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1

Laboratory study on OH-initiated degradation kinetics of dehydroabietic acid.  

PubMed

Dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) is a specific organic tracer for the pyrolysis of conifer resin. To understand its atmospheric stability, the degradation behavior of particulate DHAA in the presence of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was investigated under different environmental conditions using a stainless steel reactor with volume of 30 cm(3), in the dark. At 25 °C and 40% relative humidity (RH), the second-order rate constant (k2) of pure DHAA with OH was measured to be 5.72 ± 0.87 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The influence of temperature, RH and mixing state on the degradation kinetics of DHAA were also investigated. At 40% RH, k2 of pure DHAA increases with increasing temperature and follows the Arrhenius equation k2 = (8.9 ± 1.9) × 10(-10)?exp[-(1508.2 ± 64.2)/T], while RH does not have significant impact on k2 at 25 °C. At 25 °C and 40% RH, compared with pure DHAA, the corresponding k2 for DHAA mixed with (NH4)2SO4 decreased to 4.58 ± 0.95 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), while the value was 3.30 ± 0.79 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) when mixed with soot. The atmospheric lifetime of DHAA varied from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 4.4 ± 0.8 days under different environmental conditions. This study indicates that degradation of DHAA by OH radicals is appreciable, and a significant error in source apportionment should be introduced if the contribution of degradation to DHAA concentration is not considered during air mass aging. PMID:25824374

Lai, Chengyue; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Jinzhu; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

2015-04-01

2

(+)-Dehydroabietic Acid, an Abietane-Type Diterpene, Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Potent drugs are desperately needed to counteract bacterial biofilm infections, especially those caused by gram-positive organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, anti-biofilm compounds/agents that can be used as chemical tools are also needed for basic in vitro or in vivo studies aimed at exploring biofilms behavior and functionability. In this contribution, a collection of naturally-occurring abietane-type diterpenes and their derivatives was tested against S. aureus biofilms using a platform consisting of two phenotypic assays that have been previously published by our group. Three active compounds were identified: nordehydroabietylamine (1), (+)-dehydroabietic acid (2) and (+)-dehydroabietylamine (3) that prevented biofilm formation in the low micromolar range, and unlike typical antibiotics, only 2 to 4-fold higher concentrations were needed to significantly reduce viability and biomass of existing biofilms. Compound 2, (+)-dehydroabietic acid, was the most selective towards biofilm bacteria, achieving high killing efficacy (based on log Reduction values) and it was best tolerated by three different mammalian cell lines. Since (+)-dehydroabietic acid is an easily available compound, it holds great potential to be used as a molecular probe in biofilms-related studies as well as to serve as inspirational chemical model for the development of potent drug candidates. PMID:23739682

Fallarero, Adyary; Skogman, Malena; Kujala, Janni; Rajaratnam, Mohanathas; Moreira, Vânia M.; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Vuorela, Pia

2013-01-01

3

Bacterial Metabolism of Chlorinated Dehydroabietic Acids Occurring in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents  

PubMed Central

Chlorinated dehydroabietic acids are formed during the chlorine bleaching of wood pulp and are very toxic to fish. Thus, destruction of these compounds is an important function of biological treatment systems for pulp and paper mill effluents. In this study, 12 strains of diverse, aerobic resin acid-degrading bacteria were screened for the ability to grow on chlorinated dehydroabietic acids as sole organic substrates. All seven strains of the class Proteobacteria able to use dehydroabietic acid were also able to use a mixture of 12- and 14-chlorodehydroabietic acid (Cl-DhA). None of the strains used 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid. Sphingomonas sp. strain DhA-33 grew best on Cl-DhA and simultaneously removed both Cl-DhA isomers. Ralstonia sp. strain BKME-6 was typical of most of the strains tested, growing more slowly on Cl-DhA and leaving higher residual concentrations of Cl-DhA than DhA-33 did. Strains DhA-33 and BKME-6 mineralized (converted to CO(inf2) plus biomass) 32 and 43%, respectively, of carbon in Cl-DhA consumed. Strain DhA-33 produced a metabolite from Cl-DhA, tentatively identified as 3-oxo-14-chlorodehydroabietin, and both strains produced dissolved organic carbon which may include unidentified metabolites. Cl-DhA removal was inducible in both DhA-33 and BKME-6, and induced DhA-33 cells also removed 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid. Based on activities of strains DhA-33 and BKME-6, chlorinated DhAs, and potentially toxic metabolite(s) of these compounds, are relatively persistent in biological treatment systems and in the environment. PMID:16535663

Mohn, W. W.; Stewart, G. R.

1997-01-01

4

Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii and its major compound, dehydroabietic acid, against multidrug-resistant strains.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have emerged from the widespread use of antibiotics worldwide and have prompted the search for new sources of antimicrobial substances. Pinus spp. contain several bioactive compounds consisting mainly of terpenes, terpenoids and some other aromatic and aliphatic constituents. These compounds exert important biological effects, and pine oils have found wide application in the industry. In the present study, we have evaluated the potential activity of the resin-oil of Pinus elliottii and its major compound dehydroabietic acid (DA) against multiresistant bacteria by MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill assays. The MIC of the resin-oil of P. elliottii varied between 25 and 100 µg ml(-1). As for DA, the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration varied between 6.25 and 50 and between 6.25 and 100 µg ml(-1), respectively. The time-kill assay conducted with DA at 6.25 µg ml(-1) evidenced bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (American Type Culture Collection 14990) within 24 h. On the basis of these results, the resin-oil of P. elliottii and its major compound DA play an important part in the search for novel sources of agents that can act against multiresistant bacteria. PMID:25261060

Leandro, Luís Fernando; Cardoso, Miguel Jorge Oliveira; Silva, Sandro Donizeti Caetano; Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Ambrosio, Sergio Ricardo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2014-12-01

5

Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

2012-02-01

6

Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of these services. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers

Annette AM Gerritsen; Inge Bramsen; Walter Devillé; Loes HM van Willigen; Johannes E Hovens; Henk M van der Ploeg

2004-01-01

7

Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented to improve communication on all levels and reduce systemic barriers operating within the health system. PMID:23497140

2013-01-01

8

Impact of headache on sickness absence and utilisation of medical services: a Danish population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study the extent and type of health service utilisation, medication habits, and sickness absence due to the primary headaches. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional epidemiological survey of headache disorders in a general population. Headache was diagnosed according to a structured interview and a neurological examination using the criteria of the International Headache Society. SETTING--A random

B K Rasmussen; R Jensen; J Olesen

1992-01-01

9

Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC2 Induces Oncosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Aim. Rosin, the traditional Chinese medicine, is reported to be able to inhibit skin cancer cell lines. In this report, we investigate the inhibitory effect against HCC cells of QC2, the derivative of rosin's main components dehydroabietic acid. Methods. MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of QC2. Morphological changes were observed by time-lapse microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the cytoskeleton changes were observed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by detection of the reactive oxygen (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). The underlying mechanism was manifested by Western blotting. The oncotic cell death was further confirmed by detection of oncosis related protein calpain. Results. Swelling cell type and destroyed cytoskeleton were observed in QC2-treated HCC cells. Organelle damage was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The detection of ROS accumulation, increased LDH release, and decreased ATP and ??m confirmed the cell death. The oncotic related protein calpain was found to increase time-dependently in QC2-treated HCC cells, while its inhibitor PD150606 attenuated the cytotoxicity. Conclusions. Dehydroabietic acid derivative QC2 activated oncosis related protein calpain to induce the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis in HCC cells. PMID:25110686

Zhang, Guang; Jiang, Chunping; Wang, Zhongxia; Chen, Weibo; Gu, Wen; Ding, Yitao

2014-01-01

10

Patients’ subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation: the study protocol of a qualitative comparative study between Norway and Germany  

PubMed Central

Background In Germany, utilisation of ambulatory healthcare services is high compared with other countries: While a study based on the process data of German statutory health insurances showed an average of 17.1 physician-patient-contacts per year, the comparable figure for Norway is about five. The usual models of healthcare utilisation, such as Rosenstock's Health Belief Model and Andersen's Behavioural Model, cannot explain these differences adequately. Organisational factors of the healthcare system, such as gatekeeping, do not explain the magnitude of the differences. Our hypothesis is that patients’ subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation play a major role in explaining different healthcare utilisation behaviour in different countries. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore these subjective concepts comparatively, between Germany and Norway. Methods/design With that aim in mind, we chose a comparative qualitative study design. In Norway and Germany, we are going to interview 20 patients each with qualitative episodic interviews. In addition, we are going to conduct participant observation in four German and four Norwegian primary care practices. The data will be analysed by thematic coding. Using selected categories, we are going to conduct comparative case and group analyses. Ethics and dissemination The study adheres to the Declaration of Helsinki. All interviewees will sign informed consent forms and all patients will be observed during consultation. Strict rules for data security will apply. Developed theory and policy implications are going to be disseminated by a workshop, presentations for experts and laypersons and publications. PMID:23794555

Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Flick, Uwe; Bærheim, Anders; Lichte, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus

2013-01-01

11

Drug Utilisation Study in a Tertiary Care Center: Recommendations for Improving Hospital Drug Dispensing Policies  

PubMed Central

Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R.; Singh, I.; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S.

2014-01-01

12

Combined effects of pulp and paper effluent, dehydroabietic acid, and hypoxia on swimming performance, metabolism, and hematology of rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of a thermomechanical (TMP)/bleached kraft pulp and paper mill effluent (BKME), dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), hypoxia, and combinations of hypoxia and effluent on juvenile rainbow trout. In the first two experiments, trout were exposed for 4 weeks to 0%, 10%, 30%, and 70% TMP/BKME or 0, 35, 110, and 250 microgL(-1) DHAA, respectively. Endpoints of those dose-response studies included critical swimming speed, oxygen consumption, and hematology. Reduced swimming performance was found for fish exposed to 70% TMP/BKME. Moderate increases in mean cell hemoglobin concentration at 70% TMP/BKME and blood glucose at 30% and 70% TMP/BKME were also seen. The opposite trend for glucose was found for DHAA-exposed fish, where a slight decrease in glucose was seen at 110 and 250 microgL(-1) DHAA. The third experiment examined the effects of 15% v/v TMP/BKME exposure at 2.5 and 5.0 mgL(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO) for 4 weeks. This experiment found no effect of low DO on swimming ability. An interactive effect between DO and effluent exposure was seen only on hematocrit, where effluent caused an increase in hematocrit at 5 mgL(-1) and a decrease at 2.5 mgL(-1) DO. Effluent exposure in this experiment resulted in a greater number of smaller red blood cells. The current study demonstrated physiological effects in rainbow trout exposed to varying concentrations (15-70% v/v) of a TMP/BKME and no substantial effects of DHAA exposure. With the exception of the reduced swimming performance in fish exposed to TMP/BKME, the observed effects are considered relatively small in magnitude but are occurring at concentrations of effluent that occur in the receiving environment. PMID:16318874

Landman, Michael J; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Finley, Megan; Bannon, Henry J; Ling, Nicholas

2006-11-01

13

Access to and utilisation of GP services among Burmese migrants in London: a cross-sectional descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An estimated 10,000 Burmese migrants are currently living in London. No studies have been conducted on their access to health services. Furthermore, most studies on migrants in the United Kingdom (UK) have been conducted at the point of service provision, carrying the risk of selection bias. Our cross-sectional study explored access to and utilisation of General Practice (GP) services

Nyein Chan Aung; Bernd Rechel; Peter Odermatt

2010-01-01

14

Effect of Frailty on Functional Gain, Resource Utilisation, and Discharge Destination: An Observational Prospective Study in a GEM Ward  

PubMed Central

Background. A geriatric evaluation and management unit (GEM) manages elderly inpatients with functional impairments. There is a paucity of literature on frailty and whether this impacts on rehabilitation outcomes. Objectives. To examine frailty score (FS) as a predictor of functional gain, resource utilisation, and destinations for GEM patients. Methods. A single centre prospective case study design. Participants (n = 136) were ?65 years old and admitted to a tertiary hospital GEM. Five patients were excluded by the preset exclusion criteria, that is, medically unstable, severe dementia or communication difficulties after stroke. Core data included demographics, frailty score (FS), and functional independence. Results. The mean functional improvement (FIM) from admission to discharge was 11.26 (95% CI 8.87, 13.66; P < 0.001). Discharge FIM was positively correlated with admission FIM (? = 0.748; P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with frailty score (? = ?1.151; P = 0.014). The majority of the patients were in the “frail” group. “Frail” and “severely frail” subgroups improved more on mean FIM scores at discharge, relative to that experienced by the “pre-frail” group. Conclusion. All patients experienced functional improvement. Frailer patients improved more on their FIM and improved relatively more than their prefrail counterparts. Higher frailty correlated with reduced independence and greater resource utilisation. This study demonstrates that FS could be a prognostic indicator of physical independence and resource utilisation. PMID:24695584

Kawryshanker, Sujatha; Raymond, Warren; Inderjeeth, Charles A.

2014-01-01

15

Low utilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran, despite their affordability (2000–2012): a time-series and benchmarking study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited data exist on the status of access to diabetes medicines in LMICs. We assessed the utilisation and affordability of diabetes medicines in Iran as a middle-income country. Design We used a retrospective time-series design (2000–2012) and assessed national diabetes medicines’ utilisation using pharmaceuticals wholesale data. Methods We calculated defined daily dose consumptions per population days (DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day; DIDs) indicator. Findings were benchmarked with data from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We also employed Drug Utilization-90% (DU-90) method to compare DU-90s with the Essential Medicines List published by the WHO. We measured affordability using number of minimum daily wage required to purchase a treatment course for 1?month. Results Diabetes medicines’ consumption increased from 4.47 to 33.54 DIDs. The benchmarking showed that medicines’ utilisation in Iran in 2011 was only 54% of the median DIDs of 22 OECD countries. Oral hypoglycaemic agents consisted over 80% of use throughout the study period. Regular and isophane insulin (NPH), glibenclamide, metformin and gliclazide were the DU-90 drugs in 2012. Metformin, glibenclamide and regular/NPH insulin combination therapy were affordable throughout the study period (?0.4, ?0.1, ?0.3 of minimum daily wage, respectively). While the affordability of novel insulin preparations improved over time, they were still unaffordable in 2012. Conclusions The utilisation of diabetes medicines was relatively low, perhaps due to underdiagnosis and inadequate management of patients with diabetes. This had occurred despite affordability of essential diabetes medicines in Iran. Appropriate policies are required to address the underutilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran. PMID:25324322

Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah

2014-01-01

16

Clinical outcomes and resource utilisation in Medicare patients with chronic liver disease: a historical cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to assess recent trends in health resource utilisation and patient outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries with chronic liver disease (CLD). Setting Liver-related mortality is the 10th leading cause of death in the USA, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the major causes of CLD. As the US population ages and becomes more obese, the impact of CLD is expected to become more prominent for the Medicare population. Participants This is a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of CLD based on inpatient (N=21?576; 14?977 unique patients) and outpatient (N=515?990; 244?196 patients) claims from 2005 to 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study outcomes included hospital length of stay (LOS) and inpatient mortality as well as inpatient and outpatient inflation-adjusted payments. Results Between 2005 and 2010, there was an annual decrease in LOS of 3.17% for CLD-related hospitalisations. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality decreased (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.94), while short-term postdischarge mortality remained stable (1.00, 0.98 to 1.03). Inpatient per-claim payment increased from $11?769 in 2005 to $12?347 in 2010 (p=0.0006). Similarly, the average yearly payments for outpatient care increased from $366 to $404 (p<0.0001). This change in payment was observed together with a consistent decrease in the proportion of beneficiary-paid amount (25.4–20%, p<0.0001) as opposed to Medicare-paid amount (73.1–80%, p<0.0001). The major predictors of higher outpatient payments were younger age, Asian race or Hispanic ethnicity, living in California, and having more diagnoses and outpatient procedures per claim. The predictors of inpatient spending also included younger age, location and the number of inpatient procedures. Conclusions Length of inpatient stay and inpatient mortality among Medicare beneficiaries with CLD decreased, while inpatient and outpatient spending increased. PMID:24838722

Younossi, Zobair M; Zheng, Li; Stepanova, Maria; Venkatesan, Chapy; Mishra, Alita

2014-01-01

17

Utilisation of Healthcare and Associated Services in Huntington’s disease: a data mining study  

PubMed Central

Background: People with Huntington’s disease (HD) often require tailored healthcare and support packages that develop as the disease progresses. The Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI) gathers retrospective information on service utilization. This study investigated the use of formal services and informal care as measured by the CSRI and explored associations between informal care, disease severity and functional ability as measured by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS) and functional scales. Methods: All monitored longitudinal data from annual clinical assessments of UHDRS-TMS and functional assessments and CSRI collected under the auspices of the European Huntington’s Disease Network (EHDN) REGISTRY study between the years 2004 and 2009 were utilised in the analyses. Disease severity was reflected by UHDRS-TMS. Functional ability was measured using the UHDRS functional scales. CSRI data were analysed according to percentage use of individual formal services and total estimated hours per week of informal care. Regression analyses were conducted to identify any associations between disease severity, functional ability and hours of informal care. Results: 451 HD patients (212 female; 239 male) completed one visit; 105 patients (54 females; 51 males) completed two visits and 47 patients (20 females; 27 males) completed three visits in total over the 5 year period. The mean time between visits was 1.2 years. At visit one, 74% of the participants reported being in receipt of at least one formal hospital-based service in the previous six months, and 89% reported receipt of formal primary and community care services. In contrast, at the third visit, 62% of people had used hospital based services and 94% formal community based services in the previous six months. Fifty % of individuals required some form of informal care in the home at visit 1; this increased to 68% at visits 2 and 3. The mean (SD) estimated weekly total informal care hours at visits 1, 2 and 3 were 32.8 (49.4); 21.6 (53.6) and 21.3 (62.4) respectively. Only the scores on the Functional Assessment Scale (FAS) accounted for the variance in the weekly total informal care hours at each visit. Conclusions: Although it must be acknowledged that service use is supply driven, most HD patients across Europe surveyed as part of this study were in receipt of formal primary and community care services and to a lesser extent formal hospital based services. There was however a large reliance on informal care in the home. The FAS appear to have predictive value on informal care requirements and may have utility in facilitating pro-active service provision and in particular when managing carer burden in this population. PMID:21304753

Busse, Monica; Al-Madfai, Dr. Hasan; Kenkre, Joyce; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Bentivoglio, AnnaRita; Rosser, Anne

2011-01-01

18

Perspectives of men on antenatal and delivery care service utilisation in rural western Kenya: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Poor utilisation of facility-based antenatal and delivery care services in Kenya hampers reduction of maternal mortality. Studies suggest that the participation of men in antenatal and delivery care is associated with better health care seeking behaviour, yet many reproductive health programs do not facilitate their involvement. This qualitative study conducted in rural Western Kenya, explored men’s perceptions of antenatal and delivery care services and identified factors that facilitated or constrained their involvement. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted with 68 married men between 20-65 years of age in May 2011. Participants were of the Luo ethnic group residing in Asembo, western Kenya. The area has a high HIV-prevalence and polygamy is common. A topic guide was used to guide the discussions and a thematic framework approach for data analysis. Results Overall, men were positive in their views of antenatal and delivery care, as decision makers they often encouraged, some even ‘forced’, their wives to attend for antenatal or delivery care. Many reasons why it was beneficial to accompany their wives were provided, yet few did this in practice unless there was a clinical complication. The three main barriers relating to cultural norms identified were: 1) pregnancy support was considered a female role; and the male role that of provider; 2) negative health care worker attitudes towards men’s participation, and 3) couple unfriendly antenatal and delivery unit infrastructure. Conclusion Although men reported to facilitate their wives’ utilisation of antenatal and delivery care services, this does not translate to practice as adherence to antenatal-care schedules and facility based delivery is generally poor. Equally, reasons proffered why they should accompany their wives are not carried through into practice, with barriers outweighing facilitators. Recommendations to improve men involvement and potentially increase services utilisation include awareness campaigns targeting men, exploring promotion of joint HIV testing and counselling, staff training, and design of couple friendly antenatal and delivery units. PMID:23800139

2013-01-01

19

The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

2014-01-01

20

Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4th and 5th quintile, ?1257 meters) from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status). When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56). Conclusion Distance to the closest health facility was negatively associated with neonatal mortality risk. Health care utilisation in the prenatal period could partly explain this risk elevation since there was a distance decay in health system usage prior to and at delivery. The geographical dimension must be taken into consideration when planning interventions for improved neonatal survival, especially when targeting socio-economically disadvantaged groups. PMID:21144058

2010-01-01

21

Inequities in accessibility to and utilisation of maternal health services in Ghana after user-fee exemption: a descriptive study.  

PubMed

IntroductionInequities in accessibility to, and utilisation of maternal healthcare services impede progress towards attainment of the maternal health-related Millennium Development Goals. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which maternal health services are utilised in Ghana, and whether inequities in accessibility to and utilization of services have been eliminated following the implementation of a user-fee exemption policy, that aims to reduce financial barriers to access, reduce inequities in access, and improve access to and use of birthing services.MethodsWe analyzed data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey for inequities in access to and utilization of maternal health services. In measuring the inequities, frequency tables and cross-tabulations were used to compare rates of service utilization by region, residence and selected socio-demographic variables.ResultsFindings show marginal increases in accessibility to and utilisation of skilled antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services following the policy implementation (2003¿2007). However, large gradients of inequities exist between geographic regions, urban and rural areas, and different socio-demographic, religious and ethnic groupings. More urban women (40%) than rural, 53% more women in the highest wealth quintile than women in the lowest, 38% more women in the best performing region (Central Region) than the worst (Upper East Region), and 48% more women with at least secondary education than those with no formal education, accessed and used all components of skilled maternal health services in the five years preceding the survey. Our findings raise questions about the potential equity and distributional benefits of Ghana¿s user-fee exemption policy, and the role of non-financial barriers or considerations.ConclusionExempting user-fees for maternal health services is a promising policy option for improving access to maternal health care, but might be insufficient on its own to secure equitable access to maternal health services in Ghana. Ensuring equity in access will require moving beyond user-fee exemption to addressing wider issues of supply and demand factors and the social determinants of health, including redistributing healthcare resources and services, and redressing the positional vulnerability of women in their communities. PMID:25388288

Ganle, John K; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon

2014-11-01

22

Increased utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services prior to the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome in female patients: a longitudinal population-based study in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services prior to the diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome in female Taiwanese patients. Design A nationwide, population-based case–control study. Setting Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Participants A total of 347 patients with a diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome from 2005 to 2010 and 1735 controls frequency matched on 10-year age interval and index year were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Diagnoses of eye disorder (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes from 360 to 370) were retrospectively screened to 1997. Main outcome measure The utilisation of eye disorder-related medical service over different intervals prior to diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome between cases and controls were compared using generalised estimating equations with negative binomial distribution and log link function. Results A significantly higher proportion of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (7.5%) utilised eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services over an 8-year interval prior to the diagnosis of the disease compared with controls (4.8%). The annual frequency of utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services increased significantly faster when closer to the index date in patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with controls (interaction effect, p=0.010). Subgroup analyses indicated that the changes over time in the utilisation of services related to disorders of lacrimal system (interaction effect, p=0.019) and conjunctiva (interaction effect, p=0.066) were significantly greater in patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with controls. Conclusions An increase in the utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services was observed in patients with Sjögren's syndrome several years prior to the diagnosis of the disease. General practitioners and ophthalmologists can play an important role by including Sjögren's syndrome in the diagnostic evaluation of their patients afflicted with relevant symptoms. PMID:24844268

Lu, Ming-Chi; Fa, Wen-Hsiung; Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

2014-01-01

23

Biotransformation of dehydroabietic acid with resting cell suspensions and calcium alginate-immobilized cells of Mortierella isabellina.  

PubMed Central

Mortierella isabellina ATCC 38063 is a zygomycete capable of hydroxylating fish-toxic resin acids which occur in certain pulp mill effluents to nontoxic metabolites. Addition of dehydroabietic acid (1) (80 mg/liter) to a freshly inoculated culture of M. isabellina in dextrose-yeast extract broth resulted in precursor disappearance in 28 to 30 h. During growth phase, hydroxylation occurred at C-2, whereas hydroxylation at C-15 and C-16 commenced with onset of stationary phase. Alternatively, 1 added to stationary-phase culture (40 mg/liter) disappeared within 2 h and hydroxylation occurred concurrently at C-2, C-15, and C-16. Enzymatic activity of stationary-phase culture was totally cell associated and was present despite the absence of 1 during the preparatory growth phase. Resuspension of mature fungi as free mycelia or immobilized in calcium alginate beads did not diminish the effectiveness of the biotransformation, although two new metabolites, 15-hydroxy-8,9,11,12-tetradehydro-7,8-dihydroabietic acid (5) and 16-hydroxy-8,9,11,12-tetradehydro-7,8-dihydroabietic acid (7) were formed. Immobilized mycelia retained hydroxylase activity for greater than 110 days whether or not they were challenged with fresh 1 on a regular basis. In this respect they are more long-lived than resuspended free mycelia are. PMID:3883900

Kutney, J P; Choi, L S; Hewitt, G M; Salisbury, P J; Singh, M

1985-01-01

24

Estimation of drought and flood recurrence interval from historical discharge data: a case study utilising the power law distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of which statistical distribution to fit to historical discharge data is critical when attempting to predict the most extreme flows. It has been shown that depending upon the distribution selected, the calculated return periods can vary dramatically. Cunnane (1985) discussed the factors affecting the choice of distribution for river flow series data, and was able to show that small differences in the Extreme Value Type 1 (Gumbel), Type 2, and Type 3 can lead to large differences in the predicted return period. Indeed this divergence increases as the return period becomes larger: a finding which has obvious implications for fluvial management. Despite this, in many studies which fit a frequency-magnitude distribution to fluvial discharge data, the choice of distribution appears driven by regional convention, or even by some other apparently arbitrary factor. Benson (1968) analysed data for ten US stations, and compared the fit using the log-normal, gamma, Gumbel, log-Gumbel, Hazen and log-Pearson type 3 distributions. On the basis of this study alone, the standard approach to flow frequency estimation in the USA became the fitting of a log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) distribution (US Water Resources Council, 1982). While several other countries have adopted a similar approach, usage of the LP3 distribution is not geographically universal. Hydrologists in the United Kingdom conventionally utilise a fitted generalised logistic distribution for flow frequency estimation (Robson and Reed, 1999) while Chinese hydrologists utilise the log-normal distribution (Singh, 2002). Choice of fitted distribution is obviously crucial, since selecting one distribution rather than another will change the estimated probabilities of future droughts and floods, particularly the largest and rarest events. Malamud et al. (1996) showed that a flood of equivalent size to that experienced on the Mississippi in 1993 has a recurrence interval on the order of 100 years when a power-law distribution is fitted, but a much longer recurrence interval — on the order of 1000 years — using the USA's standard LP3 method. In addition Pandey et al. (1998) found that fitting a power-law distribution, compared with fitting a Generalized Extreme Value distribution, can lead to a large decrease in the predicted return period for a given flood event. Both these findings have obvious implications for river management design. Power-law distributions have been fitted to fluvial discharge data by many authors (most notably by Malamud et al., 1996 and Pandey et al., 1998), who then use these fitted distributions to estimate flow probabilities. These authors found that the power-law performed as well or better than many of the distributions currently used around the world, despite utilising fewer parameters. The power-law has not, however, been officially adopted by any country for fitting to fluvial discharge data. This paper demonstrates a statistically robust method, based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation, for fitting a power-law distribution to mean daily streamflows. The fitted distribution is then used to calculate return periods, which are compared to the return periods obtained by other, more commonly used, distributions. The implications for river management, extremes of flow in particular, are then explored.

Eadie, Chris; Favis-Mortlock, David

2010-05-01

25

Stroke patients’ utilisation of extrinsic feedback from computer-based technology in the home: a multiple case study realistic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence indicates that post???stroke rehabilitation improves function, independence and quality of life. A key aspect of rehabilitation is the provision of appropriate information and feedback to the learner. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have allowed for the development of various systems to complement stroke rehabilitation that could be used in the home setting. These systems may increase the provision of rehabilitation a stroke survivor receives and carries out, as well as providing a learning platform that facilitates long-term self-managed rehabilitation and behaviour change. This paper describes the application of an innovative evaluative methodology to explore the utilisation of feedback for post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home. Methods Using the principles of realistic evaluation, this study aimed to test and refine intervention theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes that arise from technology deployment in the home. Methods included focus groups followed by multi-method case studies (n?=?5) before, during and after the use of computer-based equipment. Data were analysed in relation to the context-mechanism-outcome hypotheses case by case. This was followed by a synthesis of the findings to answer the question, ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances and respects?’ Results Data analysis reveals that to achieve desired outcomes through the use of ICT, key elements of computer feedback, such as accuracy, measurability, rewarding feedback, adaptability, and knowledge of results feedback, are required to trigger the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the intervention. In addition, the pre-existing context and the personal and environmental contexts, such as previous experience of service delivery, personal goals, trust in the technology, and social circumstances may also enable or constrain the underpinning theory-driven mechanisms. Conclusions Findings suggest that the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the utilisation of feedback from computer-based technology for home-based upper-limb post-stroke rehabilitation are dependent on key elements of computer feedback and the personal and environmental context. The identification of these elements may therefore inform the development of technology; therapy education and the subsequent adoption of technology and a self-management paradigm; long-term self-managed rehabilitation; and importantly, improvements in the physical and psychosocial aspects of recovery. PMID:24903401

2014-01-01

26

Utilising a Virtual World to Teach Performance Appraisal: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of an explorative study

Morse, Shona

2010-01-01

27

Utilising a virtual world to teach performance appraisal : An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper takes the form of an explorative study which

Shona Morse

2010-01-01

28

Technology Utilisation in Elementary Schools in Turkey's Capital: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study was conducted to explore teachers' current technology use in elementary schools in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The data were collected through a survey, and participants included 1030 classroom teachers across eight districts. The present study results revealed that significant challenges remain with regard to technology use…

Karaca, Feride; Can, Gulfidan; Yildirim, Soner

2013-01-01

29

Comparison of two alternative study designs in assessment of medicines utilisation in neonates  

PubMed Central

Background Estimates of prevalence are known to be affected by the design of cross-sectional studies. A pan-European study provided an opportunity to compare the effect of two cross-sectional study designs on estimates of medicines use. Methods A Service evaluation survey (SES) and a web-based point-prevalence study (PPS) were conducted as part of a European study of neonatal exposure to excipients. Neonatal units from all European Union countries plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Serbia were invited to participate. All medicines prescribed to neonates were recorded during three-day and one-day study periods in the SES and PPS, respectively. In the PPS individual demographic and prescription data were also collected. To compare the probabilities that a particular medicine would be reported by each study multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models with crossed random effects were applied. The relationship between medicines exposure at the unit and individual levels in the PPS data was assessed using polynomial regression with square root transformation. Results Of 31 invited countries 20 and 21 with 115 and 89 units joined the SES and PPS, respectively. Out of 5,572,859 live births in invited countries in 2010 a higher proportion was covered by units participating in the SES compared to the PPS (11% vs 6%, respectively; OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.87-1.89). A greater number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), manufacturers and trade names were registered in the SES compared to the PPS. High correlation between the two studies in frequency of use for each specified API was seen (R2?=?0.86). The average probability of a department to use a given API was greater in the SES compared to the PPS (OR 2.36; 95% CI 2.05-2.73) with higher frequency of use and longer average duration of prescription further increasing the difference. The polynomial regression model described the correlation between APIs exposure on unit and individual level well (R2?=?0.93). Conclusion The simple data structure and longer study period of the SES resulted in improved recruitment and higher likelihood of capture for a given API. The frequency of use at the unit level appears a good surrogate of individual exposure rates. PMID:25027048

2014-01-01

30

Barriers and gateways: a study of nursing students’ utilisation of learning support resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many first year nursing students require additional academic support from both their lecturers and learning resources. Anecdotal evidence at an Australian university suggested that ‘at risk’ students did not follow up lecturer referral. This study identified what learning resources were accessed and what factors influenced students’ decisions to follow up or not to follow up lecturer referral. First-year nursing students

Lyn Stewart; Pam Mort; Carol McVeigh

2001-01-01

31

Study of calcification formation and disease diagnostics utilising advanced vibrational spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and safe diagnosis of breast cancer is a significant societal issue, with annual disease incidence of 48,000 women and around 370 men in the UK. Early diagnosis of the disease allows more conservative treatments and better patient outcomes. Microcalcifications in breast tissue are an important indicator for breast cancers, and often the only sign of their presence. Several studies have suggested that the type of calcification formed may act as a marker for malignancy and its presence may be of biological significance. In this work, breast calcifications are studied with FTIR, synchrotron FTIR, ATR FTIR, and Raman mapping to explore their disease specific composition. From a comparison between vibrational spectroscopy and routine staining procedures it becomes clear that calcium builds up prior to calcification formation. Raman and FTIR indicate the same size for calcifications and are in agreement with routine staining techniques. From the synchrotron FTIR measurements it can be proven that amide is present in the centre of the calcifications and the intensity of the bands depends on the pathology. Special attention is paid to the type of carbonate substitution in the calcifications relating to different pathology grades. In contrast to mammography, Raman spectroscopy has the capability to distinguish calcifications based on their chemical composition. The ultimate goal is to turn the acquired knowledge from the mapping studies into a clinical tool based on deep Raman spectroscopy. Deep Raman techniques have a considerable potential to reduce large numbers of normal biopsies, reduce the time delay between screening and diagnosis and therefore diminish patient anxiety. In order to achieve this, a deep Raman system is designed and after evaluation of its performance tested on buried calcification standards in porcine soft tissue and human mammary tissue. It is shown that, when the calcification is probed through tissue, the strong 960 cm-1 phosphate band can be used as a pseudo marker for carbonate substitution which is related to the pathology of the surrounding tissue. Furthermore, the first study in which human breast calcifications are measured in bulk tissue with a thickness of several millimetres to centimetres is presented. To date, measurements have been performed at 41 specimens with a thickness up to 25 mm. Measurements could be performed through skin and blue dye. The proposed deep Raman technique is promising for probing of calcifications through tissue but will need refinement before being adopted in hospitals.

Kerssens, Marleen Maartje

32

Utilising a collective case study system theory mixed methods approach: a rural health example  

PubMed Central

Background Insight into local health service provision in rural communities is limited in the literature. The dominant workforce focus in the rural health literature, while revealing issues of shortage of maldistribution, does not describe service provision in rural towns. Similarly aggregation of data tends to render local health service provision virtually invisible. This paper describes a methodology to explore specific aspects of rural health service provision with an initial focus on understanding rurality as it pertains to rural physiotherapy service provision. Method A system theory-case study heuristic combined with a sequential mixed methods approach to provide a framework for both quantitative and qualitative exploration across sites. Stakeholder perspectives were obtained through surveys and in depth interviews. The investigation site was a large area of one Australian state with a mix of rural, regional and remote communities. Results 39 surveys were received from 11 locations within the investigation site and 19 in depth interviews were conducted. Stakeholder perspectives of rurality and workforce numbers informed the development of six case types relevant to the exploration of rural physiotherapy service provision. Participant perspective of rurality often differed with the geographical classification of their location. The numbers of onsite colleagues and local access to health services contributed to participant perceptions of rurality. Conclusions The complexity of understanding the concept of rurality was revealed by interview participants when providing their perspectives about rural physiotherapy service provision. Dual measures, such as rurality and workforce numbers, provide more relevant differentiation of sites to explore specific services, such rural physiotherapy service provision, than single measure of rurality as defined by geographic classification. The system theory-case study heuristic supports both qualitative and quantitative exploration in rural health services research. PMID:25066241

2014-01-01

33

Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. METHODS: Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002) were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey

Annette AM Gerritsen; Walter L Devillé

2009-01-01

34

Prostate specific antigen testing is associated with men’s psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation in a nationally representative sample: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate cancer incidence has risen considerably in recent years, primarily due to Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in primary care. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between PSA testing and the psychological and physical health, and healthcare utilisation of men in a population where PSA testing is widespread. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population-representative sample of men ?50 years enrolled in The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA participants underwent structured interviews, health assessments and completed standardised questionnaires. Men were classified as ever/never having received a PSA test. Multivariate logistic regression (Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) was used to determine associations between PSA testing, and men’s psychological and physical health and healthcare utilisation. Results This analysis included 3,628 men, 68.2% of whom ever had a PSA test. In adjusted analysis, men with sub-threshold depression were significantly less likely to have had a PSA test, (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.97). Likelihood of having a PSA test was inversely associated with anxiety, but this was not significant (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI 0.57-1.09). Frailty (OR?=?0.61, 95% CI 0.31-1.05) and eligibility for free primary care (OR?=?0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.77) were also inversely associated with PSA testing. Positive associations were observed between PSA testing and more chronic illnesses (OR?=?1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.19), more primary care visits (OR?=?1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and preventative health practices, including cholesterol testing and influenza vaccination (OR?=?1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.60). Conclusions Men’s psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation are associated with PSA testing in primary care. The association between poorer psychological health, in particular sub-threshold depression, and reduced likelihood of PSA testing in primary care requires further investigation. These findings may have wider implications for other cancer screening. PMID:24938184

2014-01-01

35

Health care utilisation under the 30-Baht Scheme among the urban poor in Mitrapap slum, Khon Kaen, Thailand: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2001, the Government of Thailand introduced a universal coverage scheme with the aim of ensuring equitable health care access for even the poorest citizens. For a flat user fee of 30 Baht per consultation, or for free for those falling into exemption categories, every scheme participant may access registered health services. The exemption categories include children under 12 years of age, senior citizens aged 60 years and over, the very poor, and volunteer health workers. The functioning of these exemption mechanisms and the effect of the scheme on health service utilisation among the poor is controversial. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of 30-Baht Scheme registration and subsequent self-reported health service utilisation among an urban poor population in the Teparuk community within the Mitrapap slum in Khon Kaen city, northeastern Thailand. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the exemption mechanisms in reaching the very poor and the elderly was examined. Factors for users' choice of health facilities were identified. Results Overall, the proportion of the Teparuk community enrolled with the 30-Baht Scheme was high at 86%, with over one quarter of these exempted from paying the consultation fee. User fee exemption was significantly more frequent among households with an above-poverty-line income (64.7%) compared to those below the poverty line (35.3%), ?2 (df) = 5.251 (1); p-value = 0.018. In addition, one third of respondents over 60 years of age were found to be still paying user fees. Self-reported use of registered medical facilities in case of illness was stated to be predominantly due to the service being available through the scheme, with service quality not a chief consideration. Overall consumer satisfaction was high, especially among those not required to pay the 30 Baht user fee. Conclusion Whilst the 30-Baht Scheme seems to cover most of the poor population of Mitrapap slum in Khon Kaen, the user fee exemption mechanism only works partially with regard to reaching the poorest and exempting senior citizens. Service utilisation and satisfaction are highest amongst those who are fee-exempt. Service quality was not an important factor influencing choice of health facility. Ways should be sought to improve the effectiveness of the current exemption mechanisms. PMID:17883874

Coronini-Cronberg, Sophie; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Gericke, Christian A

2007-01-01

36

Increased utilisation of primary healthcare in persons exposed to severe stress in prenatal life: a national population-based study in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent studies have suggested that stress in a pregnant mother may affect the future health of the unborn child negatively. An excellent proxy for health problems is the use of healthcare resources. Using nationwide data, we examined whether persons born to mothers who lost a close relative during pregnancy have more contacts to general practice. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants We included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2002 (N=2?032?528). Exposure of prenatal stress was defined as maternal bereavement by the death of a close relative during the antenatal period. The outcome of interest was contact with general practice between 2003 and 2009 when the participants were between 1 and 35?years of age. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between exposure and outcome. Outcome measures Contacts to general practitioner. Results Overall, persons exposed to prenatal stress had 2% more GP contacts than those not exposed, primarily due to increased utilisation of healthcare services during late adolescence and early adulthood. The exposed persons born to mothers who had lost a spouse had a higher risk (relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.14) and so did those born to mothers who had lost a close relative due to unexpected death (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.06). Exposed persons had more contacts to general practice in daytime and more psychometric tests, talk therapies and C reactive protein tests than unexposed persons. Conclusions Prenatal stress following maternal bereavement was associated with a slightly increased utilisation of primary healthcare, mainly due to increased healthcare needs related to mental health and infections. Understanding how stress during pregnancy influences the future health of the child is an important aspect of prenatal care. PMID:25573520

Li, Jiong; Yang, Hu; Guldin, Mai-Britt; Vedsted, Peter; Vestergaard, Mogens

2015-01-01

37

The availability, spatial accessibility, service utilisation and retrieval cost of paediatric intensive care services for children in rural, regional and remote Queensland: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Specialist health services are often organised on a regionalised basis whereby clinical resources and expertise are concentrated in areas of high population. Through a high volume caseload, regionalised facilities may provide improved clinical outcomes for patients. In some cases, regionalisation may be the only economically viable way to organise specialist care. While regionalisation may have benefits, it may also disadvantage some population groups, particularly in circumstances where distance and time are impediments to access. Queensland is a large Australian state with a distributed population. Providing equitable access to specialist healthcare services to the population is challenging. Specialist care for critically ill or injured children is provided by the Queensland Paediatric Intensive Care Service which comprises two tertiary paediatric intensive care units. The two units are located 6 km (3.7 miles) apart by road in the state capital of Brisbane and provide state-wide telephone advice and specialist retrieval services. Services also extend into the northern area of the adjacent state of New South Wales. In some cases children may be managed locally in adult intensive care units in regional hospitals. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of geography and service organisation for children who need intensive care services but who present outside of metropolitan centres in Queensland. Methods/design Using health services and population data, the availability and spatial accessibility to paediatric intensive care services will be analysed. Retrieval utilisation and the associated costs to the health service will be analysed to provide an indication of service utilisation by non-metropolitan patients. Discussion While the regionalisation or centralisation of specialist services is recognised as an economical way to provide specialist health services, the extent to which these models serve critically ill children who live some distance from tertiary care has not been described. This study will provide new information on the effect of the regionalisation of specialist healthcare for critically ill children in Queensland and will have relevance to other regionalised health services. This study, which is focussed on describing the organisation, supply and demands on the health service, will provide the foundation for future work to explore clinical outcomes for non-metropolitan children who require intensive care. PMID:23638680

2013-01-01

38

Early Complications Following Oesophagectomy for Cancer in Relation to Long-Term Healthcare Utilisation: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about how early postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer influence healthcare utilisation in the long-term. We hypothesised that these complications also increase healthcare utilisation long after the recovery period. Methods This was a prospective, nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study of patients who underwent curatively intended oesophagectomy for cancer in 2001-2005 and survived at least 1 year postoperatively (n = 390). Total days of in-hospitalisation, number of hospitalisations and number of visits to the outpatient clinic within 5 years of surgery were analysed using quasi-Poisson models with adjustment for patient, tumour and treatment characteristics and are expressed as incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results There was an increased in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years after surgery in patients with more than 1 complication (IRR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4). The IRR for the number of hospitalisations by number of complications was 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.6), and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6) for number of outpatient visits in patients with more than 1 complication. The IRR for in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years following oesophagectomy was 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.0) for patients with anastomotic insufficiency and 1.5 (95% CI 0.9-2.5) for patients with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications. We found no association with number of hospitalisations (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-2.0) or number of outpatient visits (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.7) after anastomotic insufficiency, or after cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-1.9) and (IRR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.5) respectively. Conclusion This study showed an increased total in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years after oesophagectomy for cancer in patients with postoperative complications, particularly following anastomotic insufficiency. PMID:25768921

Doorakkers, Eva; Konings, Peter; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Jesper; Brusselaers, Nele

2015-01-01

39

Utilising a Collaborative Macro-Script to Enhance Student Engagement: A Mixed Method Study in a 3D Virtual Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of using an online 3D virtual environment in teaching Mathematics in Primary Education. In particular, it explores the extent to which student engagement--behavioral, affective and cognitive--is fostered by such tools in order to enhance collaborative learning. For the study we used a purpose-created 3D virtual…

Bouta, Hara; Retalis, Symeon; Paraskeva, Fotini

2012-01-01

40

Dehydroabietic acid, a major anionic contaminant of pulp mill effluent, reduces both active p-aminohippurate transport and passive membrane permeability in isolated renal membranes.  

PubMed

The renal organic anion transport system plays a pivotal role in elimination of potentially toxic anions. This system is driven by indirect coupling to the sodium gradient at the basolateral membrane, i.e., the organic anion enters the cell in exchange for internal alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha KG) and the in greater than out alpha KG gradient is regenerated by Na+/alpha KG cotransport. The resin acid, dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), is one of several anionic xenobiotics which enter the environment secondary to pulp and paper processing. Because it is largely ionized at neutral pH (pKa, 5.7), DHAA should share the organic anion system. Indeed, Na+/glutarate-coupled p-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake by renal basolateral membrane vesicles was inhibited competitively by DHAA (Ki congruent to 150 microM). Despite the reduced rate of PAH uptake, a substantial, but delayed, overshoot was observed, suggesting additional effects. Passive permeabilities to mannitol, PAH and sodium were all decreased by DHAA, consistent with a general tightening of the membrane. Decreased permeability extended the effective lifetime of imposed ion gradients. Thus, sodium driven glutarate uptake was stimulated by 200 microM DHAA, prolonging and more than doubling its overshoot. Because the immediate driving force for PAH uptake into basolateral membrane vesicles is the magnitude of the glutarate gradient, DHAA increased the driving force for PAH uptake and permitted a substantial overshoot despite the reduced rate of PAH uptake. These data indicate that DHAA has several distinctly different effects on the membrane. PMID:1920114

Pritchard, J B; Walden, R; Oikari, A

1991-10-01

41

Facilitating professional liaison in collaborative care for depression in UK primary care; a qualitative study utilising normalisation process theory  

PubMed Central

Background Collaborative care (CC) is an organisational framework which facilitates the delivery of a mental health intervention to patients by case managers in collaboration with more senior health professionals (supervisors and GPs), and is effective for the management of depression in primary care. However, there remains limited evidence on how to successfully implement this collaborative approach in UK primary care. This study aimed to explore to what extent CC impacts on professional working relationships, and if CC for depression could be implemented as routine in the primary care setting. Methods This qualitative study explored perspectives of the 6 case managers (CMs), 5 supervisors (trial research team members) and 15 general practitioners (GPs) from practices participating in a randomised controlled trial of CC for depression. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data was analysed using a two-step approach using an initial thematic analysis, and a secondary analysis using the Normalisation Process Theory concepts of coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring with respect to the implementation of CC in primary care. Results Supervisors and CMs demonstrated coherence in their understanding of CC, and consequently reported good levels of cognitive participation and collective action regarding delivering and supervising the intervention. GPs interviewed showed limited understanding of the CC framework, and reported limited collaboration with CMs: barriers to collaboration were identified. All participants identified the potential or experienced benefits of a collaborative approach to depression management and were able to discuss ways in which collaboration can be facilitated. Conclusion Primary care professionals in this study valued the potential for collaboration, but GPs’ understanding of CC and organisational barriers hindered opportunities for communication. Further work is needed to address these organisational barriers in order to facilitate collaboration around individual patients with depression, including shared IT systems, facilitating opportunities for informal discussion and building in formal collaboration into the CC framework. Trial registration ISRCTN32829227 30/9/2008. PMID:24885746

2014-01-01

42

Crew time utilisation and Habitat interface investigations for future planetary habitat definition studies: field tests at MDRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prepare future Lunar and Martian planetary exploration definition studies, the European Space Agency (ESA) has interests in gathering data on human aspects during long term space and planetary exploration missions, namely limited resources, limited social interactions, long term living and working in confined and isolated areas. To assess their impact on long term space missions and to attempt a general quantification, the environmental and technical condi-tions to which astronauts may be confronted need to be reproduced as closely as possible. Used since 2001 to conduct various types of simulation campaigns of planetary exploration missions, The Mars Society's `Mars Desert Research Station' (MDRS) in the Desert of Utah is one of the analogue facilities suited for this kind of human aspect investigations. In this frame, the ESA's Directorate of Human Space Flight was associated to the EuroGeoMars campaign conducted in February 2009 by the MDRS Crews 76 and 77. The EuroGeoMars campaign lasted five weeks and encompassed two groups of experiments, on human crew related aspects and field experiments in geology, biology and astronomy/astrophysics. The human crew related aspects covered evaluations of (a) the different functions and interfaces of a planetary habitat, (b) the crew time organization, (c) man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment. The paper recalls the objectives of the human crew related experiments of the EuroGeoMars cam-paign and presents the results of these field investigations. Some recommendations and lessons learnt are presented and used as first inputs for future planetary habitat definition studies.

Pletser, Vladimir

43

Primary care access and its relationship with emergency department utilisation: an observational, cross-sectional, ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent health service policies in the UK have focused on improving primary care access in order to reduce the use of costly emergency department services, even though the relationship between the two is based on weak or little evidence. Research is required to establish whether improving primary care access can influence emergency department attendance. Aim To ascertain whether a relationship exists between the degree of access to GP practices and avoidable emergency department attendances in an inner-London primary care trust (PCT). Design and setting Observational, cross-sectional ecological study in 68 general practices in Brent Primary Care Trust, north London, UK. Method GP practices were used as the unit of analysis and avoidable emergency department attendance as the dependent variable. Routinely collected data from GP practices, Hospital Episode Statistics, and census data for the period covering 2007–2009 were used across three broad domains: GP access characteristics, population characteristics, and health status aggregated to the level of the GP practice. Multiple linear regression was used to ascertain which variables account for the variation in emergency department attendance experienced by patients registered to each GP practice. Results None of the GP access variables accounted for the variation in emergency department attendance. The only variable that explained this variance was the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). For every unit increase in IMD score of the GP practice, there would be an increase of 6.13 (95% CI = 4.56, 7.70) per 1000 patients per year in emergency department attendances. This accounted for 47.9% of the variance in emergency department attendances in Brent. Conclusion Avoidable emergency department attendance appears to be mostly driven by underlying deprivation rather than by the degree of access to primary care. PMID:22137415

Harris, Matthew J; Patel, Brijesh; Bowen, Simon

2011-01-01

44

Implication of Fuel Price Deregulation on Fuel Demand and CO2 Emission: A Case Study of Car Ownership and Utilisation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India’s road transport is characterised by a historical asymmetry in the auto-fuel prices due to lack of parity between international and domestic fuel prices and artificial deflation of domestic diesel price relative to that of petrol through differences in levies. This continued to provide a constant fillip to ownership and utilisation of personalised vehicles leading to higher energy consumption with

Kaushik Ranjan Bandyopadhyay

2008-01-01

45

Healthcare utilisation in patients with breast cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma who experienced febrile neutropenia in the Netherlands: a retrospective matched control study using the PHARMO database.  

PubMed

Few data have been published on healthcare resource utilisation associated with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) in Europe. Using the PHARMO record linkage system, we identified incident adult patients with a primary hospital discharge diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from 1998 to 2008. Patients who experienced FN were matched 1:2 non-FN reference patients. Of 1033 BC patients, 80 (8%) had FN and were matched with 160 reference patients; and of 486 NHL patients, 95 (20%) had FN and 89 were matched with 178 reference patients. Significantly more FN patients were hospitalised for any cause than reference patients: BC, 81% vs. 24% (OR 12.6; 95% CI 5.7-27.8); NHL, 82% vs. 44% (OR 6.7; 95% CI 3.3-13.9). Median length of all-cause hospitalisation stay was higher for FN patients: BC, 4.0 vs. 1.0 days; NHL, 8.5 vs. 1.8 days. The median (interquartile range) number of medication treatments was higher for FN patients: BC, 5.5 (4.0-7.5) vs. 2.0 (2.0-4.0); NHL, 8.0 (5.0-11.0) vs. 3.0 (2.0-4.0). In conclusion, FN in patients with BC or NHL had increased healthcare utilisation compared with non-FN patients; thus, efforts to reduce FN are warranted to reduce cost and improve outcomes. PMID:24528512

Issa, D E; Gelderblom, H; Lugtenburg, P J; van Herk-Sukel, M P; Houweling, L M A; De La Orden, M; van der Werf-Langenberg, M E; Nortier, J W R; de Jong, F A

2015-03-01

46

Good Practice Chaplaincy: An Exploratory Study Identifying the Appropriate Skills, Attitudes and Practices for the Selection, Training and Utilisation of Chaplains.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of exploratory research regarding the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices considered necessary for chaplains to be highly competent in providing holistic care to clients and staff. Utilising a qualitative methodology, two focus groups comprising Salvation Army chaplains and their managers provided data about their expectations of chaplaincy personnel and about the pastoral care interventions undertaken by chaplains. The results indicated that while there were some differences in opinion, nevertheless, in overall terms, there was general agreement between chaplains and their managers about particular personal and professional qualities necessary for chaplains to be considered appropriate and proficient. Evidence was also obtained indicating a need for change with regard to the organisational attitude and culture of The Salvation Army towards chaplaincy. Recommendations are presented concerning (1) the selection criteria for chaplaincy, (2) training and utilisation of chaplains plus (3) issues relating to organizational cultural change necessary to develop a future-ready chaplaincy more suitable for the twenty-first century. PMID:25371346

Carey, Lindsay B; Rumbold, Bruce

2014-11-01

47

Race, resource utilisation, and perceived need among urban community development workers from faith-based organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisations providing social services in communities of high crime and violence must address staff well-being. The current study surveyed 284 urban community development workers from faith-based organisations in five US cities. The study explored the effects of race and ethnicity on service utilisation and perceived need using binomial logistic regression. Race and ethnicity significantly predicted medical service utilisation, indicating that

Hana J. Shin; Cynthia B. Eriksson; Sherry M. Walling; Hanna Lee; Katharine M. Putman

2011-01-01

48

A cross-sectional study describing factors associated with utilisation of GP services by a cohort of people who inject drugs  

PubMed Central

Background People who inject drugs (PWID) use healthcare services, including primary care, at a disproportionately high rate. We investigated key correlates of general practitioner (GP) related service utilisation within a cohort of PWID. Methods Using baseline data from a cohort of 645 community-recruited PWID based in Melbourne, Victoria, we conducted a secondary analysis of associations between past month use of GP services unrelated to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and socio-demographic and drug use characteristics and self-reported health using multivariate logistic regression. Results Just under one-third (29%) of PWID had accessed GP services in the month prior to being surveyed. Participants who reported living with children (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.04 - 3.73) or having had contact with a social worker in the past month (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.24 - 2.98) were more likely to have seen a GP in the past month. Participants who were injecting daily or more frequently (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 - 0.83) or had a weekly income of less than $400 (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 - 0.91) were less likely to report having seen a GP in the past month. Conclusions Our sample frequently attended GP services for health needs unrelated to OST. Findings highlight both the characteristics of PWID accessing GP services and also those potentially missing out on primary care and preventive services. PMID:25030526

2014-01-01

49

UTILISATION DU PHOSPHATE MONOAMMONIQUE CHEZ LE MOUTON  

E-print Network

UTILISATION DU PHOSPHATE MONOAMMONIQUE CHEZ LE MOUTON I. — UTILISATION COMPARÉE DU PHOSPHORE DES PHOSPHATES MONOAMMONIQUE ET MONOSODIQUE ET INFLUENCE SUR LE MÉTABOLISME DU CALCIUM ET DU MAGNÉSIUM phosphate monosodique (aliment I), soit du phos- phate monoammonique (aliment II). Un essai parallèle de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Original article Utilising historical tree-ring data for  

E-print Network

Original article Utilising historical tree-ring data for dendroclimatology: A case study from Summary Although there are abundant historical tree-ring (TR) data available in Europe, these data have wood. In addition, as historical timbers were often taken from relatively young trees, they may have

51

Information Visualisation Utilising 3D Computer Game Engines  

E-print Network

Information Visualisation Utilising 3D Computer Game Engines Case Study: A source code game engines for information visualisation is presented together with an analysis of how the capabilities and constraints of a game engine influence the mapping of data into graphical representations

Goodman, James R.

52

Community health service utilisation and needs in an elderly population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine community health service utilisation and needs of an elderly population living in\\u000a a geographically defined area of Dublin. A random sample of 208 persons was taken from the 11,852 elderly persons living in\\u000a the area. Activities of daily living and cognitive function were assessed in the person’s own home. Whilst the community health

Ronan A. Lyons; Rhona McCarthy; Anne O’Connor

1991-01-01

53

Retrograde transport pathways utilised by viruses and protein toxins  

PubMed Central

A model has been presented for retrograde transport of certain toxins and viruses from the cell surface to the ER that suggests an obligatory interaction with a glycolipid receptor at the cell surface. Here we review studies on the ER trafficking cholera toxin, Shiga and Shiga-like toxins, Pseudomonas exotoxin A and ricin, and compare the retrograde routes followed by these protein toxins to those of the ER trafficking SV40 and polyoma viruses. We conclude that there is in fact no obligatory requirement for a glycolipid receptor, nor even with a protein receptor in a lipid-rich environment. Emerging data suggests instead that there is no common pathway utilised for retrograde transport by all of these pathogens, the choice of route being determined by the particular receptor utilised. PMID:16603059

Spooner, Robert A; Smith, Daniel C; Easton, Andrew J; Roberts, Lynne M; Lord, J Michael

2006-01-01

54

Social inequalities in health care services utilisation after eight years of health care reforms: a cross-sectional study of Estonia, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental health care reforms in Estonia started in 1991 with the introduction of a social health insurance system. While increasing the efficiency of the health care system was one of the targets of the health care reforms, equity issues have received relatively less attention. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of social inequalities in health care

Jarno Habicht; Anton E. Kunst

2005-01-01

55

Type of pain, pain-associated complications, quality of life, disability and resource utilisation in chronic pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) with constant pain patterns to patients with CP with intermittent pain patterns.MethodsThis was a prospective cohort study conducted at 20 tertiary medical centers in the USA comprising 540 subjects with CP. Patients with CP were asked to identify their pain from five pain patterns (A–E) defined by the temporal nature (intermittent or constant)

Daniel K Mullady; Dhiraj Yadav; Stephen T Amann; Michael R OConnell; Michael M Barmada; Grace H Elta; James M Scheiman; Erik-Jan Wamsteker; William D Chey; Meredith L Korneffel; Beth M Weinman; Adam Slivka; Stuart Sherman; Robert H Hawes; Randall E Brand; Frank R Burton; Michele D Lewis; Timothy B Gardner; Andres Gelrud; James DiSario; John Baillie; Peter A Banks; David C Whitcomb; Michelle A Anderson

2011-01-01

56

Molecular modelling study of HIV p17gag (MA) protein shell utilising data from electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography.  

PubMed

The matrix protein p17gag (MA) is a product of proteolytic cleavage of the gag gene encoded polyprotein (pr55gag) and is formed when HIV particles undergo the process of maturation. The MA protein is associated with the inner surface of the viral membrane and determines the overall shape of the virion. Previous studies have shown the existence of trimers of MA in solution and in the crystalline state. Here, we used molecular modelling methods to identify feasible interactions between pairs of MA trimers and have related this to structural data from electron microscopy. A systematic search docking procedure was able to identify many energetically favourable conformations for a pair of trimers, including some which have been previously reported. These conformations were used to generate several networks of MA trimers, which were then evaluated against structural observations of the MA network. The model suggested here provides a good match with experimental data such as the spacing between gag protein rings, the number and disposition of glycoprotein (gp41-gp120) knobs and the number of copies of MA in a virus particle. It also rationalizes the observed distribution of sizes of virus particles and is consistent with the presence of icosahedral organisation in mature HIV. Energy minimisation performed with explicit water and counter ions, was used to identify residues participating in inter-trimer interactions. The nature of these interactions is discussed in relation to the conservation of these residues in reported variants of the HIV and SIV MA protein sequences. PMID:10801353

Forster, M J; Mulloy, B; Nermut, M V

2000-05-19

57

Milk utilisation patterns in the low-input production systems in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the utilisation patterns of milk assists in designing appropriate dairy development schemes in rural communities.\\u000a The objective of the study was to determine milk utilisation patterns in different smallholder farming systems in the Eastern\\u000a Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected through the administration of recording sheets to 130 randomly selected\\u000a households in Alice, Fort Beaufort and Queenstown

Monde Mapekula; Michael Chimonyo; Cletos Mapiye; Kennedy Dzama

2010-01-01

58

13/05/20081 Timber Utilisation  

E-print Network

MinMin VelocityGrade #12;13/05/200812 Timber Utilisation Assessing Tree Quality · Knowing what you are buying for quality and quantity forecasts to inform investment · Working group led by Forest Research identified stem before you buy · Improved harvesting scheduling · Crucial issue in the operational value chain · Non

59

Bioclimatologie Utilisation des cellules au silicium amorphe  

E-print Network

Bioclimatologie Utilisation des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du rayonnement simulation et la confrontation expérimentale ccellules au silicium amorphe par rapport à celles des capteurs existants montrent l'intérêt des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

UTILISATION DU PHOSPHATE MONOAMMONIQUE CHEZ LE MOUTON  

E-print Network

UTILISATION DU PHOSPHATE MONOAMMONIQUE CHEZ LE MOUTON II. — INFLUENCE SUR LE MÉTABOLISME zootechniques, I, N. R. A.,., i8!350 Jouy en Josas RÉSUMÉ La valeur du phosphate monoammonique (MAP) pour la'azote non pro- téique apportée par le phosphate monoammonique ; pouvoir tampon du milieu de dilution et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT  

E-print Network

ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT N.C. Townsend nick@soton.ac.uk Fluid Structure of a marine vessel can induce gyroscopic precession. x y Z 0 Figure 1: A Schematic of a Single Unit Gyroscopic the gyroscopic effect) Experimental sea trials will be conducted in 2011. The motivation behind the project

Sóbester, András

62

Utilisation des Protocoles HARQ pour la Radio Cognitive  

E-print Network

Utilisation des Protocoles HARQ pour la Radio Cognitive Romain Tajan encadré/01/2012 #12;Plan 1 Introduction 2 La Radio Cognitive Techniques de la Radio Cognitive Méthodes d'accès 3 performances du protocole IR-HARQ 4 Utilisation des protocoles HARQ pour la Radio Cognitive Utilisation de l

Dobigeon, Nicolas

63

The Utilisation of Waste Heat for Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the cheap generation of electricity the great problem must be how to secure and utilise by-products. With steam-driven stations the chief by-product is an abundant supply of hot water from the condensers, which in this country is looked upon as a nuisance to be got rid of as easily as possible. Would it not be possible to make use

C. Turnbull

1916-01-01

64

Drug utilisation in Dutch nursing homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify and evaluate drug utilisation in a sample of Dutch nursing homes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A retrospective analysis of computerised medication data of 2355 residents aged 65?years and over from six nursing homes\\u000a in the Netherlands was performed. For each therapeutic drug group, the number of users was determined. The ten therapeutic\\u000a groups used most frequently were investigated further. For

K. N. van Dijk; C. S. de Vries; P. B. van den Berg; J. R. B. J Brouwers; L. T. W. de Jong-van den Berg

2000-01-01

65

The experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Older people from culturally and linguistically diverse groups are underrepresented in residential aged care but overrepresented in community aged care in Australia. However, little is known about culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia because previous studies mainly focused on the majority cultural group. Experiences of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups who are eligible to utilise dementia services in Australia are needed in order to optimize the utilisation of dementia services for these caregivers. Methods The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of family caregivers from Chinese, Greek, Italian and Vietnamese groups in utilising dementia services. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret the experiences of the participants. Focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data collection was conducted over a six month period in 2011. In total, 46 family caregivers who were caring for 39 persons with dementia participated. Results Four themes were revealed: (1) negotiating services for the person with dementia; (2) the impact of acculturation on service utilisation; (3) the characteristics of satisfactory services; and (4) negative experiences in utilising services. The present study revealed that the participation of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups in planning and managing dementia services ranged markedly from limited participation to full participation. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups need to be fully prepared so they can participate in the utilisation of dementia services available to them in Australia. PMID:24148155

2013-01-01

66

Determining appropriateness for rehabilitation or other subacute care: is there a role for utilisation review?  

PubMed Central

Background Rehabilitation and other forms of subacute care play an important role in the Australian health care system, yet there is ambiguity around clinical definitions of subacute care, how it differs from acute care, where it is best done and what resources are required. This leads to inconsistent and often poorly defined patient selection criteria as well as a lack of research into efficient models of care. Methods A literature review on the potential role of utilisation review in defining levels of care and in facilitating appropriate care, with a focus on the interface between acute care and rehabilitation. Results In studies using standardised utilisation review tools there is consistent reporting of high levels of 'inappropriate' bed days in acute care settings. These inappropriate bed days include both inappropriate admissions to acute care and inappropriate continuing days of stay. While predominantly an instrument of payers in the United States, concurrent utilisation review programs have also been used outside of the US, where they help in the facilitation of appropriate care. Some utilisation review tools also have specific criteria for determining patient appropriateness for rehabilitation and other subacute care. Conclusion The high levels of 'inappropriate' care demonstrated repeatedly in international studies using formal programs of utilisation review should not be ignored in Australia. Utilisation review tools, while predominantly developed in the US, may complement other Australian patient flow initiatives to improve efficiency while maintaining patient safety. They could also play a role in the identification of patients who may benefit from transfer from acute care to another type of care and thus be an adjunct to physician assessment. Testing of the available utilisation review tools in the Australian context is now required. PMID:17352832

Poulos, Christopher J; Eagar, Kathy

2007-01-01

67

Re-utilisation conditions of wastewaters from textiles industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation is an important tool for the analysis of the possibilities in the re-utilisation among the steps of the industrial production process. The analysis of technical and economical viability come from the definition of the strategies for direct re-utilisation of water and water re-utilisation using regenerative processes or with dilution from industrial water supply streams. Considering the complexity of

Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de Souza; Aline Resmini Melo; Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza

2006-01-01

68

Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes. PMID:25444096

Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

2014-01-01

69

Utilisation of the boer goat for intensive animal production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence is examined for the utilisation of Boer goats for intensive animal production. They are used for meat production and the skins are a valuable byproduct. They are by preference browsers and can utilise bushveld most efficiently in combination with cattle. They have a peak in sexual activity in autumn but will breed at any time provided correct husbandry

J. D. Skinner

1972-01-01

70

Guide d'utilisation de SSJ Langage Java  

E-print Network

Guide d'utilisation de SSJ Langage Java 15 Janvier 2001 ­ Dans votre .cshrc, rajouter la ligne'un de xdvi guide.dvi & acroread guide.pdf & 1 Version Java Nous utilisons la version 1.2 de Java. Elle votre programme (par exemple Tulipe.java) utilisant les objets de SSJ, compiler simplement avec la

Vázquez-Abad, Felisa J.

71

Resource Utilisation and Cost Analysis of Memantine in Patients with Moderate to Severe Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating illness that causes enormous emotional stress to affected families and is associated with substantial medical and nonmedical costs. Objective: To determine the effects of 28 weeks of memantine treatment for patients with AD on resource utilisation and costs. Study design and methods: Multicentre, prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed in the US.

Anders Wimo; Bengt Winblad; Albrecht Stoffler; Yvonne Wirth; Hansjorg Mobius

2003-01-01

72

Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings  

PubMed Central

Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests that Australian prescribers may have acted in response to scientific evidence or international safety warnings (EMA, FDA), prior to the response of the TGA. Minor effects were observed after bladder cancer warnings on pioglitazone utilisation. PMID:24708579

2014-01-01

73

Barriers to utilisation of maternal health services in a semi-urban community in northern Nigeria: The clients’ perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: Low level of utilisation of maternal health services is a major factor responsible for high maternal mortality in northwestern region of Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the barriers to utilisation of maternal health services from the perspective of mothers in northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 150 mothers, selected through multistage technique, was conducted. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS statistics 17.0. Results: Only 2.7% utilised preconception service, 98.7% antenatal care service (ANC), 24.0% delivery, 35.3% postnatal care and 14.0% utilised family planning service. Major reasons for non-utilisation of delivery service were not having a delivery complication in the past (57% (CI = 47.4-66.1)) and negative provider attitude (23.7% (CI = 16.4-32.7)). For non-utilisation of postnatal care, the major reasons were also not having a postnatal complication in the past (60.8% (CI = 50.4-70.4)) and negative provider attitude (27.8% (CI = 19.4-38.0)). As for non-utilisation of family planning service, the major reason was desire to have more children (32.6% (CI = 24.7-41.4)). Reasons for non-use of preconception care and ANC were not computed because respondents to these questions were not enough; only 6 (4.0%) were aware of preconception care in the first place and only 2 (1.3%) were not using ANC. Conclusion: Despite living near a health facility, most of the mothers were not using maternal health services. It is recommended that while there is the need to raise awareness on the utilisation of maternal health services, bring it closer to the mothers and make it more affordable, there is a more pressing need to improve its quality, especially through the alleviation of negative attitude of health care providers. PMID:23661896

Idris, Suleman Hadejia; Sambo, Mohammed Nasir; Ibrahim, Muhammed Sani

2013-01-01

74

Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For diffuse UV exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than 60° and 50° respectively can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-330 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of damaging UVA observed in full sun.

Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

2008-01-01

75

Utilisation of chip thickness models in grinding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grinding is now a well established process utilised for both stock removal and finish applications. Although significant research is performed in this field, grinding still experiences problems with burn and high forces which can lead to poor quality components and damage to equipment. This generally occurs in grinding when the process deviates from its safe working conditions. In milling, chip thickness parameters are utilised to predict and maintain process outputs leading to improved control of the process. This thesis looks to further the knowledge of the relationship between chip thickness and the grinding process outputs to provide an increased predictive and maintenance modelling capability. Machining trials were undertaken using different chip thickness parameters to understand how these affect the process outputs. The chip thickness parameters were maintained at different grinding wheel diameters for a constant productivity process to determine the impact of chip thickness at a constant material removal rate.. Additional testing using a modified pin on disc test rig was performed to provide further information on process variables. The different chip thickness parameters provide control of different process outputs in the grinding process. These relationships can be described using contact layer theory and heat flux partitioning. The contact layer is defined as the immediate layer beneath the contact arc at the wheel workpiece interface. The size of the layer governs the force experienced during the process. The rate of contact layer removal directly impacts the net power required from the system. It was also found that the specific grinding energy of a process is more dependent on the productivity of a grinding process rather than the value of chip thickness. Changes in chip thickness at constant material removal rate result in microscale changes in the rate of contact layer removal when compared to changes in process productivity. This is a significant piece of information in relation to specific grinding energy where conventional theory states it is primarily dependent on chip thickness..

Singleton, Roger

76

Microbial utilisation of biochar-derived carbon.  

PubMed

Whilst largely considered an inert material, biochar has been documented to contain a small yet significant fraction of microbially available labile organic carbon (C). Biochar addition to soil has also been reported to alter soil microbial community structure, and to both stimulate and retard the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM). We conducted a short-term incubation experiment using two (13)C-labelled biochars produced from wheat or eucalypt shoots, which were incorporated in an aridic arenosol to examine the fate of the labile fraction of biochar-C through the microbial community. This was achieved using compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). A proportion of the biologically-available fraction of both biochars was rapidly (within three days) utilised by gram positive bacteria. There was a sharp peak in CO2 evolution shortly after biochar addition, resulting from rapid turnover of labile C components in biochars and through positive priming of native SOM. Our results demonstrate that this CO2 evolution was at least partially microbially mediated, and that biochar application to soil can cause significant and rapid changes in the soil microbial community; likely due to addition of labile C and increases in soil pH. PMID:23623696

Farrell, Mark; Kuhn, Thomas K; Macdonald, Lynne M; Maddern, Todd M; Murphy, Daniel V; Hall, Phillip A; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Baumann, Karen; Krull, Evelyn S; Baldock, Jeff A

2013-11-01

77

Assessment of utilisation of PMTCT services at Nyanza Provincial Hospital, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the study was to assess the utilisation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services among mothers registered for services at Nyanza Provincial Hospital in Kenya. A cross-sectional exploratory study was conducted, using both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect primary and secondary data. The study population was 133 clients registered for PMTCT services. The study revealed

Iscah Akoth Moth; A. B. C. O. Ayayo; Dan Kaseje

2005-01-01

78

A Policy Framework for Sustainable Utilisation of Farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study crafts a policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South\\u000a Africa. The district, being predominantly agricultural and rural, faces contention in terms of land allocation for traditional\\u000a agricultural land uses versus contemporary uses such as golf courses, game ranching and holiday accommodation\\/lodges. The\\u000a situation was exacerbated by the fact that these challenges

Charles Nhemachena; James Chakwizira; Sipho Dube

79

Measurement of horizontal inequity in health care utilisation using European panel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of inequity in health care delivery has focused on the extent to which health care utilisation is or is not distributed according to need, irrespective of income. Studies using cross-sectional data have proposed various ways of measuring and standardizing for need, but inevitably much of the inter-individual variation in needs remains unobserved in cross-sections. This paper exploits panel data

Teresa Bago d’Uva; Andrew M. Jones; Eddy van Doorslaer

2009-01-01

80

The impact of reducing financial barriers on utilisation of a primary health care facility in Rwanda  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the impact of subsidising community-based health insurance (mutuelle) enrolment, removing point-of-service co-payments, and improving service delivery on health facility utilisation rates in Mayange, a sector of rural Rwanda of approximately 25,000 people divided among five ‘imidugudu’ or small villages. While comprehensive service upgrades were introduced in the Mayange Health Centre between April 2006 and February 2007, utilisation rates remained similar to comparison sites. Between February 2007 and April 2007, subsidies for mutuelle enrolment established virtually 100% coverage. Immediately after co-payments were eliminated in February 2007, patient visits levelled at a rate triple the previous value. Regression analyses using data from Mayange and two comparison sites indicate that removing financial barriers resulted in about 0.6 additional annual visits for curative care per capita. Although based on a single local pilot, these findings suggest that in order to achieve improved health outcomes, key short-term objectives include improved service delivery and reduced financial barriers. Based on this pilot, higher utilisation rates may be affected if broader swaths of the population are enrolled in mutuelle and co-payments are eliminated. Health leaders in Rwanda should consider further studies to determine if the impact of eliminating co-payments and increasing subsidies for mutuelle enrolment as seen in Mayange holds at greater levels of scale. Broader studies to better elucidate the impact of enrolment subsidies and co-payment subsidies on utilisation, health outcomes, and costs would also provide policy insights. PMID:21732708

Dhillon, Ranu S.; Bonds, Matthew H.; Fraden, Max; Ndahiro, Donald; Ruxin, Josh

2011-01-01

81

Life cycle assessment of biohydrogen and biomethane production and utilisation as a vehicle fuel.  

PubMed

Environmental burdens for the production and utilisation of biomethane vehicle fuel or a biohydrogen/biomethane blend produced from food waste or wheat feed, based on data from two different laboratory experiments, have been compared. For food waste treated by batch processes the two stage system gave high hydrogen yields (84.2l H2kg(-1) VS added) but a lower overall energy output than the single stage system. Reduction in environmental burdens compared with diesel was achieved, supported by the diversion of waste from landfill. For wheat feed, the semi continuously fed two stage process gave low hydrogen yields (7.5l H2kg(-1) VS added) but higher overall energy output. The process delivers reduction in fossil fuel burdens, and improvements in process efficiencies will lead to reduction in CO2 burdens compared with diesel. The study highlights the importance of understanding and optimising biofuel production parameters according to the feedstock utilised. PMID:23353037

Patterson, Tim; Esteves, Sandra; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Maddy, Jon

2013-03-01

82

Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA) and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha) were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent). Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1) social support (ten items), alpha 0.86; (2) perceived interpersonal care (five items), alpha 0.87, (3) concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items), alpha 0.80, (4) value of good health (five items), alpha 0.79, and (5) attitudes towards health care (three items), alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population. PMID:19954549

2009-01-01

83

Changes in the pattern of service utilisation and health problems of women, men and various age groups following a destructive disaster: a matched cohort study with a pre-disaster assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Female gender and young age are known risk factors for psychological morbidity after a disaster, but this conclusion is based on studies without a pre-disaster assessment. The aim of this study in family practice was to investigate if these supposed risk factors would still occur in a study design with a pre-disaster measurement. METHODS: A matched cohort study with

Rik JH Soeteman; C Joris Yzermans; Peter Spreeuwenberg; Toine ALM Lagro-Janssen; Wil JHM van den Bosch; Jouke van der Zee

2008-01-01

84

Donor blood procurement and utilisation at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City.  

PubMed

Banked blood is a limited resource in Nigeria. We sought to evaluate factors that may further limit the effective utilisation of donor blood in a tertiary hospital in Benin City. The records of the blood transfusion unit of the hospital were studied to identify the methods of blood procurement and utilisation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. A total of 11,021 units of blood were received in the blood transfusion unit within this period out of which 1491 (13.5%) donor blood samples were found unfit for transfusion and, hence, discarded. Commercial blood donation accounted for 95.3%, compared to 4.7% from replacement and volunteer donors. Commercial blood donation was a major risk factor for likely disposal of donor blood (chi2 = 74.3, p < 0.0001, OR = 21.1. 95% CI = 7.8-56.7). Expired units of blood with low PCV were discarded for lack of infrastructure to fractionate and store them. Over 0.8million naira (US$6000.00) is wasted annually on discarded units of donor blood mainly from commercial donors. A policy on blood procurement to include subgroup selection of donors and improved funding of blood banking services may enhance efficient and effective utilisation of donor blood. PMID:15623119

Enosolease, M E; Imarengiaye, C O; Awodu, O A

2004-08-01

85

Milk utilisation patterns in the low-input production systems in South Africa.  

PubMed

Understanding the utilisation patterns of milk assists in designing appropriate dairy development schemes in rural communities. The objective of the study was to determine milk utilisation patterns in different smallholder farming systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected through the administration of recording sheets to 130 randomly selected households in Alice, Fort Beaufort and Queenstown districts. Amounts of milk produced per household ranged from 9 to 21 l per household per day. Milk consumption/household/day was similar among the three districts. Milk consumption in the early lactation doubled the amount consumed in late lactation (P < 0.05). Milk in the communal areas was largely utilised as fresh or sour milk. Fresh milk was mostly used in tea/coffee or to make porridge for children. Sour milk was consumed with thick boiled maize meal. Fort Beaufort (10.2 +/- 1.37 l/day) had the highest sour milk sales whilst Queenstown had the highest fresh milk sales (9.7 +/- 5.57 l/day). It was concluded that quantities of milk consumed or sold as fresh or sour were generally low and varied across smallholder farming systems. PMID:20383605

Mapekula, Monde; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

2010-10-01

86

Article de recherche Utilisations digestive et mtabolique compares  

E-print Network

utilisations of faba bean, lentil and chick pea. Faba bean, lentil or chick-pea raw seeds were used digestibility coefficient (CUDa) was 72% in the faba bean, 75% in the lentil, 76% in the chickPea groups that methionine from the 3 legumes, threonine from chick-pea, arginine and lysine from faba bean were not fully

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

IGCC power plant for biomass utilisation, värnamo, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sydkraft AB has built the world's first complete IGCC Power Plant which utilises wood as fuel. The plant is located in Värnamo, Sweden, and the technology used in the power plant is based on gasification in a pressurised circulating fluidised bed gasifier. The gasification technology is developed in co-operation between Sydkraft AB and Foster Wheeler Energy International Inc., who also

Krister Ståhl; Magnus Neergaard

1998-01-01

88

UTILISATION OF QUALITATIVE SPATIAL REASONING IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION  

E-print Network

, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract Spatial reasoning is a fundamental part of human cognition, playing an imporUTILISATION OF QUALITATIVE SPATIAL REASONING IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Carl P.L. Schultz GIS com- monly provide powerful tools that allow a user to manipulate, query and view this geographic

Amor, Robert

89

The European Space Agency standard for space packet utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the ESA concept for the use of CCSDS defined Telemetry and Telecommand Packets at the application level. These Packets are used to monitor and control remotely a space born application. This concept is defined in a Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS) which should become applicable for all ESA missions using Packets. The production of this standard is under

J.-F. Kaufeler; A. Parkes; A. Pidgeon

1993-01-01

90

Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

2007-01-01

91

Technical\\/economic\\/environmental analysis of biogas utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas may be utilised for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production or for transport fuel production (CH4-enriched biogas). When used to produce transport fuel either electricity is imported to power the plant or some of the biogas is used in a small CHP unit to meet electricity demand on site. The potential revenue from CH4-enriched biogas when replacing petrol is

J. D. Murphy; E. McKeogh; G. Kiely

2004-01-01

92

Redirecting Under-Utilised Computer Laboratories into Cluster Computing Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide administrators at an Australian university with data on the feasibility of redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories facilities into a distributed high performance computing facility. Design/methodology/approach: The individual log-in records for each computer located in the computer laboratories at the university were…

Atkinson, John S.; Spenneman, Dirk H. R.; Cornforth, David

2005-01-01

93

Vers l'utilisation de Bluetooth pour la commande distance  

E-print Network

Vers l'utilisation de Bluetooth pour la commande à distance de robots mobiles Thierry Val'analyse et la conception d'un système de communication sans fil basé sur la technologie Bluetooth destinée à la commande à distance de manipulateurs mobiles. Une présentation de la technologie Bluetooth et de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Vers l'utilisation de Bluetooth pour la commande distance  

E-print Network

Vers l'utilisation de Bluetooth pour la commande à distance de robots mobiles Thierry Val'analyse et la conception d'un système de communication sans fil basé sur la technologie Bluetooth destinée à la commande à distance de manipulateurs mo- biles. La technologie Bluetooth et ses mécanismes de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

2013-01-01

96

Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals  

PubMed Central

Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch. PMID:25692978

Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

2015-01-01

97

Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.  

PubMed

Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch. PMID:25692978

Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

2015-01-01

98

Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room Walls PDM/CAD Tele-operations Product Control room External World

Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

2004-08-01

99

Nutrient utilisation and weathering inputs in the Peruvian upwelling region since the Little Ice Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For this study two sediment cores from the Peruvian shelf covering the time period between the Little Ice Age (LIA) and present were examined for changes in productivity (biogenic opal concentrations (bSi)), nutrient utilisation (stable isotope compositions of silicon (?30Siopal) and nitrogen (?15Nsed)), as well as in ocean circulation and material transport (authigenic and detrital radiogenic neodymium (ϵNd) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes). For the LIA the proxies recorded weak primary productivity and nutrient utilisation reflected by low average bSi concentrations of ~10%, ?15Nsed values of ~5‰ and intermediate ?30Siopal values of ~0.9‰. At the same time, the radiogenic isotope composition of the detrital sediment fraction indicates dominant local riverine input of lithogenic material due to higher rainfall in the Andean hinterland. These patterns were most likely caused by permanent El Niño-like conditions characterised by a deeper nutricline, weak upwelling and low nutrient supply. At the end of the LIA, ? 30Siopal dropped to low values of +0.6‰ and opal productivity reached its minimum of the past 650 years. During the following transitional period of time the intensity of upwelling, nutrient supply and productivity increased abruptly as marked by the highest bSi contents of up to 38%, by ?15Nsed of up to ~7‰, and by the highest degree of silicate utilisation with ?30Siopal reaching values of +1.1‰. At the same time, detrital ϵNd and 87Sr/86Sr signatures documented increased wind strength and supply of dust to the shelf due to drier conditions. Since about 1870, productivity has been high but nutrient utilisation has remained at levels similar to the LIA, indicating significantly increased nutrient availability. Comparison between the ?30Siopal and ?15Nsed signatures suggests that during the past 650 years the ?15Nsed signature in the Peruvian upwelling area has to a large extent been controlled by surface water utilisation and not, as previously assumed, by subsurface nitrogen loss processes in the water column, which only had a significant influence during modern times (i.e. since ~AD 1870).

Ehlert, C.; Grasse, P.; Gutiérrez, D.; Salvatteci, R.; Frank, M.

2015-02-01

100

Nutrient utilisation and weathering inputs in the Peruvian upwelling region since the Little Ice Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For this study two sediment cores from the Peruvian shelf covering the time period between the Little Ice Age (LIA) and present were examined for changes in productivity (biogenic opal concentrations (bSi)), nutrient utilisation (stable isotope compositions of silicon (?30Siopal) and nitrogen (?15Nsed)), as well as in ocean circulation and material transport (authigenic and detrital radiogenic neodymium (?Nd) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes). For the LIA the proxies recorded weak primary productivity and nutrient utilisation reflected by low average bSi concentrations of ~10%, ?15Nsed values of ~ +5‰ and intermediate ?30Siopal values of ~+0.97‰. At the same time the radiogenic isotope composition of the detrital sediment fraction indicates dominant local riverine input of lithogenic material due to higher rainfall in the Andean hinterland. These patterns were caused by permanent El Niño-like conditions characterized by a deeper nutricline, weak upwelling and low nutrient supply. At the end of the LIA, ?30Siopal dropped to low values of +0.6‰ and opal productivity reached its minimum of the past 650 years. During the following transitional period of time the intensity of upwelling, nutrient supply and productivity increased abruptly as marked by the highest bSi contents of up to 38%, by ?15Nsed of up to ~ +7‰, and by the highest degree of silicate utilisation with ?30Siopal reaching values of +1.1‰. At the same time detrital ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr signatures documented increased wind strength and supply of dust to the shelf due to drier conditions. Since about 1870, productivity has been high but nutrient utilisation has remained at levels similar to the LIA indicating significantly increased nutrient availability. Comparison between the ?30Siopal and ?15Nsed signatures suggests that during the past 650 years the ?15Nsed signature in the Peruvian Upwelling area has most likely primarily been controlled by surface water utilisation and not, as previously assumed, by subsurface nitrogen loss processes in the water column.

Ehlert, C.; Grasse, P.; Gutiérrez, D.; Salvatteci, R.; Frank, M.

2014-08-01

101

The MentDis_ICF65+ study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation  

PubMed Central

Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders in the elderly. Method/design Using a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, this multi-centre study from six European countries and associated states (Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) is based on age-stratified, random samples of elderly people living in the community. The study program consists of three phases: (1) a methodological phase devoted primarily to the adaptation of age- and gender-specific assessment tools for older people (e.g., the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) as well as psychometric evaluations including translation, back translation; (2) a baseline community study in all participating countries to assess the lifetime, 12 month and 1 month prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders, including prior course, quality of life, health care utilization and helpseeking, impairments and participation and, (3) a 12 month follow-up of all baseline participants to monitor course and outcome as well as examine predictors. Discussion The study is an essential step forward towards the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of mental disorders as well as the evaluation of activity impairment and participation in older adults. This study will also facilitate the comparison of cross-cultural results. These results will have bearing on mental health care in the EU and will offer a starting point for necessary structural changes to be initiated for mental health care policy at the level of mental health care politics. PMID:23418914

2013-01-01

102

Nutrient Utilisation in Growing Cambodian Cattle  

E-print Network

.2 Experimental design, treatments and diets 25 4.3 Animal management and measurements 26 4.4 Sample analysis Conservation Techniques Keo Sath Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal. In an experimental study examining the effects of different levels of dietary supplementation with sun-dried cassava

103

Changes in the pattern of service utilisation and health problems of women, men and various age groups following a destructive disaster: a matched cohort study with a pre-disaster assessment  

PubMed Central

Objectives Female gender and young age are known risk factors for psychological morbidity after a disaster, but this conclusion is based on studies without a pre-disaster assessment. The aim of this study in family practice was to investigate if these supposed risk factors would still occur in a study design with a pre-disaster measurement. Methods A matched cohort study with pre-disaster (one year) and post-disaster (five years) data. Community controls (N = 3164) were matched with affected residents (N = 3164) on gender, age and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were utilization rates measured by family practice attendances and psychological, musculoskeletal and digestive health problems as registered by the family practitioner using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC). Results Affected residents of female and male gender and in five age groups all showed increases in utilization rates in the first post-disaster year and in psychological problems when compared to their pre-disaster baseline levels. The increases showed no statistically significant changes, however, between women and men and between all age groups. Conclusion Gender and age did not appear to be disaster-related risk factors in this study in family practice with a pre-disaster base line assessment, a comparison group and using existing registries. Family practitioners should not focus specifically on these risk groups. PMID:18755036

Soeteman, Rik JH; Yzermans, C Joris; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Lagro-Janssen, Toine ALM; van den Bosch, Wil JHM; van der Zee, Jouke

2008-01-01

104

LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 39 MICROPROLOG : UTILISER LA SYNTAXE STANDARD MICROPROLOG  

E-print Network

131 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N° 39 MICROPROLOG : UTILISER LA SYNTAXE STANDARD MICROPROLOG : UTILISER LA SYNTAXE STANDARD André CONNES Notre propos est de montrer l'intérêt qu'il y a à utiliser la syntaxe STYLE DE LA SYNTAXE STANDARD Prolog permet la description du problème en terme de relations entre objets

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate. The microbial studies of biodegradation process revealed following peculiarities: gradual quantitative increasing of Lactobacillus sp. (from 10 3 to 10 5 colony forming units (CFU) per ml), activation of Clostridia sp. (from 10 2 to 10 4 CFU/ml) and elimination of aerobic conventional pathogens ( Enterobacteriaceae sp., Protea sp., staphylococci). The obtained results allow to evaluate effectiveness of proposed technology and to determine the leading role of lactobacilli and clostridia in process of natural wastes biodegradation. Our further investigations shall further be concentrated on creation of artificial inoculi for launching of food wastes biodegradation. These inoculi will include active and adapted strains of clostridia and lactobacilli.

Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

2004-03-01

106

Regional variation in the utilisation of ambulatory services in Germany.  

PubMed

We used an administrative dataset covering approximately 90% of all Germans to investigate the determinants of regional differences in the utilisation of ambulatory services in the year 2008. There are great regional differences in Germany, in GP, specialist and psychotherapist consultations. By means of a regression model taking account of the spatial dependencies of the error terms, we can explain a considerable part of the variation in terms of differences in demography, health status and socio-economic features. In addition, we made use of data on pollutants, the supply of services and the number of hospital cases as explanatory variables, which all have a significant influence on utilisation but contribute considerably less to explaining the differences. Overall, we are in a position to explain 29-40% of the regional differences in ambulatory case numbers at the level of the 413 counties and 55-70% at the level of the 16 German states (Länder) by observable differences. PMID:24123586

Kopetsch, Thomas; Schmitz, Hendrik

2014-12-01

107

Article original Utilisation d'une chambre de transpiration portable  

E-print Network

Article original Utilisation d'une chambre de transpiration portable pour l'estimation de l chambre de transpiration légère, close, couvrant une surface au sol de 0,5 m2 a été utilisée pour mesurer comparées avec la transpiration des arbres estimée à partir de mesures de flux de sève. Quand le stock

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

The European Space Agency standard for space packet utilisation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the ESA concept for the use of CCSDS defined Telemetry and Telecommand Packets at the application level. These Packets are used to monitor and control remotely a space born application. This concept is defined in a Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS) which should become applicable for all ESA missions using Packets. The production of this standard is under the responsibility of an ESA standardization group called 'COES'.

Kaufeler, J.-F.; Parkes, A.; Pidgeon, A.

1993-01-01

109

MMOIRES ORIGINAUX Perspectives d'utilisation de la gntique  

E-print Network

M�MOIRES ORIGINAUX Perspectives d'utilisation de la génétique pour la sélection des Penicillium par Agronomique (34) Montpellier (France) Certaines espèces de Penicillium ont été très utilisées en généti- que fondamentale: Penicillium chrysogenum Thom, Penicillium nota- tum Westling, Penicillium expansum Link et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Biomass combustion research and utilisation in IEA countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projects and achievements within the activity “Wood Combustion and Oxidation of Wet Biomass” in the triennium 1992–1994 are reviewed. The projects include modelling of wood combustion and pyrolysis, characterisation of biomass fuels and ashes, emission comparisons, emission reduction techniques, measurement techniques, comparison of test standards, utilisation of contaminated wood waste, oxidation of wet biomass, condensing systems and co-generation and co-firing

JE Hustad; Ø Skreiberg

1995-01-01

111

Manchester Triage System version II and resource utilisation in the emergency department.  

PubMed

Emergency department (ED) triage systems aim to direct the best clinical assistance to those who are in the greatest urgency and guarantee that resources are efficiently applied. The study's purpose was to determine whether the Manchester Triage System (MTS) second version is a useful instrument for determining the risk of hospital admission, intrahospital death and resource utilisation in ED and to compare it with the MTS first version. This was a prospective study of patients that attended the ED at a large hospital. It comprised a total of 25,218 cases that were triaged between 11 July and 13 October 2011. The MTS codes were grouped into two clusters: red and orange into a 'high acuity/priority' (HP) cluster, and yellow, green and blue into a 'low acuity/priority' cluster. The risk of hospital admission in the HP cluster was 4.86 times that of the LP cluster for both admission route and ages. The percentage of patient hospital admission between medical and surgical specialties, in high and low priority clusters, was similar. We found the risk of death in the HP cluster to be 5.58 times that of the risk of the low acuity/priority cluster. The MTS had an inconsistent association relative to the utilisation of x-ray, while it seemed to portray a consistent association between ECG and laboratory utilisation and MTS cluster. There were no differences between medical and surgical specialities risk of admission. This suggests that improvements were made in the second version of MTS, particularly in the discriminators of patients triaged to surgical specialties, because this was not true for the first version of MTS. PMID:23345313

Santos, André Peralta; Freitas, Paulo; Martins, Henrique Manuel Gil

2014-02-01

112

Comparison of dose standard units for drug utilisation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Objective. As employment of different dose standards would be impractical and confusing, the aim of this article is to compare the\\u000a defined daily dose (DDD) with some more recently proposed standards, namely, the minimum marketed dose (MMD), the equipotential\\u000a dose (ED), the average daily dose (ADD), and the non-standard prescribed daily dose (PDD).\\u000a \\u000a Methods.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Literature review, critical comparative analysis.

J. Merlo; A. Wessling; A. Melander

1996-01-01

113

Comparison of the patterns of altered cerebral glucose utilisation produced by competitive and non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that competitive and non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists can be readily distinguished by their effects on local cerebral glucose utilisation (1CGU). In the present study we compare the effects of the novel NMDA antagonist, (+)-1-methyl-1phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (FR115427) on 1CGU, comparing its metabolic profile with that of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (MK801) and of the competitive NMDA receptor

J. Sharkey; I. M. Ritchie; S. P. Butcher; J. S. Kelly

1996-01-01

114

The effects of China’s urban basic medical insurance schemes on the equity of health service utilisation: evidence from Shaanxi Province  

PubMed Central

Introduction In order to alleviate the problem of “Kan Bing Nan, Kan Bing Gui” (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive) and improve the equity of health service utilisation for urban residents in China, the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance scheme (UEBMI) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme (URBMI) were established in 1999 and 2007, respectively. This study aims to analyse the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on the equity of outpatient and inpatient utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China. Methods Using the data from the fourth National Health Services Survey in Shaanxi Province, the method of Propensity Score Matching was employed to generate comparable samples between the insured and uninsured residents, through a one-to-one match algorithm. Next, based on the matched data, the method of decomposition of the concentration index was employed to compare the horizontal inequity indexes of health service utilisation between the UEBMI/URBMI insured and the matched uninsured residents. Results For the UEBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are 0.1256 and -0.0511 respectively, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1222 and 0.2746 respectively. Meanwhile, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are -0.1593 and 0.0967 for the URBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1931 and 0.3199 respectively. Conclusions The implementation of UEBMI increased the pro-rich inequity of outpatient utilisation (rich people utilise outpatient facilities more than the poor people) and the implementation of URBMI increased the pro-poor inequity of outpatient utilisation. Both of these two health insurance schemes reduced the pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilisation. PMID:24606592

2014-01-01

115

Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, JC

2013-01-01

116

Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.  

PubMed

In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P?

Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojt?ch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

2014-05-01

117

Health Services Utilisation in Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Surveillance guidelines for breast cancer survivors recommend regular history and physical and mammography, and against routine imaging for detecting distant metastasis. Stage 0, I, II breast cancer cases treated at a major cancer center were identified from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. We used multivariable negative binomial and logistic regression analyses on institutional claims data to examine factors contributing to utilisation patterns of surveillance visits and tests in disease-free survivors. The mean number of surveillance visits during months 13 to 60 after cancer treatment initiation was 18.5 (SD 8.2) among the 2,090 breast cancer survivors followed for at least five years. After adjusting for patient and disease factors, the number of visits was the highest among patients mainly followed by medical oncologists compared to surgeons and radiation oncologists. Patient cohorts treated in more recent years had lower number of visits associated with care coordination effort, the adjusted mean being 19.2 visits for the 2002 cohort, and 16.3 visits for the 2008 cohort (p < 0.0001). Although imaging tests were highly utilised, there was a significant decrease in tumor marker testing from the 2002 to the 2008 treatment cohort (adjusted rate 99.4% to 35.1% respectively, p < 0.0001) in association with an institutional guideline change. PMID:25502076

Wang, Yong A.; Feng, An-Chen; Ganz, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

118

Access and utilisation of maternity care for disabled women who experience domestic abuse: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data were analysed to identify: the factors that facilitate or compromise access to care; the consequences of inadequate care for pregnant women’s health and wellbeing; and the effectiveness of existing strategies for improvement. Results Findings indicate that a mental health diagnosis, poor relationships with health professionals and environmental barriers can compromise women’s utilisation of maternity services. Domestic abuse can both compromise, and catalyse, access to services and social support is a positive factor when accessing care. Delayed and inadequate care has adverse effects on women’s physical and psychological health, however further research is required to fully explore the nature and extent of these consequences. Only one study identified strategies currently being used to improve access to services for disabled women experiencing abuse. Conclusions Based upon the barriers and facilitators identified within the review, we suggest that future strategies for improvement should focus on: understanding women’s reasons for accessing care; fostering positive relationships; being women-centred; promoting environmental accessibility; and improving the strength of the evidence base. PMID:25029907

2014-01-01

119

The Effect of Children's Rights Training on Primary School Students' Utilisation and Knowledge Level about Children's Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, children's rights issue has taken attention. In this study, main purpose was to investigate the utilisation and knowledge level of 4th and 5th grade primary school students after children's rights training. The participants of this survey study were selected randomly from 10 schools. Results indicated that students had the…

Ozmen, Suna Kaymak; Ocal, Tugba; Ozmen, Ahmet

2014-01-01

120

The Effect of Urban Basic Medical Insurance on Health Service Utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: A Comparison of Two Schemes  

PubMed Central

Background Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Results Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p<0.10), whilst the significant effect on hospitalisation was evident in the CEM method (p<0.10). The effect of URBMI was limited in that although being insured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Conclusion Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services. PMID:24740282

Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

121

Effect of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Allied health services benefit the management of many chronic diseases. The effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services has not yet been established despite health insurance frequently being identified as a factor promoting utilisation of medical and hospital services among people with chronic disease. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease. Medline (Ovid Medline 1948 to Present with Daily Update), EMBASE (1980 to 1 April 2011), CINAHL, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to 12 April 2011 inclusive. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in English, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental trials, quantitative observational studies and included people with one or more chronic diseases using allied health services and health insurance. A full-text review was performed independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were conducted. One hundred and fifty-eight citations were retrieved and seven articles were included in the meta-analyses. The pooled odds ratio (95% CI) of having insurance (versus no insurance) on the utilisation of allied health services among people with chronic disease was 1.33 (1.16-1.52; P<0.001). There was a significant effect of insurance on the utilisation of non-physiotherapy services, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 4.80 (1.46-15.79; P=0.01) but having insurance compared with insurance of a lesser coverage was not significantly associated with an increase in physiotherapy utilisation, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 1.53 (0.81-2.91; P=0.19). The presence of co-morbidity or functional limitation and higher levels of education increased utilisation whereas gender, race, marital status and income had a limited and variable effect, according to the study population. The review was limited by the considerable heterogeneity in the research questions being asked, sample sizes, study methodology (including allied health service), insurance type and dependent variables analysed. The presence of health insurance was generally associated with increased utilisation of allied health services; however, this varied depending on the population, provider type and insurance product. PMID:24079301

Skinner, Elizabeth H; Foster, Michele; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Haynes, Michele; O'Flaherty, Martin; Haines, Terry P

2014-01-01

122

TD3 -Graphiques Exercice 1. Utiliser la fonction plot pour tracer l'"expression" cos(x) et la "fonction" cos. En utilisant les  

E-print Network

et 2. ­ Utiliser la fonction animate du paquet plots pour afficher l'animation du tracé de la courbe = [100, 100], style = patchcontour, orientation = [-120, 40]. 3. Explorer l'ensemble de Mandelbroten

Franchi, Jacques

123

Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products  

SciTech Connect

The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

NONE

2006-08-15

124

Utilisation de la thermographie IR pour l'estimation de l'vaporation rgionale  

E-print Network

: Thermographie, - d'une part d'évaluer l'intensité des écarts microclimatiques entre les deux zones, Infra-rougeUtilisation de la thermographie IR pour l'estimation de l'évaporation régionale I. Mise au point Mines de Paris, F77305 Fontainebleau. RÉSUMÉ L'utilisation de la thermographie IR pour l'estimation de l

Boyer, Edmond

125

Le Lait (1983), 63, 416-424 Utilisation de la pepsine bovine  

E-print Network

Le Lait (1983), 63, 416-424 Utilisation de la pepsine bovine en fabrication de fromage Feta fait à la présure habituelle par de la pepsine bovine, au cours de la fabrication de fromage Feta fait à'utilisation des deux enzymes coagulants. La pepsine bovine peut donc substituer, avec succès, la présure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Environmental impacts of energy utilisation and renewable energy policies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extensively concentrates on energy and environmental impacts only. Energy utilisation and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilisation, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives.

Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

127

UTILISATION D'UN INTERFROMTRE ENREGISTREUR ASSOCI A UNMONOCHROMATEUR A PRISMES  

E-print Network

351. UTILISATION D'UN INTERFÉROMÈTRE ENREGISTREUR ASSOCIÉ A UNMONOCHROMATEUR A PRISMES POUR L'un ensemble monochromateur à prismes-interféromètre enregistreur qui permet un gain de lumière important sur l'utilisation d'un spectromètre à prisme de résolution identique. Nous donnons un enregistrement d'une raie 03BD1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Increasing inequalities in health care utilisation across income groups in Sweden during the 1990s?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swedish health policy emphasises equity in health and health care. During the 1990s considerable changes have taken place in the organisation and delivery of Swedish health care and user fees have increased. Did patterns of health care utilisation across income groups change during the 1990s? Health care utilisation was measured from three questions in the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions

Bo Burström

2002-01-01

129

Modeling abiotic production of apparent oxygen utilisation in the oligotrophic subtropical North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent oxygen utilisation is potentially biased by abiotic, physical processes. Using a coupled 3-D circulation-oxygen model, this potential is quantitatively estimated for a region in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic, called the Beta Triangle, where an inconsistency exists between observational estimates of high carbon export from the euphotic zone, based on oxygen utilisation rates in the thermocline (Jenkins 1982), and

Heiner Dietze; Andreas Oschlies

2005-01-01

130

Spatial modelling of healthcare utilisation for treatment of fever in Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background Health care utilization is affected by several factors including geographic accessibility. Empirical data on utilization of health facilities is important to understanding geographic accessibility and defining health facility catchments at a national level. Accurately defining catchment population improves the analysis of gaps in access, commodity needs and interpretation of disease incidence. Here, empirical household survey data on treatment seeking for fever were used to model the utilisation of public health facilities and define their catchment areas and populations in northern Namibia. Method This study uses data from the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) of 2009 on treatment seeking for fever among children under the age of five years to characterize facility utilisation. Probability of attendance of public health facilities for fever treatment was modelled against a theoretical surface of travel times using a three parameter logistic model. The fitted model was then applied to a population surface to predict the number of children likely to use a public health facility during an episode of fever in northern Namibia. Results Overall, from the MIS survey, the prevalence of fever among children was 17.6% CI [16.0-19.1] (401 of 2,283 children) while public health facility attendance for fever was 51.1%, [95%CI: 46.2-56.0]. The coefficients of the logistic model of travel time against fever treatment at public health facilities were all significant (p < 0.001). From this model, probability of facility attendance remained relatively high up to 180 minutes (3 hours) and thereafter decreased steadily. Total public health facility catchment population of children under the age five was estimated to be 162,286 in northern Namibia with an estimated fever burden of 24,830 children. Of the estimated fevers, 8,021 (32.3%) were within 30 minutes of travel time to the nearest health facility while 14,902 (60.0%) were within 1 hour. Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of routine household surveys to empirically model health care utilisation for the treatment of childhood fever and define catchment populations enhancing the possibilities of accurate commodity needs assessment and calculation of disease incidence. These methods could be extended to other African countries where detailed mapping of health facilities exists. PMID:22336441

2012-01-01

131

Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ? R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape Province (rural). In that financial year, a total of 5369 registered nurses could have been employed in lieu of nursing agency expenditure. Conclusions The study findings should inform workforce planning in South Africa. There is a need for uniform policies and improved management of commercial nursing agencies in the public health sector. PMID:25537936

Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

2014-01-01

132

Primary care physician supply and other key determinants of health care utilisation: the case of Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background The Swiss government decided to freeze new accreditations for physicians in private practice in Switzerland based on the assumption that demand-induced health care spending may be cut by limiting care offers. This legislation initiated an ongoing controversial public debate in Switzerland. The aim of this study is therefore the determination of socio-demographic and health system-related factors of per capita consultation rates with primary care physicians in the multicultural population of Switzerland. Methods The data were derived from the complete claims data of Swiss health insurers for 2004 and included 21.4 million consultations provided by 6564 Swiss primary care physicians on a fee-for-service basis. Socio-demographic data were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Utilisation-based health service areas were created and were used as observational units for statistical procedures. Multivariate and hierarchical models were applied to analyze the data. Results Models within the study allowed the definition of 1018 primary care service areas with a median population of 3754 and an average per capita consultation rate of 2.95 per year. Statistical models yielded significant effects for various geographical, socio-demographic and cultural factors. The regional density of physicians in independent practice was also significantly associated with annual consultation rates and indicated an associated increase 0.10 for each additional primary care physician in a population of 10,000 inhabitants. Considerable differences across Swiss language regions were observed with reference to the supply of ambulatory health resources provided either by primary care physicians, specialists, or hospital-based ambulatory care. Conclusion The study documents a large small-area variation in utilisation and provision of health care resources in Switzerland. Effects of physician density appeared to be strongly related to Swiss language regions and may be rooted in the different cultural backgrounds of the served populations. PMID:18190705

Busato, André; Künzi, Beat

2008-01-01

133

Articulating Injustice: An Exploration of Young People's Experiences of Participation in a Conflict Transformation Programme That Utilises the Arts as a Form of Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reflects on a study that explores young people's engagement with the Art: a Resource for Reconciliation Over the World (ARROW) programme. The programme utilises the arts to promote critical dialogue amongst young people growing up in divided communities around the world. Dialogue has been criticised for its inability to tackle…

Knight, Heather

2014-01-01

134

The effect of protein supplement source or supply pattern on the intake, digestibility, rumen kinetics, nitrogen utilisation and growth of Ethiopian Menz sheep fed teff straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of trials were conducted to study the effect of either nitrogen source or supply pattern on the growth, rumen fermentation pattern and utilisation of straw by Ethiopian Menz sheep. All experimental sheep were given teff straw basal diet (CON). Irrespective of the trial, treatment sheep were offered either cottonseed cake (CSC), leucaena (LEU) and sesbania (SESM) in the

M. L. K. Bonsi; A. K. Tuah; P. O. Osuji; V. I. Nsahlai; N. N. Umunna

1996-01-01

135

Utilisation of the COSMO-SkyMed Constellation for coherent and incoherent monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAR systems are recently used to generate robust and projectable information about maritime traffic, ice extent and geohazards. By utilising multiple SAR satellites dynamic information can be derived at variable temporal scales. Therefore acquisition systems and processing techniques become a key issue which is requested to work in a robust and efficient way. This paper will present generalized concepts for a monitoring approach that address unmatched or interferometric acquisitions. Its goal is to show the potential of increasing the acquisition rate but also to illustrate limitations resulting from the specific monitoring schemes and their combination. The paper will visualise practical examples derived from realized studies and projects. Finally we can conclude that an agile multi satellite and multi-mode SAR system, such as COSMO-SkyMed, is well suited to monitor to dynamic phenomena on the earth's surface. The practicability needs to be discussed in detail case by case related to the real world requirements.

Siegmund, Robert; Ciappa, Achille; Schaertel, Anna; Pietranera, Luca

2014-10-01

136

The utilisation of engineered invert traps in the management of near bed solids in sewer networks.  

PubMed

Large existing sewers are considerable assets which wastewater utilities will require to operate for the foreseeable future to maintain health and the quality of life in cities. Despite their existence for more than a century there is surprisingly little guidance available to manage these systems to minimise problems associated with in-sewer solids. A joint study has been undertaken in the UK, to refine and utilise new knowledge gained from field data, laboratory results and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to devise cost beneficial engineering tools for the application of small invert traps to localise the deposition of sediments in sewers at accessible points for collection. New guidance has been produced for trap siting and this has been linked to a risk-cost-effectiveness assessment procedure to enable system operators to approach in-sewer sediment management pro-actively rather than reactively as currently happens. PMID:12666811

Ashley, R M; Tait, S J; Stovin, V R; Burrows, R; Framer, A; Buxton, A P; Blackwood, D J; Saul, A J; Blanksby, J R

2003-01-01

137

A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

2014-01-01

138

Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.  

PubMed

Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters. PMID:24903247

Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepa?ski, Andrzej

2014-10-01

139

Estimation of an Optimal Chemotherapy Utilisation Rate for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: Setting an Evidence-Based Benchmark for the Best-Quality Cancer Care  

PubMed Central

Aims. The proportion of patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers that received chemotherapy varies widely in Australia and internationally, indicating a need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. We developed evidence-based models for upper gastrointestinal cancers to estimate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates that can serve as useful benchmarks for measuring and improving the quality of care. Materials and Methods. Optimal chemotherapy utilisation models for cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and primary liver were constructed using indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based guidelines. Results. Based on the best available evidence, the optimal proportion of upper gastrointestinal cancers that should receive chemotherapy at least once during the course of the patients' illness was estimated to be 79% for oesophageal cancer, 83% for gastric cancer, 35% for pancreatic cancer, 80% for gallbladder cancer, and 27% for primary liver cancer. Conclusions. The reported chemotherapy utilisation rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers (with the exception of primary liver cancer) appear to be substantially lower than the estimated optimal rates suggesting that chemotherapy may be underutilised. Further studies to elucidate the reasons for the potential underutilisation of chemotherapy in upper gastrointestinal tumours are required to bridge the gap between the ideal and actual practice identified.

Ng, Weng; Jacob, Susannah; Delaney, Geoff; Do, Viet; Barton, Michael

2015-01-01

140

Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.  

PubMed

With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon ?1B was the only such agent available. Interferon ?1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease. PMID:25194821

Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

2014-12-01

141

Communication n 257/258/259 Atelier 19 : TIC : Utilisation dans les pdagogies scolaires  

E-print Network

1 Communication n° 257/258/259 Atelier 19 : TIC : Utilisation dans les pédagogies scolaires´éducation spécialisée nommée ­ Atendimento Educacional Especializado - AEE. L´expérience que nous rapportons dans cet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

Nest-site utilisation and niche overlap in two sympatric, cavity-nesting finches  

E-print Network

of the spectrum of their resource utilisation (niche space) and that of potential competitors, and the frequency.g. Raphael and White 1984; Lohmus and Remm 2005; reviewed in Newton 1994) and interspecific competition (e

143

UTILISATION D'UN ALLIAGE DE NIOBIUM DANS LA RALISATION D'UN VHICULE HYPERSONIQUE (*)  

E-print Network

455 UTILISATION D'UN ALLIAGE DE NIOBIUM DANS LA R�ALISATION D'UN V�HICULE HYPERSONIQUE (*) par MM'utilisation d'un alliage de Niobium pour une étude de structure d'un planeur hyper- sonique (projet VERAS réalisation du projet de navette spatiale. Abstract. 2014 The use of a niobium-base alloy in an experimental

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Canal sans fils: utilisation de la diversit des canaux multi-trajets  

E-print Network

Rappel: Canal sans fils: utilisation de la diversité des canaux multi-trajets Diversité en temps canal avec le temps (paramètre important ­ le temps de cohérence TC ). Les canaux sont supposés d utilisent le changement du canal avec le temps (paramètre important ­ le temps de cohérence TC ). Les canaux

Andriyanova, Iryna

145

Cardiovascular drug utilisation and socio-economic inequalities in 20 districts of the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyse whether there exists a socio-economic gradient in utilisation of cardiovascular drugs at the district level in the Czech Republic. Methods: The aggregated data on drug utilisation during the period 1997-2000, expressed in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, were obtained from the General Health Insurance Company. Socio-economic characteristics of the districts in year 2000 (percentage

Kvetoslava Gorecka; Alena Linhartova; Jiri Vlcek; Ivan Tilser

2005-01-01

146

Utilisation du lupin (Lupinus albus L.) chez le poulet de chair pendant la priode de finition  

E-print Network

Utilisation du lupin (Lupinus albus L.) chez le poulet de chair pendant la période de finition G. UZU Developpement Ali!nentation animale A.E.C., F 03600 Commentry Résumé L'utilisation du lupin blanc lupin (40 p. 100) en remplacement du tourteau de soja, et sont équilibrés en acides aminés essentiels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Article original Utilisation du lupin blanc doux pour l'alimentation  

E-print Network

Article original Utilisation du lupin blanc doux pour l'alimentation des ruminants : résultats et, France (Reçu le 16 mai 1990; accepté le 19 décembre 1990) Résumé — Parmi les 4 espèces de lupin vaches laitières (3 essais) montrent ainsi que le lupin peut s'utiliser comme concentré de production en

Boyer, Edmond

148

Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective  

PubMed Central

Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

2014-01-01

149

Need factors for utilisation of institutional delivery services in Nepal: an analysis from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to assess the role of need factors with respect to the utilisation of institutional delivery services in Nepal. Design An analytic study was conducted using a subset of 4079 ever married women from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, which utilised two-stage cluster sampling. Logistic regression with complex sample analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of antenatal care visits and birth preparedness activities on facility delivery. Outcome measures Facility delivery. Results Overall facility delivery rate was low at 36.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 40.2%, SE 1.69). Only half (50.1%) of the women made four or more antenatal care visits while 62.9% (95% CI 59.9% to 65.8%, SE 1.51) did not indicate any of the four birth preparation activities. After adjusting for external, predisposing and enabling factors, women who made more than four antenatal care visits were five times more likely to deliver at a health facility when compared to those who paid no visit (adjusted OR 4.94, 95% CI 3.14 to 7.76). Similarly, the likelihood for facility delivery increased by 3.4-fold among women who prepared for at least two of the four activities compared to their counterparts who made no preparation (adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.01 to 5.58). Conclusions The perceived need, as expressed by the frequency of antenatal care visits and birth preparedness activities, plays an important role in institutional delivery service utilisation for Nepali women. These findings have implications for behavioural interventions to change their intention to deliver at a health facility. PMID:24650803

Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H; Khanal, Vishnu

2014-01-01

150

Out-of-pocket payments, health care access and utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria: a gender perspective.  

PubMed

Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

Onah, Michael N; Govender, Veloshnee

2014-01-01

151

Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models  

PubMed Central

Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

2014-01-01

152

The Effect of Obesity on Theatre Utilisation Time During Primary Hip and Knee Replacements  

PubMed Central

Introduction : The aim of this study is to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) and body weight on theatre utilisation time during primary total hip (THR) and knee replacements (TKR). Methods : A total of 1859 cases were included (820 THR and 1039 TKR). Patients were divided into groups based on BMI and body weight. The time interval from ‘starting anaesthesia’ to ‘transfer back to recovery’ was used as total theatre time. Hierarchal regression analysis was then used to study the effect of BMI and body weight while controlling the effect of any confounding variables. Results : In THR cases, the median theatre time was significantly different between BMI and body weight subgroups (p=0.001). In TKR cases, the median theatre time was more significantly different between weight subgroups (p<0.001) than BMI subgroups (p=0.021). Regression analysis showed that only weight remained a significant predictor (p=0.018) of theatre time in THR cases after controlling for other variables. In TKR cases, body weight and BMI were not predictors of theatre time after controlling for other variables. Conclusion : Body weight is a significant predictor of theatre time during THR. Neither weight nor BMI predicted theatre time during TKR.

Sawalha, Seif; Ralte, Peter; Chan, Carol; Chandran, Prakash

2015-01-01

153

Contact allergy due to colophony. (IX). Sensitization studies with further products isolated after oxidative degradation of resin acids and colophony.  

PubMed

Degradation of abietic, levopimaric and dehydroabietic acids after exposure to air and light over a period of one to several months, as well as examination of degraded French tall oil rosin and Portuguese colophony, led to the isolation of numerous oxidation products. These compounds were synthesized and consigned to experimental sensitization in guinea pigs. From 20 substances studied as acids or as their methyl esters, in the present and preceding paper, at least 2 can be named: 8,12-peroxydo-delta 13(14)-dihydroabietic acid and 12 alpha-hydroxyabietic acid, that contribute a great deal to colophony allergy by both their sensitizing capacity and their determined concentration in the mixture of degradation products. We recommend the preparation of a new mixture of colophony oxidation products for patch testing in the diagnosis of contact allergy to colophony. PMID:8112061

Hausen, B M; Börries, M; Budianto, E; Krohn, K

1993-11-01

154

Comparisons of pastoralists perceptions about rangeland resource utilisation in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Pastoralism is the most dominant land use form in the arid rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa, but this rangeland-based lifestyle is under threat. As a consequence a study was conducted in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the main objectives of assessing and comparing the broad perceptions of two pastoral groups (the Oromo ethnic group living in Kereyu-Fantale and the Afar ethnic group living in Awash-Fantale) on the usage of the existing rangeland resources, and their views on constraints and possible solutions. Data were collected from 90 Oromo and 55 Afar households. Despite the difference in ethnicity both of these groups share common problems. They derive their main income from the sale of animals and animal products, but with the difference that milk products rank first in the case of the Afar and last in the case of the Oromo. Both pastoral groups depend heavily on native grasses for animal feed and to a lesser extent on woody plants as a source of browse. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that the condition of the rangelands is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, droughts and increases in the human population. Availability of water is also regarded as a problem, mainly by the Oromo. Migration is the first measure taken to solve shortages of livestock feed, but many of the pastoralists replied that migration is an undesirable practise which is mostly done out of necessity. Because of the limited resources most respondents of both groups still prefer communal land tenure where resources are shared. It is concluded that the problems facing the pastoralists in the Middle Awash Valley have been created over many years and the solutions will also require time. With the current approach of the communal grazing systems, sustainable utilisation of the rangeland ecosystem is not possible. Solutions to the poor condition of the existing rangelands will require a definite commitment and full participation not only of the pastoralists, but also of government and non-governmental organisations that are directly or indirectly involved in rangeland resources utilisation, management, conservation and other related activities. PMID:15748801

Abule, E; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

2005-04-01

155

[Sex-specific differences in drug utilisation in different phases of life].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to analyse sex-specific differences in drug utilisation during different phases of life using relevant diseases as examples. We used a cohort of 1.7 million subjects who were insured with the Gmünder ErsatzKasse (GEK), a German health insurance fund, for at least one day in all four quarters of 2009. We analysed subjects with outpatient diagnoses of the following diseases: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (0-17 years), hypothyroidism (18-49 years), osteoporosis (50-79 years) and coronary heart disease (80?+ years). Analysis was performed on an active-substance level. A number of differences were observed in drug treatment for the selected diseases (for example, substances for ADHD were prescribed more often in males and for hypothyroidism more often in females), as well as in prescribing practices relating to other drugs used in these groups. However, clear explanations for these differences, such as drug approval status, were not always apparent. PMID:25091373

Hoffmann, F; Bachmann, C J; Boeschen, D; Glaeske, G; Schulze, J; Schmiemann, G; Windt, R

2014-09-01

156

Carbon dioxide utilisation of Dunaliella tertiolecta for carbon bio-mitigation in a semicontinuous photobioreactor.  

PubMed

Bio-fixation of carbon dioxide (CO2) by microalgae has been recognised as an attractive approach to offset anthropogenic emissions. Biological carbon mitigation is the process whereby autotrophic organisms, such as microalgae, convert CO2 into organic carbon and O2 through photosynthesis; this process through respiration produces biomass. In this study Dunaliella tertiolecta was cultivated in a semicontinuous culture to investigate the carbon mitigation rate of the system. The algae were produced in 1.2-L Roux bottles with a working volume of 1 L while semicontinuous production commenced on day 4 of cultivation when the carbon mitigation rate was found to be at a maximum for D. tertiolecta. The reduction in CO2 between input and output gases was monitored to predict carbon fixation rates while biomass production and microalgal carbon content are used to calculate the actual carbon mitigation potential of D. tertiolecta. A renewal rate of 45 % of flask volume was utilised to maintain the culture in exponential growth with an average daily productivity of 0.07 g L(-1) day(-1). The results showed that 0.74 g L(-1) of biomass could be achieved after 7 days of semicontinuous production while a total carbon mitigation of 0.37 g L(-1) was achieved. This represented an increase of 0.18 g L(-1) in carbon mitigation rate compared to batch production of D. tertiolecta over the same cultivation period. PMID:24162085

Farrelly, Damien J; Brennan, Liam; Everard, Colm D; McDonnell, Kevin P

2014-04-01

157

Computerised 3-D anatomical modelling using plastinates: an example utilising the human heart.  

PubMed

Computerised modelling methods have become highly useful for generating electronic representations of anatomical structures. These methods rely on crosssectional tissue slices in databases such as the Visible Human Male and Female, the Visible Korean Human, and the Visible Chinese Human. However, these databases are time consuming to generate and require labour-intensive manual digitisation while the number of specimens is very limited. Plastinated anatomical material could provide a possible alternative to data collection, requiring less time to prepare and enabling the use of virtually any anatomical or pathological structure routinely obtained in a gross anatomy laboratory. The purpose of this study was to establish an approach utilising plastinated anatomical material, specifically human hearts, for the purpose computerised 3-D modelling. Human hearts were collected following gross anatomical dissection and subjected to routine plastination procedures including dehydration (-25(o)C), defatting, forced impregnation, and curing at room temperature. A graphics pipeline was established comprising data collection with a hand-held scanner, 3-D modelling, model polishing, file conversion, and final rendering. Representative models were viewed and qualitatively assessed for accuracy and detail. The results showed that the heart model provided detailed surface information necessary for gross anatomical instructional purposes. Rendering tools facilitated optional model manipulation for further structural clarification if selected by the user. The use of plastinated material for generating 3-D computerised models has distinct advantages compared to cross-sectional tissue images. PMID:21866531

Tunali, S; Kawamoto, K; Farrell, M L; Labrash, S; Tamura, K; Lozanoff, S

2011-08-01

158

Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture  

SciTech Connect

Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

Wagner, Andreas Otto, E-mail: Andreas.Wagner@uibk.ac.a [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Gstrauntaler, Gudrun [Abfallbeseitigungsverband Westtirol, Breite Mure, A-6426 Roppen (Austria); Illmer, Paul [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2010-10-15

159

Microcalorimetric determination of the kinetics of substrate utilisation by non-growing suspensions of Neisseria sicca.  

PubMed

The metabolism of various substrates by non-growing suspensions of Neisseria sicca was investigated by a flow-microcalorimetric technique. Substrate utilisation showed Michaelis kinetics allowing determination of saturation constants (Km) and maximum specific rates of substrate utilisation (Vmax). Pyruvate, lactate, a number of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and amino acids (aspartate, glutamate and proline) were rapidly metabolised [Vmax 5-35 mumol (g dry wt cells)-1 min-1]; Km values were between 4 and 20 microM. Glucose, glycerol, acetate and the other amino acids investigated gave only a slight or no increase in power. The pattern of substrate utilisation is discussed in relation to the role of carbonic anhydrase in N. sicca. PMID:3173127

Nafi, B M; Miles, R J; Beezer, A E; Butler, L O

1988-01-01

160

Predictors of traditional medicines utilisation in the ghanaian health care practice: interrogating the ashanti situation.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine (TRM) use remains universal among individuals, families and communities the world over but the predictive variables of TRM use is still confounding. This population-based study analysed the predictors of TRM use in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative survey involving systematic random sampled participants (N = 324) was conducted. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used as research instruments. Data were analysed with logit regression, Pearson's Chi square and Fisher's exact tests from the PASW for Windows application (V. 17.0). Overall, 86.1 % (n = 279) reported use of TRM with biologically-based and distant/prayer therapies as the major forms of TRM utilised in the previous 12 months. Among the general population, TRM use was predicted by having low-income levels [odds ratio (OR) 2.883, confidence interval (CI) 1.142-7.277], being a trader (OR 2.321, CI 1.037-5.194), perceiving TRM as effective (OR 4.430, CI 1.645-11.934) and safe (OR 2.730, CI 0.986-4.321), good affective behaviour of traditional medical practitioner (TMP) (OR 2.943, CI 0.875-9.896) and having chronic ill-health (OR 3.821, CI 1.213-11.311). The prevalence of TRM use is high. The study provides evidence that people's experience, personal attributes, health beliefs, attitude to TRM, attitude of TMP to clients and medical history are largely accountable for the upsurge use of TRM rather than socio-demographic factors. Understanding the health-seeking behaviour of individuals is exigent to ascribe appropriate medical care by health care providers. PMID:25173694

Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

2015-04-01

161

Is There Migration-Related Inequity in Access to or in the Utilisation of Health Care in Germany?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses immigrants¿ access to health care and utilisation of health care services in Germany. Thereby, it is investigated if there is inequity in access to or in the utilisation of health care services due to a lack of language skills or due to a lack of information about the health care system (approximated by years since migration) among

Monika Sander

2008-01-01

162

INFLUENCE DE LA FLORE INTESTINALE SUR L'UTILISATION DIGESTIVE DES ACIDES  

E-print Network

'un mélange d'huiles, choisies afin de couvrir toute la série des acides gras aliphatiques saturés et insolubles se fait donc essentiellement à partir des acides gras longs et saturés. Parallèlement à cet grasses est essentiellement due à une augmentation de l'utilisation digestive des acides gras saturés et

Boyer, Edmond

163

Enhancing the effective utilisation of Grid clusters by exploiting on-line performability analysis  

E-print Network

Enhancing the effective utilisation of Grid clusters by exploiting on-line performability analysis than a continuous time, but discrete state space, Markov chain. 1 Introduction Grid engines on compute clusters such as Beowulfs in order to share computational resources across a number of, pos- sibly

Gilmore, Stephen

164

A dual element multipoint optical fibre water contamination sensor system utilising artificial neural network pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-element multipoint optical fibre sensor system capable of detecting ethanol in water supplies is reported. The sensor system utilises a U-bend configuration for each sensor element in order to maximise the sensitivity of the system and is interrogated using a technique known as optical time domain reflectometry, OTDR, as this method is capable of detecting attenuation over distance. Analysis

D. King; W. B. Lyons; C. Flanagan; E. Lewi

2003-01-01

165

Utilisation de la visioconfrence dans un programme de FLE : tches communicatives et interactions orales  

E-print Network

pour le développement de tâches communicatives et interactives orales en FLE. 1. Introduction 2'expression orale. En effet, seul l'outil de communication synchrone bavardage nous avait permis de proposer auxUtilisation de la visioconférence dans un programme de FLE : tâches communicatives et interactions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Preparation and utilisation of fish silage as feed supplement for ruminants  

E-print Network

Preparation and utilisation of fish silage as feed supplement for ruminants A Guerouali, M Zahar, N (19 %) and minerals and vitamins (1 %). Fish silage blocks of about 8 kg were made and dried under cattle as nutrients supplement, and was compared to the most commonly used commercial feed supplement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

Modification of myocardial substrate utilisation: a new therapeutic paradigm in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapies that aim to modify cardiac substrate utilisation are designed to increase metabolic efficiency. Although the main energy supply for the heart is generally provided by the oxidation of fatty acids, the heart is a metabolic omnivore and able to consume glucose as well as lactate and amino acids in varying proportions. A shift from fatty acid oxidation to glucose

Roger M Beadle; Michael Frenneaux

2010-01-01

168

`Big Chief': The Utilisation of Model Building for the Design of Science Education for Sustainable  

E-print Network

`Big Chief': The Utilisation of Model Building for the Design of Science Education for Sustainable Development Games. Timothy Barker1 Abstract. A model building paradigm was employed to inform the design of a game for Science Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The intention is that such techniques

Romano, Daniela

169

Within and Between Shot Information Utilisation in Video Key Frame Extraction  

E-print Network

Within and Between Shot Information Utilisation in Video Key Frame Extraction Dianting Liu*,, Mei of family video recorders and the surge of Web 2.0, increasing amounts of videos have made the management and integration of the information in videos an urgent and important issue in video retrieval. Key frames

Shyu, Mei-Ling

170

Energy conservation and resource utilisation in waste-water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of waste-water treatment plants is to a large extent energy-dependent. This paper examines the energy requirements of these plants and explores ways of conserving energy through electrical and thermal load management and resource recovery and utilisation. The gas produced during the process of anaerobic digestion can be used to drive packaged CHP systems for local heat and power

S. A. Tassou

1988-01-01

171

Modification of myocardial substrate utilisation: a new therapeutic paradigm in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Therapies that aim to modify cardiac substrate utilisation are designed to increase metabolic efficiency. Although the main energy supply for the heart is generally provided by the oxidation of fatty acids, the heart is a metabolic omnivore and able to consume glucose as well as lactate and amino acids in varying proportions. A shift from fatty acid oxidation to glucose oxidation leads to lower oxygen consumption per unit of ATP produced. This concept of reduced oxygen utilisation underlies the use of metabolic modulating agents to treat chronic stable angina. Furthermore, the model of an energy-starved heart now forms the basis for our understanding of both ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure. Potential alterations in substrate utilisation and thus myocardial efficiency underlie the use of metabolic agents in heart failure. This is achieved by either promoting glucose or reducing the utilisation of fatty acids. Such a shift results in a relatively greater production of ATP per unit of oxygen consumed. With an ongoing demand for treatment options in ischaemic heart disease and a growing epidemic of heart failure, new treatment modalities beyond contemporary therapy need consideration. PMID:20478861

Beadle, Roger M; Frenneaux, Michael

2010-06-01

172

Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

2007-10-01

173

Pont mine, vieil elephant mangeur de bananes, et utilisation de la programmation par ensembles reponses  

E-print Network

Pont min´e, vieil ´el´ephant mangeur de bananes, et utilisation de la programmation par ensembles r. Moinard INRIA Bretagne-Atlantique IRISA () ASP : Pont min´e, ´el´ephant & bananes 15 juin 2012, IRIT Bretagne-Atlantique IRISA () ASP : Pont min´e, ´el´ephant & bananes 15 juin 2012, IRIT, Toulouse 2 / 60 hal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

FARMERS' EXPERIENCES IN THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILISATION OF CALLIANDRA CALOTHYRSUS, A FODDER SHRUB, IN UGANDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding farmers' experiences and practices is important in facilitating the development and introduction of technologies that meet farmers' aspirations and are thus likely to be adopted by them. This paper documents farmers' experiences in the management and utilisation of an important agroforestry tree species, Calliandra calothyrsus, in Uganda. Specifically the report provides information on farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in

Philip Nyeko; Janet Stewart; Steven Franzel; Pia Barklund

175

Utilisation of Local Inputs in the Funding and Administration of Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discussed how, why and who is in charge of administering and funding schools in Nigeria. The author utilised the relevant statistical approach which examined and discussed various political and historical trends affecting education. Besides this, relevant documented statistical data were used to both buttress and substantiate related…

Akiri, Agharuwhe A.

2014-01-01

176

Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as unmanned airborne systems (UAS) or remotely piloted airborne systems (RPAS), are an established platform for close range airborne photogrammetry. Compared to manned platforms, the acquisition of local remote sensing data by UAVs is a convenient and very flexible option. For the application in photogrammetry UAVs are typically equipped with an autopilot and a lightweight digital camera. The autopilot includes several navigation sensors, which might allow an automated waypoint flight and offer a systematic data acquisition of the object resp. scene of interest. Assuming a sufficient overlap between the captured images, the position (3 coordinates: x, y, z) and the orientation (3 angles: roll, pitch, yaw) of the images can be estimated within a bundle block adjustment. Subsequently, coordinates of observed points that appear in at least two images, can be determined by measuring their image coordinates or a dense surface model can be generated from all acquired images by automated image matching. For the bundle block adjustment approximate values of the position and the orientation of the images are needed. To gather this information, several methods exist. We introduce in this contribution one of them: the direct georeferencing of images by using the navigation sensors (mainly GNSS and INS) of a low-cost on-board autopilot. Beside automated flights, the autopilot offers the possibility to record the position and the orientation of the platform during the flight. These values don't correspond directly to those of the images. To compute the position and the orientation of the images two requirements must be fulfilled. First the misalignment angles and the positional differences between the camera and the autopilot must be determined (mounting calibration). Second the synchronization between the camera and the autopilot has to be established. Due to the limited accuracy of the navigation sensors, a small number of ground control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

2014-05-01

177

Utilisation of preharvest dropped apple peels as a flour substitute for a lower glycaemic index and higher fibre cake.  

PubMed

Fibre-enriched materials (FEMs) obtained from preharvest dropped apple peels were utilised as a source of dietary fibre in baked cakes and their effects on the textural/nutritional qualities and starch digestibility (glucose release behaviour, starch digestion fraction, predicted glycaemic index) of the cakes were evaluated. When FEMs were incorporated into the cake formulation (3?g and 6?g of dietary fibre per serving (100?g)), the volume of the cakes seemed to be reduced and their texture become harder. However, 3?g of FEMs did not degrade the cake qualities. The use of FEMs in cakes significantly reduced the levels of rapidly digestible starch and slowly digestible starch, while the levels of resistant starch increased. Additionally, the cake samples prepared with FEMs exhibited a lower predicted glycaemic index. This study may give rise to multi-functional bakery products with acceptable quality and low glycaemic index. PMID:23992534

Jun, Yujin; Bae, In Young; Lee, Suyong; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

2014-02-01

178

Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.  

PubMed

During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

2013-02-01

179

Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.  

PubMed

The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system. PMID:25453314

Top, Y

2015-01-01

180

Factors associated with non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in Timor-Leste: evidence from the 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Timor-Leste is a young developing country in Asia. Most of its infrastructure was destroyed after a long armed conflict for independence. Despite recent expansion of health facilities and investment in healthcare, maternal mortality remains high with most mothers still giving birth at home. This study investigated factors affecting the non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in the aftermath of the independence conflict. Methods The Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 was the latest two-stage national survey, which used validated questionnaires to obtain information from 26 clusters derived from 13 districts of the country. Factors influencing non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth were investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, accounting for the cluster sampling and sample weight of the survey. Results Of the total 5986 participants included in the study, 4472 (74.8%) did not deliver their last child at a health facility. Lack of education for the mother (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 2.66) and her partner (OR: 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.84), low household wealth status (OR: 5.20; 95% CI 3.93 to 6.90), and rural residence (OR: 2.83; 95% CI 2.22 to 3.66), were associated with increased likelihood of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth. Working mothers (OR: 1.55; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.81), who had high parity (OR: 1.78; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.32) and did not attend antenatal care service (OR: 4.68; 95% CI 2.65 to 8.28) were also vulnerable for not delivering at a health facility. Conversely, the prevalence of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth reduced with increasing number of service components received during antenatal care visits (OR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). Conclusions Only a quarter of Timorese women delivered at a health facility. In order to reduce maternal mortality, future interventions should target disadvantaged mothers from poor families, those residing in rural areas, have higher parity but no education, and who seldom attend antenatal care service, by improving their utilisation of health facility for childbirth. PMID:24885424

2014-01-01

181

Chronic Catecholamine Depletion Switches Myocardium from Carbohydrate to Lipid Utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Chronic cardiac transplantation denervation (i.e., global sympathetic denervation with myocardial catecholamine depletion, plus parasympathetic denervation) is known to inhibit myocardial oxidation of glucose. It is not known whether this is due to increased utilization of lactate, lipid or ketone bodies. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the extraction and contribution of blood-borne fatty

Angela J. Drake-Holland; Ger J. Van der Vusse; Theo H. M. Roemen; John W. Hynd; Mohammed Mansaray; Zoë M. Wright; Mark I. M. Noble

2001-01-01

182

Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

Robertson, Carmen

2012-01-01

183

Hepatic toxicology following single and multiple exposure of engineered nanomaterials utilising a novel primary human 3D liver microtissue model.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe liver has a crucial role in metabolic homeostasis as well as being the principal detoxification centre of the body, removing xenobiotics and waste products which could potentially include some nanomaterials (NM). With the ever increasing public and occupational exposure associated with accumulative production of nanomaterials, there is an urgent need to consider the possibility of detrimental health consequences of engineered NM exposure. It has been shown that exposure via inhalation, intratracheal instillation or ingestion can result in NM translocation to the liver. Traditional in vitro or ex vivo hepatic nanotoxicology models are often limiting and/or troublesome (i.e. reduced metabolism enzymes, lacking important cell populations, unstable with very high variability, etc.).MethodsIn order to rectify these issues and for the very first time we have utilised a 3D human liver microtissue model to investigate the toxicological effects associated with a single or multiple exposure of a panel of engineered NMs (Ag, ZnO, MWCNT and a positively charged TiO2).ResultsHere we demonstrate that the repeated exposure of the NMs is more damaging to the liver tissue as in comparison to a single exposure with the adverse effects more significant following treatment with the Ag and ZnO as compared with the TiO2 and MWCNT NMs (in terms of cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity).ConclusionsOverall, this study demonstrates that the human microtissue model utilised herein is an excellent candidate for replacement of traditional in vitro single cell hepatic models and further progression of liver nanotoxicology. PMID:25326698

Kermanizadeh, Ali; Løhr, Mille; Roursgaard, Martin; Messner, Simon; Gunness, Patrina; Kelm, Jens M; Møller, Peter; Stone, Vicki; Loft, Steffen

2014-10-20

184

Nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of resistant starch varieties and conventional fibres in pigs.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of different resistant starch (RS) varieties and conventional fibres on the efficiency of nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation in pigs. Thirty-six pigs (30 kg) were fed poultry meal-based diets supplemented with 10 % granular resistant corn starch (GCS), granular resistant potato starch (GPS), retrograded resistant corn starch (RCS), guar gum (GG) or cellulose for 36 d according to a completely randomised block design. Distal ileal and total tract recoveries were similar (P>0.05) among the RS varieties. Distal ileal starch recovery was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs consuming the RS diets (27-42 %) as compared with the control group (0.64 %). Consumption of GCS reduced (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility and whole-body retention of crude protein in comparison with the control group. Consumption of GPS reduced (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility and whole-body retention of Ca and P compared with the control group. However, consumption of RCS increased (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility compared with the control group. Caecal butyrate concentration was increased (P < 0.05) following consumption of RCS and GG in comparison with the control group. Consumption of all the RS varieties reduced (P < 0.05) caecal indole concentrations compared with the control. Caecal butyrate concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0.05; r 0.63-0.83) with thermal properties among the RS varieties. We conclude that nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of different RS varieties and types of fibres. Thermal properties associated with different RS varieties may be useful markers for developing RS varieties with specific functionality. PMID:18005479

Rideout, Todd C; Liu, Qiang; Wood, Peter; Fan, Ming Z

2008-05-01

185

Utilisation of Malaysian Coal: Merit Pila in the Gasification System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasification is the most efficient Clean Coal Technology. Gasification of Merit Pila coal had been studied in a laboratory-scale, atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air-steam as fluidizing agent. Merit Pila coal was chosen for the gasification study because of its high reactivity in nitrogen. Determination of the producer gas compositions were conducted using Gas Chromatography. Gasification experiments were conducted at bed temperature of 650-800 °C, different equivalence ratios, ER and different bed heights. Low heating value, LHVpg of the producer gas were in the range of 2.0-5.5 MJ/Nm3. Introduction of steam as the gasifying agents had shown significant increased of CO, CH4 and H2 contents in producer gas. LHV also increased about 35% with the presence of steam.

Othman, Nor Fadzilah; Bosrooh, Mohd Hariffin; Majid, Kamsani Abdul

2011-06-01

186

Utilising proteomic approaches to understand oncogenic human herpesviruses (Review)  

PubMed Central

The ?-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are successful pathogens, each infecting a large proportion of the human population. These viruses persist for the life of the host and may each contribute to a number of malignancies, for which there are currently no cures. Large-scale proteomic-based approaches provide an excellent means of increasing the collective understanding of the proteomes of these complex viruses and elucidating their numerous interactions within the infected host cell. These large-scale studies are important for the identification of the intricacies of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics against these two important pathogens. PMID:25279171

OWEN, CHRISTOPHER B.; HUGHES, DAVID J.; BAQUERO-PEREZ, BELINDA; BERNDT, ANJA; SCHUMANN, SOPHIE; JACKSON, BRIAN R.; WHITEHOUSE, ADRIAN

2014-01-01

187

Action anticandidosique des huiles essentielles : Leur utilisation concomitante avec des médicaments antifongiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Résumé  Les huiles essentielles sont utilisées en médecine alternative depuis très longtemps pour leurs propriétés antimicrobiennes\\u000a et notamment antifongiques. Le pouvoir antifongique de ces sécrétions végétales a fait l’objet de nombreuses étudesin vitro. Cependant, les différentes méthodes utilisées pour évaluer cette activité ne permettent pas de comparaisons entre les huiles\\u000a des différentes espèces végétales étudiées. L’utilisation d’une méthode statistique a permis

R. Giordani; J. Kaloustian

2006-01-01

188

RCENTS PROGRS DANS LA FABRICATION DE JONCTIONS JOSEPHSON. UTILISATION DE NIOBIUM OBTENU PAR PULVRISATION CATHODIQUE  

E-print Network

463 R�CENTS PROGR�S DANS LA FABRICATION DE JONCTIONS JOSEPHSON. UTILISATION DE NIOBIUM OBTENU PAR de jonctions tunnel niobium-oxyde de niobium- plomb et niobium-germanium-plomb, sont exposées. Le film de niobium est déposé par pulvéri- sation cathodique RF puis soumis à un décapage ionique (back

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Abundance, residency, and habitat utilisation of Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theodolite tracking and boat?based photo?identification surveys were carried out in the austral summers of 1995\\/96 and 1996\\/97 to assess abundance, residency, and habitat utilisation of Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori van Beneden 1881) in Porpoise Bay, on the south?east corner of the South Island of New Zealand. Data are consistent with the model of a small resident population that is visited

Lars Bejder; Steve Dawson

2001-01-01

190

Le Lait, (1982), 62, 75-86 Utilisation du mlange de la pepsine  

E-print Network

Le Lait, (1982), 62, 75-86 Utilisation du mélange de la pepsine avec la préparation microbienne'autres préparations enzyma- tiques. On a constaté que la pepsine provenant des estomacs de porc, mélangée à la présure pour en faire le mélange avec la pepsine. De nombreux pays se voient contraints d'importer la présure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Recalage et fusion d'images sonar multivues : utilisation du Cedric Rominger  

E-print Network

Recalage et fusion d'images sonar multivues : utilisation du conflit Cedric Rominger , Arnaud fusion d'im- ages sonar classifiées. Nous adaptons ici la méthode présentée dans un précé- dent papier à images sonar multivues afin d'améliorer les résul- tats. Néanmoins, avant de pouvoir fusionner ces images

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360MW pump, 300MW turbine, and a 2GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (?97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is

D. Connolly; H. Lund; P. Finn; B. V. Mathiesen; M. Leahy

2011-01-01

193

Utilisation d'un laser argon ionis en endoscopie digestive : photocoagulation des lsions hmorragiques  

E-print Network

of this system is to induce through endoscopy the hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the digestive tract. The blue385 Utilisation d'un laser à argon ionisé en endoscopie digestive : photocoagulation des lésions'hémostase des lésions digestives hémorragiques. Il est réalisé avec un laser à argon ionisé dont le faisceau est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Water-based processing of high-speed steel utilising starch consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different high-speed steel (HSS) powders, M2 and T15 from Osprey Metals were evaluated in water-based shaping by starch consolidation (SC) and sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere. Materials were produced based on various slurry compositions with different solids loading (60–62vol.%) and starch content (2–5wt.% based on water). The high solid loadings were possible utilising the stabilising (repulsive) forces provided by

P. Romano; O. Lyckfeldt; N. Candela; F. Velasco

2003-01-01

195

Building Cost-effective Research Platforms: Utilising Free | Open source Software in Research Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

When prototyping or developing a system for use in research work, it is often necessary to create an entire system, even if only one part of the system is the focus of the research. Free | open-source software offers a solution to this problem, allowing the creation of cost-effective research platforms, utilising peer- reviewed, rapidly-developed code that is easily modified.

Tony Meyer

2003-01-01

196

LES TANINS DES GRAINES DE SORGHO. IMPORTANCE DANS L'UTILISATION DIGESTIVE DE L'AZOTE  

E-print Network

LES TANINS DES GRAINES DE SORGHO. IMPORTANCE DANS L'UTILISATION DIGESTIVE DE L'AZOTE CHEZ LE RAT EN R�SUM� Les téguments de nombreuses variétés de sorgho renferment des tanins condensés formés de diminution de la matière sèche après « digestion enzymatique ». INTRODUCTION Les tanins contenus dans les

Boyer, Edmond

197

An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems, even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.

Carter, L.D.

2012-11-01

198

Rapid discrimination of maggots utilising ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Entomological evidence is used in forensic investigations to indicate time since death. The species and age of maggots or flies that are present at the scene can be used when estimating how much time has passed since death. Current methods that are used to identify species and developmental stage of larvae and fly samples are highly subjective, costly and often time consuming processes and require the expertise of an entomologist or species identification via DNA analysis. The use of vibrational spectroscopy, as an alternative identification method, would allow for a quicker, cheaper and less subjective technique and would allow entomological evidence to be used more commonly in the forensic process. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) as a rapid tool for differentiating between various species of larvae, such as those commonly found at crime scenes. The proposed regime would provide a rapid and valuable tool resulting in reduced time for both species identification and life cycle determination, particularly in forensic situations. PMID:25703014

Pickering, Claire L; Hands, James R; Fullwood, Leanne M; Smith, Judith A; Baker, Matthew J

2015-04-01

199

Utilisation of biochar and superabsorbent polymers for soil amendment.  

PubMed

The application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and/or biochars to stressed lands offer solutions to several critical ecological, energy and economic challenges posed by degraded lands due to human activities. These substances are like, 'artificial humus' as they are hydrophilic and contain carboxylic groups (SAPs) which enable them to bind cations and water and sequester carbon from air to reverse global warming (biochars). Several research studies using these substances point to their ability to increase the plant-available water in the soil which enables the plants to survive longer with water shortage, increase soil fertility and agricultural yields, improve soil structure, aeration and water penetration, reduce use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, reduce nitrous oxide and methane emission from soil, reduce nitrate and farm chemicals leaching into watersheds, convert green and brown wastes into valuable resources, and reduce the evapotranspiration rate of the plants. SAPs and biochars induce a significantly higher growth rate in plants; they bind heavy metals and mitigate their action on plants as well as mitigate the effects of salinity. This paper reviews what is known about these claims and considers the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processess. The intention is not just to summarise the current knowledge but also to identify gaps that require further research. PMID:23738439

Ekebafe, M O; Ekebafe, L O; Maliki, M

2013-01-01

200

Explaining the utilisation of dental care. Experiences from the Finnish dental market.  

PubMed

In this paper a model based on the theory of demand for health and of supplier inducement is developed to explain the utilisation of dental care. Of special interest are the effects of money price and various forms of inducement. It is also explored how the results are affected if different model specifications and estimation techniques are applied and what is the most appropriate one, when utilisation is measured by dental expenditure. The data come from a sample of 1779 employees, whose dental expenditure is refunded from 0 to 99.75%. Other things being equal, the methodological choices make a clear difference in parameter estimates. Only a log-linear two-part model and two-part tobit with selectivity were suitable for explaining expenditure and produced quite similar results. Money price elasticity was small, but significant (-0.069). General and personal inducement appear to have a considerable effect on utilisation, but did not have any systematic connection with dentist/population ratio. PMID:8653185

Sintonen, H; Maljanen, T

1995-01-01

201

L’utilisation d’objets comme outils: un développement continu  

PubMed Central

Le débat autour des origines développementales de la capacité humaine à utiliser des outils de manière souple reste ouvert. Alors que l’approche dominante se focalise sur un changement qualitatif cognitif vers la fin de la première année, la théorie perception-action fournit des indices importants sur la manière dont les comportements exploratoires plus précoces des nourrissons jettent les bases pour l’émergence de cette capacité. En particulier, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont les tentatives des nourrissons de mettre en rapport les objets et les surfaces leur permettent d’apprendre comment les objets peuvent servir d’extension de la main et fournissent l’occasion d’exercer des actions qui seront recrutées plus tard pour l’utilisation d’outils. Dans ce contexte, nous discutons des études comportementales et cinématiques portant sur la manipulation d’objets, qui montrent que les nourrissons font interagir les objets et les surfaces avec discernement et que leur contrôle de la frappe (banging) augmente au cours de leur première année. En conclusion, une perspective perception-action suggère que l’utilisation d’outils émerge de manière plus continue au cours du développement que ce qui a été traditionnellement envisagé. PMID:24511151

Kahrs, Björn Alexander; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

2014-01-01

202

Utilisation and Off-Label Prescriptions of Respiratory Drugs in Children  

PubMed Central

Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ?18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children) between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs) per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374–575 per 10,000 children) and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378–527 per 10,000 children). Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold) whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (?97%). Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3%) and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%). The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n?=?67,084; 42.0%) and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n?=?18,897; 20.7%). Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections underlining the essential need for a more rational prescribing in this area. PMID:25180704

Schmiedl, Sven; Fischer, Rainald; Ibáñez, Luisa; Fortuny, Joan; Klungel, Olaf H.; Reynolds, Robert; Gerlach, Roman; Tauscher, Martin; Thürmann, Petra; Hasford, Joerg; Rottenkolber, Marietta

2014-01-01

203

DIAGNOSTIC ALLERGIQUE DE LA BRUCELLOSE BOVINE 1. CONDITIONS D'UTILISATION D'UN ALLERGENE PROTEIQUE PURIFIE  

E-print Network

DIAGNOSTIC ALLERGIQUE DE LA BRUCELLOSE BOVINE 1. CONDITIONS D'UTILISATION D'UN ALLERGENE PROTEIQUE. CONDITIONS FOR THE USE OF A PURIFIED PROTEIN ALLERGEN : BRUOELLIN. - A protein allergen extracted from

Boyer, Edmond

204

Amlioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la complmentation  

E-print Network

Amélioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la and Leng, 1986 ILCA/Addis Ababa). Un essai d'amélioration de pailles de Sorghum bicolor complémenté à l

Boyer, Edmond

205

Maximum nutritional response to poor-quality protein and amino acid utilisation.  

PubMed

1. Although the theory of responses to amino acids suggests that, providing sufficient of the limiting amino acid is fed, it should be possible to elicit maximum growth response, maximum response is not usually elicited by poor quality proteins. 2. It has been suggested that this failure to elicit maximum response is a reflection of poorer limiting amino acid utilisation from poor-quality proteins. This interpretation conflicts with the theory of general amino acid imbalance which proposes that amino acid excesses do not impair the utilisation of the limiting amino acid. 3. Three protein mixtures of different quality were made by mixing maize gluten meal and soyabean protein concentrate in constant proportions, supplementing with tryptophan, threonine and arginine to adequacy and varying amino acid score (0.62, 0.71 or approximately 10) by varying additions of free lysine. The 3 mixtures were diluted with protein-free ingredients to produce 3 diet series, each providing 3.7, 6.5, 9.2, l2.0, 14.8 and 17.5 g lysine per kg. Each diet was fed to 4 cages of 2 chickens each from 4 to 14 d of age in a randomised block experiment. Food intake, body-weight and body-nitrogen gain were measured. 4. Differences in protein quality were confirmed by regression analyses of bodyweight response to protein intake (Net Protein Ratio) and body-nitrogen response to nitrogen intake (Net Protein Utilisation) in the linear range. Regression analyses in the linear range of body-weight or body-nitrogen response to lysine intake showed no adverse effect of protein quality on lysine utilisation. Curvilinear analysis (Reading flock response model) confirmed this finding. 5. Maximum response could not be obtained with the poorest protein quality. It is illogical to invoke impaired utilisation of the limiting amino acid to explain this. A small decrease in net energy yield of the diet may be sufficient to explain the effect, but it is more likely that the depletion of the limiting amino acid from tissue (muscle) protein which results from feeding poor-quality protein explains the effect. PMID:8833535

Boorman, K N; Ellis, G M

1996-03-01

206

The ingestion of protein with a maltodextrin and fructose beverage on substrate utilisation and exercise performance.  

PubMed

The study investigated the ingestion of maltodextrin, fructose, and protein on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation (CHOEXO) and exercise performance. Seven trained cyclists and (or) triathletes (maximal oxygen consumption, 59.20 ± 9.00 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 3 exercise trials that consisted of 150 min of cycling at 50% maximal power output (160 ± 11 W), followed by a 60-km time trial. One of 3 beverages were randomly assigned during each trial and consumed at 15-min intervals: (i) 0.84 g·min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.52 g·min(-1) fructose + 0.34 g·min(-1) protein (MD+F+P); (ii) 1.10 g·min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.60 g·min(-1) fructose (MD+F); or (iii) 1.70 g·min(-1) maltodextrin (MD). CHOEXO and fuel utilisation were assessed via measurement of expired air (13)C content and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Mean total CHO oxidation (CHOTOT) rates were 2.35 ± 0.18, 2.76 ± 0.08, and 2.61 ± 0.17 g·min(-1) with MD, MD+F, and MD+F+P, respectively, although not significantly different. Peak CHOEXO rates with MD+F were significantly greater by 41.4% (p = 0.001) and 45.4% (p = 0.0001) compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively (1.57 ± 0.22 g·min(-1), 1.11 ± 0.08 g·min(-1), and 1.08 ± 0.11 g·min(-1), respectively). Performance times were 2.2% and 5.0% faster with MD+F compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively; however, they were not statistically significant. Ingestion of an MD-fructose-protein commercial sports beverage significantly reduced peak and mean CHOEXO rates compared with MD+F, but did not significantly influence CHOTOT. The addition of protein to an MD+F beverage did not enhance performance times. PMID:24195625

Tarpey, Michael D; Roberts, Justin D; Kass, Lindsy S; Tarpey, Richard J; Roberts, Michael G

2013-12-01

207

Sur les conditions optimales d'utilisation de l'nergie solaire pour le chauffage de l'habitat (*)  

E-print Network

553 Sur les conditions optimales d'utilisation de l'énergie solaire pour le chauffage de l'habitat (*) J.-L. Peube, J. Pécheux et E. Plancq Laboratoire d'Energétique Solaire, 40, avenue du Recteur décembre 1979) Résumé. - L'analyse des problèmes liés à l'utilisation de l'énergie solaire pour le

Boyer, Edmond

208

Utilisation des compétences des immigrants sur le marché du travail au Canada: Répercussions de la recherche sur le capital humain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  La signification quantitative de la sous-utilisation des qualifications immigrées peut être évaluée, quoique sans précision,\\u000a dans l'analyse humain-capitale de revenus. Les déficits de revenus des immigrés peuvent surgir de: (a) la qualité immigrée\\u000a inférieure de compétence, (b) sous-utilisation des qualifications immigrées, et (c) injustices de salaire pour des immigrés\\u000a faisant la même chose fonctionnent les Canadiens indigènesoutenus. Conformé aux nombreuses

Jeffrey G. Reitz

2001-01-01

209

Health care utilisation in subjects with osteoarthritis, chronic back pain and osteoporosis aged 65 years and more: mediating effects of limitations in activities of daily living, pain intensity and mental diseases.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal diseases (MDs) have major consequences for the individual, and also for society and may thus lead to increased use of health care. It was the aim of this study to explore health care utilisation in patients with self-reported osteoarthritis, chronic back pain or osteoporosis compared with people of the same age without those diseases, based on data of the Austrian health interview survey including 3,097 subjects aged ? 65 years. Patients with MDs in our study visited a general practitioner (GP) and were hospitalised significantly more often compared with persons without the respective diseases. Problems in the activities of daily living (ADLs), pain intensity and anxiety/depression influenced GP consultations. Complex factors explain the higher health care utilisation in subjects with MDs in our study. Our results indicate that integrated strategies are needed to manage those patients, which should focus on management of ADL problems, pain and mental health. PMID:24468829

Stamm, Tanja Alexandra; Pieber, Karin; Blasche, Gerhard; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

2014-04-01

210

Patterns of mental health care utilisation: distribution of services and its predictability from routine data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Explore if a multi-dimensional analytic approach to routinely registered data provides a comprehensive way to characterise\\u000a utilisation patterns, and to test if the patients’ functional status is a predictor for the use of services.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  We linked register contact data during a two-year period, including all types of specialised mental health services, in the\\u000a population of a Norwegian county. Cox regression

Torhild Heggestad; Solfrid E. Lilleeng; Torleif Ruud

211

Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

Grant, T. J.

1993-01-01

212

Utilisation des graines protagineuses dans l'alimentation de la chvre en dbut de lactation  

E-print Network

utilisées pour étudier le remplacement du soja par des graines protéagineuses (féverole, pois et lupin) dans premières, l'utilisation des graines protéagineuses riches en protéines (pois, féverole et lupin) est lot F de la féverole (variété Ascott), le lot P du pois (variété Amino) et le lot L du lupin blanc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Perspectives d'utilisation du concept d'entrept de donnes pour les gorpertoires sur Internet  

E-print Network

Perspectives d'utilisation du concept d'entrepôt de données pour les géorépertoires sur Internet développement d'applications géomatiques dynamiques sur Internet, les géorépertoires et la modélisation géorépertoires sur Internet entraîne un certain nombre de problèmes pour l'usager qui désire en consulter

214

Resource Utilisation and Costs of Depressive Patients in Germany: Results from the Primary Care Monitoring for Depressive Patients Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Depression is the most common type of mental disorder in Germany. It is associated with a high level of suffering for individuals and imposes a significant burden on society. The aim of this study was to estimate the depression related costs in Germany taking a societal perspective. Materials and Methods. Data were collected from the primary care monitoring for depressive patients trial (PRoMPT) of patients with major depressive disorder who were treated in a primary care setting. Resource utilisation and days of sick leave were observed and analysed over a 1-year period. Results. Average depression related costs of €3813 were calculated. Significant differences in total costs due to sex were demonstrated. Male patients had considerable higher total costs than female patients, whereas single cost categories did not differ significantly. Further, differences in costs according to severity of disease and age were observed. The economic burden to society was estimated at €15.6 billion per year. Conclusion. The study results show that depression poses a significant economic burden to society. There is a high potential for prevention, treatment, and patient management innovations to identify and treat patients at an early stage. PMID:25295184

Krauth, Christian; Petersen, Juliana J.; Freytag, Antje; Gerlach, Ferdinand M.; Gensichen, Jochen

2014-01-01

215

Are racist attitudes related to experiences of racial discrimination? Within sample testing utilising nationally representative survey data.  

PubMed

Although the relationship between an individual's racist attitudes and discriminatory behaviours has been widely studied, the association between racist attitudes among perpetrators and experiences of racism among targets has been under-examined. Based on data from the 2001-8 Australian Challenging Racism Project survey, this paper details a novel method to investigate the link between racist attitudes and experiences of discrimination utilising two separate models linked by nomination of cultural or ethnic groups who do not fit into Australian society (i.e., out-groups). Those identified as out-groups were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than those who were not nominated as out-groups. Overall, out-group nomination by those with racist attitudes strongly predict experiences of discrimination among these same target out-groups, OR=2.2, F(6, 12,348)=78.61, p<.001. Racist attitudes are related to racist behaviours among perpetrators that are, in turn, related to experiences of racial discrimination among targets. This study demonstrates that attitudes not only affect majority group behaviour but also drive the resulting experiences of discrimination for minority group members. PMID:24913953

Habtegiorgis, Amanuel E; Paradies, Yin C; Dunn, Kevin M

2014-09-01

216

Enterovirus71 (EV71) Utilise Host microRNAs to Mediate Host Immune System Enhancing Survival during Infection  

PubMed Central

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection. PMID:25047717

Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

2014-01-01

217

Utilisation of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus Is Strain-Dependent  

PubMed Central

Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ?90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease. PMID:24204617

Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Tailford, Louise E.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

2013-01-01

218

Reflective topical autobiography: an under utilised interpretive research method in nursing.  

PubMed

Reflective topical autobiography (an autobiographical method) belongs to the genre of testimonial research and is located within the postpositivist interpretive research paradigm. Despite the (reflective) topical autobiographical method enjoying a 'rebirth' in recent years and being utilised by a range of researchers in the human and literary disciplines, it remains largely unknown and under utilised in nursing research domains. In this article it is proposed that reflective topical autobiography is an important research method in its own right, and one which promises to make a substantive contribution to the overall project of advancing nursing inquiry and knowledge. This is particularly so where nursing research shares in the affirming projects of interpretive research generally and the relatively new sociology of the emotions in particular apropos: (i) increasing understanding of subjectivity and making subjective experiences more visible and intelligible, (ii) the search for meaning and increasing understanding of the commonality of existential human experience, and (iii) decentring the detached observer and his/her privileging the objectivist illusion in the hierarchy of research discourses, paving the way for the admission of multiple realities and interpretations of lived experience. In this article, a coherent reflective topical autobiographical research method is advanced for use in nursing education and research contexts. PMID:10401283

Johnstone, M J

1999-01-01

219

Detection of Sialic Acid-Utilising Bacteria in a Caecal Community Batch Culture Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing.  

PubMed

Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health. PMID:25816158

Young, Wayne; Egert, Markus; Bassett, Shalome A; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

2015-01-01

220

The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

Navarro, Melba, E-mail: mnavarro@ibecbarcelona.eu [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom) [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom); Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona, 08028 (Spain); Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A. [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom)] [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15

221

Utilising Six Sigma for Improving Pass Percentage of Students: A Technical Institute Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Service sector accounts for a substantial share in Indian economy and among the service industries, education sector is emerging as a major commercial activity in the nation. Globalization, growing competition among institutions, emergence of new technologies, changing socio-economic profiles of nations and knowledge driven economies have created…

Kaushik, Prabhakar; Khanduja, Dinesh

2010-01-01

222

International perspectives and the results of carbon dioxide capture disposal and utilisation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the increase in the global concentrations of greenhouse gases, the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme is carrying out an assessment of greenhouse gas abatement technologies with particular reference to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel power generation systems. The work is supported internationally by 13 OECD countries as well as the Commission of European Communities and two sponsors

Pierce W. F. Riemer; William G. Ormerod

1995-01-01

223

A bio-dosemeter that utilises isolated enzymes to detect ionising radiation.  

PubMed

The development of a biosensor for the detection of ionising radiation (biodosemeter) utilising the advantageous properties of the photosystem II (PSII) complex and its response to ionising radiation is reported. The transducer signal for this biosensor can be fluorescence, which is dependent on photosynthetic activity. Exposure of biological material to ionising radiation leads to a loss of function due to the destruction of critical structures. Radiation target theory predicts an exponential decrease in biochemical activity that is dependent on the absorbed radiation energy and directly proportional to the mass of the individual molecules possessing this activity. The activity is lost whenever the protein is hit since very high energy is transferred through the chain. Several approaches were used to optimise the immobilisation of PSII complexes to improve the sensitivity of the bio-dosemeter. PMID:12194312

Esposito, D; Pace, E; Margonelli, A; Rizzuto, M; Giardi, P; Giardi, M T

2002-01-01

224

The possibilities of utilisation of heat from Tattapani Geothermal field, India  

SciTech Connect

The Tattapani Geothermal field produces + 1800 1pm thermal water of 100{degrees}C from five production wells. The hot water production can sustain electricity production of 300 kWe by using a binary cycle power plant. The heat energy of effluent water from power plant can be utilized for direct heat utilization on horticulture, aquaculture, cold storage, silviculture etc; to augment the economics of the power plant be spot can be developed as a centre for tourist attraction by constructing botanical park, greenhouse, geyser show and crocodile farm. The direct heat utilization shemes can be planned in cascading order to achieve maximum utility of thermal water. Additional deep drilling is essential for optimum commercial utilization of the Geothermal energy. The direct heat utilisation shemes along with binary cycle power plant may help in development of the geothermal energy and boosting the economy of this region.

Sarolkar, P.B. [Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad (India); Pitale, U.L. [Geological Survey of India, Nagpur (India)

1996-12-31

225

Health care utilisation of infants with chronic lung disease, related to hospitalisation for RSV infection  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To compare the use of health care resources and associated costs between infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) who had or had not an admission with a proven respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.?METHODS—Review of community care, outpatient attendances, and readmissions in the first two years after birth. Patients: 235 infants (median gestational age 27 weeks) evaluated in four groups: 45infants with a proven RSV admission (RSV proven); 24 with a probable bronchiolitis admission; 60 with other respiratory admissions; and 106 with non-respiratory or no admissions.?RESULTS—The RSV proven compared to the other groups required more frequent and longer admissions to general paediatric wards and intensive care units, more outpatient attendances and GP consultations for respiratory related disorders, and had a higher total cost of care.?CONCLUSION—RSV hospitalisation in patients with CLD is associated with increased health service utilisation and costs in the first two years after birth.? PMID:11719328

Greenough, A; Cox, S; Alexander, J; Lenney, W; Turnbull, F; Burgess, S; Chetcuti, P; Shaw, N; Woods, A; Boorman, J; Coles, S; Turner, J; RUSSELL, G.

2001-01-01

226

Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.  

PubMed

This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR. PMID:16115724

Mbaiwa, Joseph E

2005-10-01

227

Project Modelling To utilise the types of integrated design system that can be described with the modelling and  

E-print Network

Chapter 7 Project Modelling To utilise the types of integrated design system that can be described the tasks and people involved in the projects in which the integrated system is used. This level of modelling enables an integrated design system to be customised for use in a specific project. Project

Goodman, James R.

228

Fatty acid utilisation and metabolism in caecal enterocytes of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed dietary fish or copepod oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined fatty acid metabolism assay was employed to determine fatty acid uptake and relative utilisation in enterocytes isolated from the pyloric caeca of rainbow trout. In addition, the effect of a diet high in long-chain monoenoic fatty alcohols present as wax esters in oil derived from Calanus finmarchicus, compared to a standard fish oil diet, on caecal enterocyte fatty

Anthony Oxley; Douglas R. Tocher; Bente E. Torstensen; Rolf E. Olsen

2005-01-01

229

Ethnic Factors in Mental Health Service Utilisation among People with Intellectual Disability in High-Income Countries: Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. Aims: To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income…

Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

2012-01-01

230

Etude des possibilits d'utilisation agronomique des composts d'ordures mnagres en milieu tropical (1)  

E-print Network

Etude des possibilités d'utilisation agronomique des composts d'ordures ménagères en milieu'avère nécessaire uniquement en saison sèche pour obtenir un compost dont le rapport C/N se situe autour de Ordures les composts des paysompos age. industrialisés. La proportion équilibrée des oligo-éléments et la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

Evaluation des coefficients d'utilisation digestive des constituants du triticale par le blier adulte : comparaison de deux mthodes  

E-print Network

des coefficients d'utilisation digestive d'un concentré chez le ruminant (Berge, 1982 ; Giger et'elles sont les plus faibles, ce qui confirme les résultats de Berge (1982) et Giger et Sauvant (1983 Montpellier, 105 pages. Giger S., Sauvant D., 1983. Ann. Zootechn., 32, 215-246. #12;

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Page 1 of 2 The Virtual Laboratory: A Toolset for Utilising the World-Wide Grid to Design Drugs  

E-print Network

as 15 years from the first compound synthesis in the laboratory until the therapeutic agent, or drugPage 1 of 2 The Virtual Laboratory: A Toolset for Utilising the World-Wide Grid to Design Drugs}@csse.monash.edu.au * Structural Biology Walter and Eliza Hall Institute Royal Parade, Parkville, Melbourne kbranson@wehi.edu.au 1

Buyya, Rajkumar

233

Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, Journal Vol. XIII, No. 2, 2007 Quasi-Instantaneous Generation of Reference  

E-print Network

signals for the compensator control have to be generated in a situation where the power properties!! Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, Journal Vol. XIII, No. 2, 2007 Quasi-Instantaneous Generation of Reference Signals for Hybrid Compensator Control Leszek S. Czarnecki, Fellow IEEE Louisiana

Czarnecki, Leszek S.

234

In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8?MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods. PMID:22497540

Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

2013-06-01

235

Impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of neck and upper extremities on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe the presence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities among industrial workers with low back pain, and to examine whether it has an impact on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 505 industrial workers (response 86%). Results: The 12 month prevalence of low back pain was 50%. Among subjects with low back pain the 12 month prevalence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities was 68%. Among workers with low back pain, subjects with high pain intensity or disabling low back pain were more likely to have musculoskeletal co-morbidity. In comparison to the subjects who report back pain only, subjects with co-morbidity showed worse general health and health related quality of life. No impact of upper extremity co-morbidity was found on healthcare utilisation, and sickness absence due to low back pain. Conclusions: This study provides no evidence that musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities influences the choice to seek care or take sick leave due to low back pain among industrial manual workers. For occupational health practitioners the finding of a high co-morbidity is important to consider when implementing workplace interventions aimed at the reduction of specific musculoskeletal complaints, since the controls for one musculoskeletal complaint may impact adversely on another musculoskeletal complaint. Researchers who perform low back pain intervention studies using generic health measures, should take into account the impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity on these measures. PMID:15377765

IJzelenberg, W; Burdorf, A

2004-01-01

236

Atherogenic, fibrotic and glucose utilising actions of glucokinase activators on vascular endothelium and smooth muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmaceutical interventions for diabetes aim to control glycaemia and to prevent the development of complications, such as cardiovascular diseases. Some anti-hyperglycaemic drugs have been found to have adverse cardiovascular effects in their own right, limiting their therapeutic role. Glucokinase activity in the pancreas is critical in enhancing insulin release in response to hyperglycaemia. Glucokinase activators (GKAs) are novel agents for diabetes which act by enhancing the formation of glucose-6-phosphate leading to increased insulin production and subsequent suppression of blood glucose. Little, however, is known about the direct effects of GKAs on cardiovascular cells. Methods The effect of the GKAs RO28-1675 and Compound A on glucose utilisation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and rat MIN6 was observed by culturing the cells at high and low glucose concentration in the presence and absence of the GKAs and measuring glucose consumption. The effect of RO28-1675 at various concentrations on glucose-dependent signalling in BAEC was observed by measuring Smad2 phosphorylation by Western blotting. The effect of RO28-1675 on TGF-? stimulated proteoglycan synthesis was measured by 35S-SO4 incorporation and assessment of proteoglycan size by SDS-PAGE. The effects of RO28-1675 on TGF-? mediated Smad2C phosphorylation in BAEC was observed by measurement of pSmad2C levels. The direct actions of RO28-1675 on vascular reactivity were observed by measuring arteriole tone and lumen diameter. Results GKAs were demonstrated to increase glucose utilisation in pancreatic but not endothelial cells. Glucose-activated Smad2 phosphorylation was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of RO28-1675. No effect of RO28-1675 was observed on TGF-? stimulated proteoglycan production. RO28-1675 caused a modest dilation in arteriole but not contractile sensitivity. Conclusions GKA RO28-1675 did not increase glucose consumption in endothelial cells indicating the absence of glucokinase in those cells. No direct deleterious actions, in terms of atherogenic changes or excessive vasoactive effects were seen on cells or vessels of the cardiovascular system in response to GKAs. If reflected in vivo, these drugs are unlikely to have their use compromised by direct cardiovascular toxicity. PMID:24731772

2014-01-01

237

Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9?±?0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P?utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs. PMID:20661642

Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

2011-01-01

238

Geographic disparities in the utilisation of computed tomography scanning services in southern New Zealand.  

PubMed

Most secondary care health services in New Zealand, including computed tomography (CT) scanners, are concentrated in urban centres. Little is known about the access rural patients have to these services. The aim of this research was to determine whether there was geographic variation in the utilisation of CT across the southern part of the South Island and if present to measure the magnitude. Quantitative analysis of public hospital data for CTs over two twelve month periods (2007/08 and 2010) showed that residents of urban base hospital catchment areas were 1.6 times more likely to access CT services than residents of the catchment areas of remote rural hospitals. Similar disparities were present when the analysis was limited to the ?70 yrs age group. The disparities were present regardless of the referral source or the type of scan but were greatest for emergency department referrals, head scans and CT pulmonary angiograms. Further research is needed to determine the causes of these differences and whether they result in differences in health outcomes. PMID:24973925

Nixon, Garry; Samaranayaka, Ari; de Graaf, Brandon; McKechnie, Roslyne; Blattner, Katharina; Dovey, Susan

2014-11-01

239

Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. PMID:21550223

Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

2011-08-01

240

Novel utilisation of a circular multi-reflection cell applied to materials ageing experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the novel utilisation of a circular multi-reflection (CMR) cell applied to materials ageing experiments. This enabled trace gas detection within a narrow interfacial region located between two sample materials and remotely interrogated with near-infrared sources combined with fibre-optic coupling. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was used to detect water vapour and carbon dioxide at wavelengths near 1,358 and 2,004 nm, respectively, with corresponding detection limits of 7 and 1,139 ppm m Hz-0.5. The minimum detectable absorption was estimated to be 2.82 × 10-3 over a 1-s average. In addition, broadband absorption spectroscopy was carried out for the detection of acetic acid, using a super-luminescent light emitting diode centred around 1,430 nm. The 69 cm measurement pathlength was limited by poor manufacturing tolerances of the spherical CMR mirrors and the consequent difficulty of collecting all the cell output light.

Knox, D. A.; King, A. K.; McNaghten, E. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Martin, P. A.; Pimblott, S. M.

2015-02-01

241

Investigation of Matlab® as platform in navigation and control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle utilising an omnivision sensor.  

PubMed

Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed. PMID:25157548

Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

2014-01-01

242

Sn2-monoacylglycerol, not glycerol, is preferentially utilised for triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathways of lipid resynthesis in the intestine of fish are relatively unknown. Various reports have suggested the existence of both sn-1,3-specific (pancreatic) and non-specific (bile salt-activated) lipase activity operating on dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) in the intestinal lumen of fish during digestion. Thus, sn-2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and glycerol, respective hydrolytic products of each lipase, are absorbed and utilised for glycerolipid synthesis in

Anthony Oxley; Kristina Sundell; Rolf Erik Olsen

2007-01-01

243

How to estimate the population that is covered by community pharmacies? An evaluation of two methods using drug utilisation information  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Purpose Pharmacy-dispensing data are valuable sources of drug information, but the population that is covered by the pharmacies is often difficult to determine. We evaluated two methods using drug utilisation information to estimate the population size: a drug-use-based extrapolation of a known part of the population and a capture-recapture estimation without any prior knowledge of the population. Methods Using

Eric Schirm; Taco B. M. Monster; Robin de Vries; Paul B. van den Berg; Lolkje T. W. de Jong-van den Berg; Hilde Tobi

2004-01-01

244

Factors associated with awareness and utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesExamine factors associated with awareness and active utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention (CMI) to address HIV risk in female sex workers (FSWs) in a context characterised by multiple forms of sex work.DesignData came from two rounds, conducted in Spring 2006 and Spring 2007, of a serial cross-sectional survey of FSWs (n=812 in round 1, n=673 in round 2) recruited

Kim M Blankenship; Rebekah Burroway; Elizabeth Reed

2010-01-01

245

Utilisation de carrieres souterraines de la region parisienne pour stockage intersaisonnier d'energie solaire pour l'habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  La ville de Paris et sa banlieue comportent de nombreuses anciennes carrières souterraines. Elles posent des problèmes de\\u000a stabilité du sol et provoquent même des effondrements.\\u000a \\u000a On a cherché à les consolider tout en les utilisant pour stocker de l'eau chauffée par des capteurs solaires en vue du chauffage\\u000a de bâtiments. Une étude fine, à l'aide d'un modèle par différences

M. Arnould; M. Deveughele; J. Efforsat

1983-01-01

246

Utilisation des archives ERS pour la dtection de mouvements de glaciers rocheux dans les Alpes franaises par interfromtrie  

E-print Network

Utilisation des archives ERS pour la détection de mouvements de glaciers rocheux dans les Alpes semblait pertinente pour détecter le fluage des glaciers rocheux. Dans cette étude nous nous intéressons à la détection des mouvements des glaciers rocheux sur la totalité des Alpes françaises. Pour cela nous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Environment-friendly utilisation of waste energies for the production of electric energy in disperse power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a special system that makes it possible to generate electric and heat energy by utilising alternative, renewable and waste energies, in most cases, applying the principle of co-generation. The solution is based on a system that consists of a high-speed turbine, coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous generator, an AC\\/AC converter and a supervisory control unit.

R. K. Jardan; I. Nagy; T. Nitta; H. Ohaski

2002-01-01

248

Use of nitrate non-utilising (Nit) mutants to determine vegetative compatibility in Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate non-utilising (Nit) mutants of six field strains and three single-ascospore strains of Botryotinia fuckeliana were selected by plating mycelial plugs onto a nitrate-containing minimal medium amended with chlorate. Mutants were characterised by growth responses on minimal medium amended with various sole nitrogen sources. For each parental strain two mutants were produced: nit1, defective in nitrate reductase apoenzyme; and NitM,

Ross E. Beever; Stephanie L. Parkes

2003-01-01

249

Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (P<0·0001) than healthy udders. The relationship between UST and CMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; P<0·001), and UST was linearly increased as the CMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; P<0·001]. Additionally, high correlations were obtained between UST and SCC score (r=0·75; P<0·001) and the relationship between UST and SCC was fitted best to a logarithmic equation [UST, °C=33·39+0·88×Log (SCC, ×103 cells/ml), R 2=0·61, P<0·001]. The cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for UST were 35·15 °C, 0·90, 0·98, and 0·95, respectively, when subclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently. PMID:24331516

Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

2014-02-01

250

Première expérience de l'utilisation du Misoprostol comme soin après avortement (SAA) à Libreville, Gabon  

PubMed Central

Introduction Une étude a été menée afin de déterminer le taux d'acceptabilité de 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale comme traitement de première intention de l'avortement incomplet et de préciser le taux d'avortement complet ou vacuité utérine. Méthodes Les femmes éligibles avaient un diagnostic clinique d'avortement incomplet avec une taille utérine inférieure à celle d'un utérus de 12 semaines d'aménorrhées (SA). Chacune a reçu 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale. Les femmes ont été revues après une semaine. A J7, celles qui n'avaient pas complètement expulsé ont eu le choix entre une nouvelle consultation de suivi à J14 et la pratique d'une évacuation chirurgicale immédiate. Résultats 145 patientes ont été éligibles et ont toutes accepté la méthode (100%). L’âge moyen était de 25,9 ± 6 ans. A J7, 120 patientes étaient guéries (85,7%). A J14, le taux de réussitea été de 95,7% soit 134 patientes guéries. Les patientes guéries ont déclaré être très satisfaites (57,5%), satisfaites (41,8%) et insatisfaite (0,7%). Au total,128 femmes (95,5%) ont dit être prêtes à utiliser de nouveau le misoprostol comme méthode d’évacuation utérine en cas d'avortement incomplet. Conclusion L’étude démontre que le 400µg misoprostol par voie sublinguale nous permet de prendre en charge d'une manière adéquate l'avortement incomplet surtout dans les pays à faible ressource et notamment dans les structures sanitaires de première ligne ou éloignées. PMID:25469194

Mayi-Tsonga, Sosthène; Minkobame, Ulysse; Mbila, Arielle; Assoumou, Pamphile; Diop, Ayisha; Winikoff, Beverly

2014-01-01

251

GPU-based Space Situational Awareness Simulation utilising Parallelism for Enhanced Multi-sensor Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of continual space activity since the 1950s, there are now a large number of man-made Resident Space Objects (RSOs) orbiting the Earth. Because of the large number of items and their relative speeds, the possibility of destructive collisions involving important space assets is now of significant concern to users and operators of space-borne technologies. As a result, a growing number of international agencies are researching methods for improving techniques to maintain Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Computer simulation is a method commonly used by many countries to validate competing methodologies prior to full scale adoption. The use of supercomputing and/or reduced scale testing is often necessary to effectively simulate such a complex problem on todays computers. Recently the authors presented a simulation aimed at reducing the computational burden by selecting the minimum level of fidelity necessary for contrasting methodologies and by utilising multi-core CPU parallelism for increased computational efficiency. The resulting simulation runs on a single PC while maintaining the ability to effectively evaluate competing methodologies. Nonetheless, the ability to control the scale and expand upon the computational demands of the sensor management system is limited. In this paper, we examine the advantages of increasing the parallelism of the simulation by means of General Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU). As many sub-processes pertaining to SSA management are independent, we demonstrate how parallelisation via GPGPU has the potential to significantly enhance not only research into techniques for maintaining SSA, but also to enhance the level of sophistication of existing space surveillance sensors and sensor management systems. Nonetheless, the use of GPGPU imposes certain limitations and adds to the implementation complexity, both of which require consideration to achieve an effective system. We discuss these challenges and how they can be overcome. We further describe an application of the parallelised system where visibility prediction is used to enhance sensor management. This facilitates significant improvement in maximum catalogue error when RSOs become temporarily unobservable. The objective is to demonstrate the enhanced scalability and increased computational capability of the system.

Hobson, T.; Clarkson, V.

2012-09-01

252

Silages containing buckwheat and chicory: quality, digestibility and nitrogen utilisation by lactating cows.  

PubMed

The suitability of silages containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) for the nutrition of dairy cows was determined. Buckwheat and chicory were sown in mixture with ryegrass (Lolium multilorum), and a pure ryegrass culture served as a control forage. Swards were harvested 55 d after sowing and were ensiled after wilting, without additives in small round bales. Finally, buckwheat and chicory made up the dietary dry matter (DM) proportions of 0.46 and 0.34, respectively. Concentrates were restricted to 2 kg/d. Diets were fed to 3 x 6 late-lactating cows for 15 d at ad libitum access. During the collection period (days 10-15) amounts of feed intake and faeces, urine and milk were recorded and samples were taken. Ensilability was good for buckwheat and ryegrass swards, but was so less for the chicory sward, which was rich in total ash. The buckwheat silage was rich in acid detergent fibre (445 g/kg DM) and lignin (75.7 g/kg DM) and contained less crude protein (135 g/kg DM) and ether extract (15.8 g/kg DM) than the other silages. Consistent with that, the apparent digestibility of the organic matter and fibre were lowest when feeding this silage. The potassium concentrations in the chicory and ryegrass silages were high (61 g/ kg) and lower in buckwheat (47 g/kg). No significant treatment effects on intake, body weight, milk yield or milk composition as well as plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids occurred. Being lowest in nitrogen (N) content, the buckwheat silage resulted in the lowest urine N losses and the most efficient N utilisation for milk protein synthesis, but this at cost of body N retention. The results show that silages containing buckwheat and chicory may be used as components of the forage part of dairy cows' diets even though they were found to have a lower feeding value than ryegrass silage. PMID:22397096

Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

2012-02-01

253

Factors associated with awareness and utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives Examine factors associated with awareness and active utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention (CMI) to address HIV risk in female sex workers (FSWs) in a context characterised by multiple forms of sex work. Design Data came from two rounds, conducted in Spring 2006 and Spring 2007, of a serial cross-sectional survey of FSWs (n=812 in round 1, n=673 in round 2) recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Descriptive statistics compared characteristics of programme aware and unaware FSWs and from among the aware, to characterise active program users. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with programme exposure. Results Between Rounds 1 and 2, programme awareness increased from 41.8% to 69.6% of respondents, and active utilisation (among those who were aware) increased from 49.2% to 61.0%. Street-based FSWs were under-represented and brothel-based FSWs overrepresented in both groups and rounds. Geographic proximity and literacy were associated with programme awareness but not utilisation. The most important factor associated with both forms of intervention exposure across rounds was willingness to be identified in public as a FSWs (OR 2.2–4.8). Conclusion Public visibility is a critical component of CMIs. Such interventions should develop strategies for involving FSWs that allow them to remain invisible, while also working to reduce the threat associated with public visibility. In contexts where sex work occurs in multiple venues, it is important to develop CMIs that include and address the needs of FSWs working in them all. PMID:20167735

Burroway, Rebekah; Reed, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

254

A transpose optical interconnect utilising metamaterial Luneburg waveguide lenses for switch fabric on-a-chip applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in silicon photonics motivate the consideration of on-chip switch fabrics that combine switch elements into larger port-count switches. A major challenge is the large number of inter-stage waveguide crossovers. A novel freespace architecture utilising micro-lenses, capable of near zero insertion loss and crosstalk, is described and its principles of operation explained. The architecture is mapped to a planar implementation by the substitution of propagation in a slab-waveguide for free-space propagation and Luneburg lenses for the micro-lenses. Simulations show the careful approximation of the graded index of the Luneburg lens by a metamaterial introduces minimal additional crosstalk.

Nikkhah, Hamdam; Hall, Trevor

2013-03-01

255

The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility and increase C stocks of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines, abandoned industrial zones, degraded natural areas and exhausted landfill sites. Such land management options may serve as a precondition for landscaping and reclamation of degraded areas, reforestation or agriculture. In fact, previous results have shown that compost application to the capping layer of a landfill covering soil significantly enhanced the fertility, evidenced by an improvement in soil structure, porosity and water holding capacity, an increase in the relative proportion of recalcitrant C pools and an increase in soil nutrient content, microbial activity and soil microbial biomass. Proper management of MWC requires a capacity to understand and predict their impacts on C dynamics in the field subsequent to application. Although numerous works deal with the effects of compost application in agricultural systems, little is known on how land rehabilitation practices effect C dynamics in such relatively young soil systems. The estimation of SOC pools and their potential turnover rates in land reclamation activities is fundamental to our understanding of terrestrial C dynamics. In the framework of a long-term field experiment, the objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal and spatial dynamics of compost-derived organic matter with respect to the major processes involved in organic matter cycling in an anthropogenic landfill covering soil originally amended with a single dose of MWC. We investigated long-term organic C dynamics in such systems by collecting samples at different depths over a 10 year chronosequence subsequent to compost application to the top layer of the landfill covering soil. Variations in the stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of the soil samples show that even after 10 years, amended topsoils were significantly enriched in compost-derived organic matter, confirming that the utilisation of such organic inputs in land reclamation activities has the potential to enhance the C stocks of degraded areas. The addition of compost to the superficial layer also resulted in a significant input of soluble organic compounds subject to leaching along the soil profile. Sorption isotherms for compost-derived water-extractable organic matter onto mineral materials used for landfill covering suggest that sorptive preservation was primarily responsible for the increase in C content and the shift in the C isotopic signature to values similar to that of the applied compost, in the deeper soil horizons over the 10 year experimental period. This was also confirmed by the accumulation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, analysis for non-cellulosic carbohydrates in soils samples and their respective water-extractable fractions suggest that a proportion of compost-derived, labile organic matter fraction is leached through the soil profile and potentially lost from the soil system, particularly in the years immediately after compost application.

Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

2009-04-01

256

Utilisation of health services and geography: deconstructing regional differences in barriers to facility-based delivery in Nepal.  

PubMed

While established that geographical inaccessibility is a key barrier to the utilisation of health services, it remains unknown whether disparities are driven only by limited access to these services, or are also attributable to health behaviour. Significant disparities exist in health outcomes and the coverage of many critical health services between the mountains region of Nepal and the rest of the country, yet the principal factors driving these regional disparities are not well understood. Using national representative data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the extent to which observable factors explain the overall differences in the utilisation of maternal health services. We apply nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca-type decomposition methods to quantify the effect that differences in measurable characteristics have on the regional coverage gap in facility-based delivery. The mean coverage of facility-based deliveries was 18.6 and 36.3 % in the mountains region and the rest of Nepal, respectively. Between 54.8 and 74.1 % of the regional coverage gap was explained by differences in observed characteristics. Factors influencing health behaviours (proxied by mothers' education, TV viewership and tobacco use, and household wealth) and subjective distance to the health facility were the major factors, contributing between 52.9 and 62.5 % of the disparity. Mothers' birth history was also noteworthy. Policies simultaneously addressing access and health behaviours appear necessary to achieve greater coverage and better health outcomes for women and children in isolated areas. PMID:24927787

Hodge, Andrew; Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

2015-03-01

257

Diffusion des rayonnements X et visibles ; microscopie en champ proche : utilisation comparée pour la caractérisation des surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trois méthodes ont été utilisées pour caractériser la rugosité de quelques échantillons. Deux de ces méthodes sont basées sur la mesure du rayonnement diffusé (visible et X). La troisième utilise la microscopie en champ proche (MCP). Dans un premier temps, une comparaison des deux premières techniques a été menée en utilisant une même théorie vectorielle de la diffusion. Bien adaptée au domaine du visible, cette théorie peut aussi être utilisée dans le cas du rayonnement X. Les densités spectrales de puissance (dsp) de la rugosité, déterminées expérimentalement pour deux échantillons d'Alacrite XSH (alliage quaternaire à base de cobalt utilisé en métrologie des masses), montrent des allures identiques dans le cas du visible et du rayonnement X à des incidences très rasantes. Dans un deuxième temps, la hauteur quadratique moyenne ? , caractéristique de la rugosité de ces deux échantillons, a été déterminée de façon "directe" par microscopie en champ proche, et à partir des dsp pour les deux autres techniques. La restriction à une bande commune des fréquences spatiales accessibles à ces techniques, conduit à des valeurs de ? comparables aux incertitudes près. Une validation des mesures X ainsi faite, un accent est mis sur leur apport complémentaire par rapport au visible.

Tollens, E.; Menecier, S.; Haidar, Y.; Zerrouki, C.; Chassevent, M.; de Fornel, F.; Bonnet, J. J.

2004-11-01

258

Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.  

PubMed

Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p < 0.01) for the biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers. PMID:23305236

Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

2013-01-01

259

'If you feel that nobody wants you you'll withdraw into your own': Gypsies/Travellers, networks and healthcare utilisation.  

PubMed

Gypsies and Travellers are the unhealthiest group in British society, suffering from higher levels of physical and mental illness, lower life expectancy and with low levels of healthcare utilisation. They also continue to experience the highest level of prejudice and discrimination in society. While studies indicate that social networks play an important role in shaping health beliefs and the response to symptoms, evidence on the influence of networks on health is unclear and contradictory. This article draws on social network theory and research into the relation between discrimination and health to critically examine how networks mediate between collective experiences of racism and health-related behavior. Qualitative interviews with 39 adult Gypsies and Travellers were conducted in the South-East of England to explore the wider structural and institutional context and the influence those contexts play in shaping health beliefs and decisions whether to access formal health services. The findings indicate that the influence networks play in shaping health behaviour is dependent on the particular social context of the group and its status in relation to wider social structures, making generalization problematic. PMID:23574153

Smith, David; Ruston, Annmarie

2013-11-01

260

Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.  

PubMed

Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46?mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements. PMID:22619599

Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

2012-01-01

261

Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.  

PubMed

A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field. PMID:19181661

Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

2009-01-01

262

Fatty acid utilisation and metabolism in caecal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed dietary fish or copepod oil.  

PubMed

A combined fatty acid metabolism assay was employed to determine fatty acid uptake and relative utilisation in enterocytes isolated from the pyloric caeca of rainbow trout. In addition, the effect of a diet high in long-chain monoenoic fatty alcohols present as wax esters in oil derived from Calanus finmarchicus, compared to a standard fish oil diet, on caecal enterocyte fatty acid metabolism was investigated. The diets were fed for 8 weeks before caecal enterocytes from each dietary group were isolated and incubated with [1-14C]fatty acids: 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3. Uptake was measured over 2 h with relative utilisation of different [1-14C]fatty acids calculated as a percentage of uptake. Differences in uptake were observed, with 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 showing the highest rates. Esterification into cellular lipids was highest with 16:0 and C18 fatty acids, accounting for over one-third of total uptake, through predominant incorporation in triacylglycerol (TAG). The overall utilisation of fatty acids in phospholipid synthesis was low, but highest with 16:0, the most prevalent fatty acid recovered in intracellular phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), although exported PC exhibited higher proportions of C20/C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Other than 16:0, incorporation into PC and PI was highest with C20/C22 PUFA and 20:4n-6 respectively. Recovery of labelled 18:1n-9 in exported TAG was 3-fold greater than any other fatty acid which could be due to multiple esterification on the glycerol 'backbone' and/or increased export. Approximately 20-40% of fatty acids taken up were beta-oxidised, and was highest with 20:4n-6. Oxidation of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was also surprisingly high, although 22:6n-3 oxidation was mainly attributed to retroconversion to 20:5n-3. Metabolic modification of fatty acids by elongation-desaturation was generally low at <10% of [1-14C]fatty acid uptake. Dietary copepod oil had generally little effect on fatty acid metabolism in enterocytes, although it stimulated the elongation and desaturation of 16:0 and elongation of 18:1n-9, with radioactivity recovered in longer n-9 monoenes. The monoenoic fatty acid, 20:1n-9, abundant in copepod oil as the homologous alcohol, was poorly utilised with 80% of uptake remaining unesterified in the enterocyte. However, the fatty acid composition of pyloric caeca was not influenced by dietary copepod oil. PMID:16257262

Oxley, Anthony; Tocher, Douglas R; Torstensen, Bente E; Olsen, Rolf E

2005-12-15

263

Functionality and feedback: a protocol for a realist synthesis of the collation, interpretation and utilisation of PROMs data to improve patient care  

PubMed Central

Introduction The feedback and public reporting of PROMs data aims to improve the quality of care provided to patients. Existing systematic reviews have found it difficult to draw overall conclusions about the effectiveness of PROMs feedback. We aim to execute a realist synthesis of the evidence to understand by what means and in what circumstances the feedback of PROMs data leads to the intended service improvements. Methods and analysis Realist synthesis involves (stage 1) identifying the ideas, assumptions or ‘programme theories’ which explain how PROMs feedback is supposed to work and in what circumstances and then (stage 2) reviewing the evidence to determine the extent to which these expectations are met in practice. For stage 1, six provisional ‘functions’ of PROMs feedback have been identified to structure our review (screening, monitoring, patient involvement, demand management, quality improvement and patient choice). For each function, we will identify the different programme theories that underlie these different goals and develop a logical map of the respective implementation processes. In stage 2, we will identify studies that will provide empirical tests of each component of the programme theories to evaluate the circumstances in which the potential obstacles can be overcome and whether and how the unintended consequences of PROMs feedback arise. We will synthesise this evidence to (1) identify the implementation processes which support or constrain the successful collation, interpretation and utilisation of PROMs data; (2) identify the implementation processes through which the unintended consequences of PROMs data arise and those where they can be avoided. Ethics and dissemination The study will not require NHS ethics approval. We have secured ethical approval for the study from the University of Leeds (LTSSP-019). We will disseminate the findings of the review through a briefing paper and dissemination event for National Health Service stakeholders, conferences and peer reviewed publications. PMID:25052175

Greenhalgh, Joanne; Pawson, Ray; Wright, Judy; Black, Nick; Valderas, Jose Maria; Meads, David; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Wood, Laurence; Wood, Charlotte; Mills, Chris; Dalkin, Sonia

2014-01-01

264

Utilising an LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker approach to assess mycotoxin exposure in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces.  

PubMed

Human exposures to mycotoxins through dietary intake are a major health hazard and may result in various pathophysiological effects. Although Thailand is a country at increased risk due to its climatic conditions, no comprehensive dataset is available to perform proper exposure assessment of its population with regard to mycotoxins. Therefore, this pilot study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the exposure levels of major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes). Sixty first-morning urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers who live in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces (Pathumthani, Nonthaburi, Samutprakarn and Samutsakorn). Urine samples were analysed by a LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker method following a so-called 'dilute and shoot' approach. Results generally indicated low mycotoxin exposures in most individuals through the determination of the four biomarkers that were detected in urine samples, i.e. aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A (OTA), as well as the deoxynivalenol (DON) metabolites DON-3-glucuronide and DON-15-glucuronide in 10 of 60 individuals. The maximum concentrations were used to estimate the daily intake confirming that none of the individuals exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON (maximum 26% of TDI) or OTA (maximum 22% of TDI). However, the maximum exposure of aflatoxin B1, estimated to be 0.91 µg (kg bw)(-1) day(-1), should raise some concerns and suggests further studies utilising a more sensitive method. Low exposure to Fusarium toxins was also confirmed by the absence of zearalenone, ?-zearalanol, ?-zearalanol and zearalenone-14-glucuronide as well as T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and free DON. This is the first multi-mycotoxin biomarker study performed in Southeast Asia. PMID:25268629

Warth, Benedikt; Petchkongkaew, Awanwee; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

2014-01-01

265

Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning, whereas coastal spawning flounder can be characterised as intermediate between a capital and income spawner with feeding prior to and during spawning along with continuous fecundity-regulation.

Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

2015-01-01

266

Utilisation of private care by public primary care clinic attenders with diabetes: relationship to health status and social factors.  

PubMed

Private health care provision is important in most middle-income countries but factors influencing the demand for private care have not been well defined. This paper evaluated the relationships of health status and socio-economic variables with utilisation of private care by public primary care clinic attenders. The sample included 2117 randomly selected subjects with clinical diabetes attending 35 government health centres in Trinidad and Tobago. Measures included attendance at a private doctor, the type 2 Diabetes Symptom Checklist, the SF36 questionnaire, and indicators of socio-economic status. Of the sample, 1256 (59%) reported attending a private doctor, 577 (27%) attended a private doctor for diabetes, and 378 (18%) attended a private doctor regularly. Attendance at a private doctor was associated with lower SF36 scores. The odds ratio for a 10 unit increase in SF36 physical component score was 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.91. After adjusting for demographic and social factors the relative odds were 0.89, 0.80 to 1.00. After allowing for differences in health status, the relative odds of attending for private care for those without a pipe borne water supply in the home, compared with those with water in the home, were 0.77, 0.63-0.94. Those living alone were less likely to attend a private doctor than those living with their children and partner (odds ratio 0.60, 0.43-0.83). Among people attending public clinics, the decision to utilise private care is sensitive to health status. After adjusting for health status, there was evidence for horizontal inequity in access to private care in relation to household amenities and composition. PMID:11556774

Gulliford, M C; Mahabir, D

2001-10-01

267

Cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates treatment in osteoporotic women: an empirical approach based on healthcare utilisation databases  

PubMed Central

Objective Adherence with bisphosphonates therapy is generally low. Enhancing adherence with bisphosphonates would be effective in achieving the full benefits of therapy albeit a growth in the expenditure for supporting incremented drug use is expected. The cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates in a large population of osteoporotic women has been assessed in the current study. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Healthcare utilisation databases of Lombardy Region, Italy. Participants A cohort of 28?558 women aged 45?years or more, resident in the Italian Region of Lombardy, who were newly treated with oral bisphosphonates during 2003–2004, was followed for 6?years after index prescription. Outcome measures Fracture-free survival time, healthcare cost and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of enhancing adherence, that is, the additional cost that would be spent every year for gaining one fracture-free year as a consequence of enhancing adherence at a certain level. Results Enhanced adherence from 33% (baseline) to 80%, increased both fracture-free survivals from 970 to 973?years and healthcare costs from €118?000 to €265?000 every 1000 woman-years, with ICER value of €53?000 (95% CI €49?000 to €58?000). ICER values were lower for older women (€50?000; 95% CI €42?000 to €58?000) and for those suffering from at least a chronic comorbidity (€25000; 95% CI 95% CI €7000 to €47?000). Conclusions Enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates offers important benefits in reducing the risk of fracture, although at a substantial cost. PMID:24662445

Scotti, Lorenza; Arfè, Andrea; Zambon, Antonella; Merlino, Luca; Corrao, Giovanni

2014-01-01

268

Evaluation of workability and strength development of fly ash pastes prepared with industrial brines rich in SO 4 = and Cl ? to expand brine utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic pollution is an unavoidable consequence of both producing energy from coal and desalination of water. Coal ash and brines are partially utilised due to vast volumes and stringent legal environmental requirements. Therefore innovative management for these wastes is essential. This manuscript presents the initial results of research showing that brine chemistry dominates the behaviour of fly ash pastes. The

Jabulani S. Mahlaba; Elsabé P. Kearsley; Richard A. Kruger; P. C. Pretorius

2011-01-01

269

Le bacille du charbon utilise un rcepteur la surface des cellules pour y faire pntrer ses toxines ltales. La fonction physiologique de  

E-print Network

Le bacille du charbon utilise un récepteur à la surface des cellules pour y faire pénétrer sesa joue en fait un rôle dans le développement embryonnaire, en orien- tant la division des cellules organes, est principalement due aux toxines bactériennes, mortelles pour les cellules. C'est en voulant

Halazonetis, Thanos

270

Increasing biomass utilisation in energy systems: A comparative study of CO 2 reduction and cost for different bioenergy processing options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, need to be greatly reduced to avoid the risk of a harmful climate change. One powerful way to mitigate emissions is to switch fuels from fossil fuels to renewable energy, such as biomass. In this paper, we systematically investigate several bioenergy processing options, quantify the reduction rate and calculate the specific cost of

Bertil Wahlund; Jinyue Yan; Mats Westermark

2004-01-01

271

Merging and scoring molecular interactions utilising existing community standards: tools, use-cases and a case study  

PubMed Central

The evidence that two molecules interact in a living cell is often inferred from multiple different experiments. Experimental data is captured in multiple repositories, but there is no simple way to assess the evidence of an interaction occurring in a cellular environment. Merging and scoring of data are commonly required operations after querying for the details of specific molecular interactions, to remove redundancy and assess the strength of accompanying experimental evidence. We have developed both a merging algorithm and a scoring system for molecular interactions based on the proteomics standard initiative–molecular interaction standards. In this manuscript, we introduce these two algorithms and provide community access to the tool suite, describe examples of how these tools are useful to selectively present molecular interaction data and demonstrate a case where the algorithms were successfully used to identify a systematic error in an existing dataset. PMID:25652942

Villaveces, J. M.; Jiménez, R. C.; Porras, P.; del-Toro, N.; Duesbury, M.; Dumousseau, M.; Orchard, S.; Choi, H.; Ping, P.; Zong, N. C.; Askenazi, M.; Habermann, B. H.; Hermjakob, Henning

2015-01-01

272

Utilising Enterprise Risk Management Strategies to Develop a Governance and Operations Framework for a New Research Complex: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enterprise risk management strategies were used to develop a regulatory and operational framework for a new multi-partner Research Institute that will house up to 900 staff from four different institutions in Queensland, Australia. The Institute will operate in a business environment while functioning as a research resource for the higher…

Clyde-Smith, Jodi

2014-01-01

273

Infant care practices in rural China and their relation to prenatal care utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies describing postpartum childcare practices and the influence of prenatal care on infant care outcomes in rural China are scarce. This study looked at data for 1479 women who had given birth during the preceding 2 years (median age of the child was 8 months). Data were available from a Knowledge, Attitude and Perception cross-sectional survey collected from 2001 to

B. I. Nwaru; Z. Wu; E. Hemminki

2011-01-01

274

Failing Westphalia: Demonstrating complex sovereignty through a study of the Angolan Oil Economy   

E-print Network

Abstract In contemporary studies of Africa the Westphalian style ‘sovereign state’ is often utilised as the primary analytical tool. As this concept of sovereignty presumes that the state is in a sense ‘all powerful’, ...

Carryer, Andrew

2012-11-01

275

Sn-2-monoacylglycerol, not glycerol, is preferentially utilised for triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestine.  

PubMed

Pathways of lipid resynthesis in the intestine of fish are relatively unknown. Various reports have suggested the existence of both sn-1,3-specific (pancreatic) and non-specific (bile salt-activated) lipase activity operating on dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) in the intestinal lumen of fish during digestion. Thus, sn-2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and glycerol, respective hydrolytic products of each lipase, are absorbed and utilised for glycerolipid synthesis in enterocytes via two alternative routes: monoacylglycerol (MAG) and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) pathways. Despite different precursors, both pathways converge at the production of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) where TAG or phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis can occur. To elucidate the relative activities of MAG and G3P pathways in Atlantic salmon enterocytes, intestinal segments were mounted in Ussing chambers where equimolar mixtures of sn-2-oleoyl-[1,2,3-(3)H]glycerol (2-MAG) and [(14)C(U)]glycerol, plus unlabelled 16:0 and 18:2n-6 as exogenous fatty acid sources, were delivered in bile salt-containing Ringer solution to the mucosa. The MAG pathway predominated, over the G3P pathway, synthesizing ca. 95% of total TAG and ca. 80% of total PC after a 3 h incubation period at 10 degrees C. Further, the 1,2-DAG branch point into TAG or PC was polarised towards TAG synthesis (6:1) via the MAG pathway but more evenly distributed between TAG and PC (1:1) via the G3P pathway. Effect of long-chain saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesized TAG/PC ratio was assessed by individually exchanging 16:0, 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6, for 16:0+18:2n-6, in mucosal solutions. TAG synthesis was influenced considerably more than PC synthesis, via either pathway, by exogenous fatty acids utilised. 18:1n-9 significantly stimulated TAG synthesis via the MAG pathway yielding a TAG/PC ratio of 12:1. Alternatively, 18:2n-6 stimulated TAG synthesis the most via the G3P pathway (TAG/PC=4:1). 16:0 significantly attenuated TAG synthesis via either pathway. Micellar fatty acid species also significantly affected intestinal active transport mechanisms as shown by decreasing transepithelial potential (TEP) and short-circuit current (SSC) with increasing fatty acid unsaturation. The epithelial integrity was, however, not compromised after 3 h of exposure to any of the fatty acids. The implications of these findings on dietary fatty acid composition and enterocytic lipid droplet accumulation are discussed. PMID:17126582

Oxley, Anthony; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundell, Kristina; Olsen, Rolf Erik

2007-01-01

276

The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

2014-01-01

277

The Applied Music Lesson: Teaching Gifted and Talented Students Utilising Principles of Comprehensive Musicianship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive musicianship is a term used to describe the intradisciplinary study of music. The comprehensive musicianship approach is closely related to Gestalt psychology in that music is approached as a totality, with a concern for constituent parts and how they relate to the whole (Willoughby, 1971). The concept of integration is central to…

Heavner, Tracy

2005-01-01

278

l'utilisation de tubes capillaires, a permis alors de sparer compltement tous les  

E-print Network

on pollen yield and development of honeybee colonies Studies to develop currently available methods geöffnet. Pollen wurde bei 3 Versuchsgruppen ge- sammelt: 1) LP, langzeitiges Pollensam- meln (111 Tage); 2) KP, kurzzeitiges Pol- lensammeln (65 Tage); und 3) Ap, Pollen- sammeln in Ablegern (81 Tage). In der

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Assessing meiofaunal variation among individuals utilising morphological and molecular approaches: an example using the Tardigrada  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Meiofauna – multicellular animals captured between sieve size 45 ?m and 1000 ?m – are a fundamental component of terrestrial, and marine benthic ecosystems, forming an integral element of food webs, and playing a critical roll in nutrient recycling. Most phyla have meiofaunal representatives and studies of these taxa impact on a wide variety of sub-disciplines as well as

Chester J Sands; Peter Convey; Katrin Linse; Sandra J McInnes

2008-01-01

280

Density and potential utilisation of medicinal grassland plants from Abe Bailey Nature Reserve, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Abe Bailey Nature Reserve, South Africa has been identified as a potential community resource reserve compatible with biodiversity conservation. As part of the planning and public participation phase this study investigated the potential for sustainably harvesting medicinal plants. Medicinal plant use data on local species, parts used and harvesting techniques, in collaboration with neighbouring traditional healers were collected. A

Catherine M. Dzerefos; E. T. F. Witkowski

2001-01-01

281

Income-related inequalities and inequities in health care utilisation: Belgium and the Netherlands compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Belgian Health Interview Survey held in 1997 is very comparable to the Netherlands Health Interview Survey 1997. We use data from both surveys to compare levels and distributions of health care utilization in both countries. In addition to testing for differences in level and distribu- tion of medical care utilization, this study also examines whether any of these differences

282

Improving performance through tacit knowledge externalisation and utilisation : Preliminary findings from Greek hotels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The study seeks to examine the transformation of tacit knowledge (TK) into business performance by developing a two-stage framework involving two processes: TK utilization and externalization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Owing to the limited understanding and interest expressed by hotel professionals through a preliminary telephone survey, a mail survey targeting a representative sample of solely four- and five-star hotels was

Marianna Sigala; Kalotina Chalkiti

2007-01-01

283

Riboflavin production from mutants of Ashbya gossypii utilising orange rind as a substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of agroindustrial wastes such as orange rind as an alternative in the production of riboflavin was evaluated in this\\u000a study withAshbya gossypii mutants.Ashbya gossypii mutants were obtained using 300 ?g\\/mL of MNNG after an exposition period of 90 min with 2.3% of survival rate. A total of\\u000a 11 mutant high yield strains of riboflavin were selected. Of these

Gabriel Lizama; Fernando Moguel-Salazar; Fernando Peraza-Luna; Elizabeth Ortiz-Vázquez

2007-01-01

284

Low enthalpy geothermal energy utilisation schemes for greenhouse and district heating at Traianoupolis Evros, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

A socio-economic study has been made of the possible use of low enthalpy geothermal resources for district and greenhouse heating in the Traianoupolis Evros region. The thermal energy potential of the Aristino-Traianoupolis geothermal field has been estimated at 10.8 MWth (discharge temperature of 25 °C). Geothermal wellhead water temperatures range from 53 to 92 °C, from 300 m deep wells yielding over

Constantine Karytsas; Dimitrios Mendrinos; Johann Goldbrunner

2003-01-01

285

The relationships between perfectionism, religious motivation, and mental health utilisation among latter-day saint students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the influence of perfectionism and religious motivation on help-seeking and attitudes towards mental health services (ATMHS) in a Latter-Day Saint sample of 119 undergraduates. Increased levels of perfectionism significantly predicted more negative ATMHS. Higher intrinsic religious motivation was significantly and positively related to help-seeking from religious sources, but not from mental health professionals. Intrinsic religious motivation

Kyler Ray Rasmussen; Niwako Yamawaki; Jamie Moses; Lindy Powell; Brandon Bastian

2012-01-01

286

Utilisation of chiral enaminones and azomethine imines in the synthesis of functionalised pyrazoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiral enaminones, derived from commercially available enantipure starting materials, such as (+)-camphor and ?-amino acids, were employed in cycloconcensation reactions with hydrazine derivatives to afford the corresponding pyrazoles, functionalised with terpene, alanine, 2- phenylethylamine, and ?-amino alcohol moiety. On the other hand, recent study on stereocontrol in cycloadditions of racemic (1Z,4R*,5R*)-1-arylmethylidene-4-benzoylamino-5- phenylpyrazolidin-3-one-1-azomethine imines, available in three steps from hippuric acid,

Jurij Svete

287

Development of a high throughput screening tool for biotransformations utilising a thermophilic l-aminoacylase enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-reactors containing a monolith-immobilised thermophilic l-aminoacylase, from Thermococcus litoralis, have been developed for use in biotransformation reactions and a study has been carried out to investigate the stereospecificity and stability of the immobilised enzyme. The potential to use the developed micro-reactors as a tool for rapid screening of enzyme specificity was demonstrated, confirming that the l-aminoacylase showed a similar substrate

B. Ngamsom; A. M. Hickey; G. M. Greenway; J. A. Littlechild; P. Watts; C. Wiles

2010-01-01

288

Controlled gene expression utilising Lambda phage regulatory signals in a cyanobacterium host  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents plasmid systems that utilize regulatory signals of bacteriophage Lambda to accomplish regulated expression of cloned genes in an A. nidulans R2 derivative strain. An operator-promoter region and the temperature-sensitive repressor gene cI857 of bacteriophage Lambda were employed. Linked to a cyanobacterial replicon, the plasmid vectors efficiently transformed Anacystis and were stably maintained within this host. The cat

Devorah Friedberg; Julie Seijffers

1986-01-01

289

Foraging Behaviour and Landscape Utilisation by the Endangered Golden-Crowned Flying Fox (Acerodon jubatus), The Philippines  

PubMed Central

Species of Old World fruit-bats (family Pteropodidae) have been identified as the natural hosts of a number of novel and highly pathogenic viruses threatening livestock and human health. We used GPS data loggers to record the nocturnal foraging movements of Acerodon jubatus, the Golden-crowned flying fox in the Philippines to better understand the landscape utilisation of this iconic species, with the dual objectives of pre-empting disease emergence and supporting conservation management. Data loggers were deployed on eight of 54 A. jubatus (two males and six females) captured near Subic Bay on the Philippine island of Luzon between 22 November and 2 December 2010. Bodyweight ranged from 730 g to 1002 g, translating to a weight burden of 3–4% of bodyweight. Six of the eight loggers yielded useful data over 2–10 days, showing variability in the nature and range of individual bat movements. The majority of foraging locations were in closed forest and most were remote from evident human activity. Forty-six discrete foraging locations and five previously unrecorded roost locations were identified. Our findings indicate that foraging is not a random event, with the majority of bats exhibiting repetitious foraging movements night-to-night, that apparently intact forest provides the primary foraging resource, and that known roost locations substantially underestimate the true number (and location) of roosts. Our initial findings support policy and decision-making across perspectives including landscape management, species conservation, and potentially disease emergence. PMID:24278154

de Jong, Carol; Field, Hume; Tagtag, Anson; Hughes, Tom; Dechmann, Dina; Jayme, Sarah; Epstein, Jonathan; Smith, Craig; Santos, Imelda; Catbagan, Davinio; Lim, Mundita; Benigno, Carolyn; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott

2013-01-01

290

Harvesting, storing and utilising solar energy using MoO3 : modulating structural distortion through pH adjustment.  

PubMed

Nanostructured molybdenum oxide (?-MoO3 ) thin film photoelectrodes were synthesised by anodisation. Upon band gap-excitation by light illumination, ?-MoO3 is able to store a portion of the excited charges in its layered structure with the simultaneous intercalation of alkali cations. The stored electrons can be discharged from ?-MoO3 for utilisation under dark conditions, and ?-MoO3 is able to recharge itself with successive illuminations to behave as a 'self-photo-rechargeable' alkali-ion battery. The alteration of the anodisation pH allowed the crystal structure and oxygen vacancy concentrations of ?-MoO3 to be modulated to achieve (i) a distorted MoO6 octahedra for enhanced charge separation and storage, (ii) a layered structure with a greater exposed (010) crystal face for rich and reversible ion intercalation and (iii) a highly crystalline thin film that suppresses electron-hole pair recombination. Overall, the larger MoO6 octahedral distortion in ?-MoO3 at a higher pH favours charge storage, whereas smaller octahedral distortion at a lower pH leads to anodic photocurrent enhancement. PMID:24811956

Lou, Shi Nee; Ng, Yun Hau; Ng, Charlene; Scott, Jason; Amal, Rose

2014-07-01

291

Foraging behaviour and landscape utilisation by the endangered golden-crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus), the Philippines.  

PubMed

Species of Old World fruit-bats (family Pteropodidae) have been identified as the natural hosts of a number of novel and highly pathogenic viruses threatening livestock and human health. We used GPS data loggers to record the nocturnal foraging movements of Acerodon jubatus, the Golden-crowned flying fox in the Philippines to better understand the landscape utilisation of this iconic species, with the dual objectives of pre-empting disease emergence and supporting conservation management. Data loggers were deployed on eight of 54 A. jubatus (two males and six females) captured near Subic Bay on the Philippine island of Luzon between 22 November and 2 December 2010. Bodyweight ranged from 730 g to 1002 g, translating to a weight burden of 3-4% of bodyweight. Six of the eight loggers yielded useful data over 2-10 days, showing variability in the nature and range of individual bat movements. The majority of foraging locations were in closed forest and most were remote from evident human activity. Forty-six discrete foraging locations and five previously unrecorded roost locations were identified. Our findings indicate that foraging is not a random event, with the majority of bats exhibiting repetitious foraging movements night-to-night, that apparently intact forest provides the primary foraging resource, and that known roost locations substantially underestimate the true number (and location) of roosts. Our initial findings support policy and decision-making across perspectives including landscape management, species conservation, and potentially disease emergence. PMID:24278154

de Jong, Carol; Field, Hume; Tagtag, Anson; Hughes, Tom; Dechmann, Dina; Jayme, Sarah; Epstein, Jonathan H; Epstein, Jonathan; Smith, Craig; Santos, Imelda; Catbagan, Davinio; Lim, Mundita; Benigno, Carolyn; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott

2013-01-01

292

Potentiel de l'utilisation des melanges hydrocarbures/alcools pour les moteurs a allumage commande  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past few years, the oil stock decrease encourages the different countries to increase their energy independence. Moreover, reducing the environmental impact of transportation became one of the priorities of our society. In this way, European emissions standards are stricter while several pollutants have been identified to have a negative impact on health and the environment. To answer this double problem, the use of alcohols biofuels in sparkignition engines is one the promising ways. The European Union have already taken a small step in that direction by allowing a maximum of 10% of ethanol into gasoline. As well as ethanol is already marketed, Biobutanol, a 2nd generation biofuel, appears as a serious candidate with a strong potential for a spark-ignition engines use. The objective of this dissertation is to study the potential of the iso-octane/butanol blends use in spark-ignition engines, in terms of performance and pollutants emissions. Moreover, these results are compared to iso-octane/ethanol blends. The heat release in spark-ignition engine is piloted for a part by laminar burning velocity. This characteristic was studied experimentally and numerically for different initial conditions (pressure and equivalence ratio) in a constant volume bomb. Then, the early flame kernel growth was studied in an spark-ignition single cylinder engine equipped with optical accesses. Those results were correlated with the results on the laminar burning velocity. Finally, regulated and non-regulated pollutants emissions and engine performance were investigated in a spark-ignition single cylinder engine. A decrease of most pollutant emissions was observed with both alcohols addition.

Broustail, Guillaume

293

Health care utilisation and problems in accessing health care of female undocumented immigrants in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To obtain information about the actual use of health care facilities by undocumented women and to identify obstacles they\\u000a experience in accessing health care facilities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A mixed methods study, with structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, was chosen to obtain a complete understanding.\\u000a One-hundred undocumented women were recruited. Diversity was sought according to age, origin and reason for being undocumented.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Undocumented

Marianne A. SchoeversMaartje; Maartje J. Loeffen; Maria E. van den Muijsenbergh; Antoine L. M. Lagro-Janssen

2010-01-01

294

Optimising dosing strategies of antibacterials utilising pharmacodynamic principles: impact on the development of resistance.  

PubMed

Evolving antimicrobial resistance is of global concern. The impact of decreased susceptibility to current antibacterials coupled with the decline in the marketing of new agents with novel mechanisms of action places a tremendous burden on clinicians to appropriately use available agents. Optimising antibacterial dose administration through the use of pharmacodynamic principles can aid clinicians in accomplishing this task more effectively. Methods to achieve this include: continuous or prolonged infusion, or the use of smaller doses administered more frequently for the time-dependent beta-lactam agents; or higher, less frequent dose administration of the concentration-dependent aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Pharmacodynamic breakpoints, which are predictive of clinical and/or microbiological success in the treatment of infection, have been determined for many classes of antibacterials, including the fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and beta-lactams. Although surpassing these values may predict efficacy, it may not prevent the development of resistance. Recent studies seek to determine the pharmacodynamic breakpoints that prevent the development of resistance. Numerous studies to this point have determined these values in fluoroquinolones in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, among the other antibacterial classes, there is a lack of sufficient data. Additionally, a new term, the mutant prevention concentration, has been based on the concentrations above which resistance is unlikely to occur. Future work is needed to fully characterise these target concentrations that prevent resistance. PMID:16398565

DeRyke, C Andrew; Lee, Su Young; Kuti, Joseph L; Nicolau, David P

2006-01-01

295

Groundwater and surface-water utilisation using a bank infiltration technique in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bank infiltration (BI) is one of the solutions to providing raw water for public supply in tropical countries. This study in Malaysia explores the use of BI to supplement a polluted surface-water resource with groundwater. Three major factors were investigated: (1) contribution of surface water through BI to the resulting abstraction, (2) input of local groundwater, and (3) water-quality characteristics of the resulting water supply. A geophysical method was employed to define the subsurface geology and hydrogeology, and isotope techniques were performed to identify the source of groundwater recharge and the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the local surface-water bodies and groundwater were analyzed before and during water abstraction. Extracted water revealed a 5-98 % decrease in turbidity, as well as reductions in HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, Ca2+, Al3+ and As concentrations compared with those of Langat River water. In addition, amounts of E. coli, total coliform and Giardia were significantly reduced (99.9 %). However, water samples from test wells during pumping showed high concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+. Pumping test results indicate that the two wells used in the study were able to sustain yields.

Shamsuddin, Mohd Khairul Nizar; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Suratman, Saim; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Samuding, Kamarudin

2014-05-01

296

Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana.  

PubMed

The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the rural areas and in some of the regions. The government and other service providers (NGOs, religious institutions and private providers) may endeavor to improve on the distribution of health facilities, human resources, good roads and necessary infrastructure among other things in order to facilitate easy access to health care providers especially for the rural dwellers. PMID:22866869

Arthur, Eric

2012-01-01

297

Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.  

PubMed

Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of results for systems with electricity use as an environmental hot spot. The importance of assessing water use, an environmental impact not assessed by any of the reviewed studies, is highlighted. PMID:24121250

Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

2014-06-25

298

Utilising family-based designs for detecting rare variant disease associations.  

PubMed

Rare genetic variants are thought to be important components in the causality of many diseases but discovering these associations is challenging. We demonstrate how best to use family-based designs to improve the power to detect rare variant disease associations. We show that using genetic data from enriched families (those pedigrees with greater than one affected member) increases the power and sensitivity of existing case-control rare variant tests. However, we show that transmission- (or within-family-) based tests do not benefit from this enrichment. This means that, in studies where a limited amount of genotyping is available, choosing a single case from each of many pedigrees has greater power than selecting multiple cases from fewer pedigrees. Finally, we show how a pseudo-case-control design allows a greater range of statistical tests to be applied to family data. PMID:24571231

Preston, Mark D; Dudbridge, Frank

2014-03-01

299

Phase-space properties of magneto-optical traps utilising micro-fabricated gratings  

E-print Network

We have used diffraction gratings to simplify the fabrication, and dramatically increase the atomic collection efficiency, of magneto-optical traps using micro-fabricated optics. The atom number enhancement was mainly due to the increased beam capture volume, afforded by the large area (4cm^2) shallow etch (200nm) binary grating chips. Here we provide a detailed theoretical and experimental investigation of the on-chip magneto-optical trap temperature and density in four different chip geometries using 87Rb, whilst studying effects due to MOT radiation pressure imbalance. With optimal initial MOTs on two of the chips we obtain both large atom number (2x10^7) _and_ sub-Doppler temperatures (50uK) after optical molasses.

McGilligan, James P; Riis, Erling; Arnold, Aidan S

2015-01-01

300

Financial and environmental modelling of water hardness--implications for utilising harvested rainwater in washing machines.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the financial and environmental effects of water quality on rainwater harvesting systems. The potential for replacing tap water used in washing machines with rainwater was studied, and then analysis presented in this paper is valid for applications that include washing machines where tap water hardness may be important. A wide range of weather conditions, such as rainfall (284-1,794 mm/year); water hardness (14-315 mg/L CaCO3); tap water prices (0.85-2.65 Euros/m(3)) in different Spanish urban areas (from individual buildings to whole neighbourhoods); and other scenarios (including materials and water storage capacity) were analysed. Rainfall was essential for rainwater harvesting, but the tap water prices and the water hardness were the main factors for consideration in the financial and the environmental analyses, respectively. The local tap water hardness and prices can cause greater financial and environmental impacts than the type of material used for the water storage tank or the volume of the tank. The use of rainwater as a substitute for hard water in washing machines favours financial analysis. Although tap water hardness significantly affects the financial analysis, the greatest effect was found in the environmental analysis. When hard tap water needed to be replaced, it was found that a water price of 1 Euro/m(3) could render the use of rainwater financially feasible when using large-scale rainwater harvesting systems. When the water hardness was greater than 300 mg/L CaCO3, a financial analysis revealed that an net present value greater than 270 Euros/dwelling could be obtained at the neighbourhood scale, and there could be a reduction in the Global Warming Potential (100 years) ranging between 35 and 101 kg CO2 eq./dwelling/year. PMID:24262990

Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Lurueña, Rodrigo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan

2014-02-01

301

Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS) it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC) utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1%) had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3%) attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9%) delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91). Conclusion This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on those living nearby or in the same district where an HDSS is located even when not included in the surveillance system. PMID:24998383

Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Gebregiorgis, Seifu Hagos; Roro, Meselech Assegid; Lemma, Alemayehu Mekonnen; Ahmed, Saifuddin

2014-01-01

302

Hospital admissions for severe mental illness in England: changes in equity of utilisation at the small area level between 2006 and 2010.  

PubMed

Severe Mental Illness (SMI) encompasses a range of chronic conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychoses. Patients with SMI often require inpatient psychiatric care. Despite equity being a key objective in the English National Health Service (NHS) and in many other health care systems worldwide, little is known about the socio-economic equity of hospital care utilisation for patients with SMI and how it has changed over time. This analysis seeks to address that gap in the evidence base. We exploit a five-year (2006-2010) panel dataset of admission rates at small area level (n=162,410). The choice of control variables was informed by a systematic literature search. To assess changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation, OLS-based standardisation was first used to conduct analysis of discrete deprivation groups. Geographical inequity was then illustrated by plotting standardised and crude admission rates at local purchaser level. Lastly, formal statistical tests for changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation were applied to a continuous measure of deprivation using pooled negative binomial regression analysis, adjusting for a range of risk factors. Our results suggest that one additional percentage point of area income deprivation is associated with a 1.5% (p<0.001) increase in admissions for SMI after controlling for population size, age, sex, prevalence of SMI in the local population, as well as other need and supply factors. This finding is robust to sensitivity analyses, suggesting that a pro-poor inequality in utilisation exists for SMI-related inpatient services. One possible explanation is that the supply or quality of primary, community or social care for people with mental health problems is suboptimal in deprived areas. Although there is some evidence that inequity has reduced over time, the changes are small and not always robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:25262312

White, Jonathan; Gutacker, Nils; Jacobs, Rowena; Mason, Anne

2014-11-01

303

Trends in incidence and medical resource utilisation in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: insights from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common leukaemia in European adults. We aimed to evaluate time trends in CLL incidence and medical resource utilisation of CLL patients in the UK. We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort analysis using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) comprising mainly primary care data. We included adult patients with newly diagnosed CLL between January 2000 and June 2012. Descriptive and trend analyses of CLL incidence and medical resource utilisation were performed. A total of 2576 patients with CLL met the eligibility criteria. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (71.7 %) were above 65 years of age. The European age-standardised CLL incidence rate in the CPRD was 6.2/100,000 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 6.0, 6.5/100,000) person-years. There was no statistically significant increase over time. The CLL patients had on average 74.6 general practitioner visits during a median follow-up of 3.3 years. Between 2000 and 2012, the average number of recorded hospitalisations and referrals per year corrected for duration of follow-up significantly (p?utilisation in UK primary care was well documented, but further research is needed to describe secondary and tertiary care medical resource utilisation e.g. chemotherapy administration, which is inadequately captured in the CPRD. PMID:25219890

Pfeil, A M; Imfeld, P; Pettengell, R; Jick, S S; Szucs, T D; Meier, Christoph R; Schwenkglenks, M

2015-03-01

304

UTILISATION PRATIQUE D'UNE CHAMBRE D'IONISATION A PRESSION POUR LA DTERMINATION DE L'INTENSIT ABSOLUE DES RAYONS GAMMA  

E-print Network

518. UTILISATION PRATIQUE D'UNE CHAMBRE D'IONISATION A PRESSION POUR LA D�TERMINATION DE L'intensité absolue des rayons y par la chambre d'ionisation. Cette méthode a été utilisée à plusieurs reprises par résultats de ce travail. Rappel des résultats. - Le courant d'ionisation produit par un rayonnement y d

Boyer, Edmond

305

Hospital admissions for severe mental illness in England: Changes in equity of utilisation at the small area level between 2006 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Severe Mental Illness (SMI) encompasses a range of chronic conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychoses. Patients with SMI often require inpatient psychiatric care. Despite equity being a key objective in the English National Health Service (NHS) and in many other health care systems worldwide, little is known about the socio-economic equity of hospital care utilisation for patients with SMI and how it has changed over time. This analysis seeks to address that gap in the evidence base. We exploit a five-year (2006–2010) panel dataset of admission rates at small area level (n = 162,410). The choice of control variables was informed by a systematic literature search. To assess changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation, OLS-based standardisation was first used to conduct analysis of discrete deprivation groups. Geographical inequity was then illustrated by plotting standardised and crude admission rates at local purchaser level. Lastly, formal statistical tests for changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation were applied to a continuous measure of deprivation using pooled negative binomial regression analysis, adjusting for a range of risk factors. Our results suggest that one additional percentage point of area income deprivation is associated with a 1.5% (p < 0.001) increase in admissions for SMI after controlling for population size, age, sex, prevalence of SMI in the local population, as well as other need and supply factors. This finding is robust to sensitivity analyses, suggesting that a pro-poor inequality in utilisation exists for SMI-related inpatient services. One possible explanation is that the supply or quality of primary, community or social care for people with mental health problems is suboptimal in deprived areas. Although there is some evidence that inequity has reduced over time, the changes are small and not always robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:25262312

White, Jonathan; Gutacker, Nils; Jacobs, Rowena; Mason, Anne

2014-01-01

306

Sur l'utilisation des filtres du premier-ordre pour l'estimation d'un canal radio-mobile de Rayleigh vanouissement plat  

E-print Network

Sur l'utilisation des filtres du premier-ordre pour l'estimation d'un canal radio-mobile de traitons de l'estimation d'un canal de communication radio-mobile aléatoire selon un modèle de Rayleigh à approcher les variations du canal par un modèle Auto- Régressif du premier ordre (AR1) dont le paramètre est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

SpoonEMF, une brique logicielle pour l'utilisation de l'IDM dans le cadre de la ringnierie de programmes Java5  

E-print Network

programmes Java5 Olivier Barais Projet Triskell/IRISA campus de Beaulieu. F - 35 042 Rennes Cedex barais'IDM dans le cadre de la réingénierie d'applications écrites en Java. L'accent dans cette courte réutilisation d'outils comme l'analyseur syntaxique de code Java5 (parser) ou le générateur de code (pretty

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

Utilisation de la Taille Maximale des Poissons de Mangrove en Vue de la Slection d'espces Natives pour Leur Pisciculture aux Antilles  

E-print Network

Utilisation de la Taille Maximale des Poissons de Mangrove en Vue de la Sélection d'espèces Natives à la longueur maximale connue ailleurs pour la même espèce. Dans cette mangrove, les espèces de plus by 42 species of fish living in the Manche-à-Eau mangrove lagoon, Guadeloupe (French West Indies) has

Boyer, Edmond

309

Cloning of the cbhI and cbhII genes involved in cellulose utilisation by the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea is cultivated on substrates rich in cellulose and has been shown to produce a family of cellulolytic enzymes. A PCR-based\\u000a strategy was adopted to clone genes involved in cellulose utilisation, using degenerate primers designed to amplify conserved\\u000a catalytic domain sequences of cellobiohydrolases (CBHs). PCR with these primers produced two DNA fragments with sequence similarity\\u000a to

J. Jia; P. S. Dyer; J. A. Buswell; J. F. Peberdy

1999-01-01

310

Utilisation of Chlorella vulgaris cell biomass for the production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of cell proteins in green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris 87/1 are described. Different proteases can be used for production of hydrolysates from ethanol extracted algae. The influence of reaction parameters on hydrolysis of extracted biomass with pancreatin was considered, and the composition of hydrolysates (Cv-PH) was investigated in relation to the starting materials. Significant changes in the degree of hydrolysis were observed only during the first 2h and it remained constant throughout the process. An enzyme-substrate ratio of 30-45 units/g algae, an algae concentration of 10-15% and pH values of 7.5-8.0 could be recommended. Differences in the chromatographic patterns of Cv-PH and a hot-extract from Chlorella biomass were observed. Adequate amounts of essential amino acids (44.7%) in relation to the reference pattern of FAO for human nutrition were found, except for sulfur amino acids. Cv-PH could be considered as a potential ingredient in the food industry. PMID:18359627

Morris, Humberto J; Almarales, Angel; Carrillo, Olimpia; Bermúdez, Rosa C

2008-11-01

311

Utilising the resources of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium: the Australian experience.  

PubMed

Mouse models play a key role in the understanding gene function, human development and disease. In 2007, the Australian Government provided funding to establish the Monash University embryonic stem cell-to-mouse (ES2M) facility. This was part of the broader Australian Phenomics Network, a national infrastructure initiative aimed at maximising access to global resources for understanding gene function in the mouse. The remit of the ES2M facility is to provide subsidised access for Australian biomedical researchers to the ES cell resources available from the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC). The stated aim of the IKMC is to generate a genetically modified mouse ES cell line for all of the ~23,000 genes in the mouse genome. The principal function of the Monash University ES2M service is to import genetically modified ES cells into Australia and to convert them into live mice with the potential to study human disease. Through advantages of economy of scale and established relationships with ES cell repositories worldwide, we have created over 110 germline mouse strains sourced from all of the major ES providers worldwide. We comment on our experience in generating these mouse lines; providing a snapshot of a "clients" perspective of using the IKMC resource and one which we hope will serve as a guide to other institutions or organisations contemplating establishing a similar centralised service. PMID:25645994

Cotton, Leanne M; Meilak, Michelle L; Templeton, Tanya; Gonzales, Jose G; Nenci, Arianna; Cooney, Melissa; Truman, Dirk; Rodda, Fleur; Lynas, Alyce; Viney, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nadia; Bianco, Deborah M; O'Bryan, Moira K; Smyth, Ian M

2015-04-01

312

Caracterisation des signatures de decharges partielles en utilisant une nouvelle generation de coupleurs piezoelectriques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue affecting the sustainability of power transformers is systematic and progressive deterioration of the insulation system by the action of partial discharge. Ideally, it is appropriate to use on line, non-destructive techniques for detection and diagnosis of failures related to insulation systems, in order to determine whether preventive maintenance action is required. Thus, huge material losses can be saved (spared), while improving reliability and system availability. Based on a new generation of piezoelectric sensors (High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers HTUTs), recently developed by the Industrial Materials Institute (IMI) in Boucherville (Qc, Canada) and offers very interesting features (broad band frequency response, flexible, miniature, economic, etc..), we propose in this thesis an investigation on the applicability of this technology to the problematic of partial discharges. This work presents an analysis of the metrological performance of these sensors and demonstrated empirically the consistency of their measures. It outlines the results of validation from a comparative study with the measures of a standard detection circuit. In addition, it also presents the potential of these sensors to locate partial discharge source position by acoustic emission.

Danouj, Boujemaa

313

Plutonium and minor actinide utilisation in a pebble-bed high temperature reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper contains results of the analysis of the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled PUMA reactor loaded with plutonium and minor actinide (Pu/MA) fuel. Starting from knowledge and experience gained in the Euratom FP5 projects HTR-N and HTR-N1, this study aims at demonstrating the potential of high temperature reactors to utilize or transmute Pu/MA fuel. The work has been performed within the Euratom FP6 project PUMA. A number of different fuel types and fuel configurations have been analyzed and compared with respect to incineration performance and safety-related reactor parameters. The results show the excellent plutonium and minor actinide burning capabilities of the high temperature reactor. The largest degree of incineration is attained in the case of an HTR fuelled by pure plutonium fuel as it remains critical at very deep burnup of the discharged pebbles. Addition of minor actinides to the fuel leads to decrease of the achievable discharge burnup and therefore smaller fraction of actinides incinerated during reactor operation. The inert-matrix fuel design improves the transmutation performance of the reactor, while the 'wallpaper' fuel does not have advantage over the standard fuel design in this respect. After 100 years of decay following the fuel discharge, the total amount of actinides remains almost unchanged for all of the fuel types considered. Among the plutonium isotopes, only the amount of Pu-241 is reduced significantly due to its relatively short half-life. (authors)

Petrov, B. Y.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.; De Haas, J. B. M. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2012-07-01

314

Cost and utilisation of hospital based delivery care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India.  

PubMed

Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India. PMID:23054455

Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

2013-10-01

315

Utilisation de sources et d'adjoints dragon pour les calculs TRIPOLI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation is an essential part of reactor physics in order to understand the behaviour of neutrons inside and outside nuclear reactors. The objective is to solve the neutron transport equation in order to know the neutron flux and the interactions between neutrons and materials. We use neutronic simulation codes in order to solve this equation for criticallity problem, where we have a neutron multiplying environment, and shielding problems. There are two different types of numerical simulation techniques. Deterministic methods solve directly the transport equation using some approximations. The energy domain is divided in regions called groups, we use a spatial mesh for the geometry treatment, transport operator may also be simplified. Those approximations invole an inherent error. However these methods provide high computation time performances. Monte Carlo or stochastic methods follow explicitly a large number of neutrons as they travel through materials minimizing approximations. Continuous-energy and multigroup treatment are both available. Quantities calculated are random variables to which are associated statistical error called standard deviations. We have to simulate a very large number of neutrons if we want the calculation to converge and the results to be precise enough. As a matter of fact, computation time of these methods can be excessively large and represent their main weakness. The objective of this study is to set up a chaining method from a deterministic code to a Monte Carlo code, in order to improve the convergence of Monte Carlo calculations performed by the code TRIPOLI. We want to use datas calculated by the deterministic code DRAGON and use them in TRIPOLI. We will develop two methods. The first one will calculate source distribution in DRAGON and implement them in TRIPOLI as initial sources of a criticallity calculation. The objective is to accelerate the convergence of the neutrons sources, and save the first batches that are usually non significant. The second method is to use of the adjoint neutron flux calculated by DRAGON as an importance function for Monte Carlo biaising in TRIPOLI. The objective is to improve the figure of merit of the detector response located far away of the neutron source. The neutron source initialisation of a TRIPOLI calculation required to develop the development of a module in DRAGON that generates a list of sources in the TRIPOLI syntaxe, including for each source, its intensity, its position and the energy domain it covers. We tested our method on a complete 17×17 PWR-UOX assembly and on a reduced 3×3 model. We first verified that the DRAGON and TRIPOLI models were consistent in order to ensure that TRIPOLI receives a coherent source distribution. Then we tested the use of DRAGON sources in TRIPOLI with neutron flux and the effective multiplying coefficient (keff). We observe slightly better standard deviations, of an order of 10 pcm, on keff for simulations using DRAGON sources distributions as compared to simulations with less precise initial sources. Flux convergence is also improved. However some incoherence were also observed in the results, some flux converging slower with DRAGON sources when fewer neutrons per batch are considered. In addition, a very large number of sources is too heavy to insert in TRIPOLI. It seems that our method is perfectible in order to improve implementation and convergence. Study of more complex geometries, with less regular sources distributions (for instance using MOX or irradiated fuel) may provide better performances using our method. For biaising TRIPOLI calculations using the DRAGON adjoint flux we created a module that produces importance maps readable by TRIPOLI. We tested our method on a source-detector shielding problem in one dimension. After checking the coherence of DRAGON and TRIPOLI models, we biaised TRIPOLI simulations using the DRAGON adjoint flux, and using INIPOND, the internal biaising option of TRIPOLI. We observed a good improvement of the figure of merit of a calculation biaised with the DRAGON

Camand, Corentin

316

Chitin utilisation by broilers and its effect on body composition and blood metabolites.  

PubMed

1. Little is known about the ability of farmed poultry to digest chitin and derive nutrients from the ingestion of insects. 2. Commercial chitin derived from crustacean shell waste was found to contain 373 g crude protein, 265 g ash, 23.5 g ether extract, 130 g calcium and 16.4 g phosphorus per kg, on an air-dry basis. 3. It was included in diets at 0, 25, 50 and 75 g chitin per kg and fed to 320 1-d-old broiler males, over a 21-d period. There were no statistically significant treatment effects on weight gain or feed efficiency. Apparent digestibility of chitin protein was 0.48, 0.50 and 0.45, at the 25, 50 and 75 g per kg inclusions, respectively. Mean AME and AMEN values of chitin were determined as 8.97 and 8.86 MJ/kg. 4. In a subsequent study, mean TME and TMEN values of chitin were determined to be 8.23 and 8.21 MJ per kg, respectively. Addition of chitinase to the diet increased TME and TMEN of chitin to 8.81 and 8.79 MJ per kg, respectively (P<0.05). True digestibility of chitin protein was determined to be 0.87. 5. Triglyceride concentrations in liver and breast meat were significantly reduced by chitin inclusion. No significant differences in carcase yield at 21 d of age were found. Serum cholesterol and triglycerol concentrations were reduced significantly by dietary chitin, the lowest levels being observed at the 50 g per kg inclusion level. 6. These findings indicate the ability of modern poultry to digest chitin but suggest that the ingestion of insects is not an important source of nutrients, at least from the exoskeleton. PMID:17364538

Hossain, S M; Blair, R

2007-02-01

317

Utilisation of a cryptic non-canonical donor splice site of the gene encoding PARAFIBROMIN is associated with familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

More than 99% of all splice sites conform to consensus sequences that usually include the invariant dinucleotides gt and ag at the 5' and 3' ends of the introns, respectively. We report on the utilisation of a non-consensus (non-canonical) donor splice site within exon 1 of the HRPT2 gene in familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). HRPT2 mutations are more frequently associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT). Patients with FIHP were identified to have a donor splice site mutation, IVS1+1 g?a, and the consequences of this for RNA processing were investigated. The mutant mRNA lacked 30 bp and DNA sequence analysis revealed this to result from utilisation of an alternative cryptic non-canonical donor splice site (gaatgt) in exon 1 together with the normally occurring acceptor splice site in intron 1. Translation of this mutant mRNA predicted the in-frame loss of 10 amino acids in the encoded protein, termed PARAFIBROMIN. Thus, these FIHP patients are utilising a ga-ag splice site pair, which until recently was considered to be incompatible with splicing but is now known to occur as a rare (<0.02%) normal splicing variant. PMID:16061557

Bradley, K; Cavaco, B; Bowl, M; Harding, B; Young, A; Thakker, R

2005-01-01

318

Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8?months of age, 152?±?12.6?kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n?=?5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180?days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180?days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p?

Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

2013-04-01

319

The Positive Impact of the Early-Feeding of a Plant-Based Diet on Its Future Acceptance and Utilisation in Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional exposure, the growth of fish fed plant-based feed. Rainbow trout swim-up fry were fed for 3 weeks either a plant-based diet (diet V, V-fish) or a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil as protein and fat source (diet M, M-fish). After this 3-wk nutritional history period, all V- or M-fish received diet M for a 7-month intermediate growth phase. Both groups were then challenged by feeding diet V for 25 days during which voluntary feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilisation were monitored (V-challenge). Three isogenic rainbow trout lines were used for evaluating possible family effects. The results of the V-challenge showed a 42% higher growth rate (P?=?0.002) and 30% higher feed intake (P?=?0.005) in fish of nutritional history V compared to M (averaged over the three families). Besides the effects on feed intake, V-fish utilized diet V more efficiently than M-fish, as reflected by the on average 18% higher feed efficiency (P?=?0.003). We noted a significant family effect for the above parameters (P<0.001), but the nutritional history effect was consistent for all three families (no interaction effect, P>0.05). In summary, our study shows that an early short-term exposure of rainbow trout fry to a plant-based diet improves acceptance and utilization of the same diet when given at later life stages. This positive response is encouraging as a potential strategy to improve the use of plant-based feed in fish, of interest in the field of fish farming and animal nutrition in general. Future work needs to determine the persistency of this positive early feeding effect and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24386155

Geurden, Inge; Borchert, Peter; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N.; Schrama, Johan W.; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Quillet, Edwige; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Panserat, Stéphane; Médale, Françoise

2013-01-01

320

Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la sédation, les chutes et la surdose peuvent être minimisées en utilisant des doses initiales faibles, un titrage plus lent, un sevrage des benzodiazépines et une bonne éducation des patients. Dans le cas des femmes enceintes qui prennent des opioïdes chaque jour, il faut faire un sevrage progressif et cesser complètement. Si ce n’est pas possible, il faut administrer la dose efficace la plus faible. Les femmes enceintes qui ont une dépendance aux opioïdes devraient recevoir un traitement à la méthadone. Les adolescents sont à risque élevé de surdose d’opioïdes, d’usage abusif et de dépendance. Les patients qui ont des adolescents qui vivent à la maison devraient entreposer leurs opioïdes dans un lieu sûr. Les adolescents ont rarement besoin d’une thérapie à long terme aux opioïdes. Conclusion Les médecins de famille doivent tenir compte de l’âge, de la condition psychiatrique, du degré de risque de dépendance du patient et d’autres facteurs quand ils prescrivent des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique.

Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

2011-01-01

321

High sample throughput flow immunoassay utilising restricted access columns for the separation of bound and free label.  

PubMed

A flow immunodetection system with high sample throughput capacity is described for the screening of various analytes. The immunochemical detection principle is based on the chromatographic separation of the formed immunocomplex (AbAg or AbAg*) and the free antigen (Ag) by a restricted access (RA) column, utilising size-exclusion and reversed-phase mechanism. A fluorescein labelled analyte (Ag*) was used in the competitive assay format with fluorescence detection. The speed and simplicity of the assay were the greatest advantages, allowing measurement of the analyte to be carried out in less than 1 min. The biocompatibility and capacity of the restricted access material allowed multiple injections of up to 5000, without any breakthrough of the fluorescent tracer molecule and thus need for regeneration. The flow immunoassay was developed using the well-known atrazine herbicide and some transformation products as model compounds, due to their human toxicity and widespread use. The sample throughput was 80 samples per hour and the detection limits were 1.4 nM (300 pg/ml) for atrazine (Ab I) and 2.3 nM (500 pg/ml) for the sum of triazines (Ab II-III). Different sample matrices, PBS buffer, creek water, and urine were successfully applied in the flow system without the need for any sample handling step. For plasma samples an additional clean-up step using solid-phase extraction had to be included. The resulting detection limits for atrazine in plasma and water samples using this clean-up and trace enrichment procedure were found to be 2 ng/ml and 20 pg/ml, respectively. The analysis could be performed at a sample throughput rate of 400 per 6-h working shift. PMID:9561764

Onnerfjord, P; Eremin, S A; Emnéus, J; Marko-Varga, G

1998-03-27

322

Comparison of the utilisation of palm kernel meal, brewers' dried grains and maize offal by broiler chicks.  

PubMed

1. Palm kernel meal (PKM), brewers dried grains (BDG) and maize offal (MO) were included in broiler diets, each at 100, 150 or 200 g/kg; the diets were fed up to 35 d of age. 2. Overall food intake and weight gain decreased in the order BDG, PKM and MO. There were, however, significant interactions between the test ingredients and dietary concentrations in all the growth responses. Food intakes increased with the dietary concentrations of each test ingredient, but the increase was greater for BDG than PKM or MO. For weight gain, at 100 g/kg, the final body weights of the chicks fed on the diets with BDG and MO were similar, and those of chicks fed on the diet with PKM slightly lower. However, at 200 g/kg, growth rate of chicks fed on the BDG and PKM diets were similar while those of chicks fed on the MO diet was 7% lower. Efficiency of food utilisation was similar at 100 g/kg for all the ingredients and decreased as their concentrations increased; however, the decrease was considerably less for the PKM than for the MO and BDG diets. 3. Broilers fed on the BDG-based diets voided most excreta followed by those fed on the PKM and MO diets; excreta water content was highest from birds fed on the MO diets followed by the PKM and BDG diets. Apparent retention of dry matter was similar with all the test ingredients, but it decreased only significantly at 200 g/kg dietary concentration. The rate of passage was faster with the PKM diets followed by the MO and BDG diets; it was increased at 200 g/kg dietary concentration of the test ingredients. PMID:9649879

Onifade, A A; Babatunde, G M

1998-05-01

323

Insights into the Dekkera bruxellensis Genomic Landscape: Comparative Genomics Reveals Variations in Ploidy and Nutrient Utilisation Potential amongst Wine Isolates  

PubMed Central

The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is a major contaminant of industrial fermentations, such as those used for the production of biofuel and wine, where it outlasts and, under some conditions, outcompetes the major industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to investigate the level of inter-strain variation that is present within this economically important species, the genomes of four diverse D. bruxellensis isolates were compared. While each of the four strains was shown to contain a core diploid genome, which is clearly sufficient for survival, two of the four isolates have a third haploid complement of chromosomes. The sequences of these additional haploid genomes were both highly divergent from those comprising the diploid core and divergent between the two triploid strains. Similar to examples in the Saccharomyces spp. clade, where some allotriploids have arisen on the basis of enhanced ability to survive a range of environmental conditions, it is likely these strains are products of two independent hybridisation events that may have involved multiple species or distinct sub-species of Dekkera. Interestingly these triploid strains represent the vast majority (92%) of isolates from across the Australian wine industry, suggesting that the additional set of chromosomes may confer a selective advantage in winery environments that has resulted in these hybrid strains all-but replacing their diploid counterparts in Australian winery settings. In addition to the apparent inter-specific hybridisation events, chromosomal aberrations such as strain-specific insertions and deletions and loss-of-heterozygosity by gene conversion were also commonplace. While these events are likely to have affected many phenotypes across these strains, we have been able to link a specific deletion to the inability to utilise nitrate by some strains of D. bruxellensis, a phenotype that may have direct impacts in the ability for these strains to compete with S. cerevisiae. PMID:24550744

Borneman, Anthony R.; Zeppel, Ryan; Chambers, Paul J.; Curtin, Chris D.

2014-01-01

324

Primary health care use among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis aims to provide insight into differences \\u000ain the actual use of health care services by ethnic minorities as \\u000acompared to the indigenous Dutch population. Furthermore, the role of \\u000adifferent determinants of health care utilisation is studied in order \\u000ato establish to what degree ethnic differences in utilisation are \\u000aexplained by these determinants. In addition, this thesis also pays

A. H. Uiters

2007-01-01

325

Retrieving the availability of light in the ocean utilising spectral signatures of Vibrational Raman Scattering in hyper-spectral satellite measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of light in the ocean is an important parameter for the determination of phytoplankton photosynthesis processes and primary production from satellite data. It is also a useful parameter for other applications, e.g. the determination of heat fluxes. In this study, a method was developed utilising the vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) effect of water molecules to determine the amount of photons available in the ocean water, which is expressed by the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0. Radiative transfer simulations with the fully coupled ocean-atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) SCIATRAN show clearly the relationship of E0 to the strength of the VRS signal measured at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Taking advantage of VRS structures in hyper-spectral satellite measurements a retrieval technique to derive E0 in the wavelength region from 390 to 444.5 nm was developed. This approach uses the Weighting Function Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WF-DOAS) technique, applied to TOA radiances, measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Based on the approach of Vountas et al. (2007), where the DOAS method was used to fit modelled spectra of VRS, the method was improved by using the weighting function of VRS (VRS-WF) in the DOAS fit. This was combined with a look-up table (LUT) technique, where the E0 value was obtained for each VRS satellite fit directly. The VRS-WF and the LUT were derived from calculations with the RTM SCIATRAN (Rozanov et al., 2014). RTM simulations for different chlorophyll a concentrations and illumination conditions clearly show, that low fit factors of VRS retrieval results correspond to low amounts of light in the water column and vice versa. Exemplary, one month of SCIAMACHY data were processed and a global map of the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0 was retrieved. Spectral structures of VRS were clearly identified in the radiance measurements of SCIAMACHY. The fitting approach led to consistent results and the WF-DOAS algorithm results of VRS correlated clearly with the chlorophyll concentration in case-I water. Comparisons of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, extracted by VRS fit results, with the established GlobColour Kd (490) product show consistent results.

Dinter, T.; Rozanov, V. V.; Burrows, J. P.; Bracher, A.

2015-01-01

326

Study-MATE: Using Text Messaging to Support Student Transition to University Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are most likely to drop out of university when first attending. This article analyses the use of technology in supporting the transition process of "first time" university students enrolled in a second-year accounting course. Study-MATE, a study skills program utilising the university's learning management system (LMS)--Blackboard, Google…

Cahir, Jayde; Huber, Elaine; Handal, Boris; Dutch, Justin; Nixon, Mark

2012-01-01

327

Investigating Over Critical Thresholds of Forest Megafires Danger Conditions in Europe Utilising the ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) has been established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment (DG ENV) of the European Commission (EC) to support the services in charge of the protection of forests against fires in the EU and neighbour countries, and also to provide the EC services and the European Parliament with information on forest fires in Europe. Within its applications, EFFIS provides current and forecast meteorological fire danger maps up to 6 days. Weather plays a key role in affecting wildfire occurrence and behaviour. Meteorological parameters can be used to derive meteorological fire weather indices that provide estimations of fire danger level at a given time over a specified area of interest. In this work, we investigate the suitability of critical thresholds of fire danger to provide an early warning for megafires (fires > 500 ha) over Europe. Past trends of fire danger are analysed computing daily fire danger from weather data taken from re-analysis fields for a period of 31 years (1980 to 2010). Re-analysis global data sets coming from the construction of high-quality climate records, which combine past observations collected from many different observing and measuring platforms, are capable of describing how Fire Danger Indices have evolved over time at a global scale. The latest and most updated ERA-Interim dataset of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) was used to extract meteorological variables needed to compute daily values of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI) over Europe, with a horizontal resolution of about 75x75 km. Daily time series of CFWI were constructed and analysed over a total of 1,071 European NUTS3 centroids, resulting in a set of percentiles and critical thresholds. Such percentiles could be used as thresholds to help fire services establish a measure of the significance of CFWI outputs as they relate to levels of fire potential, fuel conditions and fire danger. Median percentile values of fire days accumulated over the 31-year period were compared to median values of all days from that period. As expected, the CWFI time series exhibit different values on fire days than on all days. In addition, a percentile analysis was performed in order to determine the behaviour of index values corresponding to fire events falling into the megafire category. This analysis resulted in a set of critical thresholds based on percentiles. By utilising such thresholds, an initial framework of an early warning system has being established. By lowering the value of any of these thresholds, the number of hits could be increased until all extremes were captured (resulting in zero misses). However, in doing so, the number of false alarms tends to increase significantly. Consequently, an optimal trade-off between hits and false alarms has to be established when setting different (critical) CFWI thresholds.

Petroliagkis, Thomas I.; Camia, Andrea; Liberta, Giorgio; Durrant, Tracy; Pappenberger, Florian; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus

2014-05-01

328

Studies of biomass fuelled MCFC systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the methods, techniques and results obtained during the studies of biomass fuelled molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems within the Swedish national fuel cell program are presented. The power plants are 60MW class, utilising biomass (i.e. wood chips) as the primary fuel. The biomass is converted via pressurised gasification into a gaseous form that, after subsequent

Timo Kivisaari; Pehr Björnbom; Christopher Sylwan

2002-01-01

329

The bounds on tracking performance utilising a laser-based linear and angular sensing and measurement methodology for micro/nano manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of the tracking performance of a planar three degrees of freedom (DOF) flexure-based mechanism for micro/nano manipulation, utilising a tracking methodology for the measurement of coupled linear and angular motions. The methodology permits trajectories over a workspace with large angular range through the reduction of geometric errors. However, when combining this methodology with feedback control systems, the accuracy of performed manipulations can only be stated within the bounds of the uncertainties in measurement. The dominant sources of error and uncertainty within each sensing subsystem are therefore identified, which leads to a formulation of the measurement uncertainty in the final system outputs, in addition to methods of reducing their magnitude. Specific attention is paid to the analysis of the vision-based subsystem utilised for the measurement of angular displacement. Furthermore, a feedback control scheme is employed to minimise tracking errors, and the coupling of certain measurement errors is shown to have a detrimental effect on the controller operation. The combination of controller tracking errors and measurement uncertainty provides the bounds on the final tracking performance.

Clark, Leon; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Tian, Yanling; Zhong, Yongmin

2014-12-01

330

Constructing Mental Illness as Dangerous: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: There is a dearth of studies examining how dangerousness is constructed in media depictions of mentally ill individuals who are frequently portrayed as acting violently. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of diverse technical, semiotic and discursive resources utilised in portraying a character with a mental illness in a prime-time drama as dangerous.Method: Discourse

Claire Wilson; Raymond Nairn; John Coverdale; Aroha Panapa

1999-01-01

331

Utilisation of a thoracic oncology database to capture radiological and pathological images for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Objective An area of need in cancer informatics is the ability to store images in a comprehensive database as part of translational cancer research. To meet this need, we have implemented a novel tandem database infrastructure that facilitates image storage and utilisation. Background We had previously implemented the Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project (TOPDP) database for our translational cancer research needs. While useful for many research endeavours, it is unable to store images, hence our need to implement an imaging database which could communicate easily with the TOPDP database. Methods The Thoracic Oncology Research Program (TORP) imaging database was designed using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform, which was developed by Vanderbilt University. To demonstrate proof of principle and evaluate utility, we performed a retrospective investigation into tumour response for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients treated at the University of Chicago Medical Center with either of two analogous chemotherapy regimens and consented to at least one of two UCMC IRB protocols, 9571 and 13473A. Results A cohort of 22 MPM patients was identified using clinical data in the TOPDP database. After measurements were acquired, two representative CT images and 0–35 histological images per patient were successfully stored in the TORP database, along with clinical and demographic data. Discussion We implemented the TORP imaging database to be used in conjunction with our comprehensive TOPDP database. While it requires an additional effort to use two databases, our database infrastructure facilitates more comprehensive translational research. Conclusions The investigation described herein demonstrates the successful implementation of this novel tandem imaging database infrastructure, as well as the potential utility of investigations enabled by it. The data model presented here can be utilised as the basis for further development of other larger, more streamlined databases in the future. PMID:23103606

Carey, George B; Kazantsev, Stephanie; Surati, Mosmi; Rolle, Cleo E; Kanteti, Archana; Sadiq, Ahad; Bahroos, Neil; Raumann, Brigitte; Madduri, Ravi; Dave, Paul; Starkey, Adam; Hensing, Thomas; Husain, Aliya N; Vokes, Everett E; Vigneswaran, Wickii; Armato, Samuel G; Kindler, Hedy L; Salgia, Ravi

2012-01-01

332

Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

2014-01-14

333

Association between daily antiretroviral pill burden and treatment adherence, hospitalisation risk, and other healthcare utilisation and costs in a US medicaid population with HIV  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lower pill burden leads to improved antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV patients. Simpler dosing regimens have not been widely explored in real-world populations. We retrospectively assessed ART adherence, all-cause hospitalisation risk and costs, and other healthcare utilisation and costs in Medicaid enrollees with HIV treated with ART as a once-daily single-tablet regimen (STR) or two or more pills per day (2+PPD). Design Patients with an HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 receiving complete ART (ie, two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus a third agent) for ?60?days as STR or 2+PPD were selected and followed until the first of (1) discontinuation of the complete ART, (2) loss of enrolment or (3) end of database. Adherence was measured using the medication possession ratio. Monthly all-cause healthcare utilisation and costs were observed from regimen initiation until follow-up end. Results Of the 7381 patients who met inclusion criteria, 1797 were treated with STR and 5584 with 2+PPD. STR patients were significantly more likely to reach 95% adherence and had fewer hospitalisations than 2+PPD patients (both p<0.01). STR patients had mean (SD) total monthly costs of $2959 ($4962); 2+PPD patients had $3544 ($5811; p<0.001). Hospital costs accounted for 53.8% and pharmacy costs accounted for 32.5% of this difference. Multivariate analyses found that STR led to a 23% reduction in hospitalisations and a 17% reduction in overall healthcare costs. ART adherence appears to be a key mechanism mediating hospitalisation risk, as patients with ?95% adherence (regardless of regimen type) had a lower hospitalisation rate compared with <95% adherence. Conclusions While it was expected that STR patients would have lower pharmacy costs, we also found that STR patients had fewer hospitalisations and lower hospital costs than 2+PPD patients, resulting in significantly lower total healthcare costs for STR patients. PMID:23906955

Cohen, Calvin J; Meyers, Juliana L; Davis, Keith L

2013-01-01

334

Aerobic capacity and fractional utilisation of aerobic capacity in elite and non-elite male and female marathon runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The physiology of marathon running has been extensively studied both in the laboratory and in the field, but these investigations\\u000a have been confined to elite competitors. In the present study 28 competitors who took part in a marathon race (42.2 km) have\\u000a been studied; 18 male subjects recorded times from 2 h 19 min 58 s to 4 h 53

R. J. Maughan; J. B. Leiper

1983-01-01

335

A quantitative approach to perceived health status: a validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current recognition of the importance of perceived health status as a predictor of need for, and utilisation of, health services has led to attempts to produce indicators which assess subjective rather than objective health problems. The development of the Nottingham Health Profile is described, together with a study which tested the validity of the instrument on four groups of

S M Hunt; S P McKenna; J McEwen; E M Backett; J Williams; E Papp

1980-01-01

336

Enacted Capabilities on Adoption of Information Systems: A Study of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of studies into the adoption behaviour of Information systems (IS) have focused on small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). These past studies provide an understanding of the contextual factors offering a simple dichotomous measure such as adopters and non-adopters rather than the manner of usage (from adoption to utilisation). This study introduces the construct of enacted capabilities and

Noor Akma Mohd Salleh; Fiona Rohde

2005-01-01

337

Ostéomyélites aiguës de l’enfant drépanocytaire en zone tropicale : intérêt de l’utilisation des fluoroquinolones par voie orale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. – This study was designed to assess the efficacy and the safety of fluoroquinolones in their compassionate use for acute osteomyelitis in children with sickle cell disease in a tropical country.Patients and methods. – This study was non comparative, including twelve children (eight SS, three SC and one SE°thalassemia) treated for acute osteomyelitis with oral ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin because of the following reasons : financial

A. D Gbadoé; A Dogba; A. Y Dagnra; Y Atakouma; H Tékou; J. K Assimadi

2001-01-01

338

The effect of an education program utilising PRECEDE model on the Quality of Life in patients with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient’s quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of patients with

MH Taghdisi; M Borhani; M Solhi; ME Afkari; F Hosseini

2012-01-01

339

Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of

A Acosta; I Iglesias; M Aineto; M Romero; J. Ma Rincón

2002-01-01

340

Utilisation digestive compare et formes d'excrtion fcale chez le rat, des acides rucique et brassidique estrifis  

E-print Network

in triglycerides of different structure. A comparative study in the rat. The digestibility and fecal excretion in triglycerides of different structure, were compared in the rat. Synthetic triglycerides were prepared either lumen. The high melting point of the homogeneous triglyceride was responsible for that phenomenon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

The Effect of an Education Program Utilising PRECEDE Model on the Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…

Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.

2012-01-01

342

The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

2003-01-01

343

Variation in growth and resource utilisation among eight poplar clones grown under different irrigation and fertilisation regimes in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, biomass allocation and nutrient economy of eight clones of poplar (Populus balsamifera L., P. trichocarpa Hook.) and hybrid poplar (P. trichocarpa Hook. ×P. deltoides Bartr.) of north-American origin were studied in a full-factorial pot experiment in Sweden, using the approach of classical growth analysis. The clones were compared in terms of relative growth rate (RGR), biomass production, biomass allocation,

Almir Kara?i?; Martin Weih

2006-01-01

344

Cross-cultural differences in lay attitudes and utilisation of antibiotics in a Belgian and a Dutch city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural differences are probably an important factor in the considerable variation in antibiotic use between countries. The objective of this study was to explore local cultural differences in the lay perspective on coping with URTD and using antibiotics. We interviewed 30 persons in a Dutch and a Belgian city. Twenty-one were interviewed a second time after 3 months. Between the

Reginald Deschepper; Robert H Vander Stichele; Flora M Haaijer-Ruskamp

2002-01-01

345

Simulation numérique des ancres à succion en deux- et trois- dimensions en utilisant la méthode des éléments finis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suction caissons are structures used as anchoring for floating systems in deepwater petroleum exploitation. In this article, a numerical study of suction caissons is presented. 2D and 3D simulations were performed with the program Plaxis®. The soil characteristics considered were clays with a shear strength increasing with depth. The clay was simulated with the two constitutive soil models \\

Pierre FORAY; Luisa N. EQUIHUA; Marc BOULON

2008-01-01

346

Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The article…

Dyke, Sarah

2013-01-01

347

Utilisation du jus d'ananas en tant qu'agent de contraste négatif en cholangiopancréatographie par résonance magnétique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography J Radiol 2004;85:1689-94 Purpose. The quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images is frequently degraded by high signal from the gastrointestinal tract on heavily T2W images. The purpose of this study is to evaluate pineapple juice (PJ) as an oral negative contrast agent in MRCP. Materials and

Fernand Widal; Joel Poupon

2011-01-01

348

Utilisation of satellite data in identification of geomorphic landform and its role in arsenic release in groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was conducted to explore the influence of geomorphic features of the area on the mobilization of arsenic in groundwater. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to prepare the geomorphic and slope map of the area. Different geomorphic features were identified on the basis of spectral signature on the LISS III and Landsat satellite image and field survey. Groundwater samples were collected from each representative geomorphic feature to inspect the arsenic contamination in the area. The study area is drained by the Brahmaputra river and its tributaries and contain mainly fluvial geomorphic units especially older flood plain, palaeochannels, oxbow lakes, channel islands; and hilly areas at some of the places. In this study it was observed that enrichment of arsenic in groundwater varies along the geomorphic units in following trends Paleochannel> Younger alluvial plain> Active flood plain> channel island > dissected hills. The above trend shows that a higher concentration of arsenic is found in the groundwater samples collected from the fluvial landforms as compared to those collected from structural landforms. Brahmaputra River and its tributaries carry the sediment load from the Himalayan foothills, which get deposited in these features during the lateral shift of the river's courses. Arsenic bearing minerals may get transported through river and deposit in the geomorphological features along with organic matter. The flat terrain of the area as seen from the slope map provides more residence time to water to infiltrate into the aquifer. The microbial degradation of organic matter generates the reducing environment and facilitates the dissolution of iron hydroxide thus releasing the adsorbed arsenic into the groundwater.

Singh, R. P.; Singh, N.; Shashtri, S.; Mukherjee, S.

2014-11-01

349

Correlation of drug utilisation and morbidity at the municipality level. High use of antibiotics associated with low use of antihypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between Swedish drug sales data per municipality and morbidity per municipality. The morbidity was expressed as “sickness numbers” which are assumed to function as proxy for morbidity.Methods  Sickness numbers per municipality were correlated to volumes of drug sales per municipality in 2003. In addition, the sales volumes of antibiotics were correlated

J. Lars G. Nilsson; Gunnar Lindberg; Hans Johansson; Arne Melander

2006-01-01

350

Species-specific effects of plants colonising cutover peatlands on patterns of carbon source utilisation by soil microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root exudates and litter are the main sources of inputs of labile carbon into the microbial pool in successional ecosystems. Here we studied whether typical pioneer species (Eriophorum vaginatum, Eriophorum angustifolium and Calluna vulgaris) alter the functional response of the microbial community of a previously cutover peatland. Peat was sampled at three depths (0–5, 20–25 and 40–45cm) from beneath these

Weigang Yan; Rebekka R. E. Artz; David Johnson

2008-01-01

351

Effects of elevated dietary copper concentrations on growth, feed utilisation and nutritional status of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment was conducted to study effects of elevated dietary Cu and establish upper limits of Cu in fish feed. Atlantic salmon fry were reared for 3 months on experimental diets containing either 5 (control), 35, 500, 700, 900, or 1750 mg Cu kg?1, provided as CuSO4·5H2O. Dietary Cr2O3 was included (1%) in all experimental diets for the last

Marc H. G Berntssen; Anne-Kathrine Lundebye; Amund Maage

1999-01-01

352

Sub-kilohertz flash X-ray generator utilising a glass-enclosed cold-cathode triode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction and fundamental studies are described for a subkilohertz X-ray generator for producing low-dose rate flash\\u000a X-rays. The X-ray tube was a glass-enclosed cold-cathode triode, composed of a tungsten plate target, a rod-shaped graphite\\u000a cathode, a mesh-type trigger electrode made of tungsten wires, and a glass tube body. The coaxial condenser was charged up\\u000a to 60 kV by a

E. Sato; K. Takahashi; M. Sagae; S. Kimura; T. Oizumi; Y. Hayasi; Y. Tamakawa; T. Yanagisawa

1994-01-01

353

The influence of high-carbohydrate meals with different glycaemic indices on substrate utilisation during subsequent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to examine the effects of mixed high-carbohydrate meals with different glycaemic indices (GI) on sub- strate utilization during subsequent exercise. Nine healthy male recreational runners (age 26·8 (SEM 1·1) years, body mass 74·7 (SEM 2·4) kg, VO2max 58·1 (SEM 1·7) ml\\/kg per min) completed three trials: high-glycaemic-index meal (HGI), low-glycaemic-index meal (LGI) and fasting (FAST),

Ching-Lin Wu; Ceri Nicholas; Clyde Williams; Alison Took; Lucy Hardy

2003-01-01

354

Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

Gebka, Bartosz

2014-01-01

355

Lesson Study: An Effective School-Based Teacher Professional Learning Model for Teachers of Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on ongoing research in a cluster of schools in the outer south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne which is utilising Lesson Study as a peer observation model for mathematics teaching. The findings from nine initial Lesson Study sessions undertaken by cluster teachers to develop a Fractions Teaching Program are presented. The results indicate the success of the fractions tasks

Peter Sanders

356

A MICROBEAM STUDY OF DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAKS IN BYSTANDER PRIMARY HUMAN FIBROBLASTS  

E-print Network

A MICROBEAM STUDY OF DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAKS IN BYSTANDER PRIMARY HUMAN FIBROBLASTS L. B. Smilenov formation assay. Utilising the Columbia University single-cell microbeam system to deliver 2 or 20 studies of cell survival after X-ray microbeam irradiation (IR) demonstrated that the probability

357

A cost study of a general practioner hospital in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To perform a cost study of the first general practitioner (GP) hospital in the Netherlands. We conducted a cost study in a GP hospital in the Netherlands. Data on healthcare utilisation from 218 patients were collected for a period of one year. The costs of admission to the GP hosptial were compared with the expected costs of the alternative mode

Leona Hakkaart-Van Roijen; E. P. Moll van Charante; P. J. E. Bindels; C. J. J. M. IJzermans; F. F. H. Rutten

2004-01-01

358

EVALUATION OF A SUPPORT WORKSHOP FOR PARTNERS OF BREAST CANCER PATIENTS: A PILOT STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pilot study, we undertook to assess the efficacy of a support workshop for partners of women with early stage breast cancer. Thirteen male participants attended a two hour discussion group facilitated by a male facilitator. Open- ended and close-ended items specifically designed for this study were utilised to investigate the effects of attending the support workshop. The mean

Shab Mireskandari; Bettina Meiser; Belinda Thewes

359

Effect of feeding some plant foods as source of dietary fibre on biological utilisation of diet in rats.  

PubMed

Isoproteinous diets containing 1% cholesterol and 10% fibre derived from plant foods namely, peepalbanti (Ficus religiosa), barbanti (Ficus bengalensis), gullar (Ficus glomerata), teent (Capparis decidua) and khejri beans (Prsopsis cineria) or pure cellulose, were fed to rats for 40 days. Effect of incorporation of these whole plant parts on feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), dry matter digestibility (DMD) and true protein digestibility (TPD) in weanling rats was studied. Their inclusion did not affect the weight gain significantly whereas all other parameters were influenced to a varying extent. Foods rich in lignin had relatively lower FER, DMD and TPD whereas cellulose and pectin rich foods had higher DMD and TPD. PMID:2548174

Agarwal, V; Chauhan, B M

1989-06-01

360

Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing.  

PubMed

The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of these kind of bricks from mixes of waste from ores of construction clays and to significant fraction of different ratios and clay granulometries mixed with IGCC slag. The results of this experimentation suggests that not only can IGCC slag be applied to a ceramic process, but also its use gives several advantages, as water and energy savings, as well as improvements on the final properties of products. PMID:12423050

Acosta, A; Iglesias, I; Aineto, M; Romero, M; Rincón, J Ma

2002-01-01

361

[Health care utilisation in France: an analysis of the main drivers of health care use inequalities related to migration].  

PubMed

In using a general health survey representative of the French population, the 2006 and 2008 French Health, health care and insurance survey, this study explores inequalities in health care utilization between immigrants and natives. Our objective is to highlight the most important factors generating health care use inequalities relating to immigration in using non-linear decomposition. Estimation results reveal that for equivalent health care needs, immigrants present a lower demand for GP and specialist care than the French population. The implementation of non-linear decompositions suggests that health care use inequalities between French and immigrant populations are for the most part attributable to differences in the distribution of observable characteristics between both populations. In particular, immigrant lower health coverage represents the first factor generating inequalities in the propensity to contact a GP while education and income are the most important drivers of inequalities in the propensity to contact a specialist. PMID:23684103

Berchet, C

2013-06-01

362

Utilising caging techniques to investigate metal assimilation in Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas at three Irish coastal locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution by metals has been of increasing concern for a number of decades but at present, the mechanism of metal accumulation in sentinel species is not fully understood and further studies are required for environmental risk assessment of metals in aquatic environments. The use of caging techniques has proven to be useful for assessment of water quality in coastal and estuarine environments. This study investigates the application of caging techniques for monitoring uptake of 20 elements [Li, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Cd and Zn] in three marine species namely Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Stable isotopes were used to determine predatory effects and also used for modelling metal uptake in test species and to track nutrient assimilation. Metal levels were monitored at three different coastal locations, namely Dublin Bay, Dunmore East and Omey Island over 18 weeks. Significant differences in concentrations of Mn, Co and Zn between mussels and oysters were found. Correlations between cadmium levels in N. lapillus and ?13C and ?15N suggest dietary influences in Cd uptake. Levels of Zn were highest in C. gigas compared to the other two species and levels of Zn were most elevated at the Dunmore East site. Copper levels were more elevated in all test species at both Dublin Bay and Dunmore East. Mercury was raised in all species at Dunmore East compared to the other two sites. Biotic accumulation of metals in the test species demonstrates that caging techniques can provide a valid tool for biomonitoring in metal impacted areas.

Giltrap, Michelle; Macken, Ailbhe; Davoren, Maria; McGovern, Evin; Foley, Barry; Larsen, Martin; White, Jonathan; McHugh, Brendan

2013-11-01

363

The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio and its utilisation for the management of cancer patients in early clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background: Inflammation is critical to the pathogenesis and progression of cancer, with a high neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) associated with poor prognosis. The utility of studying NLR in early clinical trials is unknown. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 1300 patients treated in phase 1 clinical trials between July 2004 and February 2014 at the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH), UK. Data were collected on patient characteristics and baseline laboratory parameters. Results: The test cohort recruited 300 patients; 53% were female, 35% ECOG 0 and 64% ECOG 1. RMH score was 0–1 in 66% and 2–3 in 34%. The median NLR was 3.08 (IQR 2.06–4.49). Median OS for the NLR quartiles was 10.5 months for quartile-1, 10.3 months for quartile-2, 7.9 months for quartile-3 and 6.5 months for quartile-4 (P<0.0001). Univariate analysis identified RMH score (HR=0.55, P<0.0001), ECOG (HR=0.62, P=0.002) and neutrophils (HR=0.65, P=0.003) to be associated with OS. In multivariate analysis, adjusting for RMH score, ECOG, neutrophils and tumour type, NLR remained significantly associated with OS (P=0.002), with no association with therapeutic steroid use. These results were validated in a further 1000 cancer patients. In the validation cohort, NLR was able to discriminate for OS (P=0.004), as was the RMH score. This was further improved on in the RMH score+NLR50 and RMH score+Log10NLR models, with an optimal NLR cutoff of 3.0. Conclusions: NLR is a validated independent prognostic factor for OS in patients treated in phase 1 trials. Combining the NLR with the RMH score improves the discriminating ability for OS. PMID:25719834

Kumar, R; Geuna, E; Michalarea, V; Guardascione, M; Naumann, U; Lorente, D; Kaye, S B; de Bono, J S

2015-01-01

364

Health behaviour modelling for prenatal diagnosis in Australia: a geodemographic framework for health service utilisation and policy development  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the wide availability of prenatal screening and diagnosis, a number of studies have reported no decrease in the rate of babies born with Down syndrome. The objective of this study was to investigate the geodemographic characteristics of women who have prenatal diagnosis in Victoria, Australia, by applying a novel consumer behaviour modelling technique in the analysis of health data. Methods A descriptive analysis of data on all prenatal diagnostic tests, births (1998 and 2002) and births of babies with Down syndrome (1998 to 2002) was undertaken using a Geographic Information System and socioeconomic lifestyle segmentation classifications. Results Most metropolitan women in Victoria have average or above State average levels of uptake of prenatal diagnosis. Inner city women residing in high socioeconomic lifestyle segments who have high rates of prenatal diagnosis spend 20% more on specialist physician's fees when compared to those whose rates are average. Rates of prenatal diagnosis are generally low amongst women in rural Victoria, with the lowest rates observed in farming districts. Reasons for this are likely to be a combination of lack of access to services (remoteness) and individual opportunity (lack of transportation, low levels of support and income). However, there are additional reasons for low uptake rates in farming areas that could not be explained by the behaviour modelling. These may relate to women's attitudes and choices. Conclusion A lack of statewide geodemographic consistency in uptake of prenatal diagnosis implies that there is a need to target health professionals and pregnant women in specific areas to ensure there is increased equity of access to services and that all pregnant women can make informed choices that are best for them. Equally as important is appropriate health service provision for families of children with Down syndrome. Our findings show that these potential interventions are particularly relevant in rural areas. Classifying data to lifestyle segments allowed for practical comparisons of the geodemographic characteristics of women having prenatal diagnosis in Australia at a population level. This methodology may in future be a feasible and cost-effective tool for service planners and policy developers. PMID:16945156

Muggli, Evelyne E; McCloskey, David; Halliday, Jane L

2006-01-01

365

Simulation numerique de l'effet du reflecteur radial sur les cellules rep en utilisant les codes DRAGON et DONJON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWRs) is the largest fleet of nuclear reactors in operation around the world. Although these reactors have been studied extensively by designers and operators using efficient numerical methods, there are still some calculation weaknesses, given the geometric complexity of the core, still unresolved such as the analysis of the neutron flux's behavior at the core-reflector interface. The standard calculation scheme is a two steps process. In the first step, a detailed calculation at the assembly level with reflective boundary conditions, provides homogenized cross-sections for the assemblies, condensed to a reduced number of groups; this step is called the lattice calculation. The second step uses homogenized properties in each assemblies to calculate reactor properties at the core level. This step is called the full-core calculation or whole-core calculation. This decoupling of the two calculation steps is the origin of methodological bias particularly at the interface core reflector: the periodicity hypothesis used to calculate cross section librairies becomes less pertinent for assemblies that are adjacent to the reflector generally represented by these two models: thus the introduction of equivalent reflector or albedo matrices. The reflector helps to slowdown neutrons leaving the reactor and returning them to the core. This effect leads to two fission peaks in fuel assemblies localised at the core/reflector interface, the fission rate increasing due to the greater proportion of reentrant neutrons. This change in the neutron spectrum arises deep inside the fuel located on the outskirts of the core. To remedy this we simulated a peripheral assembly reflected with TMI-PWR reflector and developed an advanced calculation scheme that takes into account the environment of the peripheral assemblies and generate equivalent neutronic properties for the reflector. This scheme is tested on a core without control mechanisms and charged with fresh fuel. The results of this study showed that explicit representation of reflector and calculation of peripheral assembly with our advanced scheme allow corrections to the energy spectrum at the core interface and increase the peripheral power by up to 12% compared with that of the reference scheme.

Bejaoui, Najoua

366

Commande d'un drone en vue de la conversion vol rapide -vol stationnaire A l'heure actuelle, de nombreux projets d'utilisation de drones s'intressent la capacit des  

E-print Network

Commande d'un drone en vue de la conversion vol rapide - vol stationnaire A l'heure actuelle, de nombreux projets d'utilisation de drones s'intéressent à la capacité des véhicules à alterner des phases de, avec l'application au VERTIGO, drone de type VTOL a rotors contrarotatifs et volets déflecteurs de flux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Identification of registered nursing care of residents in English nursing homes using the Minimum Data Set Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS\\/RAI) and Resource Utilisation Groups version III (RUG-III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: to determine if a combination of Minimum Data Set\\/Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS\\/RAI) assessment variables and the Resource Utilisation Groups version III (RUG-III) case-mix system could be used as a method of identifying and reimbursing registered nursing care needs in long-term care. Method: the sample included 193 nursing home residents from four nursing homes from three different locations and care

IAIN CARPENTER; M ICHELLE PERRY; D AVID CHALLIS; K EVIN HOPE

368

Hospitalisation Utilisation and Costs in Schizophrenia Patients in Finland before and after Initiation of Risperidone Long-Acting Injection  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Quantify changes in hospital resource use in Finland following initiation of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Materials and Methods. A retrospective multi-center chart review (naturalistic setting) was used to compare annual hospital bed-days and hospital episodes for 177 schizophrenia patients (mean age 47.1 years, 52% female, 72% hospitalized) before and after initiation of RLAI (between January 2004 and June 2005) using the within-patient “mirror-image” study design. The base case analytical approach allocated hospital episodes overlapping the start date entirely to the preinitiation period. In order to investigate the impact of inpatient care ongoing at baseline, the change in bed-days was also estimated using an alternative analytical approached related to economic modelling. Results. In the conventional analysis, the mean annual hospitalisation costs declined by €11,900 and the number of bed-days was reduced by 40%, corresponding to 0.19 fewer hospital episodes per year. The reductions in bed-days per patient-year were similar for patients switched to RLAI as inpatients and as outpatients. In the modelling-based analysis, an 8% reduction in bed-days per year was observed. Conclusion. Despite uncertainty in the choice of analytic approach for allocating inpatient episodes that overlapping this initiation, consistent reductions in resource use are associated with the initiation of RLAI in Finland. PMID:22966445

Asseburg, Christian; Willis, Michael; Löthgren, Mickael; Seppälä, Niko; Hakala, Mika; Persson, Ulf

2012-01-01

369

Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction  

PubMed Central

Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

2014-01-01

370

Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.  

PubMed

The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS. PMID:25421162

Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

2015-01-01

371

Landscape Management of Fire and Grazing Regimes Alters the Fine-Scale Habitat Utilisation by Feral Cats  

PubMed Central

Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores. PMID:25329902

McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

2014-01-01

372

Forces and shapes as determinants of micro-swimming: effect on synchronisation and the utilisation of drag.  

PubMed

In this analytical study we demonstrate the richness of behaviour exhibited by bead-spring micro-swimmers, both in terms of known yet not fully explained effects such as synchronisation, and hitherto undiscovered phenomena such as the existence of two transport regimes where the swimmer shape has fundamentally different effects on the velocity. For this purpose we employ a micro-swimmer model composed of three arbitrarily-shaped rigid beads connected linearly by two springs. By analysing this swimmer in terms of the forces on the different beads, we determine the optimal kinematic parameters for sinusoidal driving, and also explain the pusher/puller nature of the swimmer. Moreover, we show that the phase difference between the swimmer's arms automatically attains values which maximise the swimming speed for a large region of the parameter space. Apart from this, we determine precisely the optimal bead shapes that maximise the velocity when the beads are constrained to be ellipsoids of a constant volume or surface area. On doing so, we discover the surprising existence of the aforementioned transport regimes in micro-swimming, where the motion is dominated by either a reduction of the drag force opposing the beads, or by the hydrodynamic interaction amongst them. Under some conditions, these regimes lead to counter-intuitive effects such as the most streamlined shapes forming locally the slowest swimmers. PMID:25675985

Pande, Jayant; Smith, Ana-Sun?ana

2015-03-11

373

[Utilisation of Psycho-oncological Services in Hospitals and Outpatient Counselling Centres by Survivors of Breast, Colon and Prostate Cancer.  

PubMed

Introduction: We investigated how many cancer survivors receive psycho-oncological care in hospitals and outpatient cancer counselling centres and which factors influence usage. Methods: Long-term survivors of breast, colon or prostate cancer completed a questionnaire assessing the use of psycho-oncological services in the "Cancer Survivorship - a multiregional population-based study (CAESAR)". Gender, age, community size, education, income and stage of disease were investigated as potential predictors of use. Results: Out of 6?143 participants, 547 (9%) reported having received psycho-oncological support in the hospital, 183 (3%) had visited a counselling centre. Inpatient services were more frequently used by higher educated persons (OR 1.5), women (OR 1.3), and patients with advanced disease (OR 1.3); less frequently by older survivors (OR 0.6). Community size and income were not related to inpatient use. Counselling centres were visited more frequently by women (OR 2.2), higher educated survivors (OR 2.1), patients with advanced disease (OR 1.6), and participants from communities with >100?000 inhabitants (OR 2.4); less frequently from elderly OR 0.4). Discussion: Especially the use of outpatient cancer counselling centres was associated with contextual and individual factors whereas this was not so much the case with the use of inpatient services. This implies that care models where psycho-oncologists actively approach patients are better able to access all patient groups in contrast to care models where patients have to actively seek help. It also implies that non-use not necessarily means that patients do not need help but that there are barriers to health care access. PMID:25485601

Zeissig, Sylke Ruth; Singer, Susanne; Koch, Lena; Blettner, Maria; Arndt, Volker

2014-12-01

374

Home Range Utilisation and Long-Range Movement of Estuarine Crocodiles during the Breeding and Nesting Season  

PubMed Central

The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92±0.013 metres total length (TL), mean ± S.E., n?=?4) occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49±0.9 km d?1; n?=?8) during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17±0.14 m TL) exhibited a ‘site-fidelic’ strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81±0.08 m TL) exhibited ‘nomadic’ behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the ‘site-fidelic’ males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the ‘nomadic’ males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions. PMID:23650510

Campbell, Hamish A.; Dwyer, Ross G.; Irwin, Terri R.; Franklin, Craig E.

2013-01-01

375

Quantification of malachite green in fish feed utilising liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a monolithic column.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of malachite green (MG) in fish feed using LC-ESI-MS/MS with a monolithic column as stationary phase. Fish feed was cleaned using ultrasonic assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The separation was achieved on a Chromolith® Performance RP-18e column (100 × 4.6 mm) using gradient mobile phase composition of methanol and 0.1% formic acid at the flow rate of 1.0 ml min?¹. The analyte was ionised using electrospray ionisation in positive mode. Mass spectral transitions were recorded in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode at m/z 329.78 ? m/z 314.75 with a collision energy (CE) of 52% for MG. The system suitability responses were calculated for reproducibility tests of the retention time, number of theoretical plates and capacity factor. System validation was evaluated for precision, specificity and linearity of MG. The linearity and calibration graph was plotted in the range of 15.0-250 ng ml?¹ with the regression coefficient of >0.997. The lower limits of detection and quantification for MG were 0.55 and 1.44 ng ml?¹, respectively, allowing easy determination in fish feed with accuracy evaluated as a percentage recovery of 92.1% and precision determined as % CV of < 5. The method was also extended to the determination of MG in an actual fish feed. The sensitivity and selectivity of LC-ESI-MS/MS using monolithic column offers a valuable alternative to the methodologies currently employed for the quantification of MG in fish feeds. PMID:24524279

Abro, Kamran; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Iqbal, Seema; Perveen, Shahnaz

2014-01-01

376

Health Care Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Expenditure Associated with Back Pain: A Nationally Representative Survey of Australian Women  

PubMed Central

Background Back pain impacts on a significant proportion of the Australian population over the life course and has high prevalence rates among women, particularly in older age. Back pain care is characterised by multiple practitioner and self-prescribed treatment options, and the out-of-pocket costs associated with consultations and self-prescribed treatments have not been examined to date. Objective To analyse the extent of health care practitioner consultations and self-prescribed treatment for back pain care among Australian women, and to assess the self-reported costs associated with such usage. Methods Survey of 1,310 women (response rate 80.9%) who reported seeking help for back pain from the ‘1946-51 cohort’ of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Women were asked about their use of health care practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain and the costs associated with such usage. Results In the past year 76.4% consulted a complementary and alternative practitioner, 56% an allied health practitioner and 59.2% a GP/medical specialist. Overall, women consulted with, on average, 3.0 (SD?=?2.0) different health care practitioners, and had, on average, 12.2 (SD?=?9.7) discrete health care practitioner consultations for back pain. Average self-reported out-of-pocket expenditure on practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain care per annum was AU$873.10. Conclusions Multiple provider usage for various but distinct purposes (i.e. pain/mobility versus anxiety/stress) points to the need for further research into patient motivations and experiences of back pain care in order to improve and enhance access to and continuity of care. Our results suggest that the cost of back pain care represents a significant burden, and may ultimately limit women’s access to multiple providers. We extrapolate that for Australian working-age women, total out-of-pocket expenditure on back pain care per annum is in excess of AU$1.4billion, thus indicating the prominence of back pain as a major economic, social and health burden. PMID:24376716

Kirby, Emma R.; Broom, Alex F.; Sibbritt, David W.; Refshauge, Kathryn M.; Adams, Jon

2013-01-01

377

Morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation in HIV-infected children following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in Côte d’Ivoire, 2004–2009  

PubMed Central

Background We describe severe morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU) among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Methods All HIV-infected children enrolled in an HIV-care programme (2004–2009) were eligible from ART initiation until database closeout, death, ART interruption, or loss to follow-up. We calculated incidence density rates (IR) per 100 child-years (CY) for severe morbidity, HCRU (outpatient and inpatient care), and associated factors using frailty models with a Weibull distribution. Results Of 332 children with median age 5.7 years and median follow-up 2.5 years, 65.4% were severely immunodeficient by WHO criteria and all received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. We recorded 464 clinical events in 228 children; the overall IR was 57.6/100 CY (95%CI: 52.1–62.5). Severe morbidity was more frequent in children on protease inhibitor-based ART compared to those on other regimens (aHR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.35–2.47) and those moderately/severely immunodeficient compared to those not (aHR: 1.57; 95%CI: 1.13–2.18 and aHR: 2.53, 95%CI: 1.81–3.55 respectively). Of the 464 events, 371 (80%) led to outpatient care (IR: 45.6/100CY) and 164 (35%) to inpatient care (IR: 20.2/100CY). In adjusted analyses, outpatient care was significantly less frequent in children >10 years compared to children <2 years (aHR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.31–0.78) and in those living furthest from clinic compared to those living closest (aHR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.47–0.90). Both inpatient and outpatient HCRU were negatively associated with cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Conclusion Despite ART, HIV-infected children still require substantial utilization of healthcare services. PMID:24525473

Desmonde, S.; Essanin, J.B; Aka, E.A; Messou, E.; Amorissani-Folquet, M.; Rondeau, V.; Ciaranello, A.; Leroy, V.

2013-01-01

378

a Mine Planning Case Study  

E-print Network

Nov 17, 2014 ... in our research are (a) correct blending of materials, and (b) utilisation of equip- ment. .... will determine the current crusher utilisation. Summing up the ...... International Journal of Production Research 53(4),. 1216–1227 ...

2015-02-07

379

OCEAN ENERGIES: RESOURCES AND UTILISATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14-day cycle, resulting from the superposition of the gravitational fields of the moon and sun. At new moon and full moon, the sun's gravitational field reinforces that of the moon, resulting in maximum tides or spring tides. At quarter phases of the moon, the sun's attraction partially cancels that of the moon, resulting in minimum or neap tides. The

M. TERESA PONTES; ANTÓNIO FALCÃO

380

Promotion of Autonomy for Participation in Physical Activity: A Study Based on the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a school-based intervention to promote physical activity, utilising the postulates of the trans-contextual model of motivation. The study examined two separate classes of elementary school students (mean age 11.28?years), one of which served as the control group (n?=?26) and the other as the…

González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Andrés-Fabra, José A.; Montero-Carretero, Carlos; Cervelló, Eduardo; Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio

2014-01-01

381

Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

2014-01-01

382

Conceptualising Scale in Regional Studies and Catchment Science - Towards an Integrated Characterisation of Spatial Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines conceptualisations of scale in catchment science and regional studies as the basis for the development of an integrated characterisation of spatial units. Our starting point is the apparent similarity in the scalar terminology utilised in the two fields, pointing to an area of potential conceptual overlap between physical and human geography. While our aim is not to

Danny MacKinnon; D. Tetzlaff

2009-01-01

383

Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

2011-01-01

384

Corporate intranet failures: interpreting a case study through the lens of formative context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although intranets are well-established information environments, companies complain that their intranets are left under-utilised. Consulting the standard management literature, it seems the medicine typically prescribed is tighter management control. In this study, we examine the use of and the attitudes towards an international company's intranet. Although the respondents' testimonies seem to be in line with existing literature, advocating centrality and

Dick Stenmark

2006-01-01

385

Service quality, emotional satisfaction, and behavioural intentions : A study in the hotel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a conceptual model of the relationships among the constructs of “service quality”, “emotional satisfaction”, and “behavioural intention” in the hospitality industry. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study utilises a review of the literature to propose a conceptual model that postulates that: service quality is positively related to consumers' emotions; service

Riadh Ladhari

2009-01-01

386

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

2010-01-01

387

An analysis of institutions associated with wetlands use, access and management in communal areas of Zimbabwe: A case study of Zungwi vlei, Zvishavane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the findings of a study that aimed to analyse institutional dynamics around vleis utilisation. Vleis are wetlands, which provide numerous resources for the communities that access and benefit from them. For a long time vleis use and sustainable management has been a topical issue amongst academics and policy makers in Zimbabwe. The following study tools were used

Alexio Mbereko; Moses John Chimbari; Billy B. Mukamuri

2007-01-01

388

Changes in BSc Business Administration and Psychology Students' Learning Styles over One, Two and Three Years of Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge on general or discipline-specific changes in the learning styles of university students can be utilised in the design and execution of courses, but little is known of such changes. The study examined the changes in the learning styles of three year groups of BSc Business Administration and Psychology students from admittance to one, two…

Nielsen, Tine

2013-01-01

389

Does School-to-School Collaboration Promote School Improvement? A Study of the Impact of School Federations on Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study adopted a quantitative methodology involving a matched sample of federated and non-federated schools and utilising multilevel modelling techniques to explore the impact of federations on student outcomes. The sample involves a total of 50 school districts and 264 schools. These are grouped into 122 federations; 264 comparator schools…

Chapman, Christopher; Muijs, Daniel

2014-01-01

390

Differential Effects of Atypical versus Typical Antipsychotic Medication on Earnings of Schizophrenia Patients: Estimates from a Prospective Naturalistic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rising public and private expenditure on antipsychotic medications is concentrated on the cost of second generation or `atypical' medications, which are more expensive than first generation medications and make up a rapidly growing share of all antipsychotic prescriptions. Previous studies have examined whether the higher acquisition costs of atypicals are offset by other cost and\\/or utilisation benefits. This paper

David Salkever; Eric Slade; Mustafa Karakus

2006-01-01

391

Coping with the failure of the police in post-Soviet Russia: findings from one empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses various adaptations and strategies developed by post-Soviet Russians in response to the failure of the police. It does so based on findings derived from an empirical study carried out by the author. A number of survival techniques utilised by citizens to compensate for dysfunctional policing is outlined, and dangers triggered by these coping strategies are highlighted.

Margarita Zernova

2011-01-01

392

Acculturation and use of health care services by Turkish and Moroccan migrants: a cross-sectional population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is insufficient empirical evidence which shows if and how there is an interrelation between acculturation and health care utilisation. The present study seeks to establish this evidence within first generation Turkish and Moroccan migrants, two of the largest migrant groups in present-day Western Europe. METHODS: Data were derived from the Amsterdam Health Monitor 2004, and were complete for

Thijs Fassaert; Arlette E Hesselink; Arnoud P Verhoeff

2009-01-01

393

Multilingual Literacies in Transnational Digitally Mediated Contexts: An Exploratory Study of Immigrant Teens in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships…

Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Rosario-Ramos, Enid

2009-01-01

394

Multilingual literacies in transnational digitally mediated contexts: an exploratory study of immigrant teens in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships with friends and families, and engage with news and media

Wan Shun Eva Lam; Enid Rosario-Ramos

2009-01-01

395

A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

1994-01-01

396

Molecular profiling of breast cancer: transcriptomic studies and beyond.  

PubMed

Utilisation of 'omics' technologies, in particular gene expression profiling, has increased dramatically in recent years. In basic research, high-throughput profiling applications are increasingly used and may now even be considered standard research tools. In the clinic, there is a need for better and more accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response indicators. As such, clinicians have looked to omics technologies for potential biomarkers. These prediction profiling studies have in turn attracted the attention of basic researchers eager to uncover biological mechanisms underlying clinically useful signatures. Here we highlight some of the seminal work establishing the arrival of the omics, in particular transcriptomics, in breast cancer research and discuss a sample of the most current applications. We also discuss the challenges of data analysis and integrated data analysis with emphasis on utilising the current publicly available gene expression datasets. (Part of a Multi-author Review). PMID:17957338

Culhane, A C; Howlin, J

2007-12-01

397

Cancer chemopreventive activity of “rosin” constituents of Pinus spez. and their derivatives in two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural resin acids present in rosin of Pinus spez., including isopimaric acid (1), mercusic acid (2), neoabietic acid (3), dehydroabietic acid (4), and podocarpic acid (8), as well as resin acid derivatives 8?,9?,13?-H-tetrahydroabietic acid (5), 8?,9?,13?-H-tetrahydroabietic acid (6), 13?-H-?8-dihydroabietic acid (7), maleopimaric acid (9), and fumaropimaric acid (10), were studied for their possible inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen

Reiko Tanaka; Harukuni Tokuda; Yoichiro Ezaki

2008-01-01

398

Translating research into maternal health care policy: a qualitative case study of the use of evidence in policies for the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few empirical studies of research utilisation have been conducted in low and middle income countries. This paper explores how research information, in particular findings from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, informed policy making and clinical guideline development for the use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative case-study approach

Karen Daniels; Simon Lewin

2008-01-01

399

"There Is No Alternative?": Challenging Dominant Understandings of Youth Politics in Late Modernity through a Case Study of the 2010 UK Student Occupation Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilising an in-depth case study of a student occupation at Newcastle University as its focus, this article makes a critical appraisal of Beck, Giddens and Inglehart's ideas about youth and political agency in late modernity. In short, we argue that when considering the case of the 2010 UK student occupation movement, dominant theoretical thinking…

Rheingans, Rowan; Hollands, Robert

2013-01-01

400

EVITEACH: a study exploring ways to optimise the uptake of evidence-based practice to undergraduate nurses.  

PubMed

EVITEACH aimed to increase undergraduate nursing student's engagement with evidence-based practice and enhance their knowledge utilisation and translation capabilities. Building students capabilities to apply evidence in professional practice is a fundamental university role. Undergraduate nursing students need to actively engage with knowledge utilisation and translational skill development to narrow the evidence practice gap in the clinical setting. A two phase mixed methods study was undertaken over a three year period (2008-2010, inclusive) utilizing a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) approach. Three undergraduate nursing cohorts (N = 188) enrolled in a compulsory knowledge translation and utilisation subject at one Australian university participated. Data collection comprised of subject evaluation data and reflective statements. Preliminary investigations identified priority areas related to subject: materials, resources, teaching and workload. These priority areas became the focus of action for two PDSA cycles. PDSA cycle 1 demonstrated significant improvement of the subject overall (p > 0.05), evaluation of the materials used (p > 0.001) and teaching sub-groups (p > 0.05). PDSA cycle 2 continued to sustain improvement of the subject overall (p > 0.05). Furthermore reflective statements collected during PDSA cycle 2 identified four themes: (1) What engages undergraduate nurses in the learning process; (2) The undergraduate nurses learning trajectory; (3) Undergraduate nurses' preconceptions of research and evidenced-based practice; and (4) Appreciating the importance of research and evidence-based practice to nursing. There is little robust evidence to guide the most effective way to build knowledge utilisation and translational skills. Effectively engaging undergraduate nursing students in knowledge translation and utilisation subjects could have immediate and long term benefits for nursing as a profession and patient outcomes. Developing evidence-based practice capabilities is important in terms of improving patient outcomes, organisational efficiencies and creating satisfying work environments. PMID:24953061

Hickman, Louise D; Kelly, Helen; Phillips, Jane L

2014-11-01

401

Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for

Grace N Njoroge; Isaac M Kaibui; Peter K Njenga; Peter O Odhiambo

2010-01-01

402

Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par le BrdU au niveau cellulaire. Notre hypothese (basee sur des resultats preliminaires effectues dans notre laboratoire) est que l'irradiation de l'ADN cellulaire en presence de BrdU augmentera le nombre de bris simple brin sans toutefois augmenter le nombre de bris double brin. Les resultats presentes dans ce memoire semblent corroborer cette hypothese. Les nouvelles methodes d'analyse, soient l'essai comete et la detection des foci gamma-H2AX remettent en question ce qui a ete dit sur le BrdU au sujet de l'induction des cassures double brin depuis plusieurs annees. L'ensemble de ces nouveaux resultats effectue a l'aide de cellules ayant incorporees du BrdU sont en correlation avec de precedents resultats obtenus dans notre laboratoire sur des oligonucleotides bromes. Ils reaffirment que l'irradiation combinee au BrdU augmente l'induction de bris simple brin mais pas de bris double brin. L'investigation approfondie des mecanismes d'action non elucides du BrdU au niveau cellulaire et son utilisation a des moments strategiques pendant le traitement de radiotherapie pourraient accroitre son efficacite a des fins d'utilisation clinique. Mots cles : 5-bromodeoxyuridine, dimeres interbrins, dommage a l'ADN, essai comete, H2AX, radiosensibilisateur, radiotherapie

La Madeleine, Carole

403

The hospital admissions study in England: are there alternatives to emergency hospital admission?  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the potential for substituting alternative forms of care for admission to an acute hospital in particular groups of patients. DESIGN--A screening tool, the intensity-severity-discharge review system with adult criteria (ISD-A), developed for hospital utilisation review in the USA, was used in a cohort of hospital admissions to identify a group of patients who could potentially have been

J Coast; A Inglis; K Morgan; S Gray; M Kammerling; S Frankel

1995-01-01

404

Comparison of medical costs among patients using adalimumab and infliximab: a retrospective study (compairs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAnti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) medications have never been compared in a direct fashion under real-world circumstances. The purpose of this study was to compare healthcare utilisation and costs using insurance data for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) who newly initiated anti-TNF therapy with adalimumab (ADA) or infliximab (IFX).MethodsPatients with ?2 diagnoses of CD (ICD-9-CM: 555.XX) who initiated ADA or IFX

D A Sussman; N Kubiliun; J Chao; P M Mulani; C A Gillis; M Yang; M Lu; M T Abreu

2011-01-01

405

Gluten-free Bread Based on Tapioca Starch: Texture and Sensory Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, gluten-free formulations for breadmaking, destined to celiac people, were studied. A base blend of tapioca\\u000a starch and corn flour (80:20) and typical bread ingredients such as yeast, salt, sugar and water were utilised. Ingredients\\u000a such us vegetable fat, hen egg, and soybean flour were incorporated in different levels by means of an experimental design\\u000a of three

Laura B. Milde; Laura A. Ramallo; María C. Puppo

406

Détermination d’un seuil de pression plantaire attendu : utilisation de l’approche adimensionnelle pour réduire la variabilité des pressions plantaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. – The aim of this study was to verify that the determination of walking velocities proportional to the leg lengths of the subjects together with the dimensionless expression of the results enable us to decrease the variability and to determine a plantar pressure threshold.Material and methods. – Fifteen male subjects performed two walking tests on a treadmill at imposed

M Bisiaux; P Moretto; G Lensel; A Thévenon

2003-01-01

407

Feed intake, growth, and protein utilisation by post-smolt Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) in response to graded levels of fish protein hydrolysate in the diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how partial dietary replacement of fish meal (FM) by a novel fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) affected feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, nutrient retention, and nutrient digestibility by Atlantic salmon in the early seawater stage. FM was replaced by FPH in increments, producing four extruded diets containing 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% FPH. Each diet was fed to

Ståle Refstie; Jan J. Olli; Håkon Standal

2004-01-01

408

La biodiversité spécifique des ressources démersales du plateau continental guinéen : utilisation d’indices classiques pour un diagnostic sur l’évolution de l’écosystème  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish biodiversity of the Guinean demersal resources. Use of classical indices for a diagnosis on the evolution of the ecosystem. Species diversity is usually regarded as a key factor of ecosystem resiliency facing human impact and especially fishing pressure. This study analyzed the impact of fishing on fish species diversity. We focused on the Guinean coastal demersal resources which have

Jérémy Lobry; Didier Gascuel

2003-01-01

409

Etude ab initio des proprietes electroniques et optiques d'un systeme donneur-accepteur organique utilise dans les cellules photovoltaiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for new sources of clean and renewable energy has recently been encouraged by the growing energy demand caused by the industrialization of developing countries and by population growth. In this context, the generation of electricity through the exploitation of solar energy with photovoltaic cells is particularly interesting, since this energy source is largely unused compared to its full potential. Nevertheless, large scale electricity generation with the current design of photovoltaic cells based on silicon is hindered by the large manufacturing cost of these devices. A new generation of photovoltaic cells, which includes organic photovoltaic cells that use semiconducting polymers, is under intense development in order to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs. The replacement of conventional materials with conjugated polymers in photovoltaic cells opens the possibility of using large scale manufacturing processes to produce large-area devices at low cost. However, the power conversion efficiency and the lifetime of organic photovoltaic cells are currently too low for these devices to be cost effective. A better understanding of the organic photovoltaic process is therefore necessary to improve the power conversion efficiency of these devices. The operating principle of photovoltaic cells requires the charge transfer between a polymer acting as an electron donor and a molecule acting as an electron acceptor to enable the dissociation of photogenerated excitons into free charge carriers. Furthermore, to ensure that the majority of the photogenerated excitons dissociates, the active region of an organic photovoltaic cell is typically formed by a bulk heterojunction between the donor and the acceptor. Many experimental studies have shown that the power conversion efficiency of these devices, which is proportional to the product of their short-circuit current Isc with their open circuit potential Voc, is strongly governed by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction defined as the local order of the two phases and the organization of the donor-acceptor interfaces. Even though these studies have helped to increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells, the relations linking the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction to their electronic and optical properties are still to be established. The objective of the research project is to computationally study the electronic and optical properties of organic bulk heterojunctions composed of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT) and C60, two materials typically used in organic photovoltaic cells. In this study, the microstructure of the donor-acceptor systems can be directly controlled, which facilitates the systematic study of the influence of this parameter on the electronic and optical properties of the organic bulk heterojunctions. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the ground state geometric and electronic properties of multiple bulk heterojunction systems, while the time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is used to study the optical properties of these systems. The SIESTA software package is used to study periodic systems representing perfectly crystalline materials. The results obtained in this research project show that the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells is strongly modulated by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunctions. Indeed, the size of the rrP3HT crystalline domains must be optimized to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic devices, since Voc and Isc have opposite behaviors with respect to ?-stacking of the rrP3HT chains. In addition, the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells could be improved by imposing geometrical constraints in the bulk heterojunctions through manufacturing methods in order to increase the value of Voc without altering the value of Isc. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Maillard, Arnaud

410

Couplage des équations de transfert de masse et des lois d'interactions solution-solide par l'utilisation des lanthanides comme traceurs — Approche expérimentale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In underground flow tracing studies, the estimation of the nature and the importance of interactions undergone by the substance used very often constitutes an obstacle to good modeling of mass-transfer processes in solution. We propose a method to quantify these phenomena by the use of lanthanides as tracers. For this study, we set up an analytical methodology adapted to routine measurements. The quality of five lanthanides as indicators has been examined. We have demonstrated the formation, by substitution, of a carbonate complex which is extremely stable in the natural environment. The field experiments carried out demonstrated the efficiency of those tracers and confirmed their great stability. Tracer recovery graphs show that, in accord with our hypothesis, convection and dispersion are identical for all the lanthanide elements. Moreover, we have established a direct relation between their fixing rate on earth materials and the value of their stability constants. Thus, we demonstrate the possibility of correlative multitracing, with known and quantifiable interelement relations.

Bigot, S.; Treuil, M.; Dumonceau, J.; Fromage, F.

1984-02-01

411

How does the unicellular Tetrahymena utilise the hormones that it produces? Paying a visit to the realm of atto-and zeptomolar concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the hormone content of Tetrahymena pyriformis GL were investigated during histamine, serotonin or insulin treatment at concentrations of 10?6M to 10?21M for 30 min. The immunologically demonstrable hormone content was studied by using specific antibodies, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Histamine at the higher ranges elevated the serotonin content of Tetrahymena, whereas serotonin at the lower ranges (down to

G. Csaba; P. Kovács; Éva Pállinger

2007-01-01

412

Fracture behaviour of implant–implant- and implant–tooth-supported all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses utilising zirconium dioxide implant abutments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in vitro study investigated the fracture behaviour of implant–implant-supported and implant–tooth-supported all-ceramic\\u000a fixed dental prostheses (FDP) using zirconium dioxide implant abutments (FRIADENT® CERCON® abutments, DENTSPLY Friadent).\\u000a Six different test groups (n?=?8) were prepared. Groups 1, 2, 4, and 5 represented an implant–implant-supported FDP condition, whereas groups 3 and 6\\u000a simulated an implant–tooth-supported FDP condition. The second right premolar of

Frank Philipp Nothdurft; Sabine Merker; Peter Reinhard Pospiech

2011-01-01

413

An evaluation of the utilisation of reproductive and child health services provided by government to the rural community of Anand District, Gujrat.  

PubMed

A multi-indicator thirty cluster survey was conducted during February- March 2008 in the rural areas of Anand district of Gujrat state to assess the utilization of the reproductive and child health services provided through government sector. In each selected village minimum 40 households were visited till total eight children in age group 12-23 months, at least two antenatal mothers in last trimester and five mothers who delivered in last year were studied. A total of 555 children of age less than three years & 1481 women in reproductive age group were included in the study. 74.8% of the children had institutional delivery. Birth registration was almost 100%. Immunization coverage was 84.5%. Registration of children and pregnant mothers under Mamta Abhiyan(MA) were 91% and 84 % respectively. Only 53% children were brought to Mamta Diwas Kendra regularly. Vitamin A coverage to children was 76.9%. Tetanus toxoid coverage of pregnant women was 85.1%, while Iron tablets were provided to 48.3% women. 43% of the postnatal mothers had no post-partum visit. Utilization of government schemes among postnatal women was 9% to 20%. PMID:20469768

Bhanderi, D J; Mukherjee, S M; Gohel, Manisha K; Christian, D S

2009-01-01

414

Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District).  

PubMed

Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes. PMID:20712897

Njoroge, Grace N; Kaibui, Isaac M; Njenga, Peter K; Odhiambo, Peter O

2010-01-01

415

Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District)  

PubMed Central

Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes. PMID:20712897

2010-01-01

416

Clinical utilisation of a rapid low-pass whole genome sequencing technique for the diagnosis of aneuploidy in human embryos prior to implantation  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of human embryos created using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques are aneuploid. Comprehensive chromosome screening methods, applicable to single cells biopsied from preimplantation embryos, allow reliable identification and transfer of euploid embryos. Recently, randomised trials using such methods have indicated that aneuploidy screening improves IVF success rates. However, the high cost of testing has restricted the availability of this potentially beneficial strategy. This study aimed to harness next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with the intention of lowering the costs of preimplantation aneuploidy screening. Methods Embryo biopsy, whole genome amplification and semiconductor sequencing. Results A rapid (<15?h) NGS protocol was developed, with consumable cost only two-thirds that of the most widely used method for embryo aneuploidy detection. Validation involved blinded analysis of 54 cells from cell lines or biopsies from human embryos. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The method was applied clinically, assisting in the selection of euploid embryos in two IVF cycles, producing healthy children in both cases. The NGS approach was also able to reveal specified mutations in the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes in parallel with chromosome assessment. Interestingly, elevated mitochondrial DNA content was associated with aneuploidy (p<0.05), a finding suggestive of a link between mitochondria and chromosomal malsegregation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that NGS provides highly accurate, low-cost diagnosis of aneuploidy in cells from human preimplantation embryos and is rapid enough to allow testing without embryo cryopreservation. The method described also has the potential to shed light on other aspects of embryo genetics of relevance to health and viability. PMID:25031024

Wells, Dagan; Kaur, Kulvinder; Grifo, Jamie; Glassner, Michael; Taylor, Jenny C; Fragouli, Elpida; Munne, Santiago

2014-01-01

417

Food utilisation by coastal fish assemblages in rocky and soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Inference for identification of essential fish habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of essential fish habitats (EFHs) is widely accepted for conservational and management purposes. EFHs are often considered as high quality habitats for fisheries species and subsequently of high values for society. In this study, fish and Substrate-Associated Prey (SAP) were sampled during the productive summer season 1998 (fish) and 2003 and 2004 (SAP) in shallow coastal rocky- and soft-bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast. The aim was to study the spatial and monthly variation of SAP as well as abundance and biomass of fish, and to examine if food items found in the diet of the fish assemblage were derived from SAP. We also examined if the diet of Ctenolabrus rupestris, a resident and abundant fish species in the shallow coastal habitats, and the diet of four seasonally abundant and commercially important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Pleuronectes platessa, Salmo trutta and Scomber scombrus) were derived from SAP. There were significantly higher mean species number and abundance of the SAP assemblage on rocky compared to soft bottoms and the highest values were found on the rocky bottoms in August and in the shallowest (0-3 m) depth strata. There were no significant differences in number of fish species caught in the two habitats, although mean number of fish and mean biomass were significantly higher on rocky bottoms. Both habitats showed the same seasonal variation and the highest values of number of fish species, abundance and biomass were observed in June. On rocky bottoms, gastropods and amphipods were the most frequent food items in the diet of the entire fish assemblage and these items were also the most abundant SAP in this habitat. The dominant food items of the soft-bottom fish assemblage were decapods and fish, which were not common SAP. However, except for S. scombrus, the diet of the selected fish species showed a strong association to the SAP availability. Gadus morhua displayed the strongest association to SAP on rocky bottoms and P. platessa and C. rupestris to SAP on soft bottoms. Further, for C. rupestris, multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association to the SAP assemblage on both rocky and soft bottoms. These results provide vital new information for the management and conservation of Essential Fish Habitats on the Swedish west coast.

Stål, Johan; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

2007-02-01

418

An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk. PMID:20384996

2010-01-01

419

Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation  

PubMed Central

Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 ?M and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

2013-01-01

420

Uranium (U)-tolerant bacterial diversity from U ore deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and its prospective utilisation in bioremediation.  

PubMed

Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 µM and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

2013-01-01

421

The physiology of the larva of the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis and the utilisation of biochemical energy reserves during development: An extreme case of the brooding habit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the oyster Ostrea chilensis the adult female broods the young for almost the entire developmental period, releasing a large pediveliger larva (450 ?m shell length) with an extremely short pelagic phase. In this study of the larval physiology, the dry weight of the embryo or larva remained constant during the early developmental stages (as far as, and including, the trochophore), but the veliger grew steadily to reach 8 ?g at 450 ?m shell length, the stage at which it was ready for release. During this growth period the veliger consumed metabolic reserves (62% protein and 38% lipid). Carbohydrate levels were negligible. Chilean oyster veligers larger than 275 ?m shell length were able to remove particles from suspension, but clearance rate (2 ?l h - 1 larva - 1 at 450 ?m shell length) was much lower than published values for planktotrophic veligers. Low clearance rate in the veliger of O. chilensis is probably attributable to the absence of the postoral ciliary band. Oxygen uptake increased from 19 - 22 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for pre-veliger stages to 32 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for a veliger 450 ?m long, which is consistent with published values for veligers in general when corrected for body weight. Excretion rate was low, increasing from 0.04 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in the trochophore to 0.13 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in a pediveliger of shell length 450 ?m. Biochemical energy reserves were insufficient to meet the metabolic demands of the developing larva, suggesting that uptake of particles and/or dissolved organic matter from the mantle cavity of the female is necessary for successful development.

Chaparro, O. R.; Navarrete, L. R.; Thompson, R. J.

2006-05-01

422

Assessing blue and green water utilisation in wheat production of China from the perspectives of water footprint and total water use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to estimate the green and blue water footprint (WF) and the total water use (TWU) of wheat crop in China in both irrigated and rainfed productions. Crop evapotranspiration and water evaporation loss are both considered when calculating the water footprint in irrigated fields. We compared the water use for per-unit product between irrigated and rainfed crops and analyzed the relationship between promoting the yield and conserving water resources. The national total and per-unit-product WF of wheat production in 2010 were approximately 111.5 Gm3 (64.2% green and 35.8% blue) and 0.968 m3 kg-1, respectively. There is a large difference in the water footprint of the per-kilogram wheat product (WFP) among different provinces: the WFP is low in the provinces in and around the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, while it is relatively high in the provinces south of the Yangtze River and in northwestern China. The major portion of WF (80.9%) comes from irrigated farmland, and the remaining 19.1% is rainfed. Green water dominates the area south of the Yangtze River, whereas low green water proportions are found in the provinces located in northern China, especially northwestern China. The national TWU and total water use of the per-kilogram wheat product (TWUP) are 142.5 Gm3 and 1.237 m3 kg-1, respectively, containing approximately 21.7% blue water percolation (BWp). The values of WFP for irrigated (WFPI) and rainfed (WFPR) crops are 0.911 and 1.202 m3 kg-1, respectively. Irrigation plays an important role in food production, promoting the wheat yield by 170% and reducing the WFP by 24% compared to those of rainfed wheat production. Due to the low irrigation efficiency, more water is needed per kilogram in irrigated farmland in many arid regions, such as the Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu Provinces. We divided the 30 provinces of China into three categories according to the relationship between the TWUPI (TWU for per-unit product in irrigated farmland) and TWUPR (TWU for per-unit product in rainfed farmland): (I) TWUPI < TWUPR, (II) TWUPI = TWUPR, and (III) TWUPI > TWUPR. Category II, which contains the major wheat-producing areas in the North China Plain, produces nearly 75% of the wheat of China. The double benefits of conserving water and promoting production can be achieved by irrigating wheat in Category I provinces. Nevertheless, the provinces in this category produce only 1.1% of the national wheat yield.

Cao, X. C.; Wu, P. T.; Wang, Y. B.; Zhao, X. N.

2014-08-01

423

Detection automatique des changements du bati en milieu urbain sur des images a tres haute resolution spatiale (Ikonos et QuickBird) en utilisant des donnees cartographiques numeriques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The updating of cartographic databases in urban environments is a difficult and expensive task. It can be facilitated by an automatic change detection method. Several methods have been developed for medium and low spatial resolution images. These methods are not adapted for the very high spatial resolution images (VHSR) and are not applicable in urban environment. This study proposes a new method for change detection of buildings in urban environments from VHSR images and using existing digital cartographic data. The proposed methodology is composed of several stages. The existing knowledge on the buildings and the other urban objects are first modelled and saved in a knowledge base. All change detection rules are defined at this stage. Then, the image is segmented. The parameters of segmentation are computed thanks to the integration between the image and the geographical database (GDB). Thereafter, the segmented image is analyzed using the knowledge base to localize the segments where the change of building is likely to occur. The change detection rules are then applied on these segments to identify the segments that represent the changes of buildings. These changes represent the updates of buildings to add to the geographical database. Finally, the map representing changes is assessed before being integrated in the geographical database. The data used in this research concern the city of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) and the city of Rabat (Morocco). For Sherbrooke, we used an Ikonos image acquired in October 2004, an Ikonos image acquired in July 2006 and a GDB at the scale of 1:20,000. For Rabat, a QuickBird image acquired in August 2004 has been used with a GDB at the scale of 1:10,000. The results of tests on several zones are encouraging. Indeed, the rate of good detection is of 90%. Concerning the geometric precision of detection, the mean error is 3 m for Ikonos and 2 m for QuickBird. The proposed method presents some limitations on the detection of the exact contours of the buildings. It could be improved by including a shape post-analysis of detected buildings. The proposed method can be integrated in a cartographic update process or as a method for the quality assessment of a topographic database.

Bouziani, Mourad

424

Fracture behaviour of implant-implant- and implant-tooth-supported all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses utilising zirconium dioxide implant abutments.  

PubMed

This in vitro study investigated the fracture behaviour of implant-implant-supported and implant-tooth-supported all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDP) using zirconium dioxide implant abutments (FRIADENT® CERCON® abutments, DENTSPLY Friadent). Six different test groups (n?=?8) were prepared. Groups 1, 2, 4, and 5 represented an implant-implant-supported FDP condition, whereas groups 3 and 6 simulated an implant-tooth-supported FDP condition. The second right premolar of the mandible was replaced with a pontic tooth. In groups 2 and 5, implant abutments were individualised by circumferential preparation. XiVe® S plus screw implants (DENTSPLY Friadent) that were 4.5 mm (first molar) and 3.8 mm (first premolar) in diameter and 11 mm in length and metal tooth analogues with simulated periodontal mobility, representing the first right premolar, were mounted in a polymethyl methacrylate block. The FDPs were cemented with KetacCem (3 M Espe GmbH, Germany). Groups 4, 5, and 6 were thermomechanically loaded (thermal and mechanical cycling (TCML)?=?1.2?×?10?; 10,000?×?5°/55°) and subjected to static loading until failure. Statistical analysis of data obtained for the force at fracture was performed using non-parametric tests. All samples tested survived TCML. In the implant-implant-supported groups, circumferential abutment preparation resulted in a tendency to lower fracture forces compared to groups with unprepared abutments (group 1, 472.75?±?24.71 N; group 2, 423.75?±?48.48 N; group 4, 647.13?±?39.10 N; group 5, 555.86?±?30.34 N). The implant-tooth-supported restorations exhibited higher fracture loads (group 3, 736.25?±?82.23 N; group 6, 720.75?±?48.99 N) than the implant-implant-supported restorations which did not possess circumferentially individualised abutments. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the non-artificially aged groups. Implant-tooth-supported FDP restorations did exhibit an increased fracture load compared to implant-implant-supported FDP restorations. PMID:20049497

Nothdurft, Frank Philipp; Merker, Sabine; Pospiech, Peter Reinhard

2011-02-01

425

The Role of Whole Blood Impedance Aggregometry and Its Utilisation in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis in Acute Critical Illness  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prognostic and diagnostic value of whole blood impedance aggregometry in patients with sepsis and SIRS and to compare with whole blood parameters (platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count). Methods We performed an observational, prospective study in the acute setting. Platelet function was determined using whole blood impedance aggregometry (multiplate) on admission to the Emergency Department or Intensive Care Unit and at 6 and 24 hours post admission. Platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count were also determined. Results 106 adult patients that met SIRS and sepsis criteria were included. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock when compared to SIRS/uncomplicated sepsis (ADP: 90.7±37.6 vs 61.4±40.6; p<0.001, Arachadonic Acid 99.9±48.3 vs 66.3±50.2; p?=?0.001, Collagen 102.6±33.0 vs 79.1±38.8; p?=?0.001; SD ± mean)). Furthermore platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in the 28 day mortality group when compared with the survival group (Arachadonic Acid 58.8±47.7 vs 91.1±50.9; p<0.05, Collagen 36.6±36.6 vs 98.0±35.1; p?=?0.001; SD ± mean)). However haemoglobin, haematocrit and platelet count were more effective at distinguishing between subgroups and were equally effective indicators of prognosis. Significant positive correlations were observed between whole blood impedance aggregometry and platelet count (ADP 0.588 p<0.0001, Arachadonic Acid 0.611 p<0.0001, Collagen 0.599 p<0.0001 (Pearson correlation)). Conclusions Reduced platelet aggregometry responses were not only significantly associated with morbidity and mortality in sepsis and SIRS patients, but also correlated with the different pathological groups. Whole blood aggregometry significantly correlated with platelet count, however, when we adjust for the different groups we investigated, the effect of platelet count appears to be non-significant. PMID:25269018

Davies, Gareth R.; Mills, Gavin M.; Lawrence, Matthew; Battle, Ceri; Morris, Keith; Hawkins, Karl; Williams, Phylip Rhodri; Davidson, Simon; Thomas, Dafydd; Evans, Phillip Adrian

2014-01-01

426

Patient characteristics and treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in France: the LUEUR1 observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Age-related macular degeneration is the primary cause of blindness in developed countries. Current treatments of this degenerative\\u000a disease mainly include laser, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth\\u000a factors. The LUEUR (LUcentis® En Utilisation Réelle) study is composed of a cross-sectional part (LUEUR1), which examined\\u000a the current management of wet AMD in France, and a follow-up part

Salomon-Yves Cohen; Eric H. Souied; Michel Weber; Gérard Dupeyron; Gérard de Pouvourville; Michel Lievre; Anne Ponthieux

2011-01-01

427

How can we exploit functional genomics approaches for understanding the nature of plant defences? Barley as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept ‘functional genomics’ refers to the methods used for the functional characterisation of genomes. The methods utilised\\u000a provide new opportunities for studying the nature and role of defence mechanisms in plants. Unlike Arabidopsis, poplar and rice, the full genomic sequence of barley is not available. In this case, the analysis of barley gene expression\\u000a data plays a pivotal role

David B. Collinge; Michael K. Jensen; Michael F. Lyngkjaer; Jesper Rung

2008-01-01

428

How can we exploit functional genomics approaches for understanding the nature of plant defences? Barley as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept ‘functional genomics’ refers to the methods used for the functional characterisation of genomes. The methods utilised\\u000a provide new opportunities for studying the nature and role of defence mechanisms in plants. Unlike Arabidopsis, poplar and rice, the full genomic sequence of barley is not available. In this case, the analysis of barley gene expression\\u000a data plays a pivotal role

David B. Collinge; Michael K. Jensen; Michael F. Lyngkjae