is to investigate the effect of Ce on the microstructure, which has few reported in the literature.

  12. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    May, Jennifer E. Morse, H. Ruth Xu, Jinsheng Donaldson, Craig

    2012-09-15

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ? An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ? HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ? The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic damage to the bone marrow ? Minor modifications would enable application as a general toxicity model.

  13. A qualitative study of influences on older women’s practitioner choices for back pain care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Back pain is an increasingly prevalent health concern amongst Australian women for which a wide range of treatment options are available, offered by biomedical, allied health and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers. Although there is an emerging literature on patterns of provider utilisation, less is known about the reasons why women with back pain select their chosen practitioner. In this paper we explore the influences on back pain sufferers’ decision-making about treatment seeking with practitioners for their most recent episode of back pain. Methods Drawing on 50 semi-structured interviews with women aged 60–65 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) who have chronic back pain, we focus on the factors which influence their choice of practitioner. Analysis followed a framework approach to qualitative content analysis, augmented by NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Key themes were identified and tested for rigour through inter-rater reliability and constant comparison. Results The women identified four predominant influences on their choice of practitioner for back pain: familiarity with treatment or experiences with individual practitioners; recommendations from social networks; geographical proximity of practitioners; and, qualifications and credentials of practitioners. The therapeutic approach or evidence-base of the practices being utilised was not reported by the women as central to their back pain treatment decision making. Conclusions Choice of practitioner appears to be unrelated to the therapeutic approaches, treatment practices or the scientific basis of therapeutic practices. Moreover, anecdotal lay reports of effectiveness and the ‘treatment experience’ may be more influential than formal qualifications in guiding women’s choice of practitioner for their back pain. Further work is needed on the interpersonal, collective and subjective underpinnings of practitioner choice, particularly over time, in order to better understand why women utilise certain practitioners for back pain. PMID:24655816

  14. Croyances des Futurs Enseignants at L'Utilisation des Technologies de L'Information en Milieu Scholaire. (The Beliefs of Future Teachers About the Utilization of Information Technology in Schools.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IsaBell, Claire; Desjardin, Richard; Desjardins, Yvon

    2001-01-01

    Studies the attitudes of student teachers concerning integration of information technologies and communications (ITC) in school settings. Suggests that the motivation of these teachers is essential for ensuring the integration of microcomputers into the educational environment. Finds that, based on a research study, student teachers expressed…

  15. Utilisation des micro-ordinateurs en ecriture aux cycles primaire et moyen: methodes, roles, attitudes et produits. L'education et la technologie (Writing with Microcomputers in the Elementary Grades: Process, Roles, Attitudes, and Products. Education and Technology Series).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larter, Sylvia; And Others

    A study examined and compared writing with and without microcomputers in elementary schools. Specifically, the study examined (1) how the products of writing instruction with a computer differ from the products of traditionally taught writing, (2) the process of teaching writing, (3) teacher-pupil roles when pupils are writing, (4) teacher…

  16. Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins. PMID:19803772

  17. Study of fuel cell co-generation systems applied to a dairy industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Elisângela M.; Silveira, José Luz

    This paper presents a methodology for the study of a molten carbonate fuel cell co-generation system. This system is applied to a dairy industry of medium size that typically demands 2100 kW of electricity, 8500 kg/h of saturated steam ( P=1.08 MPa) and 2725 kW of cold water production. Depending on the associated recuperation equipment, the co-generation system permits the recovery of waste heat, which can be used for the production of steam, hot and cold water, hot and cold air. In this study, a comparison is made between two configurations of fuel cell co-generation systems (FCCS). The plant performance has been evaluated on the basis of fuel utilisation efficiency and each system component evaluated on the basis of second law efficiency. The energy analysis presented shows a fuel utilisation efficiency of about 87% and exergy analysis shows that the irreversibilities in the combustion chamber of the plant are significant. Further, the payback period estimated for the fuel cell investment between US 1000 and US 1500/kW is about 3 and 6 years, respectively.

  18. Assessment of cardiometabolic risk in children in population studies: underpinning developmental origins of health and disease mother-offspring cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, R-C; Prescott, Susan L; Godfrey, Keith M; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy and birth cohorts have been utilised extensively to investigate the developmental origins of health and disease, particularly in relation to understanding the aetiology of obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. Birth and pregnancy cohorts have been utilised extensively to investigate this area of research. The aim of the present review was twofold: first to outline the necessity of measuring cardiometabolic risk in children; and second to outline how it can be assessed. The major outcomes thought to have an important developmental component are CVD, insulin resistance and related metabolic outcomes. Conditions such as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CHD all tend to have peak prevalence in middle-aged and older individuals but assessments of cardiometabolic risk in childhood and adolescence are important to define early causal factors and characterise preventive measures. Typically, researchers investigating prospective cohort studies have relied on the thesis that cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity, track from childhood into adult life. The present review summarises some of the evidence that these factors, when measured in childhood, may be of value in assessing the risk of adult cardiometabolic disease, and as such proceeds to describe some of the methods for assessing cardiometabolic risk in children. PMID:26090093

  19. Assessing Spatial Data Quality of Participatory GIS Studies: a Case Study in Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musungu, K.

    2015-10-01

    Participatory GIS (PGIS) has been prescribed by scholars who sought to find a means to enable more equitable access to GIS data, diversifying the types of knowledge captured by a GIS and re-engineering GIS software. The popularity of PGIS is evident in the various studies and contexts in which it has been utilised. These include studies in risk assessment, land administration, resource management, crime mapping and urban design to mention but a few. Despite the popularity of PGIS as a body of research, little has been done in the analysis of the quality of PGIS information. The study investigated the use of data quality criteria commonly used in traditional GIS systems and shows that it is possible to apply the criteria used in traditional GIS to PGIS. It provides a starting point for PGIS studies to assess the quality of the product. Notably, this a reflective exercise on one case study, but the methodologies used in this study have been replicated in many others undertaken by Community Based Organisations as well as Non-Governmental Organisations. Therefore the findings are relevant to such projects.

  20. Metabolic serum biomarkers for the prediction of cancer: a follow-up of the studies conducted in the Swedish AMORIS study

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Melvin, Jennifer; Santaolalla, Aida; De Piano, Mario; Arthur, Rhonda; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk study (AMORIS) contains information on more than 500 biomarkers collected from 397,443 men and 414,630 women from the greater Stockholm area during the period 1985–1996. Using a ten-digit personal identification code, this database has been linked to Swedish national registries, which provide data on socioeconomic status, vital status, cancer diagnosis, comorbidity, and emigration. Within AMORIS, 18 studies assessing risk of overall and site-specific cancers have been published, utilising a range of serum markers representing glucose and lipid metabolism, immune system, iron metabolism, liver metabolism, and bone metabolism. This review briefly summarises these findings in relation to more recently published studies and provides an overview of where we are today and the challenges of observational studies when studying cancer risk prediction. Overall, more recent observational studies supported previous findings obtained in AMORIS, although no new results have been reported for serum fructosamine and inorganic phosphate with respect to cancer risk. A drawback of using serum markers in predicting cancer risk is the potential fluctuations following other pathological conditions, resulting in non-specificity and imprecision of associations observed. Utilisation of multiple combination markers may provide more specificity, as well as give us repeated instead of single measurements. Associations with other diseases may also necessitate further analytical strategies addressing effects of serum markers on competing events in addition to cancer. Finally, delineating the role of serum metabolic markers may generate valuable information to complement emerging clinical studies on preventive effects of drugs and supplements targeting metabolic disorders against cancer. PMID:26284119

  1. An exploratory study of the patient experience of pharmacist supplementary prescribing in a secondary care mental health setting

    PubMed Central

    Deslandes, Rhian E.; John, Dai N.; Deslandes, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of chronic disease has become an increasing challenge to the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. The introduction of supplementary prescribing was seen as a possible mechanism to address the needs of this patient group. Individuals with mental illness were considered particularly suitable for management in this way. Objective: To explore the views and experiences of patients with mental illness on being managed by a pharmacist supplementary prescriber in a secondary care outpatient setting. Methods: A study of patient experiences utilising semi-structured interviews and self-completion diaries was adopted. Eleven patients participated in the study. Data were analysed utilising code and retrieve, and content analysis respectively. Results: Patients valued the increased accessibility to, and continuity of, their prescriber compared with their experience of other healthcare professionals. Patients reported they were able to trust the pharmacist’s knowledge of medication, were provided with sufficient information regarding reasons for treatment and side effects, and felt that they had an active role in decisions concerning their healthcare. Conclusions: This exploratory study showed that patients had positive views of being managed by a supplementary prescriber. However, it should be noted that the number of participants was small. It is therefore important that further, more wide ranging research is conducted to evaluate pharmacist prescribing within mental health settings. PMID:26131043

  2. ETUDE QUANTITATIVE PAR RADIOAUTOGRAPHIE AU MICROSCOPE ELECTRONIQUE DE L'UTILISATION DE LA DL-LEUCINE-3H PAR LES CELLULES DE L'HYPOPHYSE DU CANARD EN CULTURE ORGANOTYPIQE

    PubMed Central

    Tixier-Vidal, A.; Picart, R.

    1967-01-01

    The synthesis, intracellular transport, storing, and excretion of proteins by duck hypophyseal cells in organ culture were studied with tritiated DL-leucine and high resolution radioautography (pulse-labeling experiments). Quantitative study of the radioautographs allowed a determination of the relative proportions of cytoplasmic radioactivity located in each cellular compartment (ergastoplasm, Golgi apparatus, and protein granules) as well as the variations in these proportions as a function of time. The number of labeled protein granules as opposed to the total number of granules in the cell was also determined (RSg). These data were separately analyzed for the two types of cells present in the explants: prolactin cells and "MSH" cells. The synthetic process follows a course common to both cell types, each of which is distinguished by its particular modalities. The labeled proteins, synthesized within several minutes in the ergastoplasm, are concentrated in the Golgi zone within 30 min. They then migrate out of this area, the emptying of which is accomplished in about 4 hr. These proteins become equally distributed between the protein granules, on the one hand, and the cytoplasm ("sedentary" proteins), on the other. The RSg reaches its maximum when the Golgi zone is emptied, but this figure remains very low (3%). The RSg then decreases slowly (1% in 40 hr). It is concluded that hypophyseal cells are able to store protein in their granules and that their processes of synthesis and excretion are not continuous. The prolactin cells differ from the "MSH" cells in that they have a slower migration of newly synthesized proteins, and these proteins pass via the dilated ergastoplasmic cisterns in which they may possibly be stored. PMID:6064363

  3. Single Doses up to 800 mg of E-52862 Do Not Prolong the QTc Interval – A Retrospective Validation by Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Electrocardiography Data Utilising the Effects of a Meal on QTc to Demonstrate ECG Assay Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Täubel, Jörg; Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Wang, Duolao; Sust, Mariano; Camm, A. John

    2015-01-01

    Background E-52862 is a Sigma-1 receptor antagonist (S1RA) currently under investigation as a potential analgesic medicine. We successfully applied a concentration-effect model retrospectively to a four-way crossover Phase I single ascending dose study and utilized the QTc shortening effects of a meal to demonstrate assay sensitivity by establishing the time course effects from baseline in all four periods, independently from any potential drug effects. Methods Thirty two healthy male and female subjects were included in four treatment periods to receive single ascending doses of 500 mg, 600 mg or 800 mg of E-52862 or placebo. PK was linear over the dose range investigated and doses up to 600 mg were well tolerated. The baseline electrocardiography (ECG) measurements on Day-1 were time-matched with ECG and pharmacokinetic (PK) samples on Day 1 (dosing day). Results In this conventional mean change to time-matched placebo analysis, the largest time-matched difference to placebo QTcI was 1.44 ms (90% CI: -4.04, 6.93 ms) for 500 mg; -0.39 ms (90% CI: -3.91, 3.13 ms) for 600 mg and 1.32 ms (90% CI: -1.89, 4.53 ms) for 800 mg of E-52862, thereby showing the absence of any QTc prolonging effect at the doses tested. In addition concentration-effect models, one based on the placebo corrected change from baseline and one for the change of QTcI from average baseline with time as fixed effect were fitted to the data confirming the results of the time course analysis. Conclusion The sensitivity of this study to detect small changes in the QTc interval was confirmed by demonstrating a shortening of QTcF of -8.1 (90% CI: -10.4, -5.9) one hour and -7.2 (90% CI: -9.4, -5.0) three hours after a standardised meal. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2010 020343 13 PMID:26291080

  4. Inclusion cylinder method for aortic valve replacement utilising the Ross operation in adults with predominant aortic stenosis – 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Skillington, Peter D.; Mokhles, M. Mostafa; Wilson, William; Grigg, Leeanne; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Takkenberg, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: To report our experience with the Ross operation in patients with predominant aortic stenosis (AS) using an inclusion cylinder (IC) method. Methods: Out of 324 adults undergoing a Ross operation, 204 patients of mean age of 41.3 years (limits 16–62) underwent this procedure for either AS or mixed AS and regurgitation (AS/AR) between October, 1992 and February, 2012, implanting the PA with an IC method. Clinical follow up and serial echo data for this group is 97% complete with late mortality follow up 99% complete. Results: There has been zero (0%) early mortality, and late survival at 15 years is 98% (96%, 100%). Only one re-operation on the aortic valve for progressive aortic regurgitation (AR) has been required with freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years being 99% (96%, 100%). The freedom from all re-operations on the aortic and pulmonary valves at 15 years is 97% (94%, 100%). Echo analysis at the most recent study shows that 98% have nil, trivial or mild AR. Aortic root size has remained stable, shown by long-term (15 year) echo follow up. Conclusions: In an experience spanning 19 years, the Ross operation used for predominant AS using the IC method described, results in 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years, better than any other tissue or mechanical valve. For adults under 65 years without significant co-morbidities who present with predominant AS, the pulmonary autograft inserted with this technique gives excellent results. PMID:24749112

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, C.; Vinci, T.; Boireau, L.; Koenig, M.; Bouquet, S.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Osaki, N.; Herpe, G.; Falize, E.; Loupias, B.; Atzeni, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the radiative shock from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It is based on the whole experimental results obtained at Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI, École Polytechnique). Radiative shocks are high-Mach number shocks with a strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. These shocks are involved in various astrophysical systems: stellar accretion shocks, pulsating stars, interaction between supernovae and the interstellar medium. In laboratory, these radiative shocks are generated using high power lasers. New diagnostics have been implemented to study the geometrical shape of the shock and the front shock density. Data were obtained varying initial conditions for different laser intensities and temperature. The modeling of these phenomena is mainly performed through numerical simulations (1D and 2D) and analytical studies. We exhibit results obtained from several radiative hydrodynamics codes. As a result, it is possible to discuss about the influence of the geometry and physical parameters introduced in the 1D and 2D models.

  6. Designing, implementing and evaluating e-prescription: a field study and comparison with PSIP results.

    PubMed

    Riccioli, Costanza; Cacciabue, P Carlo; Campanini, Mauro; Jung, Martin

    2011-01-01

    E-prescription is amongst the most widespread medical electronic support functions. However, several studies reported acceptance and utilisation rates not as high as expected. This paper performs firstly an analysis of the literature on e-prescription characteristics and functionalities especially with respect to their actual usage. Then a specific field study was conducted in an Internal Medicine ward, to investigate human factor issues associated to the introduction of an e-prescription system. Finally, the findings of the field study are framed within the actual implementation of various electronic support outputs resulting from the European Project "Patient safety through intelligent procedures in medication" (PSIP). The results show the importance of a systemic view when designing, implementing and evaluating medical support systems, as the pre-existing structures and tools largely influence the impact of those systems and their effects. PMID:21685616

  7. Reduction du taux de rejet et de la variation des degagements dans le compresseur haute-pression lors de l'assemblage de moteurs turbopropulseurs par l'utilisation de l'assemblage selectif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, Pierre-Luc

    With over 15 000 components containing multiple key characteristics to respect, the assembly of a turbopropeller plane engine presents several challenges. Among them is the control of two critical clearances inside the high-pressure compressor section. Currently, the engine rejection rate resulting from the failure to comply with these clearances is 33%. The objective of this paper is to find a permanent method to reduce this rejection rate, that can also be easily implemented within an assembly line environment and that does not require significant investments. Following a root cause analysis of this issue, the dimensional variation of the components was identified as the main contributor. Since trying to control the variation of the components can hardly be achieved without any significant investments, the best available alternative is to focus on controlling the variation propagation throughout the assembly itself. The use of selective assembly is proposed to achieve this goal. Contrary to previous papers published on selective assembly, this paper differs in many aspects, namely the clearances discussed are lengthwise and not radial, the assembly contains many parts instead of two, and most importantly, some components have more than one dimension which affects each clearance. Traditionally, each component has only one dimension that impacts only one clearance. To fully understand the impact of these multiparametric parts, a stack-up study of the assembly is performed. This analysis allows to clearly identify the key dimensions of each component that interact with the clearances. Subsequently, a method based on the statistical analysis of each of the key dimensions and their manufacturing processes, and the ease of implementation in a production environment requirement, is proposed to classify the parts for the selective assembly process. Each of the manufacturing processes is linked to a probability distribution function and characterized by its performance index, the Ppk. A computer program is then built to create a virtual population of parts and to create an assembly population. This virtual population is used to test the validity and efficiency of the proposed method by comparing it to the actual situation. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the use of selective assembly does have a positive effect on the control of the variation propagation, but that there is also still room for improvement.

  8. Etude de l'effet du vieillissement sur les proprietes d'un tissu en melange KevlarRTM-PBI utilise dans le revetement exterieur des habits de protection contre le feu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Carlos

    The aim of this work is to study and model the effect of three aging factors, temperature, humidity and light radiation, on the properties of a fabric made of a blend of KevlarRTM and PBI fibers frequently used to manufacture fire-protective garments. Accelarated-aging treatments carried out at carefully chosen conditions for the three factors resulted in a sizeable loss of mechanical performance. The breaking force of both the fabric and the yarns extracted from it decreases to less than 50% after one month of continuous exposure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests performed on thermally-aged samples indicated an increase of the crystallinity of the fabric, whereas the disappearance of Raman spectral lines suggested instead a reduction of the crystallinity following thermal aging. To explain these seemingly contradictory results, a hypothesis was introduced, stating that two different processes occurred simultaneously during thermal aging. The first one, an increase of size of the crystallites in the direction of the fibers' axis, accounted for the increase in crystallinity observed in XRD tests. The second one, an increase in the gap separating lamellar crystallites that causes a non-measurable reduction of the crystallinity of the sample, was highlighted by the Raman analyses. The results of the dielectric spectroscopy analyses carried out on thermally-aged samples confirmed the XRD results showing a significant change in the Kevlar's morphology during thermal aging. Despite the important decrease of the breaking force that ensued thermal aging, no evidence of a chemical structure modification of KevlarRTM was found. On the other hand, differential thermal analyses conducted on thermally aged fabric samples indicated a reduction of the glass transition temperature of the other component of the blend, namely the PBI, a fact that suggests a decrease of molecular weight after thermal aging. Infrared spectroscopy analyses performed on samples exposed to high humidity levels showed the development of a new absorbing band in the spectrum of aged KevlarRTM yarns. This band was ascribed to the formation of carboxylic acid groups. Based on these results, the humidity aging mechanism was inferred. This mechanism corresponds to the hydrolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM catalyzed by an acid. The progress of the hydrolysis reaction was modeled mathematically using the evolution of the concentration of carboxylic acid groups. The mechanism of light radiation aging was also determined from infrared spectroscopy analyses as the absorbing band attributed to the carboxylic acid groups was once again observed. In the case of light radiation, the degradation mechanism corresponds to a photo-oxidation reaction initiated by the photolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM. The accumulation of Photo-Fries products on the surface of yarns is believed to slow down of the oxidation reaction, as indicated by the overlapping of breaking force vs. aging time curves for the light-radiation aged samples. Expressions based on the Arrhenius law were used to characterize both the thermal and hydrolytic aging, whereas an expression taking into account the irradiance as well as the temperature was used to model the light radiation aging. The global damage produced by the joint action of the three aging factors was modeled after Palmgren-Miner's linear cumulative damage theory.

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of advance care planning in elderly Italian and Greek speaking patients as compared to English-speaking patients: an Australian cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Detering, Karen; Sutton, Elizabeth; Fraser, Scott; Wallis, Kasey; Silvester, William; Mawren, Daveena; Whiteside, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility and acceptability of facilitated advance care planning (ACP) discussions in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking inpatients compared to English-speaking inpatients. Design, setting and participants This cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, and recruited hospital inpatients with medical decision-making capacity, aged 65?years or above, who spoke Greek (25 patients), Italian (24 patients) or English (63 patients). Intervention Facilitated ACP was offered, aiming to assists patients to consider and discuss their goals, values, beliefs and future treatment wishes with their family and doctor; to help them consider how they would like healthcare decisions made in the future if they become unable to do this for themselves; and to complete advance care directives. Main outcome measures The completion of ACP discussions, their duration, advance care directive completion and utilisation of interpreters. Results Of 112 patients, 109 (97%) had at least one discussion, 63 (54%) completed advance care directives, either nominating a substitute decision-maker, documenting their wishes or both, and 76 (68%) included family in discussions. The median duration of discussions for all patients was slightly more than 1?h, over two visits. There were no differences between the Greek-speaking and the Italian-speaking patients, or between the Non-English speaking and the English-speaking patients in any of these measures. Only 14 non-English speaking patients, (30%) utilised interpreters, but when utilised, patients were much more likely (p<0.005) to complete advance care directives. Conclusions Facilitated ACP in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking patients is feasible, acceptable and is similar to that for English-speaking patients. PMID:26319775

  10. Cannabis in the arm: what can we learn from intravenous cannabinoid studies?

    PubMed

    Englund, Amir; Stone, James M; Morrison, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is widely used recreationally and for symptomatic relief in a number of ailments. However, cannabis has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of psychotic illness. For forty years researchers have utilised intravenous preparations of ?(9)-THC, as well as several other phytocannabinoids, in a laboratory setting. The intravenous route has the most reliable pharmacokinetics, reducing inter-individual variation in bioavailability and is well suited for the delivery of synthetic compounds containing a sole pharmacological moiety. Given the association between cannabinoids and psychotic illness, there has been a resurgence of interest in experimental studies of cannabinoids in humans, and the intravenous route has been employed. Here in a critical review, we appraise the major findings from recent intravenous cannabinoid studies in humans and trace the historical roots of this work back to the 1970's. PMID:22716141

  11. Gender-inclusive technology materials for the primary school: A case study in curriculum development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnear, Adrianne; Treagust, David; Rennie, Leonie

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes how an idea for technology education materials developed into a process for producing unique curriculum modules for teaching technology in a gender-inclusive way to primary children. Using a case-study format, the paper describes the interaction between participants, the sequential evolution of the materials themselves and the degree to which success was achieved in terms of the original goals. The study demonstrates how an awareness of gender bias needs to be a feature from the earliest stages of curriculum development, through to the trialling and modification stages. The curriculum materials were a product of effective cooperation between teachers, science educators and community representatives. They utilise a “process” approach to the teaching of technology and in this presentation, we demonstrate how this same approach is a useful framework for describing this particular curriculum development.

  12. Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaëtan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Considérons un système quantique constitué de deux sous-systèmes : on dit qu'il est dans un état intriqué s'il existe des corrélations quantiques entre les états de ces derniers. La compréhension et la mise en œuvre d'états intriqués ont de nombreuses applications (métrologie quantique, étude des systèmes fortement corrélés, traitement quantique de l'information, etc.) et constituent le contexte général de ce travail de thèse. Plus en détail, nous démontrons la réalisation d'un état intriqué de deux atomes neutres piégés indépendamment. Pour cela, nous exploitons le phénomène de blocage de Rydberg : lorsqu'on essaie d'exciter simultanément deux atomes séparés de quelques micromètres vers un état de Rydberg donné, la forte interaction entre atomes de Rydberg peut empêcher cette excitation simultanée. Dans ce cas, seul un des deux atomes est excité et l'on génère ainsi des corrélations quantiques entre les états des deux atomes, c'est-à-dire de l'intrication. Dans notre expérience, deux atomes de 87Rb dans l'état fondamental 5S1/2 sont piégés chacun dans une pince optique microscopique, à une distance relative de 4 micromètres. En réalisant des transitions entre l'état 5S1/2 et l'état de Rydberg 58D3/2 par des transitions à deux photons, nous obtenons un état intriqué des deux atomes dans les sous-niveaux |5S1/2, f = 1, mf = 1> et |5S1/2, f = 2, mf = 2>. Afin de quantifier l'intrication, nous mesurons la fidélité par rapport à l'état-cible en réalisant des transitions Raman entre ces deux sous-niveaux. La fidélité des paires d'atomes présentes à la fin de l'expérience est supérieure à la valeur seuil de 0,5, ce qui prouve la création d'un état intriqué.

  13. Silica Waste Utilisation Phase II - Preliminary Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    A second phase of laboratory testing is being performed on waste silica from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Mexico. The main objective is to produce mixes of various combinations of hydrated lime, portland cement, and plastic fibers with the waste silica from disposal ponds to determine their suitability for use as insulating bricks in low cost housing. Silica-cement mixtures appear to have the highest flexural strength and resistance to weathering. Silica-lime mixtures appear to have the best insulating properties (lowest thermal conductivity). The addition of plastic fibers to the silica-lime mixture appears to improve both strength and weather resistance. Work is still in progress and will be completed in 1996 with the construction of various test walls in the Mexicali, Mexico area.

  14. Advances in understanding and utilising ELM control in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, I. T.; de la Luna, E.; Lang, P. T.; Liang, Y.; Alper, B.; Denner, P.; Frigione, D.; Garzotti, L.; Ham, C. J.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Jachmich, S.; Kocsis, G.; Lennholm, M.; Lupelli, I.; Rimini, F. G.; Sips, A. C. C.; Contributors, JET

    2016-01-01

    Edge localised mode (ELM) control may be essential to develop ITER scenarios with a reasonable lifetime of divertor components, whilst ELM pacing may be essential to develop stationary ITER scenarios with a tungsten divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have mitigated ELMs in high collisionality plasmas in JET. The efficacy of RMPs in mitigating the ELMs is found to depend on plasma shaping, with the change in magnetic boundary achieved when non-axisymmetric fields are applied facilitating access to small ELM regimes. The understanding of ELM pacing by vertical kicks or pellets has also been improved in a range of pedestal conditions in JET ({{T}\\text{ped}}=0.7 –1.3 keV) encompassing the ITER-expected domain ({?\\text{N}}=1.4 –2.4, H 98(y, 2)??=??0.8–1.2, {{f}\\text{GW}}? 0.7 ). ELM triggering is reliable provided the perturbation is above a threshold which depends on pedestal parameters. ELM triggering is achieved even in the first 10% of the natural ELM cycle suggesting no inherent maximum frequency. At high normalised pressure, the peeling-ballooning modes are stabilised as predicted by ELITE, necessitating a larger perturbation from either kicks or pellets in order to trigger ELMs. Both kicks and pellets have been used to pace ELMs for tungsten flushing. This has allowed stationary plasma conditions with low gas injection in plasmas where the natural ELM frequency is such that it would normally preclude stationary conditions.

  15. Six Key Topics for Automated Assessment Utilisation and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiners, Torsten; Dreher, Carl; Dreher, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Automated assessment technologies have been used in education for decades (e.g., computerised multiple choice tests). In contrast, Automated Essay Grading (AEG) technologies: have existed for decades; are "good in theory" (e.g., as accurate as humans, temporally and financially efficient, and can enhance formative feedback), and yet; are…

  16. Proteolysis of meat and bone meal to increase utilisation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat & bone meal (MBM) is the ground, dehydrated remainder of an animal after removal of the hide and meat. The majority of MBM is insoluble. Trypsin and Subtilisin were used to convert MBM to a soluble form. Sequential measurements were made on the soluble material: dried mass, equivalent prote...

  17. Process-control in laser welding utilising optical signal oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Haran, F.M.; Hand, D.P.; Jones, J.D.C.

    1996-12-31

    The authors describe an optical sensor for process monitoring of Nd:YAG laser welding. This sensor detects the broadband radiation produced by the welding process, dividing it into broad spectral bands (designated as UV/visible and IR). Fourier analysis is used to investigate an oscillatory intensity modulation of the optical signals, believed to arise from a combination of keyhole and weld pool oscillations. The spectral content of the oscillations may be used to detect a fully open welding keyhole, and determine work-piece thickness in this welding regime. These oscillations have also been utilized in the construction of a seam tracking system which allows the authors to follow the seam of a lap-weld. Additional signal processing also allows optimum positioning of the laser spot.

  18. Proposing an Integrated Research Framework for Connectivism: Utilising Theoretical Synergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitshwarelo, Bopelo

    2011-01-01

    Connectivism is receiving acknowledgement as a fresh way of conceptualising learning in the digital age. Thus, as a relatively new instructional framework, it is imperative that research on its applicability and effectiveness in a variety of educational contexts is advanced. In particular, a high premium should be placed on context-specific…

  19. Utilising eduroam[TM] Architecture in Building Wireless Community Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhtanen, Karri; Vatiainen, Heikki; Keski-Kasari, Sami; Harju, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: eduroam[TM] has already been proved to be a scalable, secure and feasible way for universities and research institutions to connect their wireless networks into a WLAN roaming community, but the advantages of eduroam[TM] have not yet been fully discovered in the wireless community networks aimed at regular consumers. This aim of this…

  20. Adaptive dynamic FBG interrogation utilising erbium-doped fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, R. N.; Read, I.; MacPherson, W. N.

    2013-04-01

    A dynamic fibre Bragg grating interrogation scheme is investigated using two-wave mixing in erbium-doped fibre, capable of adapting to quasistatic strain and temperature drifts. An interference pattern set up in the erbium-doped fibre creates, due to the photorefractive effect, a dynamic grating capable of wavelength demodulating the FBG signal. The presence of a dynamic grating was verified and then dynamic strain signals from a fibre stretcher were measured. The adaptive nature of the technique was successfully demonstrated by heating the FBG while it underwent dynamic straining leading to detection unlike an alternative arrayed waveguide grating system which simultaneously failed detection. Two gratings were then wavelength division multiplexed with the signal grating receiving approximately 30dB greater signal showing that there was little cross talk in the system.

  1. The Virtual Lecture Hall: Utilisation, Effectiveness and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Kenneth M.; Collins, Kandice R.; Snider, Don; Fawcett, Graham

    2007-01-01

    We presently introduce the Virtual Lecture Hall (VLH), an instructional computer-based platform for delivering Microsoft PowerPoint slides threaded with audio clips for later review. There were 839 male and female university students enrolled in an introductory psychology class who had access to review class lectures via the VLH. This tool was…

  2. Original article Utilising historical tree-ring data for

    E-print Network

    living and historical TR width series of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) sampled in the Lower to the 20th century had a local origin. The historical spruce TR series correlate with living spruce chronologies from sites located below 700 m, but do not correlate with spruce chronologies from above 1050 m

  3. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  4. Utilising Spontaneous Conversational Speech in HMM-Based Speech Synthesis 

    E-print Network

    Andersson, Sebastian; Yamagishi, Junichi; Clark, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous conversational speech has many characteristics that are currently not well modelled in unit selection and HMM-based speech synthesis. But in order to build synthetic voices more suitable for interaction we need data that exhibits more...

  5. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  6. Carbon nanotubes: in situ studies of growth and electromechanical properties 

    E-print Network

    Weis, Johan Ek

    2011-11-23

    issues that have to be solved before these properties can be fully utilised. One of these issues is that the nanotube growth temperature must be lowered in order to make the synthesis compatible with the fabrication processes used in electronics...

  7. The healthcare experiences of Koreans living in North Carolina: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    De Gagne, Jennie C; Oh, Jina; So, Aeyoung; Kim, Suk-Sun

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the healthcare experiences of Korean immigrants aged 40-64 living in the North Carolina Triangle area of the Southeastern United States. Using a mixed methods design, we collected quantitative data via a questionnaire from 125 participants and conducted a focus group with 10 interviewees from December 2010 to February 2011. The quantitative data were analysed using t-tests and chi-square tests, and a thematic analysis was used for the focus group study. Questionnaire findings showed that only 27.2% had sufficient English skills to communicate adequately. Participants with insurance were significantly more likely to be employed (P < 0.001), had higher incomes (P = 0.011) and higher education (P < 0.001), and had greater English-speaking ability (P = 0.011) than those without insurance. Participants who did not use healthcare services showed significantly less knowledge (P < 0.001) of and less satisfaction (P = 0.034) with the healthcare system than those using healthcare services. Sixty-two participants (49.6%) reported having no health insurance for one or more of the following reasons: high costs (75.8%), medical tourism (22.6%) and lack of information or knowledge (6.5%). The following themes emerged from the data collected during the focus group: (i) barriers to utilisation of healthcare services; (ii) facilitators of utilisation of healthcare services; and (iii) social support seeking for health management. Our mixed methods study findings indicate that healthcare disparities exist among Korean immigrants and that a number of factors, including health literacy, may contribute to their poor health outcomes. Continued collaboration among community members, healthcare professionals and academicians is needed to discuss the community's health concerns and to develop sustainable programmes that will ensure meaningful access to care for those with limited English proficiency and medically underserved populations. PMID:24621370

  8. Birth preparedness and complication readiness – a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B.; Kayombo, Edmund; Mbekenga, Columba; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) strategies are aimed at reducing delays in seeking, reaching, and receiving care. Counselling on birth preparedness is provided during antenatal care visits. However, it is not clear why birth preparedness messages do not translate to utilisation of facility delivery. This study explores the perceptions, experiences, and challenges the community faces on BP/CR. Design A qualitative study design using Focused Group Discussions was conducted. Twelve focus group discussions were held with four separate groups: young men and women and older men and women in a rural community in Tanzania. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The community members expressed a perceived need to prepare for childbirth. They were aware of the importance to attend the antenatal clinics, relied on family support for practical and financial preparations such as saving money for costs related to delivery, moving closer to the nearest hospital, and also to use traditional herbs, in favour of a positive outcome. Community recognised that pregnancy and childbirth complications are preferably treated at hospital. Facility delivery was preferred; however, certain factors including stigma on unmarried women and transportation were identified as hindering birth preparedness and hence utilisation of skilled care. Challenges were related to the consequences of poverty, though the maternal health care should be free, they perceived difficulties due to informal user fees. Conclusions This study revealed community perceptions that were in favour of using skilled care in BP/CR. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realisation of the intention to use skilled care. It is important to innovate how the community reinforces BP/CR, such as using insurance schemes, using community health funds, and providing information on other birth preparedness messages via community health workers. PMID:26077145

  9. The liberal arts and nursing programme at the University of Maine, 1939-1956. A study of leadership behaviours and organisational structure.

    PubMed

    Hart, V

    2001-01-01

    The trend for nursing programmes affiliated with universities in the US began in 1909 but did not gain momentum until the 1960s with the demise of hospital schools of nursing. During the period of time covered in this study, beginning in the 1930s, a hybrid of the present day university-based nursing programme began to appear. These 'cooperative' programmes often sandwiched traditional hospital experience between years of university course work and involved a five-year commitment on the part of students. In 1939 a liberal arts and nursing programme was established at the University of Maine. It continued to operate until 1956 and then ceased to exist. In this descriptive historical study the author investigates why this particular programme was initiated, of what it consisted, and why it had failed. Primary sources accessed included original correspondence, curriculum descriptions, faculty and students reports, and administrative policies. Leadership and organisational behaviour theory was utilised as well as identification of the historical nursing backdrop. Oral history was also utilised for the purpose of verification of written data. Analysis of the data suggests implications for nursing educators and administrators, as well as telling a story of the power of nursing when viewed in the context of constituency groups in a sociopolitical model of organisations. This paper was first presented at the History of Nursing Millennium Conference in Edinburgh in July 2000. PMID:12143438

  10. Analytical Study on Prestressed Steel I-Beam Strengthened in Compression by Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnada, M. R.; Vipparthy, R.

    2013-09-01

    Prestressed steel structures have many advantages over steel, reinforced cement concrete and prestressed concrete structures. This paper is an attempt to compare the performance of prestressed steel I-beam and that strengthened in compression by welding two angles. Iterative calculations involved in analysis were performed with the help of program developed by the authors, which takes the choice of I-section, type of beam and span required as inputs. Straight tendon configuration over the whole span was considered for comparison. The study of the variation among different parameters revealed that the load carrying capacity is not directly proportional to the prestressing force in case of an unsymmetrical I-section for eccentricity less than a minimum value. But in case of a symmetrical section, the load carrying capacity is directly proportional to the prestressing force for all eccentricities. However, it was observed that the material of the cross-section is effectively utilised when an unsymmetrical I-section is prestressed.

  11. [Correlates of cyberbullying and bullying--first results of a self-report study].

    PubMed

    Wachs, Sebastian; Wolf, Karsten D

    2011-01-01

    If Li's assumption (2007) that the new phenomenon of cyberbullying is nothing else but "old wine in new old bottles" is true, cyberbullies (and cybervictims) will also be traditional bullies (and victims). Further aims of this study were to measure the prevalence of (cyber-bullying and to investigate the similarities and differences between both forms of bullying. An online-survey utilised the CAPI method with a sample of 838 students (11-17 years) who participated in whole classes. The data suggests that Li (2007) is right in principle, but there are also some important differences to traditional bullying: (1) cyberbullying seems to "level" the differences between gender; (2) cybervictims seem to be more ready to "strike back". PMID:22242255

  12. Comparative study of artificial chromosome centromeres in human and murine cells

    PubMed Central

    Moralli, Daniela; Jefferson, Andrew; Valeria Volpi, Emanuela; Larin Monaco, Zoia

    2013-01-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are a valuable tool in the analysis of complex chromatin structures such as the human centromere because of their small size and relative simplicity compared with normal human chromosomes. This report includes a comprehensive study of the centromere and chromatin composition of HAC, expressing human genes, generated in human cells and transferred to murine cells. The analysis involved chromatin immuno-precipitation and immuno-FISH on metaphase chromosomes and chromatin fibres. In both the cell types, the HAC consisted of alphoid and non-alphoid DNA and were mainly euchromatic in composition, although a pericentromeric heterochromatic region was present on all the HAC. Fibre-FISH and chromatin immuno-precipitation data indicated that the position of the centromere differed between HAC in human cells and in murine cells. Our work highlights the importance and utilisation of HAC for understanding the epigenetic aspects of chromosome biology. PMID:23403904

  13. Combining X-ray based methods to study the protohistoric bronze technology in Western Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valério, P.; Silva, R. J. C.; Soares, A. M. M.; Araújo, M. F.; Gonçalves, A. P.; Soares, R. M.

    2015-09-01

    The Phoenician arrival at Iberian coastal regions had an actual influence on indigenous technology. A collection of coeval metallurgical remains and artefacts was studied by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF, SEM-EDS and XRD, to identify certain features of the production and utilisation of metal in protohistoric Western Iberia. The composition of artefacts indicates a prevalence of Cu-Sn alloys with low content of impurities (Pb, As, Sb and Fe) during Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, while the composition of slags points to a smaller loss of copper in Phoenician smelting operations. Moreover, the amount of iron impurities in metal proved to be a helpful discriminator between indigenous and Phoenician-based metallurgies, showing that later alloys have higher amounts of iron. Besides, the indigenous alloys have higher tin contents that can probably be explained by the easier access to metal sources of local communities.

  14. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  15. How socioeconomic inequalities impact pathways of care for coronary artery disease among elderly patients: study protocol for a qualitative longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sara L; Fink, Astrid; Schumann, Nadine; Moor, Irene; Plehn, Alexander; Richter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have identified that socioeconomic inequalities in coronary artery disease (CAD) morbidity and mortality lead to a disadvantage in patients with low socioeconomic status (SES). International studies have shown that socioeconomic inequalities also exist in terms of access, utilisation and quality of cardiac care. The aim of this qualitative study is to provide information on the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on the pathway of care for CAD, and to establish which factors lead to socioeconomic inequality of care to form and expand existing scientific theories. Methods and analysis A longitudinal qualitative study with 48 patients with CAD, aged 60–80?years, is being conducted. Patients have been recruited consecutively at the University Hospital in Halle/Saale, Germany, and will be followed for a period of 6?months. Patients are interviewed two times face-to-face using semistructured interviews. Data are transcribed and analysed based on grounded theory. Ethics and dissemination Only participants who have been informed and who have signed a declaration of consent have been included in the study. The study complies rigorously with data protection legislation. Approval of the Ethical Review Committee at the Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany was obtained. The results of the study will be presented at several congresses, and will be published in high-quality peer-reviewed international journals. Trial registration number This study has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register and assigned DRKS00007839. PMID:26553827

  16. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of glibenclamide in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Coppack, S W; Lant, A F; McIntosh, C S; Rodgers, A V

    1990-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral glibenclamide have been studied in 31 hospitalised in-patients and 79 ambulant out-patients with diabetes mellitus. 2. Breakfast was found to have no significant influence on the kinetic behaviour of glibenclamide or on the effect of this drug on blood glucose utilisation. 3. The time course of glibenclamide kinetics after 20 mg dosing was adequately described by a two-compartment open model, yielding mean half-lives of 3.3 +/- 1.5 h (t1/2, lambda 1) and 9.7 +/- 1.2 (t1/2, z) for the initial and terminal elimination phases respectively. 4. No significant accumulation or change in kinetic profile occurred in patients who had normal renal and hepatic function, were treated continuously with glibenclamide, and then rechallenged after 8-12 weeks. 5. Despite inter-individual variations in drug absorption, peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-24] were dose-dependent over the dose range 5-20 mg. No significant dose-response behaviour was observed in respect of glucose utilisation, suggesting that there is little clinical benefit in using doses of glibenclamide above 5 mg day-1. 6. Comparison of plasma glibenclamide concentrations at different time-bands following doses of 5 and 10 mg showed a wider range in ambulant out-patients than in age-, sex-matched in-patients treated with the same dosages of drug. Mean plasma drug concentrations attained at all time bands up to 8 h after dosing were higher in out-patients than in in-patients, suggesting a tendency to 'over-compliance' by patients in anticipation of attendance at clinic. PMID:2116159

  17. ATBC Study - Study Details

    Cancer.gov

    The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study was conducted in Finland as a joint project between the National Institute for Health and Welfare of Finland and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) . The overall design, rationale, objectives, and initial results of this intervention study have been published1,2. Briefly, this was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary prevention trial to determine whether daily supplementation with alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, or both would reduce the incidence of lung or other cancers among male smokers.

  18. Identification of chlorophyll ( with application of IRS-P4 OCM data and Geographical Information System - a case study of part of Bay of Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan Dayaker, T.

    2002-05-01

    As 60 - 70 % of the world's population live within 20 - 30 km of the coastline, coastal zone management and optimisation of ocean resources have grown in of importance. The study of the ocean encompasses its physical chemical, biological properties and its interaction with land and biological productivity. Mapping of coastal zone gives us insight about how to conserve its eco-balance and implement effective coastal zone management. Effective Coastal Zone Management will need accurate and comprehensive scientific data, on which decisions can be based. In the present study Ocean Color Monitor ( OCM ) data is used for identification of chlorophyll, which inturn indicates the presence of phytoplankton, which is the primary producer in the food chain, and also to fish . The study area is part of Bay of Bengal Sea near the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Remote sensing in optical region is found useful in understanding the spatial distribution of ocean water constituents, in which phytoplankton pigment which impart a green colour to the sea water, has a definite response in the visible region, which enables plant material to be distinguished from the other suspended matter. Normalised Differential Vegetative Index ( NDVI ), which is mainly used on land applications for the identification of vegetation based on chlorophyll absorption, is used on water surface in the present study. The positive value of NDVI is an indication of the presence of pigment concentration / chlorophyll / phytoplankton / fish. The successful launch of the IRS - P4 satellite which provides us a challenging opportunity to study ocean resources and its characteristics and see how best we can benefit, over a period of time, in several areas of human survival specifically related to food security on a sustained basis. This study is first of its kind in utilising the latest technology to explore the marine resources for mapping the fishing zones and the results, clearly indicate that NDVI can be utilised as an indicator for the presence of phytoplankton on water surface.

  19. A phenomenological model to study the energy discrimination potential of GEM detectors in the X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causa, F.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Claps, G.; Gabellieri, L.

    2015-11-01

    An empirical model is presented to study the operational characteristics of GEM detectors in the X-ray range and, in particular, its energy discrimination potential. Physical processes are modelled from a macroscopic point of view, to provide a simple but effective simulation tool. Experimental data from monochromatic and combined, two-line fluorescence sources, are used to validate the model and provide realistic estimates of the empirical parameters used in the description. The model is instrumental in understanding the role of threshold, gain and operational conditions to achieve energy-discriminating response. Appropriate choices of gas mixtures, threshold and gain will permit to best utilise this new functionality of the GEM to improve the efficiency of image detectors in applications ranging from in-situ imaging in harsh environments, such as tokamaks, to composite materials analysis and medical imaging of tissues.

  20. Patients’ perspectives on the impact of a new COPD diagnosis in the face of multimorbidity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sameera; Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Dennis, Sarah; Zwar, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often occurs in the presence of comorbidities, which may influence experience and management of the disease. No prior research seems to have gained perspectives of newly diagnosed primary care COPD patients in the context of multimorbidity. Aims: This qualitative study aimed to explore the impact of a new diagnosis of COPD in the context of multimorbidity and also sought to gain a better understanding of how patients react to the diagnosis and incorporate it into their lives. Methods: Participants were identified from a cohort of primary care patients with multimorbidity recently diagnosed with COPD. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews from nine male and eight female participants. Thematic analysis was performed and the data interpreted from a constructivist perspective. Results: Five core themes regarding COPD were induced: (i) reaction to diagnosis, (ii) impact on function and health behaviour, (iii) factors influencing self-management capacity, (iv) healthcare utilisation and (v) interplay of comorbidities. Most participants had difficulty recognising the importance of COPD and its long-term implications. For many, the salience of another chronic condition outweighed COPD. Self-management capacity and utilisation of healthcare services were challenged by low prioritisation of COPD among other comorbidities. Conclusions: This study provides an insight into how primary care patients feel about being diagnosed with COPD, as well as their prioritisation of the disease in the context of multimorbidity. It highlights the need for tailored education and personalised management incorporating patients’ perspectives in primary care. PMID:25119845

  1. Individual empowerment in overweight and obese patients: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Struzzo, Pierluigi; Fumato, Raffaella; Tillati, Silvia; Cacitti, Anita; Gangi, Fabrizio; Stefani, Alessia; Torcutti, Alessia; Crapesi, Lucia; Tubaro, Gianni; Balestrieri, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem in Europe and it causes many diseases. Many weight-reducing methods are reported in medical literature, but none of them proved to be effective in maintaining the results achieved over time. Self-empowerment can be an important innovative method, but an effectiveness study is necessary. In order to standardise the procedures for a randomised controlled study, a pilot study will be run to observe, measure and evaluate the effects of a period of self-empowerment group treatment on overweight/obese patients. Methods and analysis Non-controlled, experimental, pilot study. A selected group of patients with body mass index >25, with no severe psychiatric disorders, with no aesthetic or therapeutic motivation will be included in the study. A set of quantitative and qualitative measures will be utilised to evaluate the effects of a self-empowerment course in a 12?month time. Group therapy and medical examinations will also complete this observational phase. At the end of this pilot study, a set of appropriate measures and procedures to determine the effectiveness of individual empowerment will be identified and agreed among the different professional figures. Results will be recorded and analysed to start a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Udine in March 2012. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events involving the local administrations of the towns where the trial participants are resident. Trial Registration http://www.clinicalstrials.gov identifier NCT01644708. PMID:23676799

  2. Understanding “revolving door” patients in general practice: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background ‘Revolving door’ patients in general practice are repeatedly removed from general practitioners’ (GP) lists. This paper reports a qualitative portion of the first mixed methods study of these marginalised patients. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with six practitioner services staff and six GPs in Scotland, utilizing Charmazian grounded theory to characterise ‘revolving door’ patients and their impact from professionals’ perspectives. Results ‘Revolving door’ patients were reported as having three necessary characteristics; they had unreasonable expectations, exhibited inappropriate behaviours and had unmet health needs. A range of boundary breaches were reported too when ‘revolving door’ patients interacted with NHS staff. Conclusions We utilise the ‘sensitising concepts’ of legitimacy by drawing on literature about ‘good and bad’ patients and ‘dirty work designations.’ We relate these to the core work of general practice and explore the role that medical and moral schemas have in how health service professionals understand and work with ‘revolving door’ patients. We suggest this may have wider relevance for the problem doctor patient relationship literature. PMID:24524363

  3. Emotional competence and nursing education: a New Zealand study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stacey C; Carryer, Jenny

    2008-03-01

    Effective nursing practice requires the ability to recognise emotions and handle responses in relationships with clients and their families. This emotional competence includes nurses managing their own emotional life along with the skill to relate effectively to the multiple colleagues and agencies that nurses work alongside. The research was designed to explore the views of nurse educators about the challenges they encounter when seeking to assess a student's development of emotional competence during the three year bachelor of nursing degree. Focus groups were used to obtain from educators evidence of feeling and opinion as to how theory and practice environments influence student nurses' development of emotional competence. The process of thematic analysis was utilised and three key themes arose as areas of importance to the participants. These were personal and social competence collectively comprises emotional competence in nursing; emotional competence is a key component of fitness to practise; and transforming caring into practice. The findings of the study indicate a need for definition of what emotional competence is in nursing. It is argued that educators and practicing nurses, who work alongside students, must uphold the expectation that emotional competence is a requisite ability and should themselves be able to role model emotionally competent communication. PMID:18557369

  4. Modelling study of CO 2 poisoning on PEMFC anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, G. J. M.

    The CO 2 poisoning effect on anodes for the proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was examined by model studies. It was assumed that the reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS) is the origin of the CO 2 poisoning effects. The relation between the anode polarisation losses and the catalytic properties of the catalyst was investigated with a kinetic model and with a fuel cell model including finite utilisation of the fuel. It was found that the main effect of the occurrence of the reverse water gas shift reaction is that a large part of the catalytic surface area becomes inactive for hydrogen dissociation. Desorption of CO formed by reduction of CO 2 followed by transport down the anode gas channel and subsequent re-adsorption on the catalyst was shown to play a minor role. In reformate gas, where besides CO 2 traces of CO are present, CO 2 poisoning will have the largest effect when the CO content is small and at relatively low current density.

  5. Multicentre observational cohort study of NSAIDs as risk factors for postoperative adverse events in gastrointestinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Chapman, Stephen J; Glasbey, James C D; Kelly, Michael; Khatri, Chetan; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Bhangu, Aneel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended as postoperative analgesia by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Society. Recent studies have raised concerns that NSAID administration following colorectal anastomosis may be associated with increased risk of anastomotic leak. This multicentre study aims to determine NSAIDs’ safety profile following gastrointestinal resection. Methods and analysis This prospective, multicentre cohort study will be performed over a 2-week period utilising a collaborative methodology. Consecutive adults undergoing open or laparoscopic, elective or emergency gastrointestinal resection will be included. The primary end point will be the 30-day morbidity, assessed using the Clavien-Dindo classification. This study will be disseminated through medical student networks, with an anticipated recruitment of at least 900 patients. The study will be powered to detect a 10% increase in complication rates with NSAID use. Ethics and dissemination Following the Research Ethics Committee Chairperson's review, a formal waiver was received. This study will be registered as a clinical audit or service evaluation at each participating hospital. Dissemination will take place through previously described novel research collaborative networks. PMID:24972607

  6. Cardiovascular disease and air pollution in Scotland: no association or insufficient data and study design?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease and stroke are leading causes of mortality and ill health in Scotland, and clear associations have been found in previous studies between air pollution and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to use routinely available data to examine whether there is any evidence of an association between short-term exposure to particulate matter (measured as PM10, particles less than 10 micrograms per cubic metre) and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease, in the two largest cities in Scotland during the years 2000 to 2006. Methods The study utilised an ecological time series design, and the analysis was based on overdispersed Poisson log-linear models. Results No consistent associations were found between PM10 concentrations and cardiovascular hospital admissions in either of the cities studied, as all of the estimated relative risks were close to one, and all but one of the associated 95% confidence intervals contained the null risk of one. Conclusions This study suggests that in small cities, where air quality is relatively good, then either PM10 concentrations have no effect on cardiovascular ill health, or that the routinely available data and the corresponding study design are not sufficient to detect an association. PMID:22440092

  7. MitoPhAST, a new automated mitogenomic phylogeny tool in the post-genomic era with a case study of 89 decapod mitogenomes including eight new freshwater crayfish mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST. PMID:25721538

  8. A randomised, independent groups study investigating the sympathetic nervous system responses to two manual therapy treatments in patients with LBP.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jo; Green, Ann; Singh, Sally; Watson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Manual therapy (MT) and exercise therapy techniques are commonly utilised, guideline recommended treatment strategies in the management of non-specific low back pain (LBP). Preliminary evidence on asymptomatic participants indicates that two manual therapy techniques; repeated lumbar extension in lying exercise (EIL); and segmental rotational grade V manipulation (manipulation), have significant effects on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) as detectable with skin conductance (SC) responses. However, it is not known if these responses occur in patients with LBP. A randomised, independent group's design was utilised to investigate the immediate SC responses in 50 patients with LBP of less than 12 weeks duration. Patients received either the manipulation technique (n = 25) or the EIL exercise (n = 25) and SC activity was recorded, in a single treatment session, pre-, peri- and post-treatment. Both treatments resulted in a sympatho-excitatory response during the intervention period with the manipulation technique having a 255% increase (p < 0.005), and the EIL technique a 94% increase (p = 0.019) with both treatments having responses that were sustained into the final rest period (p < 0.005). Between-group comparisons indicate that the manipulation technique had a significantly greater magnitude of effect (p < 0.001). The results support the sympatho-excitatory responses seen in normative studies but challenge the assumption that normative and patient populations are analogous with respect to the magnitude of effect observed and suggest that SC responses may be a feasible, proxy method of detecting dorsal horn sensitisation and neuro-plastic adaptations occurring in the presence of LBP. PMID:25920338

  9. Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.

    PubMed

    Hoenner, Xavier; Whiting, Scott D; Hindell, Mark A; McMahon, Clive R

    2012-01-01

    Accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM) constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) estimated from (a) highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b) locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68(th) percentile error was <1 km for LC 1, 2, and 3 while markedly less accurate (>4 km) for LC ? 0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student's t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3) and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2 ± 2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively). This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes. PMID:22808241

  10. USF Graduate Studies Cultural Studies

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Humanities USF Graduate Studies Cultural Studies and The Master of Arts in American Studies offers that have - The MLA in Humanities track offers an interdisciplinary approach to the study of European Studies in Humanities and Cultural Studies at USF Application Deadlines Applications must be received

  11. Scale model seismicity: a detailed study of deformation localisation from laboratory acoustic emission data 

    E-print Network

    Graham, Caroline C.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic emissions (AE) can provide information relating to the internal state of a deforming rock sample during laboratory testing and have been utilised to quantify damage progression for time-dependent failure modeling. ...

  12. The cytochrome b6f complex: structural studies and comparison with the bc1 complex

    E-print Network

    crystallography of the chloroplastic b6f complex allowed the calculation of projection maps of crystals negatively that is utilised by the ATP-synthase to synthesise ATP. Three of the eight subunits of the b6f complex bear

  13. Improving spatial nitrogen dioxide prediction using diffusion tubes: A case study in West Central Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H.

    2015-01-01

    It has been well documented that air pollution adversely affects health, and epidemiological pollution-health studies utilise pollution data from automatic monitors. However, these automatic monitors are small in number and hence spatially sparse, which does not allow an accurate representation of the spatial variation in pollution concentrations required for these epidemiological health studies. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) diffusion tubes are also used to measure concentrations, and due to their lower cost compared to automatic monitors are much more prevalent. However, even combining both data sets still does not provide sufficient spatial coverage of NO2 for epidemiological studies, and modelled concentrations on a regular grid from atmospheric dispersion models are also available. This paper proposes the first modelling approach to using all three sources of NO2 data to make fine scale spatial predictions for use in epidemiological health studies. We propose a geostatistical fusion model that regresses combined NO2 concentrations from both automatic monitors and diffusion tubes against modelled NO2 concentrations from an atmospheric dispersion model in order to predict fine scale NO2 concentrations across our West Central Scotland study region. Our model exhibits a 47% improvement in fine scale spatial prediction of NO2 compared to using the automatic monitors alone, and we use it to predict NO2 concentrations across West Central Scotland in 2006. PMID:26435684

  14. Biological and steroid use in relationship to quality measures in older patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a US Medicare cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sophia L; Bartels, Christie M; Palta, Mari; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Weiss, Jennifer M; Smith, Maureen A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the frequency and predictors of antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) use, and to describe steroid utilisation among US patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) aged 65 years and older prior to the publication of a new Medicare quality measure calling for the use of anti-TNFs and other steroid-sparing agents. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting This study utilised 2006–2009 claims data for a national sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Participants Patients with IBD (>1 claim for ICD codes 555.xx, 556.xx) without anti-TNF contraindications, enrolled in Medicare parts A and B ?12?months and part D ?6?months were included (n=8502). Outcome measures We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% CIs predicting new anti-TNF therapy using multivariable Poisson regression. Results This nationally representative study of older patients with IBD estimated that only 3.7% received anti-TNFs. New anti-TNF use (1.4%) was associated with younger age, absence of Medicaid coverage, hospitalisation, and higher preceding use of burst (IRR=2.35, CI 1.59 to 3.47) and maintenance steroids (IRR=2.40, CI 1.05 to 5.48). Among anti-TNF users, we observed high rates of concurrent maintenance steroid use (19%). Conclusions Anti-TNF use was very low in this population of older patients with IBD and, importantly, was often combined with maintenance steroid use despite guidelines suggesting reduced needs. Expanding IBD-specific quality measures to include steroid taper plans may cue appropriate maintenance regimens that include anti-TNFs and other steroid sparing agents while reducing protracted concomitant steroid use as intended by current quality measures. PMID:26346875

  15. Sleep Studies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Studies? Sleep studies are tests that measure how well you sleep ... sleep disorder and how severe it is. Sleep studies are important because untreated sleep disorders can raise ...

  16. Ancillary Studies

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Ongoing Collaborations CISNET ACS FAVOR Comprehensive Cancer Centers Ancillary Studies Ancillary Studies Year

  17. The eGFR-C study: accuracy of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation using creatinine and cystatin C and albuminuria for monitoring disease progression in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease - prospective longitudinal study in a multiethnic population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Uncertainty exists regarding the optimal method to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for disease detection and monitoring. Widely used GFR estimates have not been validated in British ethnic minority populations. Methods/design Iohexol measured GFR will be the reference against which each estimating equation will be compared. The estimating equations will be based upon serum creatinine and/or cystatin C. The eGFR-C study has 5 components: 1) A prospective longitudinal cohort study of 1300 adults with stage 3 chronic kidney disease followed for 3 years with reference (measured) GFR and test (estimated GFR [eGFR] and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio) measurements at baseline and 3 years. Test measurements will also be undertaken every 6 months. The study population will include a representative sample of South-Asians and African-Caribbeans. People with diabetes and proteinuria (ACR ?30 mg/mmol) will comprise 20-30% of the study cohort. 2) A sub-study of patterns of disease progression of 375 people (125 each of Caucasian, Asian and African-Caribbean origin; in each case containing subjects at high and low risk of renal progression). Additional reference GFR measurements will be undertaken after 1 and 2 years to enable a model of disease progression and error to be built. 3) A biological variability study to establish reference change values for reference and test measures. 4) A modelling study of the performance of monitoring strategies on detecting progression, utilising estimates of accuracy, patterns of disease progression and estimates of measurement error from studies 1), 2) and 3). 5) A comprehensive cost database for each diagnostic approach will be developed to enable cost-effectiveness modelling of the optimal strategy. The performance of the estimating equations will be evaluated by assessing bias, precision and accuracy. Data will be modelled as a linear function of time utilising all available (maximum 7) time points compared with the difference between baseline and final reference values. The percentage of participants demonstrating large error with the respective estimating equations will be compared. Predictive value of GFR estimates and albumin-to-creatinine ratio will be compared amongst subjects that do or do not show progressive kidney function decline. Discussion The eGFR-C study will provide evidence to inform the optimal GFR estimate to be used in clinical practice. Trial registration ISRCTN42955626. PMID:24423077

  18. 1 Peace Studies PEACE STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Peace Studies PEACE STUDIES The peace studies program encourages students to explore the multiple, and environmental justice. The peace studies program focuses on the study of peace and conflict through the lens of the humanities and the liberal arts. Housed within the Department of Religion (http:// religion

  19. Changes in schemas of patients with severe borderline personality disorder: the Oulu BPD study.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Virpi; Kärki, Anna; Saariaho, Tom; Lindeman, Sari; Hakko, Helinä

    2015-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a relatively common and severe psychiatric disorder that can impair quality of life in many ways. The aim of this study was to determine whether a combined treatment model for BPD patients, utilising major principles from schema-focused therapy (SFT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), could be more effective in relieving early maladaptive schemas of BPD patients, compared to treatment as usual (TAU). This study is a part of the Oulu BPD study conducted at mental health care services run by Oulu city social and health care services. The study is a multisite, randomized controlled trial conducted over a one year period, involving two groups of patients with severe BPD: (1) Community Treatment By Experts (CTBE) patients (n = 18) receiving the combined treatment model, and 2) TAU patients (n = 27). The patients' schemas were assessed using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-L3a) before and after one year of treatment. The results reveal that CTBE patients who attended the combined treatment model showed a statistically significant reduction in eight out of 18 early maladaptive schemas, while patients receiving treatment as usual did not demonstrate any significant changes in schemas. The cognitive therapeutic treatment model can be applied for clinical use in public mental health settings using existing professionals, and appears to produce positive changes in patients with BPD. PMID:25358652

  20. Using quantitative risk information in decisions about statins: a qualitative study in a community setting

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background A large literature informs guidance for GPs about communicating quantitative risk information so as to facilitate shared decision making. However, relatively little has been written about how patients utilise such information in practice. Aim To understand the role of quantitative risk information in patients’ accounts of decisions about taking statins. Design and setting This was a qualitative study, with participants recruited and interviewed in community settings. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 participants aged >50 years, all of whom had been offered statins. Data were analysed thematically, using elements of the constant comparative method. Results Interviewees drew frequently on numerical test results to explain their decisions about preventive medication. In contrast, they seldom mentioned quantitative risk information, and never offered it as a rationale for action. Test results were spoken of as objects of concern despite an often-explicit absence of understanding, so lack of understanding seems unlikely to explain the non-use of risk estimates. Preventive medication was seen as ‘necessary’ either to treat test results, or because of personalised, unequivocal advice from a doctor. Conclusion This study’s findings call into question the assumption that people will heed and use numerical risk information once they understand it; these data highlight the need to consider the ways in which different kinds of knowledge are used in practice in everyday contexts. There was little evidence from this study that understanding probabilistic risk information was a necessary or valued condition for making decisions about statin use. PMID:25824187

  1. Photochemistry and radiative transfer studies in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Christopher Dennis

    This work is mainly an amalgam of work done over several years and different topics. There are three main areas of investigation: (a)Saturnian He 584 Å airglow intensity, (b)deuterium chemistry and emission in the Jovian Thermosphere, and (c)Jovian tropospheric deuterated species abundances, viz., CH3D (Parkinson et al., 1998; Parkinson et al., 2002a; and Parkinson et al., 2002a). Calculations of the Saturnian He 584 Å airglow intensity, using radiative transfer models with partial frequency redistribution and inhomogeneous atmospheric models, are presented. For reference conditions and an atmosphere consistent with the Voyager UVS occultation results, we require the eddy diffusion coefficients at the homopause. Kh, to be greater than 109 cm2 s-1 in order to fit the Ultraviolet Spectrometer measurements of Voyager 1 and 2 He 584 Å airglow measurements. These values of Kh seem unreasonably high when compared to the earlier work of Sandel et al. (1982) and Atreya (1982). This suggests that either the values of one or more of the parameters of our model are not correct or that the measured UVS airglow is too bright and that there is a problem with calibration. Even so, we suggest that Kh is likely to be greater than 2 × 107 cm2 s-1 during the period of the Voyager encounters. Jupiter's atmosphere contains proto-solar abundances of H and D, and therefore may be studied in an attempt to derive the solar system D/H value. The solar system D/H problem can be approached in a number of ways: (a)D and H Lyman-?, Lyman-?, (b)CH3D and CH4, and (c)HD and H2 (from ISO/Galileo probe). First suggested by Ben Jaffel (private communication, 1999), this strategy is termed the ‘global approach’. Using this approach and utilising the same atmospheric model should ideally provide the same D/H ratio regardless of the technique used or the location in the atmosphere one is studying. The D/H problem has been extensively modelled utilising the ‘global approach’ and the results of the analysis are reported here. Moreover, as a result of trying to determine the solar system D/H ratio, we are be better able to describe the structure, chemistry and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere in a self-consistent manner. A detailed study is presented of the distribution of key deuterated species (viz., atomic D and HD) and the associated deuterium Lyman-a airglow in the Jovian thermosphere. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. 1 Africana Studies AFRICANA STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Africana Studies AFRICANA STUDIES GW's Africana Studies Program promotes an interdepartmental, interdisciplinary course of study examining the diverse histories, cultures, politics and people of the African, and the Middle East. Students in the program are introduced to methodology from core areas of the humanities

  3. A minimally invasive technique for decompression of Chiari malformation type I (DECMI study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Liu, Jiagang; Chen, Haifeng; Jiang, Shu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Yuan; Gong, Shuhui; Wang, Yuelong; Huang, Siqing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is a congenital hindbrain anomaly that requires surgical decompression in symptomatic patients. Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) has been widely practiced in Chiari decompression, but dural opening carries a high risk of surgical complications. A minimally invasive technique, dural splitting decompression (DSD), preserves the inner layer of the dura without dural opening and duraplasty, potentially reducing surgical complications, length of operative time and hospital stay, and cost. If DSD is non-inferior to PFDD in terms of clinical improvement, DSD could be an alternative treatment modality for CM-I. So far, no randomised study of surgical treatment of CM-I has been reported. This study aims to evaluate if DSD is an effective, safe and cost-saving treatment modality for adult CM-I patients, and may provide evidence for using the minimally invasive procedure extensively. Methods and analysis DECMI is a randomised controlled, single-masked, non-inferiority, single centre clinical trial. Participants meeting the criteria will be randomised to the DSD group and the PFDD group in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome is the rate of clinical improvement, which is defined as the complete resolution or partial improvement of the presenting symptoms/signs. The secondary outcomes consist of the incidence of syrinx reduction, postoperative morbidity rates, reoperation rate, quality of life (QoL) and healthcare resource utilisation. A total of 160 patients will be included and followed up at 3 and 12?months postoperatively. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Biological and Medical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital. The findings of this trial will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and presented at scientific conferences. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-14004099. PMID:25926152

  4. Biofeasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparian, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of bioremediation as a method for disposing of contaminants by exploiting natural biodegradation processes. The process of conducting a biofeasibility study and a case study are reviewed. (LZ)

  5. Enhancing computer literacy and information retrieval skills: A rural and remote nursing and midwifery workforce study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen; McLeod, Margaret; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Nurses and midwives collectively, represent the largest workforce category in rural and remote areas of Australia. Maintaining currency of practice and attaining annual licensure with the Australian Health Practitioners Regulatory Authority (AHPRA) present challenges for individual nurses and midwives and for their health service managers. Engagement with information and communication technologies, in order for geographically isolated clinicians to access ongoing education and training, is considered a useful strategy to address such challenges. This paper presents a pre- and post-test study design. It examines the impact of an online continuing professional development (CPD) program on Australian rural nurses and midwives. The aims of the program were to increase basic skill acquisition in the utilisation of common computer software, the use of the Internet and the enhancement of email communication. Findings from the study demonstrate that participants who complete a relevant CPD program gain confidence in the use of information and communication technologies. Further, increased confidence leads to increased access to contemporary, reliable and important health care information on the Internet, in addition to clinicians adopting email as a regular method of communication. Health care employers commonly assume employees are skilled users of information and communication technologies. However, findings from this study contradict such assumptions. It is argued in the recommendations that health care employees should be given regular access to CPD programs designed to introduce them to information and communication technologies. Developing knowledge and skills in this area has the potential to improve staff productivity, raise health care standards and improve patient outcomes. PMID:26552199

  6. Systems biology approaches for studying the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Ciarán P; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Plant, Nick J; Moore, J Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a progressive disease of increasing public health concern. In western populations the disease has an estimated prevalence of 20%-40%, rising to 70%-90% in obese and type II diabetic individuals. Simplistically, NAFLD is the macroscopic accumulation of lipid in the liver, and is viewed as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating both the initial development of steatosis and its progression through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis to debilitating and potentially fatal fibrosis and cirrhosis are only partially understood. Despite increased research in this field, the development of non-invasive clinical diagnostic tools and the discovery of novel therapeutic targets has been frustratingly slow. We note that, to date, NAFLD research has been dominated by in vivo experiments in animal models and human clinical studies. Systems biology tools and novel computational simulation techniques allow the study of large-scale metabolic networks and the impact of their dysregulation on health. Here we review current systems biology tools and discuss the benefits to their application to the study of NAFLD. We propose that a systems approach utilising novel in silico modelling and simulation techniques is key to a more comprehensive, better targeted NAFLD research strategy. Such an approach will accelerate the progress of research and vital translation into clinic. PMID:25386055

  7. Intelligence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…

  8. A systematic review of prescription pattern monitoring studies and their effectiveness in promoting rational use of medicines

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shipra; Upadhyaya, Prerna; Goyal, Jaswant; Kumar, Abhijit; Jain, Pushpawati; Seth, Vikas; Moghe, Vijay V

    2015-01-01

    Prescription pattern monitoring studies (PPMS) are a tool for assessing the prescribing, dispensing and distribution of medicines. The main aim of PPMS is to facilitate rational use of medicines (RUM). There is paucity of published data analysing the effectiveness of PPMS. The present review has been done to assess the effectiveness of prescription pattern monitoring studies in promoting RUM. Data search was conducted on internet. A multitude of PPMS done on different classes of drugs were collected and analyzed. PPMS using WHO prescribing indicators were also included. The present article reviews various prescription pattern monitoring studies of drugs conducted all over country and abroad. It was observed in the majority of such studies that physicians do not adhere to the guidelines made by regulatory agencies leading to irrational use of medicines. This in turn leads to increased incidence of treatment failure, antimicrobial resistance and economic burden on the patient and the community as a whole. The treatment of diseases by the use of essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasized by the WHO and the National Health Policy of India. We conclude that the prescription monitoring studies provide a bridge between areas like rational use of drugs, pharmacovigilance, evidence based medicine, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacogenetics and ecopharmacovigilance. In India, this is the need of the hour to utilise the data generated by so many prescription pattern monitoring studies done in every state and on every drug, so that the main aim of promoting rational use of drugs is fulfilled. PMID:25878953

  9. Autopsy study of febrile deaths during monsoon at a tertiary care institute in India: Is malaria still a challenge?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anurag; Dhume, Varsha; Puranik, Gururaj Venkatesh; Kavishwar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: To utilise an autopsy-based approach to study the febrile deaths and deaths due to malaria during monsoon period of three years at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai, India. Materials and Methods: All autopsies done at the hospital during monsoon period from 2005 to 2007 when fever was the main presenting symptom were included in the study. Monsoon period was defined from June to September. A study on the duration of hospital stay of malaria deaths was also attempted. Results: There were 202 autopsies of febrile illness during the study period. Malaria resulted in 20.8% of the deaths besides other causes. A majority of deaths had intrapulmonary haemorrhages as the only pathological finding. Incidence of malaria deaths was more during monsoon period than the non-monsoon period. Plasmodium falciparum was the most common species responsible for malaria deaths while cerebral malaria was the most common mode of death. In 27% of the cases, post-mortem examination helped to arrive at the correct final diagnosis. In 88.1% of the cases, malaria deaths occurred within the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital. Conclusion: The study reiterates the fact that malaria remains a preventable but major cause of death in India, predominantly during the monsoon period. The study also emphasises the importance of developing treatment protocols for malaria during such crucial times besides reinforcing the existing preventive measures. PMID:25657486

  10. Developing Objective Metrics for Unit Staffing (DOMUS) study

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, I; Whittingham, B; Meadowcroft, K; Richardson, M; Cooper, J C; Belcher, J; Morris, E; Ismail, K M K

    2014-01-01

    Objective Safe midwifery staffing levels on delivery suites is a priority area for any maternity service. Escalation policies are tools that provide an operational response to emergency pressures. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a scoring system to contemporaneously assess the required staffing level based on demand and use this to determine delivery suite escalation level and utilise the information generated regarding clinical activity (Demand) and staffing levels (Capacity) to generate unit-specific calculation for the actual number of midwifery staff required. Setting A maternity unit of a university-affiliated tertiary referral hospital. Design Over a 12-month period, specifically designed scoring sheets were completed by delivery suite shift co-ordinators four times a day (04:00, 10:00, 16:00 and 22:00). Based on the dependency score (Demand) and the number of midwifery staff available (Capacity), an escalation level was determined for each shift. The 80th centile of the demand was used to determine optimal capacity. Results A total of 1160 scoring sheets were completed. Average staff number throughout the year on any shift was 7 (range 3–11). Average dependency score was 7 (range 1–14). The 80th centile for demand was calculated to be 11. Conclusions This study stresses the importance and usefulness of a simple tool that can be used to determine the level of escalation on delivery suite based on an objective scoring system and can also be used to determine the appropriate staffing on delivery suite. PMID:25217367

  11. Benthic Foraminifer Nd Isotopes and Radiocarbon: a Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrivner, A. E.; Skinner, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    The combined analysis of neodymium (Nd) isotopes and radiocarbon (14C) in sedimentary benthic foraminifera has the potential to remedy a major issue involved in the interpretation of 14C data. The problem is that changes in deep-water sourcing, deep-water source signature and deep-water renewal rates may all affect 14C concentration, complicating the interpretation of deep-water 14C reconstructions. To overcome this, the application of a circulation tracer is required. Traditional proxies such as ?13C, Cd/Ca, and deep-water temperature either do not behave as conservative tracers or only indirectly represent water mass mixing, and so are of limited use1. The application of a more recently developed proxy for water mass sourcing, circulation and mixing, Nd isotopes, might offer a solution to this problem. A recent pioneering study2 has demonstrated that sedimentary benthic foraminifera might be a suitable archive of past deep-water Nd isotope composition at high resolution, potentially more robust than acidic-reductive sediment leach data. This study seeks to utilise this promising new tracer by applying it to an investigation of deglacial ventilation changes in the North Atlantic. Initial data presented here for core-top benthic foraminifera from the Labrador Sea, Iberian Margin and Pacific illustrate nearly the complete dynamic range of Nd isotope compositions present in the modern ocean, in general agreement with existing seawater Nd isotope data. Preliminary down-core Nd isotope data from the Iberian Margin place initial constraints on the contribution of deep-water sourcing to observed changes in deep-water 14C ventilation across the last deglaciation. 1 - E. Boyle, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 20, 245-287 (1992) 2 - V. Klevenz et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 265, 571-587 (2008)

  12. Superoxide release by confluent endothelial cells, an electron spin resonance (ESR) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbacanne, M.-A.; Margeat, E.; Arnal, J.-F.; Nepveu, F.; Souchard, J.-P.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we used ESR to detect the release of oxygen radicals by endothelial cells stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187. Dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) was used as a spin trap. Although the observed adduct (DMPO-OH) suggested the presence of the hydroxyl radical, the use of superoxide dismutase and catalase revealed that superoxide anion was released in the medium. Superoxide production was more efficient when the cells were post-confluent for a few days. The release of superoxide was 3-fold greater in growth arrested cells (D6-D9) than in proliferating cells (D0). Although two inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain carbanyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), antimycine decreased the ESR signal by 35%, the use of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) suggested that the release of O2- occurred in the cell membrane. The physiological significance of this extracellular superoxide release by post-confluent cells deserves further study. Ce travail présente une étude par RSE de la libération des radicaux oxygénés par les cellules endothéliales bovines (BAEC) sous l'effet de l'ionophore calcique A23187. Le diméthyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxyde (DMPO) est utilisé comme piégeur de spin. Bien que l'adduit formé (DMPO-OH) semble traduire la présence du radical hydroxyle .OH, l'utilisation de superoxyde dismutase et de catalase a révélé que les cellules endothéliales libéraient l'anion superoxyde. La production du radical superoxyde est plus abondante lorsque les cellules sont à confluence depuis plusieurs jours. Lorsque les cellules sont entre J6 et J9, la production de superoxyde est trois fois supérieure à celle observée lorsque les cellules sont en prolifération (J0). Bien que deux inhibiteurs de la chaîne mitochondriale 1-carbonyldinitrile-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), antimycineinhibent de 35 % le signal RPE, l'utilisation de superoxyde dismutase (SOD) et du tumor necrosis factor (TNF) suggèrent que la libération de O2- provient de la membrane cellulaire. La signification physiologique de cette production extracellulaire de l'anion superoxyde par des cellules post-confluentes reste à élucider.

  13. Sound Studies Meets Deaf Studies

    E-print Network

    Friedner, Michele Ilana

    Sound studies and Deaf studies may seem at first impression to operate in worlds apart. We argue in this article, however, that similar renderings of hearing, deafness, and seeing as ideal types - and as often essentialized ...

  14. 1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES Housed in the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Film Studies Program covers classical film aesthetics, surveys the history of world cinema and takes an in-depth look at films from America, France, Germany, Japan, Russia and the Hispanic world. UNDERGRADUATE Minor · Minor

  15. Time-driven activity-based costing of multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting across national boundaries to identify improvement opportunities: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Erhun, F; Mistry, B; Platchek, T; Milstein, A; Narayanan, V G; Kaplan, R S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established, commonly performed treatment for coronary artery disease—a disease that affects over 10% of US adults and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, the mean cost for a CABG procedure among Medicare beneficiaries in the USA was $32?201±$23?059. The same operation reportedly costs less than $2000 to produce in India. The goals of the proposed study are to (1) identify the difference in the costs incurred to perform CABG surgery by three Joint Commission accredited hospitals with reputations for high quality and efficiency and (2) characterise the opportunity to reduce the cost of performing CABG surgery. Methods and analysis We use time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the hospitals’ costs of producing elective, multivessel CABG. TDABC estimates the costs of a given clinical service by combining information about the process of patient care delivery (specifically, the time and quantity of labour and non-labour resources utilised to perform each activity) with the unit cost of each resource used to provide the care. Resource utilisation was estimated by constructing CABG process maps for each site based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs were calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a $/min, for each resource consumed in CABG production. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost of CABG production at each site. We will conclude by conducting a variance analysis of labour costs to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for CABG production in the USA. Ethics and dissemination All our methods were exempted from review by the Stanford Institutional Review Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. PMID:26307621

  16. Using a Popular Pet Fish Species to Study Territorial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abante, Maria E.

    2005-01-01

    The colourful, vigorous territorial display behaviour of the Siamese fighting fish, "Betta splendens", has great appeal for both pet enthusiasts and animal behaviourists. Their beauty, longevity, easy maintenance and rearing make them a popular pet and an ideal science laboratory specimen. This investigation utilises "B. splendens" to test for the…

  17. Magnetism and spin transport studies on indium tin oxide

    E-print Network

    Hakimi, Ali Moraad Heydar

    2011-07-12

    of the magnetic response in these thin films is explored in great detail. In particular, powerful probes such as x-ray and optical magnetic circular dichroism are utilised. The major finding from these investigations is that the magnetism does not necessarily...

  18. Christian Hip Hop as Pedagogy: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with creators of Christian hip hop music in South Africa, this article demonstrates that this genre of popular music and youth culture is utilised as a form of pedagogy to transmit religious beliefs and values to contemporary youth. The pedagogical aspects of hip hop have been recognised in research on the topic, but the…

  19. Young People on the Margins: Australian Studies of Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelsberg, Harry Joseph; Martin-Giles, Bonnie Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon empirical data from four research projects undertaken in Adelaide, South Australia, we examine the cumulative effects of deprivation on the lives of young people. Utilising a social exclusion framework for analysis we demonstrate the dynamic interplay between the various dimensions of social exclusion. We present the experiences and…

  20. Predictors of internalised HIV-related stigma: a systematic review of studies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pantelic, Marija; Shenderovich, Yulia; Cluver, Lucie; Boyes, Mark

    2015-12-01

    This systematic review aims to synthesise evidence on predictors of internalised HIV stigma amongst people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used. Studies were identified through electronic databases, grey literature, reference harvesting and contacts with key researchers. Quality of findings was assessed through an adapted version of the Cambridge Quality Checklists. A total of 590 potentially relevant titles were identified. Seventeen peer-reviewed articles and one draft book chapter were included. Studies investigated socio-demographic, HIV-related, intra-personal and interpersonal correlates of internalised stigma. Eleven articles used cross-sectional data, six articles used prospective cohort data and one used both prospective cohort and cross-sectional data to assess correlates of internalised stigma. Poor HIV-related health weakly predicted increases in internalised HIV stigma in three longitudinal studies. Lower depression scores and improvements in overall mental health predicted reductions in internalised HIV stigma in two longitudinal studies, with moderate and weak effects, respectively. No other consistent predictors were found. Studies utilising analysis of change and accounting for confounding factors are necessary to guide policy and programming but are scarce. High-risk populations, other stigma markers that might layer upon internalised stigma, and structural drivers of internalised stigma need to be examined. PMID:25559431

  1. The Study of Factors that Influence the Entrepreneurship in the Growing Energy Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinias, Ioannis G.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we are trying to study the field of private enterprise in the sector of Energy in Greece. The changes in the institutional and financial substructures, in the last decade, have supported the materialization of an important number of investment plans. The investor's interest in the energy sector has been expressed up to now in the utilisation of Renewable Sources of Energy (RSE), the substitution of "traditional" fuels with clean fuels (natural gas, liquid gas), the implementation of electricity's co-production, as well as in the saving of energy. The goal of that study is to answer specific questions concerning the entrepreneurship in the Greek Energy sector. Who the investors are in the Greek energy market and which their traits are? We are trying to analyse the procedures which must be followed for the preparation of an investment plan. Moreover we investigate the financial factors, such as the economic growth and the employment that can affect the entrepreneurship. The sources of finance and the role of Small and Medium Enterpises in the energy sector are also very important elements in our research. Finally we are trying to analyse the international perspective of entrepreneurship and the mechanism of how the global circumstances in the field of energy can affect the inland product of energy.

  2. Post-metabolic response to passive normobaric hypoxic exposure in sedendary overweight males: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present pilot study was designed to test the impact of passive acute normobaric hypoxic exposure (PAH) and passive short-term normobaric hypoxic exposure (PSH) conditions on energy expenditure (EE) and substrates utilisation (glucose and lipid oxidation). Methods Eleven participants have completed the PAH session while the control group (CG) underwent a simulated experimental condition in normobaric normoxic condition. A subset of 6 participants underwent an additional six 3-hour sessions on consecutive days. Metabolic rates were obtained pre- and post-treatments on the morning following an overnight (12 hours) fast in PAH, PSH, and CG groups. Results The statistical outcomes showed a significant increase in EE for PAH, control, and PSH while a shift in substrate utilization towards lipid sources was only detected for PAH and PSH, respectively. Conclusion This pilot study showed that passive acute normobaric hypoxic exposure did affect EE and fuel utilization in sedentary overweight males and that further passive normobaric hypoxic exposures (PSH) magnified these metabolic adjustments. These outcomes provide valuable information for further research in the area of hypoxia as a new therapeutic strategy to improve the management of weight loss. PMID:23157699

  3. Experimental and numerical study of shock-driven collapse of multiple cavity arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betney, Matthew; Anderson, Phillip; Tully, Brett; Doyle, Hugo; Hawker, Nicholas; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a numerical and experimental investigation of the interaction of a single shock wave with multiple air-filled spherical cavities. The 5 mm diameter cavities are cast in a hydrogel, and collapsed by a shock wave generated by the impact of a projectile fired from a single-stage light-gas gun. Incident shock pressures of up to 1 GPa have been measured, and the results compared to simulations conducted using a front-tracking approach. The authors have previously studied the collapse dynamics of a single cavity. An important process is the formation of a high-speed transverse jet, which impacts the leeward cavity wall and produces a shockwave. The speed of this shock has been measured using schlieren imaging, and the density has been measured with a fibre optic probe. This confirmed the computational prediction that the produced shock is of a higher pressure than the original incident shock. When employing multiple cavity arrays, the strong shock produced by the collapse of one cavity can substantially affect the collapse of further cavities. With control over cavity placement, these effects may be utilised to intensify collapse. This intensification is experimentally measured via analysis of the optical emission.

  4. Arm and wrist surface potential mapping for wearable ECG rhythm recording devices: a pilot clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, W. D.; Escalona, O. J.; McEneaney, D. J.

    2013-06-01

    This study addresses an important question in the development of a ECG device that enables long term monitoring of cardiac rhythm. This device would utilise edge sensor technologies for dry, non-irritant skin contact suitable for distal limb application and would be supported by embedded ECG denoising processes. Contemporary ECG databases including those provided by MIT-BIH and Physionet are focused on interpretation of cardiac disease and rhythm tracking. The data is recorded using chest leads as in standard clinical practise. For the development of a peripherally located heart rhythm monitor, such data would be of limited use. To provide a useful database adequate for the development of the above mentioned cardiac monitoring device a unipolar body surface potential map from the left arm and wrist was gathered in 37 volunteer patients and characterized in this study. For this, the reference electrode was placed at the wrist. Bipolar far-field electrogram leads were derived and analysed. Factors such as skin variability, 50Hz noise interference, electrode contact noise, motion artifacts and electromyographic noise, presented a challenge. The objective was quantify the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the far-field locations. Preliminary results reveal that an electrogram indicative of the QRS complex can be recorded on the distal portion of the left arm when denoised using signal averaging techniques.

  5. Study into the kinetic properties and surface attachment of a thermostable adenylate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, H.J.; Sutton, J.M.; Jenkins, A.T.A.

    2015-01-01

    A thermostable adenylate kinase (tAK) has been used as model protein contaminant on surfaces, so used because residual protein after high temperature wash steps can be detected at extremely low concentrations. This gives the potential for accurate, quantitative measurement of the effectiveness of different wash processes in removing protein contamination. Current methods utilise non-covalent (physisorbtion) of tAK to surfaces, but this can be relatively easily removed. In this study, the covalent binding of tAK to surfaces was studied to provide an alternative model for surface contamination. Kinetic analysis showed that the efficiency of the enzyme expressed as the catalytic rate over the Michaelis constant (kcat/KM) increased from 8.45±3.04 mM?1 s?1 in solution to 32.23±3.20 or 24.46±4.41 mM?1 s?1 when the enzyme was immobilised onto polypropylene or plasma activated polypropylene respectively. Maleic anhydride plasma activated polypropylene showed potential to provide a more robust challenge for washing processes as it retained significantly higher amounts of tAK enzyme than polypropylene in simple washing experiments. Inhibition of the coupled enzyme (luciferase/luciferin) system used for the detection of adenylate kinase activity, was observed for a secondary product of the reaction. This needs to be taken into consideration when using the assay to estimate cleaning efficacy. PMID:26339684

  6. Advanced Fenton processing of aqueous phenol solutions: a continuous system study including sonication effects.

    PubMed

    Namkung, K C; Burgess, A E; Bremner, D H; Staines, H

    2008-03-01

    Our previous report based on a batch reactor system for the Advanced Fenton Process (AFP) showed that pH, hydrogen peroxide and the organic substances treated are among the most important factors affecting the oxidation efficiency. As an extended study towards its potential commercialisation, this paper reports the effects of the main process parameters including those relating to a new laboratory scale AFP flow-through system. In order to systemise and correlate the results, the Taguchi experimental design method was used. Total organic carbon (TOC) removal was utilised as the measure of the oxidation efficiency and it was found that the removal of phenol from aqueous solution at pH 2.0 and 2.5 was very similar but hydrogen peroxide supply significantly affected the TOC removal with the change of flow rate from 14.4 ml/h to 60 ml/h. Also, the initial concentration of phenol was a highly significant factor, with higher concentrations resulting in a lower TOC removal rate. The temperature effects in the range of 14-42 degrees C were investigated and it was found that there was accelerated oxidation of phenol in the early stages but after 90 min there was no significant difference between the results. Sonication with a bath type sonicator resulted in relatively small enhancements of TOC removal but further studies with cup-horn sonication showed that TOC removal increased with higher intensity of sonication. PMID:17482498

  7. Long-distance aerial dispersal modelling of Culicoides biting midges: case studies of incursions into Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating long-distance, wind-borne dispersal of Culicoides have utilised outbreaks of clinical disease (passive surveillance) to assess the relationship between incursion and dispersal event. In this study, species of exotic Culicoides and isolates of novel bluetongue viruses, collected as part of an active arbovirus surveillance program, were used for the first time to assess dispersal into an endemic region. Results A plausible dispersal event was determined for five of the six cases examined. These include exotic Culicoides specimens for which a possible dispersal event was identified within the range of two days – three weeks prior to their collection and novel bluetongue viruses for which a dispersal event was identified between one week and two months prior to their detection in cattle. The source location varied, but ranged from Lombok, in eastern Indonesia, to Timor-Leste and southern Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Where bluetongue virus is endemic, the concurrent use of an atmospheric dispersal model alongside existing arbovirus and Culicoides surveillance may help guide the strategic use of limited surveillance resources as well as contribute to continued model validation and refinement. Further, the value of active surveillance systems in evaluating models for long-distance dispersal is highlighted, particularly in endemic regions where knowledge of background virus and vector status is beneficial. PMID:24943652

  8. Stream Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    This manual provides teachers with some knowledge of ecological study methods and techniques used in collecting data when plants and animals are studied in the field. Most activities deal with the interrelatedness of plant and animal life to the structure and characteristics of a stream and pond. Also included in this unit plan designed for the…

  9. Study Carrels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Information on various study carrels to provide individualized learning space for training use is presented. It is noted that carrels may be standard models or customized, and most are wired for audiovisual equipment. A list of study carrel suppliers and manufacturers is included. (MF)

  10. SISTER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sister Study will investigate the role of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors on the risk of breast cancer and other diseases in sisters of women with breast cancer. This research study will enroll 50,000 women who live in the United States and who are the cancer-fr...

  11. Studying Zooarchaeology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Molly; Wolf, Deborah; Butler, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    Children often associate the study of bones with dinosaurs or crime scenes. This unit introduces students to "zooarchaeology," the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. Students in grades 3-5 engage in hands-on activities examining bones, shells, and other "hard parts" of animals. They use their observations as a starting point for…

  12. Protocol for a multicentre, prospective, population-based cohort study of variation in practice of cholecystectomy and surgical outcomes (The CholeS study)

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Ravinder S; Spreadborough, Philip; Johnstone, Marianne; Marriott, Paul; Bhangu, Aneel; Alderson, Derek; Morton, Dion G; Griffiths, Ewen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgical operations performed. Despite level one evidence supporting the role of cholecystectomy in the management of specific gallbladder diseases, practice varies between surgeons and hospitals. It is unknown whether these variations account for the differences in surgical outcomes seen in population-level retrospective data sets. This study aims to investigate surgical outcomes following acute, elective and delayed cholecystectomies in a multicentre, contemporary, prospective, population-based cohort. Methods and analysis UK and Irish hospitals performing cholecystectomies will be recruited utilising trainee-led research collaboratives. Two months of consecutive, adult patient data will be included. The primary outcome measure of all-cause 30-day readmission rate will be used in this study. Thirty-day complication rates, bile leak rate, common bile duct injury, conversion to open surgery, duration of surgery and length of stay will be measured as secondary outcomes. Prospective data on over 8000 procedures is anticipated. Individual hospitals will be surveyed to determine local policies and service provision. Variations in outcomes will be investigated using regression modelling to adjust for confounders. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval is not required for this study and has been confirmed by the online National Research Ethics Service (NRES) decision tool. This novel study will investigate how hospital-level surgical provision can affect patient outcomes, using a cross-sectional methodology. The results are essential to inform commissioning groups and implement changes within the National Health Service (NHS). Dissemination of the study protocol is primarily through the trainee-led research collaboratives and the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons (AUGIS). Individual centres will have access to their own results and the collective results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant surgical conferences. PMID:25582453

  13. SurgiCal Obesity Treatment Study (SCOTS): protocol for a national prospective cohort study of patients undergoing bariatric surgery in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Jennifer; Stewart, Sally; Munro, Jane; Grieve, Eleanor; Lean, Mike; Lindsay, Robert S; Bruce, Duff; Ali, Abdulmajid; Briggs, Andrew; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of bariatric surgery for large-scale, long-term weight loss is well established. However, many questions remain over the continual benefits and cost-effectiveness of that weight loss for overall health, particularly when accounting for potential complications and adverse events of surgery. Health research institutes in the UK and the USA have called for high-quality longitudinal cohort studies of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, assessing outcomes such as surgical complications, mortality, diabetes remission, microvascular complications, cardiovascular events, mental health, cost and healthcare use. Methods and analysis SurgiCal Obesity Treatment Study (SCOTS) is a national, prospective, observational, cohort study of patients undergoing primary bariatric surgical procedures in Scotland. This study aims to recruit 2000 patients and conduct a follow-up for 10?years postbariatric surgery using multiple data collection methods: surgeon-recorded data, electronic health record linkage, and patient-reported outcome measures. Outcomes measured will include: mortality, weight change, diabetes, surgical, cardiovascular, cancer, behavioural, reproductive/urological and nutritional variables. Healthcare utilisation and economic productivity will be collected to inform cost-effectiveness analysis. Ethics and dissemination The study has received a favourable ethical opinion from the West of Scotland Research Ethics committee. All publications arising from this cohort study will be published in open-access peer-reviewed journals. All SCOTS investigators (all members of the research team at every recruiting site) will have the ability to propose research suggestions and potential publications using SCOTS data; a publications committee will approve all requests for use of SCOTS data and propose writing committees and timelines. Lay-person summaries of all research findings will be published simultaneously on the SCOTS website (http://www.scotsurgeystudy.org.uk). PMID:26002692

  14. Urban Studies 1 Urban Studies

    E-print Network

    Post, David M.

    ), Keller Easterling (School of Architecture), Dolores Hayden (School of Architecture, American Studies Plattus (School of Architecture), Douglas Rae (School of Management, Political Science), Helen Siu

  15. Determining appropriate imaging parameters for kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring: an experimental phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, D.; Ng, J. A.; Keall, P. J.; O'Brien, R. T.; Poulsen, P. R.; Juneja, P.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-06-01

    Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) utilises the kV imager during treatment for real-time tracking of prostate fiducial markers. However, its effectiveness relies on sufficient image quality for the fiducial tracking task. To guide the performance characterisation of KIM under different clinically relevant conditions, the effect of different kV parameters and patient size on image quality, and quantification of MV scatter from the patient to the kV detector panel were investigated in this study. Image quality was determined for a range of kV acquisition frame rates, kV exposure, MV dose rates and patient sizes. Two methods were used to determine image quality; the ratio of kV signal through the patient to the MV scatter from the patient incident on the kilovoltage detector, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The effect of patient size and frame rate on MV scatter was evaluated in a homogeneous CIRS pelvis phantom and marker segmentation was determined utilising the Rando phantom with embedded markers. MV scatter incident on the detector was shown to be dependent on patient thickness and frame rate. The segmentation code was shown to be successful for all frame rates above 3?Hz for the Rando phantom corresponding to a kV to MV ratio of 0.16 and an SNR of 1.67. For a maximum patient dimension less than 36.4?cm the conservative kV parameters of 5?Hz at 1?mAs can be used to reduce dose while retaining image quality, where the current baseline kV parameters of 10?Hz at 1?mAs is shown to be adequate for marker segmentation up to a patient dimension of 40?cm. In conclusion, the MV scatter component of image quality noise for KIM has been quantified. For most prostate patients, use of KIM with 10?Hz imaging at 1?mAs is adequate however image quality can be maintained and imaging dose reduced by altering existing acquisition parameters.

  16. Study on chemical profiles and metabolites of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus as well as its representative steroidal saponins in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zi-Fei; Dai, Yi; Yao, Zhi-Hong; He, Liang-Liang; Wang, Qi-Yi; Geng, Jian-Liang; Chen, Hai-Feng; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus (AMB) is increasingly becoming popular as an edible vegetable or traditional folk medicine in East Asia due to its great health and medicinal properties. However, due to a lack of available research, the effective material of AMB still remains unknown. In this study, we applied a strategy utilising ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) to investigate chemical profiles of AMB. In addition, metabolite profiles of five representative single steroidal saponins as well as AMB were investigated. Moreover, the metabolic features of saponins in AMB were summarised. After oral administration, the saponins underwent massive phase I and phase II metabolism. Sequential deglycosylation metabolism in rat intestine was the main metabolic pathway of the steroidal saponins, while oxidation, dehydrogenation, glucuronic acid reactions in liver also take part in further modification. These results expand our knowledge about the metabolism of AMB. PMID:26304378

  17. International journal of mental health systems: a bibliometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Journal of Mental Health Systems (IJMHS) was launched in August 2007 and has recently been given a formal impact factor. This study uses bibliometric indicators to review the performance of the Journal against its original stated objectives and aspirations. Methods All articles published in IJMHS since publication commenced were included (n?=?158). Selected bibliometric measures indicating Journal productivity, author affiliation, impact, geographic reach, and international collaboration were utilised. Results IJMHS published 158 articles in seven volumes over six years. Articles with three to five authors constitute the dominant authorship pattern, and authors’ affiliations are varied. IJMHS has received an impact factor of 1.06 from Thomson Reuters, and the SCImago Journal Ranking shows IJMHS to be well positioned in the four categories in which it is listed, including in comparisons with well-established BMC journals that have similar scientific interests. Geographic authorship patterns show contributions from a large number of countries, including many low- and middle-income countries. Discussion Manuscript submissions from a wide range of countries, including low- and middle-income countries, are mostly from academic institutions. Authors from some geographic areas of the world are significantly under-represented. The calculation of an impact factor and encouraging rankings on the SCImago Journal Rank index are expected to lead to increased submission of high quality manuscripts. Conclusion The performance of IJMHS over the first six years is promising, and the Journal is on the way to achieving the aims set out in the inaugural Editorial. IJMHS will continue to enhance its current impact through a number of new initiatives, including the introduction of thematic series and a broader range of article categories. PMID:24393301

  18. Does interprofessional simulation increase self-efficacy: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Colm; Reedy, Gabriel; Ross, Alastair; Morgan, Nicola J; Handslip, Rhodri; Jaye, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this work, we have compared uniprofessional and interprofessional versions of a simulation education intervention, in an attempt to understand more about whether it improves trainees’ self-efficacy. Background Interprofessionalism has been climbing the healthcare agenda for over 50?years. Simulation education attempts to create an environment for healthcare professionals to learn, without potential safety risks for patients. Integrating simulation and interprofessional education can provide benefits to individual learners. Setting The intervention took place in a high-fidelity simulation facility located on the campus of a large urban hospital. The centre provides educational activities for an Academic Health Sciences Centre. Approximately 2500 staff are trained at the centre each year. Participants One hundred and fifteen nurses and midwives along with 156 doctors, all within the early years of their postgraduate experience participated. All were included on the basis of their ongoing postgraduate education. Methods Each course was a one-day simulation course incorporating five clinical and one communication scenarios. After each a facilitated debriefing took place. A mixed methods approach utilised precourse and postcourse questionnaires measuring self-efficacy in managing emergency situations, communication, teamwork and leadership. Results Thematic analysis of qualitative data showed improvements in communication/teamwork and leadership, for doctors and nurses undergoing simulation training. These findings were confirmed by statistical analysis showing that confidence ratings improved in nurses and doctors overall (p<0.001). Improved outcomes from baseline were observed for interprofessional versus uniprofessional trained nurses (n=115; p<0.001). Postcourse ratings for doctors showed that interprofessional training was significantly associated with better final outcomes for a communication/teamwork dimension (n=156; p<0.05). Conclusions This study provides evidence that simulation training enhances participants’ self-efficacy in clinical situations. It also leads to increases in their perceived abilities relating to communication/teamwork and leadership/management of clinical scenarios. Interprofessional training showed increased positive effects on self-efficacy for nurses and doctors. PMID:25586366

  19. Culture Studies: Hawaiian Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazama, Dorothy, Ed.

    Reports and materials from the Hawaiian Studies Project are presented. The document, designed for elementary school teachers contains two major sections. The first section describes the planning phase of the project, the Summer Institute for Hawaiian Culture Studies (1976) and the follow-up workshops and consultant help (1976-77). The appendix to…

  20. Experimental Study of the Possibility to Make a Mortar with Ternary Sand (Natural and Artificial Fine Aggregates)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baali, L.; Naceri, A.; Rahmouni, Z.; Mehidi, M. W. Noui

    This experimental study investigates the possibility to make a mortar with a ternary sand (natural and artificial fine aggregates). This method is utilized to correct the particle size distribution of various sands used in mortar. For this investigation, three sands have been used: a dune sand (DS), a slag sand (SS), and brick sand (BS) at different proportions in mortar. After crushing, the artificial fine aggregate (blast furnace slag and waste brick fine aggregate) was sifted in order to use it as fine aggregate. The effect of the quality and grain size distribution of natural fine aggregate (i.e., DS) and artificial fine aggregates (i.e., SS and BS) on the physical properties of ternary sand confected (density, porosity, fineness modulus, equivalent sand, particle size distribution, water absorption) and properties of fresh and hardened mortar were analysed. In the same way for this study, the physical properties and chemical compositions of DS, SS, BS and cement were investigated. The results obtained show that the mechanical strength on mortar depends of the nature and particle size distribution of sand studied. The reuse of this recycled material (slag blast furnace and waste brick) in the industry would contribute to the protection of the environment. This study shows the potential of this method to make mortar with ternary sand (natural and artificial fine aggreagates) in order to improve the physical properties of sand. Utilising natural and artificial fine aggregates to produce quality mortar should yield significant environmental benefits.

  1. Study I

    Cancer.gov

    Study I.D.: ___ ___ ___ ___ SURVEY OF MAMMOGRAPHY PRACTICE This survey takes about 5 minutes to complete. It asks what we think are extremely relevant questions about current issues in mammography. Please circle your answer. 1. How long have you

  2. Sister Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Sister Study, conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), is prospectively examining environmental and familial risk factors for breast cancer and other outcomes in a cohort of 50,884 sisters of women who have had breast cancer. These sisters have about twice the risk of developing breast cancer due to their family history and are expected to be highly motivated to participate in a long-term study.

  3. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, the author describes in detail experimental cholera infection of mammals (infection by the oral route, intragastric inoculation, and intestinal, gall-bladder, and parenteral infection). The pathogenicity for lower animals is examined, and certain observations on insects are included. The second part of the study is devoted to the pathology of human cholera (morbid anatomy distribution of the causative organisms in the dead bodies of cholera victims, and pathogenesis). PMID:13284569

  4. Partnering for Learnware: Critical Success Factors in the Use of Learnware by Human Resources Sector Councils and Industry Associations in Canada = Partenariats pour les technologies d'apprentissage: Facteurs critiques de succes dans l'utilisation des technologies d'apprentissage par les conseils sectoriels des ressources humaines et les associations industrielles au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Anna; Green, Lyndsay

    The use of learnware by human resources sector councils and industry associations in Canada was examined to identify critical success factors in the use of technology-based training. Eight case studies--four involving sector councils and four involving industry associations that either have national mandates or distribute their products across…

  5. Climate change impacts on working people (the HOTHAPS initiative): findings of the South African pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mathee, Angela; Oba, Joy; Rose, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Background It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. With the prospect of a warmer world, increased attention is being devoted to the implications for worker well-being and work performance. Objectives The ‘high occupational temperature health and productivity suppression’ (HOTHAPS) programme is a multi-centre health research and prevention programme aimed at characterising and quantifying the extent to which working people are affected by, or adapt to, heat exposure while working. The main aim of the current South African pilot study was to look at the perceptions of outdoor workers regarding their work environment in hot weather and how this affected their health and productivity levels. Design A qualitative study utilising focus group discussions was employed in two sites, Johannesburg (which has a temperate climate) and Upington (located in the hottest part of South Africa). Results In summary, the pilot study demonstrated that especially in Upington, where daily maximum temperatures may reach +40°C, workers reported a wide range of heat-related effects, including sunburn, sleeplessness, irritability, and exhaustion leading to difficulty in maintaining work levels and output during very hot weather. Few, if any, measures were being undertaken by employers to protect health or improve worker comfort. Conclusion This pilot study has demonstrated that people working in sun-exposed conditions in hot parts of South Africa currently experience heat-related health effects, with implications for their well-being and ability to work and that further research is warranted. In this regard, the pilot study has proved valuable in informing the design, site, sample selection, and logistical planning for a proposed main study on the health and performance aspects of work in hot weather in South Africa. PMID:21139703

  6. Application of RPTEC/TERT1 cells for investigation of repeat dose nephrotoxicity: A transcriptomic study.

    PubMed

    Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Wilmes, Anja; Stanzel, Sven; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hewitt, Philip; Lukas, Arno; Leonard, Martin O; Pfaller, Walter; Jennings, Paul

    2015-12-25

    The kidney is a major target organ for toxicity. Incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing at an alarming rate due to factors such as increasing population age and increased prevalence of heart disease and diabetes. There is a major effort ongoing to develop superior predictive models of renal injury and early renal biomarkers that can predict onset of CKD. In the EU FP7 funded project, Predict-IV, we investigated the human renal proximal tubule cells line, RPTEC/TERT1 for their applicability to long term nephrotoxic mechanistic studies. To this end, we used a tiered strategy to optimise dosing regimes for 9 nephrotoxins. Our final testing protocol utilised differentiated RPTEC/TERT1 cells cultured on filter inserts treated with compounds at both the apical and basolateral side, at concentrations not exceeding IC10, for 14days in a 24h repeat application. Transepithelial electrical resistance and supernatant lactate were measured over the duration of the experiments and genome wide transcriptomic profiles were assayed at day 1, 3 and 14. The effect of hypoxia was investigated for a subset of compounds. The transcriptomic data were analysed to investigate compound-specific effects, global responses and mechanistically informative signatures. In addition, several potential clinically useful renal injury biomarkers were identified. PMID:25450743

  7. Sociocultural risk factors for compulsive exercise: a prospective study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-09-01

    The risk factors for compulsive exercise are unknown. This study aims to explore longitudinal sociocultural risk factors for compulsive exercise, using a 12-month prospective design. A sample of 332 male and female adolescents (aged 13-15 years at baseline) completed self-report measures of sociocultural risk factors and compulsive exercise at baseline and eating disorder psychopathology and compulsive exercise at 12-month follow-up assessment. Hierarchical regressions found that family and peer messages to become more muscular predicted compulsive exercise in boys, whereas feeling pressure from the media to be thin was a significant predictor of compulsive exercise in girls. These relationships remained significant when controlling for eating disorder psychopathology but became nonsignificant when initial levels of compulsive exercise were entered into the model. The findings suggest that sociocultural risk factors may contribute to the development of compulsive exercise but future research should utilise a younger sample and employ a longer follow-up period to identify true longitudinal effects. PMID:25059109

  8. Obstacles to continuity of care in young mental health service users' pathways - an explorative study

    PubMed Central

    Ådnanes, Marian; Steihaug, Sissel

    2013-01-01

    Background Users of mental health services often move between different primary and specialised health and care services, depending on their current condition, and this often leads to fragmentation of care. The aim of this study was to map care pathways in the case of young adult mental health service users and to identify key obstacles to continuity of care. Method Quarterly semi-structured interviews were performed with nine young adults with mental health difficulties, following their pathways in and out of different services in the course of a year. Results Key obstacles to continuity of care included the mental health system's lack of access to treatment, lack of integration between different specialist services, lack of progress in care and inadequate coordination tools such as ‘Individual Plan’ and case conferences that did not prevent fragmented care pathways. Conclusions Continuity of care should be more explicitly linked to aspirations for development and progress in the users' care pathways, and how service providers can cooperate with users to actually develop and make progress. Coordination tools such as case conferences and ‘individual plans’ should be upgraded to this end and utilised to the utmost. This may be the most effective way to counteract the system obstacles. PMID:24167458

  9. Network stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS and their caregivers: An egocentric network study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; He, Xin; Guida, Jennifer; Xu, Yongfang; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-10-01

    HIV stigma occurs among peers in social networks. However, the features of social networks that drive HIV stigma are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate anticipated HIV stigma within the social networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (N = 147) and the social networks of PLWHA's caregivers (N = 148). The egocentric social network data were collected in Guangxi, China. More than half of PLWHA (58%) and their caregivers (53%) anticipated HIV stigma from their network peers. Both PLWHA and their caregivers anticipated that spouses or other family members were less likely to stigmatise them, compared to friend peers or other relationships. Married network peers were believed to stigmatise caregivers more than unmarried peers. The association between frequent contacts and anticipated stigma was negative among caregivers. Being in a close relationship with PLWHA or caregivers (e.g., a spouse or other family member) was associated with less anticipated stigma. Lower network density was associated with higher anticipated stigma among PLWHA's alters, but not among caregivers' alters. Findings may shed light on innovative stigma reduction interventions at the social network level and therefore improve HIV/AIDS treatment utilisation. PMID:25642919

  10. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy to bilateral lower limb extremities concurrently: a planning case study

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Emma Miles, Wesley; Fenton, Paul; Frantzis, Jim

    2014-09-15

    Non-melanomatous skin cancers represent 80% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Australia with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common. A previously healthy 71-year-old woman presented with widespread and tender superficial skin cancers on the lower bilateral limbs. External beam radiation therapy through the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was employed as the treatment modality of choice as this technique provides conformal dose distribution to a three-dimensional treatment volume while reducing toxicity to surrounding tissues. The patient was prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with 1.0 cm bolus over the ventral surface of each limb. The beam arrangement consisted of six treatment fields that avoided entry and exit through the contralateral limb. The treatment plans met the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) guidelines and produced highly conformal dosimetric results. Skin toxicity was measured against the National Cancer Institute: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI: CTCAE) version 3. A well-tolerated treatment was delivered with excellent results given the initial extent of the disease. This case study has demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of IMRT for skin cancers as an alternative to surgery and traditional superficial radiation therapy, utilising a complex PTV of the extremities for patients with similar presentations.

  11. 13C-labelled microdialysis studies of cerebral metabolism in TBI patients?

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Keri L.H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Gallagher, Clare N.; Grice, Peter; Howe, Duncan J.; Mason, Andrew; Timofeev, Ivan; Helmy, Adel; Murphy, Michael P.; Menon, David K.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Sutherland, Garnette R.; Pickard, John D.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Human brain chemistry is incompletely understood and better methodologies are needed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes metabolic perturbations, one result of which includes increased brain lactate levels. Attention has largely focussed on glycolysis, whereby glucose is converted to pyruvate and lactate, and is proposed to act as an energy source by feeding into neurons’ tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, generating ATP. Also reportedly upregulated by TBI is the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) that does not generate ATP but produces various molecules that are putatively neuroprotective, antioxidant and reparative, in addition to lactate among the end products. We have developed a novel combination of 13C-labelled cerebral microdialysis both to deliver 13C-labelled substrates into brains of TBI patients and recover the 13C-labelled metabolites, with high-resolution 13C NMR analysis of the microdialysates. This methodology has enabled us to achieve the first direct demonstration in humans that the brain can utilise lactate via the TCA cycle. We are currently using this methodology to make the first direct comparison of glycolysis and the PPP in human brain. In this article, we consider the application of 13C-labelled cerebral microdialysis for studying brain energy metabolism in patients. We set this methodology within the context of metabolic pathways in the brain, and 13C research modalities addressing them. PMID:24361470

  12. Development and validation of algorithms for heart failure patient care: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Cynthia Priyadarshini; Ranga, Asri; Joseph, Kevin Louis; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Although heart failure (HF) management is available at primary and secondary care facilities in Malaysia, the optimisation of drug therapy is still suboptimal. Although pharmacists can help bridge the gap in optimising HF therapy, pharmacists in Malaysia currently do not manage and titrate HF pharmacotherapy. The aim of this study was to develop treatment algorithms and monitoring protocols for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers and spironolactone based on extensive literature review for validation and utilisation by pharmacists involved in HF management. METHODS A Delphi survey involving 32 panellists from private and government hospitals that provide cardiac services in Malaysia was conducted to obtain a consensus of opinion on the treatment protocols. The panellists completed two rounds of self-administered questionnaires to determine their level of agreement with all the components in the protocols. RESULTS Consensus was achieved for most of the sections of the protocols for the four classes of drugs. The panellists’ opinions were taken into consideration when amending the components of the protocols that did not achieve consensus of opinion. Full consensus was achieved with the second survey conducted, enabling the finalisation of the drug titration protocols. CONCLUSION The resulting validated HF titration protocols can be used as a guide for pharmacists when recommending the initiation and titration of HF drug therapy in daily clinical practice. Recommendations should be made in collaboration with the patient’s treating physician, with concomitant monitoring of the patient’s response to the drugs. PMID:25532514

  13. Assessment of environmental impact on air quality by cement industry and mitigating measures: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kabir, G; Madugu, A I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, environmental impact on air quality was evaluated for a typical Cement Industry in Nigeria. The air pollutants in the atmosphere around the cement plant and neighbouring settlements were determined using appropriate sampling techniques. Atmospheric dust and CO2 were prevalent pollutants during the sampling period; their concentrations were recorded to be in the range of 249-3,745 mg/m3 and 2,440-2,600 mg/m3, respectively. Besides atmospheric dust and CO2, the air pollutants such as NOx, SOx and CO were in trace concentrations, below the safe limits approved by FEPA that are 0.0062-0.093 mg/m3 NOx, 0.026 mg/m3 SOx and 114.3 mg/m3 CO, respectively. Some cost-effective mitigating measures were recommended that include the utilisation of readily available and low-cost pozzolans material to produce blended cement, not only could energy efficiency be improved, but carbon dioxide emission could also be minimised during clinker production; and the installation of an advance high-pressure grinding rolls (clinker-roller-press process) to maximise energy efficiency to above what is obtainable from the traditional ball mills and to minimise CO2 emission from the power plant. PMID:19067202

  14. Polarization studies on zinc in hydrochloric acid solution containing some organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. K.

    1999-05-01

    The corrosion behaviour of zinc metal in some organic solvents was tested electrochemically using galvanometric polarization measurements. The results showed that the studied organic solvents act as mixed type inhibitors. The inhibition was assumed to occur via physical adsorption of the inhibitor molecules fitting a Temkin's isotherm. The inhibition eficiency of the solvents increase in the order: glycerol>ethylene glycol>DMSO>dioxane. This order is not affected by the variation in temperature in the range 35-55 circC. The increase in temperature was found to increase the corrosion in absence and in presence of inhibitors. Some thermodynamic parameters for adsorption were also computed and discussed. Le comportement de corrosion du zinc métallique dans certains solvants organiques a été testé électrochimiquement en utilisant les mesures de polarisation galvanométrique. Les résultats ont montré que les solvants organiques étudiés agissent comme des inhibiteurs de type mixte. L'inhibition semble se produire par l'adsorption physique des molécules inhibitrices selon une isotherme de Temkin. L'efficacité d'inhibition des solvants augmente dans l'ordre suivant : glycérol>éthylène glycol>DMSO>dioxane. Cet ordre n'est pas affecté par une variation de température dans l'intervalle compris entre 35 et 55 circC. La corrosion augmente avec la température, en absence ou en présence d'inhibiteurs. Certains paramètres thermodynamiques d'adsorption ont été calculés et discutés.

  15. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol.

    PubMed

    Koner, Jasdip S; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the ?-polymorph; however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties. PMID:26553127

  16. Documentary evidence for the study of droughts in the Czech Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ezní?ková, Ladislava; Brázdil, Rudolf; Kotyza, Old?ich; Valášek, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The study of droughts in the instrumental period can be based on various drought indices calculated usually from precipitation and temperature series. Documentary evidence, overlapping partly also with meteorological measurements, represents another important source utilisable particularly for the pre-instrumental period. Direct reports of drought or indirect indications of its impacts may be found in various individual or institutional sources: narrative written sources (annals, chronicles, commemorative records), weather diaries, personal and official correspondence, stall-keepers' and market songs, journalism, financial-economic records, religious sources (rogations, sermons, praying), special printed sources, chronograms, epigraphic sources ("hunger" stones). Corresponding data indicate directly meteorological drought and with describing of drought impacts also agricultural and hydrological droughts. The first credible direct drought information from the Czech Lands reports not any rain or snowfall during the 1090/1091 winter (Monk of Sázava). But data before AD 1500 are relatively scarce and they are related prevailingly to Bohemia. Density of precipitation/drought documentary records in the Czech Lands increases significantly after 1500. This allows create series of precipitation indices with classification of dry months in the scale -1 as dry, -2 as very dry and -3 as extremely dry month. Such dataset is important for the creation of 500-year Czech drought chronology.

  17. Oxidative stress and depressive symptoms in older adults: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Shantel L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Cockayne, Nicole; Hermens, Daniel F; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-07-15

    Major depression is common in older adults and associated with greater health care utilisation and increased risk of poor health outcomes. Oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and can be measured via the neurometabolite glutathione using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). This study aimed to examine the relationship between glutathione concentration and depressive symptom severity in older adults 'at-risk' of depression. In total, fifty-eight older adults considered 'at-risk' of depression (DEP) and 12 controls underwent (1)H-MRS, medical and neuropsychological assessments. Glutathione was measured in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and calculated as a ratio to creatine. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Compared to controls, DEP patients had increased glutathione/creatine ratios in the ACC (t=2.7, p=0.012). In turn, these increased ratios were associated with greater depressive symptoms (r=0.28, p=0.038), and poorer performance on a verbal learning task (r=-0.28, p=0.040). In conclusion, depressive symptoms in older people are associated with increased glutathione in the ACC. Oxidative stress may be pathophysiologically linked to illness development and may represent an early compensatory response. Further research examining the utility of glutathione as a marker for depressive symptoms and cognitive decline is now required. PMID:25881278

  18. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Koner, Jasdip S.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the ?-polymorph; however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties. PMID:26553127

  19. Building Transatlantic Partnerships in Space Exploration The MPCV-SM Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde Detlef; Schubert, Kathy; Grantier, Julie; Deloo, Philippe; Price, Larry; Fenoglio, Franco; Chavy, Siegfrid

    2012-01-01

    Following the approval of the ESA ISS Exploitation Declaration for the ISS lifetime at the ESA Council Meeting in March 2011, ESA decided to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Programme until end 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid 2014. The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side. NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its perspective utilisation for the global space exploration endeavour.

  20. Study of pulse transit time oscillations during obstructive sleep apnoea by using a distributed model.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Lim, Chu Sing

    2007-01-01

    The study of arterial compliance is useful in understanding the geometrical and mechanical properties of a systemic arterial tree. Numerous mathematical models have shown their potential in relating the physical phenomena in the arterial tree to properties of the wall itself. However, limited model is available that describes the pulse transit time (PTT) oscillations of a sleeping child during tidal breathing and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Data from 20 children (17 male; aged 6.4 +/- 4.1 yr) whom were recruited for overnight polysomnography (PSG) were used. A modified windkessel model with related physiological parameters was utilised to describe PTT fluctuations due to the cardiovascular system during sleep. Verification with the recorded PSG data showed similar trends with the model for both types of respiratory events. For tidal breathing, undamped PTT oscillations of 3.89 s were predicted by the model while actual data yielded a mean value of 3.72 +/- 0.79 s. Conversely, under-damping PTT responses were expected based on the model for OSA. The model estimated a Q factor of 4.23 and actual mean data were 3.86 +/- 0.64. Hence, the findings herein suggest that the proposed model has the potential to illustrate tidal breathing and OSA events in sleeping children. PMID:17559857

  1. Toxicological studies on a novel phytase expressed from synthetic genes in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, J; Pedersen, P B; Elvig-Joergensen, S G; Skov, L K; Olsen, C L; Glitsoe, L V

    2011-08-01

    Phytases are widely used as feed additives for monogastric animals, which cannot easily utilise the phosphorus bound in phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate). The current study presents a safety evaluation of a 6-phytase produced by an Aspergillus oryzae strain expressing two synthetic genes, both mimicking a phytase gene from a Citrobacter braakii strain. Oral administration of the phytase preparation to rats at a dose level of 0.86 g total organic solids/kg body weight/day for 13 weeks did not cause any adverse effect. The phytase preparation did not exhibit irritative potential when applied locally to the eyes of rabbits or when applied to the skin using the in vitro three-dimensional epidermis model of adult human-derived epidermal keratinocytes. Furthermore, the phytase preparation was found not to represent mutagenic or clastogenic potential in the bacterial reverse mutation assay and in the in vitro micronucleus assays. Based on the toxicological data, the large safety factors calculated under common recommended dose assumptions for broiler chickens and weaned piglets, and the fact that Aspergillus oryzae is considered a safe strain lineage, it is concluded that there are no reasons for safety concerns when using this phytase as a feed additive. PMID:21672596

  2. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koner, Jasdip S.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2015-11-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the ?-polymorph however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties.

  3. Evaluating performance feedback: a research study into issues of credibility and utility for nursing clinicians.

    PubMed

    Fereday, Jennifer; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2004-01-01

    Performance feedback is information provided to employees about how well they are performing in their work role. The nursing profession has a long history of providing formal, written performance reviews, traditionally from a manager to subordinate, with less formal feedback sources including peers, clients and multidisciplinary team members. This paper is based on one aspect of a PhD research study exploring the dynamics of performance feedback primarily from the nursing clinicians' perspective. The research reported here discusses the impact of the social relationship (between the source and recipient of performance feedback) on the recipient's evaluation of feedback as being 'credible' and 'useful' for self-assessment. Focus group interviews were utilised to ascertain the nursing clinicians' perspectives of performance feedback. Thematic analysis of the data was informed by the Social Phenomenology of Alfred Schutz (1967) specifically his theories of intersubjective understanding. Findings supported the level of familiarity between the feedback source and the nursing clinician as a significant criterion influencing the acceptance or rejection of feedback. Implications for the selection of performance feedback sources and processes within nursing are discussed. PMID:17929745

  4. What role do pharmacists play in mediating antibiotic use in hospitals? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Broom, Alex; Broom, Jennifer; Kirby, Emma; Plage, Stefanie; Adams, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand Australian hospital pharmacists’ accounts of antibiotic use, and the potential role of pharmacy in antibiotic optimisation within a tertiary hospital setting. Design, setting and participants Qualitative study, utilising semistructured interviews with 19 pharmacists in two hospitals in Queensland, Australia in 2014. Data was analysed using the framework approach and supported by NVivo10 qualitative data analysis software. Results The results demonstrate that (1) pharmacists’ attitudes are ambivalent towards the significance of antibiotic resistance with optimising antibiotic use perceived as low priority; (2) pharmacists’ current capacity to influence antibiotic decision-making is limited by the prescribing power of doctors and the perception of antibiotic use as a medical responsibility; and, (3) interprofessional and organisational barriers exist that prevent change in the hospital setting including medical hierarchies, limited contact with senior doctors and resource constraints resulting in insufficient pharmacy staffing to foster collaborative relationships and facilitate the uptake of their advice. Discussion While pharmacy is playing an increasingly important role in enhanced antibiotic governance and is a vital component of antimicrobial stewardship in Australia, role-based limitations, interprofessional dynamics and organisational/resource constraints in hospitals, if not urgently addressed, will continue to significantly limit the ability of pharmacy to influence antibiotic prescribing. PMID:26534731

  5. Reference study to characterise plasma and magnetic properties of ultra-cool atmospheres

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez-Barrera, M I; Stark, C R; Rice, A M

    2015-01-01

    Radio and X-ray emission from brown dwarfs suggest that an ionised gas and a magnetic field with a sufficient flux density must be present. We perform a reference study for late M-dwarfs, brown dwarfs and giant gas planet to identify which ultra-cool objects are most susceptible to plasma and magnetic processes. Only thermal ionisation is considered. We utilise the {\\sc Drift-Phoenix} model grid where the local atmospheric structure is determined by the global parameters T$_{\\rm eff}$, $\\log(g)$ and [M/H]. Our results show that it is not unreasonable to expect H$_{\\alpha}$ or radio emission to origin from Brown Dwarf atmospheres as in particular the rarefied upper parts of the atmospheres can be magnetically coupled despite having low degrees of thermal gas ionisation. Such ultra-cool atmospheres could therefore drive auroral emission without the need for a companion's wind or an outgassing moon. The minimum threshold for the magnetic flux density required for electrons and ions to be magnetised is well above...

  6. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1954-01-01

    In this, the first of a series of cholera studies, the history of the disease from its earliest recorded appearance up to 1923 is outlined, and its geographical distribution described. The origins and main routes of spread of the six great pandemics are indicated; possible causes of the variations in mortality which accompanied them are discussed. PMID:13160764

  7. Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, John R.; Walter, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this report is to present the results of a preliminary treatment regimen for hypertrophic scars combining topical 2% salicylic acid cream (Avosil) with an overlay of hydrogel dressing (Avogel). Methods: The study group consisted of 3 patients with symptomatic hypertrophic scars: 2 presternal and 1 on the inner thigh. Scars were divided into 3 equal-size areas: (1) untreated control, (2) hydrogel alone, and (3) 2% salicylic acid with hydrogel cover. Treatments were applied every 8 to 12 hours and a Velcro appliance was employed to cover the area during treatment. The total length of treatment was 60 days. Results: At the end of the 60-day treatment protocol, the area treated with 2% salicylic acid and hydrogel was asymptomatic. In contrast, the hydrogel-treated and untreated control areas remained erythematous and symptomatic for burning pain and pruritis. Conclusion: This small study suggests the efficacy of combined salicylic acid and hydrogel therapy in the treatment of hypertrophic scars. More extensive studies of scar treatment with salicylic acid and hydrogel are needed. These studies must be larger in scope to carefully document the spectrum of patient responses and should include methods for evaluating alterations in the levels of different inflammatory mediators. PMID:16921411

  8. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.; Burrows, W.

    1955-01-01

    Relevant information regarding the numerous problems encountered in cholera immunity is dealt with in great detail in this study. Toxin production, bacterial virulence, serological reactions, and the antigenic structure of V. cholerae are discussed. Natural, passive, and active cholera immunity receives special attention, the authors describing the various means of vaccination as well as the evaluation of the immunity induced. PMID:13240451

  9. NEUROTOXICITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neurotoxicity of DBPs in general has not been well characterized. The literature provides reports of neurotoxicity of DCA following exposures to relatively high doses. Studies completed at EPA, however, have shown that relatively low doses of DCA (as low as 16 mg/kg/day; simi...

  10. Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Background: Action Research about my 2nd grade classroom in the Buffalo School District. I examined three areas of interest and tried to find some conclusions related to behavior management. Purpose: The purpose of this study is how will implementing procedures, rules, and consequences help improve student behavior. Research Design: Descriptive;…

  11. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    The morphological characteristics, biochemical properties, and cultural characteristics of V. cholerae are described in great detail in this study. The author also discusses the resistance of the organism to temperature, humidity, sunlight, and various chemicals, as well as the viability of V. cholerae outside the body (in faeces, contaminated material, food, beverages, water, etc.). PMID:14379012

  12. The economic impact of chronic pain: a nationwide population-based cost-of-illness study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Mendonça, Liliane; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Castro-Lopes, José M

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its high frequency and relevant individual and social impact, chronic pain (CP) has been shown to be a major contributor to increased healthcare utilisation, reduced labour productivity, and consequently large direct and indirect costs. In the context of a larger nationwide study, we aimed to assess the total annual direct and indirect costs associated with CP in Portugal. A population-based study was conducted in a representative sample of the Portuguese adult population. The 5,094 participants were selected using random digit dialling and contacted by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Questionnaires included the brief pain inventory and pain disability index. Estimates were adequately weighted for the population. From all CP subjects identified, a subsample (n = 562) accepted to participate in this economic study. Mean total annualised costs per CP subject of €1,883.30 were observed, amounting to €4,611.69 million nationally, with 42.7 % direct and 57.3 % indirect costs, and corresponding to 2.71 % of the Portuguese annual GDP in 2010. Only socio-demographic variables were significantly and independently associated with CP costs, and not CP severity, raising the possibility of existing inequalities in the distribution of healthcare in Portugal. The high economic impact of CP in Portugal was comprehensively demonstrated. Given the high indirect costs observed, restricting healthcare services is not a rational response to these high societal costs; instead improving the quality of CP prevention and management is recommended. PMID:25416319

  13. ELLIPSE Study

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Ambrun, Alexis; Decullier, Evelyne; Samson, Géraldine; Roux, Adeline; Fargeton, Anne-Emmanuelle; Rioufol, Catherine; Schwiertz, Verane; Disant, François; Chapuis, François; Donazzolo, Yves; Paintaud, Gilles; Edery, Patrick; Faure, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited genetic vascular disorder in which epistaxis is the most frequent manifestation, responsible for high morbidity. Management of this symptom has no standard, and local treatments are often aggressive. Their efficacy is variable and has not been proven. Anti-angiogenic drugs, such as bevacizumab, are a new treatment strategy. Its systemic administration in patients with HHT improves liver damage-related symptoms and epistaxis. To limit the systemic adverse effects of bevacizumab and to ease administration, a local administration seems suitable. Primary objective: To evaluate the tolerance of increasing doses of bevacizumab administered as a nasal spray in patients with HHT-related epistaxis. Secondary objectives were to study the bioavailability and efficacy of bevacizumab against epistaxis when given as a nasal spray. Methodology: Phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, monocentric study performed sequentially (dose escalation) on 5 groups of 8 patients. Each group was made up of 6 verum and 2 placebos. Five increasing doses of bevacizumab nasal spray (25 mg/mL) were evaluated: 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg. Results: A total of 40 patients were included between October 2011 and October 2012. Bevacizumab nasal spray was well tolerated in all patients and the drug was not detected in their serum. No dose limiting toxicity was observed. No efficacy was observed at any dose in this study. Conclusion: Based on these results, bevacizumab nasal spray is a safe treatment of epistaxis in HHT. However, a randomized Phase 2 study is needed to determine its efficacy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier #NCT01507480 PMID:24481211

  14. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1956-01-01

    The first portion of this study describes in detail the different aspects of stool examinations, including the collection, preservation, and pooling of specimens, macroscopic and bacterioscopic examination, enrichment methods, and cultivation on a variety of solid media. The author also deals with the examination of vomits and of water. The performance and value of different identification tests (agglutination, haemolysis, and bacteriophage) and confirmatory tests are then considered. An annex is included on bacteriological procedures in the laboratory diagnosis of cholera. PMID:13356145

  15. OPEN Study

    Cancer.gov

    Over the course of the study, OPEN participants completed 2 Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), 2 24-recall interviews, and filled out several other health-related questionnaires. They were dosed with doubly labeled water (a biomarker used for measuring energy expenditure), provided several spot urine samples to complete the doubly labeled water assessment, completed two 24-hour urine collections and had their height and weight measured.

  16. Describing interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in community pharmacy: a qualitative study in England.

    PubMed

    Lea, Victoria M; Corlett, Sarah A; Rodgers, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    Background There is growing evidence around interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in the community pharmacy setting. There is also evidence to suggest some of these practices may be associated with dispensing errors. Up to date, qualitative research on this subject is limited. Objective To explore interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in the community setting; utilising an ethnographic approach to provide a detailed description of the circumstances surrounding such practices.Setting Community pharmacies in England, July-October 2011. Method An ethnographic approach was taken. Non participant, unstructured observations were utilised to make records of pharmacists' every activity. Case studies were formed by combining field notes with detailed information on pharmacists and their respective pharmacy businesses. Content analysis was undertaken both manually and electronically, using NVivo 10. Main outcome measure To determine the factors influencing interruptions, multitasking and task-switching in the community pharmacy setting. Results Response rate was 12 % (n = 11). Over fifteen days, a total of 123 h and 58 min of observations were recorded in 11 separate pharmacies of 11 individual pharmacists. The sample was evenly split by gender (female n = 6; male n = 5) and pharmacy ownership (independent n = 5; multiple n = 6). Employment statuses included employee pharmacists (n = 6), owners (n = 4) and a locum (n = 1). Average period of registration as a pharmacist was 19 years (range 5-39 years). Average prescription busyness of pharmacies ranged from 2600 to 24,000 items dispensed per month. All observed pharmacists' work was dominated by interruptions, task-switches, distractions and multi-tasking, often to manage a barrage of conflicting demands. These practices were observed to be part of a deep-rooted culture in the community setting. In particular, support staff regularly contributed to interruptions and distractions for pharmacists; pharmacists in turn continued to permit these. Novel directional work maps illustrated the extent and direction of task-switching and multi-tasking employed by pharmacists. Conclusions In this study pharmacists' working practices were permeated by interruptions, distractions and multi-tasking. Task-switching was also frequently employed by pharmacists. Changes to working practices by both pharmacists and support staff would help to minimise these which in turn has the potential to lead to safer and more efficient methods of working. PMID:26173938

  17. 1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    . A multidisciplinary examination of historical conditions, cultural norms, and social institutions that define women's Studies. 3 Credits. A multidisciplinary examination of historical conditions, cultural norms, and social institutions that define women's status in Western culture. Experiences of girls and women in various racial

  18. Can we implement ethnic monitoring in primary health care and use the data? A feasibility study and staff attitudes in North East England 

    E-print Network

    Sangowawa, O; Bhopal, Raj

    2000-01-01

    The concept of ethnic monitoring has evolved over time as a consequence of growing concern around variations in health status and health service utilisation between the different ethnic groups in Britain. Unfortunately, ...

  19. End-of-life care in Germany: Study design, methods and first results of the EPACS study (Establishment of Hospice and Palliative Care Services in Germany)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to tackle the deficits in the provision of palliative home care, profound structural changes in the outpatient sector were introduced by law in Germany in 2007. The EPACS study was carried out (Research Accompanying the Establishment of Hospice and Palliative Care Services in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) to document the quality of inpatient and outpatient end-of-life care in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, before the implementation of these changes. With this article we focus on the study design and methods of the EPACS-Study. We further report first results regarding several aspects of outpatient end-of-life care. Methods The cross-sectional survey was based on a random sample of 5000 inhabitants of Rhineland-Palatinate that had died from May 25 until August 24 of the year 2008. Relatives of these randomly drawn deceased persons were interviewed by means of a written survey. Results The overall response proportion considering only those questionnaires that actually were delivered (n = 3833) was 36.0%. Factors influencing participation were age, sex, and marital status. 355 (25.8%) deceased persons had used professional home care in the four weeks prior to their death, but only very few persons had used a specialised palliative home care service (n = 30; 8.5%). There was a clear gap between the need for specialised outpatient care and the actual utilisation of these services. Conclusions Satisfaction with professional home care was relatively high, but physicians were rated less favourable than nurses. There were deficits especially with respect to physicians' communicative and supportive skills. Further analyses are necessary to provide more detailed information about quality of care in different care settings and for distinct groups. Predictors of good care, as well as obstacles to it, must be further investigated. In the long run, a follow-up survey must be conducted to compare quality of home care before and after the structural changes in Germany. PMID:20673326

  20. Anticorrosion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boerio, J.

    1986-01-01

    The aging behavior of chemically bonded interfaces between metals and pottants, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) was studied using the Dow Corning primer systems. It was observed that the primers seem to function as anticorrosive agents on metal surfaces. It was demonstrated that EVA, and the A-11861 EVA/glass primer stops corrosion of the aluminum used on the back surfaces of crystalline silicon solar cells. However, this same treatment does not work for the aluminum on the back surfaces of amorphous silicon solar cells.

  1. Plague studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1953-01-01

    In examining the control and prevention of plague, the author pays particular attention to the control of commensal rodents and their fleas. The various rat poisons in current use, their efficacy and practical application, and the dangers involved in their manipulation are described in great detail. The author also discusses other anti-rodent measures such as fumigation, rat-proofing, sanitation, protection of food, etc. The second part of the study deals with: vector control—the outstanding value of DDT application in rodent-flea control is emphasized—, the direct control of bubonic and pneumonic plague, and the control of the spread of plague at a distance. PMID:20603968

  2. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    Discussing the symptomatology of cholera, the author deals first with the incubation period, the clinical types, choleraic diarrhoea, and cholerine; he then considers in detail the various stages of cholera gravis and the relapses and complications that may be met. This is followed by sections on diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and on prognosis and the various factors influencing it. The author's highly detailed review of the treatment of cholera which concludes this study is divided into three parts, dealing with attempts at specific therapy, with infusion treatment, and with adjuvant treatment. PMID:13426761

  3. Determining Surgical Complications in the Overweight (DISCOVER): a multicentre observational cohort study to evaluate the role of obesity as a risk factor for postoperative complications in general surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Chapman, Stephen J; Glasbey, James; Kelly, Michael; Khatri, Chetan; Drake, Thomas M; Kong, Chia Yew; Mitchell, Harriet; Harrison, Ewen M; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Bhangu, Aneel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is increasingly prevalent among patients undergoing surgery. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the impact of obesity on postoperative complications. This multicentre study aims to determine whether obesity is associated with increased postoperative complications following general surgery. Methods and analysis This prospective, multicentre cohort study will be performed utilising a collaborative methodology. Consecutive adults undergoing open or laparoscopic, elective or emergency, gastrointestinal, bariatric or hepatobiliary surgery will be included. Day case patients will be excluded. The primary end point will be the overall 30-day major complication rate (Clavien-Dindo grade III–V complications). Data will be collected to risk-adjust outcomes for potential confounding factors, such as preoperative cardiac risk. This study will be disseminated through structured medical student networks using established collaborative methodology. The study will be powered to detect a two-percentage point increase in the major postoperative complication rate in obese versus non-obese patients. Ethics and dissemination Following appropriate assessment, an exemption from full ethics committee review has been received, and the study will be registered as a clinical audit or service evaluation at each participating hospital. Dissemination will take place through national and local research collaborative networks. PMID:26195471

  4. Complementary Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.

    2009-02-19

    In this lecture, it is emphasized that sufficient resolution of scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor can be given by complementary studies. Key scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor and ITER addressed by a complementary study in the Large Helical Device (LHD) are discussed. It should be noted that ITER is definitely a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition. Helical systems including stellarators and heliotrons are defined as alternative concepts. These approaches also aim at a fusion energy reactor based on their own concept and simultaneously benefit progress in tokamaks, more specifically ITER itself. The exact science to manage a 3-D geometry has been being developed in helical systems. A physical model with much accuracy and breadth will demonstrate its applicability to ITER. Topics to validate ''complementary'' approaches such as 3-D equilibrium, interchange MHD mode, control of radial electric field and structure formation, dynamics of a magnetic island, density limit and edge plasmas are discussed. Complementary is not Supplementary. ITER is complementary to development of a helical fusion energy reactor as well. Complementary approaches transcend existing disciplinary horizons and enable big challenges.

  5. The ENHANCES study—Enhancing Head and Neck Cancer patients’ Experiences of Survivorship: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few cancers pose greater challenges than head and neck (H&N) cancer. Residual effects following treatment include body image changes, pain, fatigue and difficulties with appetite, swallowing and speech. Depression is a common comorbidity. There is limited evidence about ways to assist patients to achieve optimal adjustment after completion of treatment. In this study, we aim to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of a model of survivorship care to improve the quality of life of patients who have completed treatment for H&N cancer. Methods/Design This is a preliminary study in which 120 patients will be recruited. A prospective randomised controlled trial of the H&N Cancer Survivor Self-management Care Plan (HNCP) involving pre- and post-intervention assessments will be used. Consecutive patients who have completed a defined treatment protocol for H&N cancer will be recruited from two large cancer services and randomly allocated to one of three study arms: (1) usual care, (2) information in the form of a written resource or (3) the HNCP delivered by an oncology nurse who has participated in manual-based training and skill development in patient self-management support. The trained nurses will meet patients in a face-to-face interview lasting up to 60 minutes to develop an individualised HNCP, based on principles of chronic disease self-management. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure is quality of life. The secondary outcome measures include mood, self-efficacy and health-care utilisation. The feasibility of implementing this intervention in routine clinical care will be assessed through semistructured interviews with participating nurses, managers and administrators. Interviews with patients who received the HNCP will explore their perceptions of the HNCP, including factors that assisted them in achieving behavioural change. Discussion In this study, we aim to improve the quality of life of a patient population with unique needs by means of a tailored self-management care plan developed upon completion of treatment. Delivery of the intervention by trained oncology nurses is likely to be acceptable to patients and, if successful, will be a model of care that can be implemented for diverse patient populations. Trial registration ACTRN12613000542796 (registered on 15 May 2013) PMID:24885486

  6. A critical discussion of the Community Readiness Model using a case study of childhood obesity prevention in England.

    PubMed

    Kesten, Joanna May; Griffiths, Paula Louise; Cameron, Noel

    2015-05-01

    Recent reforms to the public health system in England aim to generate co-ordinated action between local authorities, healthcare systems and communities to target local health priorities. To support this effort, researchers must contribute and evaluate appropriate strategies for designing interventions tailored to community-specific needs. One strategy is to apply the Community Readiness Model (CRM), which uses key informant interviews to assess a community's readiness to address local issues. This article presents a critical discussion of the CRM developed from a case study of obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls within a community in the United Kingdom. Data were collected between February and November 2011. We offer lessons learnt and recommendations relating to (i) modifications to the interview guide; (ii) key informant identification; (iii) conducting interviews to theoretical saturation; (iv) using key informants to define their community; (v) key informant's ability to respond on behalf of the community; (vi) using a qualitative model with a quantitative scoring system; and (vii) the optimum application of transcript scoring. In conclusion, the CRM can help researchers, health professionals and local authorities identify the priorities of a community. It is recommended that users of the model be careful to identify and recruit suitable key informants with the help of the community under study, select an appropriate 'community' and utilise the qualitative findings to strengthen the interpretation of the readiness score. PMID:25429845

  7. Assessment of temporal hydrologic anomalies coupled with drought impact for a transboundary river flow regime: The Diyala watershed case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Faraj, Furat A. M.; Scholz, Miklas

    2014-09-01

    Recent increases in human activities in shared river basins have unquestionably raised concerns about potential hydrological impacts, especially impacts of dams and large-scale water withdrawal schemes in the highlands. Anthropogenic pressures twinned with drought impacts have exacerbated water management challenges. This article assesses the cumulative consequences of upstream anthropogenic pressures and drought spells on temporal river flow regimes for the downstream country. The size and complexity of problems confronting transboundary river watersheds makes it necessary to use a representative example basin to study the problems and potential solutions. The Diyala (S?rv?n) river basin, which shares dozens of transboundary watersheds between Iraq and Iran, has been selected as a representative case study. A subset of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) was utilised and climate variability was considered in assessing the combined effect of various forms of upstream human-river regulations and climatic conditions on natural flow regimes in the downstream state. Findings indicated that the anthropogenic river-regulation coupled with the impact of drought periods have noticeably modified the natural flow paradigm. The yearly average runoffs, which are no longer available for the downstream country, have soared to very high levels, particularly over the last fifteen years. More adverse impacts were detected in the non-rainy season. Findings reveal also that damming and considerable water diversion to large-scale irrigation projects in the upstream state are the main regulations affecting the management of shared water resources in the downstream country.

  8. Use of isotopes to study floodplain wetland and river flow interaction in the White Volta River basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nyarko, Benjamin Kofi; Kofi Essumang, David; Eghan, Moses J; Reichert, Barbara; van de Giesen, Nick; Vlek, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Floodplain wetlands influence the timing and magnitude of stream responses to rainfall. In managing and sustaining the level of water resource usage in any river catchment as well as when modelling hydrological processes, it is essential that the role of floodplain wetlands in stream flows is recognised and understood. Existing studies on hydrology within the Volta River basin have not adequately represented the variability of wetland hydrological processes and their contribution to the sustenance of river flow. In order to quantify the extent of floodwater storage within riparian wetlands and their contribution to subsequent river discharges, a series of complementary studies were conducted by utilising stable isotopes, physical monitoring of groundwater levels and numerical modelling. The water samples were collected near Pwalugu on the White Volta River and at three wetland sites adjacent to the river using the grab sampling technique. These were analysed for (18)O and (2)H. The analysis provided an estimate of the contribution of pre-event water to overall stream flow. In addition, the variation in the isotopic composition in the river and wetland water samples, respectively, revealed the pattern of flow and exchange of water between the wetlands and the main river system. PMID:20229387

  9. How social inequalities impact the course of treatment and care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a qualitative cross-sectional study from the patient's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Amelie; Schröder, Sara L; Fink, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies from various scientific disciplines have demonstrated that socioeconomic inequalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus negatively affect groups with a low socioeconomic status. Furthermore, socioeconomic inequalities also exist in terms of access to, and utilisation and perceived quality of, diabetological care. The aim of this qualitative study, which focuses on the patient's perspective, is to provide insights into the ways socioeconomic inequalities impact the course of treatment and care of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study aims to develop an understanding of how socioeconomic inequalities in care arise. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional qualitative study will be conducted using a sample of about 20 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 18 and older. Patients will be recruited successively from the University Hospital in Halle/Saale, Germany, a general practitioner's office, and in a specialised diabetological practice. The patients will be interviewed personally once, using semistructured qualitative interviews. All interviews will be recorded, transcribed, and analysed based on Grounded Theory. Ethics and dissemination All interviewees will receive comprehensive written information about the study and sign a declaration of consent prior to the interview. The study will comply rigorously with data protection legislation. The research team has obtained the approval of the Ethical Review Committee at the MLU Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. The results of the study will be published in high-quality, peer-reviewed international journals, presented at several congresses and used for developing follow-up research projects. Trial registration number This study has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register and assigned DRKS00007847. PMID:26163038

  10. Feedstuff and poor latrines may put pigs at risk of cysticercosis - A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, Faustin; Magnussen, Pascal; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-11-30

    Attempts to control Taenia solium in low-income countries have been unsuccessful or unsustainable. This could indicate a 'missing link' in our understanding of the transmission dynamics of the parasite and possibly the magnitude of environmental contamination. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis using a case-control study design, utilising known information on persistent or multiple infections of porcine cysticercosis. The study, a combination of questionnaire interviews and observational surveys, was conducted in July 2014 in the two districts Mbeya and Mbozi, Tanzania. Study households were identified based on their status regarding porcine cysticercosis prevalence and allocated into cases or controls based on previous porcine cysticercosis presence. This resulted in 43 farmers in the case group and 50 farmers in the control group, from 20 villages. Potato peels were said to be given to pigs either raw or boiled by 46% of the farmers. Based on logistic regression porcine cysticercosis could be associated with absence or a completely open latrine (p=0.035, OR 5.98, CI: 1.33-43.02) compared to an enclosed latrine. Feeding potato peels to pigs was also associated with increased risk of infection (p=0.007, OR 3.45, CI: 1.43-8.79). Logistic analysis including the pig management system indicated pigs kept in elevated pens (p=0.049, OR 5.33, CI: 1.08-32.27) and on a dirt floor (p=0.041, OR 9.87, CI: 1.29-114.55) were more likely to be infected compared to a cemented floor. Whether potato peels are contaminated with Taenia eggs before they reach the household or whether the contamination is from water or dirty hands during the process of peeling, remains to be confirmed. This study suggests that detailed assessment of a number of areas of pig management is essential for designing effective control programmes. PMID:26304509

  11. Risk factors influencing the prescription of tiotropium Respimat formulation: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Francesco; Da Cas, Roberto; Rajevic, Maja; Rossi, Mariangela; Traversa, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study aims at investigating the influence of several factors on the probability of receiving one of the two tiotropium formulations (Respimat or Handihaler). Design Drug utilisation study. Setting All residents in the Region Umbria, Italy, aged ?45?years, who received prescriptions of tiotropium during 2011–2012. Participants Two groups of patients were studied: (1) incident users of the two tiotropium formulations (ie, without tiotropium prescriptions in the previous 6?months); (2) switchers from Handihaler to Respimat. Users of the two formulations were compared with regard to baseline characteristics and medical history. The adjusted OR of receiving Respimat was estimated for several factors. Results Incident users of the two formulations (4390 participants) had similar characteristics. They were older and with more comorbidities than patients included in randomised control trials (RCTs). Among prevalent users of Handihaler, the probability of switching to Respimat was greater in patients with severe respiratory disease (users of ?4 respiratory drugs: adjusted OR=4.62; 95% CI 2.46 to 8.69) and among ?-blocker users (adjusted OR=1.76; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.75). Age above 75?years and lipid-lowering drug use reduced the probability of switching. A positive association was also found between neurological conditions and the use of Respimat. Conclusions When starting tiotropium treatment, the choice between the two formulations is weakly affected by comorbidities and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity. Instead, these characteristics influence the likelihood of switching from Handihaler to Respimat. Since tiotropium users in clinical practice are more severe than those included in RCTs, further aetiological studies are needed to compare the safety profile of the two formulations in routine care. PMID:26009573

  12. Hand, hip and knee osteoarthritis in a Norwegian population-based study - The MUST protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA. Methods/Design The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up. Discussion This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and/or knee OA. These data, in addition to data from national registries, will provide unique insights into clinically and radiologically confirmed OA with respect to risk factors, consequences, and management. PMID:23826721

  13. Assessment of equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Asante, Augustine D; Price, Jennifer; Hayen, Andrew; Irava, Wayne; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Limwattananon, Supon; Mills, Anne; Jan, Stephen; Wiseman, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Equitable health financing remains a key health policy objective worldwide. In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is evidence that many people are unable to access the health services they need due to financial and other barriers. There are growing calls for fairer health financing systems that will protect people from catastrophic and impoverishing health payments in times of illness. This study aims to assess equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste in order to support government efforts to improve access to healthcare and move towards universal health coverage in the two countries. Methods and analysis The study employs two standard measures of equity in health financing increasingly being applied in LMICs—benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and financing incidence analysis (FIA). In Fiji, we will use a combination of secondary and primary data including a Household Income and Expenditure Survey, National Health Accounts, and data from a cross-sectional household survey on healthcare utilisation. In Timor-Leste, the World Bank recently completed a health equity and financial protection analysis that incorporates BIA and FIA, and found that the distribution of benefits from healthcare financing is pro-rich. Building on this work, we will explore the factors that influence the pro-rich distribution. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of University of New South Wales, Australia (Approval number: HC13269); the Fiji National Health Research Committee (Approval # 201371); and the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health (Ref MS/UNSW/VI/218). Results Study outcomes will be disseminated through stakeholder meetings, targeted multidisciplinary seminars, peer-reviewed journal publications, policy briefs and the use of other web-based technologies including social media. A user-friendly toolkit on how to analyse healthcare financing equity will be developed for use by policymakers and development partners in the region. PMID:25468509

  14. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    The first section of this study deals with areas where cholera is endemic and with the conditions normally favouring endemicity. Turning next to epidemics, the author discusses their origin and types, climatic influences on them, their periodicity and the possibility of forecasting them, the role played in them by different serological races of V. cholerae, and the causes of their decline. In a section on the factors governing the local spread of cholera, he considers contact and water-borne infection; the role of contaminated food and drink, of fomites, of flies, and of carriers; and the incidence according to sex, age, race, and occupation. The last part deals with factors governing the spread of cholera over longer distances, and includes discussion of the effect of movements of individuals and groups and of assemblies of the population on pilgrimages or at religious festivals. PMID:13472431

  15. Plague studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1953-01-01

    Epidemiological aspects of (a) bubonic plague and (b) primary pneumonic plague are discussed separately in this study. The cause, spread, and persistence of bubonic outbreaks are dealt with. In the case of primary pneumonic plague, the author systematically reviews the factors influencing the spread of the disease: climatic and social conditions, infectivity of the patients, immunity, and control measures. In discussing the cause of pneumonic plague outbreaks, the author deals with the possible influence of a special virulence of pneumonic strains, the role of the rodent and flea species involved, and the possibility of a pneumotropismus acquired by Pasteurella pestis. The periodicity (cyclical and secular) of bubonic plague epidemics is discussed with a view to the possible forecasting of future epidemics. The author indicates the influence of race, age, sex, and occupation on the incidence of both forms of the disease. PMID:13082391

  16. Plague studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1953-01-01

    The author examines in detail the symptomatology, diagnosis, and treatment of plague, and outlines the problem of the length of the incubation period. The clinical features commonly met with in all severely-affected plague patients, regardless of the primary localization of the infection, are described. The author then deals with the symptomatology and manifestations of bubonic plague as compared to those of primary pneumonic plague. The importance of a clinical diagnosis, from the point of view of prevention, is stressed, and the differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease is described. The study contains a detailed discussion of the respective merits of antibiotic treatment, serotherapy, and sulfonamide treatment. The author points out that the outstanding success of streptomycin and some other antibiotics will probably relegate the sulfonamides to the second rank in the treatment of bubonic plague. PMID:13082390

  17. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    In discussing prevention, the author deals first with the provision of permanently safe water, supplied from waterworks or wells, and with other improvements in environmental sanitation. Control of food and drinks, public health propaganda and education, and vaccination are also considered under this heading. The greater part of this study is devoted to suppressive measures, affecting the individual, the environment, and persons in the mass. Discussion of the isolation, detection and management of cholera patients, the management of contacts, and the management and treatment of carriers is followed by sections on, inter alia, disinfection, temporary improvements in water supplies, fly control, and personal prophylaxis. In dealing with mass prophylaxis, the author pays particular attention to vaccination. In the concluding sections he goes into the control of pilgrimages and local and international quarantine measures. PMID:13479774

  18. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  19. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Moorman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7,?2010 prices). Results In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million) on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million). The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467) and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874), thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion Hospital managers and policy-makers need to address the effective utilisation of agency nurses and quality of patient care in tandem. PMID:25971399

  20. Uptake of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data in clinical practice guidelines: descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Claire L; Rovers, Maroeska M; Emberson, Jonathan R; Gueyffier, François; Stewart, Lesley A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the extent to which systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) are being used to inform the recommendations included in published clinical guidelines. Design Descriptive study. Setting Database maintained by the Cochrane IPD Meta-analysis Methods Group, supplemented by records of published IPD meta-analyses held in a separate database. Population A test sample of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials that included a meta-analysis of IPD, and a separate sample of clinical guidelines, matched to the IPD meta-analyses according to medical condition, interventions, populations, and dates of publication. Data extraction Descriptive information on each guideline was extracted along with evidence showing use or critical appraisal, or both, of the IPD meta-analysis within the guideline; recommendations based directly on its findings and the use of other systematic reviews in the guideline. Results Based on 33 IPD meta-analyses and 177 eligible, matched clinical guidelines there was evidence that IPD meta-analyses were being under-utilised. Only 66 guidelines (37%) cited a matched IPD meta-analysis. Around a third of these (n=22, 34%) had critically appraised the IPD meta-analysis. Recommendations based directly on the matched IPD meta-analyses were identified for only 18 of the 66 guidelines (27%). For the guidelines that did not cite a matched IPD meta-analysis (n=111, 63%), search dates had preceded the publication of the IPD meta-analysis in 23 cases (21%); however, for the remainder, there was no obvious reasons why the IPD meta-analysis had not been cited. Conclusions Our results indicate that systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on IPD are being under-utilised. Guideline developers should routinely seek good quality and up to date IPD meta-analyses to inform guidelines. Increased use of IPD meta-analyses could lead to improved guidelines ensuring that routine patient care is based on the most reliable evidence available. PMID:25747860

  1. The Communities First (ComFi) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experimental study to evaluate the impact of area-wide regeneration on mental health and social cohesion in deprived communities

    PubMed Central

    White, James; Greene, Giles; Dunstan, Frank; Rodgers, Sarah; Lyons, Ronan A; Humphreys, Ioan; John, Ann; Webster, Chris; Palmer, Stephen; Elliott, Eva; Phillips, Ceri J; Fone, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent systematic reviews have highlighted the dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of regeneration on health and health inequalities. ‘Communities First’ is an area-wide regeneration scheme to improve the lives of people living in the most deprived areas in Wales (UK). This study will evaluate the impact of Communities First on residents’ mental health and social cohesion. Methods and analysis A prospective controlled quasi-experimental study of the association between residence in Communities First regeneration areas in Caerphilly county borough and change in mental health and social cohesion. The study population is the 4226 residents aged 18–74?years who responded to the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study in 2001 (before delivery) and 2008 (after delivery of Communities First). Data on the location, type and cost of Communities First interventions will be extracted from records collected by Caerphilly county borough council. The primary outcome is the change in mental health between 2001 and 2008. Secondary outcomes are changes: in common mental disorder case status (using survey and general practice data), social cohesion and mental health inequalities. Multilevel models will examine change in mental health and social cohesion between Communities First and control areas, adjusting for individual and household level confounding factors. Further models will examine the effects of (1) different types of intervention, (2) contamination across areas, (3) length of residence in a Communities First area, and (4) population migration. We will carry out a cost-consequences analysis to summarise the outcomes generated for participants, as well as service utilisation and utility gains. Ethics and dissemination This study has had approval from the Information Governance Review Panel at Swansea University (Ref: 0266 CF). Findings will be disseminated through peer-review publications, international conferences, policy and practice partners in local and national government, and updates on our study website (http://medicine.cardiff.ac.uk/clinical-study/communities-first-regeneration-programme/). PMID:25314962

  2. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992–2003 study

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Rebekah S.; Kim, Namkug; Renshaw, Carl E.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA). The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15) with the highest number of lithium samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R2 = 0.226, P <0.001) during the study period. These findings differ from the Austrian study and suggest a need for further research accounting also for the impact of geographical variation. PMID:25545940

  3. Do practitioners and friends support patients with coronary heart disease in lifestyle change? a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyles help to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) but outcomes from secondary prevention interventions which support lifestyle change have been disappointing. This study is a novel, in-depth exploration of patient factors affecting lifestyle behaviour change within an intervention designed to improve secondary prevention for patients with CHD in primary care using personalised tailored support. We aimed to explore patients’ perceptions of factors affecting lifestyle change within a trial of this intervention (the SPHERE Study), using semi-structured, one-to-one interviews, with patients in general practice. Methods Interviews (45) were conducted in purposively selected general practices (15) which had participated in the SPHERE Study. Individuals, with CHD, were selected to include those who succeeded in improving physical activity levels and dietary fibre intake and those who did not. We explored motivations, barriers to lifestyle change and information utilised by patients. Data collection and analysis, using a thematic framework and the constant comparative method, were iterative, continuing until data saturation was achieved. Results We identified novel barriers to lifestyle change: such disincentives included strong negative influences of social networks, linked to cultural norms which encouraged consumption of ‘delicious’ but unhealthy food and discouraged engagement in physical activity. Findings illustrated how personalised support within an ongoing trusted patient-professional relationship was valued. Previously known barriers and facilitators relating to support, beliefs and information were confirmed. Conclusions Intervention development in supporting lifestyle change in secondary prevention needs to more effectively address patients’ difficulties in overcoming negative social influences and maintaining interest in living healthily. PMID:23984815

  4. Complementary and alternative asthma treatments and their association with asthma control: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenjia; FitzGerald, J Mark; Rousseau, Roxanne; Lynd, Larry D; Tan, Wan C; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Many patients with asthma spend time and resources consuming complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). This study explores whether CAM utilisation is associated with asthma control and the intake of asthma controller medications. Design Population-based, prospective cross-sectional study. Setting General population residing in two census areas in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Recruitment was based on random-digit dialling of both landlines and cell phones. Participants 486 patients with self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma (mean age 52?years; 67.3% woman). Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed CAM use over the previous 12?months, level of asthma control as defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma and the self-reported intake of controller medications. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to study the relationship between any usage of CAMs (outcome), asthma control and controller medication usage, adjusted for potential confounders. Results A total of 179 (36.8%) of the sample reported CAM usage in the past 12?months. Breathing exercises (17.7%), herbal medicines (10.1%) and vitamins (9.7%) were the most popular CAMs reported. After adjustment, female sex (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.52) and uncontrolled asthma (vs controlled asthma, OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.89) were associated with a higher likelihood of using any CAMs in the past 12?months. Controller medication use was not associated with CAM usage in general and in the subgroups defined by asthma control. Conclusions Clinicians and policy makers need to be aware of the high prevalence of CAM use in patients with asthma and its association with lack of asthma control. PMID:24005131

  5. Analysis of genome-wide association study data using the protein knowledge base

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aim to identify causal variants and genes for complex disease by independently testing a large number of SNP markers for disease association. Although genes have been implicated in these studies, few utilise the multiple-hit model of complex disease to identify causal candidates. A major benefit of multi-locus comparison is that it compensates for some shortcomings of current statistical analyses that test the frequency of each SNP in isolation for the phenotype population versus control. Results Here we developed and benchmarked several protocols for GWAS data analysis using different in-silico gene prediction and prioritisation methodologies. We adopted a high sensitivity approach to the data, using less conservative statistical SNP associations. Multiple gene search spaces, either of fixed-widths or proximity-based, were generated around each SNP marker. We used the candidate disease gene prediction system Gentrepid to identify candidates based on shared biomolecular pathways or domain-based protein homology. Predictions were made either with phenotype-specific known disease genes as input; or without a priori knowledge, by exhaustive comparison of genes in distinct loci. Because Gentrepid uses biomolecular data to find interactions and common features between genes in distinct loci of the search spaces, it takes advantage of the multi-locus aspect of the data. Conclusions Results suggest testing multiple SNP-to-gene search spaces compensates for differences in phenotypes, populations and SNP platforms. Surprisingly, domain-based homology information was more informative when benchmarked against gene candidates reported by GWA studies compared to previously determined disease genes, possibly suggesting a larger contribution of gene homologs to complex diseases than Mendelian diseases. PMID:22077927

  6. A Submillimetre Study of Massive Star Formation Within the W51 Complex and Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Harriet Alice Louise

    Despite its importance the fundamental question of how massive stars form remains unanswered, with improvements to both models and observations having crucial roles to play. To quote Bate et al. (2003) computational models of star formation are limited because "conditions in molecular clouds are not sufficiently well understood to be able to select a representative sample of cloud cores for the initial conditions". It is this notion that motivates the study of the environments within Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) and Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), known sites of massive star formation, at the clump and core level. By studying large populations of these objects, it is possible to make conclusions based on global properties. With this in mind I study the dense molecular clumps within one of the most massive GMCs in the Galaxy: the W51 GMC. New observations of the W51 GMC in the 12CO, 13CO and C18O (3-2) transitions using the HARP instrument on the JCMT are presented. With the help of the clump finding algorithm CLUMPFIND a total of 1575 dense clumps are identified of which 1130 are associated with the W51 GMC, yielding a dense mass reservoir of 1.5 × 10^5 M contained within these clumps. Of these clumps only 1% by number are found to be super-critical, yielding a super-critical clump formation efficiency of 0.5%, below current SFE estimates of the region. This indicates star formation within the W51 GMC will diminish over time although evidence from the first search for molecular outflows presents the W51 GMC in an active light with a lower limit of 14 outflows. The distribution of the outflows within the region searched found them concentrated towards the W51A region. Having much smaller sizes and masses, obtaining global properties of clumps and cores within IRDCs required studying a large sample of these objects. To do this pre-existing data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue was utilised to study IRDCs within a catalogues based on 8 ?m data. This data identified 154 IRDC cores that are detected at 850 ?m and 51 cores that were not. This work suggests that cores not detected at 850 ?m are low mass, low column density and low temperature cores that are below the sensitivity limit of SCUBA at 850 ?m Utilising observations at 24 ?m from the Spitzer space telescope, allows for an investigation of current star formation by looking for warm embedded objects within the cores. This work reveals 69% of the IRDC cores have 24 ?m embedded objects. IRDC cores without associated 24 ?m emission ("starless" IRDC cores) may have yet to form stars, or may contain low mass YSOs below the detection limit. If it is assumed that cores without 24 ?m embedded sources are at an earlier evolutionary stage to cores with embedded objects a statistical lifetime for the quiescent phase of a few 10^3 - 10^4 years is derived.

  7. Female sex work and international sport events - no major changes in demand or supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city (< 2.5% in each phase) or those recently entering the trade (? 1.5%). Simi