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1

Hydroxylation of dehydroabietic acid by Fusarium species.  

PubMed

A novel compound, 1 beta-hydroxydehydroabietic acid has been obtained by the microbial transformation of dehydroabietic acid, using cultures of Fusarium oxysporum and F. moniliforme. Its antibacterial activity was also tested. PMID:9276983

Tapia, A A; Vallejo, M D; Gouiric, S C; Feresin, G E; Rossomando, P C; Bustos, D A

1997-09-01

2

Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide,

Hylton B Menz; Tiffany K Gill; Anne W Taylor; Catherine L Hill

2008-01-01

3

Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented to improve communication on all levels and reduce systemic barriers operating within the health system. PMID:23497140

2013-01-01

4

Polymorphic drug metabolism (CYP2D6) and utilisation of psychotropic drugs in hospitalised psychiatric patients: a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. The aim of the current retrospective study was to assess the influence of polymorphic drug metabolism as assessed by genotyping, on the on the utilisation of psychotropic drugs in hospitalised psychiatric patients. The utilisation of psychotropic drugs was assessed using pharmacy records with emphasis on the number of prescriptions and prescriptions for possible side effects. Methods. CYP2D6 genotype was

Wim J. Tamminga; Johan Wemer; Berend Oosterhuis; Anthonius de Boer; Stan Vranckx; Ben F. H. Drenth; Rokus A. de Zeeuw; Jan H. G. Jonkman

2003-01-01

5

Analysis of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid residues in raw ducks and cooked ducks.  

PubMed

Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China and is still being used secretly in some poultry processing enterprises. Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are the major compounds of rosin. In the present study, 90 duck samples were collected for investigation of AA and DHAA residues. Abietic acid and DHAA were simultaneously detected in 13 out 40 raw ducks, 8 out of 26 water-boiled salted ducks, and 7 out of 24 roasted ducks, respectively. In positive samples, averages of AA were significantly higher than those of DHAA in positive samples of the 3 types of ducks (P < 0.05). Averages of AA and DHAA in positive raw ducks were significantly higher than those in positive roasted ducks (P < 0.05). The results indicated that almost one-third of raw ducks were defeathered by means of rosin-containing defeathering agent, and cooking processes could reduce the AA and DHAA residues to some extent, but could not eliminate them completely. PMID:25104764

Zhu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Suzhen; Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Daoying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Muhan; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin

2014-10-01

6

Synthesis of Hydrophenanthrene Natural Products. An Improved Synthesis of 13-Substituted Dehydroabietane Derivatives from Dehydroabietic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved overall synthesis of 13-carboxydeisopropyldehydro-abietanes from dehydroabietic acid is reported. This important synthetic intermediate is obtained in greater than 20% overall yield, an almost tenfold increase in the yield obtained using previously published procedures. The first synthesis of 15-hydroxydehydroabietanol, a natural product isolated from pine tar oil and an intermediate in the preparation of the title compound, has been

Alex R. Jurgens; James D. Mcchesney

1993-01-01

7

Isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria capable of degrading dehydroabietic acid.  

PubMed

Using a semi-continuous enrichment method, we isolated two thermophilic bacterial strains, which could completely degrade abietane resin acids, including dehydroabietic acid (DhA). Strain DhA-73, isolated from a laboratory-scale bioreactor treating bleached kraft mill effluent at 55 degrees C, grew on DhA as sole carbon source; while DhA-71, isolated from municipal compost, required dilute tryptic soy broth for growth on DhA. DhA-71 grew on DhA from 30 degrees C to 60 degrees C with maximum growth at 50 degrees C; while, DhA-73 grew on DhA from 37 degrees C to 60 degrees C with maximum growth at 55 degrees C. At 55 degrees C, the doubling times for DhA-71 and DhA-73 were 3.3 and 3.7 h, respectively. DhA-71 and DhA-73 had growth yields of 0.26 and 0.19 g of protein per g of DhA, respectively. During growth on DhA, both strains converted DhA to CO2, biomass, and dissolved organic carbon. Analyses of the 16S-rDNA sequences of these two strains suggest that they belong to two new genera in the Rubrivivax subgroup of the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria. Strains DhA-71 and DhA-73 are the first two bacteria isolated and characterized that are capable of biodegradation of resin acids at high temperatures. This study provided direct evidence for biodegradation of resin acids and feasibility for biotreatment of pulp mill effluent at elevated temperatures. PMID:10453478

Yu, Z; Mohn, W W

1999-06-01

8

Disparities in Healthcare Utilisation Rates for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Albertan Residents, 1997-2006: A Population Database Study  

PubMed Central

Background It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. Methods Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology) in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. Results Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n?=?97,080), 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n?=?1,720,041) and 1.37% (Welfare, n?=?52,514), p?=?<0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%?65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. Discussion The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period. Addressing the causes of these discrepancies is essential for reducing marked health disparities, and so improving the health of Aboriginal people. PMID:23152770

Chung, Helen; Ye, Ming; Hanson, Chris; Oladokun, Oluwaseun; Campbell, Michael J.; Kramer, Gordon; Lehmann, Ordan J.

2012-01-01

9

Drug Utilisation Study in a Tertiary Care Center: Recommendations for Improving Hospital Drug Dispensing Policies  

PubMed Central

Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R.; Singh, I.; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S.

2014-01-01

10

Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs). Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs). Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR) decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR) followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by humanitarian agencies working in complex settings. Humanitarian organisations should however endeavour to disseminate routinely collected mortality data and improve utilisation of data for operational planning and evaluation. Accurate population estimation continues to be a challenge, limiting the accuracy of mortality estimates. PMID:23186330

2012-01-01

11

In their own words: qualitative study of high-utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background High utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) often frustrate their primary care providers. Studies that elucidate the attitudes of these patients may help to increase understanding and improve confidence of clinicians who care for them. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze perceptions and lived experiences of high utilising primary care patients with MUS. Methods A purposive sample of 19 high utilising primary care patients for whom at least 50% (69.6% in this sample) of visits for two years could not be explained medically, were encouraged to talk spontaneously about themselves and answer semi-structured questions. Verbatim transcripts of interviews were analyzed using an iterative consensus building process. Results Patients with MUS almost universally described current and/or past family dysfunction and were subjected to excessive testing and ineffective empirical treatments. Three distinct groups emerged from the data. 1) Some patients, who had achieved a significant degree of psychological insight and had success in life, primarily sought explanations for their symptoms. 2) Patients who had less psychological insight were more disabled by their symptoms and felt strongly entitled to be excused from normal social obligations. Typically, these patients primarily sought symptom relief, legitimization, and support. 3) Patients who expressed worry about missed diagnoses demanded excessive care and complained when their demands were resisted. Conclusion High utilising primary care patients are a heterogeneous group with similar experiences and different perceptions, behaviours and needs. Recognizing these differences may be critical to effective treatment and reduction in utilisation. PMID:19772582

Dwamena, Francesca C; Lyles, Judith S; Frankel, Richard M; Smith, Robert C

2009-01-01

12

Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study  

PubMed Central

Background This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of these services. Methods/Design The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers and refugees from Afghanistan, Iran and Somali (total planned sample of 600), as these are among the largest groups within the reception centres and municipalities in the Netherlands. The questionnaire that will be used will include questions on physical health (chronic and acute diseases and somatization), mental health (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), utilisation of health care services, pre- and post-migratory traumatic experiences, life-style, acculturation, social support and socio-demographic background. The questionnaire has gone through a translation process (translation and back-translation, several checks and a pilot-study) and cross-cultural adaptation. Respondents will be interviewed by bilingual and bicultural interviewers who will be specifically trained for this purpose. This article discusses the selection of the study population, the chosen outcome measures, the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the measurement instrument, the training of the interviewers and the practical execution of the study. The information provided may be useful for other researchers in this relatively new field of epidemiological research among various groups of asylum seekers and refugees. PMID:15070416

Gerritsen, Annette AM; Bramsen, Inge; Deville, Walter; van Willigen, Loes HM; Hovens, Johannes E; van der Ploeg, Henk M

2004-01-01

13

Low utilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran, despite their affordability (2000-2012): a time-series and benchmarking study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited data exist on the status of access to diabetes medicines in LMICs. We assessed the utilisation and affordability of diabetes medicines in Iran as a middle-income country. Design We used a retrospective time-series design (2000–2012) and assessed national diabetes medicines’ utilisation using pharmaceuticals wholesale data. Methods We calculated defined daily dose consumptions per population days (DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day; DIDs) indicator. Findings were benchmarked with data from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We also employed Drug Utilization-90% (DU-90) method to compare DU-90s with the Essential Medicines List published by the WHO. We measured affordability using number of minimum daily wage required to purchase a treatment course for 1?month. Results Diabetes medicines’ consumption increased from 4.47 to 33.54 DIDs. The benchmarking showed that medicines’ utilisation in Iran in 2011 was only 54% of the median DIDs of 22 OECD countries. Oral hypoglycaemic agents consisted over 80% of use throughout the study period. Regular and isophane insulin (NPH), glibenclamide, metformin and gliclazide were the DU-90 drugs in 2012. Metformin, glibenclamide and regular/NPH insulin combination therapy were affordable throughout the study period (?0.4, ?0.1, ?0.3 of minimum daily wage, respectively). While the affordability of novel insulin preparations improved over time, they were still unaffordable in 2012. Conclusions The utilisation of diabetes medicines was relatively low, perhaps due to underdiagnosis and inadequate management of patients with diabetes. This had occurred despite affordability of essential diabetes medicines in Iran. Appropriate policies are required to address the underutilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran. PMID:25324322

Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah

2014-01-01

14

Effect of Frailty on Functional Gain, Resource Utilisation, and Discharge Destination: An Observational Prospective Study in a GEM Ward.  

PubMed

Background. A geriatric evaluation and management unit (GEM) manages elderly inpatients with functional impairments. There is a paucity of literature on frailty and whether this impacts on rehabilitation outcomes. Objectives. To examine frailty score (FS) as a predictor of functional gain, resource utilisation, and destinations for GEM patients. Methods. A single centre prospective case study design. Participants (n = 136) were ?65 years old and admitted to a tertiary hospital GEM. Five patients were excluded by the preset exclusion criteria, that is, medically unstable, severe dementia or communication difficulties after stroke. Core data included demographics, frailty score (FS), and functional independence. Results. The mean functional improvement (FIM) from admission to discharge was 11.26 (95% CI 8.87, 13.66; P < 0.001). Discharge FIM was positively correlated with admission FIM (? = 0.748; P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with frailty score (? = -1.151; P = 0.014). The majority of the patients were in the "frail" group. "Frail" and "severely frail" subgroups improved more on mean FIM scores at discharge, relative to that experienced by the "pre-frail" group. Conclusion. All patients experienced functional improvement. Frailer patients improved more on their FIM and improved relatively more than their prefrail counterparts. Higher frailty correlated with reduced independence and greater resource utilisation. This study demonstrates that FS could be a prognostic indicator of physical independence and resource utilisation. PMID:24695584

Kawryshanker, Sujatha; Raymond, Warren; Ingram, Katharine; Inderjeeth, Charles A

2014-01-01

15

Utilisation of Healthcare and Associated Services in Huntington's disease: a data mining study  

PubMed Central

Background: People with Huntington’s disease (HD) often require tailored healthcare and support packages that develop as the disease progresses. The Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI) gathers retrospective information on service utilization. This study investigated the use of formal services and informal care as measured by the CSRI and explored associations between informal care, disease severity and functional ability as measured by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS) and functional scales. Methods: All monitored longitudinal data from annual clinical assessments of UHDRS-TMS and functional assessments and CSRI collected under the auspices of the European Huntington’s Disease Network (EHDN) REGISTRY study between the years 2004 and 2009 were utilised in the analyses. Disease severity was reflected by UHDRS-TMS. Functional ability was measured using the UHDRS functional scales. CSRI data were analysed according to percentage use of individual formal services and total estimated hours per week of informal care. Regression analyses were conducted to identify any associations between disease severity, functional ability and hours of informal care. Results: 451 HD patients (212 female; 239 male) completed one visit; 105 patients (54 females; 51 males) completed two visits and 47 patients (20 females; 27 males) completed three visits in total over the 5 year period. The mean time between visits was 1.2 years. At visit one, 74% of the participants reported being in receipt of at least one formal hospital-based service in the previous six months, and 89% reported receipt of formal primary and community care services. In contrast, at the third visit, 62% of people had used hospital based services and 94% formal community based services in the previous six months. Fifty % of individuals required some form of informal care in the home at visit 1; this increased to 68% at visits 2 and 3. The mean (SD) estimated weekly total informal care hours at visits 1, 2 and 3 were 32.8 (49.4); 21.6 (53.6) and 21.3 (62.4) respectively. Only the scores on the Functional Assessment Scale (FAS) accounted for the variance in the weekly total informal care hours at each visit. Conclusions: Although it must be acknowledged that service use is supply driven, most HD patients across Europe surveyed as part of this study were in receipt of formal primary and community care services and to a lesser extent formal hospital based services. There was however a large reliance on informal care in the home. The FAS appear to have predictive value on informal care requirements and may have utility in facilitating pro-active service provision and in particular when managing carer burden in this population. PMID:21304753

Busse, Monica; Al-Madfai, Dr. Hasan; Kenkre, Joyce; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Bentivoglio, AnnaRita; Rosser, Anne

2011-01-01

16

Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources. PMID:21070641

2010-01-01

17

Juvenile obesity and its association with utilisation and costs of pharmaceuticals - results from the KiGGS study  

PubMed Central

Background According to a national reference, 15% of German children and adolescents are overweight (including obese) and 6.3% are obese. An earlier study analysed the impact of childhood overweight and obesity on different components of direct medical costs (physician, hospital and therapists). To complement the existing literature for Germany, this study aims to explore the association of body mass index (BMI) with utilisation of pharmaceuticals and related costs in German children and adolescents. Methods Based on data from 14, 836 respondents aged 3-17 years in the German Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), drug intake and associated costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. To investigate the association of BMI with utilisation and costs, univariate analyses and multivariate generalised mixed models were conducted. Results There was no significant difference between BMI groups regarding the probability of drug utilisation. However, the number of pharmaceuticals used was significantly higher (14%) for obese children than for normal weight children. Furthermore, there was a trend for more physician-prescribed medication in obese children and adolescents. Among children with pharmaceutical intake, estimated costs were 24% higher for obese children compared with the normal weight group. Conclusions This is the first study to estimate excess drug costs for obesity based on a representative cross-sectional sample of the child and adolescent population in Germany. The results suggest that obese children should be classified as a priority group for prevention. This study complements the existing literature and provides important information concerning the relevance of childhood obesity as a health problem. PMID:22176689

2011-01-01

18

Perspectives of men on antenatal and delivery care service utilisation in rural western Kenya: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Poor utilisation of facility-based antenatal and delivery care services in Kenya hampers reduction of maternal mortality. Studies suggest that the participation of men in antenatal and delivery care is associated with better health care seeking behaviour, yet many reproductive health programs do not facilitate their involvement. This qualitative study conducted in rural Western Kenya, explored men’s perceptions of antenatal and delivery care services and identified factors that facilitated or constrained their involvement. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted with 68 married men between 20-65 years of age in May 2011. Participants were of the Luo ethnic group residing in Asembo, western Kenya. The area has a high HIV-prevalence and polygamy is common. A topic guide was used to guide the discussions and a thematic framework approach for data analysis. Results Overall, men were positive in their views of antenatal and delivery care, as decision makers they often encouraged, some even ‘forced’, their wives to attend for antenatal or delivery care. Many reasons why it was beneficial to accompany their wives were provided, yet few did this in practice unless there was a clinical complication. The three main barriers relating to cultural norms identified were: 1) pregnancy support was considered a female role; and the male role that of provider; 2) negative health care worker attitudes towards men’s participation, and 3) couple unfriendly antenatal and delivery unit infrastructure. Conclusion Although men reported to facilitate their wives’ utilisation of antenatal and delivery care services, this does not translate to practice as adherence to antenatal-care schedules and facility based delivery is generally poor. Equally, reasons proffered why they should accompany their wives are not carried through into practice, with barriers outweighing facilitators. Recommendations to improve men involvement and potentially increase services utilisation include awareness campaigns targeting men, exploring promotion of joint HIV testing and counselling, staff training, and design of couple friendly antenatal and delivery units. PMID:23800139

2013-01-01

19

The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

2014-01-01

20

Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4th and 5th quintile, ?1257 meters) from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status). When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56). Conclusion Distance to the closest health facility was negatively associated with neonatal mortality risk. Health care utilisation in the prenatal period could partly explain this risk elevation since there was a distance decay in health system usage prior to and at delivery. The geographical dimension must be taken into consideration when planning interventions for improved neonatal survival, especially when targeting socio-economically disadvantaged groups. PMID:21144058

2010-01-01

21

Estimation of drought and flood recurrence interval from historical discharge data: a case study utilising the power law distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of which statistical distribution to fit to historical discharge data is critical when attempting to predict the most extreme flows. It has been shown that depending upon the distribution selected, the calculated return periods can vary dramatically. Cunnane (1985) discussed the factors affecting the choice of distribution for river flow series data, and was able to show that small differences in the Extreme Value Type 1 (Gumbel), Type 2, and Type 3 can lead to large differences in the predicted return period. Indeed this divergence increases as the return period becomes larger: a finding which has obvious implications for fluvial management. Despite this, in many studies which fit a frequency-magnitude distribution to fluvial discharge data, the choice of distribution appears driven by regional convention, or even by some other apparently arbitrary factor. Benson (1968) analysed data for ten US stations, and compared the fit using the log-normal, gamma, Gumbel, log-Gumbel, Hazen and log-Pearson type 3 distributions. On the basis of this study alone, the standard approach to flow frequency estimation in the USA became the fitting of a log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) distribution (US Water Resources Council, 1982). While several other countries have adopted a similar approach, usage of the LP3 distribution is not geographically universal. Hydrologists in the United Kingdom conventionally utilise a fitted generalised logistic distribution for flow frequency estimation (Robson and Reed, 1999) while Chinese hydrologists utilise the log-normal distribution (Singh, 2002). Choice of fitted distribution is obviously crucial, since selecting one distribution rather than another will change the estimated probabilities of future droughts and floods, particularly the largest and rarest events. Malamud et al. (1996) showed that a flood of equivalent size to that experienced on the Mississippi in 1993 has a recurrence interval on the order of 100 years when a power-law distribution is fitted, but a much longer recurrence interval — on the order of 1000 years — using the USA's standard LP3 method. In addition Pandey et al. (1998) found that fitting a power-law distribution, compared with fitting a Generalized Extreme Value distribution, can lead to a large decrease in the predicted return period for a given flood event. Both these findings have obvious implications for river management design. Power-law distributions have been fitted to fluvial discharge data by many authors (most notably by Malamud et al., 1996 and Pandey et al., 1998), who then use these fitted distributions to estimate flow probabilities. These authors found that the power-law performed as well or better than many of the distributions currently used around the world, despite utilising fewer parameters. The power-law has not, however, been officially adopted by any country for fitting to fluvial discharge data. This paper demonstrates a statistically robust method, based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation, for fitting a power-law distribution to mean daily streamflows. The fitted distribution is then used to calculate return periods, which are compared to the return periods obtained by other, more commonly used, distributions. The implications for river management, extremes of flow in particular, are then explored.

Eadie, Chris; Favis-Mortlock, David

2010-05-01

22

Service utilisation by children with conduct disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children with conduct disorders and their families come into contact with a range of community and specialist agencies. Methods: The aim of this study was to establish the lifetime service utilisation rates among children with conduct disorders from the Great Britain National Study (N=10,438), and to examine the association between comorbid disorders, family and social factors, and service utilisation.

Panos Vostanis; Howard Meltzer; Robert Goodman; Tasmin Ford

2003-01-01

23

Assessing agroforestry adoption potential utilising market segmentation: A case study in Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, agroforestry adoption has lagged behind progress in agroforestry systems research. This study sought\\u000a to facilitate the communication of landowner land management objectives, values, knowledge and perceptions of the barriers\\u000a and benefits to agroforestry through applied social marketing research methods and market segmentation analysis. A mail survey\\u000a instrument was sent to 250 members of the Pennsylvania Association

Nicole A. Strong; Michael G. Jacobson

2005-01-01

24

The association of smoking status with healthcare utilisation, productivity loss and resulting costs: results from the population-based KORA F4 study  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is seen as the most important single risk to health today, and is responsible for a high financial burden on healthcare systems and society. This population-based cross-sectional study compares healthcare utilisation, direct medical costs, and costs of productivity losses for different smoking groups: current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers. Methods Using a bottom-up approach, data were taken from the German KORA F4 study (2006/2008) on self-reported healthcare utilisation and work absence due to illness for 3,071 adults aged 32-81 years. Unit costs from a societal perspective were applied to utilisation. Utilisation and resulting costs were compared across different smoking groups using generalised linear models to adjust for age, sex, education, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Results Average annual total costs per survey participant were estimated as €3,844 [95% confidence interval: 3,447-4,233], and differed considerably between smoking groups with never smokers showing €3,237 [2,802-3,735] and former smokers causing €4,398 [3,796-5,058]. There was a positive effect of current and former smoking on the utilisation of healthcare services and on direct and indirect costs. Total annual costs were more than 20% higher (p<0.05) for current smokers and 35% higher (p<0.01) for former smokers compared with never smokers, which corresponds to annual excess costs of €743 and €1,108 per current and former smoker, respectively. Conclusions Results indicate that excess costs for current and former smokers impose a large burden on society, and that previous top-down cost approaches produced lower estimates for the costs of care for smoking-related diseases. Efforts must be focused on prevention of smoking to achieve sustainable containment on behalf of the public interest. PMID:23866993

2013-01-01

25

Utilising a collective case study system theory mixed methods approach: a rural health example  

PubMed Central

Background Insight into local health service provision in rural communities is limited in the literature. The dominant workforce focus in the rural health literature, while revealing issues of shortage of maldistribution, does not describe service provision in rural towns. Similarly aggregation of data tends to render local health service provision virtually invisible. This paper describes a methodology to explore specific aspects of rural health service provision with an initial focus on understanding rurality as it pertains to rural physiotherapy service provision. Method A system theory-case study heuristic combined with a sequential mixed methods approach to provide a framework for both quantitative and qualitative exploration across sites. Stakeholder perspectives were obtained through surveys and in depth interviews. The investigation site was a large area of one Australian state with a mix of rural, regional and remote communities. Results 39 surveys were received from 11 locations within the investigation site and 19 in depth interviews were conducted. Stakeholder perspectives of rurality and workforce numbers informed the development of six case types relevant to the exploration of rural physiotherapy service provision. Participant perspective of rurality often differed with the geographical classification of their location. The numbers of onsite colleagues and local access to health services contributed to participant perceptions of rurality. Conclusions The complexity of understanding the concept of rurality was revealed by interview participants when providing their perspectives about rural physiotherapy service provision. Dual measures, such as rurality and workforce numbers, provide more relevant differentiation of sites to explore specific services, such rural physiotherapy service provision, than single measure of rurality as defined by geographic classification. The system theory-case study heuristic supports both qualitative and quantitative exploration in rural health services research. PMID:25066241

2014-01-01

26

Obesity in pregnancy: a retrospective prevalence-based study on health service utilisation and costs on the NHS  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the direct healthcare cost of being overweight or obese throughout pregnancy to the National Health Service in Wales. Design Retrospective prevalence-based study. Setting Combined linked anonymised electronic datasets gathered on a cohort of women enrolled on the Growing Up in Wales: Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) study. Women were categorised into two groups: normal body mass index (BMI; n=260) and overweight/obese (BMI>25; n=224). Participants 484 singleton pregnancies with available health service records and an antenatal BMI. Primary outcome measure Total health service utilisation (comprising all general practitioner visits and prescribed medications, inpatient admissions and outpatient visits) and direct healthcare costs for providing these services in the year 2011–2012. Costs are calculated as cost of mother (no infant costs are included) and are related to health service usage throughout pregnancy and 2?months following delivery. Results There was a strong association between healthcare usage cost and BMI (p<0.001). Adjusting for maternal age, parity, ethnicity and comorbidity, mean total costs were 23% higher among overweight women (rate ratios (RR)?1.23, 95% CI 1.230 to 1.233) and 37% higher among obese women (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.39) compared with women with normal weight. Adjusting for smoking, consumption of alcohol, or the presence of any comorbidities did not materially affect the results. The total mean cost estimates were £3546.3 for normal weight, £4244.4 for overweight and £4717.64 for obese women. Conclusions Increased health service usage and healthcare costs during pregnancy are associated with increasing maternal BMI; this was apparent across all health services considered within this study. Interventions costing less than £1171.34 per person could be cost-effective if they reduce healthcare usage among obese pregnant women to levels equivalent to that of normal weight women. PMID:24578535

Morgan, Kelly L; Rahman, Muhammad A; Macey, Steven; Atkinson, Mark D; Hill, Rebecca A; Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Paranjothy, Shantini; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Brophy, Sinead T

2014-01-01

27

Effects of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one: a population-based study in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one, considering all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The second aim was to investigate the role played by mother’s educational level in the relationship between citizenship and ER utilisation. Methods The cohort study included all healthy singleton live births in the years 2008–2009 and residing in the province of Reggio Emilia, followed for the first year of life in order to study their ER visits. The outcomes were the ER utilisation rate for all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The main explanatory variable was mother’s citizenship. Other covariates were mother’s educational level, maternal age, parity, and child gender. Multivariate analyses (negative binomial regression and zero inflated when appropriate) were performed. Adjusted utilisation Rate Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Trend for age in months by citizenship is depicted. Results There were 3,191 children (36.4%) with at least one ER visit in the first year of life. Adjusted RR show a significantly greater risk of ER visit for immigrants than for Italians: (RR 1.51; 95% CI 1.39-1.63). Immigrants also had a higher risk of non-urgent visits (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.48-2.00) and for visits followed by hospitalizations (RR 1.58; 95% CI 1.33-1.89). For very urgent visits, the immigrants had a slightly higher risk compared to Italians (RR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98-1.59). The risk of ER visits is higher in the first two months of life (RR1stvs 3rd-12th 2.08; 95% CI 1.93-2.24 and RR 2ndvs 3rd-12th 1.45; 95% CI 1.33-1.58, respectively). Considering all visits, the ER utilisation rate was inversely related with maternal education only for Italians (low educational level 44.0 and high educational level 73.9 for 100 children; p value for trend test?study observed a higher use of ER services by immigrant children and, to a lesser extent, by children of less educated Italian mothers. In immigrants, the excess is mostly due to non-urgent visits and only slightly to high acute conditions. PMID:24176109

2013-01-01

28

Distance and utilisation of out-of-hours services in a Norwegian urban/rural district: an ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Long travel distances limit the utilisation of health services. We wanted to examine the relationship between the utilisation of a Norwegian out-of-hours service and the distance from the municipality population centroid to the associated casualty clinic. Methods All first contacts from ten municipalities in Arendal out-of-hours district were registered from 2007 through 2011. The main outcomes were contact and consultation rates for each municipality for each year. The associations between main outcomes and distance from the population centroid of the participating municipalities to the casualty clinic and were examined by linear regression. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were included in multivariate linear regression. Secondary endpoints include association between distance and rates of different first actions taken and priority grades assessed by triage nurses. Age and gender specific subgroup analyses were performed. Results 141 342 contacts were included in the analyses. Increasing distance was associated with marked lower rates of all contact types except telephone consultations by doctor. Moving 43 kilometres away from the casualty clinic led to a 50 per cent drop in the rate of face-to-face consultations with a doctor. Availability of primary care doctors and education level contributed to a limited extent to the variance in consultation rate. The rates of all priority grades decreased significantly with increasing distance. The rate of acute events was reduced by 22 per cent when moving 50 kilometres away. The proportion of patients above 66 years increased with increasing distance, while the proportion of 13- to 19 year olds decreased. The proportion of female patients decreased with increasing distance. Conclusions The results confirm that increasing distance is associated with lower utilisation of out-of-hours services, even for the most acute cases. Extremely long distances might compromise patient safety. This must be taken into consideration when organising future out-of-hours districts. PMID:23773207

2013-01-01

29

Health care resource utilisation in primary care prior to and after a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, matched case-control study in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined medical resource utilisation patterns in the United Kingdom (UK) prior to and following Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnosis. Methods A patient cohort aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed AD between January 2008 and December 2010 was identified through the UK’s Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with a continuous record in the CPRD (formerly the General Practice Research Database [GPRD]) for both the 3 years prior to, and the 1 year following, AD diagnosis were eligible for inclusion. A control cohort was identified by matching general older adult (GOA) patients to patients with AD based on year of birth, gender, region, and Charlson Comorbidity Index at a ratio of 2:1. Medical resource utilisation was calculated in 6-month intervals over the 4-year study period. Comparisons between AD and GOA control cohorts were conducted using conditional logistic regression for patient characteristics and a generalised linear model for resource utilisation. Results Data for the AD cohort (N?=?3,896) and matched GOA control cohort (N?=?7,792) were extracted from the CPRD. The groups were 65% female and the AD cohort had a mean age of 79.9 years (standard deviation 6.5 years) at the date of diagnosis. Over the entire study period, the AD cohort had a significantly higher mean primary care consultation rate than the GOA cohort (p?utilisation, continuing beyond diagnosis. This evidence may be important to health care commissioners to facilitate effective mobilisation of appropriate AD-related health care resources. PMID:24934556

2014-01-01

30

An odontological study of ovicaprine herding strategies in the North Atlantic islands. The potential of dental enamel defects for identifying secondary product utilisation in an archaeological context.  

E-print Network

??Recent debate concerning the suitability of mortality profile analysis for identifying secondary product utilisation within archaeozoological assemblages has prompted the search for alternative methodologies. This… (more)

Ewens, Vicky Jane

2010-01-01

31

Studies on the kinetics, metabolism and re-utilisation after intra-articular administration of hyaluronan to rabbits.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of hyaluronan (HA) (CAS 9004-61-9) was measured after intra-articular (i.a.) injection of 1 mg/kg of 14C-glucose-labelled HA (14C-HA) (i.e. 2,000 kDa) into the knee joint cavity of rabbits. The movement of HA from the cavity into the systemic circulation was assessed by measuring its concentration in blood and its residue in the cavity. I.a. HA moved into, and disappeared from, the bloodstream at a first-order rate. Synovial fluid, synovial membrane and articular cartilage specimens were taken 24 and 72 h post-injection, and the molecular weight (MW) of HA fractions were measured by using gel filtration chromatography (GFC) using radioactive fractions of known molecular sizes (i.e. 2,000 kDa, 300 kDa and 50 kDa). The radioactivity distribution of synovial fluid had a peak at a 2,000 kDa-equivalent fraction at both 24 and 72 h post-injection, while synovial membrane had a peak at a 300 kDa-equivalent fraction 24 h post-injection and at a 50 kDa-equivalent fraction 72 h post-injection. The radioactivity distribution pattern of articular cartilage showed peaks corresponding to 2,000-300 kDa 24 h post-injection and to 50 kDa 72 h post-injection. The in vivo re-utilisation of i.a. HA was investigated by assessing radioactivity in the acid-soluble, lipid and protein fractions of plasma, blood cells and liver 72 h post-injection. Results show that HA was broken down into C1 units (carbon cycle) before being re-used as an in vivo constituent in the body. PMID:10367105

Komatsu, S; Iwata, H; Nabeshima, T

1999-05-01

32

Utilisation of postnatal care among rural women in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postnatal care is uncommon in Nepal, and where it is available the quality is often poor. Adequate utilisation of postnatal care can help reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and their babies. Therefore, our study assessed the utilisation of postnatal care at a rural community level. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in two neighbouring villages in

Sulochana Dhakal; Glyn N Chapman; Padam P Simkhada; Edwin R van Teijlingen; Jane Stephens; Amalraj E Raja

2007-01-01

33

Utilising a Collaborative Macro-Script to Enhance Student Engagement: A Mixed Method Study in a 3D Virtual Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of using an online 3D virtual environment in teaching Mathematics in Primary Education. In particular, it explores the extent to which student engagement--behavioral, affective and cognitive--is fostered by such tools in order to enhance collaborative learning. For the study we used a purpose-created 3D virtual…

Bouta, Hara; Retalis, Symeon; Paraskeva, Fotini

2012-01-01

34

Post-migration geographical mobility, mental health and health service utilisation among Somali refugees in the UK: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration is known to be associated with poor health outcomes for certain marginalised and socially disadvantaged populations. This paper reviews a number of reasons why residential mobility in the ‘host’ country may be associated with poor mental health for refugee populations and reports on a qualitative study of Somalis living in London, UK, and their beliefs about the relationship between

Nasir Warfa; Kamaldeep Bhui; Tom Craig; Sarah Curtis; Salaad Mohamud; Stephen Stansfeld; Paul McCrone; Graham Thornicroft

2006-01-01

35

Facilitating professional liaison in collaborative care for depression in UK primary care; a qualitative study utilising normalisation process theory  

PubMed Central

Background Collaborative care (CC) is an organisational framework which facilitates the delivery of a mental health intervention to patients by case managers in collaboration with more senior health professionals (supervisors and GPs), and is effective for the management of depression in primary care. However, there remains limited evidence on how to successfully implement this collaborative approach in UK primary care. This study aimed to explore to what extent CC impacts on professional working relationships, and if CC for depression could be implemented as routine in the primary care setting. Methods This qualitative study explored perspectives of the 6 case managers (CMs), 5 supervisors (trial research team members) and 15 general practitioners (GPs) from practices participating in a randomised controlled trial of CC for depression. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data was analysed using a two-step approach using an initial thematic analysis, and a secondary analysis using the Normalisation Process Theory concepts of coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring with respect to the implementation of CC in primary care. Results Supervisors and CMs demonstrated coherence in their understanding of CC, and consequently reported good levels of cognitive participation and collective action regarding delivering and supervising the intervention. GPs interviewed showed limited understanding of the CC framework, and reported limited collaboration with CMs: barriers to collaboration were identified. All participants identified the potential or experienced benefits of a collaborative approach to depression management and were able to discuss ways in which collaboration can be facilitated. Conclusion Primary care professionals in this study valued the potential for collaboration, but GPs’ understanding of CC and organisational barriers hindered opportunities for communication. Further work is needed to address these organisational barriers in order to facilitate collaboration around individual patients with depression, including shared IT systems, facilitating opportunities for informal discussion and building in formal collaboration into the CC framework. Trial registration ISRCTN32829227 30/9/2008. PMID:24885746

2014-01-01

36

Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel N-substituted 1H-dibenzo[a,c]carbazole derivatives of dehydroabietic acid as potential antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

A series of new N-substituted 1H-dibenzo[a,c]carbazole derivatives were synthesized from dehydroabietic acid, and their structures were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and HRMS spectral data. All compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and three fungi (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus niger) by serial dilution technique. Some of the synthesized compounds displayed pronounced antimicrobial activity against tested strains with low MIC values ranging from 0.9 to 15.6?g/ml. Among them, compounds 6j and 6r exhibited potent inhibitory activity comparable to reference drugs amikacin and ketoconazole. PMID:24300736

Gu, Wen; Qiao, Chao; Wang, Shi-Fa; Hao, Yun; Miao, Ting-Ting

2014-01-01

37

The impact of sociodemographic factors on the utilisation of support services for family caregivers of elderly dependents - results from the German sample of the EUROFAMCARE study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: As in nearly all European countries, demographic developments in Germany have led to both a relative and an absolute increase in the country’s elderly population. The care and support needed by these people is primarily provided by relatives or friends and close acquaintances within the home environment. The major challenges for society are to sustain, promote and support these informal resources. In order to achieve this, it is crucial that family caregivers are provided with situation-specific services that support them and relieve their burden of care. The major challenges for society are therefore to sustain, promote and support informal resources and to provide the opportunity for the use of services aimed at assisting and relieving the burden of family caregivers. Methods: In the context of the EUROFAMCARE study, 1,003 family caregivers from Germany were interviewed at home about their experiences using a standardized questionnaire. Included in the study were primary caregivers providing at least four hours of personal care or support per week to a relative aged 65 years or older. Subjects solely providing financial support were excluded. In this paper, a linear regression analysis has been conducted to analyse impact of sociodemographic factors on the utilisation of support services. Results: The family caregivers were 54 years on average (SD=13.4), 76% of them were female. The dependent elderly were 80 years on average (SD=8.3), and 69% of them were women. 60% of them were receiving long-term care insurance benefits. Use of support services aimed directly at family caregivers is very low. After including certain services aimed primarily at those in need of care but also often serving as a source of relief for family caregivers, the percentage of caregivers using support services increased slightly. Among sociodemographic characteristics, caregivers’ gender and education level have the greatest influence on services use. Other influential factors are caregivers’ perception of their caregiving burden and their assessment of the dependent family member’s need for assistance and support. PMID:23133500

Ludecke, Daniel; Mnich, Eva; Kofahl, Christopher

2012-01-01

38

Programmation python Utilisation des listes  

E-print Network

TD 3 - Programmation python Utilisation des listes Informatique MPSI1 - Lyc´ee Thiers 2013/2014 #12 : Chiffrement de C´esar Enonc´e Solution Informatique MPSI1 - Lyc´ee Thiers TD 3 - Programmation python'ex´ecution est du m^eme ordre de grandeur. Informatique MPSI1 - Lyc´ee Thiers TD 3 - Programmation python

Préaux, Jean-Philippe

39

A cross-sectional study describing factors associated with utilisation of GP services by a cohort of people who inject drugs  

PubMed Central

Background People who inject drugs (PWID) use healthcare services, including primary care, at a disproportionately high rate. We investigated key correlates of general practitioner (GP) related service utilisation within a cohort of PWID. Methods Using baseline data from a cohort of 645 community-recruited PWID based in Melbourne, Victoria, we conducted a secondary analysis of associations between past month use of GP services unrelated to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and socio-demographic and drug use characteristics and self-reported health using multivariate logistic regression. Results Just under one-third (29%) of PWID had accessed GP services in the month prior to being surveyed. Participants who reported living with children (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.04 - 3.73) or having had contact with a social worker in the past month (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.24 - 2.98) were more likely to have seen a GP in the past month. Participants who were injecting daily or more frequently (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 - 0.83) or had a weekly income of less than $400 (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 - 0.91) were less likely to report having seen a GP in the past month. Conclusions Our sample frequently attended GP services for health needs unrelated to OST. Findings highlight both the characteristics of PWID accessing GP services and also those potentially missing out on primary care and preventive services. PMID:25030526

2014-01-01

40

Utilisation of fly ash in a geopolymeric material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding means of utilising waste products is a very important field of research at the moment. In this study, fly ash, a waste product of the electricity and petrochemical industries, was investigated as a basic ingredient of a new geopolymeric material. The similarity of fly ash to natural pozzolans has encouraged the use of this waste product in the synthesis

J. C. Swanepoel; C. A. Strydom

2002-01-01

41

Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged?>?21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in moderating these associations. Findings from the study have the potential to inform more effective pharmacological, psychological and behavioural interventions and better guide health policy on the use of health care resources. PMID:24237848

2013-01-01

42

LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 71 UTILISER MATHEMATICA UTILISER MATHEMATICA  

E-print Network

153 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N° 71 UTILISER MATHEMATICA UTILISER MATHEMATICA ou comment dépasser les querelles de chapelles Bernard VUILLEUMIER 1. MATHEMATICA S'ADRESSE � TOUS LES ENSEIGNANTS Quel enseignant n, ordinateurs personnels). Mathematica est un de ces programmes. Mathematica ne concerne pas que les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

The accuracy of self-reported Pap smear utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the accuracy of self-reported Pap smear utilisation over four different time frames, examining the magnitude of errors in self-report and sociodemographic predictors of accuracy. Self-report data on women's cervical screening was collected by interview in a random household survey (Hunter Region, NSW, Australia), with pathology laboratory data collected by a search of records within laboratories. The magnitude

Jennifer Ann Bowman; Rob Sanson-Fisher; Sally Redman

1997-01-01

44

Preschool healthcare utilisation related to home oxygen status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine, in prematurely born children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), if respiratory morbidity, healthcare utilisation, and cost of care during the preschool years were influenced by use of supplementary oxygen at home after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit.Design: Observational study.Setting: Four tertiary neonatal intensive care units.Patients: 190 children, median gestational age 27 weeks (range 22–31), 70

A Greenough; J Alexander; S Burgess; J Bytham; P A J Chetcuti; J Hagan; W Lenney; S Melville; N J Shaw; J Boorman; S Coles; F Pang; J Turner

2006-01-01

45

The enzymology of sludge solubilisation utilising sulphate reducing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of ATP-sulphurylases in the enzymology of accelerated primary sludge solubilisation utilising sulphate reducing systems was investigated. ATP-sulphurylase levels were monitored in methanogenic (ATPSMR) and sulphidogenic (ATPSSR) bioreactor systems. ATPSMR and ATPSSR activities were mainly present in the cell free fractions of the bioreactor sludge. ATPSMR activity was significantly lower (10–20-fold) than the activity observed for ATPSSR. Studies of

Brett I. Pletschke; Peter D. Rose; Chris G. Whiteley

2002-01-01

46

This study explores students'perceptions of outcomes of counselling skills training. to utilise them in a variety of professional and non-professional contexts such as  

E-print Network

of international and national The stresses of modern life, it is suggested, have contributed to higher anxiety #12 The second study explores the nature and extent of the perceived impact of a two-year diploma course on the basis of a small-scale qualitative study, using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews with twelve

Glasgow, University of

47

Utilisation of postnatal care among rural women in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Postnatal care is uncommon in Nepal, and where it is available the quality is often poor. Adequate utilisation of postnatal care can help reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and their babies. Therefore, our study assessed the utilisation of postnatal care at a rural community level. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in two neighbouring villages in early 2006. A total of 150 women who had delivered in the previous 24 months were asked to participate in the study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results The proportion of women who had received postnatal care after delivery was low (34%). Less than one in five women (19%) received care within 48 hours of giving birth. Women in one village had less access to postnatal care than women in the neighbouring one. Lack of awareness was the main barrier to the utilisation of postnatal care. The woman's own occupation and ethnicity, the number of pregnancies and children and the husband's socio-economic status, occupation and education were significantly associated with the utilisation of postnatal care. Multivariate analysis showed that wealth as reflected in occupation and having attended antenatal are important factors associated with the uptake of postnatal care. In addition, women experiencing health problems appear strongly motivated to seek postnatal care. Conclusion The postnatal care has a low uptake and is often regarded as inadequate in Nepal. This is an important message to both service providers and health-policy makers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to assess the actual quality of postnatal care provided. Also there appears to be a need for awareness-raising programmes highlighting the availability of current postnatal care where this is of sufficient quality. PMID:17767710

Dhakal, Sulochana; Chapman, Glyn N; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Stephens, Jane; Raja, Amalraj E

2007-01-01

48

13/05/20081 Timber Utilisation  

E-print Network

about the quality of Sitka spruce coming onto the market · Greater awareness in the industry of the need straightness as the key factor in quality of Sitka spruce logs · More recently have used acoustic tools to help predict stiffness in wood quality #12;13/05/20085 Timber Utilisation Current

49

ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT  

E-print Network

ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT N.C. Townsend nick@soton.ac.uk Fluid Structure of a marine vessel can induce gyroscopic precession. x y Z 0 Figure 1: A Schematic of a Single Unit Gyroscopic the gyroscopic effect) Experimental sea trials will be conducted in 2011. The motivation behind the project

Sóbester, András

50

Healthcare Utilisation and Empowerment Among Women in Liberia  

PubMed Central

Background Many efforts have been undertaken to improve access to healthcare services in low-income settings; nevertheless, underutilisation persists. Women’s lack of empowerment may be a central reason for underutilisation, but empirical literature establishing this relationship is sparse. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey. Our sample included all non-pregnant women who were currently married or living with a partner (N=3925 unweighted). We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the associations between constructs derived from the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) and healthcare utilisation. Results Two-thirds of women (65.6%) had been to a healthcare facility for herself or her children in the past 12 months. Constructs from the three major theoretical structures were associated with healthcare utilisation. Women with no education, compared with women with some education, were less likely to have been to a healthcare facility (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.93) as were women who had experienced sexual abuse (OR=0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.95) and women who were married (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.88). Women in higher wealth quintiles, compared with women in the next lower wealth quintile, and women with more decision-making power had greater odds of having been to a healthcare facility (OR=1.22; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.36 and OR=1.10; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20; respectively). Conclusions Strong associations exist between healthcare utilisation and empowerment among women in Liberia, and gender imbalances are prevalent. This fundamental issue likely needs to be addressed before large-scale improvement in health service utilisation can be expected. PMID:23929617

Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora A; Bradley, Elizabeth; Harris, Benjamin; Johnson, Billy; Hansen, Nathan B

2014-01-01

51

The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment  

PubMed Central

The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies. PMID:12646071

Hanney, Stephen R; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A; Buxton, Martin J; Kogan, Maurice

2003-01-01

52

Utilisation des Protocoles HARQ pour la Radio Cognitive  

E-print Network

Utilisation des Protocoles HARQ pour la Radio Cognitive Romain Tajan encadré/01/2012 #12;Plan 1 Introduction 2 La Radio Cognitive Techniques de la Radio Cognitive Méthodes d'accès 3 performances du protocole IR-HARQ 4 Utilisation des protocoles HARQ pour la Radio Cognitive Utilisation de l

Dobigeon, Nicolas

53

The experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Older people from culturally and linguistically diverse groups are underrepresented in residential aged care but overrepresented in community aged care in Australia. However, little is known about culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia because previous studies mainly focused on the majority cultural group. Experiences of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups who are eligible to utilise dementia services in Australia are needed in order to optimize the utilisation of dementia services for these caregivers. Methods The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of family caregivers from Chinese, Greek, Italian and Vietnamese groups in utilising dementia services. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret the experiences of the participants. Focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data collection was conducted over a six month period in 2011. In total, 46 family caregivers who were caring for 39 persons with dementia participated. Results Four themes were revealed: (1) negotiating services for the person with dementia; (2) the impact of acculturation on service utilisation; (3) the characteristics of satisfactory services; and (4) negative experiences in utilising services. The present study revealed that the participation of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups in planning and managing dementia services ranged markedly from limited participation to full participation. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups need to be fully prepared so they can participate in the utilisation of dementia services available to them in Australia. PMID:24148155

2013-01-01

54

Determining appropriateness for rehabilitation or other subacute care: is there a role for utilisation review?  

PubMed Central

Background Rehabilitation and other forms of subacute care play an important role in the Australian health care system, yet there is ambiguity around clinical definitions of subacute care, how it differs from acute care, where it is best done and what resources are required. This leads to inconsistent and often poorly defined patient selection criteria as well as a lack of research into efficient models of care. Methods A literature review on the potential role of utilisation review in defining levels of care and in facilitating appropriate care, with a focus on the interface between acute care and rehabilitation. Results In studies using standardised utilisation review tools there is consistent reporting of high levels of 'inappropriate' bed days in acute care settings. These inappropriate bed days include both inappropriate admissions to acute care and inappropriate continuing days of stay. While predominantly an instrument of payers in the United States, concurrent utilisation review programs have also been used outside of the US, where they help in the facilitation of appropriate care. Some utilisation review tools also have specific criteria for determining patient appropriateness for rehabilitation and other subacute care. Conclusion The high levels of 'inappropriate' care demonstrated repeatedly in international studies using formal programs of utilisation review should not be ignored in Australia. Utilisation review tools, while predominantly developed in the US, may complement other Australian patient flow initiatives to improve efficiency while maintaining patient safety. They could also play a role in the identification of patients who may benefit from transfer from acute care to another type of care and thus be an adjunct to physician assessment. Testing of the available utilisation review tools in the Australian context is now required. PMID:17352832

Poulos, Christopher J; Eagar, Kathy

2007-01-01

55

Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB) and English speaking background (ESB) within Australia. METHODS: We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression

Lixin Ou; Jack Chen; Ken Hillman

2010-01-01

56

Agri-environment schemes and butterflies: the utilisation of 6 m grass margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilisation of 6 m countryside stewardship scheme (CSS) grass margins by butterflies was studied at two farms in Essex between 1997 and 2000. The aim of the study was to establish whether grass margins in cereal fields, as set up and managed under CSS guidelines, would be beneficial to common farmland butterflies. Eight 6 m grass margins (total length 3492 m) and

R. G. Field; T. Gardiner; C. F. Mason; J. Hill

2005-01-01

57

Utilisation by sheep of herbage under tree crops in Ghana.  

PubMed

A study conducted into the utilisation by sheep of herbage under a mango/cashew plantation at Kade (Ghana) showed the native herb, Asystasia gangetica to be the most preferred herbage. Centrosema pubescens was preferred to Pueraria phaseoloides. The physical condition of the herbage affected their preference but the crude protein content did not have any influence. The mean daily digestible dry matter intake of yearling rams (g/kg W0.75) was 34, 31 and 39 for animals on Brachiaria lata/Pueraria phaseoloides, Pueraria phaseoloides and Centrosema pubescens/Aystasia gangetica stands respectively. Intake was not correlated with crude protein levels of the herbage. The mean carrying capacity of the associations was found to be between 11 and 18 sheep/ha/annum. PMID:625790

Asiedu, F H; Oppong, E N; Opoku, A A

1978-02-01

58

HIV counselling and testing utilisation and attitudes of male inmates in a South African prison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their

Lelaka C Motshabi; Supa Pengpid; Karl Peltzer

2011-01-01

59

Barriers to utilisation of maternal health services in a semi-urban community in northern Nigeria: The clients' perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: Low level of utilisation of maternal health services is a major factor responsible for high maternal mortality in northwestern region of Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the barriers to utilisation of maternal health services from the perspective of mothers in northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 150 mothers, selected through multistage technique, was conducted. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS statistics 17.0. Results: Only 2.7% utilised preconception service, 98.7% antenatal care service (ANC), 24.0% delivery, 35.3% postnatal care and 14.0% utilised family planning service. Major reasons for non-utilisation of delivery service were not having a delivery complication in the past (57% (CI = 47.4-66.1)) and negative provider attitude (23.7% (CI = 16.4-32.7)). For non-utilisation of postnatal care, the major reasons were also not having a postnatal complication in the past (60.8% (CI = 50.4-70.4)) and negative provider attitude (27.8% (CI = 19.4-38.0)). As for non-utilisation of family planning service, the major reason was desire to have more children (32.6% (CI = 24.7-41.4)). Reasons for non-use of preconception care and ANC were not computed because respondents to these questions were not enough; only 6 (4.0%) were aware of preconception care in the first place and only 2 (1.3%) were not using ANC. Conclusion: Despite living near a health facility, most of the mothers were not using maternal health services. It is recommended that while there is the need to raise awareness on the utilisation of maternal health services, bring it closer to the mothers and make it more affordable, there is a more pressing need to improve its quality, especially through the alleviation of negative attitude of health care providers. PMID:23661896

Idris, Suleman Hadejia; Sambo, Mohammed Nasir; Ibrahim, Muhammed Sani

2013-01-01

60

Infant care practices in rural China and their relation to prenatal care utilisation.  

PubMed

Studies describing postpartum childcare practices and the influence of prenatal care on infant care outcomes in rural China are scarce. This study looked at data for 1479 women who had given birth during the preceding 2 years (median age of the child was 8 months). Data were available from a Knowledge, Attitude and Perception cross-sectional survey collected from 2001 to 2003, after a prenatal care intervention in Anhui County, China, with a response rate of 97%. Prenatal care utilisation was categorised using the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index. Logistic regression was used to study the association between prenatal care utilisation and infant care practices. Mothers' uptake of breastfeeding, introduction of milk formula, cereal/porridge, meat and uptake of any immunisation were found to be in accordance with national recommendations. Intermediate prenatal care uptake was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of cereal/porridge. Inadequate care was positively associated with never breastfeeding, early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge, and early start of work after delivery. Initiation to prenatal care after the third month was positively associated with early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge. Having no prenatal care was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of milk formula. Mothers' uptake of infant care practices in this population was largely in accordance with national recommendations. Women with less than adequate utilisation of prenatal care and those who had initiated prenatal care late were less likely to follow recommendations on infant care. PMID:20336564

Nwaru, B I; Wu, Z; Hemminki, E

2011-01-01

61

Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India  

SciTech Connect

In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

1984-02-01

62

Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs.  

PubMed

Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are driven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor. PMID:23802203

Lawrie, M; Good, A

2013-07-01

63

LA REVUE DE L'EPI N 94 UTILISATION DES NTIC ET DMARCHE HUMANISTE UTILISATION DES NTIC ET  

E-print Network

91 LA REVUE DE L'EPI N° 94 UTILISATION DES NTIC ET D�MARCHE HUMANISTE UTILISATION DES NTIC ET D�MARCHE HUMANISTE OBSERVATIONS ET SUGGESTIONS POUR LA FORMATION DES MA�TRES Jean-Pierre LEVET Une partie'attention ici est lié à des éléments de réflexion humaniste appliquée aux NTIC. Le rapport préliminaire et les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

Effects of a telehealth programme using mobile data transmission on primary healthcare utilisation among children in Bamako, Mali.  

PubMed

Pesinet is a non-profit organisation which operates a microinsurance programme combined with a monitoring service in low-income countries to increase primary healthcare utilisation for children. We studied the association between enrolment in the Pesinet programme and changes in utilisation of health services. We conducted a prospective controlled study in Bamako (Mali) in children under five years old. Participants in the Pesinet service were recruited from a neighbourhood of Bamako (n = 91) and participants in the control group (usual care) came from two other neighbouring districts (n = 89). Eight questionnaires were completed at 2-week intervals for each child in the study. We performed logistic regression modelling to assess the effect of the Pesinet programme on health service utilisation, adjusting for confounding variables (age and socio-economic status). During the study, families reported 206 episodes of disease in the intervention group and 168 in the control group. Children from the intervention group had 85 medical consultations and those in the control group had 28. Based on the logistic regression model, there was increased utilisation of health care services among children enrolled in the Pesinet programme, with an adjusted Odds Ratio for medical consultations of 2.2. Membership of the Pesinet telehealth programme increased primary healthcare utilisation among children under five years old in Mali. PMID:24163292

Simonyan, David; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Duchesne, Thierry; Roos-Weil, Anne

2013-09-01

65

Agri-environment schemes and butterflies: the utilisation of two metre arable field margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilisation of two metre field margins by butterflies was studied at three farms in Essex, south east England between\\u000a 1997 and 2000. The aim of the study was to establish whether field margins, as set up and managed under Countryside Stewardship\\u000a Scheme guidelines, were beneficial to common farmland butterflies. Thirteen two metre margins (total length 4478 m) and three

R. G. Field; T. Gardiner; C. F. Mason; J. Hill

2007-01-01

66

Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of Barcelona. Methods The study population included all adults residing in the area of study and visiting the emergency department of Hospital del Mar in 2004. The emergency care episodes were selected from the Emergency Department register, and the population figures from the Statistics Department of Barcelona. Emergency care episodes were classified into five large clinical categories. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) of utilisation among foreign-born vs. Spanish-born residents were assessed through negative binomial regression. Results The overall utilisation rate was 382 emergency contacts per 1,000 persons-years. The RR for foreign-born versus Spanish-born residents was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52; 0.74%). The RR was also significantly below one in surgery (0.51, 95% CI: 0.42; 0.63), traumatology (0.47, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59), medicine (0.48, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59) and psychiatry (0.42, 95% CI: 0.18; 0.97). No differences were found in utilisation of gynaecology and minor emergency services. Conclusion The overall lower utilisation rates obtained for foreign-born residents is consistent with previous studies and is probably due to the "healthy immigrant effect". Thus, the population increase due to immigration does not translate directly into a corresponding increase in the number of emergency contacts. The lack of differences in minor and gynaecological emergency care supports the hypothesis that immigrants overcome certain barriers by using the emergency department to access to health services. The issue of healthcare barriers should therefore be addressed, especially among immigrants. PMID:18315871

Buron, Andrea; Cots, Francesc; Garcia, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Castells, Xavier

2008-01-01

67

Regulation of methanol utilisation pathway genes in yeasts  

PubMed Central

Methylotrophic yeasts such as Candida boidinii, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia methanolica and Pichia pastoris are an emerging group of eukaryotic hosts for recombinant protein production with an ever increasing number of applications during the last 30 years. Their applications are linked to the use of strong methanol-inducible promoters derived from genes of the methanol utilisation pathway. These promoters are tightly regulated, highly repressed in presence of non-limiting concentrations of glucose in the medium and strongly induced if methanol is used as carbon source. Several factors involved in this tight control and their regulatory effects have been described so far. This review summarises available data about the regulation of promoters from methanol utilisation pathway genes. Furthermore, the role of cis and trans acting factors (e.g. transcription factors, glucose processing enzymes) in the expression of methanol utilisation pathway genes is reviewed both in the context of the native cell environment as well as in heterologous hosts. PMID:17169150

Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

2006-01-01

68

Mechanical ventilation in critically ill cancer patients: outcome and utilisation of resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive care is increasingly being used in the management of cancer patients. It is important that a disproportionate share\\u000a of special care resources is not expended on futile care of terminally ill patients. A requirement for mechanical ventilation\\u000a has been stated to affect survival in cancer patients. The objectives of this study were to determine our hospital utilisation\\u000a of ICU

Ulf E. Kongsgaard; Nina K. Meidell

1999-01-01

69

Effect of probiotic supplementation on growth, nitrogen utilisation and serum cholesterol in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on the growth, nitrogen utilisation and serum cholesterol content of broiler chickens was studied in 2 trials.2. In experiment 1, the birds receiving the 0, 75, 100, 125 mg probiotic\\/kg diets had weight gains of 1204.0, 1272.0, 1268.3 and 1210.5 g, respectively at the end of 8 weeks of feeding. The group of

B. Mohan; R. Kadirvel; A. Natarajan; M. Bhaskaran

1996-01-01

70

HIV counselling and testing utilisation and attitudes of male inmates in a South African prison.  

PubMed

The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services. PMID:23237725

Motshabi, Lelaka C; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

2011-01-01

71

Life cycle assessment of biohydrogen and biomethane production and utilisation as a vehicle fuel.  

PubMed

Environmental burdens for the production and utilisation of biomethane vehicle fuel or a biohydrogen/biomethane blend produced from food waste or wheat feed, based on data from two different laboratory experiments, have been compared. For food waste treated by batch processes the two stage system gave high hydrogen yields (84.2l H2kg(-1) VS added) but a lower overall energy output than the single stage system. Reduction in environmental burdens compared with diesel was achieved, supported by the diversion of waste from landfill. For wheat feed, the semi continuously fed two stage process gave low hydrogen yields (7.5l H2kg(-1) VS added) but higher overall energy output. The process delivers reduction in fossil fuel burdens, and improvements in process efficiencies will lead to reduction in CO2 burdens compared with diesel. The study highlights the importance of understanding and optimising biofuel production parameters according to the feedstock utilised. PMID:23353037

Patterson, Tim; Esteves, Sandra; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Maddy, Jon

2013-03-01

72

Technical\\/economic\\/environmental analysis of biogas utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas may be utilised for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production or for transport fuel production (CH4-enriched biogas). When used to produce transport fuel either electricity is imported to power the plant or some of the biogas is used in a small CHP unit to meet electricity demand on site. The potential revenue from CH4-enriched biogas when replacing petrol is

J. D. Murphy; E. McKeogh; G. Kiely

2004-01-01

73

Explaining income-related inequalities in doctor utilisation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new international comparative evidence on the factors driving inequalities in the use of GP and specialist services in 12 EU member states. The data are taken from the 1996 wave of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). We examine two types of utilisation (the probability of a visit and the conditional number of positive visits) for two

Eddy van Doorslaer; Xander Koolman; Andrew M. Jones

2004-01-01

74

A Proposed Meta-learning Framework for Algorithm Selection Utilising  

E-print Network

A Proposed Meta-learning Framework for Algorithm Selection Utilising Regression-based Landmarkers of Information Technologies University of Sydney NSW 2006 #12;A Proposed Meta-learning Framework for Algorithm, Australia Abstract In this paper, we present a framework for meta- learning that adopts the use

Koprinska, Irena

75

Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

2007-01-01

76

IGCC power plant for biomass utilisation, värnamo, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sydkraft AB has built the world's first complete IGCC Power Plant which utilises wood as fuel. The plant is located in Värnamo, Sweden, and the technology used in the power plant is based on gasification in a pressurised circulating fluidised bed gasifier. The gasification technology is developed in co-operation between Sydkraft AB and Foster Wheeler Energy International Inc., who also

Krister Ståhl; Magnus Neergaard

1998-01-01

77

Redirecting Under-Utilised Computer Laboratories into Cluster Computing Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide administrators at an Australian university with data on the feasibility of redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories facilities into a distributed high performance computing facility. Design/methodology/approach: The individual log-in records for each computer located in the computer laboratories at the university were…

Atkinson, John S.; Spenneman, Dirk H. R.; Cornforth, David

2005-01-01

78

UN ENVIRONNEMENT DE PROGRAMMATION VISUELLE UTILISANT LA MTAPHORE DU THATRE  

E-print Network

UN ENVIRONNEMENT DE PROGRAMMATION VISUELLE UTILISANT LA M�TAPHORE DU TH�ATRE Isabelle BORNE Résumé : cette étude se place dans le contexte de l'initiation à la programmation par objets. Notre objectif tente de répondre à la question : « Comment donner à des non-informaticiens la possibilité de programmer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Article de recherche Utilisations digestive et mtabolique compares  

E-print Network

utilisations of faba bean, lentil and chick pea. Faba bean, lentil or chick-pea raw seeds were used digestibility coefficient (CUDa) was 72% in the faba bean, 75% in the lentil, 76% in the chickPea groups that methionine from the 3 legumes, threonine from chick-pea, arginine and lysine from faba bean were not fully

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Utilisation of Carbon Sources by Pythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium Species as Determined by Biolog® Microplate Assay  

PubMed Central

This study examined the metabolic activity of pure cultures of five root pathogens commonly found in closed hydroponic cultivation systems (Phytophthora cryptogea (PC), Phytophthora capsici (PCP), Pythium aphanidermatum (PA), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) and Fusarium solani (FS)) using sole carbon source utilisation in order to develop effective biocontrol strategies against these pathogens. Aliquots of 150 µL of the mycelial suspension were inoculated in each well of GN2 microtitre plates. On the basis of average well colour development and number of positive wells, the pathogens were divided into two groups, (i) PA and FORL and (ii) PC, PCP and FS. Group (i) was characterised by a short lag-phase, a rapid exponential phase involving almost all carbon sources offered and a long stationary phase, while group (ii) had a more extended lag-phase and a slower utilisation rate of the carbon sources offered. The three isolates in group (ii) differed significantly during their exponential phase. The lowest utilisation rate of carbon sources and number of sources utilised was found for PCP. Of the major group of carbon sources, six carbohydrates, three carboxylic acids and four amino acids were rapidly used by all isolates tested at an early stage. The carbon sources gentibiose, ?-D-glucose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-proline persisted to the end of the exponential phase.Moreover, similarities between the metabolic profiles of the tested pathogen and the those of the resident microflora could also be found. These findings are of great importance as regards the role of the resident microflora in the biocontrol. PMID:19294012

Khalil, Sammar; Alsanius, Beatrix W

2009-01-01

81

A rapid appraisal of access to and utilisation of psychotropic medicines in Bihar, India  

PubMed Central

Background A major aspect of providing mental healthcare is access to and use of psychotropic medications. Bihar is a state in northeast India with limited mental healthcare provision; consequently access to and utilisation of psychotropic medications are likely to be limited. However, to date there has been no research assessing the situation. This study therefore aims to analyse the psychotropic medications management cycle (selection, procurement, distribution and use), and identify the barriers to access and utilisation, and their underlying causes. Method A rapid appraisal method was used in which primary and secondary data sources were collected and analysed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-two stakeholders and twenty-one service users from the government, non-governmental organisation (NGO) and private sectors. The qualitative data collected was analysed using a comparative thematic approach. The research was supported by the NGOs BasicNeeds and Nav Bharat Jagriti Kendra. Results Availability, distance and cost were the main barriers to access and utilisation. At the medical college hospital level a lack of supply appears to be due to a discrepancy between orders made by the hospital and medications supplied by the manufacturers. At the primary health centre and district hospital level the main barrier is a cycle between lack of demand for treatments for mental illness by doctors and patients. Conclusion Further investigation and monitoring is necessary to ensure the availability of psychotropic medications at the medical college hospital level. In addition, implementation of the District Mental Health Programme is likely to address the access and utilisation barriers due to its potential to break the current cycle of lack of demand. PMID:25053976

2014-01-01

82

Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA) and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha) were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent). Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1) social support (ten items), alpha 0.86; (2) perceived interpersonal care (five items), alpha 0.87, (3) concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items), alpha 0.80, (4) value of good health (five items), alpha 0.79, and (5) attitudes towards health care (three items), alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population. PMID:19954549

2009-01-01

83

Changes in the pattern of service utilisation and health problems of women, men and various age groups following a destructive disaster: a matched cohort study with a pre-disaster assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Female gender and young age are known risk factors for psychological morbidity after a disaster, but this conclusion is based on studies without a pre-disaster assessment. The aim of this study in family practice was to investigate if these supposed risk factors would still occur in a study design with a pre-disaster measurement. METHODS: A matched cohort study with

Rik JH Soeteman; C Joris Yzermans; Peter Spreeuwenberg; Toine ALM Lagro-Janssen; Wil JHM van den Bosch; Jouke van der Zee

2008-01-01

84

Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room Walls PDM/CAD Tele-operations Product Control room External World

Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

2004-08-01

85

Structural insight into the Clostridium difficile ethanolamine utilisation microcompartment.  

PubMed

Bacterial microcompartments form a protective proteinaceous barrier around metabolic enzymes that process unstable or toxic chemical intermediates. The genome of the virulent, multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile 630 strain contains an operon, eut, encoding a bacterial microcompartment with genes for the breakdown of ethanolamine and its utilisation as a source of reduced nitrogen and carbon. The C. difficile eut operon displays regulatory genetic elements and protein encoding regions in common with homologous loci found in the genomes of other bacteria, including the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis. The crystal structures of two microcompartment shell proteins, CD1908 and CD1918, and an uncharacterised protein with potential enzymatic activity, CD1925, were determined by X-ray crystallography. CD1908 and CD1918 display the same protein fold, though the order of secondary structure elements is permuted in CD1908 and this protein displays an N-terminal ?-strand extension. These proteins form hexamers with molecules related by crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry. The structure of CD1925 has a cupin ?-barrel fold and a putative active site that is distinct from the metal-ion dependent catalytic cupins. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy of Escherichia coli over-expressing eut proteins indicates that CD1918 is capable of self-association into arrays, suggesting an organisational role for CD1918 in the formation of this microcompartment. The work presented provides the basis for further study of the architecture and function of the C. difficile eut microcompartment, its role in metabolism and the wider consequences of intestinal colonisation and virulence in this pathogen. PMID:23144756

Pitts, Alison C; Tuck, Laura R; Faulds-Pain, Alexandra; Lewis, Richard J; Marles-Wright, Jon

2012-01-01

86

Nutrient Utilisation in Growing Cambodian Cattle  

E-print Network

.2 Experimental design, treatments and diets 25 4.3 Animal management and measurements 26 4.4 Sample analysis Conservation Techniques Keo Sath Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal. In an experimental study examining the effects of different levels of dietary supplementation with sun-dried cassava

87

Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.  

PubMed

Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed. PMID:23163241

Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

2013-01-01

88

Utilisation and Impact of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Database (TEEAL) on Library Services in a Nigerian University of Agriculture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the utilisation of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Library database (TEEAL) at the University of Agriculture Library, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection was by questionnaire following a purposive sampling technique. A total of 104 out 150 (69.3 per cent) responses were received and…

Oduwole, A. A.; Sowole, A. O.

2006-01-01

89

Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

Gvaramadze, Irakli

2010-01-01

90

Oneiric Processing Utilising the Anticipatory Classifier System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The cognitive abilities of the anticipatory classifier system (ACS) have already been successfully shown in earlier work [20].\\u000a This report takes inspiration from some philosophical ideas for the purpose of dreaming in animals and humans. This is supported\\u000a by recent neurological studies that show that rats revisit recent situations in a way that suggests dreaming [25]. An extension\\u000a is made

Julian C. Holley; Anthony G. Pipe; Brian Carse

2004-01-01

91

Nutrient utilisation and weathering inputs in the Peruvian upwelling region since the Little Ice Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For this study two sediment cores from the Peruvian shelf covering the time period between the Little Ice Age (LIA) and present were examined for changes in productivity (biogenic opal concentrations (bSi)), nutrient utilisation (stable isotope compositions of silicon (?30Siopal) and nitrogen (?15Nsed)), as well as in ocean circulation and material transport (authigenic and detrital radiogenic neodymium (?Nd) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes). For the LIA the proxies recorded weak primary productivity and nutrient utilisation reflected by low average bSi concentrations of ~10%, ?15Nsed values of ~ +5‰ and intermediate ?30Siopal values of ~+0.97‰. At the same time the radiogenic isotope composition of the detrital sediment fraction indicates dominant local riverine input of lithogenic material due to higher rainfall in the Andean hinterland. These patterns were caused by permanent El Niño-like conditions characterized by a deeper nutricline, weak upwelling and low nutrient supply. At the end of the LIA, ?30Siopal dropped to low values of +0.6‰ and opal productivity reached its minimum of the past 650 years. During the following transitional period of time the intensity of upwelling, nutrient supply and productivity increased abruptly as marked by the highest bSi contents of up to 38%, by ?15Nsed of up to ~ +7‰, and by the highest degree of silicate utilisation with ?30Siopal reaching values of +1.1‰. At the same time detrital ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr signatures documented increased wind strength and supply of dust to the shelf due to drier conditions. Since about 1870, productivity has been high but nutrient utilisation has remained at levels similar to the LIA indicating significantly increased nutrient availability. Comparison between the ?30Siopal and ?15Nsed signatures suggests that during the past 650 years the ?15Nsed signature in the Peruvian Upwelling area has most likely primarily been controlled by surface water utilisation and not, as previously assumed, by subsurface nitrogen loss processes in the water column.

Ehlert, C.; Grasse, P.; Gutiérrez, D.; Salvatteci, R.; Frank, M.

2014-08-01

92

Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate. The microbial studies of biodegradation process revealed following peculiarities: gradual quantitative increasing of Lactobacillus sp. (from 10 3 to 10 5 colony forming units (CFU) per ml), activation of Clostridia sp. (from 10 2 to 10 4 CFU/ml) and elimination of aerobic conventional pathogens ( Enterobacteriaceae sp., Protea sp., staphylococci). The obtained results allow to evaluate effectiveness of proposed technology and to determine the leading role of lactobacilli and clostridia in process of natural wastes biodegradation. Our further investigations shall further be concentrated on creation of artificial inoculi for launching of food wastes biodegradation. These inoculi will include active and adapted strains of clostridia and lactobacilli.

Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

2004-03-01

93

White clover utilisation on dairy farms in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords<\\/strong>botanical composition, carbon, cutting frequency, dairy system, energy, fixation, gross margin, herbage quality, milk production, MINAS, nitrate leaching, nitrogen, nutrient balance, nutrient efficiency, perennial ryegrass, phosphorus, rotational grazing, soil, strategic nitrogen application, sward utilisation, white clover The present efforts to reduce the nitrogen (N) losses on dairy farms have reduced the use of fertiliser N and consequently renewed interest in white

R. L. M. Schils

2002-01-01

94

Article original Utilisation d'une chambre de transpiration portable  

E-print Network

Article original Utilisation d'une chambre de transpiration portable pour l'estimation de l chambre de transpiration légère, close, couvrant une surface au sol de 0,5 m2 a été utilisée pour mesurer comparées avec la transpiration des arbres estimée à partir de mesures de flux de sève. Quand le stock

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

The European Space Agency standard for space packet utilisation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the ESA concept for the use of CCSDS defined Telemetry and Telecommand Packets at the application level. These Packets are used to monitor and control remotely a space born application. This concept is defined in a Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS) which should become applicable for all ESA missions using Packets. The production of this standard is under the responsibility of an ESA standardization group called 'COES'.

Kaufeler, J.-F.; Parkes, A.; Pidgeon, A.

1993-01-01

96

Redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories into cluster computing facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide administrators at an Australian university with data on the feasibility of redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories facilities into a distributed high performance computing facility. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The individual log-in records for each computer located in the computer laboratories at the university were investigated. The log-in data were investigated over a 24-hour\\/seven day a week period between June

John S. Atkinson; Dirk H. R. Spenneman; David Cornforth

2005-01-01

97

Comprehensive determinants of health service utilisation for mental health reasons in a canadian catchment area  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study sought to identify factors associated with health service utilisation by individuals with mental disorders in a Canadian catchment area. Methods To be included in the study, participants had to be aged between 15 and 65 and reside in the study location. Data was collected randomly from June to December 2009 by specially trained interviewers. A comprehensive set of variables (including geospatial factors) was studied using the Andersen's behavioural health service model. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were carried out. Results Among 406 individuals diagnosed with mental disorders, 212 reported using a mental health service at least once in the 12 months preceding the interviews. Emotional problems and a history of violence victimisation were most strongly associated with such utilisation. Participants who were middle-aged or deemed their mental health to be poor were also more likely to seek mental healthcare. Individuals living in neighbourhoods where rental accommodations were the norm used significantly fewer health services than individuals residing in neighbourhoods where homeownership was preponderant; males were also less likely to use services than females. Conclusions Our study broke new ground by uncovering the impact of longstanding violence victimisation, and the proportion of homeownership on mental health service utilisation among this population. It also confirmed the prominence of some variables (gender, age, emotional problems and self-perceived mental health) as key enabling variables of health-seeking. There should be better promotion of strategies designed to change the attitudes of males and youths and to deal with violence victimisation. There is also a need for initiatives that are targeted to neighbourhoods where there is more rental housing. PMID:22469459

2012-01-01

98

Paediatric inpatient utilisation in a district general hospital.  

PubMed Central

Paediatric inpatient utilisation in a district general hospital was studied for 20 general practices covering a population of 26,433 children. The factors influencing the rate and route of admission (general practitioner (GP) or accident and emergency department) were analysed for 894 emergency non-traumatic admissions over a 12 month period. The overall rate of acute, nontraumatic admission was 33.8/1000; 35% of these admissions were via the accident and emergency department. Asthma was the most common reason for admission (16.1%); 56.9% of the admissions resulted from respiratory tract illness and 44% were for an infective illness. There was a significant variation in the route and rate of admission across practices. Admission rates ranged from 10 to 70/1000 children under 15 and the proportion via the accident and emergency department from 19% to 85%. The proportion of admissions via the accident and emergency department for each practice was highly negatively correlated with the number of GPs in the practice, the number of children under 15 registered, and positively correlated with the unemployment rate attributed to the list. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of being admitted via the accident and emergency department relative to GP admission was shown to be higher for older children (odds ratio for each year of age 1.05) and less for children registered with large practices with more GPs (odds ratio for each extra GP 0.36) or practices with more children under 15 (odds ratio per extra child 0.9991). Access to hospital as measured by isochrone bars and social characteristics of the ward of residence of each child admitted were not associated with the route of admission. The admission rate for each practice was positively, but not statistically significantly, associated with the unemployment rate attributed to the list, the unemployment rate of the ward where the practice was located, and the percentage of admissions via accident and emergency, and negatively associated with the percentage of the list under 15 years. PMID:8048817

Thakker, Y; Sheldon, T A; Long, R; MacFaul, R

1994-01-01

99

Paediatric inpatient utilisation in a district general hospital.  

PubMed

Paediatric inpatient utilisation in a district general hospital was studied for 20 general practices covering a population of 26,433 children. The factors influencing the rate and route of admission (general practitioner (GP) or accident and emergency department) were analysed for 894 emergency non-traumatic admissions over a 12 month period. The overall rate of acute, nontraumatic admission was 33.8/1000; 35% of these admissions were via the accident and emergency department. Asthma was the most common reason for admission (16.1%); 56.9% of the admissions resulted from respiratory tract illness and 44% were for an infective illness. There was a significant variation in the route and rate of admission across practices. Admission rates ranged from 10 to 70/1000 children under 15 and the proportion via the accident and emergency department from 19% to 85%. The proportion of admissions via the accident and emergency department for each practice was highly negatively correlated with the number of GPs in the practice, the number of children under 15 registered, and positively correlated with the unemployment rate attributed to the list. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of being admitted via the accident and emergency department relative to GP admission was shown to be higher for older children (odds ratio for each year of age 1.05) and less for children registered with large practices with more GPs (odds ratio for each extra GP 0.36) or practices with more children under 15 (odds ratio per extra child 0.9991). Access to hospital as measured by isochrone bars and social characteristics of the ward of residence of each child admitted were not associated with the route of admission. The admission rate for each practice was positively, but not statistically significantly, associated with the unemployment rate attributed to the list, the unemployment rate of the ward where the practice was located, and the percentage of admissions via accident and emergency, and negatively associated with the percentage of the list under 15 years. PMID:8048817

Thakker, Y; Sheldon, T A; Long, R; MacFaul, R

1994-06-01

100

Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing\\u000a Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective\\u000a of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data pertaining to the

Hylton B Menz

2009-01-01

101

Manchester Triage System version II and resource utilisation in the emergency department.  

PubMed

Emergency department (ED) triage systems aim to direct the best clinical assistance to those who are in the greatest urgency and guarantee that resources are efficiently applied. The study's purpose was to determine whether the Manchester Triage System (MTS) second version is a useful instrument for determining the risk of hospital admission, intrahospital death and resource utilisation in ED and to compare it with the MTS first version. This was a prospective study of patients that attended the ED at a large hospital. It comprised a total of 25,218 cases that were triaged between 11 July and 13 October 2011. The MTS codes were grouped into two clusters: red and orange into a 'high acuity/priority' (HP) cluster, and yellow, green and blue into a 'low acuity/priority' cluster. The risk of hospital admission in the HP cluster was 4.86 times that of the LP cluster for both admission route and ages. The percentage of patient hospital admission between medical and surgical specialties, in high and low priority clusters, was similar. We found the risk of death in the HP cluster to be 5.58 times that of the risk of the low acuity/priority cluster. The MTS had an inconsistent association relative to the utilisation of x-ray, while it seemed to portray a consistent association between ECG and laboratory utilisation and MTS cluster. There were no differences between medical and surgical specialities risk of admission. This suggests that improvements were made in the second version of MTS, particularly in the discriminators of patients triaged to surgical specialties, because this was not true for the first version of MTS. PMID:23345313

Santos, André Peralta; Freitas, Paulo; Martins, Henrique Manuel Gil

2014-02-01

102

Fish Utilisation of Wetland Nurseries with Complex Hydrological Connectivity  

PubMed Central

The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting ‘facultative wetland resident’ group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the ’interrupted persistence’ group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the ‘facultative wetland resident’ and ‘delayed recruitment group’, and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the ‘delayed recruitment’ group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity. Consequently, there is a need to incorporate this diversity into understandings of habitat function, conservation and management. PMID:23152857

Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

2012-01-01

103

The effect of grassland utilisation on physicochemical properties of peat-muck soils and species composition of sward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of these studies was to estimate the influence of utilisation or its lack on the changes of physicochemical properties of peat-muck soils as well as on the species composition of sward. Studies were carried out on the peatland complex located in the Pojezierze ??czy?sko-W?odawskie (Lake District), in south-eastern Poland. This complex spreads over a wide area on both

M. Kulik; R. Bary?a; M. Ward

104

Socio-economic inequalities in health care utilisation in Norway: a population based cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Norway provides universal health care coverage to all residents, but socio-economic inequalities in health are among the largest in Europe. Evidence on inequalities in health care utilisation is sparse, and the aim of this population based study was to investigate socio-economic inequalities in the utilisation of health care services in Tromsø, Norway. Methods We used questionnaire data from the cross-sectional Tromsø Study, conducted in 2007–8. All together 12,982 persons aged 30–87 years participated with the response rate of 65.7%. This is slightly more than one third of the total population (33.8%) in the mentioned age group in Tromsø municipality. By logistic regression analyses we studied associations between household income, education and self-rated occupational status and the utilisation of general practitioner, somatic and psychiatric specialist outpatient services. The outcome variables were probability and frequency of use during the previous 12 months. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, marital status, and self-rated health. Results Self-rated health was the dominant predictor of health care utilisation. Women’s probability of visiting a general practitioner did not vary by socio-economic status, but high income was associated with less frequent use (odds ratio [OR] for trend 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.98). In men, high income predicted lower probability and frequency of general practitioner utilisation (OR for trend 0.85, CI 0.76-0.94, and 0.86, 0.78-0.95, respectively). Women’s probability of visiting a somatic specialist increased with higher income (OR for trend 1.11, CI 1.01-1.21) and higher education (OR for trend 1.27, CI 1.16-1.39). We found the same trends for men, though significant only for education (OR for trend 1.14, CI 1.05-1.25). The likelihood of visiting psychiatric specialist services increased with higher education and decreased with higher income in women (OR for trend 1.57, CI 1.24-1.98, and 0.69, 0.56-0.86, respectively), but did not vary significantly by socio-economic variables in men. Higher income predicted more frequent use of psychiatric specialist services in men (OR for trend 2.02, CI 1.12-3.63). Conclusions This study revealed important inequalities in the utilisation of health care services in Norway, inequalities which may contribute to sustaining inequalities in health outcomes. PMID:23006844

2012-01-01

105

Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, JC

2013-01-01

106

Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.  

PubMed

In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P?

Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojt?ch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

2014-05-01

107

Regional variation in the utilisation of ambulatory services in Germany.  

PubMed

We used an administrative dataset covering approximately 90% of all Germans to investigate the determinants of regional differences in the utilisation of ambulatory services in the year 2008. There are great regional differences in Germany, in GP, specialist and psychotherapist consultations. By means of a regression model taking account of the spatial dependencies of the error terms, we can explain a considerable part of the variation in terms of differences in demography, health status and socio-economic features. In addition, we made use of data on pollutants, the supply of services and the number of hospital cases as explanatory variables, which all have a significant influence on utilisation but contribute considerably less to explaining the differences. Overall, we are in a position to explain 29-40% of the regional differences in ambulatory case numbers at the level of the 413 counties and 55-70% at the level of the 16 German states (Länder) by observable differences. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24123586

Kopetsch, Thomas; Schmitz, Hendrik

2014-12-01

108

Material utilisation when depositing CdTe layers by inline AP-MOCVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of precursors' usage during deposition of cadmium telluride (CdTe) layers via atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapour deposition (AP-MOCVD) for thin film photovoltaic solar cells. Precursors were released from a showerhead assembly normal to the glass substrate 0.7 mm thick (5×7.5 cm2) being deposited which was kept stationary or moved under the showerhead assembly, with speed of upto 2.25 cm/min. In order to estimate the effective precursor utilisation, the weight deposit (layer) was compared against the theoretical values calculated for ideal molar supply. The layer thickness, composition, morphology, and crystallinity were also measured using profilometry, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It is shown that over 40% material utilisation can be achieved depending on the deposition parameters of substrate temperature and speed, partial pressure of precursors and total gas flow. The activation energy derived from an Arrhenius plot of deposition rate equals 49 kJ mol-1 and is consistent with previous reports of MOCVD CdTe using a horizontal reactor. This confirms that, despite the very different reactor geometry, the alkyl radical homolysis and reaction mechanism applies in the case of the inline injector geometry in the work presented here. These results demonstrate an alternative path to high throughput processing of CdTe thin film solar cells by inline AP-MOCVD.

Barrioz, V.; Kartopu, G.; Irvine, S. J. C.; Monir, S.; Yang, X.

2012-09-01

109

Access and utilisation of maternity care for disabled women who experience domestic abuse: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data were analysed to identify: the factors that facilitate or compromise access to care; the consequences of inadequate care for pregnant women’s health and wellbeing; and the effectiveness of existing strategies for improvement. Results Findings indicate that a mental health diagnosis, poor relationships with health professionals and environmental barriers can compromise women’s utilisation of maternity services. Domestic abuse can both compromise, and catalyse, access to services and social support is a positive factor when accessing care. Delayed and inadequate care has adverse effects on women’s physical and psychological health, however further research is required to fully explore the nature and extent of these consequences. Only one study identified strategies currently being used to improve access to services for disabled women experiencing abuse. Conclusions Based upon the barriers and facilitators identified within the review, we suggest that future strategies for improvement should focus on: understanding women’s reasons for accessing care; fostering positive relationships; being women-centred; promoting environmental accessibility; and improving the strength of the evidence base. PMID:25029907

2014-01-01

110

Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation in a multiple health insurance system: does insurance affiliation matter?  

PubMed Central

Background Many countries striving to achieve universal health insurance coverage have done so by means of multiple health insurance funds covering different population groups. However, existence of multiple health insurance funds may also cause variation in access to health care, due to the differential revenue raising capacities and benefit packages offered by the various funds resulting in inequity and inefficiency within the health system. This paper examines how the existence of multiple health insurance funds affects health care seeking behaviour and utilisation among members of the Community Health Fund, the National Health Insurance Fund and non-members in two districts in Tanzania. Methods Using household survey data collected in 2011 with a sample of 3290 individuals, the study uses a multinomial logit model to examine the influence of predisposing, enabling and need characteristics on the probability of seeking care and choice of provider. Results Generally, health insurance is found to increase the probability of seeking care and reduce delays. However, the probability, timing of seeking care and choice of provider varies across the CHF and NHIF members. Conclusions Reducing fragmentation is necessary to provide opportunities for redistribution and to promote equity in utilisation of health services. Improvement in the delivery of services is crucial for achievement of improved access and financial protection and for increased enrolment into the CHF, which is essential for broadening redistribution and cross-subsidisation to promote equity. PMID:24645876

2014-01-01

111

A Comprehensive Strategy for Value-Driven Utilisation of Douglas-fir Small Diameter Roundwood  

E-print Network

----------------------------------------------------------------------------25 Marketing Strategy and ObjectivesA Comprehensive Strategy for Value-Driven Utilisation of Douglas-fir Small Diameter Roundwood-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 MARKETING PLAN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20

112

Changes in health care utilisation following a reform involving choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care: a five-year follow-up of GP-visits  

PubMed Central

Background The organisation of Swedish primary health care has changed following introduction of free choice of provider for the population in combination with freedom of establishment for private primary care providers. Our aim was to investigate changes in individual health care utilisation following choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care from an equity perspective, in subgroups defined by age, gender and family income. Methods The study is based on register data years 2007 – 2011 from the Skåne Regional Council (population 1.2 million) regarding individual health care utilisation in the form of visits to general practitioner (GP). Health utilisation data was matched with data about individual’s age, gender and family income provided by Statistics Sweden. Multilevel, logistic regression models were constructed to analyse changes in health utilisation in different subgroups and the probability of a GP-visit before and after reform. Results Health care utilisation in terms of both number of individuals that had visited a GP and number of GP-visits per capita increased in all defined subgroups, but to a varying degree. Multilevel logistic regression showed that individuals of both genders aged above 64 and belonging to a family with an income above median had more advantage of the reform, OR 1.25-1.29. Conclusions Reforms involving choice and privatisation in Swedish primary health care improved access to GP-visits generally, but more so for individuals belonging to a family with income above the median. PMID:24171894

2013-01-01

113

The Effect of Urban Basic Medical Insurance on Health Service Utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: A Comparison of Two Schemes  

PubMed Central

Background Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Results Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p<0.10), whilst the significant effect on hospitalisation was evident in the CEM method (p<0.10). The effect of URBMI was limited in that although being insured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Conclusion Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services. PMID:24740282

Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

114

The Effect of Children's Rights Training on Primary School Students' Utilisation and Knowledge Level about Children's Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, children's rights issue has taken attention. In this study, main purpose was to investigate the utilisation and knowledge level of 4th and 5th grade primary school students after children's rights training. The participants of this survey study were selected randomly from 10 schools. Results indicated that students had the…

Ozmen, Suna Kaymak; Ocal, Tugba; Ozmen, Ahmet

2014-01-01

115

Effect of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Allied health services benefit the management of many chronic diseases. The effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services has not yet been established despite health insurance frequently being identified as a factor promoting utilisation of medical and hospital services among people with chronic disease. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the effects of health insurance on the utilisation of allied health services by people with chronic disease. Medline (Ovid Medline 1948 to Present with Daily Update), EMBASE (1980 to 1 April 2011), CINAHL, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to 12 April 2011 inclusive. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in English, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental trials, quantitative observational studies and included people with one or more chronic diseases using allied health services and health insurance. A full-text review was performed independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were conducted. One hundred and fifty-eight citations were retrieved and seven articles were included in the meta-analyses. The pooled odds ratio (95% CI) of having insurance (versus no insurance) on the utilisation of allied health services among people with chronic disease was 1.33 (1.16-1.52; P<0.001). There was a significant effect of insurance on the utilisation of non-physiotherapy services, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 4.80 (1.46-15.79; P=0.01) but having insurance compared with insurance of a lesser coverage was not significantly associated with an increase in physiotherapy utilisation, pooled odds ratio (95% CI) 1.53 (0.81-2.91; P=0.19). The presence of co-morbidity or functional limitation and higher levels of education increased utilisation whereas gender, race, marital status and income had a limited and variable effect, according to the study population. The review was limited by the considerable heterogeneity in the research questions being asked, sample sizes, study methodology (including allied health service), insurance type and dependent variables analysed. The presence of health insurance was generally associated with increased utilisation of allied health services; however, this varied depending on the population, provider type and insurance product. PMID:24079301

Skinner, Elizabeth H; Foster, Michele; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Haynes, Michele; O'Flaherty, Martin; Haines, Terry P

2014-01-01

116

University Counselling Service Utilisation by Local and International Students and User Characteristics: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews research on students' usage of university counselling services across countries and their demographic and psychological characteristics. In doing so, emphasis is given to reported distinctions between local and international university students. Utilisation rates, encouraging factors and barriers to utilisation, presenting…

Raunic, Adam; Xenos, Sophia

2008-01-01

117

Environmental impacts of energy utilisation and renewable energy policies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extensively concentrates on energy and environmental impacts only. Energy utilisation and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilisation, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives.

Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

118

Modeling abiotic production of apparent oxygen utilisation in the oligotrophic subtropical North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent oxygen utilisation is potentially biased by abiotic, physical processes. Using a coupled 3-D circulation-oxygen model, this potential is quantitatively estimated for a region in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic, called the Beta Triangle, where an inconsistency exists between observational estimates of high carbon export from the euphotic zone, based on oxygen utilisation rates in the thermocline (Jenkins 1982), and

Heiner Dietze; Andreas Oschlies

2005-01-01

119

Spatial modelling of healthcare utilisation for treatment of fever in Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background Health care utilization is affected by several factors including geographic accessibility. Empirical data on utilization of health facilities is important to understanding geographic accessibility and defining health facility catchments at a national level. Accurately defining catchment population improves the analysis of gaps in access, commodity needs and interpretation of disease incidence. Here, empirical household survey data on treatment seeking for fever were used to model the utilisation of public health facilities and define their catchment areas and populations in northern Namibia. Method This study uses data from the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) of 2009 on treatment seeking for fever among children under the age of five years to characterize facility utilisation. Probability of attendance of public health facilities for fever treatment was modelled against a theoretical surface of travel times using a three parameter logistic model. The fitted model was then applied to a population surface to predict the number of children likely to use a public health facility during an episode of fever in northern Namibia. Results Overall, from the MIS survey, the prevalence of fever among children was 17.6% CI [16.0-19.1] (401 of 2,283 children) while public health facility attendance for fever was 51.1%, [95%CI: 46.2-56.0]. The coefficients of the logistic model of travel time against fever treatment at public health facilities were all significant (p < 0.001). From this model, probability of facility attendance remained relatively high up to 180 minutes (3 hours) and thereafter decreased steadily. Total public health facility catchment population of children under the age five was estimated to be 162,286 in northern Namibia with an estimated fever burden of 24,830 children. Of the estimated fevers, 8,021 (32.3%) were within 30 minutes of travel time to the nearest health facility while 14,902 (60.0%) were within 1 hour. Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of routine household surveys to empirically model health care utilisation for the treatment of childhood fever and define catchment populations enhancing the possibilities of accurate commodity needs assessment and calculation of disease incidence. These methods could be extended to other African countries where detailed mapping of health facilities exists. PMID:22336441

2012-01-01

120

Utilisation of dental services in Cambodia and the role of traditional dentists.  

PubMed

Cambodia has a small, but growing number of qualified dentists, as well as about 300 traditional dentists. This study describes the current level of utilisation of dental services in Cambodia in Phnom Penh and in 6 provincial areas. 548 adults aged 35-45 and 60-80 years of age were interviewed concerning previous dental attendance, type of service used and preference for qualified or traditional practitioner services. Only 38 per cent had ever had dental treatment, with 87 per cent of attenders last visiting the dentist because of toothache. Although 34 per cent of attenders received their last course of treatment from a traditional dentist, 77 per cent of all subjects said they would prefer to visit a qualified dentist if they had the choice. The role of traditional practitioners may therefore diminish as numbers of qualified dentists increase. PMID:8193982

Todd, R; Durward, C S

1994-03-01

121

Utilising statistical residual life estimates of bearings to quantify the influence of preventive maintenance actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper it is illustrated how statistical residual life estimates of bearings can be used to justify maintenance practices. Residual life estimates are based on Proportional Intensity Models for non-repairable systems utilising historic failure data and corresponding diagnostic measurements. A case study is presented where failure and diagnostic data obtained from roller bearings operating in the dryer section of a paper machine are used to predict future failure times of bearings. If these predictions are compared to the diagnostic measurements, i.e. vibration and lubrication levels, it becomes evident how changes in these diagnostic measurements influence the residual life of the bearings. From this it is possible to justify maintenance practices.

Vlok, Pieter-Jan; Wnek, Maciej; Zygmunt, Maciej

2004-07-01

122

Support groups for dementia caregivers - Predictors for utilisation and expected quality from a family caregiver's point of view: A questionnaire survey PART I  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Support groups have proved to be effective in reducing the burden on family caregivers of dementia patients. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors that influence utilisation or quality expectations of family caregivers. These questions are addressed in the following paper. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out as an anonymous written survey of family caregivers of dementia patients

Elmar Gräßel; Angelika Trilling; Carolin Donath; Katharina Luttenberger

2010-01-01

123

Utilisation of steel slags as neutralising agents in biooxidation of a refractory gold concentrate and their influence on the subsequent cyanidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the possibilities to utilise steel slag as neutralising agent in biooxidation of a refractory gold concentrate has been done with reference to commercial grade slaked lime. The idea has been to reduce the operating costs for neutralisation in the biooxidation plant, which is known to be the second largest operating cost. Other benefits would be savings in

Chandra Sekhar Gahan; Jan-Eric Sundkvist; Fredrik Engström; Åke Sandström

2011-01-01

124

Labile and recalcitrant plant fractions are utilised by distinct microbial communities in soil: Independent of the presence of roots and mycorrhizal fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant inputs of organic material to soil are thought to be key determinants of microbial activity, community composition and processes. However, the identity of organisms utilising these chemically diverse inputs is not well understood. In this study, we applied tracer amounts of highly enriched, 13C-labelled plant tissue fractions (whole, insoluble and soluble) to soil cores that either allowed or prevented

Eric Paterson; Graham Osler; Lorna A. Dawson; Thomas Gebbing; Allan Sim; Brian Ord

2008-01-01

125

Articulating Injustice: An Exploration of Young People's Experiences of Participation in a Conflict Transformation Programme That Utilises the Arts as a Form of Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reflects on a study that explores young people's engagement with the Art: a Resource for Reconciliation Over the World (ARROW) programme. The programme utilises the arts to promote critical dialogue amongst young people growing up in divided communities around the world. Dialogue has been criticised for its inability to tackle…

Knight, Heather

2014-01-01

126

Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.  

PubMed

Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters. PMID:24903247

Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepa?ski, Andrzej

2014-10-01

127

Utilising multimedia for training merchant mariners as paramedics.  

PubMed

MERMAID is a telemedicine project with global reach and a 24-hour, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model is not limited to medical diagnostics but it encompasses all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications are considered while the full range of network choices is explored in terms of the cost/performance tradeoffs inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in its life cycle. MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialty care best suited to each particular case. Finally, the development of programme modules for training and education of the seafarers in the use of the MERMAID medical communications system is given top priority as such modules constitute the firmest basis for the promotion of proper practice of telemedicine at sea. PMID:11010337

Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S

2000-01-01

128

HLA class I transgenic mice: development, utilisation and improvement.  

PubMed

Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens are trimeric molecules found on the surface of nucleated cells in all jawed vertebrates. MHC I are recognised by two families of receptors: clonotypic T cell receptors expressed on the surface of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and monomorphic receptors expressed by both natural killer cells and CTLs. The production of MHC I molecules within the cells is a sequential process performed with the help of interacting proteins: proteases, chaperones, transporters and so on. Although largely homologous in their structure, organisation and function, the human and mouse MHC I antigen processing and presentation machineries show fine differences. Transgenesis and 'knockout' or 'knock-in' technologies permit the addition of relevant human genes or the replacement of mouse genes by their human orthologues in order to produce immunologically humanised mice. Such experimental animals are especially relevant for the comparative evaluation of immunotherapies and for the characterisation of MHC I peptide epitopes. This review presents the similarities and differences between mouse and human MHC I antigen processing machinery, and describes the development and utilisation of improving mouse models of human cytotoxic T cell immunity. PMID:16018738

Pascolo, Steve

2005-07-01

129

Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam  

PubMed Central

Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers. PMID:23176584

2012-01-01

130

Effect of molassed sugar beet pulp on nutrient utilisation and metabolic parameters during exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of partly replacing oats with molassed sugar beet pulp in a traditional hay/oat diet on nutrient utilisation and metabolic parameters in exercising horses. In a change-over experiment, 4 Standardbred geldings were fed a hay and oat-based diet (Oat diet) and a hay and oat-based diet where oats was partially replaced with molassed sugar beet pulp (MSBP diet). Each experimental period was 21 days during which total collection of faeces and urine was made and an exercise test (ET) performed. The crude fat digestibility was lower on the MSBP diet (P<0.05), while there were no differences in digestibility of other nutrients and energy and in the urinary excretion of nitrogen and energy. At rest plasma insulin were lower (P<0.05) 60 and 90 min postprandially on the MSBP diet, while no differences were found in plasma glucose and insulin between the diets during the ET. The peak plasma and muscle lactate values were lower (P<0.05) on the MSBP diet and the content of muscle glycogen was higher (P<0.05) after the ET on the MSBP diet. In conclusion, the metabolic response differed between diets giving a lower lactate response and a higher glycogen content in muscle after exercise on the MSBP diet. This suggests that the dietary carbohydrate composition may influence the rate of glycogenolysis with lactate production and support the hypothesis that MSBP can replace oats in a hay based diet without impairing nutrient utilisation and metabolic response in exercising horses. PMID:12405658

Palmgren Karlsson, C; Jansson, A; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindberg, J E

2002-09-01

131

Unlimited access to health care - impact of psychosomatic co-morbidity on utilisation in German general practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The effect of psychosomatic co-morbidity on resource use for systems with unlimited access remains unclear. The aim of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the impact on practice visits, referrals and periods of disability in German general practices and to\\u000a identify predictors of health care utilisation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross sectional observational study in 13 practices in Upper Bavaria. Patients were included consecutively and

Antonius Schneider; Elisabeth Hörlein; Eva Wartner; Isabelle Schumann; Peter Henningsen; Klaus Linde

2011-01-01

132

Utilisation by homeless people of acute hospital services in London.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To estimate the numbers and distribution of homeless people in London; to quantify the utilisation of acute inpatient services by homeless people in two health authorities; and to predict the total numbers of admissions in homeless people in district health authorities across London. DESIGN--Data were collected from various sources on the distribution of homeless people across London boroughs. All unplanned acute inpatient admissions during November 1990 to relevant hospitals were identified. SETTING--Bloomsbury and Paddington and North Kensington, two former inner London district health authorities. SUBJECTS--Homeless people in London residing in bed and breakfast and private sector leased accommodation, residing in hostels, and of no fixed abode. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number and cost of acute unplanned admissions in homeless people in two health authorities in November 1990; predicted number of such admissions each year in district health authorities in London. RESULTS--There were at least 60,000 homeless people in London in March 1990. The majority were housed in temporary accommodation (55,412). There were at least 3295 hostel dwellers and 651 people sleeping rough. Homeless people accounted for 105 (8%) of the 1256 acute unbooked admissions in residents of Bloomsbury and Paddington and North Kensington health authorities in November 1990. Considerable variations in the pattern of acute unplanned admissions in homeless people were observed in the two districts with respect to housing status and specialty of admission. The total number of acute unplanned admissions in homeless people across London each year was estimated at 7598, ranging from 38 in Bexley to 1515 in Parkside. CONCLUSIONS--The results have fundamental implications for resource allocation across London. Allocation must take better account of the heterogeneity, uneven distribution, and extra health needs of homeless people. PMID:1954419

Black, M E; Scheuer, M A; Victor, C; Benzeval, M; Gill, M; Judge, K

1991-01-01

133

The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates

Stephen R Hanney; Miguel A Gonzalez-Block; Martin J Buxton; Maurice Kogan

2003-01-01

134

Genetic Resources (Including Wild and Cultivated Solanum Species) and Progress in their Utilisation in Potato Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic resources available for the improvement of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are reviewed along with progress in their utilisation. The conclusions are as follows. The wild and cultivated species of\\u000a potato have been utilised in potato breeding to good effect, but only a very small sample of the available biodiversity has\\u000a been exploited. New knowledge and technology will

J. E. Bradshaw; G. J. Bryan; G. Ramsay

2006-01-01

135

Out-of-pocket payments, health care access and utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria: a gender perspective.  

PubMed

Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

Onah, Michael N; Govender, Veloshnee

2014-01-01

136

Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models  

PubMed Central

Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

Muniz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, Maria P.; Jimenez, Juan Jose; Navarro, Enrique

2014-01-01

137

Effects of feeding raw or reconstituted high tannin red sorghum on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

1. A feeding trial was conducted on 360 1-d-old chicks from 0 to 6 weeks of age to assess the effect of processed high tannin red sorghum in the diet of broiler chickens on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters. 2. Each of 9 dietary treatments was allotted to 4 groups (replicates) of chicks in a completely randomised design. The treatments were a maize-soy based standard broiler diet (control, RS(0)) and eight test diets formulated by incorporating either raw red sorghum (RS(25), RS(50), RS(75), RS(100)) or reconstituted red sorghum (RS(25)(R), RS(50)(R), RS(75)(R), RS(100)(R)) replacing 25, 50, 75 or 100% of maize from the control diet. 3. The tannin content was reduced from 23 to 16 g/kg in reconstituted red sorghum. 4. Utilisations of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention were similar in all the dietary groups. 5. The cell-mediated immune response measured as footpad index (FPI) value of birds given raw red sorghum was significantly higher than in control and reconstituted red sorghum groups. Similarly, comparatively better humoral response measured as HA titre value was observed in raw red sorghum based groups than in reconstituted ones. 6. Plasma albumin, globulin, protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and uric acid levels did not differ significantly due to dietary treatments. 7. Mild histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney tissues of birds given raw red sorghum. 8. From the present study, it is concluded that (1) the reconstitution of high tannin red sorghum resulted in about 30% reduction in its tannin concentration; (2) the feeding of reconstituted sorghum based diets to broiler chickens did not exert any appreciable influence on nutrient utilisation, blood biochemicals and enzymes and gross pathological changes; and (3) the birds fed on raw red sorghum exhibited higher immuno-responsiveness in comparison to their reconstituted counterparts. PMID:17453812

Kumar, V; Elangovan, A V; Mandal, A B; Tyagi, P K; Bhanja, S K; Dash, B B

2007-04-01

138

Does increased investment in coronary angiography and revascularisation reduce socioeconomic inequalities in utilisation?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether additional resources for tertiary cardiology services, aimed at increasing coronary angiography and revascularisation rates, can improve socioeconomic equity of utilisation. DESIGN: Cross sectional ecological study, using the Super Profile classification of enumeration districts and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) standardised mortality ratios (SMR) as a proxy for need. The degree of equity before the provision of extra resources was determined using data for April 1992 to March 1994, and the corresponding picture after, using data for April 1994 to March 1996. SETTING: South Humberside (United Health-Grimsby and Scunthorpe Health Authority, a district of the former Yorkshire Region, before the April 1996 boundary changes). SUBJECTS: Patients with a primary diagnosis of IHD aged > or = 25 years who underwent investigation by angiography, or treatment by coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, as a primary procedure. MAIN RESULTS: In 1992/4, before concerted intervention, both investigation and revascularisation rates, although increasing, were low in Grimsby and Scunthorpe district compared with most other districts in the Yorkshire Region. Also, there was a decreasing trend across Super Profile Lifestyle groups from the Affluent Achievers to the Have-Nots despite a two-fold increase in SMRs indicating the greater need of the more deprived. After appointing a consultant general physician with an interest in cardiology in the Scunthorpe district general hospital in 1994; arranging for both the Grimsby physician and the Scunthorpe physician to undertake angiography at a neighbouring district tertiary cardiology centre in 1995; together with significant additional health authority investment in cardiac procedures in 1995/6, district rates increased considerably, (a 41% increase in investigation and a 47% increase in revascularisation rates). Also, after additional resource input began, the trend for angiographies across socioeconomic groups clearly became more equitable, although increased equity for revascularisations is less apparent. CONCLUSION: Early indications are that additional resources for tertiary cardiology may have reduced socioeconomic inequities in angiography, without being specifically targeted at the needier, more deprived groups. Improvement in socioeconomic equity of utilisation of revascularisation is not yet clear, although data for April 1996 to March 1998 (after a lengthier intervention period) may confirm improved equity. Should this not be so, it might be necessary to specifically target resources to the deprived to increase equity in revascularisation.   PMID:10562882

Manson-Siddle, C. J.; Robinson, M. B.

1999-01-01

139

Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture  

SciTech Connect

Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

Wagner, Andreas Otto, E-mail: Andreas.Wagner@uibk.ac.a [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Gstrauntaler, Gudrun [Abfallbeseitigungsverband Westtirol, Breite Mure, A-6426 Roppen (Austria); Illmer, Paul [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2010-10-15

140

Ownership and utilisation of long lasting insecticide treated nets following free distribution campaign in South West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Malaria has proven to be the most horrendous and intractable amongst the health problems confronting countries in the sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to determine the ownership and utilisation of long lasting insecticide treated nets following free distribution campaign in a state in South West Nigeria. Methods Multi-stage sampling technique was used to recruit 2560 households spread across the 16 LGAs of the state. Interviewer administered standardized questionnaire was used for the survey. Data analysis was done using Stata 10 software. Results Sixty eight point six percent (68.6%) of the households had at least one under-five child living in the household while 32.6% had at least one pregnant woman living in the household. A total of 2440 (95.3%) households received LLIN during the campaign. Overall, the utilization rate for all respondents was 58.5%. Despite the fact that 2440 households received LLINs during the campaign, only 84.3% of them were seen to have hung theirs during the survey. Conclusion Coverage and ownership of LLINs increased significantly following the free distribution campaign. There was a discrepancy between net possession and net use with rate of use lower than possession. Post distribution educational campaign should be incorporated into future distribution campaigns to help increase net utilisation.

Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji; Olatona, Foluke Adenike; Sogunro, Oluremi; Alawode, Gafar; Babatunde, Oluwole Adeyemi; Onipe, Ambrose Itopa; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji Akeem; Ameen, Hafsat Abolore; Osagbemi, Gordon Kayode; Sanya, Emmanuel Olatunde; Olarinoye, Adebunmi Oyeladun; Akande, Tanimola Makanjuola

2014-01-01

141

SUR LA POSSIBILIT D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'TUDE DES RACTIONS NUCLAIRES  

E-print Network

175 A. SUR LA POSSIBILIT� D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'�TUDE DES R�ACTIONS. - Mise au point et étude des caractéristiques du fonctionnement d'une chambre à bulles à propane de 6 135 MeV. Abstract. 2014 Adjustment and studies of some characteristics of a 6 litre propane bubble

Boyer, Edmond

142

Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees’ perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.4–98.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.2–95.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ?30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services. PMID:24791050

Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Ezeama, Nkiru N.; Ifeadike, Chigozie Ozoemena; Okezie, Obasi Kanu

2014-01-01

143

Guide pour une utilisation efficace de l'outil de recherche des bourses de l'UQAR Pour faciliter l'utilisation du nouvel outil de recherche des bourses, voici quelques indications  

E-print Network

Guide pour une utilisation efficace de l'outil de recherche des bourses de l'UQAR Pour faciliter l'utilisation du nouvel outil de recherche des bourses, voici quelques indications : Pour commencer une recherche, cliquez sur le bouton « Outil de recherche des bourses ». Lorsque vous souhaitez cibler les bourses qui

St-Ong, Guillaume

144

Utilisation of Local Inputs in the Funding and Administration of Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discussed how, why and who is in charge of administering and funding schools in Nigeria. The author utilised the relevant statistical approach which examined and discussed various political and historical trends affecting education. Besides this, relevant documented statistical data were used to both buttress and substantiate related…

Akiri, Agharuwhe A.

2014-01-01

145

Modification of myocardial substrate utilisation: a new therapeutic paradigm in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapies that aim to modify cardiac substrate utilisation are designed to increase metabolic efficiency. Although the main energy supply for the heart is generally provided by the oxidation of fatty acids, the heart is a metabolic omnivore and able to consume glucose as well as lactate and amino acids in varying proportions. A shift from fatty acid oxidation to glucose

Roger M Beadle; Michael Frenneaux

2010-01-01

146

MAKING THE CONNECTION: UTILISING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES TO MEASURE TEACHING AND LEARNING SUCCESS IN MATHEMATICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do educators connect with some students and not others? The answer lies in the fact that each student is a unique individual with his or her own learning style who will learn best from a teacher who utilises a suitable teaching style. Is it the role of students to adapt their modes of learning to capitalise on the teacher's

Janet HUNTER

147

Recalage et fusion d'images sonar multivues : utilisation du Cedric Rominger  

E-print Network

Recalage et fusion d'images sonar multivues : utilisation du conflit Cedric Rominger , Arnaud, et qui a déjà prouvé son intérêt pour la fusion de classifieurs en traitement d'images. 1'Information E, 21 (2011) 231-246" #12;Recalage et fusion d'images sonar multivues Cette caractérisation permet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

`Big Chief': The Utilisation of Model Building for the Design of Science Education for Sustainable  

E-print Network

importantly though games have been shown to increase participants' motivation to engage with educational`Big Chief': The Utilisation of Model Building for the Design of Science Education for Sustainable of a game for Science Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The intention is that such techniques

Romano, Daniela

149

RPERTOIRE INSTITUTIONNEL DES BOURSES D'TUDES GUIDE D'UTILISATION  

E-print Network

1 R�PERTOIRE INSTITUTIONNEL DES BOURSES D'�TUDES GUIDE D'UTILISATION Comment accéder au Répertoire institutionnel des bourses d'études ? L'UQAM offre aux étudiants un répertoire institutionnel des bourses d'études, dans lequel vous

Boyer, Steven

150

TALN 2005, Dourdan, 610 juin 2005 Utilisation de la structure morpho-syntaxique des phrases  

E-print Network

TALN 2005, Dourdan, 6­10 juin 2005 Utilisation de la structure morpho-syntaxique des phrases dans le résumé automatique : compression de phrases narratives Mehdi Yousfi-Monod, Violaine Prince LIRMM, prince}@lirmm.fr Mots-clefs : résumé automatique, compression de phrases, analyse syntaxique Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Expenditure on the NHS during and after the Thatcher years: its growth and utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Has government expenditure on the National Health and Personal Social Services increased significantly in real terms over the past decade? If so, where has this growth in expenditure been utilised? This paper investigates claims of real increases in expenditure by examining trends in total expenditure on the NHS between 1979 and 1992, and disaggregating these trends to concentrate on different

Karen Bloor; Alan Maynard

1993-01-01

152

Rsum du projet de Thse "Utilisation des eaux uses en irrigation : survie des pathognes"  

E-print Network

Résumé du projet de Thèse "Utilisation des eaux usées en irrigation : survie des pathogènes éclairer les décisions publiques en matières de réglementations (traitements des eaux, irrigations, modes

Naud Frédéric

153

Utilisation of biomass for sustainable fuels and chemicals: Molecules, methods and metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various catalytic methodologies for the utilisation of renewable biomass for the sustainable production of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals are reviewed. Attention is focused on second generation processes starting from lignocellulose as a sustainable feedstock, thus circumventing the food vs fuel dilemma, and on the green features of these new processes. Emphasis is also placed on the need for

Roger A. Sheldon

2011-01-01

154

Utilisation of fruits waste for citric acid production by solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid state fermentation method was used to utilise pineapple, mixed fruit and maosmi waste as substrates for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger DS 1. Experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of methanol at different moisture levels. In the absence of methanol the maximum citric acid was obtained at 60% moisture level whereas in the presence

D. Kumar; V. K. Jain; G. Shanker; A. Srivastava

2003-01-01

155

GPS RTK Trimble Description du matriel Trimble et Notice d'utilisation  

E-print Network

internes). Contenu et rangement de la mallette R8 #12;Contrôleur TSC2 Comme son nom l'indique, il contrôle de la base à partir du module du contrôleur TSC2 Le voyant ne s'allume pas si on utilise la radio

156

Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

2007-10-01

157

Fact Sheet ICT-utilisation by Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Tanzania1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early history of ICT utilisation in Africa is largely a story about NGOs and their efforts to take part in the global information society. In the late 1980s organisations and groups of individuals working, for example, on development, democracy, human rights or environmental issues, started to make use of computers, modems and tele- phone lines to exchange information, often

Olaf Nielinger

158

SUBSTANCES PRIORITAIRES : LE POINT SUR LEUR UTILISATION ET LEUR RECHERCHE DANS LES REJETS INDUSTRIELS EN FRANCE.  

E-print Network

SUBSTANCES PRIORITAIRES : LE POINT SUR LEUR UTILISATION ET LEUR RECHERCHE DANS LES REJETS de substances polluantes dans les milieux aquatiques. Dans ce cadre, la décision 2455/2001 du 16 décembre 200l1 complète la directive (Annexe X) en établissant une liste de 33 substances prioritaires dans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Utilising Year Three NAPLAN Results to Improve Queensland Teachers' Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…

van Klinken, Eduarda

2010-01-01

160

Towards better utilisation of non-conventional feed sources by sheep and goats in some African and Asian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Current pattern of utilisation of non-conventional feed resources (NCFRs) in Africa and Asia and techniques for their efficient use in small ruminant feeding are discussed in this paper. Chronic feed deficits represent a major constraint to animal production in many developing countries. Expanding the feed resource base through utilisation of NCFRs, especially those that do not compete with

H. Ben Salem; H. P. S. Makkar; A. Nefzaoui

161

Variation in NHS utilisation of vault cytology post-hysterectomy.  

E-print Network

??Hysterectomy is commonly performed but there is scant evidence concerning appropriate follow-up by vaginal vault cytology testing. This observational, retrospective cohort study, using routinely collected… (more)

Stokes-Lampard, Helen Jayne

2010-01-01

162

Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as unmanned airborne systems (UAS) or remotely piloted airborne systems (RPAS), are an established platform for close range airborne photogrammetry. Compared to manned platforms, the acquisition of local remote sensing data by UAVs is a convenient and very flexible option. For the application in photogrammetry UAVs are typically equipped with an autopilot and a lightweight digital camera. The autopilot includes several navigation sensors, which might allow an automated waypoint flight and offer a systematic data acquisition of the object resp. scene of interest. Assuming a sufficient overlap between the captured images, the position (3 coordinates: x, y, z) and the orientation (3 angles: roll, pitch, yaw) of the images can be estimated within a bundle block adjustment. Subsequently, coordinates of observed points that appear in at least two images, can be determined by measuring their image coordinates or a dense surface model can be generated from all acquired images by automated image matching. For the bundle block adjustment approximate values of the position and the orientation of the images are needed. To gather this information, several methods exist. We introduce in this contribution one of them: the direct georeferencing of images by using the navigation sensors (mainly GNSS and INS) of a low-cost on-board autopilot. Beside automated flights, the autopilot offers the possibility to record the position and the orientation of the platform during the flight. These values don't correspond directly to those of the images. To compute the position and the orientation of the images two requirements must be fulfilled. First the misalignment angles and the positional differences between the camera and the autopilot must be determined (mounting calibration). Second the synchronization between the camera and the autopilot has to be established. Due to the limited accuracy of the navigation sensors, a small number of ground control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

2014-05-01

163

Energy utilisation and growth performance of chicken fed diets containing graded levels of supplementary bacterial phytase.  

PubMed

A total of 364 female Ross 308 chicks (1 d old) were used in the present study conducted in floor pens to investigate the effects of graded levels of supplementary bacterial phytase on dietary energy utilisation and growth performance. For this purpose, four maize-soyabean-based diets were offered to the birds from 0 to 21 d of age. These included a suboptimal P negative control (NC, 3.0 g/kg non-phytate P), NC+250 phytase units (FTU)/kg feed, NC+500 FTU and NC+2500 FTU. The effect of phytase activity on bird growth performance was best described as a linear relationship between increasing dose and increased feed intake (P< 0.001), but was quadratic for body-weight gain (P= 0.002) and feed efficiency (P= 0.023). There was no significant response (P>0.05) of dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AME) to supplementary phytase. The birds fed phytase increased their retention of total carcass energy in a linear fashion (P= 0.009) with increased phytase dose. The efficiency of dietary AME used for overall carcass energy retention also improved (P= 0.007) in a linear manner with increased dietary phytase activity. Dietary net energy for production (NEp) increased (P= 0.047) with an increase in phytase dose following a linear pattern, as an increase of 100 FTU increased dietary net energy by 15.4 J (estimated within the range of doses used in the present experiment). Dietary NEp was more highly correlated with performance criteria than dietary AME, and it seems to be a more sensitive way to evaluate broiler response to phytase supplementation. PMID:22716908

Pirgozliev, V; Bedford, M R

2013-01-28

164

Analysis of regulation of pentose utilisation in Aspergillus niger reveals evolutionary adaptations in Eurotiales  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli are commonly found in soil and on decaying plant material. D-xylose and L-arabinose are highly abundant components of plant biomass. They are released from polysaccharides by fungi using a set of extracellular enzymes and subsequently converted intracellularly through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP). In this study, the L-arabinose responsive transcriptional activator (AraR) is identified in Aspergillus niger and was shown to control the L-arabinose catabolic pathway as well as expression of genes encoding extracellular L-arabinose releasing enzymes. AraR interacts with the D-xylose-responsive transcriptional activator XlnR in the regulation of the pentose catabolic pathway, but not with respect to release of L-arabinose and D-xylose. AraR was only identified in the Eurotiales, more specifically in the family Trichocomaceae and appears to have originated from a gene duplication event (from XlnR) after this order or family split from the other filamentous ascomycetes. XlnR is present in all filamentous ascomycetes with the exception of members of the Onygenales. Since the Onygenales and Eurotiales are both part of the subclass Eurotiomycetidae, this indicates that strong adaptation of the regulation of pentose utilisation has occurred at this evolutionary node. In Eurotiales a unique two-component regulatory system for pentose release and metabolism has evolved, while the regulatory system was lost in the Onygenales. The observed evolutionary changes (in Eurotiomycetidae) mainly affect the regulatory system as in contrast, homologues for most genes of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway are present in all the filamentous fungi, irrespective of the presence of XlnR and/or AraR. PMID:21892241

Battaglia, E.; Visser, L.; Nijssen, A.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wosten, H.A.B.; de Vries, R.P.

2011-01-01

165

Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.  

PubMed

During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

2013-02-01

166

Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

Robertson, Carmen

2012-01-01

167

Utilisation of light and water in tropical agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource capture approach developed by John Monteith has been applied in studies of a wide variety of plant species and cropping systems in the tropics over the past 18 years. The purpose of this review is to highlight the progress made and the new challenges which lie ahead. The foundation for this approach was the establishment of ‘response surfaces’

Colin Black; Chin Ong

2000-01-01

168

Mauvaise utilisation des aérosol-doseurs par les asthmatiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine in a population of asthmatics, the number of patients who correctly used the pressurized aerosols (bronchodilator drugs or steroids) spontaneously, or after training sessions. 115 asthmatics (in- or outpatients, 14–70 years old) were asked to use their inhaler in the presence of an observer. The inhalation technique was considered correct when (1)

P. Gayrard; J. Orehek

1980-01-01

169

Utilising proteomic approaches to understand oncogenic human herpesviruses (Review)  

PubMed Central

The ?-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are successful pathogens, each infecting a large proportion of the human population. These viruses persist for the life of the host and may each contribute to a number of malignancies, for which there are currently no cures. Large-scale proteomic-based approaches provide an excellent means of increasing the collective understanding of the proteomes of these complex viruses and elucidating their numerous interactions within the infected host cell. These large-scale studies are important for the identification of the intricacies of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics against these two important pathogens.

OWEN, CHRISTOPHER B.; HUGHES, DAVID J.; BAQUERO-PEREZ, BELINDA; BERNDT, ANJA; SCHUMANN, SOPHIE; JACKSON, BRIAN R.; WHITEHOUSE, ADRIAN

2014-01-01

170

Nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of resistant starch varieties and conventional fibres in pigs.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of different resistant starch (RS) varieties and conventional fibres on the efficiency of nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation in pigs. Thirty-six pigs (30 kg) were fed poultry meal-based diets supplemented with 10 % granular resistant corn starch (GCS), granular resistant potato starch (GPS), retrograded resistant corn starch (RCS), guar gum (GG) or cellulose for 36 d according to a completely randomised block design. Distal ileal and total tract recoveries were similar (P>0.05) among the RS varieties. Distal ileal starch recovery was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs consuming the RS diets (27-42 %) as compared with the control group (0.64 %). Consumption of GCS reduced (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility and whole-body retention of crude protein in comparison with the control group. Consumption of GPS reduced (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility and whole-body retention of Ca and P compared with the control group. However, consumption of RCS increased (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility compared with the control group. Caecal butyrate concentration was increased (P < 0.05) following consumption of RCS and GG in comparison with the control group. Consumption of all the RS varieties reduced (P < 0.05) caecal indole concentrations compared with the control. Caecal butyrate concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0.05; r 0.63-0.83) with thermal properties among the RS varieties. We conclude that nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of different RS varieties and types of fibres. Thermal properties associated with different RS varieties may be useful markers for developing RS varieties with specific functionality. PMID:18005479

Rideout, Todd C; Liu, Qiang; Wood, Peter; Fan, Ming Z

2008-05-01

171

Course of post-traumatic stress disorder and health care utilisation among resettled refugees in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major health problem among refugees worldwide. After resettlement, the prevalence of PTSD remains high despite the fact that various PTSD treatments are known to be effective. Methods We examined the course of PTSD and the role of mental health care utilisation at a 7-year interval (2003–2010) among a cohort of refugees from Iran, Afghanistan, and Somalia after resettlement in the Netherlands. Results The unchanged high prevalence of PTSD (16.3% in 2003 and 15.2% in 2010) was attributable in part to late onset of PTSD symptoms (half of the respondents with PTSD at T2 were new cases for whom PTSD developed after 2003). The second reason concerned the low use of mental health care services at T1. Whereas the multivariate analyses showed the effectiveness of mental health care, only 21% of respondents with PTSD at T1 had had contact with a mental health care provider at that time. Use of mental health care during the first wave increased the odds of improvement in PTSD symptoms between both measurements (OR 7.58, 95% CI 1.01; 56.85). Conclusions The findings of this study suggest there are two possible explanations for the persistently high prevalence of PTSD among refugees. One is the late onset of PTSD and the other is the low utilisation of mental health care. Health care professionals should be aware of these issues, especially given the effectiveness of mental health care for this condition. PMID:24670251

2014-01-01

172

Utilising polyphenols for the clinical management of Candida albicans biofilms.  

PubMed

Polyphenols (PPs) are secondary metabolites abundant in plant-derived foods. They are reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity that may offer an alternative to existing antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal potential of PPs against Candida albicans biofilms that are commonly recalcitrant to antifungal therapy. The antifungal activity of 14 PPs was assessed in terms of planktonic and sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (PMICs and SMICs, respectively) against various C. albicans clinical isolates. The most active PPs were further tested for their effect on C. albicans adhesion and biofilm growth using standard biomass assays, microscopy and quantitative gene expression. Of the 14 PPs tested, 7 were effective inhibitors of planktonic growth, of which pyrogallol (PYG) was the most effective (PMIC??=78 ?g/mL), followed by curcumin (CUR) (PMIC??=100 ?g/mL) and pyrocatechol (PMIC??=625 ?g/mL). Both PYG and CUR displayed activity against C. albicans biofilms (SMIC??=40 ?g/mL and 50 ?g/mL, respectively), although they did not disrupt the biofilm or directly affect the cellular structure. Overall, CUR displayed superior biofilm activity, significantly inhibiting initial cell adhesion following pre-coating (P<0.01), biofilm growth (P<0.05) and gene expression (P<0.05). This inhibitory effect diminished with prolonged CUR exposure, although it still inhibited by 50% after 4h adhesion. Overall, CUR exhibited positive antibiofilm properties that could be used at the basis for development of similar molecules, although further cellular and in vivo studies are required to explore its precise mechanism of action. PMID:25104135

Shahzad, Muhammad; Sherry, Leighann; Rajendran, Ranjith; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ramage, Gordon

2014-09-01

173

Utilisation of ART in single women and lesbian couples since the 2010 change in Victorian legislation.  

PubMed

Enactment of the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act (Vic) 2008 in January 2010 allowed single persons and same sex couples in Victoria to access reproductive treatments. A retrospective cohort analysis of Monash IVF patients was conducted to identify trends in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) use amongst single women and lesbian couples after January 2010. A 102.8% increase in the utilisation of ART was observed amongst the single women group and a 248.8% increase in the lesbian couple population. PMID:25287570

Fiske, Emily; Weston, Gareth

2014-10-01

174

UNIVERSIT DU QUBEC RIMOUSKI TITRE : DIRECTIVE RELATIVE L'UTILISATION ET LA GESTION DES TECHNOLOGIES  

E-print Network

�l�phonie ou � tout autre m�dia de communication ainsi qu'au contenu du courrier �lectronique et des bo subterfuges ou de moyens pour transmettre du courrier �lectronique de fa�on anonyme ou au nom d'une autre personne; - utilisation du courrier �lectronique ou de la messagerie vocale pour prof�rer des menaces ou

St-Ong, Guillaume

175

Optimisation of building form for solar energy utilisation using constrained evolutionary algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a new methodology for optimising building and urban geometric forms for the utilisation of solar irradiation, whether by passive or active means. For this we use a new evolutionary algorithm (a hybrid CMA-ES\\/HDE algorithm) to search the user-defined parameter space, within defined constraints. The fitness function, solar irradiation, is predicted using the backwards ray tracing

Jérôme Henri Kämpf; Darren Robinson

2010-01-01

176

Utilisation de jeux srieux pour enseigner les fondamentaux de la programmation  

E-print Network

Utilisation de jeux sérieux pour enseigner les fondamentaux de la programmation Mathieu Muratet1 liés à la conception de deux jeux sérieux pour l'apprentissage de la programmation (aspect informatique étudiants à programmer. Ces jeux sont basés sur une famille de jeu adaptée à la mise en oeuvre de problèmes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Pacific women's decisions about exercise adoption: utilising the stage-of-exercise-adoption model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To analyse the exercise patterns of Pacific women utilising the stage-of- exercise-adoption model, and to investigate how the pros and cons of exercising, exercise self-efficacy, self-reported health, and sociodemographic barriers to exercise influence exercise adoption. Methods A non-random questionnaire survey of 106 Pacific women living in the North Island of New Zealand. Results Thirty percent of the sample was

Denise Kingi; Andy Towers; Renée Seebeck; Ross Flett

178

Building Cost-effective Research Platforms: Utilising Free | Open source Software in Research Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

When prototyping or developing a system for use in research work, it is often necessary to create an entire system, even if only one part of the system is the focus of the research. Free | open-source software offers a solution to this problem, allowing the creation of cost-effective research platforms, utilising peer- reviewed, rapidly-developed code that is easily modified.

Tony Meyer

2003-01-01

179

The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancers of the lung, colon, rectum, brain, prostate, testes and leukaemia: estimation of the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates as benchmarks for assessment of chemotherapy service delivery.  

E-print Network

??Introduction: Chemotherapy utilisation rates can vary widely between area health services, between states and internationally. Variation in chemotherapy utilisation rates is particularly marked in lung… (more)

Jacob, Susannah Aachi

2010-01-01

180

Utilisation and off-label prescriptions of respiratory drugs in children.  

PubMed

Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ?18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children) between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs) per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374-575 per 10,000 children) and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378-527 per 10,000 children). Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold) whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (-97%). Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3%) and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%). The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n?=?67,084; 42.0%) and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n?=?18,897; 20.7%). Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections underlining the essential need for a more rational prescribing in this area. PMID:25180704

Schmiedl, Sven; Fischer, Rainald; Ibáñez, Luisa; Fortuny, Joan; Klungel, Olaf H; Reynolds, Robert; Gerlach, Roman; Tauscher, Martin; Thürmann, Petra; Hasford, Joerg; Rottenkolber, Marietta

2014-01-01

181

Utilisation de l'habitat forestier par le cerf (cervus elaphus) dans le massif d'Is-sur-Tille (Cte-d'Or) Utilisation de l'habitat forestier  

E-print Network

Utilisation de l'habitat forestier par le cerf (cervus elaphus) dans le massif d'Is-sur-Tille (Côte-d'Or) 25 Utilisation de l'habitat forestier par le cerf (Cervus elaphus) dans le massif d'Is-sur-Tille forêt d'Is-sur-Tille (Côte-d'Or), à l'aide d'une régres- sion PLS (partial least square- encadré). Ainsi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Effects of demand-side financing on utilisation, experiences and outcomes of maternity care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Demand-side financing, where funds for specific services are channelled through, or to, prospective users, is now employed in health and education sectors in many low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review aimed to critically examine the evidence on application of this approach to promote maternal health in these settings. Five modes were considered: unconditional cash transfers, conditional cash transfers, short-term payments to offset costs of accessing maternity services, vouchers for maternity services, and vouchers for merit goods. We sought to assess the effects of these interventions on utilisation of maternity services and on maternal health outcomes and infant health, the situation of underprivileged women and the healthcare system. Methods The protocol aimed for collection and synthesis of a broad range of evidence from quantitative, qualitative and economic studies. Nineteen health and social policy databases, seven unpublished research databases and 27 websites were searched; with additional searches of Indian journals and websites. Studies were included if they examined demand-side financing interventions to increase consumption of services or goods intended to impact on maternal health, and met relevant quality criteria. Quality assessment, data extraction and analysis used Joanna Briggs Institute standardised tools and software. Outcomes of interest included maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, service utilisation, factors required for successful implementation, recipient and provider experiences, ethical issues, and cost-effectiveness. Findings on Effectiveness, Feasibility, Appropriateness and Meaningfulness were presented by narrative synthesis. Results Thirty-three quantitative studies, 46 qualitative studies, and four economic studies from 17 countries met the inclusion criteria. Evidence on unconditional cash transfers was scanty. Other demand-side financing modes were found to increase utilisation of maternal healthcare in the index pregnancy or uptake of related merit goods. Evidence of effects on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity outcomes was insufficient. Important implementation aspects include targeting and eligibility criteria, monitoring, respectful treatment of beneficiaries, suitable incentives for providers, quality of care and affordable referral systems. Conclusions Demand-side financing schemes can increase utilisation of maternity services, but attention must be paid to supply-side conditions, the fine-grain of implementation and sustainability. Comparative studies and research on health impact and cost-effectiveness are required. PMID:24438560

2014-01-01

183

DIAGNOSTIC ALLERGIQUE DE LA BRUCELLOSE BOVINE 1. CONDITIONS D'UTILISATION D'UN ALLERGENE PROTEIQUE PURIFIE  

E-print Network

DIAGNOSTIC ALLERGIQUE DE LA BRUCELLOSE BOVINE 1. CONDITIONS D'UTILISATION D'UN ALLERGENE PROTEIQUE. CONDITIONS FOR THE USE OF A PURIFIED PROTEIN ALLERGEN : BRUOELLIN. - A protein allergen extracted from

Boyer, Edmond

184

Mise en correspondance rapide de patchs plan pour la localisation d'un robot en utilisant le GPU  

E-print Network

Mise en correspondance rapide de patchs plan pour la localisation d'un robot en utilisant le GPU sur GPU pour être utilisables dans un contexte temps-réel. Dans ce papier, nous présen- tons une autre beaucoup trop lent pour être exécuté sur CPU. Grâce à son implé- mentation sur GPU, nous avons montré qu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Arab community and religious leaders' views about utilisation of mental health services amongst Arabic-speaking people in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, utilisation of mental health services by Arabic-speaking communities in Australia has been low. Interviews were conducted with 35 key informants from Arabic-speaking backgrounds, exploring their perceptions of mental illness in the Arab community, together with their views about preferred forms of support and treatment. Transcript analysis of audio-taped interviews identified barriers to professional mental health help-seeking and utilisation of

Jacqueline Youssef

2007-01-01

186

Factors associated with the utilisation of postnatal care services among the mothers of Nepal: analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Postnatal care is essential to save the life of the mother and newborn. Knowledge on the determinants of postnatal care assists the policy makers to design, justify and implement appropriate interventions. The current study aimed to analyse the factors associated with utilisation of postnatal care services by mothers in Nepal based on the data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. Methods This study utilised the data from NDHS 2011. The association between utilisation of at least one postnatal care visit (within 6 weeks of delivery) and immediate postnatal care (within 24 hours of delivery) with selected factors was examined by using Chi-square test (?2), followed by multiple logistic regression. Result Of the 4079 mothers, 43.2% reported attending postnatal care within the first six weeks of birth, while 40.9% reported attending immediate postnatal care. Mothers who were from urban areas, from rich families, who were educated, whose partners were educated, who delivered in a health facility, who had attended a four or more antenatal visits, and whose delivery was attended by a skilled attendant were more likely to report attending at least one postnatal care visit. On the other hand, mothers who reported agricultural occupation, and whose partners performed agricultural occupation were less likely to have attended at least one postnatal care visit. Similarly, mothers who were from the urban areas, from rich families, who were educated, whose partners were educated, who had attended four or more antenatal visits, who delivered in a health facility and had delivered in the presence of a skilled birth attendant were more likely to report attending immediate postnatal care. Mothers who reported agricultural occupation, and whose partners performed agricultural occupation were less likely to attend immediate postnatal care. Conclusion The majority of postnatal mothers in Nepal did not seek postnatal care. Increasing utilisation of the recommended four or more antenatal visits, delivery at health facility and increasing awareness and access to services through community-based programs especially for the rural, poor, and less educated mothers may increase postnatal care attendance in Nepal. PMID:24484933

2014-01-01

187

Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

Grant, T. J.

1993-01-01

188

Contact allergy due to colophony. (IX). Sensitization studies with further products isolated after oxidative degradation of resin acids and colophony.  

PubMed

Degradation of abietic, levopimaric and dehydroabietic acids after exposure to air and light over a period of one to several months, as well as examination of degraded French tall oil rosin and Portuguese colophony, led to the isolation of numerous oxidation products. These compounds were synthesized and consigned to experimental sensitization in guinea pigs. From 20 substances studied as acids or as their methyl esters, in the present and preceding paper, at least 2 can be named: 8,12-peroxydo-delta 13(14)-dihydroabietic acid and 12 alpha-hydroxyabietic acid, that contribute a great deal to colophony allergy by both their sensitizing capacity and their determined concentration in the mixture of degradation products. We recommend the preparation of a new mixture of colophony oxidation products for patch testing in the diagnosis of contact allergy to colophony. PMID:8112061

Hausen, B M; Börries, M; Budianto, E; Krohn, K

1993-11-01

189

Resource Utilisation and Costs of Depressive Patients in Germany: Results from the Primary Care Monitoring for Depressive Patients Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Depression is the most common type of mental disorder in Germany. It is associated with a high level of suffering for individuals and imposes a significant burden on society. The aim of this study was to estimate the depression related costs in Germany taking a societal perspective. Materials and Methods. Data were collected from the primary care monitoring for depressive patients trial (PRoMPT) of patients with major depressive disorder who were treated in a primary care setting. Resource utilisation and days of sick leave were observed and analysed over a 1-year period. Results. Average depression related costs of €3813 were calculated. Significant differences in total costs due to sex were demonstrated. Male patients had considerable higher total costs than female patients, whereas single cost categories did not differ significantly. Further, differences in costs according to severity of disease and age were observed. The economic burden to society was estimated at €15.6 billion per year. Conclusion. The study results show that depression poses a significant economic burden to society. There is a high potential for prevention, treatment, and patient management innovations to identify and treat patients at an early stage. PMID:25295184

Krauth, Christian; Petersen, Juliana J.; Freytag, Antje; Gerlach, Ferdinand M.; Gensichen, Jochen

2014-01-01

190

Are racist attitudes related to experiences of racial discrimination? Within sample testing utilising nationally representative survey data.  

PubMed

Although the relationship between an individual's racist attitudes and discriminatory behaviours has been widely studied, the association between racist attitudes among perpetrators and experiences of racism among targets has been under-examined. Based on data from the 2001-8 Australian Challenging Racism Project survey, this paper details a novel method to investigate the link between racist attitudes and experiences of discrimination utilising two separate models linked by nomination of cultural or ethnic groups who do not fit into Australian society (i.e., out-groups). Those identified as out-groups were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than those who were not nominated as out-groups. Overall, out-group nomination by those with racist attitudes strongly predict experiences of discrimination among these same target out-groups, OR=2.2, F(6, 12,348)=78.61, p<.001. Racist attitudes are related to racist behaviours among perpetrators that are, in turn, related to experiences of racial discrimination among targets. This study demonstrates that attitudes not only affect majority group behaviour but also drive the resulting experiences of discrimination for minority group members. PMID:24913953

Habtegiorgis, Amanuel E; Paradies, Yin C; Dunn, Kevin M

2014-09-01

191

Minimisation and utilisation of waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production.  

PubMed

Various approaches to waste minimisation, waste treatment and recycling or safe disposal of the waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production are presented and critically discussed. Some most promising actions for waste (or its harmful potential) reduction on the production level are identified. These include: a) use of better raw materials (richer boron ore), b) improvement of the ore leaching process, and c) intensification of sludge washing and dewatering. These source reduction measures have already resulted in 50% reduction of boron content in the sludge. Utilisation of the raw or treated (e.g. dried, compacted) waste sludge could be found in agriculture, civil engineering and construction material production. Agricultural use (as a lime substitute) is based on favourable content of calcium-magnesium minerals and alkali pH value of the sludge, and simultaneous absence of heavy metals. Application in civil engineering (as an aggregate) is possible after calcination, which is costly, or as a cement kiln additive. Stabilisation of sludge before disposal, when no utilisation is available, is possible by small addition of commercial binders (e.g. Portland cement) or larger amounts of pozzolanic wastes (e.g. coal fly ash). PMID:12498478

Grilc, Viktor; Jersan, Rok

2002-10-01

192

Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.  

PubMed

Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance. PMID:20578647

Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl; Skrede, Anders

2010-06-01

193

Utilisation of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus Is Strain-Dependent  

PubMed Central

Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ?90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease. PMID:24204617

Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Tailford, Louise E.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

2013-01-01

194

Health insurance and healthcare utilisation for Shenzhen residents: a tale of registrants and migrants?  

PubMed Central

Background Shenzhen’s rapid growth and urbanisation has attracted a large, mobile, migrant working population. This article explores health protection through the means of social health insurance between migrants and registrants and their point of access to healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Shenzhen, with a random sample of 793 registered and 750 non-registered residents. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were applied to analyse the association between health insurance coverage with Hukou registration status and healthcare utilisation. Results Amongst 1543 respondents, 43.1% of non-registered residents were uninsured. Being non-registered strongly predicted for no insurance (OR?=?5.00; CI 3.53,7.07) and have purchased additional/ private insurance (OR?=?2.99; CI 1.66,5.37). Migrants who self-reported chronic health conditions were also more likely to utilise health services in general (OR?=?2.77; CI 1.18,6.52). Conclusions Inadequate health insurance coverage for migrants as observed in Shenzhen remains a challenge for the Chinese health reform. Our results suggest that the current insurance system must seek to include migrants in order to achieve universal coverage and improved health protection for its population. PMID:23061720

2012-01-01

195

UML, C. Johnen IUT Bordeaux 1, Ver 31 L'ensemble des cas d'utilisation doit dcrire exhaustivement les exigences fonctionnelles du  

E-print Network

diagramme de cas d'utilisation. Gestion du stock de DVDs :BIBLIOTHECAIRE Gestion des emprunts de DVDs. Johnen IUT Bordeaux 1, Ver 33 Diagramme des cas d'utilisation du paquet «gestion des emprunts de DVDs » à la Médiathèque A » : Diagramme des cas d'utilisation du paquet «gestion du stock de DVDs à la

Johnen, Colette

196

The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

Navarro, Melba, E-mail: mnavarro@ibecbarcelona.eu [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom) [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom); Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona, 08028 (Spain); Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A. [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom)] [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15

197

Information visualisation utilising 3D computer game engines case study: a source code comprehension tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information visualisation applications have been facing ever-increasing demands as the amount of available information has increased exponentially. With this, the number and complexity of visualisation tools for analysing and exploring data has also increased dramatically, making development and evolution of these systems difficult. We describe an investigation into reusing technology developed for computer games to create collaborative information visualisation tools.

Blazej J. Kot; Burkhard Wuensche; John C. Grundy; John G. Hosking

2005-01-01

198

A feasibility study into joining of engineering thermoplastics utilising concentrated beam solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most manufacturing technologies and facilities today are being developed for efficient and environment-friendly production. However, regardless of what type of material processing technology we use, we need energy. Solar energy, although often called alternative or even new energy source, is probably the oldest energy source available on earth. In this paper, the attempts made by the authors to explore the

L. A Stoynov; Prasad K. D. V Yarlagadda; Wang Chin Yen

2000-01-01

199

The effect of microbial communities on soil hydrological processes: A microcosm study utilising simulated rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soil microbial communities upon hydrological processes in relation to water holding capacity, run-off and percolation were assessed using sterile and non-sterile microcosms subjected to simulated rainfall. The treatments comprised a non-sterile field soil, soil sterilised by gamma-irradiation and sterile soil re-inoculated with field soil. Microbial biomass C was determined by chloroform fumigation–extraction and community structure by phospholipid

Kathryn E. Allton; James A. Harris; R. Jane Rickson; Karl Ritz

2007-01-01

200

Barriers and Gateways: A Study of Nursing Students' Utilisation of Learning Support Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 150 first-year nursing students indicated that 65% had been referred to the learning development center. Older students admitted through nontraditional access points were more likely to self-refer; younger students were more reluctant to access learning support resources, although they lacked effective learning strategies. (SK)

Stewart, Lyn; Mort, Pam; McVeigh, Carol

2001-01-01

201

Utilisation of chemical signals by inquiline wasps in entering their host figs.  

PubMed

The fig tree, Ficus curtipes, hosts an obligate pollinating wasp, an undescribed Eupristina sp., but can also be pollinated by two inquiline (living in the burrow, nest, gall, or other habitation of another animal) wasps, Diaziella yangi and an undescribed Lipothymus sp. The two inquilines are unable to independently induce galls and depend on the galls induced by the obligate pollinator for reproduction and, therefore, normally enter receptive F. curtipes figs colonised by the obligate pollinators. However, sometimes the inquilines also enter figs that are not colonised by the pollinators, despite consequent reproductive failure. It is still unknown which signal(s) the inquilines use in entering the colonised and non-colonised figs. We conducted behavioural experiments to investigate several possible signals utilised by the inquilines in entering their host receptive figs. Our investigation showed that both inquiline species enter the receptive F. curtipes figs in response to the body odours of the obligate wasps and one of the main compounds emitted by the figs, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. The compound was not found in the pollinator body odours, suggesting that the two inquiline wasps can utilise two signals to enter their host figs, which is significant for the evolution of the fig-fig wasp system. These inquilines could evolve to become mutualists of the figs if they evolve the ability to independently gall fig flowers; there is, however, another possibility that a monoecious Ficus species hosting such inquilines may evolve into a dioecious one if these inquilines cannot evolve the above-mentioned ability. Additionally, this finding provides evidence for the evolution of chemical communication between plants and insects. PMID:23973817

Gu, Ding; Yang, Da-Rong

2013-10-01

202

PROTECTION, VIS A VIS DES EXPLOSIONS, DES ^QUIPEMENTSDE TRANSPORT ET DE MANUTENTION UTILISANT L'ENERGIE ELECTRIQUE  

E-print Network

94-8 PROTECTION, VIS A VIS DES EXPLOSIONS, DES ^QUIPEMENTSDE TRANSPORT ET DE MANUTENTION UTILISANT anciennes decharges....). Dans tous ces emplacements peuvent exister des risques d'explosions du fait de la explosive dans l'air. Cette activite qui ne peut etre evitee ne doit pas augmenter les risques d'explosion

Boyer, Edmond

203

Ethnic Factors in Mental Health Service Utilisation among People with Intellectual Disability in High-Income Countries: Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. Aims: To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income…

Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

2012-01-01

204

High rates of HIV in surgical patients in Soweto, South Africa: impact on resource utilisation and recommendations for HIV testing.  

PubMed

Interactions between HIV and surgical diseases are relatively poorly described in high HIV prevalence settings. We report HIV prevalence and its associations in a prospective study of adults admitted to surgical units in Soweto, South Africa. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV was offered to surgical inpatients. Research nurses interviewed participants at enrolment and doctors reviewed records after discharge. In HIV-infected participants, CD4 counts and viral loads were ascertained. Of 1000 participants, 537 consented to VCT, of whom 176 (32.8%, 95% CI 28.8-36.9%) tested HIV positive. A history of tuberculosis (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.0, 95% CI 1.5-6.2) or sexually transmitted infection (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8-4.2) was associated with HIV infection. Diagnoses of cutaneous abscesses (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-8.1) and anorectal sepsis (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-9.0) were associated with HIV and indicated advanced disease. There were no differences in rates of operative procedures, wound sepsis, investigations or length of stay by HIV status. Hospital-acquired pneumonia was more common in HIV-infected participants (P=0.028). In conclusion, in this high HIV prevalence setting, resource utilisation is similar between HIV-infected and uninfected patients in surgical wards where high rates of HIV in young adults support routine HIV testing. WHO clinical staging of HIV should include anal sepsis as an indicator of advanced HIV disease. PMID:16814822

Martinson, Neil A; Omar, Tanvier; Gray, Glenda E; Vermaak, Jacobus S; Badicel, Maria; Degiannis, Elias; Steyn, Jan; McIntyre, James A; Smith, Martin

2007-02-01

205

The impact of mass media interventions on tuberculosis awareness, health-seeking behaviour and health service utilisation: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. Strategies to curb the spread of TB must match the multifaceted nature of the epidemic. The use of mass media is one of the important strategies in communicating behavioural change in relation to TB prevention and the treatment. However, the benefits of this intervention are unclear. We, therefore, plan to conduct a systematic review on the effects of mass media interventions on TB awareness, health-seeking behaviour and health service utilisation. Methods and analysis We will preferably include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this systematic review. However, non-randomised studies will be included if there is an inadequate number of RCTs. We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, Scopus and other databases, along with manual searches. Articles written (or translated) in English and French and published between 1 January 1980 and 31 October 2013 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be TB knowledge, attitudes and awareness, healthcare-seeking behaviour and service utilisation. The secondary outcomes will include stigma and discrimination against people with TB and the costs of the interventions. We will investigate clinical and statistical heterogeneity and pool studies judged to be clinically and statistically homogeneous. Relative risks will be calculated for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes, both with their corresponding 95% CIs. Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will use data that is not linked to individuals. The review findings may have implications for clinical practice and future research, and will be disseminated electronically and in print through peer-reviewed publications. Protocol registration number PROSPERO CRD42013005867 PMID:24430882

Nglazi, Mweete D; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin; Shey, Muki S; Uthman, Olalekan A; Wiysonge, Charles S

2014-01-01

206

Hierarchical zeolites: enhanced utilisation of microporous crystals in catalysis by advances in materials design.  

PubMed

The introduction of synthetic zeolites has led to a paradigm shift in catalysis, separations, and adsorption processes, due to their unique properties such as crystallinity, high-surface area, acidity, ion-exchange capacity, and shape-selective character. However, the sole presence of micropores in these materials often imposes intracrystalline diffusion limitations, rendering low utilisation of the zeolite active volume in catalysed reactions. This critical review examines recent advances in the rapidly evolving area of zeolites with improved accessibility and molecular transport. Strategies to enhance catalyst effectiveness essentially comprise the synthesis of zeolites with wide pores and/or with short diffusion length. Available approaches are reviewed according to the principle, versatility, effectiveness, and degree of reality for practical implementation, establishing a firm link between the properties of the resulting materials and the catalytic function. We particularly dwell on the exciting field of hierarchical zeolites, which couple in a single material the catalytic power of micropores and the facilitated access and improved transport consequence of a complementary mesopore network. The carbon templating and desilication routes as examples of bottom-up and top-down methods, respectively, are reviewed in more detail to illustrate the benefits of hierarchical zeolites. Despite encircling the zeolite field, this review stimulates intuition into the design of related porous solids (116 references). PMID:18949124

Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Christensen, Claus H; Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina H; Groen, Johan C

2008-11-01

207

Tolerance of pentose utilising yeast to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Background Bioethanol fermentations follow traditional beverage fermentations where the yeast is exposed to adverse conditions such as oxidative stress. Lignocellulosic bioethanol fermentations involve the conversion of pentose and hexose sugars into ethanol. Environmental stress conditions such as osmotic stress and ethanol stress may affect the fermentation performance; however, oxidative stress as a consequence of metabolic output can also occur. However, the effect of oxidative stress on yeast with pentose utilising capabilities has yet to be investigated. Results Assaying for the effect of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on Candida, Pichia and Scheffersomyces spp. has demonstrated that these yeast tolerate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in a manner consistent with that demonstrated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia guillermondii appears to be more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress when compared to Candida shehatae, Candida succiphila or Scheffersomyces stipitis. Conclusions Sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress increased in the presence of minimal media; however, addition of amino acids and nucleobases was observed to increase tolerance. In particular adenine increased tolerance and methionine reduced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24636079

2014-01-01

208

Mise ? jour sur l'utilisation clinique de la bupr?norphine  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Examiner les données scientifiques actuelles sur la buprénorphine-naloxone pour le traitement des troubles liés aux opioïdes, en insistant sur le contexte des soins primaires. Qualité des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE et la base de données Cochrane des synthèses critiques. Les données probantes sont surtout de niveau I. Message principal La buprénorphine est un agoniste partiel des récepteurs ? des opioïdes et un antagoniste des récepteurs ? des opioïdes ayant une longue demi-vie et un potentiel moins grand que la méthadone d’entraîner un usage abusif. Pour une désintoxication, la buprénorphine est au moins équivalente à la méthadone et supérieure à la clonidine. Comme thérapie de substitution, la buprénorphine est clairement supérieure au placebo. La méthadone comporte de légers avantages en ce qui a trait à la rétention en thérapie, mais une approche par étape en utilisant initialement la buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi efficace. Il est possible, sécuritaire et efficace de recourir à la buprénorphine en milieu de soins primaires. On peut obtenir l’autorisation de prescrire de la buprénorphine après avoir suivi une formation en ligne. Conclusion La buprénorphine est un agent sécuritaire et efficace pour la désintoxication en cas de dépendance aux opioïdes. Elle peut servir d’agent de première intention dans les programmes de thérapie de substitution, en raison de son potentiel plus faible d’usage abusif en comparaison d’autres opioïdes. Son efficacité en milieux de soins primaires en fait un outil thérapeutique utile pour les médecins de famille.

Ducharme, Simon; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

2012-01-01

209

Factors associated with dental visit and barriers to utilisation of oral health care services in a sample of antenatal mothers in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were to determine factors associated with dental visit and to describe barriers to utilisation of oral health care services among antenatal mothers attending the Obstetric and Gynaecology Specialist clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Methods A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used obtain information on the variables of interest pertaining to the current pregnancy from 124 antenatal mothers. Results The majority of the mothers claimed that their oral health status was good (67.0%) or very good (2.4%). On the contrary, most of them admitted of having had at least one oral health problem (59.7%) including cavitated (43.5%) and painful teeth (15.3%), bleeding gum (21.0%), and bad breath (10.5%). However, only 29% of the mothers visited dentist during the current pregnancy. Factors associated with the mothers' dental visit were exposure to oral health education before the pregnancy and awareness of relationship between poor maternal oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes with odds ratio of 4.06 (95% CI: 1.67-9.78) and 3.57 (95% CI: 1.30-9.77) respectively. Common excuses given by most mothers include perceptions of not having any oral health problems (65.9%), long waiting time at the clinic (71.6%), and no immediate treatment given by the dentist (64.8%). Conclusions Utilisation of oral health care services among antenatal mothers was low. Mothers who reported dental visit were more likely to be those who had received oral health education before the current pregnancy and knew of the association between poor maternal oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Dissatisfaction with the services rendered and perceptions of not having any oral health problems were the main barriers. PMID:20163741

2010-01-01

210

Investigation of pulse oximeter failure rates during artificial hypoperfusion utilising a custom made multimode pulse oximetery sensor.  

PubMed

Pulse oximetry utilises the technique of photoplethysmography (PPG) to estimate arterial oxygen saturation values (SpO2). In poorly perfused tissues, SpO2 readings may be compromised due to the poor quality of the PPG signals. In order to investigate further the threshold where pulse oximetry fails to produce accurate SpO2 values, we have developed a custom made multimode finger pulse oximetry probe that operates in conventional, reflectance and transmittance mode independently and also in a combined mode called transreflectance. Experiments on twenty healthy volunteers undergoing induced artificial hypoperfusion utilising a brachial blood pressure cuff were performed in order to investigate the possible threshold of failure to accurately estimate SpO2 values from all pulse oximetry modes. The results suggest that the transreflectance pulse oximeter endures more in estimating accurately SpO2 values when compared with the other two custom made pulse oximeters and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. PMID:22255303

Shafique, M; Kyriacou, P A; Pal, S K

2011-01-01

211

Investigation of Matlab® as Platform in Navigation and Control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle Utilising an Omnivision Sensor  

PubMed Central

Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed. PMID:25157548

Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

2014-01-01

212

Utilisation of physician services in the 50+ population: the relative importance of individual versus institutional factors in 10 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the relative importance of individual versus institutional factors in explaining variations in the utilisation\\u000a of physician services among the 50+ in ten European countries. The importance of the latter was investigated, distinguishing\\u000a between organisational (explicit) and cultural (implicit) institutional factors, by analysing the influence of supply side\\u000a factors, such as physician density and physician reimbursement, and demand side

Kristian Bolin; Anna Lindgren; Björn Lindgren; Petter Lundborg

2009-01-01

213

Charte informatique Mnhn_Ed11.doc Page 1/7 Charte d'utilisation des ressources informatiques  

E-print Network

Charte informatique Mnhn_Ed11.doc Page 1/7 Charte d'utilisation des ressources informatiques du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle La présente charte est avant tout un code de bonne conduite. Elle télécommunications pour la Technologie, l'Enseignement et la Recherche). Ce réseau est gouverné par une charte qui

214

Acute methylenedioxymethamphetamine administration: effects on local cerebral blood flow and glucose utilisation in the dark agouti rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleClinical reports indicate that acute exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “Ecstasy”) may induce pathological cerebrovascular responses in human users of the drug, however, the mechanism by which MDMA might effect these pathological changes is not clear.ObjectivesTo examine the effects of acute MDMA administration on the relationship between local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilisation (LCMRglu); to determine the

Linda Quate; Douglas E. McBean; Isobel M. Ritchie; Henry J. Olverman; Paul A. T. Kelly

2004-01-01

215

Resume. 2014 En utilisant une approximation detension superficielle forte, on tablit l'quation d'volution de  

E-print Network

'un cylindre vertical infini. Celle-ci s'ecrit en utilisant des variables sans dimension 03A603C4 + 03A603A603 of a film 03B6 = 03A6(03BE, ~, 03C4) flowing down an infinite vertical column. In non- dimensional scaled in a state of irregular splitting and merging. Irregular flow of a liquid film down a vertical column T

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

MODE D'ACTION DE L'ISORIBOFLAVINE SUR L'UTILISATION DE LA VITAMINE B2  

E-print Network

MODE D'ACTION DE L'ISORIBOFLAVINE SUR L'UTILISATION DE LA VITAMINE B2 PAR LA POULE PONDEUSE J le sang sous forme d'une flavopro- t�ine, l'isoriboflavine rend une partie de la vitamine B vitamine � l'oeuf. Nous avons compar� les effets de l'isoriboflavine � ceux pr�c�demment �tudi�s d

Boyer, Edmond

217

Utilisation de la Fibre a Deux Coeurs Non-Lineaire dans les Lasers EN Fibre et Lignes de Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'utilisation des proprietes non-lineaires de la fibre optique a deux coeurs identiques constitue l'objet de cette etude numerique. Les effets non-lineaires dans les fibres optiques ainsi que la theorie des modes couples sont abordes pour decrire le comportement de la fibre a deux coeurs non-lineaire. On a d'abord analyse les proprietes de transmission d'une telle fibre autour de la puissance

Rene-Jean Essiambre

1994-01-01

218

Environment-friendly utilisation of waste energies for the production of electric energy in disperse power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a special system that makes it possible to generate electric and heat energy by utilising alternative, renewable and waste energies, in most cases, applying the principle of co-generation. The solution is based on a system that consists of a high-speed turbine, coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous generator, an AC\\/AC converter and a supervisory control unit.

R. K. Jardan; I. Nagy; T. Nitta; H. Ohaski

2002-01-01

219

Aprs-mines 2003, 5-7 Fvrier 2003, Nancy 1 UTILISATION DU REMBLAI EN PATE COMME SUPPORT DE TERRAIN. PARTIE II  

E-print Network

decrease in term of mechanical strength at long term age. KEY-WORDS: Paste backfill, Mine tailings, Mechanical strength, Cementation. 1. Introduction L'utilisation du remblai cimenté en pâte dans le remblayage

Aubertin, Michel

220

Influence of glucose ingestion by humans during recovery from exercise on substrate utilisation during subsequent exercise in a warm environment.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during short-term recovery from prolonged running has been shown to increase the capacity for subsequent exercise in a warm environment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the amount of glucose given during recovery on substrate storage and utilisation during recovery and subsequent exercise in a warm environment. A group of 11 healthy male volunteers took part in two experiments in a controlled warm environment (35 degrees C, 40% relative humidity), 1 week apart. On each occasion the subjects completed two treadmill runs (T1 and T2) at a speed equivalent to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake, for 90 min, until they were fatigued, or until aural temperature (T(aur)) reached 39 degrees C. The two runs were separated by a 4 h recovery period (REC), during which subjects consumed 55 g of naturally enriched [U-(13)C]-glucose in the form of a 7.5% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES, mass of solution 667 g) immediately after T1. The subjects then consumed either: the same quantity of CES, or an equivalent volume of an electrolyte placebo, at 60, 120 and 180 min during REC, providing a total of 220 g (C220) or 55 g (C55) of [U-(13)C]-glucose, respectively. Expired gases were collected at 15 min intervals during exercise and 60 min intervals during REC, for determination of total CHO and fat oxidation by indirect respiratory calorimetry, and orally ingested [U-(13)C]-glucose oxidation, estimated from the (13)C:(12)C ratio of expired CO(2). Substrate metabolism did not differ between conditions during T1. Despite the fact that total CHO (P < 0.05) and ingested glucose oxidation (P < 0.01) were greater during REC of the C220 condition, glycogen synthesis was estimated to be approximately fivefold greater (P < 0.01) than in the C55 condition. During T2 the rate of total CHO oxidation was higher (P < 0.01) and total fat oxidation lower (P < 0.01) at all times during the C220 compared to the C55 condition. The greater CHO oxidation during C220 appeared to be met from ingested sources, as the rate of [U-(13)C]-glucose oxidation was greater (P < 0.01) at all times during T2, compared to C55. Whilst more of the ingested substrate remained unoxidised on completion of T2 during C220, exercise duration was similar in the two experimental conditions, and was limited by thermoregulatory incapacity (T(aur) > 39 degrees C) rather than substrate availability per se. PMID:12172869

Bilzon, J L J; Murphy, J L; Allsopp, A J; Wootton, S A; Williams, C

2002-08-01

221

Proprits physiques des structures MIS ralises sur InP(n) en utilisant un oxyde bicouche comme isolant  

E-print Network

881 Propriétés physiques des structures MIS réalisées sur InP(n) en utilisant un oxyde bicouche mars 1987, accepté le 16 avril 1987) Résumé. 2014 Les propriétés électriques de l'interface d'un oxyde diodes MIS dépendent de l'origine du substrat ainsi que de la durée d'oxydation. Les caractéristiques C

Boyer, Edmond

222

The Eighteenth African Health Sciences Congress: dissemination of research results for utilisation.  

PubMed

The African Health Sciences Congress for 1997 will be held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 14 to 18 April. This congress has been an annual event where scientists from across the world meet to present research results and to discuss meaningful approaches to solving some of the world's pressing health problems. The congress which is under the aegis of the African Forum for Health Sciences (AFHES), focusses special attention on ways of finding solutions for problems that afflict the African. The AFHES aims to accentuate, through these meetings, practical approaches that can be used by African governments to tackle health-related matters in order to improve the socio-economic status of the people on the African continent. The common health-related matters that one would be expected to be covered at such a congress are the six major tropical diseases identified by the World Health Organisation (WHO), namely malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and leprosy. But now, there are other health-related problems on the continent that must be dealt with in order to ensure quality of life. Among them are the new and re-emerging diseases like the haemorrhagic fevers (Ebola and Marbug) and yellowfever, the sexually-transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, acute respiratory infections and reproductive health. Then there are the less often mentioned health-related problems currently afflicting the African continent that are not given so much attention as the others. These include sanitation, famine and drought, and malnutrition which arise from political upheavals leading to refugees. The consequences of these socio-economic difficulties further exacerbate the prevalence of the existing tropical and other diseases. Scientists working in Africa should play leading roles in tackling the many health problems that afflict the peoples of Africa. They are well placed to collect direct information on these health issues and to provide practical and meaningful strategies for their solution. The WHO Africa Region has taken a meaningful step towards finding mechanisms of eliminating female mutilation in Africa, and this is highlighted in the Newsdesk pages of this issue of the Journal. This, it is hoped, will be achieved through the use of the African traditional foundation and wisdom. Similarly, the African traditional culture of health should provide the basis for utilising the wisdom of the traditional healers and traditional midwives for dealing with primary health care matters on the African continent. The Journal congratulates all the scientists working in Africa, be they Africans or non-Africans, and those outside Africa, who work tirelessly to solve problems that will pave the way for an acceptable quality of life for the world's peoples. It is earnestly hoped that the scientists in Cape Town during the 18th African Health Sciences Congress will deliberate, discuss and dedicate themselves to solving Africa's pressing health problems. The Journal also acknowledges with gratitude, the organisers of this congress, namely the South African Medical Research Council, the Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Epidemiological Society of Southern Africa (ESSA), which, under the auspices of the African Forum for Health Sciences, have made it possible to hold the Congress in cape Town this year. PMID:17583970

Koech, D K

1997-01-01

223

Fabrication of a cell array on ultrathin hydrophilic polymer gels utilising electron beam irradiation and UV excimer laser ablation.  

PubMed

Most of the surface patterning methods currently applied are based on lithography techniques and microfabrication onto silicon or glass substrates. Here we report a novel method to prepare patterned surfaces on polystyrene substrates by grafting ultrathin cell-repellent polymer layers utilising both electron beam (EB) polymerisation and local laser ablation techniques for microfabrication. Polyacrylamide was grafted onto tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes using EB irradiation. Water contact angles for these PAAm-grafted TCPS surfaces were less than 10 degrees (costheta = 0.99) with PAAm grafted amounts of 1.6 microg/cm(2) as determined by ATR/FT-IR. UV excimer laser (ArF: 193 nm) ablation resulted in the successful fabrication of micropatterned surfaces composed of hydrophilic PAAm and hydrophobic basal polystyrene layers. Bovine carotid artery endothelial cells adhered only to the ablated domains after pretreatment of the patterned surfaces with 15 microg/mL fibronectin at 37 degrees C. The ablated domain sizes significantly influenced the number of cells occupying each domain. Cell patterning functionality of the patterned surfaces was maintained for more than 2 months without loss of pattern fidelity, indicating that more durable cell arrays can be obtained compared to those prepared by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols, as described in previous reports. The surface fabrication techniques presented here can be utilised for the preparation of cell-based biosensors as well as tissue engineering constructs. PMID:15814138

Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Akiyama, Yoshikatsu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Yamato, Masayuki; Sakai, Kiyotaka; Okano, Teruo

2005-09-01

224

Lysine maintenance requirement and efficiency of its utilisation in young pigs as estimated by comparative slaughter technique.  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out on weaner pigs (initial BW 10.8 kg) to estimate the maintenance requirement for lysine (Lys) and its marginal efficiency of utilisation using a comparative slaughter technique. Three groups of six pigs each were fed purified diets for 21 days supplying Lys at 19.5, 78 or 195 mg/kg W0.75, which corresponded to 50, 200 or 500% of the assumed maintenance requirement. All other essential amino acids were given at 50% excess. At the end of the experiment, pigs were killed for whole-body nitrogen (N) and amino acid analysis. A representative group of six pigs was analysed at the beginning of the experiment. Based on regression equations, relating Lys or N retention to Lys intake, Lys requirement for zero Lys retention was estimated to be 121 mg/kg W0.75, while Lys requirement corresponding to zero N retention was 41.7 mg/kg W0.75. At N equilibrium, the pigs lost 65 mg of Lys per kg W0.75 daily while at zero Lys retention, the daily N retention was 156 mg/kg W0.75 . The marginal efficiency of lysine utilisation was 0.91. It is concluded that zero lysine retention is a better criterion of lysine maintenance requirement than zero N retention. PMID:18610534

Heger, Jaroslav; Patrás, Peter; Nitrayová, Sona; Karcol, Juraj; Dolesová, Patricia

2008-06-01

225

Progrès récents dans l'utilisation de la Chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse pour la détermination des propriétés acide-base des surfaces solides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) is a method well suited for the study of divided solids, but also of fibres. In this paper, the principles of IGC, its advantages such as ease and rapidity of measurement, but also limitations due essentially to the energetic heterogeneity of the solid surfaces are discussed. Finally, a new procedure allowing to estimate the acidity and basicity of the surface involving topology concepts of the molecules used to probe the surface is presented. Experimental results of the Laboratory, but also results extracted from the literature concerning silica, titanium dioxide, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ethylene) fibers, are taken to verify the proposed method. La chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse (CGI) s'avère comme une méthode de choix pour l'étude des solides divisés, mais aussi de fibres. Après avoir rappelé quelques principes de base de la CGI, les avantages de la méthode comme la facilité de mise en oeuvre, sa rapidité..., nous soulignerons ses limites qui sont essentiellement à attribuer à l'hétérogénéité énergétique des surfaces solides. Finalement, nous décrirons une nouvelle approche de l'acidité et de la basicité de surface grâce à l'utilisation des concepts de topologie des molécules employées pour sonder la surface. Des résultats expérimentaux obtenus au Laboratoire, mais aussi tirés de la littérature et concernant la silice, l'oxyde de titane, la poly(méthacrylate de méthyle) et les fibres de poly(éthylène), permettent d'illustrer la pertinence de la méthode proposée.

Papirer, E.; Brendlé, E.

1998-01-01

226

Healthcare provider perspectives on barriers to HIV-care access and utilisation among Latinos living with HIV in the US-Mexico border.  

PubMed

Latinos living with HIV residing in the US-Mexico border region frequently seek care on both sides of the border. Given this fact, a border health perspective to understanding barriers to care is imperative to improve patient health outcomes. This qualitative study describes and compares experiences and perceptions of Mexican and US HIV care providers regarding barriers to HIV care access for Latino patients living in the US-Mexico border region. In 2010, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with HIV care providers in Tijuana (n = 10) and San Diego (n = 9). We identified important similarities and differences between Mexican and US healthcare provider perspectives on HIV care access and barriers to service utilisation. Similarities included the fact that HIV-positive Latino patients struggle with access to ART medication, mental health illness, substance abuse and HIV-related stigma. Differences included Mexican provider perceptions of medication shortages and US providers feeling that insurance gaps influenced medication access. Differences and similarities have important implications for cross-border efforts to coordinate health services for patients who seek care in both countries. PMID:24592920

Servin, Argentina E; Muñoz, Fátima A; Zúñiga, María Luisa

2014-01-01

227

Valeurs aleatoires communes (VAC) On utilise = X2 -X1 pour estimer 2 -1 = E[X2] -E[X1]. On a  

E-print Network

1 Valeurs al´eatoires communes (VAC) On utilise = X2 - X1 pour estimer µ2 - µ1 = E[X2] - E[X1 - X1 pour estimer µ2 - µ1 = E[X2] - E[X1]. On a Var[] = Var[X1] + Var[X2] - 2 Cov[X1, X2]. Objectif´eatoires communes (VAC) On utilise = X2 - X1 pour estimer µ2 - µ1 = E[X2] - E[X1]. On a Var[] = Var[X1] + Var[X2

L'Ecuyer, Pierre

228

AIMANTS PS CIRCUITS AUXILIAIRES DES PFW : UTILISATION DES PICK-UPS ET BOUCLES DE TOURS SELON LES TYPES DE CORRECTION  

E-print Network

Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installées sur les pôles des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unité d’aimant et constituées d’un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant désiré selon le cycle magnétique utilisé) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (“pick-ups” brasés sur les enroulements principaux et boucles de tours). Pendant la variation du champ magnétique de l’aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux pertes par courants de Foucault dans la chambre à vide. Les corrections à amener pour uniformiser le champ magnétique tout au long de la machine PS sont fonction des différents types de chambres à vide. A ce jour, nous utilisons 18 types de correction différents.

Ottaviani, J

2005-01-01

229

Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.2. The experimental design was a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and

A. M. Amerah; A. Péron; F. Zaefarian; V. Ravindran

2011-01-01

230

Utilisation clinique du monitorage biochimique cérébral par microdialyse : revue de la littérature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. – To review the current data on clinical bedside use of cerebral microdialysis.Data source. – Search through Medline® database of articles in French and English (keywords: microdialysis, cerebral ischaemia, head trauma, subarachnoid haemorrhage, clinical study).Study selection. – All clinical articles published between 1995 and 2005, including original papers and some case reports.Data synthesis. – Microdialysis after occlusive stroke has

E. Cantais; H. Boret; E. Carre; G. Pernod

2006-01-01

231

Utilisation de la morphine orale pour les douleurs post-traumatiques de l'enfant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. – To study the compliance of prescription, the efficacity and the adverse events of oral morphine used in the pediatric emergency departement (ED) in traumatic pains.Method. – This prospective study was conducted in the ED from october 2002 to september 2003. Children aged six months to 16 years with a visual analogic scale (VAS) score higher than 70 or with

C. Wille; N. Bocquet; B. Cojocaru; A. Leis; G. Chéron

2005-01-01

232

A pilot study utilising cross-age peer tutoring as a method of intervention for anxious adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychopathology experienced by young people, with up to 18% of adolescents developing one. The consequences of these symptoms, if left untreated, include impaired peer relationships, school absenteeism and self-concept problems. In addition, excessive anxiety may play a causal role in the development of depression in young people, precede eating disorders and predispose adolescents to

Marilyn Campbell

2008-01-01

233

Selective activation of glycosyl donors utilising electrochemical techniques: a study of the thermodynamic oxidation potentials of a range of chalcoglycosides.  

PubMed

A series of six chalcoglycosides (phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-1-seleno-beta-D-glucopyranoside, phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-1-seleno-beta-D-glucopyranoside, phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-tolyl-2,3,4,6-O-benzoyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-tolyl-2,3,4,6-O-benzyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and phenyl-2,3,4,6-O-benzyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) are voltammetrically interrogated in dimethyl sulfoxide, so as to determine their formal (i.e. thermodynamic) redox potentials. The electrochemical oxidation of the chalcoglycoside is shown to follow an overall EC-type mechanism, in which the electro-generated cation radical undergoes an irreversible carbon-chalcogen bond rupture to produce the corresponding glycosyl cation, which may react further. The kinetics of the initial heterogeneous electron transfer process and subsequent irreversible homogeneous chemical degradation of the radical cation are reported, with values for the standard electrochemical rate constant k(0) in the order of 10(-2) cm s(-1) and the first order homogeneous rate constant, k(1), of the order of 10(3) s(-1). The formal oxidation potentials were found to vary according to the identity of the chalcogenide, such that OPh > SPh similar to STol > SePh. PMID:15280954

France, Robert R; Rees, Neil V; Wadhawan, Jay D; Fairbanks, Antony J; Compton, Richard G

2004-08-01

234

Utilising handheld computers to monitor and support patients receiving chemotherapy: results of a UK-based feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of work  Recent changes in cancer service provision mean that many patients spend a limited time in hospital and therefore experience and must cope with and manage treatment-related side effects at home. Information technology can provide innovative solutions in promoting patient care through information provision, enhancing communication, monitoring treatment-related side effects and promoting self-care.Patients and methods  The aim of this feasibility

N. Kearney; L. Kidd; M. Miller; M. Sage; J. Khorrami; M. McGee; J. Cassidy; K. Niven; P. Gray

2006-01-01

235

Effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient utilisation and serum biochemical parameters in dromedary camels.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient digestibility, nutritive value, nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters was studied using nine male dromedary camels of Bikaneri breeds (637.5 kg average body weight; 8-9 years of age). Groundnut haulms (GNH) and cluster bean straw (CBS) were fed in one of three ratios, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 in treatments T(1), T(2) and T(3), respectively. In all treatments, concentrate mixture was fed as per requirement of the camels. The groundnut haulms were more nutritive as compared to the cluster bean straw. The nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), crude fibre and acid detergent fibre was better in T(1) than T(2) and T(3). Likewise, the CP, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient contents were significantly higher in T(1) followed by T(2) and T(3). There was non-significant affect on average daily gain of camels. However, dry matter intake, digestible crude protein intake and total digestible nutrients were better in T(1) as compared to T(2) and T(3). The total water intake per kilogram of dry matter intake (litres) was 2.98, 2.89 and 2.68, respectively, in T(1), T(2) and T(3). The camels in all the treatments were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance. The treatments had a significant effect on serum biochemical parameters like glucose, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase and creatinine. The results may conclude that feeding of higher proportion of groundnut haulms as compared to cluster bean straw has pronounced improvement in nutritional utilisation by the camels. PMID:22476733

Gupta, Lokesh; Kumar, Roy Ashwani; Ghanshyam, Tiwari; Rajesh, Dhuria; Garg, Rajeev

2012-10-01

236

Next generation planar waveguide detection of microcystins in freshwater and cyanobacterial extracts, utilising a novel lysis method for portable sample preparation and analysis.  

PubMed

The study details the development of a fully validated, rapid and portable sensor based method for the on-site analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples. The process employs a novel lysis method for the mechanical lysis of cyanobacterial cells, with glass beads and a handheld frother in only 10 min. The assay utilises an innovative planar waveguide device that, via an evanescent wave excites fluorescent probes, for amplification of signal in a competitive immunoassay, using an anti-microcystin monoclonal with cross-reactivity against the most common, and toxic variants. Validation of the assay showed the limit of detection (LOD) to be 0.78 ng mL(-1) and the CC? to be 1 ng mL(-1). Robustness of the assay was demonstrated by intra- and inter-assay testing. Intra-assay analysis had % C.V.s between 8 and 26% and recoveries between 73 and 101%, with inter-assay analysis demonstrating % C.V.s between 5 and 14% and recoveries between 78 and 91%. Comparison with LC-MS/MS showed a high correlation (R(2)=0.9954) between the calculated concentrations of 5 different Microcystis aeruginosa cultures for total microcystin content. Total microcystin content was ascertained by the individual measurement of free and cell-bound microcystins. Free microcystins can be measured to 1 ng mL(-1), and with a 10-fold concentration step in the intracellular microcystin protocol (which brings the sample within the range of the calibration curve), intracellular pools may be determined to 0.1 ng mL(-1). This allows the determination of microcystins at and below the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of 1 ?g L(-1). This sensor represents a major advancement in portable analysis capabilities and has the potential for numerous other applications. PMID:23498128

Devlin, Shauna; Meneely, Julie P; Greer, Brett; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T

2013-03-26

237

Changes in silicate utilisation and upwelling intensity off Peru since the Last Glacial Maximum - insights from silicon and neodymium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine the stable silicon isotope composition (?30Si) of diatoms and the radiogenic neodymium isotope compositions (?Nd) of past seawater extracted from the authigenic fraction of the sediments (Mn-Fe coatings of particles and benthic foraminifers), as well as the radiogenic isotope compositions (Nd, Sr) of the detrital material itself to reconstruct silicic acid utilisation, water mass mixing, and upwelling intensity from the same marine sediments in the Peruvian upwelling region during the past 20,000 years. Additionally, the sedimentary signals were compared to the water column isotope compositions. Along the Peruvian shelf, the dissolved ?Nd in the water column ranges from -5.7 to +0.6. The corresponding ?Nd signatures of the coatings and the benthic foraminifers of the surface sediments range from -4.5 to +1.8 and from -2.5 to +2.2, respectively. The detrital ?Nd (87Sr/86Sr) signatures range from -6.3 to 0 (0.70508-0.71049). All phases show a trend from more radiogenic ?Nd values in the north towards less radiogenic values in the south broadly reflecting local weathering inputs and hinterland geology. The ?Nd signatures of the coatings extracted from sediment core SO147-106KL located in the present day centre of coastal upwelling near 12°S have been essentially constant (-1.5) throughout the past 20,000 years, while the detrital ?Nd (87Sr/86Sr) varied between values of -0.7 (0.70620) during the Last Glacial and -4.5 (0.70849) during the late Holocene reflecting changes in the origin of the sediment and current transport from a more northerly towards a more southerly source and from overall stronger to weaker upwelling. The ?30Si signature of both total biogenic opal (?30Siopal) and of hand-picked diatoms (?30Sidiatom) ranged from +0.3‰ (Last Glacial) to +1.4‰ (late Holocene) confirming large variations in upwelling intensity driving silicic acid utilisation by diatoms. Our combined bSiO2 MAR, ?30Siopal and detrital radiogenic isotope results demonstrate that the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation conditions off Peru of the past 20 ka have prevailed during the past 5 ka.

Ehlert, C.; Grasse, P.; Frank, M.

2013-07-01

238

Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Gene Expression Is Not Affected by Dichloroacetate-Mediated Modulation of Substrate Utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study investigated whether changing fuel use, by increasing pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) flux, independently of plasma substrate availability and insulin signalling, would alter metabolic gene expression. Methods: The PDC activator, dichloroacetate (DCA), was administered as an intravenous infusion in healthy male subjects at a rate of 50 mg kg–1 min–1, for 90 min. Saline was infused as a

Paul B. Tisdale; Andrew J. Bennett; Nandini Seevaratnam; Ian A. Macdonald; Kostas Tsintzas

2011-01-01

239

Female sex workers as health educators with men who buy sex: Utilising narratives of rationalisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on findings from an ethnographic study of female sex workers who work in the indoor sex markets in a British city. An unexpected finding was the collective narratives that sex workers construct to rationalise their involvement in the sex industry. Fifty-five respondents who took part in in-depth interviews maintained that prostitution is a useful occupation and function

Teela Sanders

2006-01-01

240

Silk utilisation and defensive behaviour of Thiania, an iridescent jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) from Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiania demissa (Thorell) and an undescribed congeneric species were studied in nature and the laboratory. Thiania is a brightly coloured, iridescent salticid from Malaysian rainforests. Its bright markings may be eucryptic in the spider’s natural habitat. The spinning behaviour of Thiania was unusual for a salticid. It made a nest by binding a pair of green leaves together with strong

Robert R. Jackson

1986-01-01

241

The Applied Music Lesson: Teaching Gifted and Talented Students Utilising Principles of Comprehensive Musicianship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive musicianship is a term used to describe the intradisciplinary study of music. The comprehensive musicianship approach is closely related to Gestalt psychology in that music is approached as a totality, with a concern for constituent parts and how they relate to the whole (Willoughby, 1971). The concept of integration is central to…

Heavner, Tracy

2005-01-01

242

The Role of Personal Experience and Social Interaction in Knowledge Creation and Utilisation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effects of personal experience and social interaction on individual knowledge and performance in a specific decision making task context. The study revealed a differential effect of increased experience on the quality of participants decisions. In particular, increased experience…

Handzic, Meliha; Tolhurst, Denise

243

Combined Industrial Cooling and Heating with Transcritical CO2 Heat Pumps Utilising the Work of Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract The use of CO2 as a refrigerant in transcritical vapour compression cycles has significant advantages, for systems which require simultaneous heating and cooling at approximately equal rates. However, then need for a compressor, to operate across high pressure differences, and the large throttle losses associated with these pressure differences have limited its use. This paper describes a study

Torben M. Hansen; Ian K. Smith; Nikola Stosic

244

Analyse minralogique quantitative d'un chan-tillon de sol : utilisation des donnes concernant  

E-print Network

'un �chantillon compos� de kaolinite, d'illite, de goethite et de quartz permet de montrer tout d'abord que l composition chimique moyenne de l'�chantillon. Mots cl�s additionnels : Kaolinite, illite, goethite, quartz. Study of a sample composed of kaolinite, illite, goethite and quartz showed that one could not depend

Boyer, Edmond

245

Amlioration du circuit visuel des Contrleurs Ariens pour relier les donnes entre visualisations en utilisant  

E-print Network

.conversy@enac.fr RESUME Plusieurs affichages sont utilis�s dans l'activit� du Contr�le du Trafic A�rien, comme la vue perturbateur lorsque le trafic augmente et les visualisations affichent un grand nombre d'objets graphiques Terms Design, Human Factors Keywords InfoVis, visual transitions, animations, visualizations study. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Utilising Facebook: immersing Generation-Y students into first year university  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study explores the use of the online social networking site, Facebook, in helping immerse first year students into university culture, by furthering the development of academic and social relationships between peers. Facebook was chosen as the host site on account of the uniform strength of its features as compared to other popular social networking sites such as MySpace

Joshua McCarthy

247

Better utilisation of the skidder winch can decrease the overrun on the logging site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of seven articulated wheel skidders was conducted at five different locations, where the winch line was pulled out for a distance of up to 60 metres from the skid trail. The further the winch line is pulled porn a skid trail to hitch a load, the further apart the skid trail spacing can be, with the resultant decrease

A. L. C. Colton; M. P. Brink

1999-01-01

248

Foraging behaviour and landscape utilisation by the endangered golden-crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus), the Philippines.  

PubMed

Species of Old World fruit-bats (family Pteropodidae) have been identified as the natural hosts of a number of novel and highly pathogenic viruses threatening livestock and human health. We used GPS data loggers to record the nocturnal foraging movements of Acerodon jubatus, the Golden-crowned flying fox in the Philippines to better understand the landscape utilisation of this iconic species, with the dual objectives of pre-empting disease emergence and supporting conservation management. Data loggers were deployed on eight of 54 A. jubatus (two males and six females) captured near Subic Bay on the Philippine island of Luzon between 22 November and 2 December 2010. Bodyweight ranged from 730 g to 1002 g, translating to a weight burden of 3-4% of bodyweight. Six of the eight loggers yielded useful data over 2-10 days, showing variability in the nature and range of individual bat movements. The majority of foraging locations were in closed forest and most were remote from evident human activity. Forty-six discrete foraging locations and five previously unrecorded roost locations were identified. Our findings indicate that foraging is not a random event, with the majority of bats exhibiting repetitious foraging movements night-to-night, that apparently intact forest provides the primary foraging resource, and that known roost locations substantially underestimate the true number (and location) of roosts. Our initial findings support policy and decision-making across perspectives including landscape management, species conservation, and potentially disease emergence. PMID:24278154

de Jong, Carol; Field, Hume; Tagtag, Anson; Hughes, Tom; Dechmann, Dina; Jayme, Sarah; Epstein, Jonathan H; Epstein, Jonathan; Smith, Craig; Santos, Imelda; Catbagan, Davinio; Lim, Mundita; Benigno, Carolyn; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott

2013-01-01

249

Survey on blood ordering and utilisation patterns in elective urological surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Blood transfusion is an important part of the medical care service. As there has not been a regional study about blood requests for operations, this study was done to assess blood ordering for various types of elective urological surgery. Materials and methods In a descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study, blood requests for all patients undergoing elective urological surgery in Razi Hospital (Rasht, Iran) during the first 6 months of 2010 were studied. The patients’ data (age, sex, weight, type of surgery, haemoglobin level before and after surgery, number of units of blood cross-matched and number of units transfused in the operating theatre and in the 3 days after surgery) were collected from their clinical records. Patients with a history of coagulopathy or anticoagulant drug use were excluded. The cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio), transfusion index (TI) and transfusion probability (T%) were calculated. The level of statistical significance was set at P =0.05. Results Of the 435 patients studied, 327 (75.1%) were male and 108 (24.9%) were female. The mean age of patients was 51.74±19.33 years. The mean number of units of blood requested for each operation was 2.8±1.2, whereas the mean number transfused was 0.59±0.24; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The relationships between pre-operative haemoglobin concentration and both blood requested and blood used were also statistically significant (P =0.038 and P <0.001, respectively). Calculated for all the operations, the C/T ratio was 14.16, the TI was 0.11 and the T% was 8.85%. Overall, only 8.5% of the patients (n=37) need blood transfusion in the operating theatre and only 10.8% (n=47) required transfusion within the 72 hours after surgery. Discussion The amount of blood requested and cross-matched for elective urological surgery is much greater than the real level of consumption. An appropriate, standard blood order guideline would reduce costs and staff workload. PMID:23058856

Khoshrang, Hossein; Madani, Ali Hamidi; Roshan, Zahra Atarkar; Ramezanzadeh, Maryam Soltani

2013-01-01

250

Potentiel de l'utilisation des melanges hydrocarbures/alcools pour les moteurs a allumage commande  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past few years, the oil stock decrease encourages the different countries to increase their energy independence. Moreover, reducing the environmental impact of transportation became one of the priorities of our society. In this way, European emissions standards are stricter while several pollutants have been identified to have a negative impact on health and the environment. To answer this double problem, the use of alcohols biofuels in sparkignition engines is one the promising ways. The European Union have already taken a small step in that direction by allowing a maximum of 10% of ethanol into gasoline. As well as ethanol is already marketed, Biobutanol, a 2nd generation biofuel, appears as a serious candidate with a strong potential for a spark-ignition engines use. The objective of this dissertation is to study the potential of the iso-octane/butanol blends use in spark-ignition engines, in terms of performance and pollutants emissions. Moreover, these results are compared to iso-octane/ethanol blends. The heat release in spark-ignition engine is piloted for a part by laminar burning velocity. This characteristic was studied experimentally and numerically for different initial conditions (pressure and equivalence ratio) in a constant volume bomb. Then, the early flame kernel growth was studied in an spark-ignition single cylinder engine equipped with optical accesses. Those results were correlated with the results on the laminar burning velocity. Finally, regulated and non-regulated pollutants emissions and engine performance were investigated in a spark-ignition single cylinder engine. A decrease of most pollutant emissions was observed with both alcohols addition.

Broustail, Guillaume

251

Utilising a construct of teacher capacity to examine national curriculum reform in mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study involving 120 Australian and Chinese teachers introduces a construct of teacher capacity to analyse how teachers help students connect arithmetic learning and emerging algebraic thinking. Four criteria formed the basis of our construct of teacher capacity: knowledge of mathematics, interpretation of the intentions of official curriculum documents, understanding of students' thinking, and design of teaching. While these key elements connect to what other researchers refer to as mathematical knowledge for teaching, several differences are made clear. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that our construct was robust and effective in distinguishing between different levels of teacher capacity.

Zhang, Qinqiong; Stephens, Max

2013-12-01

252

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a suitable technique in the study of the materials used in waterproofing of archaeological amphorae.  

PubMed

The resinous materials from the interior surfaces of two Roman and one Iberian amphora were studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results were then compared with those obtained by synchrotron radiation-FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The FTIR spectra obtained by the technique of KBr micropellets, prepared directly with the materials scraped from the amphora without any further sample preparation, provided enough information to establish their diterpenoic nature, and even to differentiate between the two main materials employed for waterproofing purposes, pitch and wood tar. Methyl dehydroabietic acid (DHAM) is the main chemical marker that allows a distinction to be made between these two materials. Pitch and wood tar were prepared in the laboratory heating pine resin and resinous pine wood, respectively. These resinous waterproofing materials were compared with the coatings extracted from the amphorae. The samples whose direct FTIR spectra showed a signal at approximately 1740 cm(-1), attributed to a carbonyl group of methyl ester, presented as well a peak of DHAM in the GC-MS chromatogram of the neutral fraction of their extract. Samples without this signal in their spectra did not present DHAM in their chromatogram. This work studies, for the first time, waterproofing of an amphora attributed to the Iberian culture. PMID:17693315

Font, J; Salvadó, N; Butí, S; Enrich, J

2007-08-13

253

Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.  

PubMed

Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of results for systems with electricity use as an environmental hot spot. The importance of assessing water use, an environmental impact not assessed by any of the reviewed studies, is highlighted. PMID:24121250

Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

2014-06-25

254

Ethical and professional concerns in research utilisation: intentional rounding in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Intentional rounding, a process involving the performance of regular checks on all patients following a standardised protocol, is being introduced widely in the United Kingdom. The process has been promoted by the Prime Minister and publicised by the Chief Nursing Officer at the Department of Health as well as by influential think tanks and individual National Health Service organisations. An evidence base is offered in justification. This article subjects the evidence base to critical scrutiny concluding that it consists of poor quality studies and serial misreporting of findings and a failure to consider wider concerns, including transference of evidence to differing health-care systems, and the conflation of perception and quality of care. Political promotion and wide implementation of intentional rounding despite the flimsy and questionable evidence base raise questions about the use of evidence in ethical nursing practice and the status of nursing as an autonomous profession. PMID:23533211

Snelling, Paul C

2013-11-01

255

Financial and environmental modelling of water hardness--implications for utilising harvested rainwater in washing machines.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the financial and environmental effects of water quality on rainwater harvesting systems. The potential for replacing tap water used in washing machines with rainwater was studied, and then analysis presented in this paper is valid for applications that include washing machines where tap water hardness may be important. A wide range of weather conditions, such as rainfall (284-1,794 mm/year); water hardness (14-315 mg/L CaCO3); tap water prices (0.85-2.65 Euros/m(3)) in different Spanish urban areas (from individual buildings to whole neighbourhoods); and other scenarios (including materials and water storage capacity) were analysed. Rainfall was essential for rainwater harvesting, but the tap water prices and the water hardness were the main factors for consideration in the financial and the environmental analyses, respectively. The local tap water hardness and prices can cause greater financial and environmental impacts than the type of material used for the water storage tank or the volume of the tank. The use of rainwater as a substitute for hard water in washing machines favours financial analysis. Although tap water hardness significantly affects the financial analysis, the greatest effect was found in the environmental analysis. When hard tap water needed to be replaced, it was found that a water price of 1 Euro/m(3) could render the use of rainwater financially feasible when using large-scale rainwater harvesting systems. When the water hardness was greater than 300 mg/L CaCO3, a financial analysis revealed that an net present value greater than 270 Euros/dwelling could be obtained at the neighbourhood scale, and there could be a reduction in the Global Warming Potential (100 years) ranging between 35 and 101 kg CO2 eq./dwelling/year. PMID:24262990

Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Lurueña, Rodrigo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan

2014-02-01

256

Cost and utilisation of hospital based delivery care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India.  

PubMed

Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India. PMID:23054455

Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

2013-10-01

257

Caracterisation des signatures de decharges partielles en utilisant une nouvelle generation de coupleurs piezoelectriques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue affecting the sustainability of power transformers is systematic and progressive deterioration of the insulation system by the action of partial discharge. Ideally, it is appropriate to use on line, non-destructive techniques for detection and diagnosis of failures related to insulation systems, in order to determine whether preventive maintenance action is required. Thus, huge material losses can be saved (spared), while improving reliability and system availability. Based on a new generation of piezoelectric sensors (High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers HTUTs), recently developed by the Industrial Materials Institute (IMI) in Boucherville (Qc, Canada) and offers very interesting features (broad band frequency response, flexible, miniature, economic, etc..), we propose in this thesis an investigation on the applicability of this technology to the problematic of partial discharges. This work presents an analysis of the metrological performance of these sensors and demonstrated empirically the consistency of their measures. It outlines the results of validation from a comparative study with the measures of a standard detection circuit. In addition, it also presents the potential of these sensors to locate partial discharge source position by acoustic emission.

Danouj, Boujemaa

258

Differential host utilisation by different life history stages of the fish ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura).  

PubMed

In this study we examine differences in the occurrence of life history stages of the destructive fish ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) on eight fish species (stickleback, rudd, roach, gudgeon, bream, tench, crucian carp and common carp) sampled from a mixed-species recreational fishing lake on nine occasions during late spring and summer. Total numbers ofA. foliaceus, as well as the number of larval, juvenile and adult parasite stages, from each fish were recorded along with the fish species. Lice generally exhibited an aggregated distribution approximating a negative binomial distribution. Significant differences in the prevalence, intensity and intensity frequency distribution were observed between life history stages and between host species. In general, all life history stages of A. foliaceus exhibited an over-dispersed distribution. However, larval lice did show some degree of aggregation particularly within the stickleback samples. Infection data for parasite larval stages suggested that sticklebacks are more likely to be infected than other host species. For adult lice, however, carp appeared to be the main host. We propose that A. foliaceus infection characteristics are predominantly determined by the level of host exposure to the parasite and its life history stages (larval, juvenile and adult) rather than by an innate difference in host susceptibility related to individual host factors such as immune responses. We conclude that host exposure is determined by the parasite-host behavioural interplay related to species-specific ecology and behavioural traits such as microhabitat preference and normal swimming speed. PMID:18666418

Walker, Peter D; Harris, Jack E; van der Velde, Gerard; Bonga, Sjoerd E Wendelaar

2008-06-01

259

Utilisation de sources et d'adjoints dragon pour les calculs TRIPOLI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation is an essential part of reactor physics in order to understand the behaviour of neutrons inside and outside nuclear reactors. The objective is to solve the neutron transport equation in order to know the neutron flux and the interactions between neutrons and materials. We use neutronic simulation codes in order to solve this equation for criticallity problem, where we have a neutron multiplying environment, and shielding problems. There are two different types of numerical simulation techniques. Deterministic methods solve directly the transport equation using some approximations. The energy domain is divided in regions called groups, we use a spatial mesh for the geometry treatment, transport operator may also be simplified. Those approximations invole an inherent error. However these methods provide high computation time performances. Monte Carlo or stochastic methods follow explicitly a large number of neutrons as they travel through materials minimizing approximations. Continuous-energy and multigroup treatment are both available. Quantities calculated are random variables to which are associated statistical error called standard deviations. We have to simulate a very large number of neutrons if we want the calculation to converge and the results to be precise enough. As a matter of fact, computation time of these methods can be excessively large and represent their main weakness. The objective of this study is to set up a chaining method from a deterministic code to a Monte Carlo code, in order to improve the convergence of Monte Carlo calculations performed by the code TRIPOLI. We want to use datas calculated by the deterministic code DRAGON and use them in TRIPOLI. We will develop two methods. The first one will calculate source distribution in DRAGON and implement them in TRIPOLI as initial sources of a criticallity calculation. The objective is to accelerate the convergence of the neutrons sources, and save the first batches that are usually non significant. The second method is to use of the adjoint neutron flux calculated by DRAGON as an importance function for Monte Carlo biaising in TRIPOLI. The objective is to improve the figure of merit of the detector response located far away of the neutron source. The neutron source initialisation of a TRIPOLI calculation required to develop the development of a module in DRAGON that generates a list of sources in the TRIPOLI syntaxe, including for each source, its intensity, its position and the energy domain it covers. We tested our method on a complete 17×17 PWR-UOX assembly and on a reduced 3×3 model. We first verified that the DRAGON and TRIPOLI models were consistent in order to ensure that TRIPOLI receives a coherent source distribution. Then we tested the use of DRAGON sources in TRIPOLI with neutron flux and the effective multiplying coefficient (keff). We observe slightly better standard deviations, of an order of 10 pcm, on keff for simulations using DRAGON sources distributions as compared to simulations with less precise initial sources. Flux convergence is also improved. However some incoherence were also observed in the results, some flux converging slower with DRAGON sources when fewer neutrons per batch are considered. In addition, a very large number of sources is too heavy to insert in TRIPOLI. It seems that our method is perfectible in order to improve implementation and convergence. Study of more complex geometries, with less regular sources distributions (for instance using MOX or irradiated fuel) may provide better performances using our method. For biaising TRIPOLI calculations using the DRAGON adjoint flux we created a module that produces importance maps readable by TRIPOLI. We tested our method on a source-detector shielding problem in one dimension. After checking the coherence of DRAGON and TRIPOLI models, we biaised TRIPOLI simulations using the DRAGON adjoint flux, and using INIPOND, the internal biaising option of TRIPOLI. We observed a good improvement of the figure of merit of a calculation biaised with the DRAGON

Camand, Corentin

260

Identification, utilisation and mapping of novel transcriptome-based markers from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum)  

PubMed Central

Background Deep-level second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies are now being applied to non-model species as a viable and favourable alternative to Sanger sequencing. Large-scale SNP discovery was undertaken in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) using transcriptome-based 2GS 454 sequencing on the parental genotypes of a reference mapping population, to generate large numbers of novel markers for the construction of a high-density linkage map. Results Over 700,000 reads were produced, from which a total of 7,000 SNPs were found. A subset of polymorphic SNPs was selected to develop a 384-SNP OPA assay using the Illumina BeadXpress platform. Additionally, the data enabled identification of 3,000 novel EST-SSRs. The selected SNPs and SSRs were validated across diverse Ribes germplasm, including mapping populations and other selected Ribes species. SNP-based maps were developed from two blackcurrant mapping populations, incorporating 48% and 27% of assayed SNPs respectively. A relatively high proportion of visually monomorphic SNPs were investigated further by quantitative trait mapping of theta score outputs from BeadStudio analysis, and this enabled additional SNPs to be placed on the two maps. Conclusions The use of 2GS technology for the development of markers is superior to previously described methods, in both numbers of markers and biological informativeness of those markers. Whilst the numbers of reads and assembled contigs were comparable to similar sized studies of other non-model species, here a high proportion of novel genes were discovered across a wide range of putative function and localisation. The potential utility of markers developed using the 2GS approach in downstream breeding applications is discussed. PMID:22035129

2011-01-01

261

Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe(0) was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe(0) treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required. PMID:23709267

Kumpiene, Jurate; Desogus, Paolo; Schulenburg, Sven; Arenella, Mariarita; Renella, Giancarlo; Brännvall, Evelina; Lagerkvist, Anders; Andreas, Lale; Sjöblom, Rolf

2013-12-01

262

Aprs-mines 2003, 5-7 Fvrier 2003, Nancy 1 UTILISATION DU REMBLAI EN PATE COMME SUPPORT DE TERRAIN. PARTIE I : DE  

E-print Network

lessivage par l'eau des pluies génère de l'eau acide que l'on appelle drainage minier acide (AMD). LesAprès-mines 2003, 5-7 Février 2003, Nancy 1 UTILISATION DU REMBLAI EN PATE COMME SUPPORT DE TERRAIN the significant stages during mine backfilling operation using paste backfill. Paste backfill is a mixture of mine

Aubertin, Michel

263

Assessing the performance of woody plants in uptake and utilisation of carbon, water and nutrients: Implications for designing agricultural mimic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a series of innovative experimental approaches for monitoring current and past performances of woody\\u000a plant species in utilisation of key resources within ecosystems. We demonstrate how such information might be useful for monitoring\\u000a the progress of any novel agricultural system which attempts to mimic such natural systems. The experimental data presented\\u000a principally involve the use of stable

J. S. Pate; T. E. Dawson

1999-01-01

264

Feeding strategies, resource utilisation and potential mechanisms for competitive coexistence of Atlantic salmon and alpine bullhead in a subArctic river  

Microsoft Academic Search

We scrutinised the seasonal food-niche utilisation of river dwelling Atlantic salmon parr and alpine bullhead in order to\\u000a examine potential mechanisms that may facilitate coexistence of species with similar niches. Fish were sampled monthly during\\u000a the ice-free season, and diet composition and feeding strategy of the two species were compared by analyses of stomach contents.\\u000a The dietary niches and feeding

Heidi-Marie Gabler; Per-Arne Amundsen

2010-01-01

265

Hospital admissions for severe mental illness in England: Changes in equity of utilisation at the small area level between 2006 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Severe Mental Illness (SMI) encompasses a range of chronic conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychoses. Patients with SMI often require inpatient psychiatric care. Despite equity being a key objective in the English National Health Service (NHS) and in many other health care systems worldwide, little is known about the socio-economic equity of hospital care utilisation for patients with SMI and how it has changed over time. This analysis seeks to address that gap in the evidence base. We exploit a five-year (2006–2010) panel dataset of admission rates at small area level (n = 162,410). The choice of control variables was informed by a systematic literature search. To assess changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation, OLS-based standardisation was first used to conduct analysis of discrete deprivation groups. Geographical inequity was then illustrated by plotting standardised and crude admission rates at local purchaser level. Lastly, formal statistical tests for changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation were applied to a continuous measure of deprivation using pooled negative binomial regression analysis, adjusting for a range of risk factors. Our results suggest that one additional percentage point of area income deprivation is associated with a 1.5% (p < 0.001) increase in admissions for SMI after controlling for population size, age, sex, prevalence of SMI in the local population, as well as other need and supply factors. This finding is robust to sensitivity analyses, suggesting that a pro-poor inequality in utilisation exists for SMI-related inpatient services. One possible explanation is that the supply or quality of primary, community or social care for people with mental health problems is suboptimal in deprived areas. Although there is some evidence that inequity has reduced over time, the changes are small and not always robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:25262312

White, Jonathan; Gutacker, Nils; Jacobs, Rowena; Mason, Anne

2014-01-01

266

Provocations et dceptions de l'utilisation du systme e-learning pour l'assurance du qualit de l'ducation comptable  

E-print Network

Provocations et déceptions de l'utilisation du système e-learning pour l'assurance du qualité de l'activité. Vu le développement spectaculaire des technologies informationnelles, le système e-learning apparaît comme une alternative moderne aux techniques d'enseignement traditionnelles. Mots clé: e-learning

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

The utilisation of an adaptive 3D Gauss-Legendre quadrature in the simulation of sound propagation outdoors for sources with variable power distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the utilisation of sound propagation outdoors using an adaptive 3D Gauss-Legendre quadrature method for generating contours for sound pressure levels, which is based on the diffused-field theory. The main advantage of this method is that it takes into account the geometry of the defined sound sources and produces the appropriate contours conforming to the shape of the

Shahrir Abdullah; Mohd. Jailani Mohd. Nor

2001-01-01

268

Utilisation d'eau basse temprature pour le forage de cultures sous abris. II. Effets du chauffage du sol sur la  

E-print Network

Utilisation d'eau à basse température pour le forçage de cultures sous abris. II. Effets du, pour le lis, dont l'apex reste très peu de temps sous la surface du sol, l'effet du chauffage du sol water for forcing greenhouse crops. II. Effects of soil warming on growth and development of bulbous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Utilisation of a cryptic non-canonical donor splice site of the gene encoding PARAFIBROMIN is associated with familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

More than 99% of all splice sites conform to consensus sequences that usually include the invariant dinucleotides gt and ag at the 5' and 3' ends of the introns, respectively. We report on the utilisation of a non-consensus (non-canonical) donor splice site within exon 1 of the HRPT2 gene in familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). HRPT2 mutations are more frequently associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT). Patients with FIHP were identified to have a donor splice site mutation, IVS1+1 g?a, and the consequences of this for RNA processing were investigated. The mutant mRNA lacked 30 bp and DNA sequence analysis revealed this to result from utilisation of an alternative cryptic non-canonical donor splice site (gaatgt) in exon 1 together with the normally occurring acceptor splice site in intron 1. Translation of this mutant mRNA predicted the in-frame loss of 10 amino acids in the encoded protein, termed PARAFIBROMIN. Thus, these FIHP patients are utilising a ga-ag splice site pair, which until recently was considered to be incompatible with splicing but is now known to occur as a rare (<0.02%) normal splicing variant. PMID:16061557

Bradley, K; Cavaco, B; Bowl, M; Harding, B; Young, A; Thakker, R

2005-01-01

270

Cereal-based biorefinery development: utilisation of wheat milling by-products for the production of succinic acid.  

PubMed

A novel wheat-based bioprocess for the production of a nutrient-complete feedstock for the fermentative succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes has been developed. Wheat was fractionated into bran, middlings and flour. The bran fraction, which would normally be a waste product of the wheat milling industry, was used as the sole medium in two solid-state fermentations (SSF) of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae that produce enzyme complexes rich in amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes, respectively. The resulting fermentation solids were then used as crude enzyme sources, by adding directly to an aqueous suspension of milled bran and middlings fractions (wheat flour milling by-products) to generate a hydrolysate containing over 95g/L glucose, 25g/L maltose and 300mg/L free amino nitrogen (FAN). This hydrolysate was then used as the sole medium for A. succinogenes fermentations, which led to the production of 50.6g/L succinic acid. Supplementation of the medium with yeast extract did not significantly improve succinic acid production though increasing the inoculum concentration to 20% did result in the production of 62.1g/L succinic acid. Results indicated that A. succinogenes cells were able to utilise glucose and maltose in the wheat hydrolysate for cell growth and succinic acid production. The proposed process could be potentially integrated into a wheat-milling process to upgrade the wheat flour milling by-products (WFMB) into succinic acid, one of the future platform chemicals of a sustainable chemical industry. PMID:19539669

Dorado, M Pilar; Lin, Sze Ki Carol; Koutinas, Apostolis; Du, Chenyu; Wang, Ruohang; Webb, Colin

2009-08-10

271

Insights into the Dekkera bruxellensis Genomic Landscape: Comparative Genomics Reveals Variations in Ploidy and Nutrient Utilisation Potential amongst Wine Isolates  

PubMed Central

The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is a major contaminant of industrial fermentations, such as those used for the production of biofuel and wine, where it outlasts and, under some conditions, outcompetes the major industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to investigate the level of inter-strain variation that is present within this economically important species, the genomes of four diverse D. bruxellensis isolates were compared. While each of the four strains was shown to contain a core diploid genome, which is clearly sufficient for survival, two of the four isolates have a third haploid complement of chromosomes. The sequences of these additional haploid genomes were both highly divergent from those comprising the diploid core and divergent between the two triploid strains. Similar to examples in the Saccharomyces spp. clade, where some allotriploids have arisen on the basis of enhanced ability to survive a range of environmental conditions, it is likely these strains are products of two independent hybridisation events that may have involved multiple species or distinct sub-species of Dekkera. Interestingly these triploid strains represent the vast majority (92%) of isolates from across the Australian wine industry, suggesting that the additional set of chromosomes may confer a selective advantage in winery environments that has resulted in these hybrid strains all-but replacing their diploid counterparts in Australian winery settings. In addition to the apparent inter-specific hybridisation events, chromosomal aberrations such as strain-specific insertions and deletions and loss-of-heterozygosity by gene conversion were also commonplace. While these events are likely to have affected many phenotypes across these strains, we have been able to link a specific deletion to the inability to utilise nitrate by some strains of D. bruxellensis, a phenotype that may have direct impacts in the ability for these strains to compete with S. cerevisiae. PMID:24550744

Borneman, Anthony R.; Zeppel, Ryan; Chambers, Paul J.; Curtin, Chris D.

2014-01-01

272

Insights into the Dekkera bruxellensis genomic landscape: comparative genomics reveals variations in ploidy and nutrient utilisation potential amongst wine isolates.  

PubMed

The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is a major contaminant of industrial fermentations, such as those used for the production of biofuel and wine, where it outlasts and, under some conditions, outcompetes the major industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to investigate the level of inter-strain variation that is present within this economically important species, the genomes of four diverse D. bruxellensis isolates were compared. While each of the four strains was shown to contain a core diploid genome, which is clearly sufficient for survival, two of the four isolates have a third haploid complement of chromosomes. The sequences of these additional haploid genomes were both highly divergent from those comprising the diploid core and divergent between the two triploid strains. Similar to examples in the Saccharomyces spp. clade, where some allotriploids have arisen on the basis of enhanced ability to survive a range of environmental conditions, it is likely these strains are products of two independent hybridisation events that may have involved multiple species or distinct sub-species of Dekkera. Interestingly these triploid strains represent the vast majority (92%) of isolates from across the Australian wine industry, suggesting that the additional set of chromosomes may confer a selective advantage in winery environments that has resulted in these hybrid strains all-but replacing their diploid counterparts in Australian winery settings. In addition to the apparent inter-specific hybridisation events, chromosomal aberrations such as strain-specific insertions and deletions and loss-of-heterozygosity by gene conversion were also commonplace. While these events are likely to have affected many phenotypes across these strains, we have been able to link a specific deletion to the inability to utilise nitrate by some strains of D. bruxellensis, a phenotype that may have direct impacts in the ability for these strains to compete with S. cerevisiae. PMID:24550744

Borneman, Anthony R; Zeppel, Ryan; Chambers, Paul J; Curtin, Chris D

2014-02-01

273

Toxines botuliques : utilisation pratique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botulinum toxins (A and B) are neurotoxins derived from Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium are anaerobic bacteria. C. botulinum produces exotoxins (A to G) with distinct antigenicities. The neurotoxins inhibit the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from the axon terminals of motor neurons. Botulinum toxin is officially used in clinic for the treatment of muscular hyperactivity (strabismus, blepharospam, cervical dystonia). Botulinum toxins

A Durand; G Serment

2003-01-01

274

Utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l'implantation de cabinets automatis?s d?centralis?s en ?tablissement de sant?  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Il existe peu de données sur les conséquences de l’utilisation des cabinets automatisés décentralisés (CAD) en établissements de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive de la conformité des pratiques par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées dans le cadre de l’implantation de CAD. L’objectif principal de l’étude est d’évaluer la conformité globale et celle de chaque processus du circuit du médicament. L’étude se déroule au sein du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère–enfant de 500 lits. À partir des lignes directrices portant sur l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD de l’Institute for Safe Medication Practice (aux États-Unis) (2008) et de son outil d’autoévaluation (2009), nous avons évalué la conformité de la pratique à 30 jours et à 120 jours après l’implantation. Résultats : Nous avons procédé de novembre 2009 à avril 2010 à l’implantation de sept stations de CAD au sein du CHU Sainte-Justine. Le profil de conformité est passé de 66 % à 74 % de janvier à avril 2010. Pour chaque processus relatif à l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD, nous présentons une brève description des critères ainsi que les éléments de non-conformité liés à la technologie ou aux aspects organisationnels. Pour chaque élément de non-conformité, nous avons déterminé les actions requises auprès du fabricant afin de modifier l’équipement (c. à .d. aspects technologiques) et auprès de l’établissement afin de modifier les modalités d’utilisation (aspects organisationnels) en précisant le ou les processus impliqués. Conclusion : Cette étude décrit la conformité des pratiques au CHU Sainte-Justine par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées par l’Institute for Safe Medication Practices. L’utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement peut aider à guider les actions tant sur le plan technologique qu’organisationnel. PMID:22479039

Brisseau, Lionel; Bussieres, Jean-Francois; Lebel, Denis; Atkinson, Suzanne; Robinette, Louise; Fortin, Sylvie; Lemay, Michel

2011-01-01

275

Utilisation de la Fibre a Deux Coeurs Non-Lineaire dans les Lasers EN Fibre et Lignes de Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'utilisation des proprietes non-lineaires de la fibre optique a deux coeurs identiques constitue l'objet de cette etude numerique. Les effets non-lineaires dans les fibres optiques ainsi que la theorie des modes couples sont abordes pour decrire le comportement de la fibre a deux coeurs non-lineaire. On a d'abord analyse les proprietes de transmission d'une telle fibre autour de la puissance critique lorsqu'elle est recouplee a elle-meme dans une configuration Sagnac pour differentes valeurs de dispersion. Nous avons observe des effets simultanes de compression et de filtrage non-lineaire des impulsions injectees. On a ensuite considere configuration de laser en fibre incluant une fibre a deux coeurs comme element passif de synchronisation modale adjoint a un mileu amplificateur externe ayant une largeur de gain finie. On a demontre qu'il etait possible de generer ainsi des solitons fondamentaux de puissance variable et ce, avec tres peu d'ondes dispersives. Ces solitons possedent un spectre qui est de l'ordre de grandeur de la largeur du milieu de gain du laser et ils ne sont amplifies que faiblement a chaque passage. La combinaison d'une fibre a deux coeurs et d'un milieu de gain de largeur de bande finie peut egalement etre utilisee pour controler certains effets non-lineaires d'ordre superieur comme l'auto -glissement en frequence du soliton (diffusion Raman intra -impulsion) qui deplace le spectre d'un soliton vers les basses frequences. Pour une certaine plage de parametres on obtient une stabilisation periodique du deplacement en frequence du soliton. La zone de stabilite correspondant a une longueur de fibre de l'ordre de quelques kilometres et a une duree de soliton d'environ deux a cinq picosecondes. Un tel dispositif semble bien adapte pour la transmission d'information par solitons sur de longues distances dans un nouveau regime d'operation. Enfin, tout au long de l'ouvrage, on retrouve des analyses reliees a des systemes deja existants et on situe les resultats de nos travaux dans le cadre des resultats obtenus par d'autres groupes.

Essiambre, Rene-Jean

276

Utilisation of substrates during tethered flight with and without lift generation in the African fruit beetle Pachnoda sinuata (Cetoniinae).  

PubMed

We have investigated the pattern of metabolic changes during tethered flight with and without lift generation in the African fruit beetle Pachnoda sinuata. Two distinct metabolic phases occur during lift-generating flight. The first phase is characterised by a high rate of oxygen consumption and a rapid change in proline and alanine levels in the haemolymph and flight muscles and in glycogen level in the flight muscles. Carbohydrates are released from the fat body into the haemolymph. These carbohydrates are oxidised during the second phase. Changes in proline and alanine levels in the haemolymph and flight muscles and in glycogen level in the flight muscles are minor during the second phase and the rate of oxygen consumption is reduced. During lift-generating flight, metabolic changes are rapid. Proline concentrations in the haemolymph and flight muscles fall dramatically during the first 30 s of flight, while alanine concentrations rise concomitantly. While haemolymph concentrations of proline and alanine remain virtually unchanged thereafter, further changes in the levels of these amino acids occur in the flight muscles during 5 min of flight. The initial levels of the two amino acids in the flight muscles are re-established over 1 h of rest following a 5 min flight, while this process takes longer in the haemolymph. The concentration of haemolymph carbohydrates increases during the first 30 s of flight and declines thereafter during 5 min of flight. The pre-flight levels are restored after 1 h of subsequent rest. The stores of glycogen in the flight muscles are rapidly diminished during the first 10 s of flight and decrease at a lower rate during further flight lasting up to 5 min. A subsequent 1 h of rest is sufficient almost to restore pre-flight levels. Haemolymph lipid levels are slightly but significantly increased during 11 min of flight and after 1 h of subsequent rest. During flight without lift production, the metabolic changes are considerably slower and beetles fly approximately seven times longer than during lift-generating flight. Resting basalar (BM), dorso-ventral (DVM) and dorso-longitudinal (DLM) flight muscles show no differences in levels of proline, alanine and glycogen. After different periods of flight, during which lift and wing loading were minimised, the DVM was found to have the highest level of proline after 5 min of flight. Levels of alanine in the DVM were lower than in the DLM. There was no evidence to suggest that different flight muscles are specialised for either proline or carbohydrate utilisation. Proline and carbohydrates participate equally in supplying energy to the flight muscles during lift-generating flight. The contribution to the energy supply by the flight muscles is 54 %, while that of the haemolymph is 46 %. PMID:9662504

Auerswald, L; Schneider, P; GADe, G

1998-08-01

277

Investigating Over Critical Thresholds of Forest Megafires Danger Conditions in Europe Utilising the ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) has been established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment (DG ENV) of the European Commission (EC) to support the services in charge of the protection of forests against fires in the EU and neighbour countries, and also to provide the EC services and the European Parliament with information on forest fires in Europe. Within its applications, EFFIS provides current and forecast meteorological fire danger maps up to 6 days. Weather plays a key role in affecting wildfire occurrence and behaviour. Meteorological parameters can be used to derive meteorological fire weather indices that provide estimations of fire danger level at a given time over a specified area of interest. In this work, we investigate the suitability of critical thresholds of fire danger to provide an early warning for megafires (fires > 500 ha) over Europe. Past trends of fire danger are analysed computing daily fire danger from weather data taken from re-analysis fields for a period of 31 years (1980 to 2010). Re-analysis global data sets coming from the construction of high-quality climate records, which combine past observations collected from many different observing and measuring platforms, are capable of describing how Fire Danger Indices have evolved over time at a global scale. The latest and most updated ERA-Interim dataset of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) was used to extract meteorological variables needed to compute daily values of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI) over Europe, with a horizontal resolution of about 75x75 km. Daily time series of CFWI were constructed and analysed over a total of 1,071 European NUTS3 centroids, resulting in a set of percentiles and critical thresholds. Such percentiles could be used as thresholds to help fire services establish a measure of the significance of CFWI outputs as they relate to levels of fire potential, fuel conditions and fire danger. Median percentile values of fire days accumulated over the 31-year period were compared to median values of all days from that period. As expected, the CWFI time series exhibit different values on fire days than on all days. In addition, a percentile analysis was performed in order to determine the behaviour of index values corresponding to fire events falling into the megafire category. This analysis resulted in a set of critical thresholds based on percentiles. By utilising such thresholds, an initial framework of an early warning system has being established. By lowering the value of any of these thresholds, the number of hits could be increased until all extremes were captured (resulting in zero misses). However, in doing so, the number of false alarms tends to increase significantly. Consequently, an optimal trade-off between hits and false alarms has to be established when setting different (critical) CFWI thresholds.

Petroliagkis, Thomas I.; Camia, Andrea; Liberta, Giorgio; Durrant, Tracy; Pappenberger, Florian; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus

2014-05-01

278

The bounds on tracking performance utilising a laser-based linear and angular sensing and measurement methodology for micro/nano manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of the tracking performance of a planar three degrees of freedom (DOF) flexure-based mechanism for micro/nano manipulation, utilising a tracking methodology for the measurement of coupled linear and angular motions. The methodology permits trajectories over a workspace with large angular range through the reduction of geometric errors. However, when combining this methodology with feedback control systems, the accuracy of performed manipulations can only be stated within the bounds of the uncertainties in measurement. The dominant sources of error and uncertainty within each sensing subsystem are therefore identified, which leads to a formulation of the measurement uncertainty in the final system outputs, in addition to methods of reducing their magnitude. Specific attention is paid to the analysis of the vision-based subsystem utilised for the measurement of angular displacement. Furthermore, a feedback control scheme is employed to minimise tracking errors, and the coupling of certain measurement errors is shown to have a detrimental effect on the controller operation. The combination of controller tracking errors and measurement uncertainty provides the bounds on the final tracking performance.

Clark, Leon; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Tian, Yanling; Zhong, Yongmin

2014-12-01

279

Association between daily antiretroviral pill burden and treatment adherence, hospitalisation risk, and other healthcare utilisation and costs in a US medicaid population with HIV  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lower pill burden leads to improved antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV patients. Simpler dosing regimens have not been widely explored in real-world populations. We retrospectively assessed ART adherence, all-cause hospitalisation risk and costs, and other healthcare utilisation and costs in Medicaid enrollees with HIV treated with ART as a once-daily single-tablet regimen (STR) or two or more pills per day (2+PPD). Design Patients with an HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 receiving complete ART (ie, two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus a third agent) for ?60?days as STR or 2+PPD were selected and followed until the first of (1) discontinuation of the complete ART, (2) loss of enrolment or (3) end of database. Adherence was measured using the medication possession ratio. Monthly all-cause healthcare utilisation and costs were observed from regimen initiation until follow-up end. Results Of the 7381 patients who met inclusion criteria, 1797 were treated with STR and 5584 with 2+PPD. STR patients were significantly more likely to reach 95% adherence and had fewer hospitalisations than 2+PPD patients (both p<0.01). STR patients had mean (SD) total monthly costs of $2959 ($4962); 2+PPD patients had $3544 ($5811; p<0.001). Hospital costs accounted for 53.8% and pharmacy costs accounted for 32.5% of this difference. Multivariate analyses found that STR led to a 23% reduction in hospitalisations and a 17% reduction in overall healthcare costs. ART adherence appears to be a key mechanism mediating hospitalisation risk, as patients with ?95% adherence (regardless of regimen type) had a lower hospitalisation rate compared with <95% adherence. Conclusions While it was expected that STR patients would have lower pharmacy costs, we also found that STR patients had fewer hospitalisations and lower hospital costs than 2+PPD patients, resulting in significantly lower total healthcare costs for STR patients. PMID:23906955

Cohen, Calvin J; Meyers, Juliana L; Davis, Keith L

2013-01-01

280

Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

2014-01-14

281

Pharmacodynamic profile of commonly utilised parenteral therapies against meticillin-susceptible and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus collected from US hospitals.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a well-recognised pathogen with an evolving phenotypic profile often limiting conventional ?-lactam use. In vitro potency and pharmacodynamic profile of commonly utilised agents against 1238 meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 1259 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from clinical specimens at 42 hospitals were assessed. Non-duplicate, non-urine isolates were tested by broth microdilution against cefazolin, ceftaroline, ceftriaxone, daptomycin, linezolid, nafcillin, tigecycline and vancomycin. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using pharmacokinetic profiles from patients or volunteers to generate the probability of target attainment and determine the cumulative fraction of response (CFR), a modelling-based prediction tool of achieving pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic endpoints, for commonly used regimens. Of isolates tested, 62 MSSA (5.0%) were ceftriaxone-non-susceptible and 4 (0.3%) and 2 (0.2%) MRSA were ceftaroline- and daptomycin-non-susceptible, respectively. Against MSSA, cefazolin 1000 mg q8h and nafcillin 2000 mg q4h produced CFRs ?90%. For ceftriaxone, only 2000 mg q12h produced a CFR ?90%. Against MSSA and MRSA, ceftaroline, daptomycin, linezolid and tigecycline provided CFRs ?90%. Vancomycin produced similar CFRs against MSSA and MRSA. Vancomycin 1000 mg and 15 mg/kg q8h produced CFRs of 91% and 93%, respectively, whilst q12h doses were <90%. Against respiratory and blood isolates or ICU isolates, only vancomycin q8h produced desired CFRs, where the MIC90 was 2 ?g/mL. These data suggest cefazolin and nafcillin produce high CFRs against MSSA, whilst ceftriaxone at common doses may no longer be suitable. Vancomycin q8h is needed to optimise CFRs. Ceftaroline, daptomycin, tigecycline and linezolid produced sufficiently high CFRs against MSSA and MRSA utilising approved regimens. PMID:25052866

Housman, Seth T; Sutherland, Christina A; Nicolau, David P

2014-09-01

282

The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS): Design, procedures & participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS) examines the reproductive, physical and psychological health, and health service utilisation of the ageing male in Australia. We describe the rationale for the study, the methods used participant response rates, representativeness and attrition to date. METHODS: FAMAS is a longitudinal study involving approximately 1200 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living

Sean A Martin; Matthew T Haren; Sue M Middleton; Gary A Wittert

2007-01-01

283

Phytase effects on the efficiency of utilisation and blood concentrations of phosphorus and calcium in Pekin ducks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The objective was to study the effects of a supplementation of a 6-phytase derived from the Peniophora lycii gene in the White Pekin duck.2. In two balance studies, low-phosphorus (P) diets consisting mainly of maize, solvent extracted soybean meal and solvent extracted sunflower meal were supplemented with phytase up to concentrations of 1500?U\\/kg (Study 1) or 2000?U\\/kg (Study 2).

M. Rodehutscord; R. Hempel; P. Wendt

2006-01-01

284

x Sminaire du Dpartement de biologie, 11h, salle Favard 46 rue d'Ulm Ph. Marc, Harvard Medical School, Genetics Dept. Boston, MA (USA) : Utilisation du Transcriptome dans le contexte du Mtabolome  

E-print Network

School, Genetics Dept. Boston, MA (USA) : Utilisation du Transcriptome dans le contexte du Métabolome vaincre sa timidité et finit par la rencontrer.C'est un fiasco.Il tente de se suicider.Magda vient alors

Gutkin, Boris

285

Health behaviour modelling for prenatal diagnosis in Australia: a geodemographic framework for health service utilisation and policy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the wide availability of prenatal screening and diagnosis, a number of studies have reported no decrease in the rate of babies born with Down syndrome. The objective of this study was to investigate the geodemographic characteristics of women who have prenatal diagnosis in Victoria, Australia, by applying a novel consumer behaviour modelling technique in the analysis of health

Evelyne E Muggli; David McCloskey; Jane L Halliday

2006-01-01

286

Constructing Mental Illness as Dangerous: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: There is a dearth of studies examining how dangerousness is constructed in media depictions of mentally ill individuals who are frequently portrayed as acting violently. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of diverse technical, semiotic and discursive resources utilised in portraying a character with a mental illness in a prime-time drama as dangerous.Method: Discourse

Claire Wilson; Raymond Nairn; John Coverdale; Aroha Panapa

1999-01-01

287

What's the Difference? Bringing Particularity to Queer Studies of Transgender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the concept of ‘difference’ in relation to studies of transgender. I initially outline the importance of queer and postmodern theory, which have utilised ‘difference’ to incorporate transgender into analyses of sexual and gender diversity. I draw on debates within transgender studies to argue that a lack of emphasis on particularity within poststructuralist and postmodern theory has led

Sally Hines

2006-01-01

288

The Effect of an Education Program Utilising PRECEDE Model on the Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…

Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.

2012-01-01

289

Enhancing the Quality of Engineering Education by Utilising Student Feedback: Quality and the Engineering Student Experience--An Institutional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the role of the current student experience questionnaire in gaining student views on their educational experiences while studying at a research-intensive university in Australia. In particular, the paper focuses on the experiences of engineering students. The paper goes on to examine the areas of best practice and those…

Nair, Chenicheri Sid; Patil, Arun; Mertova, Patricie

2011-01-01

290

Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of

A Acosta; I Iglesias; M Aineto; M Romero; J. Ma Rincón

2002-01-01

291

Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The article…

Dyke, Sarah

2013-01-01

292

Variation in growth and resource utilisation among eight poplar clones grown under different irrigation and fertilisation regimes in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, biomass allocation and nutrient economy of eight clones of poplar (Populus balsamifera L., P. trichocarpa Hook.) and hybrid poplar (P. trichocarpa Hook. ×P. deltoides Bartr.) of north-American origin were studied in a full-factorial pot experiment in Sweden, using the approach of classical growth analysis. The clones were compared in terms of relative growth rate (RGR), biomass production, biomass allocation,

Almir Kara?i?; Martin Weih

2006-01-01

293

The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

2003-01-01

294

Utilisation of New Materials. Synthesis Report. In-Service Education and Training of Teachers: Towards New Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both technological developments and the political context in which developments have occurred are considered, based on (1) an international conference organized by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in October 1978; (2) results of studies in different countries in collaboration with German agencies; (3) research in…

Dobrich, Peter; And Others

295

Utilisation of controlled pore topology for the separation of bioparticles in a mixed-glass beads column  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the flow of shaped particles in porous media, elution of spherical and rod-like micro-organisms was performed through beds of spherical glass beads. A 0.04cm\\/s constant flow rate was used with 5?m yeast suspensions, 1?m latex micro-spheres and rod-like bacilli Lactobacillus bulgaricus 6?m long and 0.5?m in diameter. Yeast cells’ diameter is close to the bacilli length and micro-spheres

M. Mota; J. Teixeira; A. Yelshin; S. Cortez

2006-01-01

296

Effects of elevated dietary copper concentrations on growth, feed utilisation and nutritional status of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment was conducted to study effects of elevated dietary Cu and establish upper limits of Cu in fish feed. Atlantic salmon fry were reared for 3 months on experimental diets containing either 5 (control), 35, 500, 700, 900, or 1750 mg Cu kg?1, provided as CuSO4·5H2O. Dietary Cr2O3 was included (1%) in all experimental diets for the last

Marc H. G Berntssen; Anne-Kathrine Lundebye; Amund Maage

1999-01-01

297

Species-specific effects of plants colonising cutover peatlands on patterns of carbon source utilisation by soil microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root exudates and litter are the main sources of inputs of labile carbon into the microbial pool in successional ecosystems. Here we studied whether typical pioneer species (Eriophorum vaginatum, Eriophorum angustifolium and Calluna vulgaris) alter the functional response of the microbial community of a previously cutover peatland. Peat was sampled at three depths (0–5, 20–25 and 40–45cm) from beneath these

Weigang Yan; Rebekka R. E. Artz; David Johnson

2008-01-01

298

Utilisation of tropical dry season grass by ruminants is increased by feeding fallen leaf of siris ( Albizia lebbeck)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albizia lebbeck (siris) is a tropical, dry season, deciduous, multi-purpose tree. Field observations indicate that fallen leaf is eaten by livestock. In this study, fallen leaf was offered to cattle as a supplement to poor quality hay from native pasture. Voluntary intake of leaf comprised 15% of the total diet but caused a 52% increase (P<0.10) in intake of the

Peter M Kennedy; J. Brian Lowry; David B Coates; Judith Oerlemans

2002-01-01

299

Effect of feeding some plant foods as source of dietary fibre on biological utilisation of diet in rats.  

PubMed

Isoproteinous diets containing 1% cholesterol and 10% fibre derived from plant foods namely, peepalbanti (Ficus religiosa), barbanti (Ficus bengalensis), gullar (Ficus glomerata), teent (Capparis decidua) and khejri beans (Prsopsis cineria) or pure cellulose, were fed to rats for 40 days. Effect of incorporation of these whole plant parts on feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), dry matter digestibility (DMD) and true protein digestibility (TPD) in weanling rats was studied. Their inclusion did not affect the weight gain significantly whereas all other parameters were influenced to a varying extent. Foods rich in lignin had relatively lower FER, DMD and TPD whereas cellulose and pectin rich foods had higher DMD and TPD. PMID:2548174

Agarwal, V; Chauhan, B M

1989-06-01

300

Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing.  

PubMed

The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of these kind of bricks from mixes of waste from ores of construction clays and to significant fraction of different ratios and clay granulometries mixed with IGCC slag. The results of this experimentation suggests that not only can IGCC slag be applied to a ceramic process, but also its use gives several advantages, as water and energy savings, as well as improvements on the final properties of products. PMID:12423050

Acosta, A; Iglesias, I; Aineto, M; Romero, M; Rincón, J Ma

2002-01-01

301

Utilising caging techniques to investigate metal assimilation in Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas at three Irish coastal locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution by metals has been of increasing concern for a number of decades but at present, the mechanism of metal accumulation in sentinel species is not fully understood and further studies are required for environmental risk assessment of metals in aquatic environments. The use of caging techniques has proven to be useful for assessment of water quality in coastal and estuarine environments. This study investigates the application of caging techniques for monitoring uptake of 20 elements [Li, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Cd and Zn] in three marine species namely Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Stable isotopes were used to determine predatory effects and also used for modelling metal uptake in test species and to track nutrient assimilation. Metal levels were monitored at three different coastal locations, namely Dublin Bay, Dunmore East and Omey Island over 18 weeks. Significant differences in concentrations of Mn, Co and Zn between mussels and oysters were found. Correlations between cadmium levels in N. lapillus and ?13C and ?15N suggest dietary influences in Cd uptake. Levels of Zn were highest in C. gigas compared to the other two species and levels of Zn were most elevated at the Dunmore East site. Copper levels were more elevated in all test species at both Dublin Bay and Dunmore East. Mercury was raised in all species at Dunmore East compared to the other two sites. Biotic accumulation of metals in the test species demonstrates that caging techniques can provide a valid tool for biomonitoring in metal impacted areas.

Giltrap, Michelle; Macken, Ailbhe; Davoren, Maria; McGovern, Evin; Foley, Barry; Larsen, Martin; White, Jonathan; McHugh, Brendan

2013-11-01

302

Health behaviour modelling for prenatal diagnosis in Australia: a geodemographic framework for health service utilisation and policy development  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the wide availability of prenatal screening and diagnosis, a number of studies have reported no decrease in the rate of babies born with Down syndrome. The objective of this study was to investigate the geodemographic characteristics of women who have prenatal diagnosis in Victoria, Australia, by applying a novel consumer behaviour modelling technique in the analysis of health data. Methods A descriptive analysis of data on all prenatal diagnostic tests, births (1998 and 2002) and births of babies with Down syndrome (1998 to 2002) was undertaken using a Geographic Information System and socioeconomic lifestyle segmentation classifications. Results Most metropolitan women in Victoria have average or above State average levels of uptake of prenatal diagnosis. Inner city women residing in high socioeconomic lifestyle segments who have high rates of prenatal diagnosis spend 20% more on specialist physician's fees when compared to those whose rates are average. Rates of prenatal diagnosis are generally low amongst women in rural Victoria, with the lowest rates observed in farming districts. Reasons for this are likely to be a combination of lack of access to services (remoteness) and individual opportunity (lack of transportation, low levels of support and income). However, there are additional reasons for low uptake rates in farming areas that could not be explained by the behaviour modelling. These may relate to women's attitudes and choices. Conclusion A lack of statewide geodemographic consistency in uptake of prenatal diagnosis implies that there is a need to target health professionals and pregnant women in specific areas to ensure there is increased equity of access to services and that all pregnant women can make informed choices that are best for them. Equally as important is appropriate health service provision for families of children with Down syndrome. Our findings show that these potential interventions are particularly relevant in rural areas. Classifying data to lifestyle segments allowed for practical comparisons of the geodemographic characteristics of women having prenatal diagnosis in Australia at a population level. This methodology may in future be a feasible and cost-effective tool for service planners and policy developers. PMID:16945156

Muggli, Evelyne E; McCloskey, David; Halliday, Jane L

2006-01-01

303

Cleaner co-combustion of lignite-biomass-waste blends by utilising inhibiting compounds of toxic emissions.  

PubMed

In this paper, the co-combustion behaviour of coal with wastes and biomass and the related toxic gaseous emissions were investigated. The objective of this work is to add on towards a cleaner co-combustion of lignite-waste-biomass blends by utilizing compounds that could inhibit the formation of toxic pollutants. A series of co-combustion tests was performed in a pilot scale incinerator, and the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured. The co-combustion behaviour of lignite with olive kernels, MDF and sawdust was studied and the ability of additives such as urea, almond shells and municipal sewage sludge to reduce the PCDD/F emissions was examined. All blends were proven good fuels and reproducible combustion conditions were achieved. The addition of inhibitors prior to combustion showed in some cases, relatively high PCDD/F emissions reduction. Among the inhibitors tested, urea seems to achieve a reduction of PCDD/F emissions for all fuel blends, while an unstable behaviour was observed for the others. PMID:17204304

Skodras, G; Palladas, A; Kaldis, S P; Sakellaropoulos, G P

2007-04-01

304

Landscape Management of Fire and Grazing Regimes Alters the Fine-Scale Habitat Utilisation by Feral Cats  

PubMed Central

Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores. PMID:25329902

McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

2014-01-01

305

Landscape management of fire and grazing regimes alters the fine-scale habitat utilisation by feral cats.  

PubMed

Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores. PMID:25329902

McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

2014-01-01

306

Primary afferent depolarization in the rat spinal cord is mediated by pathways utilising NMDA and non-NMDA receptors.  

PubMed

In the present experiments the dorsal root-evoked dorsal root potential (DR-DRP) has been measured in vitro from a mature rat sacrococcygeal preparation. The DR-DRP is an index of presynaptic inhibition since it represents the depolarization of primary afferent terminals by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) released synaptically from interneurones. The present study shows that the synaptic excitation of the GABAergic interneurons contains a large component resistant to the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5) (100 microM) and 3((+)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP) 20-100 microM. This non-NMDA receptor mediated component reflected in the DR-DRP was depressed markedly by the non-selective excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists kynurenate (1-2 mM) and 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) (10-20 microM). Because previous reports show non-cholinergic activation of Renshaw cells to be blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists the present observations suggest that pre- and postsynaptic inhibition in the spinal cord are mediated by different types of excitatory amino acid receptor. PMID:2569701

Evans, R H; Long, S K

1989-05-22

307

Protein utilisation and intermediary metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) as a function of protein:lipid ratio.  

PubMed

Previous experiments with Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) have demonstrated that dietary lipid levels above 8% impaired growth and did not promote protein retention. We hypothesised that this low ability to use high-lipid diets may depend on the dietary protein level. In the present study, a 2 × 2 factorial design was applied where two dietary lipid (4-17% DM) and two dietary protein (below and above the requirement levels, 48 and 54% DM) levels were tested in juveniles for 114 d. Growth performance was not improved by the increase in dietary fat, irrespectively of the dietary protein levels. Protein retention was similar among the diets, although fish fed the diets with high lipid content resulted in significantly lower protein gain. Among the enzymes involved in amino acid catabolism, only aspartate aminotransferase activity in the liver was affected by the dietary lipid levels, being stimulated in fish fed high-lipid diets. Moreover, phosphofructokinase 1 activity was significantly elevated in the muscle of Senegalese sole fed 4% lipid diets, suggesting enhanced glycolysis in the muscle when the dietary lipid supply was limited and dietary starch increased. The results confirmed that high-lipid diets do not enhance growth, and data from the selected enzymes support the assumption that lipids are not efficiently used for energy production and protein sparing, even when dietary protein is below the protein requirement of the species. Furthermore, data suggest a significant role of glucose as the energy source in Senegalese sole. PMID:22906759

Borges, Pedro; Medale, Françoise; Dias, Jorge; Valente, Luísa M P

2013-04-28

308

Home Range Utilisation and Long-Range Movement of Estuarine Crocodiles during the Breeding and Nesting Season  

PubMed Central

The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92±0.013 metres total length (TL), mean ± S.E., n?=?4) occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49±0.9 km d?1; n?=?8) during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17±0.14 m TL) exhibited a ‘site-fidelic’ strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81±0.08 m TL) exhibited ‘nomadic’ behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the ‘site-fidelic’ males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the ‘nomadic’ males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions. PMID:23650510

Campbell, Hamish A.; Dwyer, Ross G.; Irwin, Terri R.; Franklin, Craig E.

2013-01-01

309

Quantification of malachite green in fish feed utilising liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a monolithic column.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of malachite green (MG) in fish feed using LC-ESI-MS/MS with a monolithic column as stationary phase. Fish feed was cleaned using ultrasonic assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The separation was achieved on a Chromolith Performance RP-18e column (100 × 4.6 mm) using gradient mobile phase composition of methanol and 0.1% formic acid at the flow rate of 1.0 ml min(-1). The analyte was ionised using electrospray ionisation in positive mode. Mass spectral transitions were recorded in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode at m/z 329.78 ? m/z 314.75 with a collision energy (CE) of 52% for MG. The system suitability responses were calculated for reproducibility tests of the retention time, number of theoretical plates and capacity factor. System validation was evaluated for precision, specificity and linearity of MG. The linearity and calibration graph was plotted in the range of 15.0-250 ng ml(-1) with the regression coefficient of >0.997. The lower limits of detection and quantification for MG were 0.55 and 1.44 ng ml(-1), respectively, allowing easy determination in fish feed with accuracy evaluated as a percentage recovery of 92.1% and precision determined as % CV of < 5. The method was also extended to the determination of MG in an actual fish feed. The sensitivity and selectivity of LC-ESI-MS/MS using monolithic column offers a valuable alternative to the methodologies currently employed for the quantification of MG in fish feeds. PMID:24524279

Abro, Kamran; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Iqbal, Seema; Perveen, Shahnaz

2014-01-01

310

La modelisation des evenements de givrage atmospherique : Interpolation de la narr pour l'utilisation de gem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind industry is growing in cold climates. These environments are conductive to ice accumulation causing wind turbine and meteorological instruments failures, output power reduction and humans hazards. Therefore, the understanding and the characterizations of the atmospheric icing are required to optimize the wind farm installation. The production of an icing map in North America can be supported by the numerical weather prediction model and microphysics schemes detailing the different precipitation and accumulation types. Nevertheless, it is important to create such a atlas on a historical basis, because these events vary each winter. The use of input files for these models should contain a maximum of atmospheric data covering a large geographical area to ensure to cover the significant weather phenomena. In this study, a methodology consisting to model the icing events, based on the meso-scale method, was developed. This methodology is complementary to an icing map allowing to get more information on a local site. The main objective is to develop a tool to make compatible the input data, NARR (North Regional Re-Analysis), with the weather prediction model GEM (Global Environnemental Multi-Scale). With this model, it will be possible to model the icing events in Canada at a spatial resolution of 32 km. Then, a model at a spatial resolution of 5 km will allow to get more information in icing on Québec region. The secondary objective is to install weather instruments what can provide information regarding the duration, intensity and frequency of icing events. Thereby, a measuring station has been installed including an ice meter and an heated rain gauge. Finally, the results of this research show promising results of the icing precipitation modeling for the preparation of an icing map. These models may be modeled by the reanalyse data.

Camion, Amelie

311

A quantitative approach to perceived health status: a validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current recognition of the importance of perceived health status as a predictor of need for, and utilisation of, health services has led to attempts to produce indicators which assess subjective rather than objective health problems. The development of the Nottingham Health Profile is described, together with a study which tested the validity of the instrument on four groups of

S M Hunt; S P McKenna; J McEwen; E M Backett; J Williams; E Papp

1980-01-01

312

A novel luminescent lifetime-based optrode for the detection of gaseous and dissolved oxygen utilising a mixed ormosil matrix containing ruthenium (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) 3 Cl 2 (Ru.dpp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel luminescent lifetime optrode is presented for the detection of gaseous and dissolved oxygen. The optrode utilises\\u000a ruthenium (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)3Cl2 as the sensing fluorophore immobilised in a hydrophobic ormosil matrix. The ormosil matrix is synthesised at room temperature\\u000a from octyltriethoxysilane and methyltriethoxysilane precursors. Investigations of different ormosils were conducted and the\\u000a most effective one was selected for optrode production. Optrodes

P. Roche; R. Al-Jowder; R. Narayanaswamy; J. Young; P. Scully

2006-01-01

313

Commande d'un drone en vue de la conversion vol rapide -vol stationnaire A l'heure actuelle, de nombreux projets d'utilisation de drones s'intressent la capacit des  

E-print Network

Commande d'un drone en vue de la conversion vol rapide - vol stationnaire A l'heure actuelle, de nombreux projets d'utilisation de drones s'intéressent à la capacité des véhicules à alterner des phases de, avec l'application au VERTIGO, drone de type VTOL a rotors contrarotatifs et volets déflecteurs de flux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Health Care Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Expenditure Associated with Back Pain: A Nationally Representative Survey of Australian Women  

PubMed Central

Background Back pain impacts on a significant proportion of the Australian population over the life course and has high prevalence rates among women, particularly in older age. Back pain care is characterised by multiple practitioner and self-prescribed treatment options, and the out-of-pocket costs associated with consultations and self-prescribed treatments have not been examined to date. Objective To analyse the extent of health care practitioner consultations and self-prescribed treatment for back pain care among Australian women, and to assess the self-reported costs associated with such usage. Methods Survey of 1,310 women (response rate 80.9%) who reported seeking help for back pain from the ‘1946-51 cohort’ of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Women were asked about their use of health care practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain and the costs associated with such usage. Results In the past year 76.4% consulted a complementary and alternative practitioner, 56% an allied health practitioner and 59.2% a GP/medical specialist. Overall, women consulted with, on average, 3.0 (SD?=?2.0) different health care practitioners, and had, on average, 12.2 (SD?=?9.7) discrete health care practitioner consultations for back pain. Average self-reported out-of-pocket expenditure on practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain care per annum was AU$873.10. Conclusions Multiple provider usage for various but distinct purposes (i.e. pain/mobility versus anxiety/stress) points to the need for further research into patient motivations and experiences of back pain care in order to improve and enhance access to and continuity of care. Our results suggest that the cost of back pain care represents a significant burden, and may ultimately limit women’s access to multiple providers. We extrapolate that for Australian working-age women, total out-of-pocket expenditure on back pain care per annum is in excess of AU$1.4billion, thus indicating the prominence of back pain as a major economic, social and health burden. PMID:24376716

Kirby, Emma R.; Broom, Alex F.; Sibbritt, David W.; Refshauge, Kathryn M.; Adams, Jon

2013-01-01

315

Ecological Thresholds in the Savanna Landscape: Developing a Protocol for Monitoring the Change in Composition and Utilisation of Large Trees  

PubMed Central

Background Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure - particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts - is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (?5 m in height) play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0–6.6 km in length) and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0–1.6 km in length). Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease) which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. Conclusions/Significance The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next stage is to integrate that protocol into a decision-making system, which highlights potential leading indicators of change. Frequent monitoring would be required to establish the rate and direction of change. This approach may be useful in generating monitoring protocols for other dynamic systems. PMID:19092993

Druce, Dave J.; Shannon, Graeme; Page, Bruce R.; Grant, Rina; Slotow, Rob

2008-01-01

316

Utilisation of the GMES Sentinel satellites for off-shore platform oil spills and gas flaring monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil spills and gas flaring are serious issues for ecosystem, economy and people working on the extraction sites. Oil spill is known. Gas Flaring is the disposal of poison waste gases generated in the oil extraction process. High volumes (every year gas flaring burns worldwide the equivalent of 25% of the overall gas burned in Europe), significantly contributing to the global carbon emission budget (0.5% of total, 2008). European and worldwide legislation pays an increasing attention to it. Our Sentinel1 and 3 SAR and SLSTR usage for this objective won the GMES Masters 2012 IDEAS Challenge. In this study, we use SAR and infrared/thermal (SLSTR) data to identify unexpected misbehaviours of oil platforms, like switch on of the flare and oil spill in the ocean. On one side, the detection and characterization of gas flaring is achieved by analysing the infrared/thermal radiances measured by the SLSTR instrument on-board SENTINEL-3. This technique has been developed and tested using the ENVISAT Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) dataset and proved to be adequate for long term monitoring of oil extraction for both off-shore and in-shore drilling stations. The spatial/temporal coverage provided by SENTINEL-3 will allow an unprecedented daily monitoring of the oil extraction platforms. On the other side, the detection of oil spills and ships can be performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Both for oil spills and ships, many techniques have been published in the dedicated literature and validated to make the process of detection from SAR automatic. The extension of these techniques to the future SENTINEL-1 data is feasible. The service is mainly addressed to governments (in charge of controlling respect of the rules), civil protection authorities (to promote prevention of pollution damages), oil companies (that want to prove their respect of rules and attention to the environment), and ONGs (involved in the monitoring of the environment). The methodology applied, the tests performed, and the foreseen development of the service will be presented at the conference.

Di Erasmo, Daniele; Casadio, Stefano; Cardaci, Massimo; Del Frate, Fabio

2013-04-01

317

Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of ?13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest ?13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during the vegetation period the values were much lower (-21.85 o). This coincided with a strong increase of the PLFA 18:2 (from 0.99 up to 2.37 nmol g dry wt soil-1), indicating utilisation of old organic matter by fungi, while mono-unsaturated PLFAs, indicating Gram-negative bacteria, were more frequent before and after the growing season. Microbial dynamics in the unfertilised control followed the same seasonal pattern but PLFAs were less enriched in 13C due to lower yields compared with the N-fertilised treatment. The addition of organic amendments (straw or sewage sludge) lowered ?13C-values in PLFAs below values of the control due to input of labile material with C3-origin. PLFAs in the bare fallow treatment, that had not received plant carbon inputs during twelve years, were most 13C depleted among the treatments but still enriched by about 2o compared with SOM, indicating a degree of microbial fractionation.

Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

2014-05-01

318

Individual differences in study processes and the Quality of Learning Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the relationship between students' study processes and the structural complexity of their learning. Study processes are conceived in terms of three independent dimensions — utilising, internalising and achieving — each of which has a cognitive (strategic) and an affective (motivational) component; these are assessed by the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ). Learning quality is expressed in

John Biggs

1979-01-01

319

Utilising Discursive Positioning in Counselling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foucault's concern with the production of subjectivity has led to the development of positioning theory, as it has been called by Bronwyn Davies, Rom Harr and Luk van Langenhve. The concept of discursive positioning has particular value for counselling because it shows how people are positioned in discourse in particular moments by their own and…

Winslade, John M.

2005-01-01

320

Lesson Study: An Effective School-Based Teacher Professional Learning Model for Teachers of Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on ongoing research in a cluster of schools in the outer south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne which is utilising Lesson Study as a peer observation model for mathematics teaching. The findings from nine initial Lesson Study sessions undertaken by cluster teachers to develop a Fractions Teaching Program are presented. The results indicate the success of the fractions tasks

Peter Sanders

321

The Applicability of Social Network Analysis to the Study of Networked Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying networked learning (NL) by applying social network analysis (SNA) has gained popularity in recent years. However, it appears that in the context of NL the choice of SNA indices is very often dictated by using easily achievable SNA tools. Most studies in this field only involve a single group of students and utilise simple indices, such as…

Toikkanen, Tarmo; Lipponen, Lasse

2011-01-01

322

DUAL MODE LOCOMOTIVES SYSTEMS STUDY OF NEW FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES FOR SWEDEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual study for a Swedish dual-mode locomotive is presented. The primary energy sources are AC electricity from an overhead catenary system or a diesel-electric generator system. The study focuses on analysing how freight operations and locomotive utilisation can be improved and how it can affect environmental aspects of freight operations. Based on project experiences and operative demands, a system

Mattias Skoglund; Peter Bark; Stefan Östlund

2008-01-01

323

Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

Gebka, Bartosz

2014-01-01

324

Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l'utilisation s?curitaire et efficace des opio?des pour la douleur chronique non canc?reuse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices canadiennes offrent des conseils dont les médecins avaient grand besoin pour les aider à en arriver à un juste équilibre entre le contrôle optimal de la douleur et la sécurité.

Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

2011-01-01

325

L V l til R A l i P kLunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package: Simeon Barber, Study Manager, on behalf of the L-VRAP Study Team  

E-print Network

L V l til R A l i P kLunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package: L-VRAP Simeon Barber, Study Manager-VRAP Study TeamL VRAP Study Team The Open University Science InstrumentScience, Instrument Design Astrium Ltd-situ resource utilisation) Volatiles can be resources in themselves, or starting materials H O life support

Anand, Mahesh

326

Occupational asthma induced by tall oil in the rubber tyre industry.  

PubMed

A worker in the rubber tyre industry is described with occupational asthma from exposure to a solution of tall oil, a pine resin, confirmed by specific inhalation challenge. This supports studies of contact dermatitis which have suggested abietic and dehydroabietic acid oxidants to be the cause of colophony induced allergic reactions. PMID:1551039

Tarlo, S M

1992-01-01

327

Toxic effects of some conifer resin acids and tea tree oil on human epithelial and fibroblast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to assess and compare the in vitro cytotoxic effects of three resin acid analogues: dehydroabietic acid, podocarpic acid, O-methylpodocarpic acid; an essential oil from Australia (tea tree oil); and tapped oleoresin from Thailand, on human epithelial and fibroblast cells, using a quantitative neutral red spectrophotometric assay. All of the investigated compounds except for tea tree

Thor A. Söderberg; Anders Johansson; Rolf Gref

1996-01-01

328

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

329

Promotion of Autonomy for Participation in Physical Activity: A Study Based on the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a school-based intervention to promote physical activity, utilising the postulates of the trans-contextual model of motivation. The study examined two separate classes of elementary school students (mean age 11.28?years), one of which served as the control group (n?=?26) and the other as the…

González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Andrés-Fabra, José A.; Montero-Carretero, Carlos; Cervelló, Eduardo; Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio

2014-01-01

330

Experimental studies on steady free convection heat transfer from fins and fin arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an experimental study of free convective heat transfer from fins and fin arrays attached to a heated horizontal base. The technique of differential interferometry has been utilised and experiments have been carried out under steady state conditions. Local values of heat flux, temperature, heat transfer coefficients, local and overall Nusselt numbers have been estimated. An attempt

C. B. Sobhan; S. P. Venkateshan; K. N. Seetharamu

1990-01-01

331

A retrospective population-based study of injury types among elderly in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the article was to investigate the injury types and medical utilisations among patients more than 65 years in Taiwan. The data used in this study were obtained from the years 1997 to 2008 of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The patients with the age of 65 years and older as well as with ICM-9-CM discharge

Wu-Chien Chien; Chi-Hsiang Chung; Ching-Huang Lai; Chiu-Hsuan Chou

2012-01-01

332

Dementia studies online: reflections on the opportunities and drawbacks of eLearning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the opportunities and drawbacks of eLearning from the viewpoints of educators and learners. A postgraduate dementia studies programme provides the basis for reflection on the use of a blended learning approach utilising web?based learning. Those who register for the programme are employed in different health and social care settings and have varied roles, but all have a

Anthea Innes; Kathryn Mackay; Louise McCabe

2006-01-01

333

Short-burst oxygen therapy for COPD patients: a 6-month randomised, controlled study.  

PubMed

Short-burst oxygen therapy (SBOT) remains widely advocated for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite a lack of supporting evidence. The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was to determine whether SBOT improves health-related quality of life (HRQL) or reduces acute healthcare utilisation in patients discharged following an acute exacerbation of COPD. Consecutive patients were screened; 78 of 331 were eligible for randomisation to cylinder oxygen, cylinder air or usual care following discharge. Patients were elderly with high acute healthcare utilisation, forced expiratory volume in one second of <1 L and had dyspnoea limiting daily activity but were not hypoxaemic at rest. Over the 6-month study period, there were no significant differences between patient groups in HRQL (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) except for CRQ emotion domain. There were no significant differences in acute healthcare utilisation. Time to readmission was greatest in the usual care group. Cylinder use was high initially, but rapidly fell to very low levels within weeks in both cylinder oxygen and air groups. In conclusion, the availability of short-burst oxygen therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients discharged from hospital following an acute exacerbation did not improve health-related quality of life or reduce acute healthcare utilisation. These results provide no support for the widespread use of short-burst oxygen therapy. PMID:16585078

Eaton, T; Fergusson, W; Kolbe, J; Lewis, C A; West, T

2006-04-01

334

Les recommandations th?rapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associ?s ? l'utilisation d'antipsychotiques de deuxi?me g?n?ration chez les enfants et les adolescents  

PubMed Central

HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il faudrait évaluer ces recommandations d’après les avis d’experts plutôt que d’après les données probantes. CONCLUSION : Les cliniciens doivent savoir que les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération ont le potentiel d’induire des effets secondaires neurologiques et devraient faire preuve d’une extrême vigilance lorsqu’ils en prescrivent. PMID:24082814

Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

2012-01-01

335

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

2010-01-01

336

Differential Effects of Atypical versus Typical Antipsychotic Medication on Earnings of Schizophrenia Patients: Estimates from a Prospective Naturalistic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rising public and private expenditure on antipsychotic medications is concentrated on the cost of second generation or `atypical' medications, which are more expensive than first generation medications and make up a rapidly growing share of all antipsychotic prescriptions. Previous studies have examined whether the higher acquisition costs of atypicals are offset by other cost and\\/or utilisation benefits. This paper

David Salkever; Eric Slade; Mustafa Karakus

2006-01-01

337

Multilingual Literacies in Transnational Digitally Mediated Contexts: An Exploratory Study of Immigrant Teens in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships…

Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Rosario-Ramos, Enid

2009-01-01

338

Removal of congo red from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: Kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present investigation deals with the utilisation of bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as a waste material from bagasse fired boilers) and the use of activated carbons—commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL), as adsorbents for the removal of congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. Batch studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of BFA, ACC and ACL and the

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

339

A parabolic solar collector heat-pipe heat exchanger reactor assembly for cyclohexane's dehydrogenation: A simuation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is an optimum large scale fuel for the future, although there remain some problems in transport and long-term storage. One has to develop the use of alternative fuels that are easily transformed into hydrogen and that can be stored in liquid form, and, thus, more safely and economically. A simulation study on the possibility of the utilisation of cyclohexane

M. Charia; A. Bernatchou

1998-01-01

340

Corporate perceptions of web-based environmental communication : An exploratory study into companies in the Australian minerals industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks the views of environmental and communication managers in three mining companies on the use of the world wide web for environmental communication. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews were utilised to gather data for this research. Findings – Prior literature on web-based environmental communication has a primary emphasis on the content of environmental disclosure on web sites. It

Sumit K. Lodhia

2006-01-01

341

Multilingual literacies in transnational digitally mediated contexts: an exploratory study of immigrant teens in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships with friends and families, and engage with news and media

Wan Shun Eva Lam; Enid Rosario-Ramos

2009-01-01

342

Impact of nurse-led outpatient management of children with asthma on healthcare resource utilisation and costs A.W.A. Kamps*, R.J. Roorda*, J.L.L. Kimpen#, A.W. Overgoor-van de Groes*, L.C.J.A.M. van Helsdingen-Peek*, P.L.P. Brand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact of nurse-led outpatient management of children with asthma on healthcare resource utilisation and costs. A.W.A. Kamps, R.J. Roorda, J.L.L. Kimpen, A.W. Overgoor-van de Groes, L.C.J.A.M. van Helsdingen-Peek, P.L.P. Brand. #ERS Journals Ltd 2004. ABSTRACT: The high burden of asthma on healthcare utilisation and costs warrants economic appraisal of management approaches. The authors previously demonstrated that the efficacy of nurse-led

A. W. A Kamps

343

A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

1994-01-01

344

Training emotional intelligence: Presenting the results of an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation outlines the results of an eighteen month study examining the effect of an emotions focused training intervention on the emotional intelligence of employees from a large public sector organisation. Utilising an experimental methodology, 280 staff attended a two-day program focused on training emotional intelligence skills and abilities. These interventions were created around Mayer and Salovey’s four-branch model of

Jane P Murray; Peter J Jordan; Neal M Ashkanasy

2006-01-01

345

Numerical and experimental study of quantum dot mode-locked lasers with single mode optical injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study quantum dot mode locked lasers (QD MLL) under optical injection. For the experimental study we use slave lasers two-section monolithic InAs\\/GaAs QD devices with a repetition rate of about 9.4 GHz, emitting at 1.3 mum. A frequency resolved Mach-Zehnder gating (FRMZG) technique was utilised for the experimental study of the pulse intensity, phase and chirp. For numerical simulations

Natalia Rebrova; Tatiana Habruseva; Stephen P. Hegarty; Guillaume Huyet

2010-01-01

346

POTENTIALITIES AND LIMITS OF THE GOES8 VISIBLE IMAGERY TO STUDY THE EFFECTIVE MAGNITUDE OF DEFORESTATION IN MATO-GROSSO, BRAZIL. A COMPARISON WITH NOAA-AVHRR MULTISPECTRAL DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of testing the potentialities and limits of the GOES-8 visible imagery to study the deforestation in Mato -Grosso, Brazil. The method has utilised data from the GOES-8 (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) geostationary satellite and multispectral data from the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) on the NOAA polar orbiters. The objectives of this study are

VINCENT DUBREUIL; MORGAN LAGRÉE; VINCENT NÉDÉLEC; CLEUSA ZAMPARONI

347

Unipolar depression across cultures: A Delphi analysis of the methodological and conceptual issues confronting the cross-cultural study of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research is to investigate the epistemological and methodological discrepancies involved in the cross-cultural study of unipolar depression. These discrepancies include the methodological design and measurement of depression and culture, and the epistemological variation in researchers as to whether depression is a universal or socially constructed phenomenon. A Delphi procedure was utilised which enabled a group of

Melinda Redmond; Rosanna Rooney; Brian Bishop

2006-01-01

348

Experimental Study of Heart-rate Variability During Studies on the Psychophysiology of the Cardiopulmonary Systems and Attempt to Obtain Classical Conditioning of Heart-rate by Utilisation of Unconditional Stimuli Belonging to the Second System of Signalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors attempted to reduplicate the Lacey phenomenon of heart rate acceleration during the performance of an interiorized mental task and its maintenance in time. For this purpose they resorted to the pavlovian conditioning paradigm. The heart-rate response was obtained repetitively thanks to a change of structure and\\/ or content of the task and a conditioned response was elicited in

M. Haber; D. Luminet

1970-01-01

349

Studies of biomass fuelled MCFC systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the methods, techniques and results obtained during the studies of biomass fuelled molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems within the Swedish national fuel cell program are presented. The power plants are 60 MW class, utilising biomass (i.e. wood chips) as the primary fuel. The biomass is converted via pressurised gasification into a gaseous form that, after subsequent cleaning, can be used in the fuel cells. An investigation of the effects of gasification pressure, temperature and the influence of internal reforming on the overall system performance is presented. All studies were carried out using the Aspen Plus™ with Model Manager™ simulation package.

Kivisaari, Timo; Björnbom, Pehr; Sylwan, Christopher

350

An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a screening tool for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities in a group of pregnant women in Khayelitsha  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the gestational body mass index (BMI) method to screen for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities. Design This was a substudy of a randomised controlled trial, the Philani Mentor Mothers’ study. Setting and subjects The Philani Mentor Mothers’ study took place in a peri-urban settlement, Khayelitsha, between 2009 and 2010. Pregnant women living in the area in 2009-2010 were recruited for the study. Outcome measures Maternal anthropometry (height and weight) and gestational weeks were obtained at baseline to calculate the gestational BMI, which is maternal BMI adjusted for gestational age. Participants were classified into four gestational BMI categories: underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Birth outcomes and maternal morbidities were obtained from clinic cards after the births. Results Pregnant women were recruited into the study (n = 1 058). Significant differences were found between the different gestational BMI categories and the following birth outcomes: maternal (p-value = 0.019), infant hospital stay (p-value = 0.03), infants staying for over 24 hours in hospital (p-value = 0.001), delivery mode (p-value = 0.001), birthweight (p-value = 0.006), birth length (p-value = 0.007), birth head circumference (p-value = 0.007) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (p-value = 0.001). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has used the gestational BMI method in a peri-urban South African pregnant population. Based on the findings that this method is able to identify unfavourable birth outcomes, it is recommended that it is implemented as a pilot study in selected rural, peri-urban and urban primary health clinics, and that its ease and effectiveness as a screening tool is evaluated. Appropriate medical and nutritional advice can then be given to pregnant women to improve both their own and their infants’ birth-related outcomes and maternal morbidities.

Davies, HR; Visser, J; Tomlinson, M; Rotheram-Borus, MJ; Gissane, C; Harwood, J; LeRoux, I

2014-01-01

351

Effects of dietary calcium, available phosphorus and vitamin d on growth rate, food utilisation, plasma and bone constituents and calcium and phosphorus retention of commercial broiler strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of different dietary concentrations of calcium (Ca), available phosphorus (AP) and vitamin D (D) on 5? to 16?day growth performance, and aspects of calcium and phosphorus (P) metabolism of chickens from three commercial strains were studied in two experiments.2. Increasing dietary Ca reduced weight gain, tibia Ca and P content and increased plasma total Ca, Ca consumption

T. M. Shafey; M. W. McDonald; R. A. E. Pym

1990-01-01

352

Influence du cycle semi-diurne et vives-eaux mortes-eaux sur la disponibilité du matériel particulaire et son utilisation par une population de Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a fortnightly tidal cycle, a Mytilus edulis population was submitted to natural food conditions in the bay of Marennes-Oléron. During 4 tidal cycles, in vivo continuous measurements of turbidity and fluorescence were recorded to study the evolution of Total Particulate Matter (TPM), phaeopigments and chlorophyll-a concentrations. Turbidity in the water column is clearly influenced by resuspension of sediment. Degradated

Jean PROU; Laurent BARILLÉ; Maurice HÉRAL; Gilles RATISKOL; Patrick SOLETCHNIK; Serge BOUGRIER; Daniel RAZET

1994-01-01

353

Couplage des équations de transfert de masse et des lois d'interactions solution-solide par l'utilisation des lanthanides comme traceurs — Approche expérimentale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In underground flow tracing studies, the estimation of the nature and the importance of interactions undergone by the substance used very often constitutes an obstacle to good modeling of mass-transfer processes in solution. We propose a method to quantify these phenomena by the use of lanthanides as tracers. For this study, we set up an analytical methodology adapted to routine measurements. The quality of five lanthanides as indicators has been examined. We have demonstrated the formation, by substitution, of a carbonate complex which is extremely stable in the natural environment. The field experiments carried out demonstrated the efficiency of those tracers and confirmed their great stability. Tracer recovery graphs show that, in accord with our hypothesis, convection and dispersion are identical for all the lanthanide elements. Moreover, we have established a direct relation between their fixing rate on earth materials and the value of their stability constants. Thus, we demonstrate the possibility of correlative multitracing, with known and quantifiable interelement relations.

Bigot, S.; Treuil, M.; Dumonceau, J.; Fromage, F.

1984-02-01

354

The effect of dietary calcium upon growth rate, food utilisation and plasma constituents in lines of chickens selected for aspects of growth or body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effect of increasing dietary calcium from 10.3 to 20 g\\/kg on 5? to 17?day growth performance and plasma minerals, electrolytes, total protein, albumin and glucose in chickens from 4 lines selected for: high 8?week body weight (W), low abdominal fat (L), high abdominal fat (F) or at random (C) was studied in two experiments.2. High dietary calcium significantly

T. M. Shafey; M. W. McDonald; R. A. E. Pym

1990-01-01

355

The influence of dietary cation-anion differences on acid-base balance, food intake, growth and nutrient utilisation of juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na++K+-Cl-, mEq kg -1) on acid-base balance, food consumption and growth of juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Four dietary CAD levels (-100, 100, 500, 700 mEq kg-1) were established by altering levels of NaHCO3, CaCl2 and NH4Cl in the diets. The group fed the diet of excess

Y. Dersjant-Li; J. A. J. Verreth; F. Evers; P. A. T. Tijssen; R. Booms; M. W. A. Verstegen

1999-01-01

356

How equitable is bed net ownership and utilisation in Tanzania? A practical application of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies show that the burden of malaria remains huge particularly in low-income settings. Although effective malaria control measures such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been promoted, relatively little is known about their equity dimension. Understanding variations in their use in low-income settings is important for scaling up malaria control programmes particularly ITNs. The objective of this paper is to

Fred Matovu; Catherine Goodman; Virginia Wiseman; William Mwengee

2009-01-01

357

R?section endoscopique des polypes colorectaux p?dicul?s en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chrom?: une alternative a la polypectomie conventionnelle? A propos d'une s?rie de cas  

PubMed Central

L'intérêt de l'endoscopie dans la résection des polypes colorectaux a été rapporté dans plusieurs études. Les techniques de résection endoscopique sont multiples et maîtrisées dans les pays occidentaux. La technique de mucosectomie endoscopique et celle de la pose d'une anse largable en nylon (endoloop) ont élargi le champ des lésions résécables par endoscopie. Toutefois, malgré cette évolution, la vulgarisation de la polypectomie n'est pas effective. En Afrique subsaharienne, la prise en charge de ces polypes de grande taille nécessite souvent une intervention chirurgicale à ciel ouvert ou une évacuation sanitaire onéreuse dans un pays en Occident. Nous rapportons une nouvelle approche de polypectomie endoscopique des polypes pédiculés colorectaux, en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé 2/0. Les polypes pédiculés étaient situés soit au niveau du sigmoïde soit au rectum. Après avoir passé le lasso autour du pédicule, le n'ud du lasso est serré autour de celui-ci pour strangulation. En moyenne 6 jours après la procédure, le polype est récupéré dans les selles. Une colonoscopie de contrôle est nécessaire pour confirmer la résection du polype. Cette technique peu coûteuse et accessible, devrait être vulgarisée dans les pays en voie de développement avec des plateaux techniques pauvres. Elle a ses limites et ses inconvénients qui doivent être connus de l'opérateur. PMID:25360198

Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Tagni-Sartre, Michele; Modjo, Gabriel; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap

2014-01-01

358

Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District).  

PubMed

Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes. PMID:20712897

Njoroge, Grace N; Kaibui, Isaac M; Njenga, Peter K; Odhiambo, Peter O

2010-01-01

359

Food utilisation by coastal fish assemblages in rocky and soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Inference for identification of essential fish habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of essential fish habitats (EFHs) is widely accepted for conservational and management purposes. EFHs are often considered as high quality habitats for fisheries species and subsequently of high values for society. In this study, fish and Substrate-Associated Prey (SAP) were sampled during the productive summer season 1998 (fish) and 2003 and 2004 (SAP) in shallow coastal rocky- and soft-bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast. The aim was to study the spatial and monthly variation of SAP as well as abundance and biomass of fish, and to examine if food items found in the diet of the fish assemblage were derived from SAP. We also examined if the diet of Ctenolabrus rupestris, a resident and abundant fish species in the shallow coastal habitats, and the diet of four seasonally abundant and commercially important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Pleuronectes platessa, Salmo trutta and Scomber scombrus) were derived from SAP. There were significantly higher mean species number and abundance of the SAP assemblage on rocky compared to soft bottoms and the highest values were found on the rocky bottoms in August and in the shallowest (0-3 m) depth strata. There were no significant differences in number of fish species caught in the two habitats, although mean number of fish and mean biomass were significantly higher on rocky bottoms. Both habitats showed the same seasonal variation and the highest values of number of fish species, abundance and biomass were observed in June. On rocky bottoms, gastropods and amphipods were the most frequent food items in the diet of the entire fish assemblage and these items were also the most abundant SAP in this habitat. The dominant food items of the soft-bottom fish assemblage were decapods and fish, which were not common SAP. However, except for S. scombrus, the diet of the selected fish species showed a strong association to the SAP availability. Gadus morhua displayed the strongest association to SAP on rocky bottoms and P. platessa and C. rupestris to SAP on soft bottoms. Further, for C. rupestris, multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association to the SAP assemblage on both rocky and soft bottoms. These results provide vital new information for the management and conservation of Essential Fish Habitats on the Swedish west coast.

Stål, Johan; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

2007-02-01

360

An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk. PMID:20384996

2010-01-01

361

Overexpression of phyA and appA genes improves soil organic phosphorus utilisation and seed phytase activity in Brassica napus.  

PubMed

Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P) in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT) controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg(-1) seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals. PMID:23573285

Wang, Yi; Ye, Xiangsheng; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Fangsen

2013-01-01

362

Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH), a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years). We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice), diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded), medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system), and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days). Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4). For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced. PMID:23324253

2013-01-01

363

The Role of Whole Blood Impedance Aggregometry and Its Utilisation in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis in Acute Critical Illness  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prognostic and diagnostic value of whole blood impedance aggregometry in patients with sepsis and SIRS and to compare with whole blood parameters (platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count). Methods We performed an observational, prospective study in the acute setting. Platelet function was determined using whole blood impedance aggregometry (multiplate) on admission to the Emergency Department or Intensive Care Unit and at 6 and 24 hours post admission. Platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count were also determined. Results 106 adult patients that met SIRS and sepsis criteria were included. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock when compared to SIRS/uncomplicated sepsis (ADP: 90.7±37.6 vs 61.4±40.6; p<0.001, Arachadonic Acid 99.9±48.3 vs 66.3±50.2; p?=?0.001, Collagen 102.6±33.0 vs 79.1±38.8; p?=?0.001; SD ± mean)). Furthermore platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in the 28 day mortality group when compared with the survival group (Arachadonic Acid 58.8±47.7 vs 91.1±50.9; p<0.05, Collagen 36.6±36.6 vs 98.0±35.1; p?=?0.001; SD ± mean)). However haemoglobin, haematocrit and platelet count were more effective at distinguishing between subgroups and were equally effective indicators of prognosis. Significant positive correlations were observed between whole blood impedance aggregometry and platelet count (ADP 0.588 p<0.0001, Arachadonic Acid 0.611 p<0.0001, Collagen 0.599 p<0.0001 (Pearson correlation)). Conclusions Reduced platelet aggregometry responses were not only significantly associated with morbidity and mortality in sepsis and SIRS patients, but also correlated with the different pathological groups. Whole blood aggregometry significantly correlated with platelet count, however, when we adjust for the different groups we investigated, the effect of platelet count appears to be non-significant. PMID:25269018

Davies, Gareth R.; Mills, Gavin M.; Lawrence, Matthew; Battle, Ceri; Morris, Keith; Hawkins, Karl; Williams, Phylip Rhodri; Davidson, Simon; Thomas, Dafydd; Evans, Phillip Adrian

2014-01-01

364

Assessing blue and green water utilisation in wheat production of China from the perspectives of water footprint and total water use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to estimate the green and blue water footprint (WF) and the total water use (TWU) of wheat crop in China in both irrigated and rainfed productions. Crop evapotranspiration and water evaporation loss are both considered when calculating the water footprint in irrigated fields. We compared the water use for per-unit product between irrigated and rainfed crops and analyzed the relationship between promoting the yield and conserving water resources. The national total and per-unit-product WF of wheat production in 2010 were approximately 111.5 Gm3 (64.2% green and 35.8% blue) and 0.968 m3 kg-1, respectively. There is a large difference in the water footprint of the per-kilogram wheat product (WFP) among different provinces: the WFP is low in the provinces in and around the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, while it is relatively high in the provinces south of the Yangtze River and in northwestern China. The major portion of WF (80.9%) comes from irrigated farmland, and the remaining 19.1% is rainfed. Green water dominates the area south of the Yangtze River, whereas low green water proportions are found in the provinces located in northern China, especially northwestern China. The national TWU and total water use of the per-kilogram wheat product (TWUP) are 142.5 Gm3 and 1.237 m3 kg-1, respectively, containing approximately 21.7% blue water percolation (BWp). The values of WFP for irrigated (WFPI) and rainfed (WFPR) crops are 0.911 and 1.202 m3 kg-1, respectively. Irrigation plays an important role in food production, promoting the wheat yield by 170% and reducing the WFP by 24% compared to those of rainfed wheat production. Due to the low irrigation efficiency, more water is needed per kilogram in irrigated farmland in many arid regions, such as the Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu Provinces. We divided the 30 provinces of China into three categories according to the relationship between the TWUPI (TWU for per-unit product in irrigated farmland) and TWUPR (TWU for per-unit product in rainfed farmland): (I) TWUPI < TWUPR, (II) TWUPI = TWUPR, and (III) TWUPI > TWUPR. Category II, which contains the major wheat-producing areas in the North China Plain, produces nearly 75% of the wheat of China. The double benefits of conserving water and promoting production can be achieved by irrigating wheat in Category I provinces. Nevertheless, the provinces in this category produce only 1.1% of the national wheat yield.

Cao, X. C.; Wu, P. T.; Wang, Y. B.; Zhao, X. N.

2014-08-01

365

Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis and the estimation of between-study correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: When multiple endpoints are of interest in evidence synthesis, a multivariate meta-analysis can jointly synthesise those endpoints and utilise their correlation. A multivariate random-effects meta-analysis must incorporate and estimate the between-study correlation (?B). METHODS: In this paper we assess maximum likelihood estimation of a general normal model and a generalised model for bivariate random-effects meta-analysis (BRMA). We consider two

Richard D Riley; Keith R Abrams; Alexander J Sutton; Paul C Lambert; John R Thompson

2007-01-01

366

Short-burst oxygen therapy for COPD patients: a 6-month randomised, controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-burst oxygen therapy (SBOT) remains widely advocated for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite a lack of supporting evidence. The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was to determine whether SBOT improves health-related quality of life (HRQL) or reduces acute healthcare utilisation in patients discharged following an acute exacerbation of COPD. Consecutive patients were screened;

T. Eaton; W. Fergusson; J. Kolbe; C. A. Lewis

2006-01-01

367

Introduction of shared electronic records: multi-site case study using diffusion of innovation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the introduction of a centrally stored, shared electronic patient record (the summary care record (SCR)) in England and draw wider lessons about the implementation of large scale information technology projects in health care.Design Multi-site, mixed method case study applying utilisation focused evaluation.Setting Four early adopter sites for the SCR in England—three in urban areas of relative socioeconomic

Trisha Greenhalgh; Katja Stramer; Tanja Bratan; Emma Byrne; Yara Mohammad; Jill Russell

2008-01-01

368

Studies on biodiversity using semivariogram approach from IRS-IC LISS-III data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study attempts to utilise the spatial information from IRS-IC LISS-III satellite data, through, tie use of Semivartogram\\u000a apprqatfu for analyzing the overstorey. diversity In forest stands, Semivariance has been calculated for all the pixels in\\u000a I5x15 pixel window for each of the forest stand using digital numbers from near infrared channel Variation in semivariance\\u000a has been correlated to stand

V Krishna Prasad; T Rajagopal; Yogesh Kant; Surya Srinivas

1998-01-01

369

In vitro Regeneration and Cytological Studies on Somaclones of Erianthus elephantinus Hook. F  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus induction, plantlet regeneration and their field establishment were achieved in the genusErianthus which is closely related toSaccharum. The species utilised wasE. elephantinus with the lowest chromosome number of the genus (2n = 20). The donor clone SES 305 is cytologically stable. The 64 somaclones\\u000a which attained maturity and were studied did not show much morphological variation. However, many somaclones

N. C. Jalaja; T. V. Sreenivasan

1999-01-01

370

A study considering the force required for broken glass bottles to penetrate a skin simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries and assaults related to alcohol consumption are a growing concern in many countries. In such cases, the use of impulsive\\u000a weapons, an object from the immediate environment, such as a glass bottle, is not uncommon. This current study utilises a\\u000a material testing system to measure the force required to push a broken glass bottle into a skin simulant with

Gary Nolan; Simon Lawes; Sarah Hainsworth; Guy Rutty

371

Capacity building for school improvement: a case study of a New Zealand primary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacity building is now mentioned synonymously with school improvement in much of the literature with an absence of debate\\u000a on the implications of political, social and economic trends. This article explores capacity building in one low decile, multicultural,\\u000a New Zealand primary school. The research, positioned within an interpretivist paradigm, utilises a case study and grounded\\u000a theory approach to explore four

Patricia Martha Stringer

2009-01-01

372

An Empirical Study of the Impact of Intellectual Capital on Business Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical study examines the intellectual capital (IC) performance of Hong Kong companies and its association with business performance. Data were collected from constituent companies of the Hang Seng Index listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (2005–2008). An IC measurement, Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM), was utilised to evaluate the IC investment of the companies.Four accounting ratios: market-to-book value

Samuel Kai Wah Chu; Kin Hang Chan; Ka Yin Yu; Hing Tai Ng; Wai Kwan Wong

2011-01-01

373

How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.  

PubMed

There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (? 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ? 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

2014-01-01

374

Wind energy utilisation - New Zealand's prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of wind energy converters in New Zealand is assessed. The hourly mean wind power intensity for New Zealand is estimated to be about 150 W\\/sq m at a height of 10 m. The approach used to evaluate converter performance is described for three starting problems: given system and rated wind speed, average wind speed variable; given system and

R. E. Chilcott

1976-01-01

375

8, 781796, 2008 Utilising shade to  

E-print Network

. Parisi Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back Close Full Screen Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer led to the premature deaths of approximately 60 000 people in the year 2000 (Lucas et al., 2006

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

BYCATCH UTILISATION IN INDIAN FISHERIES: A OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supply: The trawlers of 15 metres and over have been affected badly with the fall in shrimp catches, and the fleet sizes declined. The 14 metres 'Sona' type boats have grown in number, although fishing duration is shortened to facilitate landing of as much bycatch as possible. Total landings remained constant, in spite of the increase in numbers of fishing

Venkatesh Salagrama

377

Utilisation of chitinous materials in pigment adsorption.  

PubMed

The effect of adding the cells of four lactobacilli to a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium on prodigiosin (PG) production by Serratia marcescens TKU011 is examined. The best increase in PG productivity was shown by strain TKU012. Among the samples of strain TKU012 and the chitinous materials of cicada casting powder (CCP), shrimp shell powder (SSP), squid pen powder (SPP), ?-chitin, and ?-chitin, TKU012 cells displayed the best adsorption rate (84%) for PG, followed by CCP, SSP, SPP, ?-chitin, and ?-chitin. As for the water-soluble food colourants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4), SPP and SSP had better adsorptive powers than pure chitin preparations, strain TKU012, and CCP. Treatment with organic solvents, hot alkali, or proteases (papain, bromelain) diminished the adsorption rates of the biosorbents. PMID:22953835

Wang, San-Lang; Chen, Yan-Cheng; Yen, Yue-Horng; Liang, Tzu-Wen

2012-12-01

378

Utilisation of cod backbone by biochemical fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The backbone fraction obtained from industrial processing of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) yields about 15% of the whole fish weight. Due to a high content of muscle and bone proteins, it is a valuable raw material for further processing. In the present work minced backbones were subjected to gentle hydrolysis by proteinases to solubilize muscle proteins before the pure bone

Asbjørn Gildberg; Jan A Arnesen; Mats Carlehög

2002-01-01

379

Capture and Utilisation of Landfill Gas  

E-print Network

about 955 landfills that recovered biogas. The largest number of such landfills were in the USA landfills in Denmark that in total captured 5,800Nm3 of biogas per hour, equivalent to 276.4MW of contained #12;Biomass US DATA ON GENERATION OF BIOGAS AT LANDFILLS Eileen Berenyi, a Research Associate of EEC

Columbia University

380

Utilisation capability of the Columbus Attached Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mission model is developed through an iterative process, showing typical payloads and laboratory support equipment for the initial Columbus Attached Laboratory installation. This facility is designed to accommodate payload complements varying from increment to increment for both internal and external experiments. Principal features of interfaces with the crew and the end users through the ground segment are described and attention is given to teleoperations, automation, and robotics.

Knott, Karl; Amadieu, Patrice

1992-08-01

381

[Pilot study on a modular outpatient treatment programme following public order placements because of endangerment in patients with psychotic disorders].  

PubMed

Patients with psychotic disorders who were detained by public order because of endangerment, can be regarded as a population at risk of further endangerment, public order placements and a forensic course. Concepts of specific aftercare for this subgroup are lacking thus far. The present pilot study explores the feasibility of a modular therapeutic outpatient programme that is tailored to specific subgroup needs and is applied over six months. Readmission rates during the intervention period are regarded exploratively.Consecutive screening of all patients placed in general psychiatry by public order during 05 to 11/2012. Included patients received baseline measurements followed by six-month intervention. Individual utilisation of treatment modules and number of readmissions, differentiated according to legal bases were assessed.Inclusion rate: 17.4?% of all screened subjects (115) and 57?% of all potentially includable subjects, dropout rate: 15?%. Mean utilisation rate: 23.5 therapeutic contacts per 6 months. Readmission rate: 50?%, of these 60?% on voluntary legal basis.Study inclusion, mean utilisation and dropout rates attest the feasibility and acceptance of the intervention in the population under study. A preponderance of voluntary vs. compulsory readmissions to hospital during the intervention indicates that in the majority of patients a higher degree of therapeutic cooperativeness can be reached. Further study on reduction of compulsory readmissions and on avoidance of a forensic course by application of the here introduced intervention in combination with methods of risk assessment in a consecutive main project seems justified. PMID:25105433

Luckhaus, C; Kampka, N; Frommann, N; Dönisch-Seidel, U; Gaebel, W; Janssen, B

2014-08-01

382

Patient characteristics and treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in France: the LUEUR1 observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Age-related macular degeneration is the primary cause of blindness in developed countries. Current treatments of this degenerative\\u000a disease mainly include laser, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth\\u000a factors. The LUEUR (LUcentis® En Utilisation Réelle) study is composed of a cross-sectional part (LUEUR1), which examined\\u000a the current management of wet AMD in France, and a follow-up part

Salomon-Yves Cohen; Eric H. Souied; Michel Weber; Gérard Dupeyron; Gérard de Pouvourville; Michel Lievre; Anne Ponthieux

2011-01-01

383

Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P?0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil. PMID:24249127

Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

1993-06-01

384

The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 ?g m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 ?g m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/dehydroabietic acid and retene were not found in the samples suggesting there is a difference in the long-distance transport samples of an Asian forest fire and the controlled experiments reported in the literature. Similar to the biomass burning in Amazonia (Abas et al., 1995), the present study also showed an absence of conifer tracers in the smoke aerosols indicating tropical wood sources. Abundant friedelin, a specific biomarker for smoke from oak wood fires (Standley and Simoneit, 1990), was present in the late September samples when the fire was more intense. The results were compared to literature values from an earlier study of the haze episode on 29 September 1991 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Abas and Simoneit, 1996).

Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

385

Effects of DHEA administration on episodic memory, cortisol and mood in healthy young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to enhance cognition in rodents, although there are inconsistent findings in humans.Objectives  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHEA administration in healthy young men on episodic memory and its neural correlates utilising an event-related potential (ERP) technique.Methods  Twenty-four healthy young men were treated with a 7-day course of oral DHEA (150 mg b.d.)

Hamid A. Alhaj; Anna E. Massey; R. Hamish McAllister-Williams

2006-01-01

386

Does it matter if clinicians recruiting for a trial don't understand what the trial is really about? Qualitative study of surgeons' experiences of participation in a pragmatic multi-centre RCT  

E-print Network

Qualitative research methods are used increasingly to study the process of RCTs. Such studies have predomi- nantly involved assessment of patient participants' experi- ences of consent, and their understanding of trial design and random allocation [1... this might affect both recruitment and utilisation of research findings. Qualitative research methods cannot be used to explore cause and effect – for example whether particular clusters of views predict different recruitment rates – but they are ideal...

Ziebland, Sue; Featherstone, Katie; Snowdon, Claire; Barker, Karen; Frost, Helen; Fairbank, Jeremy

2007-01-27

387

Utilisation de faisceaux d'ions oxygène réactifs pour la gravure de polymères utilisables en optoélectronique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) of a fluorinated polyimide (6FDA-ODA) has been achieved with Oxygene ions. A 5keV and 0.5mA/cm2 ion beam leads to a 500 Å/mn sputtering speed of the material. A similar behavior was also observed in the case of PPP. La gravure d'un polyimide fluoré (6FDA-ODA) a été réalisée par un faisceau parallèle d'ions oxygène réactifs (Réactive Ion Beam Etching : RIBE). Pour une énergie des ions de 5keV et à des densités de courant de l'ordre de 0.5mA/cm2 une vitesse de gravure de 500 Å/mn a été obtenue pour ce matériau. Avec le PPP un comportement voisin a été également observé.

Moussant, C.; Lucas, B.; Ratier, B.; Moliton, A.; François, B.

1998-06-01

388

Utilisation of doubly stable isotopeUtilisation of doubly stable isotope labelledlabelled LactobacillusLactobacillus johnsoniijohnsonii  

E-print Network

isotopic enrichment of specific bloodand the corresponding isotopic enrichment of specific blood plasmaCl) and) and [U[U--1313 CC66]glucose]glucose ((CamproCampro ScientificScientific, Berlin), Berlin) dlLa1dl,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,2 supernatant fibrinogen plasma protein precipitate [at%exc] 15N 13C Isotope

389

Fronting up to skills utilisation: what can we learn from Scotland's skills utilisation projects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy makers in many countries have long insisted that skills are critical to economic performance and social cohesion\\/inclusion. However, it is increasingly recognised that if skills are to fully deliver on this agenda, they have to be used effectively inside the workplace. While such statements can now be observed in the skills strategies of England, Scotland and Wales, much less

Jonathan Payne

2012-01-01

390

Workplace health concerns: a focus group study.  

PubMed

Addresses the workplace health concerns of employees at an Acute Hospital Trust. The research conducted utilised a focus group methodology to investigate the health concerns of multidisciplinary groups of health care workers (n = 27). The findings indicate that the concern for the majority was workplace stress. Stressors that were identified as important to the groups were for example, the nature of the work they were undertaking, staffing levels, volume of the work, management styles and their work environments. Health promotion and prevention topics such as motivation and health status, smoking, alcohol and drug misuse, nutrition and weight control and physical exercise were seen of subsidiary concern. Limitations of the study are given. Future research in the subject area is identified. PMID:10747454

Jinks, A M; Daniels, R

1999-01-01

391

Revised April 2013 Faculty of Graduate Studies Website  

E-print Network

Conversion Basu, P., Environment, Biomass Energy, Boiler Design, Fluidised Bed Combustion, Gasification THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH Allen, P., Solar Energy Utilisation, Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy

Lotze, Heike K.

392

An electron microscopy study of the effect of Ce on plasma sprayed bronze coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cu-Al eutectoid alloy is an excellent material for mould due to its superior low friction. The conventional sand casting technique, however, is not feasible to fabricate high Al bronze because of high hardness and brittleness. Plasma arc spray has been used to produce high Al/Fe bronze coatings for mould. The inherent impurities such as H, O, N, S during the spray, however, may affect the coating's mechanical strength. One approach is to utilise the active rare earth Ce to clean up these impurities. The study is to investigate the effect of Ce on the microstructure, which has few reported in the literature.

Wensheng, Li; Wang, S. C.; Ma, Chao; Zhiping, Wang

2012-07-01

393

The Muon LINAC for the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory  

SciTech Connect

The first stage of muon acceleration in the Neutrino Factory utilises a superconducting linac to accelerate muons from 244 MeV to 900 MeV. The linac was split into three types of cryomodules with decreasing magnetic fields and increasing amounts of RF voltage but with the design of the superconducting solenoid and RF cavities being the same for all cryomodules. The current status of the muon linac for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory will be presented including a final lattice design of the linac and tracking simulations.

A. Kurup, C. Bontoiu, Morteza Aslaninejad, J. Pozimski, A. Bogacz, V.S. Morozov, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

2011-09-01

394

Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ? An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ? HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ? The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic damage to the bone marrow ? Minor modifications would enable application as a general toxicity model.

May, Jennifer E., E-mail: Jennifer2.May@uwe.ac.uk; Morse, H. Ruth, E-mail: Ruth.Morse@uwe.ac.uk; Xu, Jinsheng, E-mail: Jinsheng.Xu@uwe.ac.uk; Donaldson, Craig, E-mail: Craig.Donaldson@uwe.ac.uk

2012-09-15

395

Comparative biology of Portia africana, P. albimana, P. fimbriata, P. labiata, and P. shultzi, araneophagic, web-building jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae): Utilisation of webs, predatory versatility, and intraspecific interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portia is a behaviourally complex and aberrant salticid genus. The genus is of unusual importance because it is morphologically primitive. Five species were studied in nature (Australia, Kenya, Malaysia, Sri Lanka) and in the laboratory in an effort to clarify the origins of the salticids and of their unique, complex eyes. All the species of Portia studied were both web

Robert R. Jackson; Susan E. A. Hallas

1986-01-01

396

Acanthamoeba-bacteria: a model to study host interaction with human pathogens.  

PubMed

Acanthamoebae are free-living amoebae distributed worldwide. They are among the most prevalent protozoa found in the environment, and have been isolated from a wide variety of public water supplies, swimming pools, bottled water, ventilation ducts, soil, air, surgical instruments, contact lenses, dental treatment units and hospitals. Acanthamoebae feed on bacteria by phagocytosis, but some bacteria are able to survive and sometimes multiply in the host, resulting in new properties of the bacteria. The intracellular growth of bacteria has been associated with enhanced environmental survival of the bacteria, increased virulence and increased resistance against antibiotic substances. The advantage of utilising free-living amoebae is that research can be carried out on non-mammalian cells as a model based on natural reality to study bacterial virulence and pathogenicity. Amoebae are easy to handle experimentally compared with mammalian cells and allow studies on host factors for host-parasite interactions. Bacteria are easily manipulated genetically, which creates the possibility of research on mutants to study bacteria-host interactions. Thus utilising this non-mammalian model can result in better understanding of interactions between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and assist in the development of new therapeutic agents to recognise and treat infections. PMID:21366523

Sandström, Gunnar; Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi

2011-06-01

397

Lighting Efficiency Case Study 5 Buildings at  

E-print Network

-Storey Car Park ........................................................... 3 Lighting Automation.energysaving.ie 2 Overview: Ciall Energy Saving surveyed, designed & installed energy saving technologies in 5-Storey Car Park, Henry Grattan Building and the Old Larkfield Residences Block. We utilised a vast number

Humphrys, Mark

398

Intérêt de l’utilisation du questionnaire des problèmes associés aux jeux vidéo de Tejeiro (Problem Videogame Playing : PVP). Étude exploratoire chez des enfants présentant un TDA\\/H  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent decades, videogame playing has become one of the main leisure activities in children and adolescents. However, studies on video game addiction are still very few. In order to evaluate the difficulties induced by an excessive “consumption” of video games, the team of Dr. Tejeiro developed a self-rating questionnaire: the Problem Videogame Playing questionnaire (PVP, Tejeiro, 2002). We translated

S. Bioulac; L. Arfi; G. Michel; M.-P. Bouvard

2010-01-01

399

Comparative assessment of water use and environmental implications of coal slurry pipelines \\/ Evaluation comparative de l'utilisation de l'eau et des implications pour l'environnement des pipelines de bouillie de charbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most talked about issues with respect to development, transportation, and conversion of the energy resources of the Western United States is the water requirement and its consequent impacts upon the ambience of that part of the country. In conjunction with other studies conducted by the US Geological Survey of water use in the conversion and transportation of

RICHARD N. PALMER; IVAN C. JAMES II; ROBERT M. HIRSCH

1978-01-01

400

Biotechnological Utilisation of Fusel Oil, A Food Industry By-Product A Kinetic Model on Enzymatic Esterification of i-Amyl Alcohol and Oleic Acid by Candida antarctica Lipase B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fusel oil is a by-product of distilleries, its main component is i-amyl alcohol, which can form ester compounds. Esterification of oleic acid and i-amyl alcohol by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435 preparation) in n-heptane solvent was studied in this work. Ping- -pong bi-bi mechanism (inhibition phenomena taken into account) was applied as a com- plex kinetic model. The

Nándor Nemestóthy; László Gubicza; Erika Fehér; Katalin Bélafi-Bakó

401

Image guidance during breast radiotherapy: a phantom dosimetry and radiation-induced second cancer risk study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging procedures utilised for patient position verification during breast radiotherapy can add a considerable dose to organs surrounding the target volume on top of therapeutic scatter dose. This study investigated the dose from a breast kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT), a breast megavoltage fan-beam CT (MV-FBCT), and a TomoDirectTM breast treatment. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within a female anthropomorphic phantom were utilised to measure the dose to various organs and tissues. The contralateral breast, lungs and heart received 0.40 cGy, 0.45 cGy and 0.40 cGy from the kV-CBCT and 1.74 cGy, 1.39 cGy and 1.73 cGy from the MV-FBCT. In comparison to treatment alone, daily imaging would increase the contralateral breast, contralateral lung and heart dose by a relative 12%, 24% and 13% for the kV-CBCT, and 52%, 101% and 58% for the MV-FBCT. The impact of the imaging dose relative to the treatment dose was assessed with linear and linear-quadratic radiation-induced secondary cancer risk models for the contralateral breast. The additional imaging dose and risk estimates presented in this study should be taken into account when considering an image modality and frequency for patient position verification protocols in breast radiotherapy.

Quinn, A.; Holloway, L.; Metcalfe, P.

2013-06-01

402

A national study of the provision of oncology sperm banking services among Canadian fertility clinics.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to survey the current state of oncology sperm banking services provided by fertility clinics across Canada. A total of 78 Canadian fertility facilities were invited to complete a questionnaire related to the availability, accessibility, affordability and utilisation of sperm banking services for cancer patients. The total response rate was 59%, with 20 (69%) in vitro fertilisation clinics and 26 (53%) other fertility centres returning the survey. A total of 24 responding facilities accepted oncology sperm banking referrals. The time frame to book the first banking appointment for 19 (79%) facilities was within 2 days. Inconsistent practice was found regarding the consent process for cancer patients who are of minority age. Eight (33%) facilities did not provide any subsidy and charged a standard banking fee regardless of patients' financial situations. Overall, the utilisation of oncology sperm banking services was low despite its availability and established efficacy, suggesting that Canadian cancer patients are notably underserved. The study has highlighted some important issues for further consideration in improving access to sperm banking services for cancer patients, especially for adolescents. Better collaboration between oncology and reproductive medicine to target healthcare providers would help to improve sperm banking rates. PMID:23374018

Yee, S; Buckett, W; Campbell, S; Yanofsky, R A; Barr, R D

2013-07-01

403

Systematic study of (p,?) reactions on Ni isotopes  

E-print Network

A systematic study of the radiative proton capture reaction for all stable nickel isotopes is presented. The results were obtained using 2.0 - 6.0 MeV protons from the 11 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Notre Dame. The \\gamma-rays were detected by the NSCL SuN detector utilising the \\gamma-summing technique. The results are compared to a compilation of earlier measurements and discrepancies between the previous data are resolved. The experimental results are also compared to the theoretical predictions obtained using the NON-SMOKER and SMARAGD codes. Based on these comparisons an improved set of astrophysical reaction rates is proposed for the (p,\\gamma) reactions on the stable nickel isotopes as well as for the 56Ni(p,\\gamma)57Cu reaction.

A. Simon; A. Spyrou; T. Rauscher; C. Fröhlich; S. J. Quinn; A. Battaglia; A. Best; B. Bucher; M. Couder; P. A. DeYoung; X. Fang; J. Görres; A. Kontos; Q. Li; L. -Y. Lin; A. Long; S. Lyons; A. Roberts; D. Robertson; K. Smith; M. K. Smith; E. Stech; B. Stefanek; W. P. Tan; X. D. Tang; M. Wiescher

2013-05-06

404

In situ synthesis studies of silicon clathrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state clathrates have shown considerable potential as a new class of materials over the past 30 years. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that precise tuning and synthetic control of these materials, may lead to desirable properties. Very little is known about the mechanism of formation of the clathrates and so the desire to have accurate synthetic control was, until now, unrealistic. This thesis address the problem using in situ synchrotron x-ray techniques. In this study, experiments were designed to utilise time-resolved in situ diffraction techniques and high temperature 23Na NMR, in efforts to understand the mechanism of formation for this class of expanded framework materials. A complex high vacuum capillary synthesis cell was designed for loading under inert conditions and operation under high vacuum at station 6.2 of the SRS Daresbury. The cell was designed to operate in conjunction with a custom made furnace capable of temperatures in excess of 1000 C, as well as a vacuum system capable of 10"5 bar. The clathrate system was studied in situ, using rapid data collection to elucidate the mechanism of formation. The data were analysed using Rietveld methods and showed a structural link between the monoclinic, C2/c, Zintl precursors and the cubic, Pm3n, clathrate I phase. The phases were found to be linked by relation of the sodium planes in the silicide and the sodium atoms resident at cages centres in the clathrate system. This evidence suggests the guest species is instrumental in formation of the clathrate structure by templating the formation of the cages in the structure. Solid state 23Na NMR was utilised to complete specially design experiments, similar to those complete in situ using synchrotron x-ray techniques. The experiments showed increased spherical symmetry of the alkali metal sites and suggested increased mobility of the guest atoms during heating. In addition, cyclic heating experiments using in situ diffraction showed reversible reintroduction of the guest species on heating and cooling, during formation and subsequent dissipation of the clathrate structure. The realisation of the synthesis of a guest free type II clathrate and the theoretical prediction of negative thermal expansion behaviour at low temperature prompted the use of laboratory x-ray diffraction and a liquid helium cryostat to test the prediction. Careful study of the region from 20 to 200 K showed a region of zero or negative thermal expansion in the predicted region the effect observed showed good agreement with theory.

Hutchins, Peter Thomas

405

Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion regulation and explored the contributions of different regulatory strategies to emotion experience regarding the early adolescent development period in a Chinese population. A total of 303 Chinese adolescents (age range = 10-14 years) were followed up in a three-phase longitudinal study for 3 years. In each phase of the study, participants completed Adolescents Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and Daily Emotion Scale. Results of hierarchical linear regressions revealed that Chinese adolescents reported more down-regulation. Down-regulation is more effective than up-regulation in enhancing desirable emotion experience and reducing undesirable emotion experience during adolescents' development. Also, the adaptive functions of emotional regulatory strategies in Chinese background were discussed. PMID:25355675

Sang, Biao; Deng, Xinmei; Luan, Ziyan

2014-12-01

406

L'utilisation de la polarimetrie radar et de la decomposition de Touzi pour la caracterisation et la classification des physionomies vegetales des milieux humides : le cas du lac Saint-Pierre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands fill many important ecological functions and contribute to the biodiversity of fauna and flora. Although there is a growing recognition of the importance to protect these areas, it remains that their integrity is still threatened by the pressure of human activities. The inventory and the systematic monitoring of wetlands are a necessity and remote sensing is the only realistic way to achieve this goal. The primary objective of this thesis is to contribute and improve the wetland characterization using satellite polarimetric data acquired in L (ALOS-PALSAR) and C (RADARSAT-2) band. This thesis is based on two hypotheses (Ch. 1). The first hypothesis stipulate that classes of plant physiognomies, based on plant structure, are more appropriate than classes of plant species because they are best adapted to the information content of polarimetric radar data. The second hypothesis states that polarimetric decomposition algorithms allow an optimal extraction of polarimetric information compared to a multi-polarized approach based on the HH, HV and VV channels (Ch. 3). In particular, the contribution of the incoherent Touzi decomposition for the inventory and monitoring of wetlands is examined in detail. This decomposition allows the characterization of the scattering type, its phase, orientation, symmetry, degree of polarization and the backscattered power of a target with a series of parameters extracted from an analysis of the coherency matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The lake Saint-Pierre region was chosen as the study site because of the great diversity of its wetlands that are covering more than 20 000 ha. One of the challenges posed by this thesis is that there is neither a standard system enumerating all the possible physiognomic classes nor an accurate description of their characteristics and dimensions. Special attention was given to the creation of these classes by combining several data sources and more than 50 plant species were grouped into nine physiognomic classes (Ch. 7, 8 and 9). Several analyzes are proposed to validate the hypotheses of this thesis (Ch. 9). Sensitivity analysis using scatter plots are performs to study the characteristics and dispersion of plant physiognomic classes in various features space consisting of polarimetric parameters or polarization channels (Ch. 10 and 12). Time series of made of RADARSAT-2 images are used to deepen the understanding of the seasonal evolution of plant physiognomies (Ch. 12). The transformed divergence algorithm is used to quantify the separability between physiognomic classes and to identify the parameters (s) that contribute the most to their separability (Ch. 11 and 13). Classifications are also proposed and the results compared to an existing map of the lake Saint-Pierre wetlands (Ch. 14). Finally, an analysis of the potential of polarimetric parameters in C and L-band is proposed for the monitoring of peatlands hydrology (Ch. 15 and 16). Sensitivity analyses show that the parameters of the 1st component, relative to the dominant (polarized) part of the signal, are sufficient for a general characterization of plant physiognomies. The parameters of the second and third components are, however, needed for better class separability (Ch. 11 and 13) and a better discrimination between wetlands and uplands (Ch. 14). This thesis shows that it is preferable to consider individually the parameters of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd components rather than their weighted sum by their respective eigenvalues (Ch. 10 and 12). This thesis also examines the complementarity between the structural parameters and those related to the backscattered power, often ignored and normalized by most polarimetric decomposition. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gosselin, Gabriel

407

Reduction du taux de rejet et de la variation des degagements dans le compresseur haute-pression lors de l'assemblage de moteurs turbopropulseurs par l'utilisation de l'assemblage selectif  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With over 15 000 components containing multiple key characteristics to respect, the assembly of a turbopropeller plane engine presents several challenges. Among them is the control of two critical clearances inside the high-pressure compressor section. Currently, the engine rejection rate resulting from the failure to comply with these clearances is 33%. The objective of this paper is to find a permanent method to reduce this rejection rate, that can also be easily implemented within an assembly line environment and that does not require significant investments. Following a root cause analysis of this issue, the dimensional variation of the components was identified as the main contributor. Since trying to control the variation of the components can hardly be achieved without any significant investments, the best available alternative is to focus on controlling the variation propagation throughout the assembly itself. The use of selective assembly is proposed to achieve this goal. Contrary to previous papers published on selective assembly, this paper differs in many aspects, namely the clearances discussed are lengthwise and not radial, the assembly contains many parts instead of two, and most importantly, some components have more than one dimension which affects each clearance. Traditionally, each component has only one dimension that impacts only one clearance. To fully understand the impact of these multiparametric parts, a stack-up study of the assembly is performed. This analysis allows to clearly identify the key dimensions of each component that interact with the clearances. Subsequently, a method based on the statistical analysis of each of the key dimensions and their manufacturing processes, and the ease of implementation in a production environment requirement, is proposed to classify the parts for the selective assembly process. Each of the manufacturing processes is linked to a probability distribution function and characterized by its performance index, the Ppk. A computer program is then built to create a virtual population of parts and to create an assembly population. This virtual population is used to test the validity and efficiency of the proposed method by comparing it to the actual situation. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the use of selective assembly does have a positive effect on the control of the variation propagation, but that there is also still room for improvement.

Zaharia, Pierre-Luc

408

Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL); emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI); disease self-management (PAM); and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC). 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing. PMID:22216947

2012-01-01

409

Referral for psychological therapy of people with long term conditions improves adherence to antidepressants and reduces emergency department attendance: Controlled before and after study  

PubMed Central

Background Referral to psychological therapies is recommended for people with common mental health problems (CMHP) however its impact on healthcare utilisation in people with long term conditions (LTCs) is not known. Method Routinely collected primary care, psychological therapy clinic and hospital data were extracted for the registered population of 20 practices (N = 121199). These data were linked using the SAPREL (Secure and Private Record Linkage) method. We linked the 1118 people referred to psychological therapies with 6711 controls, matched for age, gender and practice. We compared utilisation of healthcare resources by people with LTCs, 6 months before and after referral, and conducted a controlled before and after study to compare health utilisation with controls. We made the assumption that collection of a greater number of repeat prescriptions for antidepressants was associated with greater adherence. Results Overall 21.8% of people with an LTC had CMHP vs. 18.8% without (p < 0.001). People with LTCs before referral were more likely to use health care resources (2-tailed t-test p < 0.001). Cases with LTCs showed referral to the psychological therapies clinic was associated with increased antidepressant medication prescribing (mean differences 0.62, p < 0.001) and less use of emergency department than controls (mean difference ?0.21, p = 0.003). Conclusions Referral to improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) services appears of value to people with LTC. It is associated with the issue of a greater number of prescriptions for anti-depressant medicines and less use of emergency services. Further studies are needed to explore bed occupancy and outpatient attendance. PMID:23639304

de Lusignan, Simon; Chan, Tom; Tejerina Arreal, Maria C.; Parry, Glenys; Dent-Brown, Kim; Kendrick, Tony

2013-01-01

410

Phytoplanktonic nutrient utilisation and nutrient signature in the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation in Southern Ocean provinces of silicate excess at nitrate exhaustion and of nitrate excess at silicate exhaustion was already introduced by Kamykowski and Zentara (Kamykowski, D., Zentara, S.J., 1985. Nitrate and silicic acid in the world ocean: patterns and processes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 26, 47–59; and Kamykowski, D., Zentara, S.J., 1989. Circumpolar plant nutrient covariation in the

L. Goeyens; M. Semeneh; M. E. M. Baumann; M. Elskens; D. Shopova; F. Dehairs

1998-01-01

411

A new localised lightning locating system utilising telecommunication subscriber lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning mapping or locating systems are based on several working principles such as the time of arrival (ToA) and the Directional Finder (DF). The country wide lightning locating system (LLS) owned by TNB Malaysia is able to determine the coordinate of the cloud-to-ground lightning strike within 500m accuracy. A new method is proposed to determine the coordinate of any cloud-to-ground

Aulia; Z. A. Malek; Z. Adzis; Novizon

2008-01-01

412

Prospects for wind energy utilisation in Karnataka State  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the data available at 22 meteorological stations in Karnataka State shows that wind velocities in the State\\u000a as a whole are neither spectacularly high nor negligibly low. The highest winds (annual mean of around 13 km\\/hr) are experienced\\u000a in parts of the northern maidan region of the State (Gulbarga, Raichur and Bidar districts) and in Bangalore. The

U. Shrinivasa; R. Narasimha; S. P. Govinda Raju

1979-01-01

413

Membrane divided soluble lead battery utilising a bismuth electrolyte additive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A soluble lead battery benefiting from the incorporation of an ion exchange membrane to separate the positive and negative electrolyte compartments has been described. A static cell, using an electrolyte volume of 7.5 ml, was configured with and without a membrane. The use of a membrane enables the selection of electrode specific additives. In this paper, a proof of concept cell is shown with the use of Bi3+, which when added to the positive electrolyte compartment leads to a twenty-fold increase in cycle life of the cell. The bismuth ions cause a shift in the reaction mechanism and kinetics of lead dioxide dissolution during the discharge reaction.

Wallis, L. P. J.; Wills, R. G. A.

2014-02-01

414

Gathering and utilising domain knowledge in commercial computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, adaptive game AI in commercial computer games is seldom implemented, be- cause machine learning techniques require numerous trials to learn efiective behaviour. To allow fast adaptation in games, in this paper we describe a means of learning that is inspired by the human capability to solve problems by generalising over limited experiences with the problem domain. We compare

Sander Bakkes; Pieter Spronck

415

Optimisation of the utilisation of cashew apple in yogurt production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew apple was used as a nutritional additive in the production of yogurt. The yogurt so produced (CAY-A) had a higher vitamin C content of 53.70g\\/100ml than both samples B and C with values 14.1\\/100ml and 19.2g\\/100ml of vitamin C respectively. The cashew apple fortified yogurt was evaluated for physicochemical parameters like pH, refractive index, dpecific gravity, titratable acidity, ash,

S. O. Aroyeun

2004-01-01

416

Synthesis and utilisation of graphene for fabrication of electrochemical sensors.  

PubMed

This review summarises the most recent contributions in the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical biosensors in recent years. It discusses the synthesis and application of graphene to the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical sensors, its analytical performance and future prospects. An increasing number of reviews and publications involving graphene sensors have been reported ever since the first design of graphene electrochemical biosensor. The large surface area and good electrical conductivity of graphene allow it to act as an "electron wire" between the redox centres of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface, which make it a very excellent material for the design of electrochemical biosensors. Graphene promotes the different rapid electron transfers that facilitate accurate and selective detection of cytochrome-c, ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, haemoglobin, biomolecules such as glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:25281124

Lawal, Abdulazeez T

2015-01-01

417

Silica Waste Utilisation Phase II - Preliminary Laboratory Results  

SciTech Connect

A second phase of laboratory testing is being performed on waste silica from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Mexico. The main objective is to produce mixes of various combinations of hydrated lime, portland cement, and plastic fibers with the waste silica from disposal ponds to determine their suitability for use as insulating bricks in low cost housing. Silica-cement mixtures appear to have the highest flexural strength and resistance to weathering. Silica-lime mixtures appear to have the best insulating properties (lowest thermal conductivity). The addition of plastic fibers to the silica-lime mixture appears to improve both strength and weather resistance. Work is still in progress and will be completed in 1996 with the construction of various test walls in the Mexicali, Mexico area.

Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.L.

1995-01-01

418

OPERATIONALISING EQUITABLE AND REASONABLE UTILISATION: PRACTICE ON THE COLUMBIA RIVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, the U.S. and Canada agreed to an extension of the sale of Canada's downstream power benefits in the U.S., just preceding the electrical energy crisis brought about by de-regulation in California and the drought in the Pacific Northwest. The Columbia River Treaty regime is a unique model of the co-operative development of an international watercourse, one that incorporates

Patricia Jones

419

L'utilisation de la télévision en éducation des adultes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article consists of various arguments invoqued in the rationalisations used to justify educational television. It also brings out, in these arguments, criteria that may be used to make a judgement on the pertinence of a televised intervention in the Quebec adult education context.

Robert Saucier

1981-01-01

420

Solar Energy Utilisation Potential of three different Swiss Urban Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides providing a more efficient energy use, a large scale application of solar energy technologies in the urban context will be required in the upcoming decades to achieve a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the biosphere. Three different urban sites, representative of three of the largest Swiss cities (Basel, Geneva and Lausanne), were examined in order to assess

M Montavon; J-L Scartezzini; R Compagnon

421

Improving Pain Recognition Through Better Utilisation of Temporal Information  

PubMed Central

Automatically recognizing pain from video is a very useful application as it has the potential to alert carers to patients that are in discomfort who would otherwise not be able to communicate such emotion (i.e young children, patients in postoperative care etc.). In previous work [1], a “pain-no pain” system was developed which used an AAM-SVM approach to good effect. However, as with any task involving a large amount of video data, there are memory constraints that need to be adhered to and in the previous work this was compressing the temporal signal using K-means clustering in the training phase. In visual speech recognition, it is well known that the dynamics of the signal play a vital role in recognition. As pain recognition is very similar to the task of visual speech recognition (i.e. recognising visual facial actions), it is our belief that compressing the temporal signal reduces the likelihood of accurately recognising pain. In this paper, we show that by compressing the spatial signal instead of the temporal signal, we achieve better pain recognition. Our results show the importance of the temporal signal in recognizing pain, however, we do highlight some problems associated with doing this due to the randomness of a patient’s facial actions.

Lucey, Patrick; Howlett, Jessica; Cohn, Jeff; Lucey, Simon; Sridharan, Sridha; Ambadar, Zara

2010-01-01

422

Industrial energy utilisation in Karnataka and potential savings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is essential for industrial production. Because of the past abundance of low-cost energy, historically, the rate of social progress among industrial societies has not been limited by energy availability. Energy cost has not been significant when compared with no energy use. Mechanisation of agriculture, increased use of electrical appliances in the domestic sector and rapid industrialisation to meet the

T. V. Ramachandra; D. K. Subramanian

1997-01-01

423

Statistiques d'utilisation COUNTER : harmoniser pour dcider  

E-print Network

des statistiques date du milieu des années 1990 (Duy 2004), COUNTER (Counting Online Usage établissements multi-sites/multi-services (cf. Bevan et al. 2005). Or, quelle information les éditeurs etc'une société à but non lucratif, « Counter Online Metrics ». Aujourd'hui, le succès et là : Selon l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Utilising improvement science methods to optimise medication reconciliation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn 2005, The Joint Commission included medication reconciliation as a National Patient Safety Goal to reduce medication errors related to omissions, duplications and interactions. Hospitals continue to struggle to implement successful programmes that meet these objectives.MethodsThe authors used improvement methods and reliability principles to develop and implement a process for medication reconciliation completion at admission at a large, paediatric medical

Christine M White; Pamela J Schoettker; Patrick H Conway; Maria Geiser; Jason Olivea; Raymond Pruett; Uma R Kotagal

2011