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1

Drug utilisation studies as tools in health economics.  

PubMed

Drug utilisation and many pharmacoeconomic studies use pharmacoepidemiological methods characterised by the study of drugs from a socioeconomic perspective. Drug utilisation studies may be defined as studies of the marketing, distribution, prescription and use of drugs in a society, with special emphasis on the resulting medical, social and economic consequences. Pharmacoeconomic studies are used to measure drug efficiency, through comparison of the costs and effects of alternative therapies. Drug utilisation studies can provide highly valuable information, at a reasonable price, on the costs and effects (harmful and beneficial) of drugs. Such studies make available much useful information including indirect data on morbidity, the pharmaceutical component of the treatment cost of an illness, therapeutic compliance, the incidence of adverse reactions, the effectiveness of drug consumption and the choice of comparators. This information can be of great use in the subsequent elaboration of pharmacoeconomic studies, or in the selection of problematic areas in which these studies may be applied. Pharmacoeconomic studies, in turn, can be used to discover the economic repercussions of inappropriate prescribing and to quantify the cost effectiveness of various therapeutic interventions. The use of drug utilisation studies in conjunction with pharmacoeconomic analysis can result in more cost effective utilisation of medicines and a better utilisation of pharmacoeconomic methods, both of which contribute to a more rational use of drugs. PMID:10147239

Sacristán, J A; Soto, J

1994-04-01

2

Differential patterns of dehydroabietic acid biotransformation by Nicotiana tabacum and Catharanthus roseus cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use whole cell catalysts as tools for modification of selected resin acids in order to obtain value-added functional derivatives. The enzymatic bioconversion capacities of two plant species were tested towards dehydroabietic acid. Dehydroabietic acid (DHA) is an abundant resin acid in conifers, representing a natural wood protectant. It is also one of the constituents found in by-products of the kraft chemical pulping industry. DHA was fed to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plant cell and tissue cultures and bioconversion product formation was monitored using NMR analysis. Both plant species took up DHA from culture medium, and various types of typical detoxification processes occurred in both cultures. In addition, diverse responses to DHA treatment were observed, including differences in uptake kinetics, chemical modification of added substrate and changes in overall metabolism of the cells. Interestingly, Catharanthus roseus, a host species for pharmaceutically valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids, exhibited a very different bioconversion pattern for exogenously applied DHA than tobacco, which does not possess a terpenoid indole pathway. In tobacco, DHA is readily glycosylated in the carbonyl group, whereas in periwinkle it is proposed that a cytochrome P450-catalyzed enzymatic detoxification reaction takes place before the formation of glycosylated product. PMID:22178236

Häkkinen, Suvi T; Lackman, Petri; Nygrén, Heli; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rischer, Heiko

2012-01-20

3

Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

2012-02-01

4

Abietic and dehydroabietic acid derivatives from needle-free shoots of shoots of Pinus sylvestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl ethers of hydroxy and keto derivatives of abietic and dehydroabietic acids — 12a-hydroxy- and 12-ketoabietic and 12-hydroxy-, 15-hydroxy-, and 17-ketodehydroabietic acids — have been isolated from an extract of needle-free shoots of the Scotch pine and have been identified in the form of methyl esters.

V. I. Roshchin; L. A. Kolodynskaya; V. A. Raldugin; V. A. Pentegova

1985-01-01

5

Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented to improve communication on all levels and reduce systemic barriers operating within the health system. PMID:23497140

2013-01-01

6

Impact of headache on sickness absence and utilisation of medical services: a Danish population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study the extent and type of health service utilisation, medication habits, and sickness absence due to the primary headaches. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional epidemiological survey of headache disorders in a general population. Headache was diagnosed according to a structured interview and a neurological examination using the criteria of the International Headache Society. SETTING--A random

B K Rasmussen; R Jensen; J Olesen

1992-01-01

7

Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC2 Induces Oncosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Aim. Rosin, the traditional Chinese medicine, is reported to be able to inhibit skin cancer cell lines. In this report, we investigate the inhibitory effect against HCC cells of QC2, the derivative of rosin's main components dehydroabietic acid. Methods. MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of QC2. Morphological changes were observed by time-lapse microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the cytoskeleton changes were observed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by detection of the reactive oxygen (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). The underlying mechanism was manifested by Western blotting. The oncotic cell death was further confirmed by detection of oncosis related protein calpain. Results. Swelling cell type and destroyed cytoskeleton were observed in QC2-treated HCC cells. Organelle damage was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The detection of ROS accumulation, increased LDH release, and decreased ATP and ??m confirmed the cell death. The oncotic related protein calpain was found to increase time-dependently in QC2-treated HCC cells, while its inhibitor PD150606 attenuated the cytotoxicity. Conclusions. Dehydroabietic acid derivative QC2 activated oncosis related protein calpain to induce the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis in HCC cells. PMID:25110686

Zhang, Guang; Jiang, Chunping; Wang, Zhongxia; Chen, Weibo; Gu, Wen; Ding, Yitao

2014-01-01

8

Bioavailability of benzo(a)pyrene and dehydroabietic acid from a few lake waters containing varying dissolved organic carbon concentrations to Daphnia magna  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters consists of a great variety of organic molecules. Some of these molecules have been identified but most of them cannot be identified. This unidentified group of heterogeneous organic macromolecules is considered as humic substances. The role of humic substances in water chemistry and in aquatic toxicology is receiving increasing attention. The effects of DOC on the bioavailability of organic pollutants have been demonstrated in several studies. A decreased bioavailability has been demonstrated in most cases. Both the quantity and the quality of DOC are suggested determinants of this apparent ecotoxicological buffer of inland waters worldwide. In this study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) in Daphnia magna using a wide range of naturally occurring DOC levels. Another objective was to associate the reduced bioavailability with the chemical characteristics of water and DOC.

Oikari, A.; Kukkonen, J. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland))

1990-07-01

9

Drug Utilisation Study in a Tertiary Care Center: Recommendations for Improving Hospital Drug Dispensing Policies  

PubMed Central

Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R.; Singh, I.; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S.

2014-01-01

10

A pilot study of the utilisation and outcome of community orders: Client, carer, case manager and Mental Health Review Tribunal perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health problems are a major public health concern due to their prevalence and impact at a personal, family, social and economic level. Compulsory community treatment is being utilised as a health care approach, despite much disagreement and lack of Australian research demonstrating its effectiveness. This pilot study investigated the utilisation and outcomes of community orders from the perspective of

SALIH OZGUL; SCOTT BRUNERO

11

Anguilla anguilla L. plasma cortisol, lactate and glucose responses to abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and retene.  

PubMed

Anguilla anguilla L. were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 microM abietic (AA), dehydroabietic (DHAA) acids and retene (Re) during 8, 16, 24 and 72 h. The eels plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate were measured. A significant decrease in plasma cortisol was observed at 72 h exposure to 0.9 and 2.7 microM Re. DHAA (0.1 microM) significantly decreased plasma cortisol in eels after 8 and 24 h exposure. However, a significant plasma cortisol increase was found after 16 h, 2.7 microM AA exposure and after 24 h exposure to 0.1 microM and 2.7 microM AA. Furthermore, 72 h exposure to 0.9 microM AA also induced a plasma cortisol increase. A general rise in plasma glucose was detected after all exposure periods to Re. The plasma lactate also increased after 72 h exposure to 2.7 microM AA and after 8 h exposure to 0.1 microM DHAA. PMID:14592577

Teles, M; Maria, V L; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

2004-01-01

12

Effect of Frailty on Functional Gain, Resource Utilisation, and Discharge Destination: An Observational Prospective Study in a GEM Ward  

PubMed Central

Background. A geriatric evaluation and management unit (GEM) manages elderly inpatients with functional impairments. There is a paucity of literature on frailty and whether this impacts on rehabilitation outcomes. Objectives. To examine frailty score (FS) as a predictor of functional gain, resource utilisation, and destinations for GEM patients. Methods. A single centre prospective case study design. Participants (n = 136) were ?65 years old and admitted to a tertiary hospital GEM. Five patients were excluded by the preset exclusion criteria, that is, medically unstable, severe dementia or communication difficulties after stroke. Core data included demographics, frailty score (FS), and functional independence. Results. The mean functional improvement (FIM) from admission to discharge was 11.26 (95% CI 8.87, 13.66; P < 0.001). Discharge FIM was positively correlated with admission FIM (? = 0.748; P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with frailty score (? = ?1.151; P = 0.014). The majority of the patients were in the “frail” group. “Frail” and “severely frail” subgroups improved more on mean FIM scores at discharge, relative to that experienced by the “pre-frail” group. Conclusion. All patients experienced functional improvement. Frailer patients improved more on their FIM and improved relatively more than their prefrail counterparts. Higher frailty correlated with reduced independence and greater resource utilisation. This study demonstrates that FS could be a prognostic indicator of physical independence and resource utilisation. PMID:24695584

Kawryshanker, Sujatha; Raymond, Warren; Inderjeeth, Charles A.

2014-01-01

13

Low utilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran, despite their affordability (2000–2012): a time-series and benchmarking study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited data exist on the status of access to diabetes medicines in LMICs. We assessed the utilisation and affordability of diabetes medicines in Iran as a middle-income country. Design We used a retrospective time-series design (2000–2012) and assessed national diabetes medicines’ utilisation using pharmaceuticals wholesale data. Methods We calculated defined daily dose consumptions per population days (DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day; DIDs) indicator. Findings were benchmarked with data from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We also employed Drug Utilization-90% (DU-90) method to compare DU-90s with the Essential Medicines List published by the WHO. We measured affordability using number of minimum daily wage required to purchase a treatment course for 1?month. Results Diabetes medicines’ consumption increased from 4.47 to 33.54 DIDs. The benchmarking showed that medicines’ utilisation in Iran in 2011 was only 54% of the median DIDs of 22 OECD countries. Oral hypoglycaemic agents consisted over 80% of use throughout the study period. Regular and isophane insulin (NPH), glibenclamide, metformin and gliclazide were the DU-90 drugs in 2012. Metformin, glibenclamide and regular/NPH insulin combination therapy were affordable throughout the study period (?0.4, ?0.1, ?0.3 of minimum daily wage, respectively). While the affordability of novel insulin preparations improved over time, they were still unaffordable in 2012. Conclusions The utilisation of diabetes medicines was relatively low, perhaps due to underdiagnosis and inadequate management of patients with diabetes. This had occurred despite affordability of essential diabetes medicines in Iran. Appropriate policies are required to address the underutilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran. PMID:25324322

Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah

2014-01-01

14

Clinical outcomes and resource utilisation in Medicare patients with chronic liver disease: a historical cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to assess recent trends in health resource utilisation and patient outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries with chronic liver disease (CLD). Setting Liver-related mortality is the 10th leading cause of death in the USA, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the major causes of CLD. As the US population ages and becomes more obese, the impact of CLD is expected to become more prominent for the Medicare population. Participants This is a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of CLD based on inpatient (N=21?576; 14?977 unique patients) and outpatient (N=515?990; 244?196 patients) claims from 2005 to 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study outcomes included hospital length of stay (LOS) and inpatient mortality as well as inpatient and outpatient inflation-adjusted payments. Results Between 2005 and 2010, there was an annual decrease in LOS of 3.17% for CLD-related hospitalisations. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality decreased (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.94), while short-term postdischarge mortality remained stable (1.00, 0.98 to 1.03). Inpatient per-claim payment increased from $11?769 in 2005 to $12?347 in 2010 (p=0.0006). Similarly, the average yearly payments for outpatient care increased from $366 to $404 (p<0.0001). This change in payment was observed together with a consistent decrease in the proportion of beneficiary-paid amount (25.4–20%, p<0.0001) as opposed to Medicare-paid amount (73.1–80%, p<0.0001). The major predictors of higher outpatient payments were younger age, Asian race or Hispanic ethnicity, living in California, and having more diagnoses and outpatient procedures per claim. The predictors of inpatient spending also included younger age, location and the number of inpatient procedures. Conclusions Length of inpatient stay and inpatient mortality among Medicare beneficiaries with CLD decreased, while inpatient and outpatient spending increased. PMID:24838722

Younossi, Zobair M; Zheng, Li; Stepanova, Maria; Venkatesan, Chapy; Mishra, Alita

2014-01-01

15

Utilisation of Healthcare and Associated Services in Huntington’s disease: a data mining study  

PubMed Central

Background: People with Huntington’s disease (HD) often require tailored healthcare and support packages that develop as the disease progresses. The Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI) gathers retrospective information on service utilization. This study investigated the use of formal services and informal care as measured by the CSRI and explored associations between informal care, disease severity and functional ability as measured by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS) and functional scales. Methods: All monitored longitudinal data from annual clinical assessments of UHDRS-TMS and functional assessments and CSRI collected under the auspices of the European Huntington’s Disease Network (EHDN) REGISTRY study between the years 2004 and 2009 were utilised in the analyses. Disease severity was reflected by UHDRS-TMS. Functional ability was measured using the UHDRS functional scales. CSRI data were analysed according to percentage use of individual formal services and total estimated hours per week of informal care. Regression analyses were conducted to identify any associations between disease severity, functional ability and hours of informal care. Results: 451 HD patients (212 female; 239 male) completed one visit; 105 patients (54 females; 51 males) completed two visits and 47 patients (20 females; 27 males) completed three visits in total over the 5 year period. The mean time between visits was 1.2 years. At visit one, 74% of the participants reported being in receipt of at least one formal hospital-based service in the previous six months, and 89% reported receipt of formal primary and community care services. In contrast, at the third visit, 62% of people had used hospital based services and 94% formal community based services in the previous six months. Fifty % of individuals required some form of informal care in the home at visit 1; this increased to 68% at visits 2 and 3. The mean (SD) estimated weekly total informal care hours at visits 1, 2 and 3 were 32.8 (49.4); 21.6 (53.6) and 21.3 (62.4) respectively. Only the scores on the Functional Assessment Scale (FAS) accounted for the variance in the weekly total informal care hours at each visit. Conclusions: Although it must be acknowledged that service use is supply driven, most HD patients across Europe surveyed as part of this study were in receipt of formal primary and community care services and to a lesser extent formal hospital based services. There was however a large reliance on informal care in the home. The FAS appear to have predictive value on informal care requirements and may have utility in facilitating pro-active service provision and in particular when managing carer burden in this population. PMID:21304753

Busse, Monica; Al-Madfai, Dr. Hasan; Kenkre, Joyce; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Bentivoglio, AnnaRita; Rosser, Anne

2011-01-01

16

The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

2014-01-01

17

Under-reporting of inpatient services utilisation in household surveys – a population-based study in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background Recognising that household interviews may produce biased estimates of health services utilisation, we examined for under- and over-reporting of hospitalisation episodes in three recent, consecutive population-based household surveys in Hong Kong. Methods Territory-wide inpatient service utilisation volumes as estimated from the 1999, 2001 and 2002 Thematic Household Surveys (THS) were benchmarked against corresponding statistics derived from routine administrative databases. Between-year differences on net under-reporting were quantified by Cohen's d effect size. To assess the potential for systematic biases in under-reporting, age- and sex-specific net under-reporting rates within each survey year were computed and the F-test was performed to evaluate differences between demographic subgroups. We modelled the effects of age and sex on the likelihood of ever hospitalisation through logistic regression to compare the odds ratios respectively derived from survey and administrative data. Results The extent of net under-reporting was moderately large in all three years amounting to about one-third of all inpatient episodes. However, there did not appear to be significant systematic biases in the degree of under-reporting by age or sex on stratified analyses and logistic regression modelling. Conclusion Under-reporting was substantial in Hong Kong's THS. Recall bias was likely most responsible for such reporting inaccuracies. A proper full-design record-check study should be carried out to confirm the present findings. PMID:15860127

Tsui, Eva LH; Leung, Gabriel M; Woo, Pauline PS; Choi, Sarah; Lo, Su-Vui

2005-01-01

18

The Australian Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Immunotherapy Study: A Prospective, Multicentre Study of Drug Utilisation Using the MSBase Platform  

PubMed Central

Objective To prospectively characterise treatment persistence and predictors of treatment discontinuation in an Australian relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) population. Methods Tertiary MS treatment centres participating in the MSBase registry prospectively assessed treatment utilisation, persistence, predictors of treatment discontinuation and switch rates. Multivariable survival analyses were used to compare treatment persistence between drugs and to identify predictors of treatment discontinuation. Results 1113 RRMS patients were studied. Patients persisted on their first disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for a median of 2.5 years. Treatment persistence on GA was shorter than on all IFN? products (p<0.03). Younger age at treatment initiation and higher EDSS were predictive of DMT discontinuation. Patients persisted on subsequent DMTs, for 2.3 years. Patients receiving natalizumab (NAT) as a subsequent DMT persisted longer on treatment than those on IFN? or GA (p<0.000). The primary reason for treatment discontinuation for any drug class was poor tolerability. Annualised switch or cessation rates were 9.5–12.5% for individual IFN? products, 11.6% for GA and 4.4% for NAT. Conclusion This multicentre MS cohort study is the first to directly compare treatment persistence on IFN? and GA to NAT. We report that treatment persistence in our Australian RRMS population is short, although patients receiving IFN? as a first DMT persisted longer on treatment than those on GA. Additionally, patients receiving NAT as a subsequent DMT were more likely to persist on treatment than those switched to IFN? or GA. EDSS and age at DMT initiation were predictive of DMT discontinuation. Treatment intolerance was the principal reason for treatment cessation. PMID:23527252

Jokubaitis, Vilija G.; Spelman, Tim; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Barnett, Michael; Shaw, Cameron; Vucic, Steve; Liew, Danny; on behalf of the Australian MSBase Study Group

2013-01-01

19

Inequities in accessibility to and utilisation of maternal health services in Ghana after user-fee exemption: a descriptive study.  

PubMed

IntroductionInequities in accessibility to, and utilisation of maternal healthcare services impede progress towards attainment of the maternal health-related Millennium Development Goals. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which maternal health services are utilised in Ghana, and whether inequities in accessibility to and utilization of services have been eliminated following the implementation of a user-fee exemption policy, that aims to reduce financial barriers to access, reduce inequities in access, and improve access to and use of birthing services.MethodsWe analyzed data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey for inequities in access to and utilization of maternal health services. In measuring the inequities, frequency tables and cross-tabulations were used to compare rates of service utilization by region, residence and selected socio-demographic variables.ResultsFindings show marginal increases in accessibility to and utilisation of skilled antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services following the policy implementation (2003¿2007). However, large gradients of inequities exist between geographic regions, urban and rural areas, and different socio-demographic, religious and ethnic groupings. More urban women (40%) than rural, 53% more women in the highest wealth quintile than women in the lowest, 38% more women in the best performing region (Central Region) than the worst (Upper East Region), and 48% more women with at least secondary education than those with no formal education, accessed and used all components of skilled maternal health services in the five years preceding the survey. Our findings raise questions about the potential equity and distributional benefits of Ghana¿s user-fee exemption policy, and the role of non-financial barriers or considerations.ConclusionExempting user-fees for maternal health services is a promising policy option for improving access to maternal health care, but might be insufficient on its own to secure equitable access to maternal health services in Ghana. Ensuring equity in access will require moving beyond user-fee exemption to addressing wider issues of supply and demand factors and the social determinants of health, including redistributing healthcare resources and services, and redressing the positional vulnerability of women in their communities. PMID:25388288

Ganle, John K; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon

2014-11-01

20

Dehydroabietic acid reverses TNF-?-induced the activation of FOXO1 and suppression of TGF-?1/Smad signaling in human adult dermal fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Wound healing impairment is a well-documented phenomenon in clinical and experimental diabetes, and in diabetic wound healing impaired fibroblast has been linked to increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). A number of signaling pathways including TNF-?/forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)/Smads in fibroblasts appear to play a cardinal role in diabetic wound healing. Dehydroabietic acid (DAA) is obtained from Commiphora oppbalsamum and inhibits the production of TNF-? in macrophages and adipocytes, decreases the level of TNF-? in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice, but its effect on diabetic wound healing is unknown. This study was to investigate the effect of DAA on TNF-?-stimulated human adult dermal fibroblasts. On the one hand, TNF-? significantly decreased the fibroblast proliferation and the expression of PCNA, Ki67 and cyclin D1, increased the fibroblast apoptosis, caspase-8/3 activity, expressions of cleaved caspase-8 and caspase-3, decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and increased activation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor FOXO1. All the above-mentioned cell responses were remarkably reversed by DAA. On the other hand, TNF-? also inhibited TGF-?1-induced the Smad3 signaling pathway what is closely related to the fibroblast migration and the differentiation of myofibroblasts. However, DAA significantly promoted the migration and increased the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin under the stimulus of a combination of TNF-? and TGF-?1. In conclusion, DAA could reverse several cell responses stimulated by TNF-?, including the activation of FOXO1 and the TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These results suggested that DAA could be useful in improving the diabetic wound healing.

Wang, Xiao-Wei; Yu, Yong; Gu, Lei

2014-01-01

21

Estimation of drought and flood recurrence interval from historical discharge data: a case study utilising the power law distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of which statistical distribution to fit to historical discharge data is critical when attempting to predict the most extreme flows. It has been shown that depending upon the distribution selected, the calculated return periods can vary dramatically. Cunnane (1985) discussed the factors affecting the choice of distribution for river flow series data, and was able to show that small differences in the Extreme Value Type 1 (Gumbel), Type 2, and Type 3 can lead to large differences in the predicted return period. Indeed this divergence increases as the return period becomes larger: a finding which has obvious implications for fluvial management. Despite this, in many studies which fit a frequency-magnitude distribution to fluvial discharge data, the choice of distribution appears driven by regional convention, or even by some other apparently arbitrary factor. Benson (1968) analysed data for ten US stations, and compared the fit using the log-normal, gamma, Gumbel, log-Gumbel, Hazen and log-Pearson type 3 distributions. On the basis of this study alone, the standard approach to flow frequency estimation in the USA became the fitting of a log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) distribution (US Water Resources Council, 1982). While several other countries have adopted a similar approach, usage of the LP3 distribution is not geographically universal. Hydrologists in the United Kingdom conventionally utilise a fitted generalised logistic distribution for flow frequency estimation (Robson and Reed, 1999) while Chinese hydrologists utilise the log-normal distribution (Singh, 2002). Choice of fitted distribution is obviously crucial, since selecting one distribution rather than another will change the estimated probabilities of future droughts and floods, particularly the largest and rarest events. Malamud et al. (1996) showed that a flood of equivalent size to that experienced on the Mississippi in 1993 has a recurrence interval on the order of 100 years when a power-law distribution is fitted, but a much longer recurrence interval — on the order of 1000 years — using the USA's standard LP3 method. In addition Pandey et al. (1998) found that fitting a power-law distribution, compared with fitting a Generalized Extreme Value distribution, can lead to a large decrease in the predicted return period for a given flood event. Both these findings have obvious implications for river management design. Power-law distributions have been fitted to fluvial discharge data by many authors (most notably by Malamud et al., 1996 and Pandey et al., 1998), who then use these fitted distributions to estimate flow probabilities. These authors found that the power-law performed as well or better than many of the distributions currently used around the world, despite utilising fewer parameters. The power-law has not, however, been officially adopted by any country for fitting to fluvial discharge data. This paper demonstrates a statistically robust method, based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation, for fitting a power-law distribution to mean daily streamflows. The fitted distribution is then used to calculate return periods, which are compared to the return periods obtained by other, more commonly used, distributions. The implications for river management, extremes of flow in particular, are then explored.

Eadie, Chris; Favis-Mortlock, David

2010-05-01

22

Stroke patients’ utilisation of extrinsic feedback from computer-based technology in the home: a multiple case study realistic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence indicates that post???stroke rehabilitation improves function, independence and quality of life. A key aspect of rehabilitation is the provision of appropriate information and feedback to the learner. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have allowed for the development of various systems to complement stroke rehabilitation that could be used in the home setting. These systems may increase the provision of rehabilitation a stroke survivor receives and carries out, as well as providing a learning platform that facilitates long-term self-managed rehabilitation and behaviour change. This paper describes the application of an innovative evaluative methodology to explore the utilisation of feedback for post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home. Methods Using the principles of realistic evaluation, this study aimed to test and refine intervention theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes that arise from technology deployment in the home. Methods included focus groups followed by multi-method case studies (n?=?5) before, during and after the use of computer-based equipment. Data were analysed in relation to the context-mechanism-outcome hypotheses case by case. This was followed by a synthesis of the findings to answer the question, ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances and respects?’ Results Data analysis reveals that to achieve desired outcomes through the use of ICT, key elements of computer feedback, such as accuracy, measurability, rewarding feedback, adaptability, and knowledge of results feedback, are required to trigger the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the intervention. In addition, the pre-existing context and the personal and environmental contexts, such as previous experience of service delivery, personal goals, trust in the technology, and social circumstances may also enable or constrain the underpinning theory-driven mechanisms. Conclusions Findings suggest that the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the utilisation of feedback from computer-based technology for home-based upper-limb post-stroke rehabilitation are dependent on key elements of computer feedback and the personal and environmental context. The identification of these elements may therefore inform the development of technology; therapy education and the subsequent adoption of technology and a self-management paradigm; long-term self-managed rehabilitation; and importantly, improvements in the physical and psychosocial aspects of recovery. PMID:24903401

2014-01-01

23

Comparison of two alternative study designs in assessment of medicines utilisation in neonates  

PubMed Central

Background Estimates of prevalence are known to be affected by the design of cross-sectional studies. A pan-European study provided an opportunity to compare the effect of two cross-sectional study designs on estimates of medicines use. Methods A Service evaluation survey (SES) and a web-based point-prevalence study (PPS) were conducted as part of a European study of neonatal exposure to excipients. Neonatal units from all European Union countries plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Serbia were invited to participate. All medicines prescribed to neonates were recorded during three-day and one-day study periods in the SES and PPS, respectively. In the PPS individual demographic and prescription data were also collected. To compare the probabilities that a particular medicine would be reported by each study multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models with crossed random effects were applied. The relationship between medicines exposure at the unit and individual levels in the PPS data was assessed using polynomial regression with square root transformation. Results Of 31 invited countries 20 and 21 with 115 and 89 units joined the SES and PPS, respectively. Out of 5,572,859 live births in invited countries in 2010 a higher proportion was covered by units participating in the SES compared to the PPS (11% vs 6%, respectively; OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.87-1.89). A greater number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), manufacturers and trade names were registered in the SES compared to the PPS. High correlation between the two studies in frequency of use for each specified API was seen (R2?=?0.86). The average probability of a department to use a given API was greater in the SES compared to the PPS (OR 2.36; 95% CI 2.05-2.73) with higher frequency of use and longer average duration of prescription further increasing the difference. The polynomial regression model described the correlation between APIs exposure on unit and individual level well (R2?=?0.93). Conclusion The simple data structure and longer study period of the SES resulted in improved recruitment and higher likelihood of capture for a given API. The frequency of use at the unit level appears a good surrogate of individual exposure rates. PMID:25027048

2014-01-01

24

Study of calcification formation and disease diagnostics utilising advanced vibrational spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and safe diagnosis of breast cancer is a significant societal issue, with annual disease incidence of 48,000 women and around 370 men in the UK. Early diagnosis of the disease allows more conservative treatments and better patient outcomes. Microcalcifications in breast tissue are an important indicator for breast cancers, and often the only sign of their presence. Several studies have suggested that the type of calcification formed may act as a marker for malignancy and its presence may be of biological significance. In this work, breast calcifications are studied with FTIR, synchrotron FTIR, ATR FTIR, and Raman mapping to explore their disease specific composition. From a comparison between vibrational spectroscopy and routine staining procedures it becomes clear that calcium builds up prior to calcification formation. Raman and FTIR indicate the same size for calcifications and are in agreement with routine staining techniques. From the synchrotron FTIR measurements it can be proven that amide is present in the centre of the calcifications and the intensity of the bands depends on the pathology. Special attention is paid to the type of carbonate substitution in the calcifications relating to different pathology grades. In contrast to mammography, Raman spectroscopy has the capability to distinguish calcifications based on their chemical composition. The ultimate goal is to turn the acquired knowledge from the mapping studies into a clinical tool based on deep Raman spectroscopy. Deep Raman techniques have a considerable potential to reduce large numbers of normal biopsies, reduce the time delay between screening and diagnosis and therefore diminish patient anxiety. In order to achieve this, a deep Raman system is designed and after evaluation of its performance tested on buried calcification standards in porcine soft tissue and human mammary tissue. It is shown that, when the calcification is probed through tissue, the strong 960 cm-1 phosphate band can be used as a pseudo marker for carbonate substitution which is related to the pathology of the surrounding tissue. Furthermore, the first study in which human breast calcifications are measured in bulk tissue with a thickness of several millimetres to centimetres is presented. To date, measurements have been performed at 41 specimens with a thickness up to 25 mm. Measurements could be performed through skin and blue dye. The proposed deep Raman technique is promising for probing of calcifications through tissue but will need refinement before being adopted in hospitals.

Kerssens, Marleen Maartje

25

Statin utilisation patterns in older Australians living in residential care: 1-year prevalence study.  

PubMed

Despite controversy over the risks and benefits of statin therapy, statins continue to be commonly used medicines by older people. In a cohort study of participants aged ?70 years (n = 540) living in residential care, Sydney, we found that the proportion of statin users decreased gradually from the baseline of 33.1% to 31.3% at 6 months (P = 0.13) and to 28.7% over 1 year (P = 0.002). Prevalence of statin use decreased with increasing age, with individuals aged ?90 years being more likely to discontinue or deprescribe statins. The patterns of statin use did not change according to increasing baseline dose or baseline indication. PMID:25582939

Gnjidic, D; Wilson, N; March, L; Cumming, R G; Cameron, I D; Hilmer, S N

2015-01-01

26

Utilising a collective case study system theory mixed methods approach: a rural health example  

PubMed Central

Background Insight into local health service provision in rural communities is limited in the literature. The dominant workforce focus in the rural health literature, while revealing issues of shortage of maldistribution, does not describe service provision in rural towns. Similarly aggregation of data tends to render local health service provision virtually invisible. This paper describes a methodology to explore specific aspects of rural health service provision with an initial focus on understanding rurality as it pertains to rural physiotherapy service provision. Method A system theory-case study heuristic combined with a sequential mixed methods approach to provide a framework for both quantitative and qualitative exploration across sites. Stakeholder perspectives were obtained through surveys and in depth interviews. The investigation site was a large area of one Australian state with a mix of rural, regional and remote communities. Results 39 surveys were received from 11 locations within the investigation site and 19 in depth interviews were conducted. Stakeholder perspectives of rurality and workforce numbers informed the development of six case types relevant to the exploration of rural physiotherapy service provision. Participant perspective of rurality often differed with the geographical classification of their location. The numbers of onsite colleagues and local access to health services contributed to participant perceptions of rurality. Conclusions The complexity of understanding the concept of rurality was revealed by interview participants when providing their perspectives about rural physiotherapy service provision. Dual measures, such as rurality and workforce numbers, provide more relevant differentiation of sites to explore specific services, such rural physiotherapy service provision, than single measure of rurality as defined by geographic classification. The system theory-case study heuristic supports both qualitative and quantitative exploration in rural health services research. PMID:25066241

2014-01-01

27

Obesity in pregnancy: a retrospective prevalence-based study on health service utilisation and costs on the NHS  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the direct healthcare cost of being overweight or obese throughout pregnancy to the National Health Service in Wales. Design Retrospective prevalence-based study. Setting Combined linked anonymised electronic datasets gathered on a cohort of women enrolled on the Growing Up in Wales: Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) study. Women were categorised into two groups: normal body mass index (BMI; n=260) and overweight/obese (BMI>25; n=224). Participants 484 singleton pregnancies with available health service records and an antenatal BMI. Primary outcome measure Total health service utilisation (comprising all general practitioner visits and prescribed medications, inpatient admissions and outpatient visits) and direct healthcare costs for providing these services in the year 2011–2012. Costs are calculated as cost of mother (no infant costs are included) and are related to health service usage throughout pregnancy and 2?months following delivery. Results There was a strong association between healthcare usage cost and BMI (p<0.001). Adjusting for maternal age, parity, ethnicity and comorbidity, mean total costs were 23% higher among overweight women (rate ratios (RR)?1.23, 95% CI 1.230 to 1.233) and 37% higher among obese women (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.39) compared with women with normal weight. Adjusting for smoking, consumption of alcohol, or the presence of any comorbidities did not materially affect the results. The total mean cost estimates were £3546.3 for normal weight, £4244.4 for overweight and £4717.64 for obese women. Conclusions Increased health service usage and healthcare costs during pregnancy are associated with increasing maternal BMI; this was apparent across all health services considered within this study. Interventions costing less than £1171.34 per person could be cost-effective if they reduce healthcare usage among obese pregnant women to levels equivalent to that of normal weight women. PMID:24578535

Morgan, Kelly L; Rahman, Muhammad A; Macey, Steven; Atkinson, Mark D; Hill, Rebecca A; Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Paranjothy, Shantini; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Brophy, Sinead T

2014-01-01

28

Analysis of a fibre laser welding case study, utilising a matrix flow chart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For fibre laser welding of an eccentric corner joint, the quality of the resulting weld cross section was studied with respect to the dependence on process parameters like lateral laser beam alignment, beam inclination, focal plane position or welding speed. The complex load situation of the support beamer was simplified to bending of one corner. Due to fatigue load, the weld properties causing the peak stress are essential, in particular the top and root shape of the weld cross section. For the parameters varied, the resulting shapes were categorized into different top and root classes, determined by certain key dimensions, considering also welding defects like undercuts. The shapes are boundary conditions for Finite Element Analysis of the joint under load for quantitative comparative analysis of the maximum stress. As two high strength steel grades were joined, the hardness transition across the weld was of interest, too. High speed imaging of the weld pool surface shape provided additional information on the relation between the parameter input and quality output. The different trends identified were discussed and guidelines were derived. As the systematic documentation of results is unsatisfactory in welding, a new method was developed and applied for the first time, called the Matrix Flow Chart. It enables an illustrative view on the resulting welding trends in a combined manner and is extendable by other researchers.

Karlsson, J.; Kaplan, A. F. H.

2011-02-01

29

Effects of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one: a population-based study in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one, considering all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The second aim was to investigate the role played by mother’s educational level in the relationship between citizenship and ER utilisation. Methods The cohort study included all healthy singleton live births in the years 2008–2009 and residing in the province of Reggio Emilia, followed for the first year of life in order to study their ER visits. The outcomes were the ER utilisation rate for all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The main explanatory variable was mother’s citizenship. Other covariates were mother’s educational level, maternal age, parity, and child gender. Multivariate analyses (negative binomial regression and zero inflated when appropriate) were performed. Adjusted utilisation Rate Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Trend for age in months by citizenship is depicted. Results There were 3,191 children (36.4%) with at least one ER visit in the first year of life. Adjusted RR show a significantly greater risk of ER visit for immigrants than for Italians: (RR 1.51; 95% CI 1.39-1.63). Immigrants also had a higher risk of non-urgent visits (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.48-2.00) and for visits followed by hospitalizations (RR 1.58; 95% CI 1.33-1.89). For very urgent visits, the immigrants had a slightly higher risk compared to Italians (RR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98-1.59). The risk of ER visits is higher in the first two months of life (RR1stvs 3rd-12th 2.08; 95% CI 1.93-2.24 and RR 2ndvs 3rd-12th 1.45; 95% CI 1.33-1.58, respectively). Considering all visits, the ER utilisation rate was inversely related with maternal education only for Italians (low educational level 44.0 and high educational level 73.9 for 100 children; p value for trend test?study observed a higher use of ER services by immigrant children and, to a lesser extent, by children of less educated Italian mothers. In immigrants, the excess is mostly due to non-urgent visits and only slightly to high acute conditions. PMID:24176109

2013-01-01

30

Effects of mass and body composition on fasting fuel utilisation in grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius): an experimental study using supplementary feeding.  

PubMed

This study used supplementary feeding to test the hypothesis that fuel partitioning during the postweaning fast in grey seal pups is affected by size and composition of energy reserves at weaning, and by extra provisioning. Mass and body composition changes were measured during suckling and fasting to investigate the effect of natural differences in energy reserves at weaning on subsequent allocation of fat and protein to energy use. We fed seven pups for 5 days after weaning, to investigate the effect of increased fuel availability, and particularly protein, on fuel utilisation. After correcting for protein used during the moult, the proportional contribution of fat was 86-99% of total energy use. Pups with greater energy reserves, i.e. those that were heavier and fatter at weaning, had higher rates of fat and energy use. There was no significant relationship between adiposity at weaning and proportional contribution of fat to energy use, perhaps due to a limited sample size or range of body masses and adiposity. Supplemented individuals used energy, specifically fat, much faster and utilised proportionally less of their endogenous protein by departure than non-supplemented individuals. Fat metabolism contributed a similar percentage to daily energy use in both groups. These findings show that pups spare protein, even when energy use is dramatically increased. Pups that receive greater maternal provisioning and lay down more protein may have increased survival chances at sea. This study highlights the importance of protein reserves in first year survival of grey seal pups. PMID:17704079

Bennett, Kimberley A; Speakman, John R; Moss, Simon E W; Pomeroy, Paddy; Fedak, Mike A

2007-09-01

31

Increased utilisation of primary healthcare in persons exposed to severe stress in prenatal life: a national population-based study in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent studies have suggested that stress in a pregnant mother may affect the future health of the unborn child negatively. An excellent proxy for health problems is the use of healthcare resources. Using nationwide data, we examined whether persons born to mothers who lost a close relative during pregnancy have more contacts to general practice. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants We included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2002 (N=2?032?528). Exposure of prenatal stress was defined as maternal bereavement by the death of a close relative during the antenatal period. The outcome of interest was contact with general practice between 2003 and 2009 when the participants were between 1 and 35?years of age. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between exposure and outcome. Outcome measures Contacts to general practitioner. Results Overall, persons exposed to prenatal stress had 2% more GP contacts than those not exposed, primarily due to increased utilisation of healthcare services during late adolescence and early adulthood. The exposed persons born to mothers who had lost a spouse had a higher risk (relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.14) and so did those born to mothers who had lost a close relative due to unexpected death (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.06). Exposed persons had more contacts to general practice in daytime and more psychometric tests, talk therapies and C reactive protein tests than unexposed persons. Conclusions Prenatal stress following maternal bereavement was associated with a slightly increased utilisation of primary healthcare, mainly due to increased healthcare needs related to mental health and infections. Understanding how stress during pregnancy influences the future health of the child is an important aspect of prenatal care. PMID:25573520

Li, Jiong; Yang, Hu; Guldin, Mai-Britt; Vedsted, Peter; Vestergaard, Mogens

2015-01-01

32

Estimation of the real population and its impact on the utilisation of healthcare services in Mediterranean resort regions: an ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background The demographic structure has a significant influence on the use of healthcare services, as does the size of the population denominators. Very few studies have been published on methods for estimating the real population such as tourist resorts. The lack of information about these problems means there is a corresponding lack of information about the behaviour of populational denominators (the floating population or tourist load) and the effect of this on the use of healthcare services. The objectives of the study were: a) To determine the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ratio, per person per day, among populations of known size; b) to estimate, by means of this ratio, the real population in an area where tourist numbers are very significant; and c) to determine the impact on the utilisation of hospital emergency healthcare services of the registered population, in comparison to the non-resident population, in two areas where tourist numbers are very significant. Methods An ecological study design was employed. We analysed the Healthcare Districts of the Costa del Sol and the island of Menorca. Both are Spanish territories in the Mediterranean region. Results In the two areas analysed, the correlation coefficient between the MSW ratio and admissions to hospital emergency departments exceeded 0.9, with p < 0.001. On the basis of MSW generation ratios, obtained for a control zone and also measured in neighbouring countries, we estimated the real population. For the summer months, when tourist activity is greatest and demand for emergency healthcare at hospitals is highest, this value was found to be double that of the registered population. Conclusion The MSW indicator, which is both ecological and indirect, can be used to estimate the real population in areas where population levels vary significantly during the year. This parameter is of interest in planning and dimensioning the provision of healthcare services. PMID:17266744

Perea-Milla, Emilio; Pons, Sergi Mari; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Gallofre, Anna; Jurado, Enrique Navarro; Ales, Marco A Navarro; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto; Fernandez-Nieto, Fidel; Cerda, Joan C March; Carrasco, Manuel; Martin, Lydia; Cano, Damian Lopez; Gutierrez, Gonzalo E; Macías, Rafael Cortes; Garcia-Ruiz, Jose A

2007-01-01

33

Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternity care provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background There is little known about women’s concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners. Methods A sub-study of pregnant women (n=2445) was undertaken from the nationally-representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Women’s consultations with conventional practitioners (obstetricians, GPs and midwives) and CAM practitioners for pregnancy-related health conditions were analysed. The analysis included Pearson chi-square tests to compare categorical variables. Results The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate = 79.2%). A substantial number (49.4%) of respondents consulted with a CAM practitioner for pregnancy-related health conditions. Many participants consulted only with a CAM practitioner for assistance with certain conditions such as neck pain (74.6%) and sciatica (40.4%). Meanwhile, women consulted both CAM practitioners and conventional maternity health professionals (obstetricians, midwives and GPs) for back pain (61.8%) and gestational diabetes (22.2%). Women visiting a general practitioner (GP) 3–4 times for pregnancy care were more likely to consult with acupuncturists compared with those consulting a GP less often (p=<0.001, x2=20.5). Women who had more frequent visits to a midwife were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist (p=<0.001, x2=18.9) or a doula (p=<0.001, x2=23.2) than those visiting midwives less frequently for their pregnancy care. Conclusions The results emphasise the necessity for a considered and collaborative approach to interactions between pregnant women, conventional maternity health providers and CAM practitioners to accommodate appropriate information transferral and co-ordinated maternity care. The absence of sufficient clinical evidence regarding many commonly used CAM practices during pregnancy also requires urgent attention. PMID:23231765

2012-01-01

34

Utilisation of prehospital intravenous access.  

PubMed

Objective. To describe the use of intravenous (IV) therapy in the South African (SA) prehopsital setting, and to determine the proportion of prehopsital cannulations considered unnecessary when graded against the South African Triage Score (SATS) chart.Methods. The study was conducted in the prehospital emergency medical care setting in the Western Cape Province, SA. Using a descriptive research design, we looked at the report forms of patients treated and transported by personnel currently employed in the public sector, serving the urban and rural areas stipulated by the municipal boundaries. All medical and trauma cases in which establishment of IV access was documented for the month of April 2013 were included. Interhospital transfers, unsuccessful attempts at IV access and intraosseous cannulation were excluded.Results. When graded against the SATS, prophylactic IV access was not justified in 42.3% of the total number of cases (N=149) in which it was established, and therefore added no direct benefit to the continuum of patient care. It is worth noting that 18.8% (n=39) of the IV lines were utilised for fluid administration, as opposed to 9.2% (n=19) for the administration of IV medications.Conclusion. In view of the paucity of studies indicating a direct benefit of out-of-hospital IV intervention, the practice of precautionary, protocol-driven prophylactic establishment of IV access should be evaluated. Current data suggest that in the absence of scientific evidence, IV access should only be initiated when it will benefit the patient immediately, and precautionary IV access, especially in non-injured patients, should be re-evaluated. PMID:25212402

Bester, B H; Sobuwa, Simpiwe

2014-09-01

35

Good Practice Chaplaincy: An Exploratory Study Identifying the Appropriate Skills, Attitudes and Practices for the Selection, Training and Utilisation of Chaplains.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of exploratory research regarding the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices considered necessary for chaplains to be highly competent in providing holistic care to clients and staff. Utilising a qualitative methodology, two focus groups comprising Salvation Army chaplains and their managers provided data about their expectations of chaplaincy personnel and about the pastoral care interventions undertaken by chaplains. The results indicated that while there were some differences in opinion, nevertheless, in overall terms, there was general agreement between chaplains and their managers about particular personal and professional qualities necessary for chaplains to be considered appropriate and proficient. Evidence was also obtained indicating a need for change with regard to the organisational attitude and culture of The Salvation Army towards chaplaincy. Recommendations are presented concerning (1) the selection criteria for chaplaincy, (2) training and utilisation of chaplains plus (3) issues relating to organizational cultural change necessary to develop a future-ready chaplaincy more suitable for the twenty-first century. PMID:25371346

Carey, Lindsay B; Rumbold, Bruce

2014-11-01

36

A cross-sectional study describing factors associated with utilisation of GP services by a cohort of people who inject drugs  

PubMed Central

Background People who inject drugs (PWID) use healthcare services, including primary care, at a disproportionately high rate. We investigated key correlates of general practitioner (GP) related service utilisation within a cohort of PWID. Methods Using baseline data from a cohort of 645 community-recruited PWID based in Melbourne, Victoria, we conducted a secondary analysis of associations between past month use of GP services unrelated to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and socio-demographic and drug use characteristics and self-reported health using multivariate logistic regression. Results Just under one-third (29%) of PWID had accessed GP services in the month prior to being surveyed. Participants who reported living with children (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.04 - 3.73) or having had contact with a social worker in the past month (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.24 - 2.98) were more likely to have seen a GP in the past month. Participants who were injecting daily or more frequently (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 - 0.83) or had a weekly income of less than $400 (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 - 0.91) were less likely to report having seen a GP in the past month. Conclusions Our sample frequently attended GP services for health needs unrelated to OST. Findings highlight both the characteristics of PWID accessing GP services and also those potentially missing out on primary care and preventive services. PMID:25030526

2014-01-01

37

Relationship between the utilisation profile of individual joints and their susceptibility to primary osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two subjects were studied for 1 to 3 weeks during the course of their normal domestic activities. Utilisation profiles were derived for ten joints, using a systematic time-series sampling technique adapted from behavioural biology. At each joint the proportion of the available range utilised was noted. The results were compared with the known regional prevalence of primary osteoarthritis. There was

Colin J. Alexander

1989-01-01

38

Utilisation of fly ash in a geopolymeric material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding means of utilising waste products is a very important field of research at the moment. In this study, fly ash, a waste product of the electricity and petrochemical industries, was investigated as a basic ingredient of a new geopolymeric material. The similarity of fly ash to natural pozzolans has encouraged the use of this waste product in the synthesis

J. C. Swanepoel; C. A. Strydom

2002-01-01

39

Burden of illness, visual impairment and health resource utilisation of patients with neovascular age?related macular degeneration: results from the UK cohort of a five?country cross?sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background/aims Quantitative data regarding the impact of neovascular age?related macular degeneration (NV?AMD) on individuals and society is a prerequisite for rational decision?making processes when evaluating alternative treatments for the disease. Methods 75 bilateral NV?AMD (patients) and 91 elderly non?AMD (controls) subjects forming the UK cohort of an international cross?sectional, observational study were independently analysed. Subjects completed a telephone survey including the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI?VFQ?25), the EuroQol (EQ?5D), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), history of falls and health resource utilisation. Results Patients with NV?AMD reported substantially worse vision?related functioning and overall well?being, including higher depression scores, than controls after adjusting for age, gender and co?morbidities (adjusted mean scores: NEI?VFQ?25 overall 52.7 vs 90.7, p<0.0001; EQ?5D 0.67 vs 0.77, p?=?0.0273; HADS depression 6.8 vs 4.0, p?=?0.0026). Significantly more patients reported a need for assistance with daily activities compared with controls (25.3% vs 6.6%, p?=?0.003). Total annual healthcare utilisation costs were more than sevenfold higher for patients with AMD compared with controls (£3,823.89 vs £517.05, respectively; p<0.0001) Conclusions Patients with NV?AMD show a significant decline in quality of life and increased need for daily living assistance compared to a control population without AMD. With the availability of effective new therapies there is a need for improved early access to treatment. PMID:17504847

Lotery, Andrew; Xu, Xiao; Zlatava, Gergana; Loftus, Jane

2007-01-01

40

Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged?>?21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in moderating these associations. Findings from the study have the potential to inform more effective pharmacological, psychological and behavioural interventions and better guide health policy on the use of health care resources. PMID:24237848

2013-01-01

41

Bipolar disorder in the general population in The Netherlands (prevalence, consequences and care utilisation): results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known about the prevalence of bipolar disorder in the general population, what proportion is receiving care and what factors motivate people to seek help. Method: Data were derived from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), a psychiatric epidemiological study in the general population in The Netherlands. DSM-III-R diagnoses were based on the Composite International

Margreet ten Have; Wilma Vollebergh; Rob Bijl; Willem A. Nolen

2002-01-01

42

Where do the elderly die? The impact of nursing home utilisation on the place of death. Observations from a mortality cohort study in Flanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most of the research concerning place of death focuses on terminally ill patients (cancer patients) while the determinants of place of death of the elderly of the general population are not intensively studied. Studies showed the influence of gender, age, social-economical status and living arrangements on the place of death, but a facet not taken into account so far

Gilberte Van Rensbergen; Tim S Nawrot; Ettiene Van Hecke; Benoit Nemery

2006-01-01

43

The accuracy of self-reported Pap smear utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the accuracy of self-reported Pap smear utilisation over four different time frames, examining the magnitude of errors in self-report and sociodemographic predictors of accuracy. Self-report data on women's cervical screening was collected by interview in a random household survey (Hunter Region, NSW, Australia), with pathology laboratory data collected by a search of records within laboratories. The magnitude

Jennifer Ann Bowman; Rob Sanson-Fisher; Sally Redman

1997-01-01

44

Utilisation of the isobole methodology to study dietary peptide-drug and peptide-peptide interactive effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition.  

PubMed

Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is used as a means to regulate post-prandial serum glucose in type 2 diabetics. The effect of drug (Sitagliptin®)/peptide and binary peptide mixtures on DPP-IV inhibition was studied using an isobole approach. Five peptides (Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr, Trp-Lys, Trp-Pro, Trp-Arg and Trp-Leu), having DPP-IV half maximum inhibitory concentration values (IC50) < 60 ?M and reported to act through different inhibition mechanisms, were investigated. The dose response relationship of Sitagliptin?:?peptide (1?:?0, 0?:?1, 1?:?852, 1?:?426 and 1?:?1704 on a molar basis) and binary Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr?:?peptide (1?:?0, 0?:?1, 1?:?1, 1?:?2 and 2?:?1 on a molar basis) mixtures for DPP-IV inhibition was characterised. Isobolographic analysis showed, in most instances, an additive effect on DPP-IV inhibition. However, a synergistic effect was observed with two Sitagliptin?:?Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr (1?:?426 and 1?:?852) mixtures and an antagonistic effect was seen with one Sitagliptin?:?Trp-Pro (1?:?852) mixture, and three binary peptide mixtures (Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr?:?Trp-Lys (1?:?1 and 2?:?1) and Ile-Pro-Ile-Gln-Tyr?:?Trp-Leu (1?:?2)). The results show that Sitagliptin and food protein-derived peptides can interact, thereby enhancing overall DPP-IV inhibition. Combination of Sitagliptin with food protein-derived peptides may help in reducing drug dosage and possible associated side-effects. PMID:25477187

Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

2015-01-24

45

The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment  

PubMed Central

The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies. PMID:12646071

Hanney, Stephen R; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A; Buxton, Martin J; Kogan, Maurice

2003-01-01

46

ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT  

E-print Network

ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT N.C. Townsend nick@soton.ac.uk Fluid Structure of a marine vessel can induce gyroscopic precession. x y Z 0 Figure 1: A Schematic of a Single Unit Gyroscopic the gyroscopic effect) Experimental sea trials will be conducted in 2011. The motivation behind the project

Sóbester, András

47

Detection of theophylline utilising portable electrochemical sensors.  

PubMed

The electrochemical oxidation of theophylline (TP) is investigated utilising screen-printed electrodes. Through thorough investigation of pH, we propose a reaction mechanism, finding that the oxidation of TP is stable over a wide pH range, in particular under acidic conditions. Conversely under alkaline conditions, theophylline fouls the electrode surface. The screen-printed carbon sensors are applied towards the electroanalytical sensing of TP with a remarkable amount of success in aqueous solution at physiological pH. The screen-printed sensors have been shown to be applicable to the detection of TP at unharmful, medicinally relevant (55-110 ?M), and toxic concentrations in aqueous media at physiological pH. Thus this work presents a proof-of-concept approach towards TP detection utilising sensors commonly implemented in point-of-care applications. PMID:24603689

Wang, Tiancheng; Randviir, Edward P; Banks, Craig E

2014-04-21

48

Drug utilisation in Dutch nursing homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify and evaluate drug utilisation in a sample of Dutch nursing homes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A retrospective analysis of computerised medication data of 2355 residents aged 65?years and over from six nursing homes\\u000a in the Netherlands was performed. For each therapeutic drug group, the number of users was determined. The ten therapeutic\\u000a groups used most frequently were investigated further. For

K. N. van Dijk; C. S. de Vries; P. B. van den Berg; J. R. B. J Brouwers; L. T. W. de Jong-van den Berg

2000-01-01

49

Children's nursing in Ireland: barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilisation.  

PubMed

A random sample of 200 RSCNs on the An Bord Altranais Live Register Nurses were surveyed in this study that aimed to provide a better understanding of barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilisation among RSCNs in the Republic of Ireland. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire 1 using the Barriers Scale (Funk et al I991), adapted from the Conduct and Utilisation of Research in Nursing (CURN) Project Research Utilisation Questionnaire (Crane et al 1977). The scale consists of structured items that measure barriers to research utilisation under four headings; the adopter (RSCN)--eight variiables; the organisation (setting)--eight variables; the innovation (research utilisation)--six variables; and communication (presentation)--six variables. The most frequently cited barrier was lack of time to implement new ideas. All eight characteristics of the organisation feature in the ten highest barriers, with characteristics of adopter and innovation ranking among the five lowest barriers. No significant impact of demographic detail was noted for respondents in relation to each of the subscales. PMID:15906899

Brenner, Maria

2005-05-01

50

Utilising UDT to push the bandwidth envelope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eScience applications, in particular High Energy Physics, often involve large amounts of data and/or computing and often require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries, and are thus not easily handled by today's networking infrastructures. By utilising the switched lightpath connections provided by the UKLight network it has been possible to research the use of alternate protocols for data transport. While the HEP projects make use of a number of middleware solutions for data storage and transport, they all rely on GridFTP for WAN transport. The GridFTP protocol runs over TCP as the layer 3 protocol by default, however with the latest released of the Globus toolkit it is possible to utilise alternate protocols at the layer 3 level. One of the alternatives is a reliable version of UDP called UDT. This report presents the results of the tests measuring the performance of single-threaded file transfers using GridFTP running over both TCP and the UDT protocol.

Garrett, B.; Davies, B.

51

Adolescents' Utilisation of Psychiatric Care, Neighbourhoods and Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Deprivation: A Multilevel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Mental health problems among adolescents have become a major public health issue, and it is therefore important to increase knowledge on the contextual determinants of adolescent mental health. One such determinant is the socioeconomic structure of the neighbourhood. The present study has two central objectives, (i) to examine if neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated to individual variations in utilisation of psychiatric care in a Swedish context, and (ii) to investigate if neighbourhood boundaries are a valid construct for identifying contexts that influence individual variations in psychiatric care utilization. Data were obtained from the Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis in Scania (LOMAS) database. The study population consists of all boys and girls aged 13–18 years (N=18,417), who were living in the city of Malmö, Sweden, in 2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the probability of psychiatric care utilisation. The results from the study indicate that the neighbourhood of residence had little influence on psychiatric care utilisation. Although we initially found a variation between neighbourhoods, this general contextual effect was very small (i.e. 1.6 %). The initial conclusive association between the neighbourhood level of disadvantage and psychiatric care utilisation (specific contextual effect) disappeared following adjustment for individual and family level variables. Our results suggest the neighbourhoods in Malmö (at least measured in terms of SAMS-areas), do not provide accurate information for discriminating adolescents utilisation of psychiatric care. The SAMS-areas appears to be an inappropriate construct of the social environment that influences adolescent utilisation of psychiatric care. Therefore, public health interventions should be directed to the whole city rather than to specific neighbourhoods. However, since geographical, social or cultural contexts may be important for our understanding of adolescent mental health further research is needed to identify such contexts. PMID:24260548

Ivert, Anna-Karin; Torstensson Levander, Marie; Merlo, Juan

2013-01-01

52

Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes. PMID:25444096

Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

2014-01-01

53

MMOIRES ORIGINAUX 449 Utilisation de la technique d'ultrafiltration  

E-print Network

30 E High-Yield Hollow Fiber Concentration/Dialysis M�MOIRES ORIGINAUX 449 Utilisation de la technique d'ultrafiltration pour récupérer du lactosérum- lant des protéines de lait peut être diminuée de 80 p. 100 environ en utilisant l'ultrafiltration dans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Guide d'utilisation de SSJ Langage Java  

E-print Network

Guide d'utilisation de SSJ Langage Java 15 Janvier 2001 ­ Dans votre .cshrc, rajouter la ligne'un de xdvi guide.dvi & acroread guide.pdf & 1 Version Java Nous utilisons la version 1.2 de Java. Elle votre programme (par exemple Tulipe.java) utilisant les objets de SSJ, compiler simplement avec la

Vázquez-Abad, Felisa J.

55

Integrated nuclear data utilisation system for innovative reactors.  

PubMed

A five-year research and development project on an integrated nuclear data utilisation system was initiated in 2002, for developing innovative nuclear energy systems such as accelerator-driven systems. The integrated nuclear data utilisation system will be constructed as a modular code system, which consists of two sub-systems: the nuclear data search and plotting sub-system, and the nuclear data processing and utilisation sub-system. The system will be operated with a graphical user interface in order to enable easy utilisation through the Internet by both nuclear design engineers and nuclear data evaluators. This paper presents an overview of the integrated nuclear data utilisation system, describes the development of a prototype system to examine the operability of the user interface and discusses specifications of the two sub-systems. PMID:16381697

Yamano, N; Hasegawa, A; Kato, K; Igashira, M

2005-01-01

56

The Utilisation of Psychological Support Services in Primary Schools in Gauteng  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was conducted in four Gauteng public primary schools to assess the utilisation of psychological support services. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with various stakeholders. The results indicated an underutilisation of Psychological Support Services attributed to lack of staff within the support…

Pillay, Jace; Wasielewski, Tanya

2007-01-01

57

Resource Utilisation and Cost Analysis of Memantine in Patients with Moderate to Severe Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating illness that causes enormous emotional stress to affected families and is associated with substantial medical and nonmedical costs. Objective: To determine the effects of 28 weeks of memantine treatment for patients with AD on resource utilisation and costs. Study design and methods: Multicentre, prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed in the US.

Anders Wimo; Bengt Winblad; Albrecht Stoffler; Yvonne Wirth; Hansjorg Mobius

2003-01-01

58

Utilisation des cultures de racines en double alimentation pour l'tude de la fixation rhizosphri-  

E-print Network

of inoculated isolated roots in non symbiotic nitrogen fixation studies Most non symbiotic nitrogen fixing heure et par g de racines sèches, respectivement pour le riz et le maïs. ABSTRACT Nitrogen fixationUtilisation des cultures de racines en double alimentation pour l'étude de la fixation rhizosphéri

Boyer, Edmond

59

Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings  

PubMed Central

Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests that Australian prescribers may have acted in response to scientific evidence or international safety warnings (EMA, FDA), prior to the response of the TGA. Minor effects were observed after bladder cancer warnings on pioglitazone utilisation. PMID:24708579

2014-01-01

60

Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For diffuse UV exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than 60° and 50° respectively can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-330 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of damaging UVA observed in full sun.

Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

2008-01-01

61

Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

2008-06-01

62

Utilisation of chip thickness models in grinding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grinding is now a well established process utilised for both stock removal and finish applications. Although significant research is performed in this field, grinding still experiences problems with burn and high forces which can lead to poor quality components and damage to equipment. This generally occurs in grinding when the process deviates from its safe working conditions. In milling, chip thickness parameters are utilised to predict and maintain process outputs leading to improved control of the process. This thesis looks to further the knowledge of the relationship between chip thickness and the grinding process outputs to provide an increased predictive and maintenance modelling capability. Machining trials were undertaken using different chip thickness parameters to understand how these affect the process outputs. The chip thickness parameters were maintained at different grinding wheel diameters for a constant productivity process to determine the impact of chip thickness at a constant material removal rate.. Additional testing using a modified pin on disc test rig was performed to provide further information on process variables. The different chip thickness parameters provide control of different process outputs in the grinding process. These relationships can be described using contact layer theory and heat flux partitioning. The contact layer is defined as the immediate layer beneath the contact arc at the wheel workpiece interface. The size of the layer governs the force experienced during the process. The rate of contact layer removal directly impacts the net power required from the system. It was also found that the specific grinding energy of a process is more dependent on the productivity of a grinding process rather than the value of chip thickness. Changes in chip thickness at constant material removal rate result in microscale changes in the rate of contact layer removal when compared to changes in process productivity. This is a significant piece of information in relation to specific grinding energy where conventional theory states it is primarily dependent on chip thickness..

Singleton, Roger

63

Study of the mass spectrometric fragmentation of pseudouridine: comparison of fragmentation data obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation post-source decay, electrospray ion trap multistage mass spectrometry, and by a method utilising electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and in-source fragmentation.  

PubMed

Many nucleosides and their modified forms have been studied by mass spectrometry elaborating the detailed fragmentation pathways under MS2 and MS(n) conditions. Although the C-nucleoside pseudouridine has been fragmented and studied briefly, usually amongst many other nucleosides, it has not been investigated to the same extent as other nucleosides. In this report a number of different mass spectrometric techniques are applied to obtain a fuller picture of pseudouridine fragmentation. At the same time this study is used to compare different tandem mass spectrometric techniques, including a novel methodology utilising a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-ToF) instrument for MS(n) analysis comparable with that available with an ion trap mass spectrometer. PMID:16206154

Dudley, Edward; Tuytten, Robin; Bond, Alison; Lemière, Filip; Brenton, A Gareth; Esmans, Eddy L; Newton, Russell P

2005-01-01

64

Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India  

SciTech Connect

In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

1984-02-01

65

Changes in substrate utilisation and protein catabolism during multiday cycling in well-trained cyclists.  

PubMed

Abstract There is a paucity of studies that have evaluated substrate utilisation and protein catabolism during multiday strenuous exercise in athletes. Eleven well-trained male cyclists completed 3 h of race-simulated cycling on 4 consecutive days. Cyclist exercised 2 h postprandially and with carbohydrate supplementation (~50 g · h(-1)) during exercise. Whole body substrate utilisation was measured by indirect calorimetry, protein catabolism from sweat and urine urea excretion, and blood metabolite concentration was evaluated. Protein catabolism during exercise was significantly greater on days 2-4 (29.9 ± 8.8; 34.0 ± 11.2; 32.0 ± 7.3 g for days 2, 3, and 4, respectively) compared to day 1 (23.3 ± 7.6 g), P < 0.05. Fat oxidation was greater at 21 km (~45 min) on days 2-4 (1.06 ± 0.23; 1.08 ± 0.25; 1.12 ± 0.29 g · min(-1)) compared to day 1 (0.74 ± 0.23 g · min(-1), P < 0.05), but the rate of carbohydrate and fat oxidation was similar between days at 50 and 80 km. Whole body substrate utilisation is altered on subsequent days of multiday prolonged strenuous cycling that includes a quicker transition to greater fat utilisation from exercise onset and a 28-46% greater reliance on endogenous protein catabolism on all successive days. PMID:25299240

Oosthuyse, Tanja; Avidon, Ingrid

2015-03-01

66

Renewable energy development and utilisation in China: opportunities and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the largest developing country and the second largest energy-consuming and CO>SUB align=right>>SMALL>2>\\/SMALL>>\\/SUB>-emitting country in the world. China has already regarded renewable energy development and utilisation as a critical element of their sustainable energy strategy. In this context, China's renewable energy development and utilisation will have important implications for the world energy market development and global environmental protection over

Zhang Xiliang; Chen Rong; He Jiankun

2005-01-01

67

Increased health care utilisation among 10-year breast cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We investigated self-reported health care utilisation of women who survived breast cancer for 10 years and identified predictors of health care utilisation.Methods  The population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry was used to select all women who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 1993, in six hospitals in the Netherlands, and were disease-free at the time of data collection. Health status, psychological well-being, satisfaction with

L. V. van de Poll-Franse; F. Mols; A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets; A. C. Voogd; R. M. H. Roumen; J. W. W. Coebergh

2006-01-01

68

Estimation of an Optimal Chemotherapy Utilisation Rate for Cancer: Setting an Evidence-based Benchmark for Quality Cancer Care.  

PubMed

There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications. PMID:25455844

Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

2015-02-01

69

Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of Barcelona. Methods The study population included all adults residing in the area of study and visiting the emergency department of Hospital del Mar in 2004. The emergency care episodes were selected from the Emergency Department register, and the population figures from the Statistics Department of Barcelona. Emergency care episodes were classified into five large clinical categories. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) of utilisation among foreign-born vs. Spanish-born residents were assessed through negative binomial regression. Results The overall utilisation rate was 382 emergency contacts per 1,000 persons-years. The RR for foreign-born versus Spanish-born residents was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52; 0.74%). The RR was also significantly below one in surgery (0.51, 95% CI: 0.42; 0.63), traumatology (0.47, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59), medicine (0.48, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59) and psychiatry (0.42, 95% CI: 0.18; 0.97). No differences were found in utilisation of gynaecology and minor emergency services. Conclusion The overall lower utilisation rates obtained for foreign-born residents is consistent with previous studies and is probably due to the "healthy immigrant effect". Thus, the population increase due to immigration does not translate directly into a corresponding increase in the number of emergency contacts. The lack of differences in minor and gynaecological emergency care supports the hypothesis that immigrants overcome certain barriers by using the emergency department to access to health services. The issue of healthcare barriers should therefore be addressed, especially among immigrants. PMID:18315871

Buron, Andrea; Cots, Francesc; Garcia, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Castells, Xavier

2008-01-01

70

How are policy makers using evidence? Models of research utilisation and local NHS policy making  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—This paper is based on a qualitative study that aimed to identify factors that facilitate or impede evidence-based policy making at a local level in the UK National Health Service (NHS). It considers how models of research utilisation drawn from the social sciences map onto empirical evidence from this study.?DESIGN—A literature review and case studies of social research projects that were initiated by NHS health authority managers or GP fundholders in one region of the NHS. In depth interviews and document analysis were used.?SETTING—One NHS region in England.?PARTICIPANTS—Policy makers, GPs and researchers working on each of the social research projects selected as case studies.?MAIN RESULTS—The direct influence of research evidence on decision making was tempered by factors such as financial constraints, shifting timescales and decision makers' own experiential knowledge. Research was more likely to impact on policy in indirect ways, including shaping policy debate and mediating dialogue between service providers and users.?CONCLUSIONS—The study highlights the role of sustained dialogue between researchers and the users of research in improving the utilisation of research-based evidence in the policy process.???Keywords: evidence-based policy making; research/policy interface; research utilisation PMID:10818123

Elliott, H.; Popay, J.

2000-01-01

71

Jarosite characteristics and its utilisation potentials.  

PubMed

During metallic zinc extraction from zinc sulphide or sulphide ore, huge quantity of jarosite is being released universally as solid residues. The jarosite mainly contains iron, sulphur, zinc, calcium, lead, cadmium and aluminium. Jarosite released from such industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Apart from water contamination, jarosite already accumulated and its increasing annual production is a major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life and hence its disposal leads to major concern because of the stringent environmental protection regulations. An attempt was made to evaluate the characteristics of Indian jarosite with an objectives to understand its potentials for recycling and utilising as raw materials for developing value added products. Sand and Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) was used as an admixture to attain good workability and detoxify the toxic substance in the jarosite. Result revealed that jarosite is silty clay loam in texture having 63.48% silt sized and 32.35% clay sized particles. The particle size of jarosite (D90=16.21+/-0.20 microm) is finer than the CCRs (D90=19.72+/-0.18 microm). The jarosite is nonuniform in structure and shape as compared to the CCRs having spherical, hollow shaped and some of them are cenosphere in nature. The major mineral phase of jarosite is Potassium Iron Sulphate Hydroxide {KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6}and Iron Sulphate Hydrate {2 Fe2O3SO3 x 5 H2O}. In CCRs the dominant phases are quartz {SiO2}, mullite {3 Al2O3 x 2 SiO2} and hematite {Fe2O3}. The high electrical conductivity of jarosite (13.26+/-0.437 dS/m) indicates that the presence of cations and anions are predominant over CCRs (0.498+/-0.007 dS/m). The major portion of jarosite consists of iron (23.66+/-0.18%), sulphur (12.23+/-0.2%) and zinc (8.243+/-0.075%). But CCRs main constituents are silicon (27.41+/-0.74%), aluminium (15.167+/-0.376%) and iron (4.447+/-0.69%). The other constituents such as calcium, aluminium, silicon, lead, and manganese are also present in the range of 0.5 to 5%. Heavy metals such as copper, chromium, and cadmium are found higher in jarosite as compared to the CCRs. The statistically designed experimental trials revealed that the density, water absorption capacity and compressive strength of fired jarosite bricks are 1.51 gm/cm3, 17.46% and 43.4 kg/cm2 respectively with jarosite sand mixture in the ratio of 3:1 indicating the potentials in developing building materials. PMID:15978656

Pappu, Asokan; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R

2006-04-15

72

The impact of training traditional birth attendants on the utilisation of maternal health services.  

PubMed Central

The impact of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on the utilisation of maternal health services at a rural health training centre in India has been studied. Records of the utilisation of the services for two periods of six months each (one before training and one after) have been analysed. A marked improvement in the registration of antenatal cases at an earlier date in pregnancy has been observed. The average number of visits to antenatal clinics, the immunisation against tetanus, and the presence of trained personnel at the time of delivery all showed considerable improvement after the local TBAs had been trained and motivated. The differences observed in the two series were statistically significant. PMID:490094

Mathur, H N; Damodar; Sharma, P N; Jain, T P

1979-01-01

73

The utilisation of creatine and its analogues by cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase.  

PubMed

We have investigated the utilisation of four analogues of creatine by cytosolic Creatine Kinase (CK), using 31P-NMR in the porcine carotid artery, and by mitochondrial CK (Mt-CK), using oxygen consumption studies in isolated heart mitochondria and skinned fibers. Porcine carotid arteries were superfused for 12 h with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 22 degrees C, containing 11 mM glucose as substrate, and supplemented with either 20 mM beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA), methyl-guanidinopropionic acid (m-GPA), guanidinoacetic acid (GA) or cyclocreatine (cCr). All four analogues entered the tissue and became phosphorylated by CK as seen by 31 P-NMR, Inhibition of oxidative metabolism by 1 mM cyanide after accumulation of the phosphorylated analogue resulted in the utilisation of PCr, beta-GPA-P, GA-P and GA-P over a similar time course (approximately 2 h), despite very different kinetic properties of these analogues in vitro. cCr-P was utilised at a significantly slower rate, but was rapidly dephosphorylated in the presence of both 1 mM iodoacetate and cyanide (to inhibit both glycolysis and oxidative metabolism respectively). The technique of creatine stimulated respiration was used to investigate the phosphorylation of the analogues by Mt-CK, Isolated mitochondria were subjected to increasing [ATP], whereas skinned fibres received a similar protocol with increasing [ADP]. There was a significant stimulation of respiration by creatine and cCr in isolated mitochondria (decreased K(m) and increased Vmax vs control), but none by GA, mGPA or beta-GPA (also in skinned fibres), indicating that these latter analogues were not utilised by Mt-CK. These results demonstrate differences in the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of creatine and its analogues by cytosolic CK and Mt-CK in vivo and in vitro. PMID:8664304

Boehm, E A; Radda, G K; Tomlin, H; Clark, J F

1996-06-13

74

3-Iodothyronamine: a novel hormone controlling the balance between glucose and lipid utilisation.  

PubMed

3-Iodothyronamine is considered as a derivate of thyroid hormone as a result of enzymatic deiodination and decarboxylation. The physiological role of thyronamine (T1AM) is not known. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolic response to T1AM in the Djungarian hamster Phodopus sungorus. We measured the influence of T1AM (50 mg/kg) on metabolic rate (VO(2)), body temperature (T (b)) and respiratory quotient (RQ) in this species and in BL/6 mice. T1AM treated hamsters as well as the mice showed a rapid decrease in VO(2) and T (b), accompanied by a reduction of RQ from normal values of about approximately 0.9 to approximately 0.70 for several hours. This indicates that carbohydrate utilisation is blocked by the injection of T1AM and that metabolic pathways are rerouted from carbohydrate to lipid utilisation in response to T1AM. This assumption was further supported by the observation that the treatment of T1AM caused ketonuria and a significant loss of body fat. Our results indicate that T1AM has the potential to control the balance between glucose and lipid utilisation in vivo. PMID:17912534

Braulke, L J; Klingenspor, M; DeBarber, A; Tobias, S C; Grandy, D K; Scanlan, T S; Heldmaier, G

2008-02-01

75

Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder

Bassam Mrayyan

2004-01-01

76

Technical\\/economic\\/environmental analysis of biogas utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas may be utilised for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production or for transport fuel production (CH4-enriched biogas). When used to produce transport fuel either electricity is imported to power the plant or some of the biogas is used in a small CHP unit to meet electricity demand on site. The potential revenue from CH4-enriched biogas when replacing petrol is

J. D. Murphy; E. McKeogh; G. Kiely

2004-01-01

77

On the utilisation of ductile fracture criteria in cold forging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most cold forging operations, formability is limited by ductile fracture. This paper describes the utilisation of ductile fracture criteria in conjunction with the finite element method to predict when and where material is likely to fracture during cold forging. Several previously published ductile fracture criteria are selected, and their values of critical damage at the levels of deformation at

J Landre; A Pertence; P. R Cetlin; J. M. C Rodrigues; P. A. F Martins

2003-01-01

78

Utilisation of aggregate materials in road construction and bulk fill  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK, at present, the majority of aggregate materials, for all construction applications, are obtained from primary resources such as crushed rock and sand and gravel. Material extraction results in many adverse environmental impacts and utilisation consumes a finite natural resource. In the UK we also produce large quantities of waste and by-product materials, from industrial and domestic activities,

Annette R. Hill; Andrew R. Dawson; Michael Mundy

2001-01-01

79

Occlusion Analysis: Learning and Utilising Depth Maps in Object Tracking  

E-print Network

Occlusion Analysis: Learning and Utilising Depth Maps in Object Tracking D. Greenhill, J. Renno. J discontinuities. After regularisation, the depth map will support reasoning about static occlusions. As an object there has been significant occlusion of the observation. The depth map allows the visibility of the object

Jones, Graeme A.

80

Occlusion Analysis: Learning and Utilising Depth Maps in Object Tracking  

E-print Network

Occlusion Analysis: Learning and Utilising Depth Maps in Object Tracking D. Greenhill, J. Renno, S. In particular, the occlusion surfaces will appear as depth discontinuities. After regularisation, the depth map model - becomes problematic where there has been significant occlusion of the observation. The depth map

Jones, Graeme A.

81

Liquid level sensor utilising a long period fiber grating  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose here a liquid level sensor using a long period fiber grating (LPFG) in which direct liquid level measurement is carried out by utilising an LPFG, 100mm in length and a periodicity of 1mm. The LPFG was exposed to liquids with varying levels and the wavelength shift of a selected loss band of the transmission spectra was monitored using

S. Grice; W. Zhang; K. Sugden; I. Bennion

2009-01-01

82

Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

2013-01-01

83

Improved sugar co-utilisation by encapsulation of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in alginate-chitosan capsules  

PubMed Central

Background Two major hurdles for successful production of second-generation bioethanol are the presence of inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic media, and the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally utilise pentoses. There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. A non-recombinant way to increase yeast tolerance to hydrolysates is by encapsulation of the yeast. This can be explained by concentration gradients occuring in the cell pellet inside the capsule. In the current study, we hypothesised that encapsulation might also lead to improved simultaneous utilisation of hexoses and pentoses because of such sugar concentration gradients. Results In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. Simulations also showed pronounced concentration gradients of sugars, which resulted in simultaneous xylose and glucose consumption and a steady state xylose consumption rate up to 220-fold higher than that found in suspension culture. To validate the results experimentally, a xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae strain, CEN.PK XXX, was constructed and encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan liquid core gel capsules. In defined media, encapsulation not only increased the tolerance of the yeast to inhibitors, but also promoted simultaneous utilisation of glucose and xylose. Encapsulation of the yeast resulted in consumption of at least 50% more xylose compared with suspended cells over 96-hour fermentations in medium containing both sugars. The higher consumption of xylose led to final ethanol titres that were approximately 15% higher. In an inhibitory dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, freely suspended yeast cells consumed the sugars in a sequential manner after a long lag phase, whereas no lag phase was observed for the encapsulated yeast, and glucose, mannose, galactose and xylose were utilised in parallel from the beginning of the cultivation. Conclusions Encapsulation of xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae leads to improved simultaneous and efficient utilisation of several sugars, which are utilised sequentially by suspended cells. The greatest improvement is obtained in inhibitory media. These findings show that encapsulation is a promising option for production of second-generation bioethanol. PMID:25050138

2014-01-01

84

Nutrient utilisation and weathering inputs in the Peruvian upwelling region since the Little Ice Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For this study two sediment cores from the Peruvian shelf covering the time period between the Little Ice Age (LIA) and present were examined for changes in productivity (biogenic opal concentrations (bSi)), nutrient utilisation (stable isotope compositions of silicon (?30Siopal) and nitrogen (?15Nsed)), as well as in ocean circulation and material transport (authigenic and detrital radiogenic neodymium (?Nd) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes). For the LIA the proxies recorded weak primary productivity and nutrient utilisation reflected by low average bSi concentrations of ~10%, ?15Nsed values of ~ +5‰ and intermediate ?30Siopal values of ~+0.97‰. At the same time the radiogenic isotope composition of the detrital sediment fraction indicates dominant local riverine input of lithogenic material due to higher rainfall in the Andean hinterland. These patterns were caused by permanent El Niño-like conditions characterized by a deeper nutricline, weak upwelling and low nutrient supply. At the end of the LIA, ?30Siopal dropped to low values of +0.6‰ and opal productivity reached its minimum of the past 650 years. During the following transitional period of time the intensity of upwelling, nutrient supply and productivity increased abruptly as marked by the highest bSi contents of up to 38%, by ?15Nsed of up to ~ +7‰, and by the highest degree of silicate utilisation with ?30Siopal reaching values of +1.1‰. At the same time detrital ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr signatures documented increased wind strength and supply of dust to the shelf due to drier conditions. Since about 1870, productivity has been high but nutrient utilisation has remained at levels similar to the LIA indicating significantly increased nutrient availability. Comparison between the ?30Siopal and ?15Nsed signatures suggests that during the past 650 years the ?15Nsed signature in the Peruvian Upwelling area has most likely primarily been controlled by surface water utilisation and not, as previously assumed, by subsurface nitrogen loss processes in the water column.

Ehlert, C.; Grasse, P.; Gutiérrez, D.; Salvatteci, R.; Frank, M.

2014-08-01

85

Utilisation of fish oil in ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the transfer of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) from fish oil into goats’ milk. Goats were sequentially offered three diets: control (C) pellets (lucerne hay-oat grain: 60\\/40 w\\/w), C plus tuna oil protected against ruminal biohydrogenation (PTO pellets), and C plus unprotected tuna oil (UTO pellets). In supplemented diets, tuna

S. M. Kitessa; S. K. Gulati; J. R. Ashes; E. Fleck; T. W. Scott; P. D. Nichols

2001-01-01

86

Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate. The microbial studies of biodegradation process revealed following peculiarities: gradual quantitative increasing of Lactobacillus sp. (from 10 3 to 10 5 colony forming units (CFU) per ml), activation of Clostridia sp. (from 10 2 to 10 4 CFU/ml) and elimination of aerobic conventional pathogens ( Enterobacteriaceae sp., Protea sp., staphylococci). The obtained results allow to evaluate effectiveness of proposed technology and to determine the leading role of lactobacilli and clostridia in process of natural wastes biodegradation. Our further investigations shall further be concentrated on creation of artificial inoculi for launching of food wastes biodegradation. These inoculi will include active and adapted strains of clostridia and lactobacilli.

Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

2004-03-01

87

Synthesis, characterisation and microbial utilisation of amorphous polysugars from lactose.  

PubMed

The melt polymerisations of glucose, galactose, xylose and fucose with citric acid, and mixtures of sugars therein are reported. Characterisation of the citric-acid catalysed reaction products indicated similar degrees of branched polymerisation but differences in the overall molecular weight of the polymers produced. The dairy by-product lactose could not be polymerised in a similar fashion but was shown to be readily hydrolysed using microwave radiation and a polymer generated from the melt condensation of the resultant glucose and galactose monosaccharides. A preliminary assessment of the bifido-bacterial utilisation of the lactose-derived polymerised products demonstrated a significantly different growth profile compared to commercially utilised galactooligosaccharides (GOS). PMID:25498629

Daines, Alison M; Smart, Zlatka; Sims, Ian M; Tannock, Gerald W; Hinkley, Simon F R

2015-03-01

88

Utilisation d'OPAVAR avec PALM CERFACS, septembre 2005, Toulouse.  

E-print Network

Utilisation d'OPAVAR avec PALM CERFACS, septembre 2005, Toulouse. Nicolas Daget CERFACS, Toulouse #12;Unité PALM Unité Entrées Sorties Communicatio n directe Communication avec un buffer Priorité A l (tris, contrôle qualité...) #12;Branche Modèle Lecture du fichier restart et de la date et pas de temps

89

Article de recherche Utilisations digestive et mtabolique compares  

E-print Network

as the onlyprotein food in the rat. The balanced diet was designed to suit growth requirements. Nitrogen apparent utilisations of faba bean, lentil and chick pea. Faba bean, lentil or chick-pea raw seeds were used than all other AA CUDa values. Growth rate (8.9 - 6.7 - 9.1gld) and food intake index (2.1 - 2.5 - 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Manchester Triage System version II and resource utilisation in the emergency department.  

PubMed

Emergency department (ED) triage systems aim to direct the best clinical assistance to those who are in the greatest urgency and guarantee that resources are efficiently applied. The study's purpose was to determine whether the Manchester Triage System (MTS) second version is a useful instrument for determining the risk of hospital admission, intrahospital death and resource utilisation in ED and to compare it with the MTS first version. This was a prospective study of patients that attended the ED at a large hospital. It comprised a total of 25,218 cases that were triaged between 11 July and 13 October 2011. The MTS codes were grouped into two clusters: red and orange into a 'high acuity/priority' (HP) cluster, and yellow, green and blue into a 'low acuity/priority' cluster. The risk of hospital admission in the HP cluster was 4.86 times that of the LP cluster for both admission route and ages. The percentage of patient hospital admission between medical and surgical specialties, in high and low priority clusters, was similar. We found the risk of death in the HP cluster to be 5.58 times that of the risk of the low acuity/priority cluster. The MTS had an inconsistent association relative to the utilisation of x-ray, while it seemed to portray a consistent association between ECG and laboratory utilisation and MTS cluster. There were no differences between medical and surgical specialities risk of admission. This suggests that improvements were made in the second version of MTS, particularly in the discriminators of patients triaged to surgical specialties, because this was not true for the first version of MTS. PMID:23345313

Santos, André Peralta; Freitas, Paulo; Martins, Henrique Manuel Gil

2014-02-01

91

Fish Utilisation of Wetland Nurseries with Complex Hydrological Connectivity  

PubMed Central

The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting ‘facultative wetland resident’ group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the ’interrupted persistence’ group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the ‘facultative wetland resident’ and ‘delayed recruitment group’, and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the ‘delayed recruitment’ group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity. Consequently, there is a need to incorporate this diversity into understandings of habitat function, conservation and management. PMID:23152857

Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

2012-01-01

92

Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, JC

2013-01-01

93

Independent and inverse association of healthcare utilisation with physical activity in older adults with multiple chronic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn this study, whether physical activity is independently associated with direct healthcare costs in community-dwelling older adults with multiple chronic conditions was examined.DesignCross-sectional analysisSettingResearch laboratoryParticipants299 community-dwelling men and women volunteers aged 65 years and older with chronic conditions.InterventionNone.Main outcome measuresPrimary dependent variable was direct healthcare costs incurred in the previous 3 months. Participants completed the Health Resource Utilisation (HRU) questionnaire.

T. Y. L. Liu-Ambrose; M. C. Ashe; C. Marra

2010-01-01

94

Effects of mannanoligosaccharide in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, energy utilisation, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS, Bio-MOS, Alltech Inc.) on the growth performance, energy utilisation, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora of birds given a sorghum–wheat based diet. Two MOS levels (1 and 2 g\\/kg) were included in the diet.2.?Inclusion of MOS at both levels in the diet improved the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) values of

Y. Yang; P. A. Iji; A. Kocher; E. Thomson; L. L. Mikkelsen; M. Choct

2008-01-01

95

Direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques to study organic coatings on archaeological amphorae.  

PubMed

Two different analytical approaches, direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), were compared in a study of archaeological resinous materials. DE-MS was found to be an efficient fingerprinting tool for the fast screening of organic archaeological samples and for providing information on the major components. GC/MS appeared to be more efficient in unravelling the sample composition at a molecular level, despite the long analysis time and the need for a wet chemical pretreatment. Both procedures were applied to characterize the organic material present as coatings in Roman and Egyptian amphorae. DE-MS successfully identified abietanic compounds, hence a diterpenic resinous material could be identified and its degree of oxidation assessed. GC/MS enabled us to identify dehydroabietic acid, 7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid, retene, tetrahydroretene, norabietatriene, norabietatetraene and methyl dehydroabietate. These oxidized and aromatized abietanes provided evidence that the amphorae examined were waterproofed with a pitch produced from resinous wood of plants from the Pinaceae family. The chemometric evaluation of the GC/MS data highlighted significant chemical differences between the pitches found in the two archaeological sites, basically related to differences in the production techniques of the materials and in their degradation pathways. PMID:15739159

Colombini, Maria Perla; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika

2005-05-01

96

Application Development for the Utilisation of ENVISAT Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters connected to climatic extremities (floods, waterlog and drought) tend to occur more frequently in Hungary in the past decade. Serious waterlog affecting more than 100 000 hectares of arable land, flood peak records during spring and serious drought in summer causing losses to agriculture and to the whole economy happened yearly between 1998-2002. After the development and application of monitoring methods, FÖMI RSC have started to develop a cost-effective satellite based model to monitor these natural disaster at regional level. The ESA- titled "Application development for the utilisation of ENVISAT data in remote sensing based regional flood/waterlog and drought monitoring (2000-2003)" aimed at the rapid and large scale monitoring of these disasters utilising available low- and medium resolution operational satellite data (NOAA AVHRR, SPOT VEGETATION, IRS-1C/1D WiFS and ERS SAR) involving the new ESA ENVISAT (specially MERIS and ASAR) data. This paper describes the present status of the project and shows several examples about the achievements.

Csornai, G.; Suba, Zs.; Wirnhardt, Cs.; Nádor, G.; Tikász, L.; László, I.; Csekõ, Á.; Martinovich, L.

2004-05-01

97

The specificity of energy utilisation by trained and untrained adolescent boys.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between estimates of alactacid anaerobic power, lactacid anaerobic power and aerobic power in a sample of trained swimmers (age 14.4 yr., n = 8) and a sample of untrained boys (age 13.7 yr., n = 13). The anaerobic power outputs were estimated using a modification of the Wingate Anaerobic Test and aerobic power was estimated using a continuous, incremental cycle ergometer test. In addition to leg power outputs the swimmers' arm power using each energy system was estimated and compared with the corresponding leg value. There was no relationship between the estimates of the power of the three energy systems with either the trained or untrained boys. Furthermore with the trained boys there was no relationship between estimates of the power of the same energy system utilised by different limbs. The data support a specificity hypothesis of energy utilisation during exercise with both trained and untrained adolescent boys. Images p193-a p193-b p193-c PMID:6652404

Armstrong, N.; Davies, B.; Heal, M.

1983-01-01

98

Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation in a multiple health insurance system: does insurance affiliation matter?  

PubMed Central

Background Many countries striving to achieve universal health insurance coverage have done so by means of multiple health insurance funds covering different population groups. However, existence of multiple health insurance funds may also cause variation in access to health care, due to the differential revenue raising capacities and benefit packages offered by the various funds resulting in inequity and inefficiency within the health system. This paper examines how the existence of multiple health insurance funds affects health care seeking behaviour and utilisation among members of the Community Health Fund, the National Health Insurance Fund and non-members in two districts in Tanzania. Methods Using household survey data collected in 2011 with a sample of 3290 individuals, the study uses a multinomial logit model to examine the influence of predisposing, enabling and need characteristics on the probability of seeking care and choice of provider. Results Generally, health insurance is found to increase the probability of seeking care and reduce delays. However, the probability, timing of seeking care and choice of provider varies across the CHF and NHIF members. Conclusions Reducing fragmentation is necessary to provide opportunities for redistribution and to promote equity in utilisation of health services. Improvement in the delivery of services is crucial for achievement of improved access and financial protection and for increased enrolment into the CHF, which is essential for broadening redistribution and cross-subsidisation to promote equity. PMID:24645876

2014-01-01

99

Knowledge, attitude and practice of natural family planning methods in a population with poor utilisation of modern contraceptives.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest fertility rates in the world, which is further promoted by the low utilisation of modern contraceptive methods. Yet, many communities claim to have traditional methods of family planning that pre-date the introduction of modern contraceptives, implying that contraception is a culturally acceptable norm. It was therefore postulated that the study population would have a high level of awareness and practice of natural methods of family planning. We aimed to obtain an insight into the extent and correctness of knowledge about natural family planning methods, and its practice as a guide to the general acceptance of contraception as a concept. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered to women of childbearing age in households properly numbered for primary healthcare activities. The level of awareness of natural family planning methods was significantly less than awareness for modern methods of contraception. The awareness rate for rhythm method, lactational amenorrhoea method and coitus interruptus was 50.7%, 42.1% and 36.1%, respectively. For all three national family planning methods, there is a steady decline between awareness, correct description of method and utilisation, a difference that was statistically significant in all cases. The sociodemographic factors of the responders had varying influence on utilisation of all three natural family planning methods studied. Rural dwellers practised the lactational amenorrhoea method significantly more often than urban dwellers. Significantly more Muslims than Christians with four children or more practised coitus interruptus or the rhythm method, while the use of lactational amenorrhoea method was significantly increased with the number of living children in both religious groups. There is a relatively low level of awareness of natural family planning methods in the study population, poor utilisation and wrong use of methods. Therefore, improving the correct level of information on natural family planning methods is likely to improve the use of both natural family planning and modern contraceptive methods. PMID:17000506

Audu, B M; Yahya, S J; Bassi, A

2006-08-01

100

The Effect of Urban Basic Medical Insurance on Health Service Utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: A Comparison of Two Schemes  

PubMed Central

Background Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Results Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p<0.10), whilst the significant effect on hospitalisation was evident in the CEM method (p<0.10). The effect of URBMI was limited in that although being insured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Conclusion Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services. PMID:24740282

Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

101

Preferential utilisation of deoxycytidine by undifferentiated (peanut positive) tonsillar lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Peanut agglutinin (PNA), a D-galactose specific lectin, agglutinated 10-18% of lymphocytes isolated from tonsils of 3- to 6-yr-old children. PNA+ cells were found to be mainly B lymphocytes showing a 9.6 times higher specific activity of DNA polymerase alpha compared to the PNA- cells. The specific activity of deoxycytidine kinase as well as the incorporation of [5-3H]deoxycytidine were also much higher in PNA+ cell fraction than in PNA- fraction (7.7-fold and 6-fold, respectively). On the other hand, thymidine kinase activity and [5-3H]deoxythymidine incorporation were only 3.6 and 3.9 times higher, respectively. The data presented here show a high degree of DNA synthesis and preferential utilisation of [5-3H]deoxycytidine for DNA synthesis in this undifferentiated B lymphocyte fraction. PMID:3497870

Taljanidisz, J; Spasokukotskaja, T; Sasvári-Székely, M; Antoni, F; Staub, M

1987-06-01

102

Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products  

SciTech Connect

The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

NONE

2006-08-15

103

Environmental impacts of energy utilisation and renewable energy policies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extensively concentrates on energy and environmental impacts only. Energy utilisation and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilisation, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives.

Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

104

A Model of Information and Communication Technology Acceptance and Utilisation by Occupational Therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application

Louise Schaper; Graham Pervan

2004-01-01

105

ICT and OTs: A model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to

Louise K. Schaper; Graham P. Pervan

2007-01-01

106

Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ? R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape Province (rural). In that financial year, a total of 5369 registered nurses could have been employed in lieu of nursing agency expenditure. Conclusions The study findings should inform workforce planning in South Africa. There is a need for uniform policies and improved management of commercial nursing agencies in the public health sector. PMID:25537936

Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

2014-01-01

107

Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8%) reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25%) of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%), private clinics (50%), hospital (27%) and health centres (13%). Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary. PMID:21501473

2011-01-01

108

Utilisation of the COSMO-SkyMed Constellation for coherent and incoherent monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAR systems are recently used to generate robust and projectable information about maritime traffic, ice extent and geohazards. By utilising multiple SAR satellites dynamic information can be derived at variable temporal scales. Therefore acquisition systems and processing techniques become a key issue which is requested to work in a robust and efficient way. This paper will present generalized concepts for a monitoring approach that address unmatched or interferometric acquisitions. Its goal is to show the potential of increasing the acquisition rate but also to illustrate limitations resulting from the specific monitoring schemes and their combination. The paper will visualise practical examples derived from realized studies and projects. Finally we can conclude that an agile multi satellite and multi-mode SAR system, such as COSMO-SkyMed, is well suited to monitor to dynamic phenomena on the earth's surface. The practicability needs to be discussed in detail case by case related to the real world requirements.

Siegmund, Robert; Ciappa, Achille; Schaertel, Anna; Pietranera, Luca

2014-10-01

109

Efficiency of effect of high ambient temperatures on food utilisation in male broilers.  

PubMed

The effect of ambient temperatures above 28 degrees C on the efficiency of food utilisation were studied in 7 consecutive flocks of male broilers, grown in a cross-ventilated controlled environment poultry house. The best correlation between the food:gain ratio and temperature was obtained when the latter was expressed as degrees-h (Th), that is, the aggregate of the differences between the ambient temperature and 28 degrees C, measured hourly. The equation: Food:gain ratio = 2072 + 0.125 X Th, demonstrates clearly the negative effect of high temperatures on food:gain ratio in broilers. It might be helpful for the broiler industry when evaluating the need for and planning of cooling devices for poultry houses. PMID:3742271

Meltzer, A

1986-06-01

110

How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate  

PubMed Central

Background In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA) and the online resource UpToDate. Methods This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Results Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3%) owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7%) used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Conclusion Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice. PMID:18625038

Phua, Jason; Lim, Tow Keang

2008-01-01

111

Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

2011-01-01

112

Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions. These include infertility, gastro-intestinal disorders, safe parturition, stomach ulcers, rheumatism and fibroid. Traditional Yorubic medicine also accommodated some situations that are out of the range of conventional medicine like boosting sales, conferring invisibility, removing bad luck, appeasing/wading off witches cum evil forces and money rituals. Some of these situations specifically require juvenile, or even pregnant female animals. Conclusion Traditional Yorubic medical practices eats deep into the reproductive base of the species, presently listed in Appendix II of CITES and Schedule I of the Nigerian Decree 11 (1985), both of which recommended strict control in sales and utilisation of this species. Its numerous medicinal values, folk culture and financial benefits of these activities are the main factors promoting the commercialisation and use of this species. Pharmacological studies on the various preparations are required to identify the bioactive compounds in them. There is a need for improved and urgent measures to conserve populations of this species in-situ. Massive education and enlightenment is urgently needed for the populace to have the necessary awareness and orientation about the conservation of this species. PMID:19961597

2009-01-01

113

Problems of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum in Nigeria: one antimalaria drugs' utilisation in metropolitan Calabar.  

PubMed

We studied the antimalarial drugs utilisation pattern in urban Calabar, with a view to determining what drugs people take when they have malaria attack and who diagnoses and prescribes the drugs. We used a standard questionnaire data sheet to record the results of the interview carried out by the authors. Malaria symptoms and the drugs consumed were diagnosed and prescribed respectively by self (54pc), qualified medical doctor (32pc) and others including paramedical staff (2pc). The rest (12pc) took traditional remedies. The antimalarial drugs (chloroquine, fansidar, camouqin) were chosen because of their efficacy/popularity (21pc), cheapness (43pc) and availability (34pc). Among those interviewed, only 21.2pc took the adequate curative dose of 25 mg/kg chloroquine for 3 days according to WHO recommendations. Majority of the consumers took their drugs orally, but some (17pc) had chloroquine injections, administered, in some cases, by ill-qualified patient medicine dealer. The results show that there is an association between the level of education and the pattern of remedy sought by the respondents (p less than 0.05). Self-medication was practised significantly more by those with formal education than by those without (p less than 0.05). The trend of consulting patent medicine dealers for prescription decreased with acquisition of more formal education. Conversely, significantly more of the respondents with higher education consulted qualified medical doctors or paramedical staff (P less than 0.05). Two aspects of drug abuse observed here, i.e. the utilisation of sub-curative doses of chloroquine and monotherapy are believed to be two of the factors that lead to the several chloroquine treatment failures which have been recently reported in Calabar, and other areas of Nigeria. PMID:2060003

Ezedinachi, E N; Ejezie, G C; Emeribe, A O

1991-01-01

114

Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam  

PubMed Central

Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers. PMID:23176584

2012-01-01

115

Health care utilisation amongst Shenzhen migrant workers: does being insured make a difference?  

PubMed Central

Background As one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the Pearl River Delta of South China, Shenzhen attracts millions of migrant workers annually. The objectives of this study were to compare health needs, self-reported health and healthcare utilisation of insured and uninsured migrant workers in Shenzhen, China, where a new health insurance scheme targeting at migrant workers was initiated. Methods A cross-sectional survey using multi-staged sampling was conducted to collect data from migrant factory workers. Statistical tests included logistic regression analysis were used. Results Among 4634 subjects (96.54%) who responded to the survey, 55.11% were uninsured. Disease patterns were similar irrespective of insurance status. The uninsured were more likely to be female, single, younger and less educated unskilled labourers with a lower monthly income compared with the insured. Out of 1136 who reported illness in the previous two weeks, 62.15% did not visit a doctor. Of the 296 who were referred for inpatient care, 48.65% did not attend because of inability to pay. Amongst those who reported sickness, 548 were insured and 588 were uninsured. Those that were insured, and had easier access to care were more likely to make doctor visits than those who were uninsured. Conclusion Health care utilisation patterns differ between insured and uninsured workers and insurance status appears to be a significant factor. The health insurance system is inequitably distributed amongst migrant workers. Younger less educated women who are paid less are more likely to be uninsured and therefore to pay out of pocket for their care. For greater equity this group need to be included in the insurance schemes as they develop. PMID:19930580

2009-01-01

116

A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

2014-01-01

117

Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.  

PubMed

Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters. PMID:24903247

Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepa?ski, Andrzej

2014-10-01

118

Liquid level sensor utilising a long period fiber grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose here a liquid level sensor using a long period fiber grating (LPFG) in which direct liquid level measurement is carried out by utilising an LPFG, 100mm in length and a periodicity of 1mm. The LPFG was exposed to liquids with varying levels and the wavelength shift of a selected loss band of the transmission spectra was monitored using a broadband light source and an optical spectrum analyzer. The mechanism of this LPFG sensor is based on the fact that the effective Refractive Index (RI) of a cladding mode is directly dependant on the RI of the surrounding medium, be it air, or in this case water and petrol. As the surrounding RI changes, so does the phase matching condition of the LPFG. The result for the level change of the liquid with a specific RI is both a shift in wavelength and a change in the attenuation level of the selected loss band. For the selected loss band, continuous wavelength shifts of 9.5 nm and 25 nm for 100 mm of water and petrol level change have been observed respectively, with sub-millimetre accuracy.

Grice, S.; Zhang, W.; Sugden, K.; Bennion, I.

2009-02-01

119

The Effects on Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence from Utilising Community Health Workers: A Comparison of Selected Rural and Urban Settings in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been utilised for various primary health care activities in different settings especially in developing countries. Usually when utilised in well defined terms, they have a positive impact. To support Kenya's policy on engagement of CHWs for tuberculosis (TB) control, there is need to demonstrate effects of utilising them. Objectives This study assessed TB treatment adherence among patients who utilised CHWs in management of their illness in comparison to those who did not in urban and rural settings. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in selected health facilities using standard clinical records for each TB patient registered for treatment between 2005 to 2011. Qualitative data was collected from CHWs and health care providers. Results The study assessed 2778 tuberculosis patients and among them 1499 (54%) utilized CHWs for their TB treatment. The urban setting in comparison with the rural setting contributed 70% of patients utilising the CHWs (p<0.001). Overall treatment adherence of the cohort was 79%. Categorizing by use of CHWs, adherence among patients who had utilized CHWs was 83% versus 68% among those that had not (p<0.001). In comparison between the rural and urban settings adherence was 76% and 81.5% (p<0.001) respectively and when categorized by use of CHWs it was 73% and 90% (p<0.001) for the rural and urban set ups respectively. Utilisation of CHWs remained significant in enhancing treatment adherence in the cohort with unadjusted and adjusted ORs; OR 2.25, (95% 1.86–2.73) p<0.001 and OR 1.98 (95% 1.51–2.5) p<0.001 respectively. It was most effective in the urban set-up, OR 2.65 (95% 2.02–3.48, p<0.001) in comparison to the rural set up, OR 0.74 (95% 0.56–0.97) p?=?0.032. Conclusion Utilisation of CHWs enhanced TB treatment adherence and the best effects were in the urban set-up. PMID:24558452

Ong'ang'o, Jane Rahedi; Mwachari, Christina; Kipruto, Hillary; Karanja, Simon

2014-01-01

120

Phytoplanktonic nutrient utilisation and nutrient signature in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation in Southern Ocean provinces of silicate excess at nitrate exhaustion and of nitrate excess at silicate exhaustion was already introduced by Kamykowski and Zentara (Kamykowski, D., Zentara, S.J., 1985. Nitrate and silicic acid in the world ocean: patterns and processes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 26, 47-59; and Kamykowski, D., Zentara, S.J., 1989. Circumpolar plant nutrient covariation in the Southern Ocean: patterns and processes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 58, 101-111) and our investigations of the silicate to nitrate uptake ratios confirm the earlier distinction. Oligotrophic antarctic waters mainly exhibit proportionally higher silicate removal what induces a potential for nitrate excess. The nitrogen uptake regime of such areas is characterised by low absolute as well as specific nitrate uptake rates throughout. Maximal values did not exceed 0.15 ?M d -1 and 0.005 h -1, respectively. Corresponding f-ratios ranged from 0.39 to 0.86. This scenario contrasts strikingly to the more fertile ice edge areas. They showed a drastic but short vernal increase in nitrate uptake. Absolute uptake rates reached a maximum value of 2.18 ?M d -1 whereas the maximal specific uptake rate was 0.063 h -1. In addition to an optimal physical environment for bloom development, accumulation of ammonium stimulated nitrate uptake in a direct or indirect way. Since ammonium build-up in surface waters traces enhanced remineralisation, release of other essential compounds during degradation of organic matter might have been the main trigger. This peak nitrate utilisation during early spring led to the observed potential for silicate excess. With increasing seasonal maturity the nitrate uptake became inhibited by the presence of enhanced ammonium availability (up to 8% of the inorganic nitrogen pool), however, and after a short period of intensive nitrate consumption the uptake rates drop to very low levels, which are comparable to the ones observed in the area of nitrate excess at silicate exhaustion.

Goeyens, L.; Semeneh, M.; Baumann, M. E. M.; Elskens, M.; Shopova, D.; Dehairs, F.

1998-11-01

121

Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective  

PubMed Central

Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

2014-01-01

122

UTILISATION D'UN INTERFROMTRE ENREGISTREUR ASSOCI A UNMONOCHROMATEUR A PRISMES  

E-print Network

351. UTILISATION D'UN INTERF�ROM�TRE ENREGISTREUR ASSOCI� A UNMONOCHROMATEUR A PRISMES POUR L'un ensemble monochromateur à prismes-interféromètre enregistreur qui permet un gain de lumière important sur l'utilisation d'un spectromètre à prisme de résolution identique. Nous donnons un enregistrement d'une raie 03BD1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models  

PubMed Central

Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

2014-01-01

124

Ownership and utilisation of long lasting insecticide treated nets following free distribution campaign in South West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Malaria has proven to be the most horrendous and intractable amongst the health problems confronting countries in the sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to determine the ownership and utilisation of long lasting insecticide treated nets following free distribution campaign in a state in South West Nigeria. Methods Multi-stage sampling technique was used to recruit 2560 households spread across the 16 LGAs of the state. Interviewer administered standardized questionnaire was used for the survey. Data analysis was done using Stata 10 software. Results Sixty eight point six percent (68.6%) of the households had at least one under-five child living in the household while 32.6% had at least one pregnant woman living in the household. A total of 2440 (95.3%) households received LLIN during the campaign. Overall, the utilization rate for all respondents was 58.5%. Despite the fact that 2440 households received LLINs during the campaign, only 84.3% of them were seen to have hung theirs during the survey. Conclusion Coverage and ownership of LLINs increased significantly following the free distribution campaign. There was a discrepancy between net possession and net use with rate of use lower than possession. Post distribution educational campaign should be incorporated into future distribution campaigns to help increase net utilisation. PMID:25309663

Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji; Olatona, Foluke Adenike; Sogunro, Oluremi; Alawode, Gafar; Babatunde, Oluwole Adeyemi; Onipe, Ambrose Itopa; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji Akeem; Ameen, Hafsat Abolore; Osagbemi, Gordon Kayode; Sanya, Emmanuel Olatunde; Olarinoye, Adebunmi Oyeladun; Akande, Tanimola Makanjuola

2014-01-01

125

Income-related inequalities and inequities in health care services utilisation in 18 selected OECD countries.  

PubMed

A key policy objective in OECD countries is to achieve adequate access to health care for all people on the basis of need. Previous studies have shown that there are inequities in health care services utilisation (HCSU) in the OECD area. In recent years, measures have been taken to enhance health care access. This paper re-examines income-related inequities in doctor visits among 18 selected OECD countries, updating previous results for 12 countries with 2006-2009 data, and including six new countries. Inequalities in preventive care services are also considered for the first time. The indirect standardisation procedure is used to estimate the need-adjusted HCSU and concentration indexes are derived to gauge inequalities and inequities. Overall, inequities in HCSU remain present in OECD countries. In most countries, for the same health care needs, people with higher incomes are more likely to consult a doctor than those with lower incomes. Pro-rich inequalities in dental visits and cancer screening uptake are also found in nearly all countries, although the magnitude of these varies among countries. These findings suggest that further monitoring of inequalities is essential in order to assess whether country policy objectives are achieved on a regular basis. PMID:24337894

Devaux, Marion

2015-01-01

126

Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture  

SciTech Connect

Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

Wagner, Andreas Otto, E-mail: Andreas.Wagner@uibk.ac.a [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Gstrauntaler, Gudrun [Abfallbeseitigungsverband Westtirol, Breite Mure, A-6426 Roppen (Austria); Illmer, Paul [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2010-10-15

127

Carbon dioxide utilisation of Dunaliella tertiolecta for carbon bio-mitigation in a semicontinuous photobioreactor.  

PubMed

Bio-fixation of carbon dioxide (CO2) by microalgae has been recognised as an attractive approach to offset anthropogenic emissions. Biological carbon mitigation is the process whereby autotrophic organisms, such as microalgae, convert CO2 into organic carbon and O2 through photosynthesis; this process through respiration produces biomass. In this study Dunaliella tertiolecta was cultivated in a semicontinuous culture to investigate the carbon mitigation rate of the system. The algae were produced in 1.2-L Roux bottles with a working volume of 1 L while semicontinuous production commenced on day 4 of cultivation when the carbon mitigation rate was found to be at a maximum for D. tertiolecta. The reduction in CO2 between input and output gases was monitored to predict carbon fixation rates while biomass production and microalgal carbon content are used to calculate the actual carbon mitigation potential of D. tertiolecta. A renewal rate of 45 % of flask volume was utilised to maintain the culture in exponential growth with an average daily productivity of 0.07 g L(-1) day(-1). The results showed that 0.74 g L(-1) of biomass could be achieved after 7 days of semicontinuous production while a total carbon mitigation of 0.37 g L(-1) was achieved. This represented an increase of 0.18 g L(-1) in carbon mitigation rate compared to batch production of D. tertiolecta over the same cultivation period. PMID:24162085

Farrelly, Damien J; Brennan, Liam; Everard, Colm D; McDonnell, Kevin P

2014-04-01

128

Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees’ perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.4–98.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.2–95.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ?30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services. PMID:24791050

Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Ezeama, Nkiru N.; Ifeadike, Chigozie Ozoemena; Okezie, Obasi Kanu

2014-01-01

129

Predictors of Traditional Medicines Utilisation in the Ghanaian Health Care Practice: Interrogating the Ashanti Situation.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine (TRM) use remains universal among individuals, families and communities the world over but the predictive variables of TRM use is still confounding. This population-based study analysed the predictors of TRM use in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative survey involving systematic random sampled participants (N = 324) was conducted. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used as research instruments. Data were analysed with logit regression, Pearson's Chi square and Fisher's exact tests from the PASW for Windows application (V. 17.0). Overall, 86.1 % (n = 279) reported use of TRM with biologically-based and distant/prayer therapies as the major forms of TRM utilised in the previous 12 months. Among the general population, TRM use was predicted by having low-income levels [odds ratio (OR) 2.883, confidence interval (CI) 1.142-7.277], being a trader (OR 2.321, CI 1.037-5.194), perceiving TRM as effective (OR 4.430, CI 1.645-11.934) and safe (OR 2.730, CI 0.986-4.321), good affective behaviour of traditional medical practitioner (TMP) (OR 2.943, CI 0.875-9.896) and having chronic ill-health (OR 3.821, CI 1.213-11.311). The prevalence of TRM use is high. The study provides evidence that people's experience, personal attributes, health beliefs, attitude to TRM, attitude of TMP to clients and medical history are largely accountable for the upsurge use of TRM rather than socio-demographic factors. Understanding the health-seeking behaviour of individuals is exigent to ascribe appropriate medical care by health care providers. PMID:25173694

Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

2014-08-31

130

Utilisation of feed energy by growing ruminants M. VERMOREL H. BICKEL  

E-print Network

feeding level, but the differences seem to depend on animal species (adult sheep versus lamb or growingUtilisation of feed energy by growing ruminants M. VERMOREL H. BICKEL *Laboratoire d'Etude du value of feeds for growing ruminants is generally calculated from the data obtained from adult sheep

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

UTILISATION DE DIFFRENTS PRODUITS ODORANTS DE SYNTHSE POUR FACILITER LA DTECTION  

E-print Network

surtout le temps nécessaire à une telle opération limitent l'emploi de cette technique aux stations BUISSON et Src!ox!'r, 1066). Nous avons voulu mettre à l'essai l'utilisation de l'odeur sexuelle dans les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

132

A FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION  

E-print Network

A FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange, Resources, Roughness, Coastal Sea Areas, Waves, Rødsand 1 INTRODUCTION Large offshore wind farms are being wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has to compensate the additional

Heinemann, Detlev

133

Analysis of microbial community functional diversity using sole-carbon-source utilisation profiles – a critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on functional diversity (metabolic potential) is essential for understanding the role of microbial communities in different environments. Variations of the commercially available BIOLOG bacterial identification system plates are now widely used to assess functional diversity of microorganisms from environmental samples, based on utilisation patterns of a wide range (up to 95) of single carbon sources. There are many problems

Juliet Preston-Mafham; Lynne Boddy; Peter F Randerson

2002-01-01

134

Synthesis and utilisation of folate by yoghurt starter cultures and probiotic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two bacterial isolates from species commonly used in yoghurts and fermented milks were examined for their ability to synthesise or utilise folate during fermentation of skim milk. The organisms examined included the traditional yoghurt starter cultures, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, and probiotic lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Enterococcus faecium. Folate was synthesised by S. thermophilus, bifidobacteria, and E. faecium.

R. G. Crittenden; N. R. Martinez; M. J. Playne

2003-01-01

135

Hand hygiene audits utilising medical student observers and measuring product consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand hygiene is critical in controlling hospital-acquired infection. Traditional methods of surveillance are resource-intensive. They are often influenced by the awareness of being observed (the Hawthorne effect) and so observers must be unobtrusive. In Singapore, medical students are not part of the ward team and are potentially excellent auditors. Utilising students may have additional benefits such as infection control training

Toon Mae Ng; Paul A. Tambyah; Corinna Scharmer

2008-01-01

136

Protein utilisation The basis of feeding standards for protein in growing  

E-print Network

Protein utilisation The basis of feeding standards for protein in growing and fattening beef cattle The historical background to protein feeding standards in the UK and the shortcomings of digestible crude protein and available protein as standards for the future are considered. The proposed ARC protein system, which takes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

UTILISATION OF NAKED OATS AND BARLEY IN THE FEED OF BROILERS AND LAYING HENS  

E-print Network

UTILISATION OF NAKED OATS AND BARLEY IN THE FEED OF BROILERS AND LAYING HENS J. GUILLAUME C. CALET Three varieties of hulless cereals : two oats and one barley were compared to maize (trial i), to maize, wheat and normal or dehulled oats and barley (trial 2) as main components of isocaloric diets in growing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

`Big Chief': The Utilisation of Model Building for the Design of Science Education for Sustainable  

E-print Network

`Big Chief': The Utilisation of Model Building for the Design of Science Education for Sustainable Development Games. Timothy Barker1 Abstract. A model building paradigm was employed to inform the design of a game for Science Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The intention is that such techniques

Romano, Daniela

139

Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the

W. Permchart; S. Tanatvanit

2007-01-01

140

Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

2007-10-01

141

Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as unmanned airborne systems (UAS) or remotely piloted airborne systems (RPAS), are an established platform for close range airborne photogrammetry. Compared to manned platforms, the acquisition of local remote sensing data by UAVs is a convenient and very flexible option. For the application in photogrammetry UAVs are typically equipped with an autopilot and a lightweight digital camera. The autopilot includes several navigation sensors, which might allow an automated waypoint flight and offer a systematic data acquisition of the object resp. scene of interest. Assuming a sufficient overlap between the captured images, the position (3 coordinates: x, y, z) and the orientation (3 angles: roll, pitch, yaw) of the images can be estimated within a bundle block adjustment. Subsequently, coordinates of observed points that appear in at least two images, can be determined by measuring their image coordinates or a dense surface model can be generated from all acquired images by automated image matching. For the bundle block adjustment approximate values of the position and the orientation of the images are needed. To gather this information, several methods exist. We introduce in this contribution one of them: the direct georeferencing of images by using the navigation sensors (mainly GNSS and INS) of a low-cost on-board autopilot. Beside automated flights, the autopilot offers the possibility to record the position and the orientation of the platform during the flight. These values don't correspond directly to those of the images. To compute the position and the orientation of the images two requirements must be fulfilled. First the misalignment angles and the positional differences between the camera and the autopilot must be determined (mounting calibration). Second the synchronization between the camera and the autopilot has to be established. Due to the limited accuracy of the navigation sensors, a small number of ground control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

2014-05-01

142

Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation  

PubMed Central

During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

2013-01-01

143

Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.  

PubMed

During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

2013-02-01

144

Factors associated with non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in Timor-Leste: evidence from the 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Timor-Leste is a young developing country in Asia. Most of its infrastructure was destroyed after a long armed conflict for independence. Despite recent expansion of health facilities and investment in healthcare, maternal mortality remains high with most mothers still giving birth at home. This study investigated factors affecting the non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in the aftermath of the independence conflict. Methods The Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 was the latest two-stage national survey, which used validated questionnaires to obtain information from 26 clusters derived from 13 districts of the country. Factors influencing non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth were investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, accounting for the cluster sampling and sample weight of the survey. Results Of the total 5986 participants included in the study, 4472 (74.8%) did not deliver their last child at a health facility. Lack of education for the mother (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 2.66) and her partner (OR: 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.84), low household wealth status (OR: 5.20; 95% CI 3.93 to 6.90), and rural residence (OR: 2.83; 95% CI 2.22 to 3.66), were associated with increased likelihood of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth. Working mothers (OR: 1.55; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.81), who had high parity (OR: 1.78; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.32) and did not attend antenatal care service (OR: 4.68; 95% CI 2.65 to 8.28) were also vulnerable for not delivering at a health facility. Conversely, the prevalence of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth reduced with increasing number of service components received during antenatal care visits (OR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). Conclusions Only a quarter of Timorese women delivered at a health facility. In order to reduce maternal mortality, future interventions should target disadvantaged mothers from poor families, those residing in rural areas, have higher parity but no education, and who seldom attend antenatal care service, by improving their utilisation of health facility for childbirth. PMID:24885424

2014-01-01

145

The POPPY Research Programme protocol: investigating opioid utilisation, costs and patterns of extramedical use in Australia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Opioid prescribing is increasing in many countries. In Australia, there is limited research on patterns of prescribing and access, or the outcomes associated with this use. The aim of this research programme is to use national dispensing data to estimate opioid use and costs, including problematic or extramedical use in the Australian population. Methods and analysis In a cohort of persons dispensed at least one opioid in 2013, we will estimate monthly utilisation and costs of prescribed opioids, overall and according to individual opioid formulations and strengths. In a cohort of new opioid users, commencing therapy between 1 July 2009 and 31 December 2013, we will examine patterns of opioid use including initiation of therapy, duration of treatment and concomitant use of opioids and other prescribed medicines. We will also examine patterns of extramedical opioid use based on indicators including excess dosing, use of more than one opioid concomitantly, doctor/pharmacy shopping and accelerated time to prescription refill. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the NSW Population and Health Services Ethics Committee (March 2014) and data access approved by the Department of Human Services External Review Evaluation Committee (June 2014). This will be one of the first comprehensive Australian studies with the capability to investigate individual patterns of use and track extramedical use. In the first instance our analysis will be based on 5?years of dispensing data but will be expanded with ongoing annual data updates. This research has the capability to contribute significantly to pharmaceutical policy within Australia and globally. In particular, the trajectory of extramedical prescription-opioid use has been the subject of limited research to date. The results of this research will be published widely in general medical, pharmacoepidemiology, addiction and psychiatry journals. PMID:25631315

Degenhardt, Louisa; Blanch, Bianca; Gisev, Natasa; Larance, Briony; Pearson, Sallie

2015-01-01

146

Analysis of regulation of pentose utilisation in Aspergillus niger reveals evolutionary adaptations in Eurotiales  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli are commonly found in soil and on decaying plant material. D-xylose and L-arabinose are highly abundant components of plant biomass. They are released from polysaccharides by fungi using a set of extracellular enzymes and subsequently converted intracellularly through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP). In this study, the L-arabinose responsive transcriptional activator (AraR) is identified in Aspergillus niger and was shown to control the L-arabinose catabolic pathway as well as expression of genes encoding extracellular L-arabinose releasing enzymes. AraR interacts with the D-xylose-responsive transcriptional activator XlnR in the regulation of the pentose catabolic pathway, but not with respect to release of L-arabinose and D-xylose. AraR was only identified in the Eurotiales, more specifically in the family Trichocomaceae and appears to have originated from a gene duplication event (from XlnR) after this order or family split from the other filamentous ascomycetes. XlnR is present in all filamentous ascomycetes with the exception of members of the Onygenales. Since the Onygenales and Eurotiales are both part of the subclass Eurotiomycetidae, this indicates that strong adaptation of the regulation of pentose utilisation has occurred at this evolutionary node. In Eurotiales a unique two-component regulatory system for pentose release and metabolism has evolved, while the regulatory system was lost in the Onygenales. The observed evolutionary changes (in Eurotiomycetidae) mainly affect the regulatory system as in contrast, homologues for most genes of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway are present in all the filamentous fungi, irrespective of the presence of XlnR and/or AraR. PMID:21892241

Battaglia, E.; Visser, L.; Nijssen, A.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wösten, H.A.B.; de Vries, R.P.

2011-01-01

147

Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.  

PubMed

The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system. PMID:25453314

Top, Y

2015-01-01

148

Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.  

PubMed

The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p < 0.05) in Group High RFI, whereas digestibility of all nutrients except crude protein and ether extract was significantly higher in Group Low RFI. Nitrogen balance was also significantly higher in Group Low RFI (20.2 g/d) than in Group High RFI (17.0 g/d). Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p < 0.05). Compared with Group High RFI, the CH4 emission of Group Low RFI was significantly lower (on the basis g/d and g/kg DMI by 11% and 19%, respectively). Furthermore, the CH4 emission [g/d] was significantly correlated with RFI (r = 0.77). Because higher feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions. PMID:25156936

Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

2014-01-01

149

Energy utilisation and growth performance of chicken fed diets containing graded levels of supplementary bacterial phytase.  

PubMed

A total of 364 female Ross 308 chicks (1 d old) were used in the present study conducted in floor pens to investigate the effects of graded levels of supplementary bacterial phytase on dietary energy utilisation and growth performance. For this purpose, four maize-soyabean-based diets were offered to the birds from 0 to 21 d of age. These included a suboptimal P negative control (NC, 3.0 g/kg non-phytate P), NC+250 phytase units (FTU)/kg feed, NC+500 FTU and NC+2500 FTU. The effect of phytase activity on bird growth performance was best described as a linear relationship between increasing dose and increased feed intake (P< 0.001), but was quadratic for body-weight gain (P= 0.002) and feed efficiency (P= 0.023). There was no significant response (P>0.05) of dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AME) to supplementary phytase. The birds fed phytase increased their retention of total carcass energy in a linear fashion (P= 0.009) with increased phytase dose. The efficiency of dietary AME used for overall carcass energy retention also improved (P= 0.007) in a linear manner with increased dietary phytase activity. Dietary net energy for production (NEp) increased (P= 0.047) with an increase in phytase dose following a linear pattern, as an increase of 100 FTU increased dietary net energy by 15.4 J (estimated within the range of doses used in the present experiment). Dietary NEp was more highly correlated with performance criteria than dietary AME, and it seems to be a more sensitive way to evaluate broiler response to phytase supplementation. PMID:22716908

Pirgozliev, V; Bedford, M R

2013-01-28

150

Reference amounts utilised in front of package nutrition labelling; impact on product healthfulness evaluations.  

PubMed

Background/Objectives:The research question addressed in this paper is how different reference amounts utilised in front of package nutrition labelling influence evaluation of product healthfulness.Subjects/Methods:A total of 13?117 participants from six European countries (Germany, UK, Spain, France, Poland and Sweden) were recruited via online panels. A mixed between/within-subject factorial design was employed with food (biscuits, sandwiches, yogurts), healthfulness and presence of Guideline Daily Amounts as within-subjects factors and reference amount ('per 100?g', 'typical portion', 'half portion') and country as between-subjects factors.Results:Overall, people correctly ranked foods according to their objective healthfulness as defined by risk nutrients alone, and could distinguish between more and less healthful variants of foods. General healthfulness associations with the three product categories do not appear to have had a strong influence on product ratings. This study shows that where the reference amount of 'per 100?g' is very different from the 'typical' portion size, as was the case for biscuits, products with a 'per 100?g' label are rated significantly less healthful than the 'typical' or 'half typical' portions.Conclusion:The results indicate that across the three food categories, consumers do factor the reference amount, that is, the quantity of food for which the nutritional information is being presented, into their judgements of healthfulness. Therefore, appropriate reference amounts are also of importance for the effective presentation of nutritional information.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.190. PMID:25351645

Raats, M M; Hieke, S; Jola, C; Hodgkins, C; Kennedy, J; Wills, J

2014-11-01

151

Effects of mannanoligosaccharide in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, energy utilisation, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora.  

PubMed

1. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS, Bio-MOS, Alltech Inc.) on the growth performance, energy utilisation, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora of birds given a sorghum-wheat based diet. Two MOS levels (1 and 2 g/kg) were included in the diet. 2. Inclusion of MOS at both levels in the diet improved the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) values of the diet. However, these effects were not as pronounced as those of zinc bacitracin (ZnB) treatment. Dietary ZnB also significantly improved the net energy value of the diet. No significant differences between the different levels of MOS were noticed in the growth performance, AME and net energy values of the diet. Compared to the negative control, inclusion of 2 g/kg MOS tended to improve feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in the starter phase. 3. Dietary MOS did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients compared to the negative control. In contrast, ZnB significantly improved the protein digestibility and tended to increase the starch digestibility. The addition of MOS reduced the concentration of arabinose in the soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) fraction in the excreta of birds; whereas, the concentrations of individual sugars in the insoluble NSP and free sugar fractions were increased by ZnB. 4. A decrease in the populations of lactobacilli and coliforms in the ileal and caecal lumen was observed for MOS and ZnB treatments. Correspondingly, pH and microbial fermentation in the gut was altered. The addition of MOS tended to reduce the coliform load at the gut mucosa. 5. Results from the current study suggest that MOS can improve the apparent energy utilisation of the diet and tend to improve FCE of birds in the first three posthatch weeks, which may be partly related to the modulatory effects of MOS on the gut microflora. PMID:18409093

Yang, Y; Iji, P A; Kocher, A; Thomson, E; Mikkelsen, L L; Choct, M

2008-03-01

152

Hepatic toxicology following single and multiple exposure of engineered nanomaterials utilising a novel primary human 3D liver microtissue model.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe liver has a crucial role in metabolic homeostasis as well as being the principal detoxification centre of the body, removing xenobiotics and waste products which could potentially include some nanomaterials (NM). With the ever increasing public and occupational exposure associated with accumulative production of nanomaterials, there is an urgent need to consider the possibility of detrimental health consequences of engineered NM exposure. It has been shown that exposure via inhalation, intratracheal instillation or ingestion can result in NM translocation to the liver. Traditional in vitro or ex vivo hepatic nanotoxicology models are often limiting and/or troublesome (i.e. reduced metabolism enzymes, lacking important cell populations, unstable with very high variability, etc.).MethodsIn order to rectify these issues and for the very first time we have utilised a 3D human liver microtissue model to investigate the toxicological effects associated with a single or multiple exposure of a panel of engineered NMs (Ag, ZnO, MWCNT and a positively charged TiO2).ResultsHere we demonstrate that the repeated exposure of the NMs is more damaging to the liver tissue as in comparison to a single exposure with the adverse effects more significant following treatment with the Ag and ZnO as compared with the TiO2 and MWCNT NMs (in terms of cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity).ConclusionsOverall, this study demonstrates that the human microtissue model utilised herein is an excellent candidate for replacement of traditional in vitro single cell hepatic models and further progression of liver nanotoxicology. PMID:25326698

Kermanizadeh, Ali; Løhr, Mille; Roursgaard, Martin; Messner, Simon; Gunness, Patrina; Kelm, Jens M; Møller, Peter; Stone, Vicki; Loft, Steffen

2014-10-20

153

Course of post-traumatic stress disorder and health care utilisation among resettled refugees in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major health problem among refugees worldwide. After resettlement, the prevalence of PTSD remains high despite the fact that various PTSD treatments are known to be effective. Methods We examined the course of PTSD and the role of mental health care utilisation at a 7-year interval (2003–2010) among a cohort of refugees from Iran, Afghanistan, and Somalia after resettlement in the Netherlands. Results The unchanged high prevalence of PTSD (16.3% in 2003 and 15.2% in 2010) was attributable in part to late onset of PTSD symptoms (half of the respondents with PTSD at T2 were new cases for whom PTSD developed after 2003). The second reason concerned the low use of mental health care services at T1. Whereas the multivariate analyses showed the effectiveness of mental health care, only 21% of respondents with PTSD at T1 had had contact with a mental health care provider at that time. Use of mental health care during the first wave increased the odds of improvement in PTSD symptoms between both measurements (OR 7.58, 95% CI 1.01; 56.85). Conclusions The findings of this study suggest there are two possible explanations for the persistently high prevalence of PTSD among refugees. One is the late onset of PTSD and the other is the low utilisation of mental health care. Health care professionals should be aware of these issues, especially given the effectiveness of mental health care for this condition. PMID:24670251

2014-01-01

154

Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

Robertson, Carmen

2012-01-01

155

Utilisation of Malaysian Coal: Merit Pila in the Gasification System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasification is the most efficient Clean Coal Technology. Gasification of Merit Pila coal had been studied in a laboratory-scale, atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air-steam as fluidizing agent. Merit Pila coal was chosen for the gasification study because of its high reactivity in nitrogen. Determination of the producer gas compositions were conducted using Gas Chromatography. Gasification experiments were conducted at bed temperature of 650-800 °C, different equivalence ratios, ER and different bed heights. Low heating value, LHVpg of the producer gas were in the range of 2.0-5.5 MJ/Nm3. Introduction of steam as the gasifying agents had shown significant increased of CO, CH4 and H2 contents in producer gas. LHV also increased about 35% with the presence of steam.

Othman, Nor Fadzilah; Bosrooh, Mohd Hariffin; Majid, Kamsani Abdul

2011-06-01

156

Utilising proteomic approaches to understand oncogenic human herpesviruses (Review)  

PubMed Central

The ?-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are successful pathogens, each infecting a large proportion of the human population. These viruses persist for the life of the host and may each contribute to a number of malignancies, for which there are currently no cures. Large-scale proteomic-based approaches provide an excellent means of increasing the collective understanding of the proteomes of these complex viruses and elucidating their numerous interactions within the infected host cell. These large-scale studies are important for the identification of the intricacies of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics against these two important pathogens. PMID:25279171

OWEN, CHRISTOPHER B.; HUGHES, DAVID J.; BAQUERO-PEREZ, BELINDA; BERNDT, ANJA; SCHUMANN, SOPHIE; JACKSON, BRIAN R.; WHITEHOUSE, ADRIAN

2014-01-01

157

Western Saudi adolescent age estimation utilising third molar development  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to establish reference data on third molar morphology/development for age estimation in Western Saudi adolescents, between ages 14 and 23 years of old. Materials and Methods: The orthopantomograms of 130 individuals (males and females), were examined, and the stage of third molar development were evaluated. Results: Mean ages, standard deviations, and percentile distributions are presented for each stage of development. The mean estimated age for all participants (n = 130) was 219.7 months, and this differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the mean chronological age (226.5 months). Deviations of predicted age from real age showed 28.5% of all participants had their age estimated within 1 year (±12 months) of their chronological age. Most (43%) had their age underestimated by more than 12 months and the remaining 28.5% had their age overestimated by more than 12 months of their chronological age. Differences in left-right symmetry information of third molars were detected and were higher in the maxilla (92%) than in the mandible (82%). For all molars reaching stage “H” most individuals (males and females) were over the age 18 years of old. Males reach the developmental stages earlier than females. Conclusion: Third molar tooth development can be reliably used to generate mean age and the estimated age range for an individual of unknown chronological age. Further studies with large populations are needed for better statistical results. PMID:25202206

Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

2014-01-01

158

Pella vilya: Near earth objects—Planetary defence through the regulation of resource utilisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactions to near earth objects (NEOs) in the past decade have run the gamut from expectations of Armageddon-type scenarios to Eureka moments of revolutionary scientific ideas. Concerns over the potentially devastating effects of an unmitigated collision jostle with forecasts of untold economic returns from the utilisation of NEO resources. Drawing from recent analogies and examples from the field of international environmental law, this paper proposes the development of a legal framework for the regulation of NEO resource utilisation. The proposed legal framework also includes a mechanism to ensure the political will and economic investment necessary for technological advances in planetary defence. By twinning the threats and opportunities presented by NEOs, this paper also analyses the position of theme-specific space law development in the overall legal framework of space exploration and traffic management.

Goh, Gérardine Meishan

2010-07-01

159

Context-Aware Service Utilisation in the Clouds and Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

Ubiquitous computing environments are characterised by smart, interconnected artefacts embedded in our physical world that are projected to provide useful services to human inhabitants unobtrusively. Mobile devices are becoming the primary tools of human interaction with these embedded artefacts and utilisation of services available in smart computing environments such as clouds. Advancements in capabilities of mobile devices allow a number of user and environment related context consumers to be hosted on these devices. Without a coordinating component, these context consumers and providers are a potential burden on device resources; specifically the effect of uncoordinated computation and communication with cloud-enabled services can negatively impact the battery life. Therefore energy conservation is a major concern in realising the collaboration and utilisation of mobile device based context-aware applications and cloud based services. This paper presents the concept of a context-brokering component to aid...

Kiani, Saad Liaquat; Antonopoulos, Nick; Knappmeyer, Michael; Baker, Nigel; McClatchey, Richard

2012-01-01

160

Effects of demand-side financing on utilisation, experiences and outcomes of maternity care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Demand-side financing, where funds for specific services are channelled through, or to, prospective users, is now employed in health and education sectors in many low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review aimed to critically examine the evidence on application of this approach to promote maternal health in these settings. Five modes were considered: unconditional cash transfers, conditional cash transfers, short-term payments to offset costs of accessing maternity services, vouchers for maternity services, and vouchers for merit goods. We sought to assess the effects of these interventions on utilisation of maternity services and on maternal health outcomes and infant health, the situation of underprivileged women and the healthcare system. Methods The protocol aimed for collection and synthesis of a broad range of evidence from quantitative, qualitative and economic studies. Nineteen health and social policy databases, seven unpublished research databases and 27 websites were searched; with additional searches of Indian journals and websites. Studies were included if they examined demand-side financing interventions to increase consumption of services or goods intended to impact on maternal health, and met relevant quality criteria. Quality assessment, data extraction and analysis used Joanna Briggs Institute standardised tools and software. Outcomes of interest included maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, service utilisation, factors required for successful implementation, recipient and provider experiences, ethical issues, and cost-effectiveness. Findings on Effectiveness, Feasibility, Appropriateness and Meaningfulness were presented by narrative synthesis. Results Thirty-three quantitative studies, 46 qualitative studies, and four economic studies from 17 countries met the inclusion criteria. Evidence on unconditional cash transfers was scanty. Other demand-side financing modes were found to increase utilisation of maternal healthcare in the index pregnancy or uptake of related merit goods. Evidence of effects on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity outcomes was insufficient. Important implementation aspects include targeting and eligibility criteria, monitoring, respectful treatment of beneficiaries, suitable incentives for providers, quality of care and affordable referral systems. Conclusions Demand-side financing schemes can increase utilisation of maternity services, but attention must be paid to supply-side conditions, the fine-grain of implementation and sustainability. Comparative studies and research on health impact and cost-effectiveness are required. PMID:24438560

2014-01-01

161

Usage, msusage et non-utilisation des TIC : repenser la fracture numrique en entreprise  

E-print Network

Chapitre 4 Usage, mésusage et non-utilisation des TIC : repenser la fracture numérique en les technologies d'information et de communication (TIC). Dans l'analyse de ce phénomène les conditionnent l'appropriation et l'usage social des TIC. � cette « fracture numérique » aisément identifiable et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Communication n 23 Atelier 19 : TIC : utilisation dans les pdagogies scolaires  

E-print Network

Communication n° 23 Atelier 19 : TIC : utilisation dans les pédagogies scolaires USAGES DES TIC les résultats d'une étude qualitative portant sur les usages des TIC par des formateurs dans le cadre à la présente recherche. Les entretiens semi- directifs ont porté sur des usages des TIC que font

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

Factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation in Kuwait's crude oil industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost structure of the crude oil industry in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation. This has been done by estimating translog cost functions, both long-run and short-run, using time-series data covering the period from 1976 to 1996. The results indicate that the implied production structure is non-homothetic, and the

Naief Al-Mutairi; Nadeem A. Burney

2002-01-01

164

Recalage et fusion d'images sonar multivues : utilisation du Cedric Rominger  

E-print Network

Recalage et fusion d'images sonar multivues : utilisation du conflit Cedric Rominger , Arnaud fusion d'im- ages sonar classifiées. Nous adaptons ici la méthode présentée dans un précé- dent papier à images sonar multivues afin d'améliorer les résul- tats. Néanmoins, avant de pouvoir fusionner ces images

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

Thermal-design data for evaporators of ORC engines utilising low-temperature heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant quantities of hot water at temperatures between 60 and 100°C are available as the waste streams from many industrial and power-producing plants. An ORC engine can be employed to produce mechanical work by utilising this hot water as the source of energy input. A computer routine has been coded in order to evaluate the design characteristics for the evaporator

O. Badr; S. D. Probert

1990-01-01

166

Utilisation of ART in single women and lesbian couples since the 2010 change in Victorian legislation.  

PubMed

Enactment of the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act (Vic) 2008 in January 2010 allowed single persons and same sex couples in Victoria to access reproductive treatments. A retrospective cohort analysis of Monash IVF patients was conducted to identify trends in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) use amongst single women and lesbian couples after January 2010. A 102.8% increase in the utilisation of ART was observed amongst the single women group and a 248.8% increase in the lesbian couple population. PMID:25287570

Fiske, Emily; Weston, Gareth

2014-10-01

167

Pont mine, vieil elephant mangeur de bananes, et utilisation de la programmation par ensembles reponses  

E-print Network

Pont min´e, vieil ´el´ephant mangeur de bananes, et utilisation de la programmation par ensembles r. Moinard INRIA Bretagne-Atlantique IRISA () ASP : Pont min´e, ´el´ephant & bananes 15 juin 2012, IRIT Bretagne-Atlantique IRISA () ASP : Pont min´e, ´el´ephant & bananes 15 juin 2012, IRIT, Toulouse 2 / 60 hal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Pacific women's decisions about exercise adoption: utilising the stage-of-exercise-adoption model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To analyse the exercise patterns of Pacific women utilising the stage-of- exercise-adoption model, and to investigate how the pros and cons of exercising, exercise self-efficacy, self-reported health, and sociodemographic barriers to exercise influence exercise adoption. Methods A non-random questionnaire survey of 106 Pacific women living in the North Island of New Zealand. Results Thirty percent of the sample was

Denise Kingi; Andy Towers; Renée Seebeck; Ross Flett

169

Allocation de frquences dans un systme de communication satellitaire utilisant le SDMA  

E-print Network

Allocation de fréquences dans un système de communication satellitaire utilisant le SDMA Laurent prometteuse de ces techniques est le SDMA (Spatial Division Multiple Access). Cette technique, qui peut être avec un nombre de fréquences limité. An de démontrer l'interêt du système SDMA, nous considérons deux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

170

Optimisation of building form for solar energy utilisation using constrained evolutionary algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a new methodology for optimising building and urban geometric forms for the utilisation of solar irradiation, whether by passive or active means. For this we use a new evolutionary algorithm (a hybrid CMA-ES\\/HDE algorithm) to search the user-defined parameter space, within defined constraints. The fitness function, solar irradiation, is predicted using the backwards ray tracing

Jérôme Henri Kämpf; Darren Robinson

2010-01-01

171

Abundance, residency, and habitat utilisation of Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theodolite tracking and boat?based photo?identification surveys were carried out in the austral summers of 1995\\/96 and 1996\\/97 to assess abundance, residency, and habitat utilisation of Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori van Beneden 1881) in Porpoise Bay, on the south?east corner of the South Island of New Zealand. Data are consistent with the model of a small resident population that is visited

Lars Bejder; Steve Dawson

2001-01-01

172

Gnration d'impulsions paraboliques par utilisation d'une fibre dispersion normale dcroissante  

E-print Network

Génération d'impulsions paraboliques par utilisation d'une fibre à dispersion normale décroissante Abrégé : Nous démontrons expérimentalement la possibilité de générer des impulsions paraboliques grâce à des fibres optiques d'impulsions ayant un profil parabolique et une dérive de fréquence linéaire

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

Utilisation d'un laser argon ionis en endoscopie digestive : photocoagulation des lsions hmorragiques  

E-print Network

of this system is to induce through endoscopy the hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the digestive tract. The blue385 Utilisation d'un laser à argon ionisé en endoscopie digestive : photocoagulation des lésions'hémostase des lésions digestives hémorragiques. Il est réalisé avec un laser à argon ionisé dont le faisceau est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems, even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.

Carter, L.D.

2012-11-01

175

[Prevalence and utilisation of health promotion in German enterprises].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of health promotion in German enterprises, differentiated by size, sector, and the companies' business situations. Representative data were analysed from the survey of working conditions in Germany (n=20,000) that was conducted by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) and the Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA). Thirty-eight percent of interviewed employees confirmed that health promotion activities had been carried out in their company during the last two years. The prevalence varied significantly, depending on the company's size, sector, and business situation. In cases of implementation, a higher percentage of employees participated in micro and small companies than in medium-sized or large companies. With respect to the implementation of health promotion, more advice and support are needed, particularly in micro and small enterprises. There is still a need for health promotion activities which meet the special needs of micro and small enterprises. Furthermore there is still a need to invest in an infrastructure which allows their adequate supply. PMID:19551626

Beck, D; Schnabel, P-E

2010-04-01

176

L’utilisation d’objets comme outils: un développement continu  

PubMed Central

Le débat autour des origines développementales de la capacité humaine à utiliser des outils de manière souple reste ouvert. Alors que l’approche dominante se focalise sur un changement qualitatif cognitif vers la fin de la première année, la théorie perception-action fournit des indices importants sur la manière dont les comportements exploratoires plus précoces des nourrissons jettent les bases pour l’émergence de cette capacité. En particulier, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont les tentatives des nourrissons de mettre en rapport les objets et les surfaces leur permettent d’apprendre comment les objets peuvent servir d’extension de la main et fournissent l’occasion d’exercer des actions qui seront recrutées plus tard pour l’utilisation d’outils. Dans ce contexte, nous discutons des études comportementales et cinématiques portant sur la manipulation d’objets, qui montrent que les nourrissons font interagir les objets et les surfaces avec discernement et que leur contrôle de la frappe (banging) augmente au cours de leur première année. En conclusion, une perspective perception-action suggère que l’utilisation d’outils émerge de manière plus continue au cours du développement que ce qui a été traditionnellement envisagé. PMID:24511151

Kahrs, Björn Alexander; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

2014-01-01

177

Utilisation and Off-Label Prescriptions of Respiratory Drugs in Children  

PubMed Central

Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ?18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children) between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs) per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374–575 per 10,000 children) and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378–527 per 10,000 children). Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold) whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (?97%). Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3%) and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%). The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n?=?67,084; 42.0%) and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n?=?18,897; 20.7%). Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections underlining the essential need for a more rational prescribing in this area. PMID:25180704

Schmiedl, Sven; Fischer, Rainald; Ibáñez, Luisa; Fortuny, Joan; Klungel, Olaf H.; Reynolds, Robert; Gerlach, Roman; Tauscher, Martin; Thürmann, Petra; Hasford, Joerg; Rottenkolber, Marietta

2014-01-01

178

Solar energy utilisation and evacuated tubular solar collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been constructed and their performance evaluated. The characteristics of the collectors are then compared and their design strengths assessed. One of the designs, a flat absorber with a single glass cover using glass to metal seals was found to have the best performance among the four designs which included a dewar vessel type collector, a heat pipe collector and a black liquid collector with an optical efficiency of 87.7 pct. and an overall heat loss coefficient of 12.3 Wm(exp -2)/C. The performance of the dewar vessel type and black liquid collectors was found to be comparable to the glass to metal seal collector. A detailed analysis of the optical and thermal processes in evacuated tubular collectors was made. On the basis of this analysis a computer simulation model using a finite difference technique has been developed to predict the performance of evacuated tubular collectors. The computer simulation results are then compared with the test results. For the majority of the tests the discrepancy between the simulation and the test results was within the error band of the test results (maximum 12 pct.). For the published test results the maximum discrepancy for operating temperature below 100 C was found to be 6 pct. The computer simulation model was compared with other published models and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. In some analytical and semi-analytical simulation models the energy absorbed by the glass cover and the heat loss from joints and supports has to be ignored. The present model has none of these deficiencies and more complex designs can be simulated. The developed computer simulation program might be used as an aid in the design of evacuated tubular collectors. Using the computer simulation, a parametric study of the three commmercially available collectors was made. The results are discussed and the areas of improvement are identified.

Parand, Foroutan

179

Utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine content for broilers and layers.  

PubMed

1. The relative utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine (F) content was studied in commercial broilers (5 to 40 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). The phosphorus (P) sources tested were bonemeal (BM), low fluorine (LFRP) and high fluorine (HFRP) rock phosphates and a commercial mineral mixture (CMM). The P sources were incorporated in broiler and layer diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) on a P basis. 2. The F contents of diets based on BM, LFRP, CMM and HFRP were 53, 365, 622 and 1383 mg/kg in the broiler experiment and 34, 242, 437 and 967 mg/kg in the layer experiment, respectively. F was not detected in DCP based diets. 3. In broilers, body weight gain, food intake, gain: food, P retention and serum inorganic P content on P sources (BM and LFRP) containing F up to 365 mg/kg diet were similar to those on DCP. Body weight gain, food intake, serum calcium and inorganic P contents and retention of P were depressed in groups fed on CMM and HFRP, which may have been due to the toxic effects of F (622 and 1383 mg/kg) present in diets based on these P sources. 4. Bone ash and its P content were not affected by feeding diets containing F up to 1383 mg/kg from various P sources. The amount of F deposited in tibia increased significantly with increases in dietary F concentration. 5. In layers, egg production and food intake were not affected by F up to 437 mg/kg in diets containing BM, LFRP or CMM as the sole source of supplemental P. Egg production and food intake were depressed significantly in layers given the diet containing 967 mg F/kg from HFRP. 6. Egg mass: food, egg weight, shell quality (shell thickness and shell weight) and serum calcium and inorganic P levels were not affected by F up to 967 mg/kg in diets containing different P sources. 7. It may be concluded that the performance of broilers and layers was not affected by feeding various P supplements with dietary levels of F up to 365 and 437 mg/kg, respectively. The reduced performance in broilers and layers observed with some of the P sources may have been due to poor availability of P and/or toxic effects of F (622 and 967 mg/kg, respectively). PMID:11469559

Rama Rao, S V; Reddy, V

2001-07-01

180

Valorisation nutritive d'un grignon d'olive trait la soude. Utilisation digestive des constituants des parois cellulaires  

E-print Network

Valorisation nutritive d'un grignon d'olive traité à la soude. Utilisation digestive des'utilisation digestive et la contribution des constituants des parois cellulaires à la valeur nutritive d'un grignon d'olive décrit l'effet du traitement à la soude sur la valeur nutritive du grignon d'olive et nous avons aussi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

181

L’utilisation du prémélange de monensin chez les vaches laitières : un suivi simple et essentiel pour s’assurer d’une utilisation adéquate  

PubMed Central

Le prémélange de monensin est utilisé fréquemment sur les fermes laitières canadiennes. L’ingrédient actif de ce produit est le monensin sodique. Bien que son utilisation chez les vaches laitières soit sécuritaire, des cas de surdose ont été rapportés à la suite de consommation de niveaux de monensin plus élevés que ceux recommandés. Un suivi hebdomadaire du pourcentage de matières grasses du réservoir de lait de la ferme devrait être fait de routine suite à la livraison d’aliment médicamenteux contenant du monensin pour détecter rapidement les situations de surdose. L’observation d’une baisse soudaine de la consommation volontaire de matière sèche et l’apparition de diarrhée dans un troupeau sont d’autres signes cliniques de surdose de monensin. Une détection rapide de ces cas permettra de corriger la situation. PMID:19721781

Dubuc, Jocelyn; Baril, Jean; DesCôteaux, Luc

2009-01-01

182

Factors associated with the utilisation of postnatal care services among the mothers of Nepal: analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Postnatal care is essential to save the life of the mother and newborn. Knowledge on the determinants of postnatal care assists the policy makers to design, justify and implement appropriate interventions. The current study aimed to analyse the factors associated with utilisation of postnatal care services by mothers in Nepal based on the data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. Methods This study utilised the data from NDHS 2011. The association between utilisation of at least one postnatal care visit (within 6 weeks of delivery) and immediate postnatal care (within 24 hours of delivery) with selected factors was examined by using Chi-square test (?2), followed by multiple logistic regression. Result Of the 4079 mothers, 43.2% reported attending postnatal care within the first six weeks of birth, while 40.9% reported attending immediate postnatal care. Mothers who were from urban areas, from rich families, who were educated, whose partners were educated, who delivered in a health facility, who had attended a four or more antenatal visits, and whose delivery was attended by a skilled attendant were more likely to report attending at least one postnatal care visit. On the other hand, mothers who reported agricultural occupation, and whose partners performed agricultural occupation were less likely to have attended at least one postnatal care visit. Similarly, mothers who were from the urban areas, from rich families, who were educated, whose partners were educated, who had attended four or more antenatal visits, who delivered in a health facility and had delivered in the presence of a skilled birth attendant were more likely to report attending immediate postnatal care. Mothers who reported agricultural occupation, and whose partners performed agricultural occupation were less likely to attend immediate postnatal care. Conclusion The majority of postnatal mothers in Nepal did not seek postnatal care. Increasing utilisation of the recommended four or more antenatal visits, delivery at health facility and increasing awareness and access to services through community-based programs especially for the rural, poor, and less educated mothers may increase postnatal care attendance in Nepal. PMID:24484933

2014-01-01

183

Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

Grant, T. J.

1993-01-01

184

Resource Utilisation and Costs of Depressive Patients in Germany: Results from the Primary Care Monitoring for Depressive Patients Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Depression is the most common type of mental disorder in Germany. It is associated with a high level of suffering for individuals and imposes a significant burden on society. The aim of this study was to estimate the depression related costs in Germany taking a societal perspective. Materials and Methods. Data were collected from the primary care monitoring for depressive patients trial (PRoMPT) of patients with major depressive disorder who were treated in a primary care setting. Resource utilisation and days of sick leave were observed and analysed over a 1-year period. Results. Average depression related costs of €3813 were calculated. Significant differences in total costs due to sex were demonstrated. Male patients had considerable higher total costs than female patients, whereas single cost categories did not differ significantly. Further, differences in costs according to severity of disease and age were observed. The economic burden to society was estimated at €15.6 billion per year. Conclusion. The study results show that depression poses a significant economic burden to society. There is a high potential for prevention, treatment, and patient management innovations to identify and treat patients at an early stage. PMID:25295184

Krauth, Christian; Petersen, Juliana J.; Freytag, Antje; Gerlach, Ferdinand M.; Gensichen, Jochen

2014-01-01

185

Utilisation of mucin glycans by the human gut symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus is strain-dependent.  

PubMed

Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ?90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease. PMID:24204617

Crost, Emmanuelle H; Tailford, Louise E; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

2013-01-01

186

Minimisation and utilisation of waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production.  

PubMed

Various approaches to waste minimisation, waste treatment and recycling or safe disposal of the waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production are presented and critically discussed. Some most promising actions for waste (or its harmful potential) reduction on the production level are identified. These include: a) use of better raw materials (richer boron ore), b) improvement of the ore leaching process, and c) intensification of sludge washing and dewatering. These source reduction measures have already resulted in 50% reduction of boron content in the sludge. Utilisation of the raw or treated (e.g. dried, compacted) waste sludge could be found in agriculture, civil engineering and construction material production. Agricultural use (as a lime substitute) is based on favourable content of calcium-magnesium minerals and alkali pH value of the sludge, and simultaneous absence of heavy metals. Application in civil engineering (as an aggregate) is possible after calcination, which is costly, or as a cement kiln additive. Stabilisation of sludge before disposal, when no utilisation is available, is possible by small addition of commercial binders (e.g. Portland cement) or larger amounts of pozzolanic wastes (e.g. coal fly ash). PMID:12498478

Grilc, Viktor; Jersan, Rok

2002-10-01

187

Health insurance and healthcare utilisation for Shenzhen residents: a tale of registrants and migrants?  

PubMed Central

Background Shenzhen’s rapid growth and urbanisation has attracted a large, mobile, migrant working population. This article explores health protection through the means of social health insurance between migrants and registrants and their point of access to healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Shenzhen, with a random sample of 793 registered and 750 non-registered residents. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were applied to analyse the association between health insurance coverage with Hukou registration status and healthcare utilisation. Results Amongst 1543 respondents, 43.1% of non-registered residents were uninsured. Being non-registered strongly predicted for no insurance (OR?=?5.00; CI 3.53,7.07) and have purchased additional/ private insurance (OR?=?2.99; CI 1.66,5.37). Migrants who self-reported chronic health conditions were also more likely to utilise health services in general (OR?=?2.77; CI 1.18,6.52). Conclusions Inadequate health insurance coverage for migrants as observed in Shenzhen remains a challenge for the Chinese health reform. Our results suggest that the current insurance system must seek to include migrants in order to achieve universal coverage and improved health protection for its population. PMID:23061720

2012-01-01

188

Utilisation of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus Is Strain-Dependent  

PubMed Central

Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ?90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease. PMID:24204617

Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Tailford, Louise E.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

2013-01-01

189

Regulation of pentose utilisation by AraR, but not XlnR, differs in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are important producers of plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes that are used in many industrial applications. These enzymes are produced by the fungus to liberate monomeric sugars that are used as carbon source. Two of the main components of plant polysaccharides are L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are metabolized through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP) in these fungi. In Aspergillus niger, the regulation of pentose release from polysaccharides and the PCP involves the transcriptional activators AraR and XlnR, which are also present in other Aspergilli such as Aspergillus nidulans. The comparative analysis revealed that the regulation of the PCP by AraR differs in A. nidulans and A. niger, whereas the regulation of the PCP by XlnR was similar in both species. This was demonstrated by the growth differences on L-arabinose between disruptant strains for araR and xlnR in A. nidulans and A. niger. In addition, the expression profiles of genes encoding L-arabinose reductase (larA), L-arabitol dehydrogenase (ladA) and xylitol dehydrogenase (xdhA) differed in these strains. This data suggests evolutionary changes in these two species that affect pentose utilisation. This study also implies that manipulating regulatory systems to improve the production of polysaccharide degrading enzymes, may give different results in different industrial fungi. PMID:21484208

Battaglia, Evy; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Leendertse, Anne; Madrid, Susan; Mulder, Harm; Nikolaev, Igor; de Vries, Ronald P

2011-07-01

190

Health Care Utilisation and Attitudes towards Health Care in Subjects Reporting Environmental Annoyance from Electricity and Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Environmentally intolerant persons report decreased self-rated health and daily functioning. However, it remains unclear whether this condition also results in increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to describe the health care consumption and attitudes towards health care in subjects presenting subjective environmental annoyance in relation to the general population, as well as to a group with a well-known disorder as treated hypertension (HT). Methods. Postal questionnaire (n = 13 604) and record linkage with population-based register on health care costs. Results. Despite significantly lower subjective well being and health than both the general population and HT group, the environmentally annoyed subjects had lower health care costs than the hypertension group. In contrast to the hypertension group, the environmentally annoyed subjects expressed more negative attitudes toward the health care than the general population. Conclusions. Despite their impaired subjective health and functional capacity, health care utilisation costs were not much increased for the environmentally annoyed group. This may partly depend on negative attitudes towards the health care in this group. PMID:19936124

Eek, Frida; Merlo, Juan; Gerdtham, Ulf; Lithman, Thor

2009-01-01

191

The possibilities of utilisation of heat from Tattapani Geothermal field, India  

SciTech Connect

The Tattapani Geothermal field produces + 1800 1pm thermal water of 100{degrees}C from five production wells. The hot water production can sustain electricity production of 300 kWe by using a binary cycle power plant. The heat energy of effluent water from power plant can be utilized for direct heat utilization on horticulture, aquaculture, cold storage, silviculture etc; to augment the economics of the power plant be spot can be developed as a centre for tourist attraction by constructing botanical park, greenhouse, geyser show and crocodile farm. The direct heat utilization shemes can be planned in cascading order to achieve maximum utility of thermal water. Additional deep drilling is essential for optimum commercial utilization of the Geothermal energy. The direct heat utilisation shemes along with binary cycle power plant may help in development of the geothermal energy and boosting the economy of this region.

Sarolkar, P.B. [Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad (India); Pitale, U.L. [Geological Survey of India, Nagpur (India)

1996-12-31

192

Next generation of a sub-millimetre wave security camera utilising superconducting detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the previously demonstrated concept of passive security screening utilising superconducting detectors, a next generation camera was developed to meet application demands. The new system was designed to achieve background limited performance using a linear array of up to 128 transition edge sensors which are read in a time domain multiplexing scheme by SQUID current sensors. It will be able to record videos with 256 × 128 pixels at 25 Hz frame rate. The necessary cooling of the detector array is provided by a commercial pulse tube cooler and a second, self-contained cooling stage. For imaging, different optics modules adapted to a feed-horn detector coupling can be used in combination with a linear scanning apparatus for mirrors up to 40 cm.

May, T.; Heinz, E.; Peiselt, K.; Zieger, G.; Born, D.; Zakosarenko, V.; Brömel, A.; Anders, S.; Meyer, H.-G.

2013-01-01

193

L’utilisation des probiotiques au sein de la population pédiatrique  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ Plus on en sait sur l’importance du microbiome intestinal pour la santé humaine, plus on s’intéresse aux bienfaits potentiels des probiotiques. Les probiotiques sont des microorganismes vivants qui, lorsqu’on les consomme en quantité suffisante, ont un effet sur la santé de l’hôte en en altérant la microflore. Les probiotiques sont administrés en prophylaxie ou pour le traitement de divers problèmes de santé. Le présent document de principes définit l’évolution et le rôle de la microflore intestinale et s’attarde sur les données probantes étayant l’utilisation de divers probiotiques pour traiter des troubles courants en pédiatrie, tels que la diarrhée, l’atopie, les troubles intestinaux fonctionnels et l’entérocolite nécrosante.

Marchand, Valérie

2012-01-01

194

Utilisation des rseaux baysiens et de l'approche de Fenton pour l'estimation de probabilit d'occurrence d'vnements  

E-print Network

Utilisation des réseaux bayésiens et de l'approche de Fenton pour l'estimation de probabilité d complexe, N. E. Fenton propose d'utiliser des expressions logiques ou des lois de probabilités. � travers

Guiochet, Jérémie

195

Utilisation of MSWI bottom ash as sub-base in road construction: First results from a large-scale test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preferred management option for municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in Denmark is utilisation rather than landfilling, but the current environmental quality criteria for bottom ash to be utilised in bulk quantities are rather strict. To evaluate the impact and risk assessments, upon which those criteria are based, a large-scale test site has been established. Three different MSWI

Ole Hjelmar; Jesper Holm; Kim Crillesen

2007-01-01

196

Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, Journal Vol. XIII, No. 2, 2007 Quasi-Instantaneous Generation of Reference  

E-print Network

signals for the compensator control have to be generated in a situation where the power properties!! Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, Journal Vol. XIII, No. 2, 2007 Quasi-Instantaneous Generation of Reference Signals for Hybrid Compensator Control Leszek S. Czarnecki, Fellow IEEE Louisiana

Czarnecki, Leszek S.

197

Amlioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la complmentation  

E-print Network

Amélioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la and Leng, 1986 ILCA/Addis Ababa). Un essai d'amélioration de pailles de Sorghum bicolor complémenté à l

Boyer, Edmond

198

Ethnic Factors in Mental Health Service Utilisation among People with Intellectual Disability in High-Income Countries: Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. Aims: To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income…

Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

2012-01-01

199

Animals of different phenotype differentially utilise dietary niche — the case of the Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the morphological trait utility in Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor. The food composition was used as an indicator of phenotype performance advantage in utilising of particular dietary niche. Mounts and accompanying data (measurements and stomach contents) from the Slovak extensive collection, involving adult birds obtained from April to October, were selected for analysis (n = 48). Ordination methods

Martin Hromada; Lechoslaw Kuczynski; Anton Kriòtín

2003-01-01

200

How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Significant Contribution of Methyl/Methanol-Utilising Methanogenic Pathway in a Subsurface Biogas Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanogenesis is considered the main terminal process of subsurface anaerobic organic-matter degradation. Previous geochemical studies have reported CO2-reducing and acetoclastic methanogenesis as the predominant subsurface methanogenic pathways for primary and secondary biogenic gas generation (i.e. in oil biodegradation or coalbed methane settings). In lab-scale experiments and microbiology literature, however, methanogens have been shown to be able to utilise a wider variety of substrates, typically containing methyl groups, i.e. dimethyl sulphide (DMS), methyl amines (e.g. TMA), formate, and methanol. Additional methanogenic substrates include CO and other primary alcohols and secondary alcohols (Whitman et al., 2006; Fig. 25.1). Here, we describe a volumetrically important natural biogenic gas field in which these methylotrophic pathways have contributed significantly to biomethane formation.

Str?po?, Dariusz; Ashby, Matt; Wood, Ladonna; Levinson, Rick; Huizinga, Bradley

201

In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8?MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods. PMID:22497540

Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

2013-06-01

202

Atherogenic, fibrotic and glucose utilising actions of glucokinase activators on vascular endothelium and smooth muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmaceutical interventions for diabetes aim to control glycaemia and to prevent the development of complications, such as cardiovascular diseases. Some anti-hyperglycaemic drugs have been found to have adverse cardiovascular effects in their own right, limiting their therapeutic role. Glucokinase activity in the pancreas is critical in enhancing insulin release in response to hyperglycaemia. Glucokinase activators (GKAs) are novel agents for diabetes which act by enhancing the formation of glucose-6-phosphate leading to increased insulin production and subsequent suppression of blood glucose. Little, however, is known about the direct effects of GKAs on cardiovascular cells. Methods The effect of the GKAs RO28-1675 and Compound A on glucose utilisation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and rat MIN6 was observed by culturing the cells at high and low glucose concentration in the presence and absence of the GKAs and measuring glucose consumption. The effect of RO28-1675 at various concentrations on glucose-dependent signalling in BAEC was observed by measuring Smad2 phosphorylation by Western blotting. The effect of RO28-1675 on TGF-? stimulated proteoglycan synthesis was measured by 35S-SO4 incorporation and assessment of proteoglycan size by SDS-PAGE. The effects of RO28-1675 on TGF-? mediated Smad2C phosphorylation in BAEC was observed by measurement of pSmad2C levels. The direct actions of RO28-1675 on vascular reactivity were observed by measuring arteriole tone and lumen diameter. Results GKAs were demonstrated to increase glucose utilisation in pancreatic but not endothelial cells. Glucose-activated Smad2 phosphorylation was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of RO28-1675. No effect of RO28-1675 was observed on TGF-? stimulated proteoglycan production. RO28-1675 caused a modest dilation in arteriole but not contractile sensitivity. Conclusions GKA RO28-1675 did not increase glucose consumption in endothelial cells indicating the absence of glucokinase in those cells. No direct deleterious actions, in terms of atherogenic changes or excessive vasoactive effects were seen on cells or vessels of the cardiovascular system in response to GKAs. If reflected in vivo, these drugs are unlikely to have their use compromised by direct cardiovascular toxicity. PMID:24731772

2014-01-01

203

Preliminary observations on accessibility and utilisation of water in selected villages in Dodoma Rural and Bagamoyo Districts, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was carried out to establish the availability and utilisation of water in eight villages in Dodoma Rural and Bagamoyo districts, Tanzania. A total of 128 respondents were interviewed, involving 64 people in each district. The study revealed that the main sources of water for domestic and animal uses in Dodoma district were wells and dams, while in Bagamoyo district; the main sources were dams and ponds. Nine percent of the respondents reported water to be ‘readily available’, whereas 50% and 41% reported water to be ‘not easily available’ and ‘problematic’, respectively. Distances travelled to the nearest water source were in the range of 0.5-2.0, 0.25-15.00 and 0.5-14.40 km for the respondents who reported water as “readily available”, “not easily available” and “problematic”, respectively and, the corresponding time taken to the nearest water source was 0.17-2.00; 0.10-6.00 and 0.17-5.00 hours for the three categories of respondents respectively. More than two-thirds of the respondents reported that water sources were shared between households and also 71.9% reported sharing of water sources with animals, particularly cattle, sheep and goats. The proportions of respondents that reported occurrence of enteric or diarrhoeic cases amongst household members within the past three months before the study were 35.9% and 37.5% in Dodoma and Bagamoyo districts, respectively. All respondents in Dodoma district had latrines whereas 84% in Bagamoyo district had these facilities. All except one of the respondents who had no latrines in Bagamoyo district were based in Chamakweza, a village dominated by a Maasai pastoral community. Interestingly, a significantly higher proportion of diarrhoeic cases were reported in this village compared to the other three villages in Bagamoyo district ( p = 0.029). These findings show that availability of safe water is a serious problem in the study areas and that this may have serious consequences on public health. Studies to establish the association between water quality and magnitude of zoonotic enteric pathogens are underway.

Kusiluka, L. J. M.; Mlozi, M. R. S.; Munishi, P. K. T.; Karimuribo, E. D.; Luoga, E. J.; Mdegela, R. H.; Kambarage, D. M.

204

Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. PMID:21550223

Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

2011-08-01

205

Utilisation of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.  

PubMed

This work aims to utilise wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content while Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimise the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40 °C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp.. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared to the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing. PMID:25189407

Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

2014-09-01

206

Mise à jour sur l’utilisation clinique de la buprénorphine  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Examiner les données scientifiques actuelles sur la buprénorphine-naloxone pour le traitement des troubles liés aux opioïdes, en insistant sur le contexte des soins primaires. Qualité des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE et la base de données Cochrane des synthèses critiques. Les données probantes sont surtout de niveau I. Message principal La buprénorphine est un agoniste partiel des récepteurs ? des opioïdes et un antagoniste des récepteurs ? des opioïdes ayant une longue demi-vie et un potentiel moins grand que la méthadone d’entraîner un usage abusif. Pour une désintoxication, la buprénorphine est au moins équivalente à la méthadone et supérieure à la clonidine. Comme thérapie de substitution, la buprénorphine est clairement supérieure au placebo. La méthadone comporte de légers avantages en ce qui a trait à la rétention en thérapie, mais une approche par étape en utilisant initialement la buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi efficace. Il est possible, sécuritaire et efficace de recourir à la buprénorphine en milieu de soins primaires. On peut obtenir l’autorisation de prescrire de la buprénorphine après avoir suivi une formation en ligne. Conclusion La buprénorphine est un agent sécuritaire et efficace pour la désintoxication en cas de dépendance aux opioïdes. Elle peut servir d’agent de première intention dans les programmes de thérapie de substitution, en raison de son potentiel plus faible d’usage abusif en comparaison d’autres opioïdes. Son efficacité en milieux de soins primaires en fait un outil thérapeutique utile pour les médecins de famille.

Ducharme, Simon; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

2012-01-01

207

MODE D'ACTION DE L'ISORIBOFLAVINE SUR L'UTILISATION DE LA VITAMINE B2  

E-print Network

MODE D'ACTION DE L'ISORIBOFLAVINE SUR L'UTILISATION DE LA VITAMINE B2 PAR LA POULE PONDEUSE J le sang sous forme d'une flavopro- téine, l'isoriboflavine rend une partie de la vitamine B vitamine à l'oeuf. Nous avons comparé les effets de l'isoriboflavine à ceux précédemment étudiés d

Boyer, Edmond

208

L'utilisation des techniques d'hybridation in situ et de clonage de squences d'ADN pour  

E-print Network

L'utilisation des techniques d'hybridation in situ et de clonage de séquences d'ADN pour l des méthodes utilisées pour le clonage de séquences d'ADN dans des vecteurs comme des plasmides'hybridation in situ est basée sur le principe de la formation de duplexes ARN-ADN ou (1) Adresse actuelle :Department

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Etude des possibilits d'utilisation agronomique des composts d'ordures mnagres en milieu tropical (1)  

E-print Network

Etude des possibilités d'utilisation agronomique des composts d'ordures ménagères en milieu'avère nécessaire uniquement en saison sèche pour obtenir un compost dont le rapport C/N se situe autour de Ordures les composts des paysompos age. industrialisés. La proportion équilibrée des oligo-éléments et la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

The impact of concomitant depression on quality of life and health service utilisation in patients with osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

To assess the impact of concomitant depression on quality of life (QoL) and health service utilisation of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Data were collected from 75 primary care practices in Germany. Totally, 1,250 patients were consecutively approached; 1,021 (81.7%) questionnaires were returned and analysed. Measures included sociodemographic data, the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS2-SF) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression. A PHQ-9 score > or = 15 was defined as reflecting depression. Patients with a depressive disorder achieved significantly (all P < 0.001) higher scores in all AIMS2-SF dimensions. They had more contacts to general practitioners (P < 0.01), orthopaedics (P < 0.01) and to providers of Complementary Alternative Medicine offered e.g. by healers. Concomitant depression aggravates the burden of OA significantly. This results in increased health service utilisation. Appropriate treatment of depression would appear not only to increase QoL but also to lower costs by decreasing health service utilisation. PMID:17242902

Rosemann, Thomas; Gensichen, Jochen; Sauer, Nina; Laux, Gunter; Szecsenyi, Joachim

2007-07-01

211

Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (P<0·0001) than healthy udders. The relationship between UST and CMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; P<0·001), and UST was linearly increased as the CMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; P<0·001]. Additionally, high correlations were obtained between UST and SCC score (r=0·75; P<0·001) and the relationship between UST and SCC was fitted best to a logarithmic equation [UST, °C=33·39+0·88×Log (SCC, ×103 cells/ml), R 2=0·61, P<0·001]. The cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for UST were 35·15 °C, 0·90, 0·98, and 0·95, respectively, when subclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently. PMID:24331516

Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

2014-02-01

212

Sujet : Recherche d'information distribue : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr  

E-print Network

Sujet : Recherche d'information distribuée : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr Ce projet s'inscrit dans le cadre des moteurs de

Grigoras, .Romulus

213

Utilisation des bactériophages comme thérapie lors d'une infection à Pseudomonas aeruginosa dans le cadre de la mucoviscidose : efficacité et innocuité.  

E-print Network

??Face au phénomène de multi-résistance aux antibiotiques des souches de Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez les patients atteints de mucoviscidose, de nouvelles approches doivent être envisagées. L'utilisation… (more)

Saussereau, Emilie

2012-01-01

214

Utilisation of galacto-oligosaccharides as selective substrates for growth by lactic acid bacteria including Bifidobacterium lactis DR10 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two probiotic strains of bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis DR10 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20 were tested for their ability to utilise and grow on galacto-oligosaccharides present in a commercial hydrolysed lactose milk powder. The results clearly demonstrated that B. lactis DR10 preferentially utilises tri- and tetra-saccharides whereas Lb. rhamnosus DR20 prefers sugars with a lower degree of polymerisation, i.e., disaccharides and monosaccharides.

Pramod K Gopal; Patrick A Sullivan; John B Smart

2001-01-01

215

GPU-based Space Situational Awareness Simulation utilising Parallelism for Enhanced Multi-sensor Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of continual space activity since the 1950s, there are now a large number of man-made Resident Space Objects (RSOs) orbiting the Earth. Because of the large number of items and their relative speeds, the possibility of destructive collisions involving important space assets is now of significant concern to users and operators of space-borne technologies. As a result, a growing number of international agencies are researching methods for improving techniques to maintain Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Computer simulation is a method commonly used by many countries to validate competing methodologies prior to full scale adoption. The use of supercomputing and/or reduced scale testing is often necessary to effectively simulate such a complex problem on todays computers. Recently the authors presented a simulation aimed at reducing the computational burden by selecting the minimum level of fidelity necessary for contrasting methodologies and by utilising multi-core CPU parallelism for increased computational efficiency. The resulting simulation runs on a single PC while maintaining the ability to effectively evaluate competing methodologies. Nonetheless, the ability to control the scale and expand upon the computational demands of the sensor management system is limited. In this paper, we examine the advantages of increasing the parallelism of the simulation by means of General Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU). As many sub-processes pertaining to SSA management are independent, we demonstrate how parallelisation via GPGPU has the potential to significantly enhance not only research into techniques for maintaining SSA, but also to enhance the level of sophistication of existing space surveillance sensors and sensor management systems. Nonetheless, the use of GPGPU imposes certain limitations and adds to the implementation complexity, both of which require consideration to achieve an effective system. We discuss these challenges and how they can be overcome. We further describe an application of the parallelised system where visibility prediction is used to enhance sensor management. This facilitates significant improvement in maximum catalogue error when RSOs become temporarily unobservable. The objective is to demonstrate the enhanced scalability and increased computational capability of the system.

Hobson, T.; Clarkson, V.

2012-09-01

216

A Mechanical Principle for Acquisition of useful Power on a Celestial Body Through Utilisation of its Planetary Precession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In consequence of the phenomenon of planetary precession there emerges a possibility for acquisition of power through utilisation of the rotary motions in the universe. The idea is to acquire useful power on the working shaft of a properly designed machine installed on a celestial body (planet), at the expense of the motional energy of the latter. Strange as it may appear, this is possible if only the regulation of the machine be brought in line with the parameters of the precession. The principle of action of such a planetary engine, including an energy balance, is put forward in the present paper.

Vulkov, K.

217

La mise en place et l'utilisation de la mthode UVA : une comparaison de deux enqutes  

E-print Network

La mise en place et l'utilisation de la méthode UVA : une comparaison de deux enquêtes réalisées en.levant@univ-lille1.fr Résumé : Cet article présente le processus de mise en place de la méthode UVA ainsi que les recherches consacrées à l'ABC. Cela permet de dégager le principal intérêt de la méthode UVA : une évaluation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Shotgun proteome analysis utilising mixed mode (reversed phase-anion exchange chromatography) in conjunction with reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

The 2-D peptide separations employing mixed mode reversed phase anion exchange (MM (RP-AX)) HPLC in the first dimension in conjunction with RP chromatography in the second dimension were developed and utilised for shotgun proteome analysis. Compared with strong cation exchange (SCX) typically employed for shotgun proteomic analysis, peptide separations using MM (RP-AX) revealed improved separation efficiency and increased peptide distribution across the elution gradient. In addition, improved sample handling, with no significant reduction in the orthogonality of the peptide separations was observed. The shotgun proteomic analysis of a mammalian nuclear cell lysate revealed additional proteome coverage (2818 versus 1125 unique peptides and 602 versus 238 proteins) using the MM (RP-AX) compared with the traditional SCX hyphenated to RP-LC-MS/MS. The MM analysis resulted in approximately 90% of the unique peptides identified present in only one fraction, with a heterogeneous peptide distribution across all fractions. No clustering of the predominant peptide charge states was observed during the gradient elution. The application of MM (RP-AX) for 2-D LC proteomic studies was also extended in the analysis of iTRAQ-labelled HeLa and cyanobacterial proteomes using nano-flow chromatography interfaced to the MS/MS. We demonstrate MM (RP-AX) HPLC as an alternative approach for shotgun proteomic studies that offers significant advantages over traditional SCX peptide separations. PMID:20662100

Phillips, Helen L; Williamson, James C; van Elburg, Karin A; Snijders, Ambrosius P L; Wright, Phillip C; Dickman, Mark J

2010-08-01

219

The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility and increase C stocks of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines, abandoned industrial zones, degraded natural areas and exhausted landfill sites. Such land management options may serve as a precondition for landscaping and reclamation of degraded areas, reforestation or agriculture. In fact, previous results have shown that compost application to the capping layer of a landfill covering soil significantly enhanced the fertility, evidenced by an improvement in soil structure, porosity and water holding capacity, an increase in the relative proportion of recalcitrant C pools and an increase in soil nutrient content, microbial activity and soil microbial biomass. Proper management of MWC requires a capacity to understand and predict their impacts on C dynamics in the field subsequent to application. Although numerous works deal with the effects of compost application in agricultural systems, little is known on how land rehabilitation practices effect C dynamics in such relatively young soil systems. The estimation of SOC pools and their potential turnover rates in land reclamation activities is fundamental to our understanding of terrestrial C dynamics. In the framework of a long-term field experiment, the objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal and spatial dynamics of compost-derived organic matter with respect to the major processes involved in organic matter cycling in an anthropogenic landfill covering soil originally amended with a single dose of MWC. We investigated long-term organic C dynamics in such systems by collecting samples at different depths over a 10 year chronosequence subsequent to compost application to the top layer of the landfill covering soil. Variations in the stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of the soil samples show that even after 10 years, amended topsoils were significantly enriched in compost-derived organic matter, confirming that the utilisation of such organic inputs in land reclamation activities has the potential to enhance the C stocks of degraded areas. The addition of compost to the superficial layer also resulted in a significant input of soluble organic compounds subject to leaching along the soil profile. Sorption isotherms for compost-derived water-extractable organic matter onto mineral materials used for landfill covering suggest that sorptive preservation was primarily responsible for the increase in C content and the shift in the C isotopic signature to values similar to that of the applied compost, in the deeper soil horizons over the 10 year experimental period. This was also confirmed by the accumulation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, analysis for non-cellulosic carbohydrates in soils samples and their respective water-extractable fractions suggest that a proportion of compost-derived, labile organic matter fraction is leached through the soil profile and potentially lost from the soil system, particularly in the years immediately after compost application.

Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

2009-04-01

220

The Eighteenth African Health Sciences Congress: dissemination of research results for utilisation.  

PubMed

The African Health Sciences Congress for 1997 will be held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 14 to 18 April. This congress has been an annual event where scientists from across the world meet to present research results and to discuss meaningful approaches to solving some of the world's pressing health problems. The congress which is under the aegis of the African Forum for Health Sciences (AFHES), focusses special attention on ways of finding solutions for problems that afflict the African. The AFHES aims to accentuate, through these meetings, practical approaches that can be used by African governments to tackle health-related matters in order to improve the socio-economic status of the people on the African continent. The common health-related matters that one would be expected to be covered at such a congress are the six major tropical diseases identified by the World Health Organisation (WHO), namely malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and leprosy. But now, there are other health-related problems on the continent that must be dealt with in order to ensure quality of life. Among them are the new and re-emerging diseases like the haemorrhagic fevers (Ebola and Marbug) and yellowfever, the sexually-transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, acute respiratory infections and reproductive health. Then there are the less often mentioned health-related problems currently afflicting the African continent that are not given so much attention as the others. These include sanitation, famine and drought, and malnutrition which arise from political upheavals leading to refugees. The consequences of these socio-economic difficulties further exacerbate the prevalence of the existing tropical and other diseases. Scientists working in Africa should play leading roles in tackling the many health problems that afflict the peoples of Africa. They are well placed to collect direct information on these health issues and to provide practical and meaningful strategies for their solution. The WHO Africa Region has taken a meaningful step towards finding mechanisms of eliminating female mutilation in Africa, and this is highlighted in the Newsdesk pages of this issue of the Journal. This, it is hoped, will be achieved through the use of the African traditional foundation and wisdom. Similarly, the African traditional culture of health should provide the basis for utilising the wisdom of the traditional healers and traditional midwives for dealing with primary health care matters on the African continent. The Journal congratulates all the scientists working in Africa, be they Africans or non-Africans, and those outside Africa, who work tirelessly to solve problems that will pave the way for an acceptable quality of life for the world's peoples. It is earnestly hoped that the scientists in Cape Town during the 18th African Health Sciences Congress will deliberate, discuss and dedicate themselves to solving Africa's pressing health problems. The Journal also acknowledges with gratitude, the organisers of this congress, namely the South African Medical Research Council, the Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Epidemiological Society of Southern Africa (ESSA), which, under the auspices of the African Forum for Health Sciences, have made it possible to hold the Congress in cape Town this year. PMID:17583970

Koech, D K

1997-01-01

221

Utilisation of Health Services and Geography: Deconstructing Regional Differences in Barriers to Facility-Based Delivery in Nepal.  

PubMed

While established that geographical inaccessibility is a key barrier to the utilisation of health services, it remains unknown whether disparities are driven only by limited access to these services, or are also attributable to health behaviour. Significant disparities exist in health outcomes and the coverage of many critical health services between the mountains region of Nepal and the rest of the country, yet the principal factors driving these regional disparities are not well understood. Using national representative data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the extent to which observable factors explain the overall differences in the utilisation of maternal health services. We apply nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca-type decomposition methods to quantify the effect that differences in measurable characteristics have on the regional coverage gap in facility-based delivery. The mean coverage of facility-based deliveries was 18.6 and 36.3 % in the mountains region and the rest of Nepal, respectively. Between 54.8 and 74.1 % of the regional coverage gap was explained by differences in observed characteristics. Factors influencing health behaviours (proxied by mothers' education, TV viewership and tobacco use, and household wealth) and subjective distance to the health facility were the major factors, contributing between 52.9 and 62.5 % of the disparity. Mothers' birth history was also noteworthy. Policies simultaneously addressing access and health behaviours appear necessary to achieve greater coverage and better health outcomes for women and children in isolated areas. PMID:24927787

Hodge, Andrew; Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

2014-06-14

222

Diffusion des rayonnements X et visibles ; microscopie en champ proche : utilisation comparée pour la caractérisation des surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trois méthodes ont été utilisées pour caractériser la rugosité de quelques échantillons. Deux de ces méthodes sont basées sur la mesure du rayonnement diffusé (visible et X). La troisième utilise la microscopie en champ proche (MCP). Dans un premier temps, une comparaison des deux premières techniques a été menée en utilisant une même théorie vectorielle de la diffusion. Bien adaptée au domaine du visible, cette théorie peut aussi être utilisée dans le cas du rayonnement X. Les densités spectrales de puissance (dsp) de la rugosité, déterminées expérimentalement pour deux échantillons d'Alacrite XSH (alliage quaternaire à base de cobalt utilisé en métrologie des masses), montrent des allures identiques dans le cas du visible et du rayonnement X à des incidences très rasantes. Dans un deuxième temps, la hauteur quadratique moyenne ? , caractéristique de la rugosité de ces deux échantillons, a été déterminée de façon "directe" par microscopie en champ proche, et à partir des dsp pour les deux autres techniques. La restriction à une bande commune des fréquences spatiales accessibles à ces techniques, conduit à des valeurs de ? comparables aux incertitudes près. Une validation des mesures X ainsi faite, un accent est mis sur leur apport complémentaire par rapport au visible.

Tollens, E.; Menecier, S.; Haidar, Y.; Zerrouki, C.; Chassevent, M.; de Fornel, F.; Bonnet, J. J.

2004-11-01

223

Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.  

PubMed

Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46?mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements. PMID:22619599

Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

2012-01-01

224

Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials  

PubMed Central

Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46?mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements. PMID:22619599

Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

2012-01-01

225

A flexible wide-field FLIM endoscope utilising blue excitation light for label-free contrast of tissue.  

PubMed

Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) has previously been shown to provide contrast between normal and diseased tissue. Here we present progress towards clinical and preclinical FLIM endoscopy of tissue autofluorescence, demonstrating a flexible wide-field endoscope that utilised a low average power blue picosecond laser diode excitation source and was able to acquire ?mm-scale spatial maps of autofluorescence lifetimes from fresh ex vivo diseased human larynx biopsies in ?8 seconds using an average excitation power of ?0.5 mW at the specimen. To illustrate its potential for FLIM at higher acquisition rates, a higher power mode-locked frequency doubled Ti:Sapphire laser was used to demonstrate FLIM of ex vivo mouse bowel at up to 2.5 Hz using 10 mW of average excitation power at the specimen. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:24573953

Sparks, Hugh; Warren, Sean; Guedes, Joana; Yoshida, Nagisa; Charn, Tze Choong; Guerra, Nadia; Tatla, Taranjit; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul

2015-01-01

226

Does pharmacogenomics provide an ethical challenge to the utilisation of cost-effectiveness analysis by public health systems?  

PubMed

Pharmacogenomics promotes an understanding of the genetic basis for differences in efficacy or toxicity of drugs in different individuals. Implementation of the outcomes of pharmacogenomic research into clinical practice presents a number of difficulties for healthcare. This paper aims to highlight one of the unique ethical challenges which pharmacogenomics presents for the utilisation of cost-effectiveness analysis by public health systems. This paper contends that pharmacogenomics provides a challenge to fundamental principles which underlie most systems for deciding which drugs should be publicly subsidised. Pharmacogenomics brings into focus the conflict between equality and utility in the context of using cost-effectiveness analysis to aid distribution of a limited national drug budget. PMID:15896096

La Caze, Adam

2005-01-01

227

Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning, whereas coastal spawning flounder can be characterised as intermediate between a capital and income spawner with feeding prior to and during spawning along with continuous fecundity-regulation.

Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

2015-01-01

228

High specific rates of glucose utilisation under conditions of restricted growth are required for citric acid accumulation by Yarrowia lipolytica IMK 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yarrowia lipolytica strain IMK 2, a yeast capable of producing and excreting citric acid, only accumulated citric acid when cell growth was restricted by specific nutrient limitations. Effective citrate accumulation was linked with the ability of cells to maintain a high rate of glucose utilisation when growth was limited. Cells limited by nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg) or phosphorus

Ian A. McKay; Ian S. Maddox; John D. Brooks

1994-01-01

229

COMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1), Jrgen Hjstrup(2), Sren Larsen(2), Rebecca Barthelmie(2)  

E-print Network

COMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1 Large offshore wind farms are being built in several countries in Europe. The economic viability of such projects depends on the favourable wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has

Heinemann, Detlev

230

Assessing the land use of inter-war Britain: A comparison of the First Land Utilisation Survey field sheets and 1:63,360 scale maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the suitability of data from the 1930s First Land Utilisation Survey maps to be used as a baseline against which to consider agricultural land use change over time in a small area of East Sussex, England. The working field sheets are compared with the corrected and published 1:63,360 maps for the same area and differences of around

Katherine J. Taylor; Nigel Walford; Brian Short

2010-01-01

231

Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.2. The experimental design was a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and

A. M. Amerah; A. Péron; F. Zaefarian; V. Ravindran

2011-01-01

232

Increasing biomass utilisation in energy systems: A comparative study of CO 2 reduction and cost for different bioenergy processing options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, need to be greatly reduced to avoid the risk of a harmful climate change. One powerful way to mitigate emissions is to switch fuels from fossil fuels to renewable energy, such as biomass. In this paper, we systematically investigate several bioenergy processing options, quantify the reduction rate and calculate the specific cost of

Bertil Wahlund; Jinyue Yan; Mats Westermark

2004-01-01

233

Isolation and characterisation of lignin from steam pretreated spruce and its utilisation to study cellulase adsorption on lignin.  

E-print Network

??Environmental concerns and limited availability of fossil hydrocarbons have boosted the research of renewable feedstocks and their processing into fuels and chemicals. Currently, vast majority… (more)

Rahikainen, Jenni

2009-01-01

234

Merging and scoring molecular interactions utilising existing community standards: tools, use-cases and a case study  

PubMed Central

The evidence that two molecules interact in a living cell is often inferred from multiple different experiments. Experimental data is captured in multiple repositories, but there is no simple way to assess the evidence of an interaction occurring in a cellular environment. Merging and scoring of data are commonly required operations after querying for the details of specific molecular interactions, to remove redundancy and assess the strength of accompanying experimental evidence. We have developed both a merging algorithm and a scoring system for molecular interactions based on the proteomics standard initiative–molecular interaction standards. In this manuscript, we introduce these two algorithms and provide community access to the tool suite, describe examples of how these tools are useful to selectively present molecular interaction data and demonstrate a case where the algorithms were successfully used to identify a systematic error in an existing dataset. PMID:25652942

Villaveces, J. M.; Jiménez, R. C.; Porras, P.; del-Toro, N.; Duesbury, M.; Dumousseau, M.; Orchard, S.; Choi, H.; Ping, P.; Zong, N. C.; Askenazi, M.; Habermann, B. H.; Hermjakob, Henning

2015-01-01

235

A pilot study utilising cross-age peer tutoring as a method of intervention for anxious adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychopathology experienced by young people, with up to 18% of adolescents developing one. The consequences of these symptoms, if left untreated, include impaired peer relationships, school absenteeism and self-concept problems. In addition, excessive anxiety may play a causal role in the development of depression in young people, precede eating disorders and predispose adolescents to

Marilyn Campbell

2008-01-01

236

Next generation planar waveguide detection of microcystins in freshwater and cyanobacterial extracts, utilising a novel lysis method for portable sample preparation and analysis.  

PubMed

The study details the development of a fully validated, rapid and portable sensor based method for the on-site analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples. The process employs a novel lysis method for the mechanical lysis of cyanobacterial cells, with glass beads and a handheld frother in only 10 min. The assay utilises an innovative planar waveguide device that, via an evanescent wave excites fluorescent probes, for amplification of signal in a competitive immunoassay, using an anti-microcystin monoclonal with cross-reactivity against the most common, and toxic variants. Validation of the assay showed the limit of detection (LOD) to be 0.78 ng mL(-1) and the CC? to be 1 ng mL(-1). Robustness of the assay was demonstrated by intra- and inter-assay testing. Intra-assay analysis had % C.V.s between 8 and 26% and recoveries between 73 and 101%, with inter-assay analysis demonstrating % C.V.s between 5 and 14% and recoveries between 78 and 91%. Comparison with LC-MS/MS showed a high correlation (R(2)=0.9954) between the calculated concentrations of 5 different Microcystis aeruginosa cultures for total microcystin content. Total microcystin content was ascertained by the individual measurement of free and cell-bound microcystins. Free microcystins can be measured to 1 ng mL(-1), and with a 10-fold concentration step in the intracellular microcystin protocol (which brings the sample within the range of the calibration curve), intracellular pools may be determined to 0.1 ng mL(-1). This allows the determination of microcystins at and below the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of 1 ?g L(-1). This sensor represents a major advancement in portable analysis capabilities and has the potential for numerous other applications. PMID:23498128

Devlin, Shauna; Meneely, Julie P; Greer, Brett; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T

2013-03-26

237

Potentialité d'utilisation d'argiles marocaines de Jbel Kharrou dans l'industrie céramique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ordovician clays of Jbel Kharrou (Rehamna, Morocco) have been studied for their use in ceramic industry. The realised studies were carried out on two samples B1 and B2, the most representative, taken from a clay dominated formation that outcrops 25 km east of the Skhour Rehamna city. The chemical analyses, mineralogical studies and advanced technological tests undertaken on the two samples indicate that these clays can be considered as non-refractory material, so they can be used to the manufacturing of ceramic products: soil and wall tiles, sanitary, pottery, etc. The tested briquettes, cooked at 1040 °C, remain flat, without deformation or defects; they are of cream white dye. These briquettes show a high mechanical resistance to the flexion, the loss in weight remains tolerable with cooking, lightly elevated (12% ); it can be corrected by the addition of a grease-remover. To cite this article: N. El Yakoubi et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

El Yakoubi, Nadia; Aberkan, M'hamed; Ouadia, Mohamed

2006-08-01

238

Etude des systemes photosensibles utilises comme memoires optiques: Approches photochimique et holographique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, fulgides A540 and A670 doped polymer films have been studied by means of photochemical and holographic approaches. Polymer host matrices used are polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and copolymer poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole/polystyrene (PEPC/PS). Two exposure processes characterize Photochromism in fulgides. Upon UV irradiation or colouring process, a photocyclization E ? C occurs, leading to the formation of the closed form C. Besides, such irradiation implies the formation of the non-photochromic open isomer Z by E ? Z isomerization. Then, the open form is regenerated by visible exposure: the bleaching process. Photochemically, isomerization reaction is favoured upon short UV wavelength exposure, which implies a poor photostationary state in closed form. Contrary to the colouration, the bleaching process is strongly accelerated in A670 doped films. In holographic study, influence of reading wavelength has been studied on the diffraction gratings. For each fulgide, diffraction efficiency and refractive index variation are stronger in PEPC/PS matrix. The fatigue resistance study gives similar photochemical and holographic results.

Lafond, Christophe

239

Silk utilisation and defensive behaviour of Thiania, an iridescent jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) from Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiania demissa (Thorell) and an undescribed congeneric species were studied in nature and the laboratory. Thiania is a brightly coloured, iridescent salticid from Malaysian rainforests. Its bright markings may be eucryptic in the spider’s natural habitat. The spinning behaviour of Thiania was unusual for a salticid. It made a nest by binding a pair of green leaves together with strong

Robert R. Jackson

1986-01-01

240

Utilisation des auxiliaires entomophages contre les ravageurs des cultures en Chine  

E-print Network

. SUMMARY Use of entomophagous natural enemies against crop pests in China. Though China has an ancestral experience in the practical use of natural enemies, the organization of studies and applications of biological control only started in the 1950s. At first, they focused on mass production and natural enemy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

241

Paediatric CT optimisation utilising Catphan® 600 and age-specific anthropomorphic phantoms.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to perform phantom-based optimisation of paediatric computed tomography (CT) protocols and quantify the impact upon radiation dose and image noise levels. The study involved three Portuguese paediatric centres. Currently employed scanning protocols for head and chest examinations and combinations of exposure parameters were applied to a Catphan(®)600 phantom to review the CT dose impact. Contrast-noise ratio (CNR) was quantified using Radia Diagnostic(®) tool. Imaging parameters, returning similar CNRs (<1) and dose savings were applied to three paediatric anthropomorphic phantoms. OsiriX software based on standard deviation pixel values facilitated image noise analysis. Currently employed protocols and age categorisation varied between centres. Manipulation of exposure parameters facilitated mean dose reductions of 33 and 28 % for paediatric head and chest CT examinations, respectively. The majority of the optimised CT examinations resulted in image noise similar to currently employed protocols. Dose reductions of up to 33 % were achieved with image quality maintained. PMID:24567497

Santos, Joana; Batista, Maria do Carmo; Foley, Shane; Paulo, Graciano; McEntee, Mark F; Rainford, Louise

2014-12-01

242

Energy intake and utilisation by nursing bearded seal ( Erignathus barbatus ) pups from Svalbard, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we measure energy intake via milk in nursing bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) pups and determine how this energy is allocated into metabolism and storage of new tissues. This was accomplished using\\u000a longitudinal mass gain records and the doubly labelled water technique on nursing pups in combination with cross-sectional\\u000a data on changes in milk composition from bearded seal

C. Lydersen; K. M. Kovacs; M. O. Hammill; I. Gjertz

1996-01-01

243

Utilisation of Magnesium Phosphate Cements to Facilitate Biodegradation within a Stabilised\\/Solidified Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilisation\\/solidification (S\\/S) of heavy metals and a parallel biodegradation of an organic contaminant using magnesium\\u000a phosphate cements (MPC) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The study was aimed at improving the robustness of S\\/S\\u000a technology by encouraging biodegradation in order to bring about some form of contaminant attenuation over time. A silty sand\\u000a soil, amended with compost was spiked with an

Reginald B. Kogbara; Abir Al-Tabbaa; Srinath R. Iyengar

2011-01-01

244

Association between antidepressant drug use during pregnancy and child healthcare utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

of more than two visits to general practitioners was 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.3-1.8) in the continuous antidepressant users group and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2-1.5) in the group of children whose mothers stopped taking medication. In both study groups there was a trend towards more drug use for infections and inflammation compared with the control group. Children continuously exposed

TF Ververs; K van Wensen; MW Freund; M van der Heide; GHA Visser; AFAM Schobben; LTW de Jong-van den Berg; ACG Egberts

2009-01-01

245

Targeting services to reduce social inequalities in utilisation: an analysis of breast cancer screening in New South Wales  

PubMed Central

Background Many jurisdictions have used public funding of health care to reduce or remove price at the point of delivery of services. Whilst this reduces an important barrier to accessing care, it does nothing to discriminate between groups considered to have greater or fewer needs. In this paper, we consider whether active targeted recruitment, in addition to offering a 'free' service, is associated with a reduction in social inequalities in self-reported utilization of the breast screening services in NSW, Australia. Methods Using the 1997 and 1998 NSW Health Surveys we estimated probit models on the probability of having had a screening mammogram in the last two years for all women aged 40–79. The models examined the relative importance of socio-economic and geographic factors in predicting screening behaviour in three different needs groups – where needs were defined on the basis of a woman's age. Results We find that women in higher socio-economic groups are more likely to have been screened than those in lower groups for all age groups. However, the socio-economic effect is significantly less among women who were in the actively targeted age group. Conclusion This indicates that recruitment and follow-up was associated with a modest reduction in social inequalities in utilisation although significant income differences remain. PMID:17550622

Birch, Stephen; Haas, Marion; Savage, Elizabeth; Van Gool, Kees

2007-01-01

246

Harvesting, storing and utilising solar energy using MoO3 : modulating structural distortion through pH adjustment.  

PubMed

Nanostructured molybdenum oxide (?-MoO3 ) thin film photoelectrodes were synthesised by anodisation. Upon band gap-excitation by light illumination, ?-MoO3 is able to store a portion of the excited charges in its layered structure with the simultaneous intercalation of alkali cations. The stored electrons can be discharged from ?-MoO3 for utilisation under dark conditions, and ?-MoO3 is able to recharge itself with successive illuminations to behave as a 'self-photo-rechargeable' alkali-ion battery. The alteration of the anodisation pH allowed the crystal structure and oxygen vacancy concentrations of ?-MoO3 to be modulated to achieve (i) a distorted MoO6 octahedra for enhanced charge separation and storage, (ii) a layered structure with a greater exposed (010) crystal face for rich and reversible ion intercalation and (iii) a highly crystalline thin film that suppresses electron-hole pair recombination. Overall, the larger MoO6 octahedral distortion in ?-MoO3 at a higher pH favours charge storage, whereas smaller octahedral distortion at a lower pH leads to anodic photocurrent enhancement. PMID:24811956

Lou, Shi Nee; Ng, Yun Hau; Ng, Charlene; Scott, Jason; Amal, Rose

2014-07-01

247

Potentiel de l'utilisation des melanges hydrocarbures/alcools pour les moteurs a allumage commande  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past few years, the oil stock decrease encourages the different countries to increase their energy independence. Moreover, reducing the environmental impact of transportation became one of the priorities of our society. In this way, European emissions standards are stricter while several pollutants have been identified to have a negative impact on health and the environment. To answer this double problem, the use of alcohols biofuels in sparkignition engines is one the promising ways. The European Union have already taken a small step in that direction by allowing a maximum of 10% of ethanol into gasoline. As well as ethanol is already marketed, Biobutanol, a 2nd generation biofuel, appears as a serious candidate with a strong potential for a spark-ignition engines use. The objective of this dissertation is to study the potential of the iso-octane/butanol blends use in spark-ignition engines, in terms of performance and pollutants emissions. Moreover, these results are compared to iso-octane/ethanol blends. The heat release in spark-ignition engine is piloted for a part by laminar burning velocity. This characteristic was studied experimentally and numerically for different initial conditions (pressure and equivalence ratio) in a constant volume bomb. Then, the early flame kernel growth was studied in an spark-ignition single cylinder engine equipped with optical accesses. Those results were correlated with the results on the laminar burning velocity. Finally, regulated and non-regulated pollutants emissions and engine performance were investigated in a spark-ignition single cylinder engine. A decrease of most pollutant emissions was observed with both alcohols addition.

Broustail, Guillaume

248

Utilising a construct of teacher capacity to examine national curriculum reform in mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study involving 120 Australian and Chinese teachers introduces a construct of teacher capacity to analyse how teachers help students connect arithmetic learning and emerging algebraic thinking. Four criteria formed the basis of our construct of teacher capacity: knowledge of mathematics, interpretation of the intentions of official curriculum documents, understanding of students' thinking, and design of teaching. While these key elements connect to what other researchers refer to as mathematical knowledge for teaching, several differences are made clear. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that our construct was robust and effective in distinguishing between different levels of teacher capacity.

Zhang, Qinqiong; Stephens, Max

2013-12-01

249

Groundwater and surface-water utilisation using a bank infiltration technique in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bank infiltration (BI) is one of the solutions to providing raw water for public supply in tropical countries. This study in Malaysia explores the use of BI to supplement a polluted surface-water resource with groundwater. Three major factors were investigated: (1) contribution of surface water through BI to the resulting abstraction, (2) input of local groundwater, and (3) water-quality characteristics of the resulting water supply. A geophysical method was employed to define the subsurface geology and hydrogeology, and isotope techniques were performed to identify the source of groundwater recharge and the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the local surface-water bodies and groundwater were analyzed before and during water abstraction. Extracted water revealed a 5-98 % decrease in turbidity, as well as reductions in HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, Ca2+, Al3+ and As concentrations compared with those of Langat River water. In addition, amounts of E. coli, total coliform and Giardia were significantly reduced (99.9 %). However, water samples from test wells during pumping showed high concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+. Pumping test results indicate that the two wells used in the study were able to sustain yields.

Shamsuddin, Mohd Khairul Nizar; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Suratman, Saim; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Samuding, Kamarudin

2014-05-01

250

Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.  

PubMed

The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the social cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with M?ori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international nursing students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection', 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of The Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. PMID:22225732

Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

2012-03-01

251

Home Range Utilisation and Territorial Behaviour of Lions (Panthera leo) on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Interventionist conservation management of territorial large carnivores has increased in recent years, especially in South Africa. Understanding of spatial ecology is an important component of predator conservation and management. Spatial patterns are influenced by many, often interacting, factors making elucidation of key drivers difficult. We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo) after reintroduction onto the 85 km2 Karongwe Game Reserve, from 1999–2005, using radio-telemetry. In 2002 one male was removed from the paired coalition which had been present for the first three years. A second pride and male were in a fenced reserve adjacent of them to the east. This made it possible to separate social and resource factors in both a coalition and single male scenario, and the driving factors these seem to have on spatial ecology. Male ranging behaviour was not affected by coalition size, being driven more by resource rather than social factors. The females responded to the lions on the adjacent reserve by avoiding the area closest to them, therefore females may be more driven by social factors. Home range size and the resource response to water are important factors to consider when reintroducing lions to a small reserve, and it is hoped that these findings lead to other similar studies which will contribute to sound decisions regarding the management of lions on small reserves. PMID:19098987

Lehmann, Monika B.; Funston, Paul J.; Owen, Cailey R.; Slotow, Rob

2008-01-01

252

Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.  

PubMed

Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of results for systems with electricity use as an environmental hot spot. The importance of assessing water use, an environmental impact not assessed by any of the reviewed studies, is highlighted. PMID:24121250

Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

2014-06-25

253

Utilising Family-Based Designs for Detecting Rare Variant Disease Associations  

PubMed Central

Summary Rare genetic variants are thought to be important components in the causality of many diseases but discovering these associations is challenging. We demonstrate how best to use family-based designs to improve the power to detect rare variant disease associations. We show that using genetic data from enriched families (those pedigrees with greater than one affected member) increases the power and sensitivity of existing case–control rare variant tests. However, we show that transmission- (or within-family-) based tests do not benefit from this enrichment. This means that, in studies where a limited amount of genotyping is available, choosing a single case from each of many pedigrees has greater power than selecting multiple cases from fewer pedigrees. Finally, we show how a pseudo-case–control design allows a greater range of statistical tests to be applied to family data. PMID:24571231

Preston, Mark D; Dudbridge, Frank

2014-01-01

254

Financial and environmental modelling of water hardness--implications for utilising harvested rainwater in washing machines.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the financial and environmental effects of water quality on rainwater harvesting systems. The potential for replacing tap water used in washing machines with rainwater was studied, and then analysis presented in this paper is valid for applications that include washing machines where tap water hardness may be important. A wide range of weather conditions, such as rainfall (284-1,794 mm/year); water hardness (14-315 mg/L CaCO3); tap water prices (0.85-2.65 Euros/m(3)) in different Spanish urban areas (from individual buildings to whole neighbourhoods); and other scenarios (including materials and water storage capacity) were analysed. Rainfall was essential for rainwater harvesting, but the tap water prices and the water hardness were the main factors for consideration in the financial and the environmental analyses, respectively. The local tap water hardness and prices can cause greater financial and environmental impacts than the type of material used for the water storage tank or the volume of the tank. The use of rainwater as a substitute for hard water in washing machines favours financial analysis. Although tap water hardness significantly affects the financial analysis, the greatest effect was found in the environmental analysis. When hard tap water needed to be replaced, it was found that a water price of 1 Euro/m(3) could render the use of rainwater financially feasible when using large-scale rainwater harvesting systems. When the water hardness was greater than 300 mg/L CaCO3, a financial analysis revealed that an net present value greater than 270 Euros/dwelling could be obtained at the neighbourhood scale, and there could be a reduction in the Global Warming Potential (100 years) ranging between 35 and 101 kg CO2 eq./dwelling/year. PMID:24262990

Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Lurueña, Rodrigo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan

2014-02-01

255

A high-accuracy method of analysis of 19-norandrosterone in human urine as utilised for the international laboratory intercomparison CCQM-P68  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-accuracy exact-matching isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method for 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) in human urine\\u000a was developed at NMIA for the certification of a freeze-dried human urine reference material (CRM NMIA MX002). The method\\u000a utilised GC\\/HRMS analysis following hydrolysis, solvent extraction, HPLC fractionation and derivatisation. The method development\\u000a included investigation of all potential analytical biases for the different stages of

Lindsey G. Mackay; Daniel Burke; Fong-Ha Liu; Nigel Sousou; Veronica V. Vamathevan; Judy Cuthbertson; Chris Mussell; Richard B. Myors

2007-01-01

256

An analysis of trends and determinants of health insurance and healthcare utilisation in the Russian population between 2000 and 2004: the 'inverse care law' in action  

PubMed Central

Background The break-up of the USSR brought considerable disruption to health services in Russia. The uptake of compulsory health insurance rose rapidly after its introduction in 1993. However, by 2000 coverage was still incomplete, especially amongst the disadvantaged. By this time, however, the state health service had become more stable, and the private sector was growing. This paper describes subsequent trends and determinants of healthcare insurance coverage in Russia, and its relationship with health service utilisation, as well as the role of the private sector. Methods Data were from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, an annual household panel survey (2000–4) from 38 centres across the Russian Federation. Annual trends in insurance coverage were measured (2000–4). Cross-sectional multivariate analyses of the determinants of health insurance and its relationship with health care utilisation were performed in working-age people (18–59 years) using 2004 data. Results Between 2000 and 2004, coverage by the compulsory insurance scheme increased from 88% to 94% of adults; however 10% of working-age men remained uninsured. Compulsory health insurance coverage was lower amongst the poor, unemployed, unhealthy and people outside the main cities. The uninsured were less likely to seek medical help for new health problems. 3% of respondents had supplementary (private) insurance, and rising utilisation of private healthcare was greatest amongst the more educated and wealthy. Conclusion Despite high population insurance coverage, a multiply disadvantaged uninsured minority remains, with low utilisation of health services. Universal insurance could therefore increase access, and potentially contribute to reducing avoidable healthcare-related mortality. Meanwhile, the socioeconomically advantaged are turning increasingly to a growing private sector. PMID:19397799

Perlman, Francesca; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

2009-01-01

257

Utilisation de la Taille Maximale des Poissons de Mangrove en Vue de la Slection d'espces Natives pour Leur Pisciculture aux Antilles  

E-print Network

Utilisation de la Taille Maximale des Poissons de Mangrove en Vue de la Sélection d'espèces Natives à la longueur maximale connue ailleurs pour la même espèce. Dans cette mangrove, les espèces de plus by 42 species of fish living in the Manche-à-Eau mangrove lagoon, Guadeloupe (French West Indies) has

Boyer, Edmond

258

Development of a novel roving-treatment process employing sequential chelating agent and enzymatic stages, utilising thermal analysis for assessment of fibre and yarn quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the potential benefits of utilising enzyme-based treatments to remove specific non-cellulosic polysaccharide components from flax fibre prior to spinning, attempts to date have not proved successful. At present, techniques employing conventional chemical reagents are solely employed within this industry. To establish the feasibility of incorporating an enzyme treatment stage within a novel process sequence, small-scale laboratory test protocols have

K. Kernaghan; H. S. S. Sharma; L. Whiteside

2006-01-01

259

SpoonEMF, une brique logicielle pour l'utilisation de l'IDM dans le cadre de la ringnierie de programmes Java5  

E-print Network

programmes Java5 Olivier Barais Projet Triskell/IRISA campus de Beaulieu. F - 35 042 Rennes Cedex barais'IDM dans le cadre de la réingénierie d'applications écrites en Java. L'accent dans cette courte réutilisation d'outils comme l'analyseur syntaxique de code Java5 (parser) ou le générateur de code (pretty

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

L'exprience de BST en matire de cartographie des usages de la bibliothque et de l'utilisation des espaces par le public tudiant  

E-print Network

L'expérience de BST en matière de cartographie des usages de la bibliothèque et de l cartographie des usages de la bibliothèque et de l'utilisation des espaces par le public étudiant UCL Usage des espaces 2.692 observations 18/12/2012 #12;L'expérience de BST en matière de cartographie des

Nesterov, Yurii

261

Trends in incidence and medical resource utilisation in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: insights from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common leukaemia in European adults. We aimed to evaluate time trends in CLL incidence and medical resource utilisation of CLL patients in the UK. We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort analysis using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) comprising mainly primary care data. We included adult patients with newly diagnosed CLL between January 2000 and June 2012. Descriptive and trend analyses of CLL incidence and medical resource utilisation were performed. A total of 2576 patients with CLL met the eligibility criteria. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (71.7 %) were above 65 years of age. The European age-standardised CLL incidence rate in the CPRD was 6.2/100,000 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 6.0, 6.5/100,000) person-years. There was no statistically significant increase over time. The CLL patients had on average 74.6 general practitioner visits during a median follow-up of 3.3 years. Between 2000 and 2012, the average number of recorded hospitalisations and referrals per year corrected for duration of follow-up significantly (p?utilisation in UK primary care was well documented, but further research is needed to describe secondary and tertiary care medical resource utilisation e.g. chemotherapy administration, which is inadequately captured in the CPRD. PMID:25219890

Pfeil, A M; Imfeld, P; Pettengell, R; Jick, S S; Szucs, T D; Meier, Christoph R; Schwenkglenks, M

2015-03-01

262

Hospital admissions for severe mental illness in England: Changes in equity of utilisation at the small area level between 2006 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Severe Mental Illness (SMI) encompasses a range of chronic conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychoses. Patients with SMI often require inpatient psychiatric care. Despite equity being a key objective in the English National Health Service (NHS) and in many other health care systems worldwide, little is known about the socio-economic equity of hospital care utilisation for patients with SMI and how it has changed over time. This analysis seeks to address that gap in the evidence base. We exploit a five-year (2006–2010) panel dataset of admission rates at small area level (n = 162,410). The choice of control variables was informed by a systematic literature search. To assess changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation, OLS-based standardisation was first used to conduct analysis of discrete deprivation groups. Geographical inequity was then illustrated by plotting standardised and crude admission rates at local purchaser level. Lastly, formal statistical tests for changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation were applied to a continuous measure of deprivation using pooled negative binomial regression analysis, adjusting for a range of risk factors. Our results suggest that one additional percentage point of area income deprivation is associated with a 1.5% (p < 0.001) increase in admissions for SMI after controlling for population size, age, sex, prevalence of SMI in the local population, as well as other need and supply factors. This finding is robust to sensitivity analyses, suggesting that a pro-poor inequality in utilisation exists for SMI-related inpatient services. One possible explanation is that the supply or quality of primary, community or social care for people with mental health problems is suboptimal in deprived areas. Although there is some evidence that inequity has reduced over time, the changes are small and not always robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:25262312

White, Jonathan; Gutacker, Nils; Jacobs, Rowena; Mason, Anne

2014-01-01

263

EVALUATION DE L'IMPACT DE L'UTILISATION D'UN SITE WEB COMMERCIAL : UNE REVUE CRITIQUE DE LA LITTERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUME - Le développement de l'activité commerciale sur le web ne cesse de progresser et le nombre des entreprises qui utilisent un site web ne cesse d'augmenter. Toutefois, il est difficile d'affirmer que toutes les expériences sont couronnées de succès. L'objectif poursuivi dans de ce papier et d'engager un examen critique d'une sélection d'articles afin d'essayer de situer la problématique

Moez Bellaaj

264

Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS) it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC) utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1%) had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3%) attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9%) delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91). Conclusion This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on those living nearby or in the same district where an HDSS is located even when not included in the surveillance system. PMID:24998383

Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Gebregiorgis, Seifu Hagos; Roro, Meselech Assegid; Lemma, Alemayehu Mekonnen; Ahmed, Saifuddin

2014-01-01

265

Caracterisation des signatures de decharges partielles en utilisant une nouvelle generation de coupleurs piezoelectriques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue affecting the sustainability of power transformers is systematic and progressive deterioration of the insulation system by the action of partial discharge. Ideally, it is appropriate to use on line, non-destructive techniques for detection and diagnosis of failures related to insulation systems, in order to determine whether preventive maintenance action is required. Thus, huge material losses can be saved (spared), while improving reliability and system availability. Based on a new generation of piezoelectric sensors (High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers HTUTs), recently developed by the Industrial Materials Institute (IMI) in Boucherville (Qc, Canada) and offers very interesting features (broad band frequency response, flexible, miniature, economic, etc..), we propose in this thesis an investigation on the applicability of this technology to the problematic of partial discharges. This work presents an analysis of the metrological performance of these sensors and demonstrated empirically the consistency of their measures. It outlines the results of validation from a comparative study with the measures of a standard detection circuit. In addition, it also presents the potential of these sensors to locate partial discharge source position by acoustic emission.

Danouj, Boujemaa

266

Plutonium and minor actinide utilisation in a pebble-bed high temperature reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper contains results of the analysis of the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled PUMA reactor loaded with plutonium and minor actinide (Pu/MA) fuel. Starting from knowledge and experience gained in the Euratom FP5 projects HTR-N and HTR-N1, this study aims at demonstrating the potential of high temperature reactors to utilize or transmute Pu/MA fuel. The work has been performed within the Euratom FP6 project PUMA. A number of different fuel types and fuel configurations have been analyzed and compared with respect to incineration performance and safety-related reactor parameters. The results show the excellent plutonium and minor actinide burning capabilities of the high temperature reactor. The largest degree of incineration is attained in the case of an HTR fuelled by pure plutonium fuel as it remains critical at very deep burnup of the discharged pebbles. Addition of minor actinides to the fuel leads to decrease of the achievable discharge burnup and therefore smaller fraction of actinides incinerated during reactor operation. The inert-matrix fuel design improves the transmutation performance of the reactor, while the 'wallpaper' fuel does not have advantage over the standard fuel design in this respect. After 100 years of decay following the fuel discharge, the total amount of actinides remains almost unchanged for all of the fuel types considered. Among the plutonium isotopes, only the amount of Pu-241 is reduced significantly due to its relatively short half-life. (authors)

Petrov, B. Y.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.; De Haas, J. B. M. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2012-07-01

267

Heterogeneous freezing of single sulphuric acid solution droplets: laboratory experiments utilising an acoustic levitator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of single binary sulphuric acid solution droplets were measured in dependency of acid concentration down to temperatures as low as -70°C. In order to avoid influence of supporting substrates on the freezing characteristics, the droplets were suspended by means of an acoustic levitator. The droplets contained immersed particles of graphite, kaolin or montmorillonite in order to study the influence of the presence of such contamination on the freezing temperature. The radii of the suspended droplets spanned the range between 0,4 and 1,1 mm and the concentration of the sulphuric acid solution varied between 5 and 25 weight percent. The presence of the particles in the solution raises the freezing temperature with respect to homogeneous freezing of these solution droplets. The pure solution droplets can be supercooled up to 40° below the ice-acid solution thermodynamic equilibrium curve. Depending on the concentration of sulphuric acid and the nature of the impurity the polluted droplets froze between -11°C and -35°C. The experimental set-up, combining a deep freezer with a movable ultrasonic levitator and suitable optics, proved to be a useful approach for such investigations on individual droplets.

Ettner, M.; Mitra, S. K.; Borrmann, S.

2004-03-01

268

Modelling and Optimisation of Eurycoma longifolia Extraction Utilising a Recirculating Flow Extractor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, Tongkat Ali was extracted with a newly designed recirculating flow extractor with temperature and flow rate as the operating parameters. The optimum duration and ratio for extraction were found to be 90 min and 40:1 w/w, respectively. The determination of optimal operating parameter value for this extractor was based on maximum percentage extract yield and solid diffusivity, Ds,. From the experiments, it was found that the temperature and flow rate that produce the highest yield and solid diffusivity value were at 90°C and 400 rpm (22.47 mL sec-1), respectively. The optimal operating parameter values were used to compare the recirculating flow extractor performance with a batch extraction at 90°C. The comparison showed that the batch extraction was able to extract more rapidly than the recirculating flow extractor. The solid diffusivity, Ds, value for the batch extraction was found to be is 3.12x10-11 m2 sec-1 while the recirculating flow extractor had a solid diffusivity, Ds, value of 2.98x10-11 m2 sec-1 which indicated the difference in extraction rate. However, by utilizing the recirculating flow extractor, a higher final yield than batch extraction was produced which is 7.70% (w/w) for the recirculating flow extractor and 6.67% (w/w) for the batch extraction. This is possibly caused by the higher rates of solvent losses through evaporation for batch extraction.

Ajib Mohtar, Mohd; Kumaresan, Sivakumar; Roji Sarmidi, Mohd; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul

269

New concepts for the avoidance or utilisation of methane in life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to high resupply costs, especially for long-duration stays in space habitats beyond low earth orbit, future manned space missions will require life support systems (LSS) with a high degree of regenerativity. Possible ways to overcome the waste of resources and to save on resupply mass are therefore of major interest for the development of next generation environmental control and life support systems. The advanced closed-loop system (ACLS) for air revitalization, which is currently being developed by the European Space Agency, will be able to recover the oxygen from exhaled carbon dioxide by use of a Sabatier reactor (see Fig. 1). However, the employed process generates methane as a side product. Current plans envisage it to be vented over board, but the resulting loss would necessitate the resupply of hydrogen. In order to prevent this waste of methane, there are three options: The LSS could be altered to not produce any methane at all, the methane could be cracked into its constituents and reused, or methane itself could be put to use as a resource. Different approaches were examined, and ideas for a Bosch-Boudouard reactor (no methane production) as well as the design study of a pyrolysis thruster (methane cracking and partial use for propulsion) are presented in this paper.

Kenn, Franz

2011-08-01

270

The Positive Impact of the Early-Feeding of a Plant-Based Diet on Its Future Acceptance and Utilisation in Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional exposure, the growth of fish fed plant-based feed. Rainbow trout swim-up fry were fed for 3 weeks either a plant-based diet (diet V, V-fish) or a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil as protein and fat source (diet M, M-fish). After this 3-wk nutritional history period, all V- or M-fish received diet M for a 7-month intermediate growth phase. Both groups were then challenged by feeding diet V for 25 days during which voluntary feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilisation were monitored (V-challenge). Three isogenic rainbow trout lines were used for evaluating possible family effects. The results of the V-challenge showed a 42% higher growth rate (P?=?0.002) and 30% higher feed intake (P?=?0.005) in fish of nutritional history V compared to M (averaged over the three families). Besides the effects on feed intake, V-fish utilized diet V more efficiently than M-fish, as reflected by the on average 18% higher feed efficiency (P?=?0.003). We noted a significant family effect for the above parameters (P<0.001), but the nutritional history effect was consistent for all three families (no interaction effect, P>0.05). In summary, our study shows that an early short-term exposure of rainbow trout fry to a plant-based diet improves acceptance and utilization of the same diet when given at later life stages. This positive response is encouraging as a potential strategy to improve the use of plant-based feed in fish, of interest in the field of fish farming and animal nutrition in general. Future work needs to determine the persistency of this positive early feeding effect and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24386155

Geurden, Inge; Borchert, Peter; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N.; Schrama, Johan W.; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Quillet, Edwige; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Panserat, Stéphane; Médale, Françoise

2013-01-01

271

Are we using support workers effectively? the relationship between patient and team characteristics and support worker utilisation in older people's community-based rehabilitation services in England.  

PubMed

This research explores the relationship between support worker utilisation and patient- and team-level characteristics using a prospective longitudinal study of 20 older people's community rehabilitation teams. Between January and September 2009, 462 Whole Time Equivalent Staff and 1913 patients participated in the study. Patient dependency, health status (Therapy Outcome Measures, EQ-5D and Levels of Care tool) and demographic data were collected alongside detailed staff activity data for patients during the recruitment period. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between the proportion of care delivered by support workers team and patient variables. Support workers delivered up to 36% of direct patient care and spent less time per patient contact (36.0 minutes, SD 37.7, range 0-600) than qualified professionals (mean time per contact 75.8 minutes, SD 32.9, range 0-334). Less-dependent and female patients had a greater proportion of support worker input, with a 4.9% increase in face-to-face support worker time for every 0.1 unit increase in EQ-5D (95% CI 0.3-9.6, P = 0.038), while females had an additional 5.1% of their total contact time with support workers compared with males (95% CI 1.9-8.4, P = 0.002). In an analysis without EQ-5D, older patients had a greater proportion of support worker time (P = 0.006). Other factors associated with support worker input include the referral source, intensity of care, usual living arrangements and proportion of support staff in a team. Results indicate that patient- and team-level factors are a determinant in the proportion of support worker care delivered to older people in the community, suggesting that it may be appropriate to introduce a more explicit targeted deployment of support workers based on patient-level characteristics, which may facilitate a more effective use of qualified practitioner time for more complex, dependent patients. PMID:22607390

Moran, Anna; Nancarrow, Susan; Enderby, Pamela; Bradburn, Mike

2012-09-01

272

Production of Phytophthora infestans-resistant potato (Solanum tuberosum) utilising Ensifer adhaerens OV14.  

PubMed

Based on the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation commodity crop improvement through genetic engineering is the fastest adopted crop technology in the world (James 2010). However, the complexity of the Agrobacterium patent landscape remains a challenge for non-patent holders who wish to generate novel varieties for a commercial purpose. The potential of non-Agrobacterium strains (Transbacter(™)) to modify a plant genome has previously been described. However, they are unlikely to be widely used without significant adjustments in transformation protocols in order to improve their gene transfer efficiencies. In this study we set out to identify alternative bacteria species that could (a) utilize vir genes for genetic transformation and (b) substitute for A. tumefaciens in existing transformation protocols, without a prerequisite for protocol modifications. To this end we isolated a collection (n=751) of plant-associated bacteria from the rhizosphere of commercially grown crops. Based on various screens, including plant transformation with the open-source vector pCAMBIA5105, we identified a strain of the bacterium Ensifer adhaerens with the capacity to transform both Arabidopsis thaliana (0.12%) and potato (mean transformation frequency 35.1%). Thereafter, Ensifer adhaerens was used to generate blight- (causative organism Phytophthora infestans) resistant potato using the Solanum bulbocastanum 'resistance to blight' (RB) gene. Resistant genotypes were confirmed by associated molecular analysis and resistant phenotypes demonstrated by the development of hypersensitive lesions on inoculated leaf tissue post-pathogen inoculation. These data confirm the potential of Ensifer-mediated transformation (EMT) as a novel platform for the high frequency generation of transgenic potato. PMID:21912851

Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

2012-06-01

273

Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe(0) was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe(0) treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required. PMID:23709267

Kumpiene, Jurate; Desogus, Paolo; Schulenburg, Sven; Arenella, Mariarita; Renella, Giancarlo; Brännvall, Evelina; Lagerkvist, Anders; Andreas, Lale; Sjöblom, Rolf

2013-12-01

274

Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la sédation, les chutes et la surdose peuvent être minimisées en utilisant des doses initiales faibles, un titrage plus lent, un sevrage des benzodiazépines et une bonne éducation des patients. Dans le cas des femmes enceintes qui prennent des opioïdes chaque jour, il faut faire un sevrage progressif et cesser complètement. Si ce n’est pas possible, il faut administrer la dose efficace la plus faible. Les femmes enceintes qui ont une dépendance aux opioïdes devraient recevoir un traitement à la méthadone. Les adolescents sont à risque élevé de surdose d’opioïdes, d’usage abusif et de dépendance. Les patients qui ont des adolescents qui vivent à la maison devraient entreposer leurs opioïdes dans un lieu sûr. Les adolescents ont rarement besoin d’une thérapie à long terme aux opioïdes. Conclusion Les médecins de famille doivent tenir compte de l’âge, de la condition psychiatrique, du degré de risque de dépendance du patient et d’autres facteurs quand ils prescrivent des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique.

Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

2011-01-01

275

Nutritional evaluation and utilisation of quality protein maize, Nityashree hybrid maize, and normal maize in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to determine the apparent metabolisable energy, apparent digestible amino acid values, and utilisation of three maize varities in chickens: quality protein maize (QPM), hybrid maize Nityashree (HMN) and normal maize (NM). There was no significant difference in the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) content amongst the three varieties of maize. Lysine and threonine digestibilities were significantly higher in QPM compared to either HMN or NM. No difference in the digestibilities of other amino acids occurred among the three different maize varieties. There was no difference between diets containing NM or HMN for body weight gain (21 and 40?d of age) and overall feed conversion ratio (0-40?d), but values were significantly higher for QPM (and Lys-supplemented NM) diets. The relative weights of dressed meat yield and giblets were unaffected by dietary replacement of NM with QPM, HMN, or Lys supplementation of the NM diet. However, abdominal fat content decreased and breast meat yield increased with both dietary replacement of NM with QPM and Lys supplementation of the NM diet. The concentration of protein in serum was significantly increased by dietary replacement of NM with QPM. Adding Lys to the NM based diet significantly increased the Ca concentration in serum compared with NM or HMN diets. However, the highest concentration of Ca in serum was found in the QPM diet. The concentration of total cholesterol in serum significantly decreased by either replacing NM with QPM or adding Lys to the NM based diet, compared with the NM diet. These results suggested that the feeding value of quality protein maize was superior to normal maize, while the feeding value of hybrid maize Nityashree was similar to that of normal maize. PMID:22029791

Panda, A K; Raju, M V L N; Rao, S V Rama; Lavanya, G; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar; Sunder, G Shyam

2011-10-01

276

Retrieving the availability of light in the ocean utilising spectral signatures of Vibrational Raman Scattering in hyper-spectral satellite measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of light in the ocean is an important parameter for the determination of phytoplankton photosynthesis processes and primary production from satellite data. It is also a useful parameter for other applications, e.g. the determination of heat fluxes. In this study, a method was developed utilising the vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) effect of water molecules to determine the amount of photons available in the ocean water, which is expressed by the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0. Radiative transfer simulations with the fully coupled ocean-atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) SCIATRAN show clearly the relationship of E0 to the strength of the VRS signal measured at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Taking advantage of VRS structures in hyper-spectral satellite measurements a retrieval technique to derive E0 in the wavelength region from 390 to 444.5 nm was developed. This approach uses the Weighting Function Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WF-DOAS) technique, applied to TOA radiances, measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Based on the approach of Vountas et al. (2007), where the DOAS method was used to fit modelled spectra of VRS, the method was improved by using the weighting function of VRS (VRS-WF) in the DOAS fit. This was combined with a look-up table (LUT) technique, where the E0 value was obtained for each VRS satellite fit directly. The VRS-WF and the LUT were derived from calculations with the RTM SCIATRAN (Rozanov et al., 2014). RTM simulations for different chlorophyll a concentrations and illumination conditions clearly show, that low fit factors of VRS retrieval results correspond to low amounts of light in the water column and vice versa. Exemplary, one month of SCIAMACHY data were processed and a global map of the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0 was retrieved. Spectral structures of VRS were clearly identified in the radiance measurements of SCIAMACHY. The fitting approach led to consistent results and the WF-DOAS algorithm results of VRS correlated clearly with the chlorophyll concentration in case-I water. Comparisons of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, extracted by VRS fit results, with the established GlobColour Kd (490) product show consistent results.

Dinter, T.; Rozanov, V. V.; Burrows, J. P.; Bracher, A.

2015-01-01

277

The effect of COPD health forecasting on hospitalisation and health care utilisation in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD.  

PubMed

Exacerbations are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as having a large impact on health care utilisation (HCU). They are more frequent during periods of cold weather with a corresponding increase in hospital admissions. It has been hypothesised that COPD exacerbations and admissions can be reduced by predicting periods of cold weather coupled with patients' alerts and education. Healthy Outlook(®) service provided by the Meteorological Office, UK, was used in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD who consented to participate from three primary care practices. Outcome measures included data relating to hospital admissions for acute exacerbations as well as HCU for these patients during the intervention period (1 Nov 2008-31 Mar 2009) and compared for the same patients and same period 12 months earlier (1 Nov 2007-31 Mar 2008). A cost analysis comparing treatment cost per patient for the two periods was also conducted. A total of 157 (34% of target COPD population) patients took part in the project, with five weather alerts generated (first alert reached 150 patients; second reached 146; third reached 138 patients; fourth reached 137 patients; and the fifth reached 125 patients) during the intervention period. There was a non-statistically-significant increase in hospital admissions per patient (0.07-0.076; p = 0.83). The number of general practice visits per patient dropped from 4.9 to 3.8 (p = 0.001), with drop in average number of visits to patients by out-of-hours services from 0.52-0.14 (p = 0.013). The average number of home consultations provided by general practice increased from 0.05 to 0.92 (p = 0.001). Cost per patient increased by an average of £142 (95% CI -£128 to £412). This anticipatory care model was not associated with reduction in admissions from COPD exacerbations. Further research is required to fully understand its role in the management of patients with COPD. PMID:21248023

Bakerly, N D; Roberts, June A; Thomson, Anna R; Dyer, Matthew

2011-01-01

278

Study-MATE: Using Text Messaging to Support Student Transition to University Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are most likely to drop out of university when first attending. This article analyses the use of technology in supporting the transition process of "first time" university students enrolled in a second-year accounting course. Study-MATE, a study skills program utilising the university's learning management system (LMS)--Blackboard, Google…

Cahir, Jayde; Huber, Elaine; Handal, Boris; Dutch, Justin; Nixon, Mark

2012-01-01

279

Numerical simulation study of a tree windbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was utilised to investigate the flow characteristics around tree windbreaks. The efficiency of windbreaks depends on many factors which can be investigated in field experiments, though this is limited due to several reasons such as unstable weather conditions, few measuring points, etc. Fortunately, the investigation is possible via computer simulations. The simulation technique

J. P. Bitog; I.-B. Lee; H.-S. Hwang; M.-H. Shin; S.-W. Hong; I.-H. Seo; K.-S. Kwon; E. Mostafa; Z. Pang

280

The recent explicit use of theory in empirical studies on acculturation of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine empirical studies published on child acculturation in terms of use of theory. Based on a computerised database search, 31 empirical studies published in the last five years were found and examined. Findings of this study indicated that 74% of the empirical studies employed theory explicitly. Common theories utilised explicitly in the studies

Burhanettin Keskin

2012-01-01

281

Investigating Over Critical Thresholds of Forest Megafires Danger Conditions in Europe Utilising the ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) has been established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment (DG ENV) of the European Commission (EC) to support the services in charge of the protection of forests against fires in the EU and neighbour countries, and also to provide the EC services and the European Parliament with information on forest fires in Europe. Within its applications, EFFIS provides current and forecast meteorological fire danger maps up to 6 days. Weather plays a key role in affecting wildfire occurrence and behaviour. Meteorological parameters can be used to derive meteorological fire weather indices that provide estimations of fire danger level at a given time over a specified area of interest. In this work, we investigate the suitability of critical thresholds of fire danger to provide an early warning for megafires (fires > 500 ha) over Europe. Past trends of fire danger are analysed computing daily fire danger from weather data taken from re-analysis fields for a period of 31 years (1980 to 2010). Re-analysis global data sets coming from the construction of high-quality climate records, which combine past observations collected from many different observing and measuring platforms, are capable of describing how Fire Danger Indices have evolved over time at a global scale. The latest and most updated ERA-Interim dataset of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) was used to extract meteorological variables needed to compute daily values of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI) over Europe, with a horizontal resolution of about 75x75 km. Daily time series of CFWI were constructed and analysed over a total of 1,071 European NUTS3 centroids, resulting in a set of percentiles and critical thresholds. Such percentiles could be used as thresholds to help fire services establish a measure of the significance of CFWI outputs as they relate to levels of fire potential, fuel conditions and fire danger. Median percentile values of fire days accumulated over the 31-year period were compared to median values of all days from that period. As expected, the CWFI time series exhibit different values on fire days than on all days. In addition, a percentile analysis was performed in order to determine the behaviour of index values corresponding to fire events falling into the megafire category. This analysis resulted in a set of critical thresholds based on percentiles. By utilising such thresholds, an initial framework of an early warning system has being established. By lowering the value of any of these thresholds, the number of hits could be increased until all extremes were captured (resulting in zero misses). However, in doing so, the number of false alarms tends to increase significantly. Consequently, an optimal trade-off between hits and false alarms has to be established when setting different (critical) CFWI thresholds.

Petroliagkis, Thomas I.; Camia, Andrea; Liberta, Giorgio; Durrant, Tracy; Pappenberger, Florian; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus

2014-05-01

282

One-year study of nitro-organic compounds and their relation to wood burning in PM10 aerosol from a rural site in Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitro-organic compounds were determined in a one-year set of atmospheric PM10 filter samples that were collected at a rural background site in Hamme, Belgium. In an earlier study, it was found that the site was substantially impacted by wood burning, making the filter samples appropriate for further investigations on wood burning indicators. In total, four groups of nitro-aromatic compounds (with molecular weights (MWs) of 139, 155, 169, and 183), ?-pinene-related nitrooxy-organosulfates (MW 295), and the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DHAA, MW 300) were quantified using liquid chromatography combined with negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The annual mean concentrations were 0.94, 6.0, 7.7, 4.8, 7.8, and 1.76 ng m-3 for the sum of the nitrophenols (MW 139), 4-nitrocatechol (MW 155), the sums of the methyl-nitrocatechols (MW 169), of the dimethyl-nitrocatechols (MW 183), and of the ?-pinene-related nitrooxy-organosulfates (MW 295), and DHAA (MW 300), respectively. 4-nitrocatechol, the sum of the methyl-nitrocatechols, and the sum of the dimethyl-nitrocatechols were substantially correlated with levoglucosan (r-values of 0.71, 0.66, and 0.65, respectively), consistent with their proposed origin from biomass burning. The nitro-aromatic compounds were also observed during the summer months, indicating a non-negligible usage of wood burning for domestic purposes at the site. The ?-pinene-related nitrooxy-organosulfates (MW 295) were detected in high concentrations during the winter period, but they were poorly correlated with the biomass burning tracers. All of the targeted species showed a clear seasonal variation with highest concentrations in winter, followed by autumn, spring, and summer. Based on the DHAA measurements, it is suggested that burning of softwood is likely an important source for the formation of all the nitro-organic compounds measured.

Kahnt, Ariane; Behrouzi, Shabnam; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Safi Shalamzari, Mohammad; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward; Claeys, Magda; Maenhaut, Willy

2013-12-01

283

A survey of accessibility and utilisation of chiropractic services for wheelchair-users in the United Kingdom: What are the issues?  

PubMed Central

Background People with physical disabilities experience barriers to healthcare across all services despite a legal and moral obligation to the contrary. Complementary medicine is considered as supplementary to conventional care and integration of these approaches is essential to achieve optimal care. This paper explores the utilisation of chiropractic services and practitioner experiences of treating wheelchair-users which appears under-reported. Methods A 20 item questionnaire was posted to 250 randomly selected chiropractors registered with the General Chiropractic Council. Follow-up questionnaires were sent 7 days after the initial return date. Quantitative data were subjected to frequency analysis. Results The response rate was 64% (n = 161). The majority (66%) of chiropractors had been in practice less than 10 years and were practice owners (50%). Fifty-two percent of chiropractors sampled had treated a patient in a wheelchair in the previous 5 years. The majority (87%) had treated between 1 and 5 such patients. Patients with multiple sclerosis, stroke and cerebral palsy most commonly presented for treatment. The majority of patients' presenting complaint was musculoskeletal in origin, primarily for pain control. Only 13% of respondents worked in a fully accessible clinic. Impracticality of alterations was the most common reason for inaccessibility. Conclusions Wheelchair-users seem to be an underserved patient group in relation to chiropractic services. Chiropractic management is primarily utilised for pain control in patients with physical disabilities in which mobility may be improved or maintained. Co-management of wheelchair-users with GPs appears to be desirable in order to achieve optimal patient care however more research is required regarding the efficacy of chiropractic treatment for a range of disabling conditions. Physical access was identified as a key barrier to accessing care. PMID:21914167

2011-01-01

284

To cite this document: Prothin, Sebastien and Billard, Jean-Yves and Djeridi, Henda Traitement d'image utilisant la POD et la DMD pour l'tude du dveloppement de la  

E-print Network

and makes it freely available over the web where possible. This is an author-deposited version published in D'IMAGE UTILISANT LA POD ET LA DMD POUR L'ETUDE DU DEVELOPPEMENT DE LA CAVITATION SUR UN NACA0015 S

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Researching Primary Engineering Education: UK Perspectives, an Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of…

Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

2010-01-01

286

Longitudinal study of symptoms and cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is conflicting evidence of a relationship between changes in symptoms and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. This study investigated longitudinal changes in psychopathology and cognitive functioning in chronic schizophrenia utilising three different dimensional models of symptomatology. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were examined on two occasions over a period of 6 months for symptom improvement, measured

Catherine Hughes; Veena Kumari; William Soni; Mrigendra Das; Brendon Binneman; Sonia Drozd; Shaun O'Neil; Vallakalil Mathew; Tonmoy Sharma

2003-01-01

287

The Effect of an Education Program Utilising PRECEDE Model on the Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…

Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.

2012-01-01

288

Variation in growth and resource utilisation among eight poplar clones grown under different irrigation and fertilisation regimes in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, biomass allocation and nutrient economy of eight clones of poplar (Populus balsamifera L., P. trichocarpa Hook.) and hybrid poplar (P. trichocarpa Hook. ×P. deltoides Bartr.) of north-American origin were studied in a full-factorial pot experiment in Sweden, using the approach of classical growth analysis. The clones were compared in terms of relative growth rate (RGR), biomass production, biomass allocation,

Almir Kara?i?; Martin Weih

2006-01-01

289

Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The article…

Dyke, Sarah

2013-01-01

290

The Applicability of Social Network Analysis to the Study of Networked Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying networked learning (NL) by applying social network analysis (SNA) has gained popularity in recent years. However, it appears that in the context of NL the choice of SNA indices is very often dictated by using easily achievable SNA tools. Most studies in this field only involve a single group of students and utilise simple indices, such as…

Toikkanen, Tarmo; Lipponen, Lasse

2011-01-01

291

Utilisation of satellite data in identification of geomorphic landform and its role in arsenic release in groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was conducted to explore the influence of geomorphic features of the area on the mobilization of arsenic in groundwater. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to prepare the geomorphic and slope map of the area. Different geomorphic features were identified on the basis of spectral signature on the LISS III and Landsat satellite image and field survey. Groundwater samples were collected from each representative geomorphic feature to inspect the arsenic contamination in the area. The study area is drained by the Brahmaputra river and its tributaries and contain mainly fluvial geomorphic units especially older flood plain, palaeochannels, oxbow lakes, channel islands; and hilly areas at some of the places. In this study it was observed that enrichment of arsenic in groundwater varies along the geomorphic units in following trends Paleochannel> Younger alluvial plain> Active flood plain> channel island > dissected hills. The above trend shows that a higher concentration of arsenic is found in the groundwater samples collected from the fluvial landforms as compared to those collected from structural landforms. Brahmaputra River and its tributaries carry the sediment load from the Himalayan foothills, which get deposited in these features during the lateral shift of the river's courses. Arsenic bearing minerals may get transported through river and deposit in the geomorphological features along with organic matter. The flat terrain of the area as seen from the slope map provides more residence time to water to infiltrate into the aquifer. The microbial degradation of organic matter generates the reducing environment and facilitates the dissolution of iron hydroxide thus releasing the adsorbed arsenic into the groundwater.

Singh, R. P.; Singh, N.; Shashtri, S.; Mukherjee, S.

2014-11-01

292

Utilisation of native, heat and acid-treated microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii preparations for biosorption of Cr(VI) ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hexavalent chromium biosorption onto native, heat- and acid-treated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied from aqueous solutions. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 120min. The surface properties of the microalgae preparations varied with pH, and the maximum absorption of chromium ions on the microalgae preparations was obtained at pH 2.0. The biosorption of chromium ions by the microalgae preparations increased as

M. Yakup Ar?ca; ?lhami Tüzün; Emine Yalç?n; Özlem ?nce; Gülay Bayramo?lu

2005-01-01

293

Functional characterisation of the maternal yolk-associated protein (LsYAP) utilising systemic RNA interference in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) (Crustacea: Copepoda).  

PubMed

The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an important pathogen in salmon aquaculture and a serious threat to wild populations of salmon. Knowledge of its basic biological processes such as reproduction is crucial for the control of this parasite and can facilitate development of a vaccine. Here, a novel yolk-associated protein, LsYAP, was characterised. Quantitative PCR and in situ analysis demonstrated that transcription of LsYAP takes place in the subcuticular tissue of adult females in the reproductive phase. LsYAP protein is transported and deposited in the developing eggs in the genital segment, where further processing takes place. The sequence characteristics, histological localisation and transcript regulation suggest that LsYAP is a yolk-associated protein. In addition, the use of RNA interference is, to our knowledge, demonstrated for the first time in a copepod. Treatment of adult females with double-stranded RNA led to lethality and deformations of offspring only. This result confirms that the LsYAP protein is produced in adult females but is utilised by the offspring. PMID:19445947

Dalvin, Sussie; Frost, Petter; Biering, Eirik; Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Krossøy, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank

2009-11-01

294

Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing.  

PubMed

The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of these kind of bricks from mixes of waste from ores of construction clays and to significant fraction of different ratios and clay granulometries mixed with IGCC slag. The results of this experimentation suggests that not only can IGCC slag be applied to a ceramic process, but also its use gives several advantages, as water and energy savings, as well as improvements on the final properties of products. PMID:12423050

Acosta, A; Iglesias, I; Aineto, M; Romero, M; Rincón, J Ma

2002-01-01

295

Utilising caging techniques to investigate metal assimilation in Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas at three Irish coastal locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution by metals has been of increasing concern for a number of decades but at present, the mechanism of metal accumulation in sentinel species is not fully understood and further studies are required for environmental risk assessment of metals in aquatic environments. The use of caging techniques has proven to be useful for assessment of water quality in coastal and estuarine environments. This study investigates the application of caging techniques for monitoring uptake of 20 elements [Li, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Cd and Zn] in three marine species namely Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Stable isotopes were used to determine predatory effects and also used for modelling metal uptake in test species and to track nutrient assimilation. Metal levels were monitored at three different coastal locations, namely Dublin Bay, Dunmore East and Omey Island over 18 weeks. Significant differences in concentrations of Mn, Co and Zn between mussels and oysters were found. Correlations between cadmium levels in N. lapillus and ?13C and ?15N suggest dietary influences in Cd uptake. Levels of Zn were highest in C. gigas compared to the other two species and levels of Zn were most elevated at the Dunmore East site. Copper levels were more elevated in all test species at both Dublin Bay and Dunmore East. Mercury was raised in all species at Dunmore East compared to the other two sites. Biotic accumulation of metals in the test species demonstrates that caging techniques can provide a valid tool for biomonitoring in metal impacted areas.

Giltrap, Michelle; Macken, Ailbhe; Davoren, Maria; McGovern, Evin; Foley, Barry; Larsen, Martin; White, Jonathan; McHugh, Brendan

2013-11-01

296

Utilisation de la teledetection pour l'estimation de la reserve hydrique au bassin du Mackenzie au nord ouest Canadien  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work elaborates a method to estimate soil moisture and open water extent using remote sensing data. Specifically, Microwave data are used in this work in combination with other sources of information. This study is applied to Mackenzie River Basin as it was conducted in the framework of the MAGS project (Mackenzie GEWEX Study). The methodology developed in this work is based on the concept of the wetness index which is a surrogate of the measured soil moisture. Firstly, it was proposed to used wetness index derived from a linear combination of brightness temperatures measured by the SSM/I sensor. Beside the correlation of this index with the observed discharge at some observing points of the Mackenzie River basin, it was noticed that the empirical parameter of the index were affected by the variation in space and time of the surface conditions. The sensitivity of the wetness index was improved by considering this effect. Secondly, the potential of combination of passive microwave data and discharge observation for flood forecasting was investigated. The methodology was based on the concept of the rating curve model. The Kaman filter was used to update the parameters of the rating model at the reception of each new satellite image. The estimated water surface fractions using the discharge observations showed a reasonable concordance with those derived from visible images (NOAA-AVHRR). The publication of the AMSR-E data has enabled us to improve the spatial resolution of the passive microwave data. Thus, a new formulation of a wetness index was proposed in the third part of this work. The proposed Basin Wetness Index is based on the difference of the sensitivity of passive microwave and visible images to soil moisture. Microwave data are sensitive to the soil water content and open water extent. However, visible images can mirror only the water extent. Information about soil moisture can be derived from the difference of these sensitivities. This index was able to qualitatively describe the temporal evolution of the wetness over the Mackenzie River Basin. It is worth mentioning that vegetation distribution was considered in the formulation of the proposed index by the segregation between bare and vegetated soil soils by the mosaic approach. The BWI was finally downscaled using Digital Elevation Model data. The sensitivity of the topography attributes to the spatial distribution of soil moisture was assessed. A classical formulation of topographical index was modified in this study to take into account the difference of sensitivity of topographical attributes over bare and covered soils. The combination of the modified topographical index and the proposed BWI enabled us to downscale the soil water content estimation and provide an estimate of soil moisture at the scale of the Digital elevation Model. Overall, the downscaling approach provided satisfactory resultants when compared to precipitation and temperature variation. Further works are needed to assess the reliability of the proposed approaches using results of distributed hydrological model outputs.

Temimi, Marouane

297

Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.  

PubMed

The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS. PMID:25421162

Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

2015-01-01

298

Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction  

PubMed Central

Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

2014-01-01

299

Calprotectin and lactoferrin in the cerebrospinal fluid; biomarkers utilisable for differential diagnostics of bacterial and aseptic meningitis?  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The aim of our work was to assess the diagnostic contribution of calprotectin and lactoferrin determinations in the cerebrospinal fluid when distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitides. Methods: In 23 patients with bacterial meningitis (BM) and in 50 patients with aseptic meningitis (AM), we determined the concentrations of calprotectin, lactoferrin and the conventional biomarkers like glucose, total protein, lactate and polynuclear count in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The discriminative power of the various parameters studied was determined by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves: the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, the positive likelihood ratio (+LR), and the negative likelihood ratio (-LR). Results: The diagnostic efficiency of calprotectin, lactoferrin, lactate, and polynuclear count when distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitides, expressed by ROC curve parameters, was as follows: AUC (0.736, 0.946, 0.932, 0.932), sensitivity (86.2, 96.6, 90.0, 89.7), specificity (58.5, 92.4, 87.0, 90.6), +LR (2.08, 12.8, 6.9, 9.50), -LR (0.24, 0.04, 0.11, 0.11), respectively. The optimal cut point for calprotectin and lactoferrin was 191 ng/mL and 17.8 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings show, that the determination of lactoferrin in the CSF was diagnostically the most efficient marker in distinguishing between bacterial and viral meningitides. Calprotectin was far less efficient diagnostic marker. The polynuclear count and lactate concentration showed a very good diagnostic efficiency as well. The determination of protein and glucose was diagnostically less beneficial. PMID:25405719

Dastych, Milan; Gottwaldová, Jana; Cermáková, Zdenka

2014-11-18

300

Home Range Utilisation and Long-Range Movement of Estuarine Crocodiles during the Breeding and Nesting Season  

PubMed Central

The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92±0.013 metres total length (TL), mean ± S.E., n?=?4) occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49±0.9 km d?1; n?=?8) during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17±0.14 m TL) exhibited a ‘site-fidelic’ strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81±0.08 m TL) exhibited ‘nomadic’ behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the ‘site-fidelic’ males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the ‘nomadic’ males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions. PMID:23650510

Campbell, Hamish A.; Dwyer, Ross G.; Irwin, Terri R.; Franklin, Craig E.

2013-01-01

301

Quality of care provided to people with dementia: utilisation and quality of the annual dementia review in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Primary care services are often the main healthcare service for people with dementia; as such, good-quality care at this level is important. Aim To measure the quality of care provided to people with dementia in general practice using routinely collected data, and to explore associated patient and practice factors. Design and setting Observational, cross-sectional review of medical records from general practices (n = 52) in five primary care trusts. Method A total of 994 people with dementia were identified from dementia registers. An unweighted quality-of-care score was constructed using information collected in the annual dementia review, together with pharmacological management of cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms. Multilevel modelling was carried out to identify factors associated with quality-of-care scores. Results In total, 599 out of 745 (80%) patients with dementia had received an annual dementia review; however, a social care review or discussion with carers was evident in just 305 (51%) and 367 (61%) of those 599 cases, respectively. Despite high prevalence of vascular disease, over a quarter (n = 259, 26%) of all patients with dementia were prescribed antipsychotics; only 57% (n = 148) of these had undergone medication review in the previous 6 months. Those with vascular dementia who were registered with single-handed practices received poorer quality of care than those registered with practices that had more than one GP. Conclusion Although the number of people with dementia with a record of an annual dementia review is high, the quality of these reviews is suboptimal. The quality score developed in this study could be used as one source of data to identify weaknesses in practice activity that need to be corrected, and so would be of value to commissioners and regulators, as well as practices themselves. PMID:22520775

Connolly, Amanda; Iliffe, Steve; Gaehl, Ella; Campbell, Stephen; Drake, Richard; Morris, Julie; Martin, Helen; Purandare, Nitin

2012-01-01

302

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

303

Promotion of Autonomy for Participation in Physical Activity: A Study Based on the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of a school-based intervention to promote physical activity, utilising the postulates of the trans-contextual model of motivation. The study examined two separate classes of elementary school students (mean age 11.28?years), one of which served as the control group (n?=?26) and the other as the…

González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Andrés-Fabra, José A.; Montero-Carretero, Carlos; Cervelló, Eduardo; Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio

2014-01-01

304

Neutron diffraction studies of water and aqueous solutions under pressure G. W. Neilson and S. Cummings  

E-print Network

at elevated pressures and temperatures using three different types of pressure vessel. The pressure vessels803 Neutron diffraction studies of water and aqueous solutions under pressure G. W. Neilson and S élevées en utilisant trois types différents d'enceinte à pression sont résumés dans ce papier. Les

Boyer, Edmond

305

Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

2014-01-01

306

Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens. 2. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and whole wheat [WW]; 100 and 200 g/kg WW replacing GW during starter [1 to 21 d] and finisher [22 to 35 d] diets respectively) and two levels of EO inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet). All dietary treatments were supplemented with 2000 xylanase units/kg feed. Broiler starter and finisher diets based on wheat and soybean meal were formulated and each diet fed ad libitum to 6 pens of 8 male broilers. 3. During the trial period (1-35 d), wheat form had no significant effect on weight gain or feed intake. However, WW inclusion tended (P = 0.06) to improve feed per gain. Essential oil supplementation significantly improved weight gain in both diets, but the improvements were greater in the GW diet as indicated by a significant wheat form × EO interaction. 4. Main effects of wheat form and EO on the relative weight, length and digesta content of various segments of the digestive tract were not significant. Significant interactions, however, were found for relative gizzard and caecal weights. Essential oil supplementation significantly increased the relative gizzard weight and lowered relative caecal weight in birds fed on the GW based diet, but had no effect in those fed on the WW based diet. 5. Whole wheat inclusion and EO supplementation significantly improved apparent ileal nitrogen digestibility. Apparent ileal digestible energy was not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. 6. Ileal microbiota profiling, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, showed that the ileal microbiota composition was influenced by feed form. The mean numbers of bacterial species in the ileal contents of birds fed on the GW diet supplemented with EO tended (P = 0.07) to be higher than those of the ileal contents of birds fed on unsupplemented GW based diet. 7. The present data suggested that dietary addition of EO improves broiler weight gain and ileal nitrogen digestibility both in GW and WW based diets, but that the magnitude of the response to EO for weight gain was greater in GW based diet. Whole wheat feeding was found to be beneficial in terms of feed efficiency. PMID:21337207

Amerah, A M; Péron, A; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, V

2011-02-01

307

Changes in BSc Business Administration and Psychology Students' Learning Styles over One, Two and Three Years of Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge on general or discipline-specific changes in the learning styles of university students can be utilised in the design and execution of courses, but little is known of such changes. The study examined the changes in the learning styles of three year groups of BSc Business Administration and Psychology students from admittance to one, two…

Nielsen, Tine

2013-01-01

308

Does School-to-School Collaboration Promote School Improvement? A Study of the Impact of School Federations on Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study adopted a quantitative methodology involving a matched sample of federated and non-federated schools and utilising multilevel modelling techniques to explore the impact of federations on student outcomes. The sample involves a total of 50 school districts and 264 schools. These are grouped into 122 federations; 264 comparator schools…

Chapman, Christopher; Muijs, Daniel

2014-01-01

309

Assessment of the wind power potential at SANAE IV base, Antarctica: a technical and economic feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study for the utilization of wind energy at the South African research station, SANAE IV, in Antarctica (71°40’ S 2° 50’ W). A procedure to evaluate the feasibility of utilising wind power for Antarctic stations is given. The analysis is based on the technical and economic aspects of installing and operating a wind turbine at remote

H. W. Teetz; T. M. Harms; T. W. von Backström

2003-01-01

310

Modélisation d'un choc thermique doux d'un verre S.S.C en utilisant l'approche thermomécanique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l'endommagement du verre silico-sodo-calcique (trois différentes épaisseurs : 2mm, 4mm, et 8mm) par choc thermique descendant. Nous avons utilisé l'approche thermomécanique en terme de facteur d'intensité de contrainte en se basant sur un calcul numérique. Le choc thermique descendant, est la mise en contact brutal d'un échantillon, préalablement chauffé à une température Ti, avec un milieu dont la température Tf est inférieure à Ti. Le gradient thermique engendré induit des contraintes de tension dans les couches superficielles du corps. Ces contraintes peuvent conduire à la rupture du matériau. Les hypothèses prises en compte lors de la simulation sont comme suit : Le refroidissement des échantillons en verre chauffés à différentes températures, inférieures à sa température de transition, est fait par jet d'air à 20° C pendant 6 secondes. Ce temps est suffisant pour que la température des échantillons atteigne l'ambiante. Le coefficient de transfert de chaleur est de 600 W/°C.m2. Les températures chaudes ont été variées entre 100° C et 450° C. Lors des calculs, nous avons intégré, l'évolutions en fonction de la température des propriétés thermoélastiques du verre. Dans un premier temps, nous avons déterminé les températures et les contraintes transitoires dans l'échantillon à tout instant du choc thermique. Ensuite, nous avons déterminé l'évolution du facteur d'intensité de contrainte (FIC) durant le refroidissement. Enfin, les FIC calculés sont comparés à la ténacité (K1c) du matériau. Cette dernière a été mesurée en utilisant la mécanique linéaire de la rupture. Nous avons vérifié que quand le facteur FIC atteint la valeur de la ténacité dans la zone des défauts critiques, ces derniers se propagent d'une manière brutale causant ainsi la dégradation de l'échantillon. Par cette technique, nous avons directement accès à l'écart de température critique au delà duquel le verre rompt. Nous avant trouvé qu' un choc thermique effectué à partir d'une température chaude de 250° C conduit à des écarts de température cœur surface plus importants à mesure que l'échantillon est plus épais. Ces conditions engendrent des contraintes transitoires maximales (21.2 MPa, 36 MPa et 56.2 MPa) au premiers instants du refroidissement (0.075 s, 0.23 s et 0.659 s) respectivement pour les épaisseurs 2 mm, 4 mm et 8 mm. L'évolution des facteurs d'intensité de contrainte FIC montre que les défauts préexistants atteignent la longueur la plus grande après choc thermique pour l'échantillon le plus épais. Le choc thermique descendant est plus néfaste pour la plus grande l'épaisseur.

Malou, Z.; Hamidouche, M.; Madjoubi, M. A.; Bousbaa, C.; Bouaouadja, N.

2005-05-01

311

A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

1994-01-01

312

Studies of biomass fuelled MCFC systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the methods, techniques and results obtained during the studies of biomass fuelled molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems within the Swedish national fuel cell program are presented. The power plants are 60 MW class, utilising biomass (i.e. wood chips) as the primary fuel. The biomass is converted via pressurised gasification into a gaseous form that, after subsequent cleaning, can be used in the fuel cells. An investigation of the effects of gasification pressure, temperature and the influence of internal reforming on the overall system performance is presented. All studies were carried out using the Aspen Plus™ with Model Manager™ simulation package.

Kivisaari, Timo; Björnbom, Pehr; Sylwan, Christopher

313

"There Is No Alternative?": Challenging Dominant Understandings of Youth Politics in Late Modernity through a Case Study of the 2010 UK Student Occupation Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilising an in-depth case study of a student occupation at Newcastle University as its focus, this article makes a critical appraisal of Beck, Giddens and Inglehart's ideas about youth and political agency in late modernity. In short, we argue that when considering the case of the 2010 UK student occupation movement, dominant theoretical thinking…

Rheingans, Rowan; Hollands, Robert

2013-01-01

314

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplkment au no 12, Tome 37, Dkcembre 1976,page C6-883 MOSSBAUER STUDIES ON DAMAGE SITES OF ISOTOPESEPARATOR-  

E-print Network

-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark R6sumB-En utilisant la radiation y Mossbauer de 24 keV de 119Sn,differents sitesV Mossbauer y radiation of llgSn, different damage sites in silicon have been studied. The Mossbauer level was populated from the radioactive decay of 1lgmTe. Radiation damage was created by isotope

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Semitendinosus tendon regeneration after harvesting for ACL reconstructionA prospective MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilisation of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons in reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has become\\u000a more common during the last few years. In recent studies a regeneration potential in the harvested tendons has been observed.\\u000a In this study, 11 consecutive patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with a quadruple semitendinosus graft were examined\\u000a 6–12 months postoperatively by MRI. Another

K. Eriksson; H. Larsson; T. Wredmark; P. Hamberg

1999-01-01

316

EVITEACH: a study exploring ways to optimise the uptake of evidence-based practice to undergraduate nurses.  

PubMed

EVITEACH aimed to increase undergraduate nursing student's engagement with evidence-based practice and enhance their knowledge utilisation and translation capabilities. Building students capabilities to apply evidence in professional practice is a fundamental university role. Undergraduate nursing students need to actively engage with knowledge utilisation and translational skill development to narrow the evidence practice gap in the clinical setting. A two phase mixed methods study was undertaken over a three year period (2008-2010, inclusive) utilizing a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) approach. Three undergraduate nursing cohorts (N = 188) enrolled in a compulsory knowledge translation and utilisation subject at one Australian university participated. Data collection comprised of subject evaluation data and reflective statements. Preliminary investigations identified priority areas related to subject: materials, resources, teaching and workload. These priority areas became the focus of action for two PDSA cycles. PDSA cycle 1 demonstrated significant improvement of the subject overall (p > 0.05), evaluation of the materials used (p > 0.001) and teaching sub-groups (p > 0.05). PDSA cycle 2 continued to sustain improvement of the subject overall (p > 0.05). Furthermore reflective statements collected during PDSA cycle 2 identified four themes: (1) What engages undergraduate nurses in the learning process; (2) The undergraduate nurses learning trajectory; (3) Undergraduate nurses' preconceptions of research and evidenced-based practice; and (4) Appreciating the importance of research and evidence-based practice to nursing. There is little robust evidence to guide the most effective way to build knowledge utilisation and translational skills. Effectively engaging undergraduate nursing students in knowledge translation and utilisation subjects could have immediate and long term benefits for nursing as a profession and patient outcomes. Developing evidence-based practice capabilities is important in terms of improving patient outcomes, organisational efficiencies and creating satisfying work environments. PMID:24953061

Hickman, Louise D; Kelly, Helen; Phillips, Jane L

2014-11-01

317

Growth in early life predicts bone strength in late adulthood: The Hertfordshire Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant growth is a determinant of adult bone mass, and poor childhood growth is a risk factor for adult hip fracture. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) allows non-invasive assessment of bone strength. We utilised this technology to examine relationships between growth in early life and bone strength.We studied 313 men and 318 women born in Hertfordshire between 1931 and 1939

Helen Oliver; Karen A. Jameson; Avan Aihie Sayer; Cyrus Cooper; Elaine M. Dennison

2007-01-01

318

Model reduction studies in LQG optimal control design for high-speed tilting railway carriages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies the utilisation of model reduction techniques, both physical-based and mathematical-based, in designing simplified LQG optimal tilt controllers to improve the curving performance of railway coaches at increased running speed. The schemes make exclusive use of local practical signal measurements, i.e. sensors mounted on the current passenger coach. The fundamental problem related with straightforward classical nulling-feedback control is

Argyrios Zolotas; George Halikias; Roger Goodall; Jun Wang

2006-01-01

319

Introduction of shared electronic records: multi-site case study using diffusion of innovation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the introduction of a centrally stored, shared electronic patient record (the summary care record (SCR)) in England and draw wider lessons about the implementation of large scale information technology projects in health care.Design Multi-site, mixed method case study applying utilisation focused evaluation.Setting Four early adopter sites for the SCR in England—three in urban areas of relative socioeconomic

Trisha Greenhalgh; Katja Stramer; Tanja Bratan; Emma Byrne; Yara Mohammad; Jill Russell

2008-01-01

320

The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 ?g m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 ?g m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/dehydroabietic acid and retene were not found in the samples suggesting there is a difference in the long-distance transport samples of an Asian forest fire and the controlled experiments reported in the literature. Similar to the biomass burning in Amazonia (Abas et al., 1995), the present study also showed an absence of conifer tracers in the smoke aerosols indicating tropical wood sources. Abundant friedelin, a specific biomarker for smoke from oak wood fires (Standley and Simoneit, 1990), was present in the late September samples when the fire was more intense. The results were compared to literature values from an earlier study of the haze episode on 29 September 1991 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Abas and Simoneit, 1996).

Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

321

Utilisation of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) data for assessment of soil erosion process of a watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region was investigated utilizing space data from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite towards spatial and temporal soil erosion process study. Geomorphologically, this plateau region is an undulating pediplain. The watershed namely Potpoto river watershed covering an area of 8160 hectares is situated in the vicinity of Ranchi, capital city of newly created Jharkahnd state. As

Akhouri Pramod Krishna

2008-01-01

322

Sensory based quality control utilising an electronic nose and GC-MS analyses to predict end-product quality from raw materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to investigate if an electronic nose, comprising six metal oxide sensors (MOS) could predict the sensory quality of porcine meat loaf, based on measuring the volatiles in either the raw materials or the meat loaf produced from those raw materials. A multivariate data analysis strategy involving analysis of variance partial least squares regression

Thomas Hansen; Mikael Agerlin Petersen; Derek V. Byrne

2005-01-01

323

Etude ab initio des proprietes electroniques et optiques d'un systeme donneur-accepteur organique utilise dans les cellules photovoltaiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for new sources of clean and renewable energy has recently been encouraged by the growing energy demand caused by the industrialization of developing countries and by population growth. In this context, the generation of electricity through the exploitation of solar energy with photovoltaic cells is particularly interesting, since this energy source is largely unused compared to its full potential. Nevertheless, large scale electricity generation with the current design of photovoltaic cells based on silicon is hindered by the large manufacturing cost of these devices. A new generation of photovoltaic cells, which includes organic photovoltaic cells that use semiconducting polymers, is under intense development in order to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs. The replacement of conventional materials with conjugated polymers in photovoltaic cells opens the possibility of using large scale manufacturing processes to produce large-area devices at low cost. However, the power conversion efficiency and the lifetime of organic photovoltaic cells are currently too low for these devices to be cost effective. A better understanding of the organic photovoltaic process is therefore necessary to improve the power conversion efficiency of these devices. The operating principle of photovoltaic cells requires the charge transfer between a polymer acting as an electron donor and a molecule acting as an electron acceptor to enable the dissociation of photogenerated excitons into free charge carriers. Furthermore, to ensure that the majority of the photogenerated excitons dissociates, the active region of an organic photovoltaic cell is typically formed by a bulk heterojunction between the donor and the acceptor. Many experimental studies have shown that the power conversion efficiency of these devices, which is proportional to the product of their short-circuit current Isc with their open circuit potential Voc, is strongly governed by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction defined as the local order of the two phases and the organization of the donor-acceptor interfaces. Even though these studies have helped to increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells, the relations linking the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction to their electronic and optical properties are still to be established. The objective of the research project is to computationally study the electronic and optical properties of organic bulk heterojunctions composed of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT) and C60, two materials typically used in organic photovoltaic cells. In this study, the microstructure of the donor-acceptor systems can be directly controlled, which facilitates the systematic study of the influence of this parameter on the electronic and optical properties of the organic bulk heterojunctions. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the ground state geometric and electronic properties of multiple bulk heterojunction systems, while the time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is used to study the optical properties of these systems. The SIESTA software package is used to study periodic systems representing perfectly crystalline materials. The results obtained in this research project show that the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells is strongly modulated by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunctions. Indeed, the size of the rrP3HT crystalline domains must be optimized to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic devices, since Voc and Isc have opposite behaviors with respect to ?-stacking of the rrP3HT chains. In addition, the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells could be improved by imposing geometrical constraints in the bulk heterojunctions through manufacturing methods in order to increase the value of Voc without altering the value of Isc. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Maillard, Arnaud

324

The influence of dietary cation-anion differences on acid-base balance, food intake, growth and nutrient utilisation of juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na++K+-Cl-, mEq kg -1) on acid-base balance, food consumption and growth of juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Four dietary CAD levels (-100, 100, 500, 700 mEq kg-1) were established by altering levels of NaHCO3, CaCl2 and NH4Cl in the diets. The group fed the diet of excess

Y. Dersjant-Li; J. A. J. Verreth; F. Evers; P. A. T. Tijssen; R. Booms; M. W. A. Verstegen

1999-01-01

325

Résection endoscopique des polypes colorectaux pédiculés en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé: une alternative a la polypectomie conventionnelle? A propos d'une série de cas  

PubMed Central

L'intérêt de l'endoscopie dans la résection des polypes colorectaux a été rapporté dans plusieurs études. Les techniques de résection endoscopique sont multiples et maîtrisées dans les pays occidentaux. La technique de mucosectomie endoscopique et celle de la pose d'une anse largable en nylon (endoloop) ont élargi le champ des lésions résécables par endoscopie. Toutefois, malgré cette évolution, la vulgarisation de la polypectomie n'est pas effective. En Afrique subsaharienne, la prise en charge de ces polypes de grande taille nécessite souvent une intervention chirurgicale à ciel ouvert ou une évacuation sanitaire onéreuse dans un pays en Occident. Nous rapportons une nouvelle approche de polypectomie endoscopique des polypes pédiculés colorectaux, en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé 2/0. Les polypes pédiculés étaient situés soit au niveau du sigmoïde soit au rectum. Après avoir passé le lasso autour du pédicule, le n'ud du lasso est serré autour de celui-ci pour strangulation. En moyenne 6 jours après la procédure, le polype est récupéré dans les selles. Une colonoscopie de contrôle est nécessaire pour confirmer la résection du polype. Cette technique peu coûteuse et accessible, devrait être vulgarisée dans les pays en voie de développement avec des plateaux techniques pauvres. Elle a ses limites et ses inconvénients qui doivent être connus de l'opérateur. PMID:25360198

Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Tagni-Sartre, Michèle; Modjo, Gabriel; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap

2014-01-01

326

Routine reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in African laboratories and the need for its increased utilisation in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of markers of kidney damage or of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 mL.min(-1).(1.73 m2) [<1 mL(-1) (1.73 m2)1 for three months or more. CKD is associated with poor outcomes and high cost, disproportionately affecting the elderly, the Black race and the middle aged in Nigeria. Thus, new public health campaigns focus on early detection of CKD. To facilitate early detection of CKD, many national and international organisations now recommend routine reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) whenever serum creatinine is measured. The formulae/equations provide a quick estimate (eGFR) of the GFR without need for urine collection in clinical practice. Current guidelines advocate the use of prediction equations, such as the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study-derived equations. Laboratories in African should commence routine reporting of eGFR for a number of reasons; 1. The sensitivity of serum creatinine (Scr) in identifying CKD is low.2. In Nigeria, a representative country; screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is hardly considered in the routine practice of the primary and secondary care medical officers.3 Studies have shown that routine reporting of eGFR improved the documentation and identification of CKD by almost 50%.4 There is the possibility of reversing CKD if picked earlier.5. The high cost of treating CKD patients in advanced stages and the low per capital income status of the populace in Sub-Saharan Africa.6. Poor health infrastructure to manage advanced CKD patients in the continent.7. Several studies, now show lack of awareness of CKD among non-nephrologists that is related, at least in part, to difficulty in interpreting serum creatinine concentrations (the reciprocal, non-linear relationship between GFR and serum creatinine).8 Mathematical estimates of GFR [ as in eGFR] that incorporate creatinine concentration, as well as factors affecting creatinine production rates, such as size, gender, age and ethnic background, are more sensitive to changes in renal function than serum creatinine value alone.9 Recent guidelines define "action plans" for CKD according to the GFR, including referral to nephrologists at GFRs<30 mL.min(-1).(1.73 m2). PMID:23661212

Adebisi, Simeon A

2013-03-01

327

Utilisation of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) data for assessment of soil erosion process of a watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region was investigated utilizing space data from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite towards spatial and temporal soil erosion process study. Geomorphologically, this plateau region is an undulating pediplain. The watershed namely Potpoto river watershed covering an area of 8160 hectares is situated in the vicinity of Ranchi, capital city of newly created Jharkahnd state. As per the national watershed atlas, Potpoto river is a tributary of Subarnarekha river system within the Upper Subarnarekha river basin under watershed no. 4H3C8. This rural to semi-urban watershed is important towards various services to Ranchi city as well as experiencing direct or indirect pressures of development. Drivers of land use changes at ground level are responsible for change in soil erosion rates in any watershed in coupled human-environment systems. This may adversely affect the soil cover of such watersheds depicted through changed rates of erosion. In a rural to semi-urban watershed like this, there are general tendencies of land use and thereby land cover changes from forests to agricultural lands, within agricultural land in terms of cropping pattern changes to cash-crops, orchards, commercial plantations and conversions to other land use categories as well towards infrastructure expansions. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used as a basis to observe the intensity of erosion using remote sensing, rainfall data, soil data and land use/land cover map. IRS1C LISSIII and IRSP6 LISSIII data were used to identify land use status for the years 1996 and 2004 respectively. LISSIII sensor provides data in the visible to near infrared (Bands 2, 3, 4) as well as short wave infrared (Band 5) range of electromagnetic spectrum. In this study, bands 2 (0.52-0.59 microns), 3 (0.62-0.68 microns) and 4 (0.77-0.86 microns) were used with spatial resolution of 23.5 meters at nadir. Digital image processing was carried out using ERDAS Imagine software. Based on maximum likelihood classifier, the study area was classified into suitable land use/land cover classes. Digital elevation model (DEM) was created through contour heights from topographic maps. Watershed based erosion estimation was carried out including assessment of soil erosion due to land use land cover changes. This provides predictive assessment capability in soil erosion studies particularly with methods such as USLE. Soil erosion problem varies largely depending upon climate, topography, soil and land use etc. Multi-factor computations on rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topographic, cover and management, and conservation practice were carried out. Quantified details on soil erosion rates were generated in terms of land use land cover classes of the watershed for the years 1996 and 2004. Annual average soil loss for the watershed was calculated and erosion intensity maps were generated. Thus, space data utilized from the satellites IRS1C LISSIII and IRSP6 LISSIII greatly helped in important research assessment of an important land surface process like soil erosion spatially as well as temporally for a watershed under pressures of development, land use changes and land cover fragmentations.

Pramod Krishna, Akhouri

328

A case study assessment of the operational performance of a multiple fresh produce distribution centre in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to evaluate current operational status of fresh produce distribution centres in the UK and to identify the nature and magnitude of the main logistical problems within them. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A critical evaluation of space and time utilisation efficiency was achieved by on-site studying operations in a multiple produce handling and short-term storage

Ioannis Manikas; Leon A. Terry

2010-01-01

329

Patient characteristics and treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in France: the LUEUR1 observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Age-related macular degeneration is the primary cause of blindness in developed countries. Current treatments of this degenerative\\u000a disease mainly include laser, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth\\u000a factors. The LUEUR (LUcentis® En Utilisation Réelle) study is composed of a cross-sectional part (LUEUR1), which examined\\u000a the current management of wet AMD in France, and a follow-up part

Salomon-Yves Cohen; Eric H. Souied; Michel Weber; Gérard Dupeyron; Gérard de Pouvourville; Michel Lievre; Anne Ponthieux

2011-01-01

330

Social inequality in coronary risk: Central obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Evidence from the Whitehall II study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This report describes the social distribution of central obesity and the metabolic syndrome at the Whitehall II study phase\\u000a 3 examination, and assesses the contribution of health related behaviours to their distribution. Cross-sectional analyses\\u000a were conducted utilising data collected in 1991–1993 from 4978 men and 2035 women aged 39–63 years who completed an oral glucose\\u000a tolerance test. There was an

E. J. Brunner; M. G. Marmot; K. Nanchahal; M. J. Shipley; S. A. Stansfeld; M. Juneja; K. G. M. M. Alberti

1997-01-01

331

Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation  

PubMed Central

Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 ?M and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

2013-01-01

332

An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk. PMID:20384996

2010-01-01

333

Uranium (U)-tolerant bacterial diversity from U ore deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and its prospective utilisation in bioremediation.  

PubMed

Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 µM and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

2013-01-01

334

Utilisation of the sedimentological and hydrochemical dynamics of the Stump Bay Wetland along Lake Taupo, New Zealand, for the recognition of paleo-shoreline indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial sediments are generally simple to differentiate from lacustrine sediments, but the interface between the two is difficult to recognise when clean beach sand is absent. In addition, tracing the dispersal of pollutant trace metals at this interface can be a major problem because toxic and natural metal cycles often take the same path. To solve these problems, we studied the natural geochemical processes in a wetland along the shore of Lake Taupo, New Zealand to characterise the surficial sediments that could be used as indicators of shoreline processes and to determine the variability of natural metals in the system. Lake Taupo is New Zealand's largest lake. The Stump Bay Wetland is part of the South Taupo Wetland, which is situated along the southern edge of Lake Taupo and has an area of 15.4 km 2. Although much of the surrounding shoreline has been modified by human activity, the Stump Bay Wetland has retained its natural configuration. To understand the variability at the terrestrial-lacustrine interface, we characterised the surficial sediments using shallow cores to learn the stratigraphy and geochemical make up of the sediment using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for major elements and selected metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Ba). In addition, we installed shallow piezometers to relate the stratigraphy and geochemistry to groundwater flow and chemical composition (pH, alkalinity, dissolved Fe). Silt deposits derived from floods alternate with peat accumulations in shallow cores taken in the centre of the wetland. The reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron controls the South Taupo wetland groundwater pH and total alkalinity. Sediment cores from the wetland have high iron concentrations (up to 15 wt.%). The abundance of iron in the cores does not correlate with either loss on ignition (LOI) or silica abundance, indicating that the iron is derived from a combination of decay of organic matter and leaching from volcanic rock material. Concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium and magnesium tend to increase with depth, and reflect the increasing amount of inorganic matter in the core. Sulphur concentrations in the cores are relatively low, and there is a weak correlation with LOI. Although conditions for iron sulphide precipitation are possible in the wetland sediments, it does not occur within the upper 1 m of the sediment. The low topographic and groundwater gradient of the wetland area has led to a close interaction between sediment build-up and the hydrochemistry of the water flowing into the lake. In particular, zones of iron-rich diagenetic alteration of sediments at the surface water-groundwater interface could be used to fix the position of the shoreline in paleo-lake studies, as long as the chemical interactions along the groundwater flow path are understood.

Rosen, Michael R.; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Eser, Prisca; Coshell, Lee

2002-04-01

335

Utilisation of preventative health check-ups in the UK: findings from individual-level repeated cross-sectional data from 1992 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives To analyse and compare the determinants of screening uptake for different National Health Service (NHS) health check-ups in the UK. Design Individual-level analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys with balanced panel data. Setting The UK. Participants Individuals taking part in the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), 1992–2008. Outcome measure Uptake of NHS health check-ups for cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, blood pressure checks, cholesterol tests, dental screening and eyesight tests. Methods Dynamic panel data models (random effects panel probit with initial conditions). Results Having had a health check-up 1?year before, and previously in accordance with the recommended schedule, was associated with higher uptake of health check-ups. Individuals who visited a general practitioner (GP) had a significantly higher uptake in 5 of the 6 health check-ups. Uptake was highest in the recommended age group for breast and cervical cancer screening. For all health check-ups, age had a non-linear relationship. Lower self-rated health status was associated with increased uptake of blood pressure checks and cholesterol tests; smoking was associated with decreased uptake of 4 health check-ups. The effects of socioeconomic variables differed for the different health check-ups. Ethnicity did not have a significant influence on any health check-up. Permanent household income had an influence only on eyesight tests and dental screening. Conclusions Common determinants for having health check-ups are age, screening history and a GP visit. Policy interventions to increase uptake should consider the central role of the GP in promoting screening examinations and in preserving a high level of uptake. Possible economic barriers to access for prevention exist for dental screening and eyesight tests, and could be a target for policy intervention. Trial registration This observational study was not registered. PMID:24366576

Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank; Baker, Richard

2013-01-01

336

The physiology of the larva of the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis and the utilisation of biochemical energy reserves during development: An extreme case of the brooding habit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the oyster Ostrea chilensis the adult female broods the young for almost the entire developmental period, releasing a large pediveliger larva (450 ?m shell length) with an extremely short pelagic phase. In this study of the larval physiology, the dry weight of the embryo or larva remained constant during the early developmental stages (as far as, and including, the trochophore), but the veliger grew steadily to reach 8 ?g at 450 ?m shell length, the stage at which it was ready for release. During this growth period the veliger consumed metabolic reserves (62% protein and 38% lipid). Carbohydrate levels were negligible. Chilean oyster veligers larger than 275 ?m shell length were able to remove particles from suspension, but clearance rate (2 ?l h - 1 larva - 1 at 450 ?m shell length) was much lower than published values for planktotrophic veligers. Low clearance rate in the veliger of O. chilensis is probably attributable to the absence of the postoral ciliary band. Oxygen uptake increased from 19 - 22 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for pre-veliger stages to 32 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for a veliger 450 ?m long, which is consistent with published values for veligers in general when corrected for body weight. Excretion rate was low, increasing from 0.04 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in the trochophore to 0.13 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in a pediveliger of shell length 450 ?m. Biochemical energy reserves were insufficient to meet the metabolic demands of the developing larva, suggesting that uptake of particles and/or dissolved organic matter from the mantle cavity of the female is necessary for successful development.

Chaparro, O. R.; Navarrete, L. R.; Thompson, R. J.

2006-05-01

337

Sensory based quality control utilising an electronic nose and GC-MS analyses to predict end-product quality from raw materials.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate if an electronic nose, comprising six metal oxide sensors (MOS) could predict the sensory quality of porcine meat loaf, based on measuring the volatiles in either the raw materials or the meat loaf produced from those raw materials. A multivariate data analysis strategy involving analysis of variance partial least squares regression (APLSR) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine causal and predictive relationships between the raw material and meat loaf samples, sensory analysis, electronic nose, and GC-MS measurements. The results showed that the six MOS sensors in the Danish odour sensor system (DOSS) could detect the raw materials that led to unacceptable products, as determined by sensory profiling and in-house sensory quality control (QC), and separate those raw materials from each other, based on the volatile composition, as determined by GC-MS. However, the electronic nose was unable to detect all the sensory unacceptable meat loaf samples themselves due to changes in the volatile composition after cooking. Analysis of the GC-MS compounds identified from raw materials and meat loaf samples indicate that two MOS sensors mainly responded to alcohols and to a lesser degree to aldehydes and alkanes, whereas two other sensors most likely responded to low molecular weight sulphur compounds. Thus, the results indicate that measuring volatiles with the MOS sensors in the DOSS system, on raw materials for processed meat products, may be a feasible strategy in sensory based quality control, and may also have potential in predicting the sensory quality of the end product. PMID:22063140

Hansen, Thomas; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Byrne, Derek V

2005-04-01

338

Overexpression of phyA and appA genes improves soil organic phosphorus utilisation and seed phytase activity in Brassica napus.  

PubMed

Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P) in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT) controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg(-1) seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals. PMID:23573285

Wang, Yi; Ye, Xiangsheng; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Fangsen

2013-01-01

339

Prévisions des taux d'érosion à l'échelle du paysage par l'utilisation de modèles numériques d'altitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional relationships between erosion rates and topography are central to understanding controls on global sediment flux and interactions among tectonics, climate, and erosion in shaping topography. Based on such relations digital elevation models (DEMs) allow predicting landscape-scale erosion rates to the degree that process models can be calibrated and to the extent that such processes reflect elevation, drainage area, and aspect, or their derivatives such as slope and curvature. Digital elevation models allow investigating the influence of erosional processes on landscape form and evolution through generalized quantitative expressions often referred to as 'erosion laws'. The analytical forms of such expressions are derived from physical principles, but only limited data are available to guide calibration to particular landscapes. In addition, few studies have addressed how different transport laws interact to set landscape-scale erosion rates in different environments. Conventionally, landscape-scale sediment flux is considered to be linearly related to slope or relief, but recent analyses point toward non-linear relations for steep terrain in which changes in the frequency of landsliding accommodate increased rates of rock uplift. In such situations, landscape-scale erosion rates are more closely tied to erosion potential predicted by models of bedrock river incision. Consequently, I propose that using DEMs to predict absolute or relative erosion rates at the landscape-scale counter-intuitively involves the rate of fluvial processes as governing the sediment flux from steep landscapes, and rates of hillslope processes as governing sediment flux from low-gradient landscapes. To cite this article: D.R. Montgomery, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

Montgomery, David R.

2003-12-01

340

Impact of BMI and BMI change on future drug expenditures in adults: results from the MONICA/KORA cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence on the long-term economic effects of obesity is still scarce. This study aims to analyse the impact of body mass index (BMI) and BMI-change on future pharmaceutical utilisation and expenditures. Methods Based on data from 2,946 participants in a German population-based health survey (MONICA/KORA, 1994/95) and the follow-up study (2004/05), drug intake and expenditures were estimated using a bottom-up approach. Using univariate and multivariate methods, we analysed the impact of baseline BMI and BMI-change on drug utilisation and expenditures after 10 years. Results The use of pharmaceuticals was more likely in moderately and severely obese compared to the normal weight group (OR 1.8 and 4.0, respectively). In those who reported pharmaceutical intake, expenditures were about 40% higher for the obese groups. A 1-point BMI-gain in 10 years was, on average, associated with almost 6% higher expenditures compared to a constant BMI. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity as well as BMI-gain are strong predictors of future drug utilisation and associated expenditures in adults, and thus highlight the necessity of timely and effective intervention and prevention programmes. This study complements the existing literature and provides important information on the relevance of obesity as a health problem. PMID:24139278

2013-01-01

341

The Role of Whole Blood Impedance Aggregometry and Its Utilisation in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis in Acute Critical Illness  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prognostic and diagnostic value of whole blood impedance aggregometry in patients with sepsis and SIRS and to compare with whole blood parameters (platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count). Methods We performed an observational, prospective study in the acute setting. Platelet function was determined using whole blood impedance aggregometry (multiplate) on admission to the Emergency Department or Intensive Care Unit and at 6 and 24 hours post admission. Platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count were also determined. Results 106 adult patients that met SIRS and sepsis criteria were included. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock when compared to SIRS/uncomplicated sepsis (ADP: 90.7±37.6 vs 61.4±40.6; p<0.001, Arachadonic Acid 99.9±48.3 vs 66.3±50.2; p?=?0.001, Collagen 102.6±33.0 vs 79.1±38.8; p?=?0.001; SD ± mean)). Furthermore platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in the 28 day mortality group when compared with the survival group (Arachadonic Acid 58.8±47.7 vs 91.1±50.9; p<0.05, Collagen 36.6±36.6 vs 98.0±35.1; p?=?0.001; SD ± mean)). However haemoglobin, haematocrit and platelet count were more effective at distinguishing between subgroups and were equally effective indicators of prognosis. Significant positive correlations were observed between whole blood impedance aggregometry and platelet count (ADP 0.588 p<0.0001, Arachadonic Acid 0.611 p<0.0001, Collagen 0.599 p<0.0001 (Pearson correlation)). Conclusions Reduced platelet aggregometry responses were not only significantly associated with morbidity and mortality in sepsis and SIRS patients, but also correlated with the different pathological groups. Whole blood aggregometry significantly correlated with platelet count, however, when we adjust for the different groups we investigated, the effect of platelet count appears to be non-significant. PMID:25269018

Davies, Gareth R.; Mills, Gavin M.; Lawrence, Matthew; Battle, Ceri; Morris, Keith; Hawkins, Karl; Williams, Phylip Rhodri; Davidson, Simon; Thomas, Dafydd; Evans, Phillip Adrian

2014-01-01

342

Carbohydrate catabolic flexibility in the mammalian intestinal commensal Lactobacillus ruminis revealed by fermentation studies aligned to genome annotations  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus ruminis is a poorly characterized member of the Lactobacillus salivarius clade that is part of the intestinal microbiota of pigs, humans and other mammals. Its variable abundance in human and animals may be linked to historical changes over time and geographical differences in dietary intake of complex carbohydrates. Results In this study, we investigated the ability of nine L. ruminis strains of human and bovine origin to utilize fifty carbohydrates including simple sugars, oligosaccharides, and prebiotic polysaccharides. The growth patterns were compared with metabolic pathways predicted by annotation of a high quality draft genome sequence of ATCC 25644 (human isolate) and the complete genome of ATCC 27782 (bovine isolate). All of the strains tested utilized prebiotics including fructooligosaccharides (FOS), soybean-oligosaccharides (SOS) and 1,3:1,4-?-D-gluco-oligosaccharides to varying degrees. Six strains isolated from humans utilized FOS-enriched inulin, as well as FOS. In contrast, three strains isolated from cows grew poorly in FOS-supplemented medium. In general, carbohydrate utilisation patterns were strain-dependent and also varied depending on the degree of polymerisation or complexity of structure. Six putative operons were identified in the genome of the human isolate ATCC 25644 for the transport and utilisation of the prebiotics FOS, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), SOS, and 1,3:1,4-?-D-Gluco-oligosaccharides. One of these comprised a novel FOS utilisation operon with predicted capacity to degrade chicory-derived FOS. However, only three of these operons were identified in the ATCC 27782 genome that might account for the utilisation of only SOS and 1,3:1,4-?-D-Gluco-oligosaccharides. Conclusions This study has provided definitive genome-based evidence to support the fermentation patterns of nine strains of Lactobacillus ruminis, and has linked it to gene distribution patterns in strains from different sources. Furthermore, the study has identified prebiotic carbohydrates with the potential to promote L. ruminis growth in vivo. PMID:21995520

2011-01-01

343

Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour l'évaluation du recrutement des leucocytes et des échanges vasculaires au niveau d'organes in~vivo. Description d'une méthode et discussion des problèmes d'interprétation sur quelques exemples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental method using simultaneously different ? emiter tracers was developed to evaluate inflammation in vivo. Experiments were performed on the anaesthetized guinea-pig to test pulmonary effects of inflammatory agents. Red blood cells, albumin and inflammatory cells (platelets or leucocytes) radiolabelled with 99m technetium, 131 iodine and 111 indium respectively were injected i.v. Their radioactivities were measured on a pulmonary region by external detection and on blood samples in a well type counter. From these measurements variations of the lung contents in red blood cells, extravascular albumin and non circulating leucocytes during inflammatory stimulation were evaluated. These parameters axe indexes of blood perfusion, vascular exchanges and leucocyte sequestration respectively. Fiability of the method and meaning of the parameters evaluated are discussed. Une méthode expérimentale utilisant simultanément différents traceurs ? a été développée pour évaluer l'inflammation in vivo. Des expériences ont été réalisées chez le cobaye anesthésié pour tester l'effet pulmonaire d'agents inflammatoires. Des globules rouges, de l'albumine et des cellules inflammatoires (plaquettes ou leucocytes) radiomarqués respectivement au technetium 99m, à l'iode 131 et à l'indium 111 sont injectés i.v. Leurs radioactivités sont mesurées sur une région pulmonaire par détection externe et sur des échantillons sanguins au compteur puit. À partir de ces mesures sont évaluées les variations des contenus pulmonaires en globules rouges, en albumine extravasculaire et en leucocytes non circulants lors d'une stimulation inflammatoire. Ces paramètres sont corrélés aux modifications de la perfusion, des échanges vasculaires et de la séquestration leucocytaire. La fiabilité de la méthode et la signification des paramètres évalués sont discutées.

Bureau, M. F.

1997-03-01

344

How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps  

PubMed Central

There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (?150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ?14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

2014-01-01

345

Possibilities and limitations of wind energy utilisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing wind resource, the most favorable locations, applications, and designs of windpowered generators are reviewed, along with descriptions of current and historic wind turbines and lines of research. Coastal regions, plains, hill summits, and mountains with funneling regions are noted to have the highest annual wind averages, with energy densities exceeding the annual solar insolation at average wind speeds of 5-7.9 m/sec. Applications for utility-grade power production, for irrigation, for mechanical heat production, and for pumped storage in water towers or reservoirs are mentioned, as well as electrical power production in remote areas and for hydrogen production by electrolysis. Power coefficients are discussed, with attention given to the German Growian 3 MW machine. It is shown that the least economically sound wind turbines, the machines with outputs below 100 kW, can vie with diesel plant economics in a good wind regime if the wind turbine operates for 15 yr.

Feustel, J.

1981-10-01

346

Utilisation of chitinous materials in pigment adsorption.  

PubMed

The effect of adding the cells of four lactobacilli to a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium on prodigiosin (PG) production by Serratia marcescens TKU011 is examined. The best increase in PG productivity was shown by strain TKU012. Among the samples of strain TKU012 and the chitinous materials of cicada casting powder (CCP), shrimp shell powder (SSP), squid pen powder (SPP), ?-chitin, and ?-chitin, TKU012 cells displayed the best adsorption rate (84%) for PG, followed by CCP, SSP, SPP, ?-chitin, and ?-chitin. As for the water-soluble food colourants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4), SPP and SSP had better adsorptive powers than pure chitin preparations, strain TKU012, and CCP. Treatment with organic solvents, hot alkali, or proteases (papain, bromelain) diminished the adsorption rates of the biosorbents. PMID:22953835

Wang, San-Lang; Chen, Yan-Cheng; Yen, Yue-Horng; Liang, Tzu-Wen

2012-12-01

347

Capture and Utilisation of Landfill Gas  

E-print Network

estimated6 that biomass materials such as paper, food and wood, constitute about 70% of the MSW to biodegradation for lack of moisture that is required to sustain bacte- rial growth; this would reduce the amount

Columbia University

348

Why do juvenile fish utilise mangrove habitats?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hypotheses to discern the strong positive association between juvenile fish and mangrove habitat were tested with field and laboratory experiments. Artificial mangrove structure in the field attracted slightly more juvenile fish than areas without structure. Artificial structure left to accumulate fouling algae attracted four-times the total number of juvenile fish than areas without structure or areas with clean structure.

Pia Laegdsgaard; Craig Johnson

2001-01-01

349

Utilisation capability of the Columbus Attached Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mission model is developed through an iterative process, showing typical payloads and laboratory support equipment for the initial Columbus Attached Laboratory installation. This facility is designed to accommodate payload complements varying from increment to increment for both internal and external experiments. Principal features of interfaces with the crew and the end users through the ground segment are described and attention is given to teleoperations, automation, and robotics.

Knott, Karl; Amadieu, Patrice

1992-08-01

350

Experience with retrofits to improve energy utilisation  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a number of concepts for assessing machinery-related improvements which many may find novel and unusual. The examples offered concentrate mainly on low investment and quick payout projects since the present costs for energy in its various forms are far from stable. Experience has shown that considerable savings can be achieved from retrofit projects to improve the efficiency of shaft work generation-provided that the assessment of efficiency is carried out in a correct and logical manner.

Grundy, R.N.

1987-01-01

351

Hypermdias et Apprentissages UTILISATIONS EDUCATIVES DES HYPERMEDIAS  

E-print Network

EVARISTE 292, rue Saint Martin 75141 Paris cedex 03 La démonstration de CHUTOR a pour objet de définir les choix entre une guidance à l'écran ou sonore. Cette gui- dance indique et contrôle le mode opératoire. L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Coal Fly-Ash Utilisation in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant economic and environmental problems coming from the disposal of coal ash have led to the implementation of various alternative uses, in which combustion residues are considered as value-added products. In Greece, a large quantity of fly-ash is the inevitable by-product of Greek brown coal burning, due to its high ash content. In this paper, the main characteristics of fly-ash

G. Skodras; M. Anagnostakis; E. Hinis; E. Kakaras

353

Why do juvenile fish utilise mangrove habitats?  

PubMed

Three hypotheses to discern the strong positive association between juvenile fish and mangrove habitat were tested with field and laboratory experiments. Artificial mangrove structure in the field attracted slightly more juvenile fish than areas without structure. Artificial structure left to accumulate fouling algae attracted four-times the total number of juvenile fish than areas without structure or areas with clean structure. Community composition of fish attracted to structure with fouling algae was different when compared with areas with no structure or clean structure; five species were attracted by structure with fouling algae whilst two species were associated with structure regardless of fouling algae. Algae were linked to increased food availability and it is suggested that this is an important selection criteria for some species. Other species were apparently attracted to structure for different reasons, and provision of shelter appears to be important. Predation pressure influenced habitat choice in small juvenile fish in laboratory experiments. In the absence of predators, small juveniles of four out of five species avoided shelter but when predators were introduced all species actively sought shelter. Large fish were apparently less vulnerable to predators and did not seek shelter when predators were added to their tank. Feeding rate was increased in the mangrove habitat for small and medium-sized fish compared with seagrass beds and mudflats indicating increased food availability or foraging efficiency within this habitat. Larger fish fed more effectively on the mudflats with an increased feeding rate in this habitat compared with adjacent habitats. The most important aspect of the mangrove habitat for small juvenile fish is the complex structure that provides maximum food availability and minimises the incidence of predation. As fish grow a shift in habitat from mangroves to mudflat is a response to changes in diet, foraging efficiency and vulnerability to predators. PMID:11245878

Laegdsgaard, P; Johnson, C

2001-03-15

354

Utilisation of fish oil in ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five sheep with rumen and abomasal cannulae were offered three diets sequentially in the order: control (C) pellets (lucerne hay-oat grain: 60\\/40, w\\/w), control plus unprotected tuna oil (UTO pellets), and control plus tuna oil protected (casein-formaldehyde matrix) against ruminal biohydrogenation (PTO pellets). In supplemented diets, tuna oil constituted 3% (w\\/w) of total dry matter (DM), and each supplement was

S. M Kitessa; S. K Gulati; J. R Ashes; E Fleck; T. W Scott; P. D Nichols

2001-01-01

355

Nutrient Utilisation in Growing Cambodian Cattle  

E-print Network

Nutrition and Management Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala 2012 and feed conservation techniques Abstract Natural forages are an important part of the diet of cattle the fermentation quality of the resulting silage compared with a rice straw with rumen supplement diet. Rumen p

356

The Muon LINAC for the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory  

SciTech Connect

The first stage of muon acceleration in the Neutrino Factory utilises a superconducting linac to accelerate muons from 244 MeV to 900 MeV. The linac was split into three types of cryomodules with decreasing magnetic fields and increasing amounts of RF voltage but with the design of the superconducting solenoid and RF cavities being the same for all cryomodules. The current status of the muon linac for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory will be presented including a final lattice design of the linac and tracking simulations.

A. Kurup, C. Bontoiu, Morteza Aslaninejad, J. Pozimski, A. Bogacz, V.S. Morozov, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

2011-09-01

357

Modlisation et utilisation de traces d'exprience d'utilisation de  

E-print Network

- Journée CPER - ENS-LSH - Lyon 25/10/2005 ­ Yannick Prié ­ LIRIS Du RàPC au RàPE ! Equipe originale " construction de différents systèmes fondés sur le RàPC ! Raisonnement à partir de cas " un cas représente une/10/2005 ­ Yannick Prié ­ LIRIS Le cycle du RàPC Connaissances générales Base de cas Problème Cas cible Cas cible

Prié, Yannick

358

Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ? An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ? HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ? The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic damage to the bone marrow ? Minor modifications would enable application as a general toxicity model.

May, Jennifer E., E-mail: Jennifer2.May@uwe.ac.uk; Morse, H. Ruth, E-mail: Ruth.Morse@uwe.ac.uk; Xu, Jinsheng, E-mail: Jinsheng.Xu@uwe.ac.uk; Donaldson, Craig, E-mail: Craig.Donaldson@uwe.ac.uk

2012-09-15

359

Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins  

PubMed Central

Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins. PMID:19803772

Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

2013-01-01

360

Image guidance during breast radiotherapy: a phantom dosimetry and radiation-induced second cancer risk study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging procedures utilised for patient position verification during breast radiotherapy can add a considerable dose to organs surrounding the target volume on top of therapeutic scatter dose. This study investigated the dose from a breast kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT), a breast megavoltage fan-beam CT (MV-FBCT), and a TomoDirectTM breast treatment. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within a female anthropomorphic phantom were utilised to measure the dose to various organs and tissues. The contralateral breast, lungs and heart received 0.40 cGy, 0.45 cGy and 0.40 cGy from the kV-CBCT and 1.74 cGy, 1.39 cGy and 1.73 cGy from the MV-FBCT. In comparison to treatment alone, daily imaging would increase the contralateral breast, contralateral lung and heart dose by a relative 12%, 24% and 13% for the kV-CBCT, and 52%, 101% and 58% for the MV-FBCT. The impact of the imaging dose relative to the treatment dose was assessed with linear and linear-quadratic radiation-induced secondary cancer risk models for the contralateral breast. The additional imaging dose and risk estimates presented in this study should be taken into account when considering an image modality and frequency for patient position verification protocols in breast radiotherapy.

Quinn, A.; Holloway, L.; Metcalfe, P.

2013-06-01

361

[Discretionary decisions in claims data analyses and their effects - an explorative comparison using the example of a cost of illness study on dementia].  

PubMed

Claims data-based studies provide insight into the delivery of health care services within the statutory health insurance (SHI) system. So far discretionary decisions concerning the definition of service utilization are seldom discussed. Using claims data of 9 147 dementia patients insured with AOK Bavaria SHI fund as an example, this paper compares different definitions of service utilisation and the corresponding costs of care. In total, the different approaches do not always result in different figures. Indeed the observed variation depends on the relative frequency of equivocally interpretable services within the study sample. Based on these results it is possible to provide recommendations for future standards for claims data analyses. PMID:22932829

Schwarzkopf, L; Menn, P; Holle, R

2012-08-01

362

Assessing carbon flow at the local scale greater Manchester: UK case study  

SciTech Connect

Inventories which are based at the city level allow the intensity and distribution of carbon flows to be calculated and therefore have considerable potential in many planning and decision making processes. The CO{sub 2} inventory constructed for this paper is the first stage of prioritising carbon reduction strategies for Greater Manchester, providing an indication of localised carbon flows specific to the region. Understanding the spatial disaggregation of these flows, both between and within different sectors of the local economy, enables the documentation of areas where improvement may be possible as well as targeting areas where priority measures are considered necessary. By assessing the impacts of any reduction measures on the local community it is possible to recommend policies that will ease the transition to a more sustainable urban settlement. The methodology utilised in this paper incorporates a selection of different method types (bottom-up, top-down etc.) according to the data availability of individual sectors and fuel type. It has been developed from the knowledge and experience of other city-scale energy studies which have taken place to date, and utilises IPCC guidelines as a framework for the inventory. Although the methodology has been developed for application to the Greater Manchester region the approach can be replicated for other urban areas.

McEvoy, D.; Gibbs, D.; Longhurst, J.

1997-12-31

363

A prospective observational study on the effectiveness and safety of bemiparin, first dose administered 6 h after knee or hip replacement surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Bemiparin has shown to be effective and safe in clinical trials in total knee or hip replacement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We conducted a prospective, open, multicentre, uncontrolled study to audit the utilisation patterns of bemiparin 3,500 IU\\/day,\\u000a first dose administered 6 h after surgery, in 1,009 patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement surgery in standard\\u000a clinical practice. We analysed rates of documented

J. Ignacio Abad; Antonio Gómez-Outes; Javier Martínez-González; Eduardo Rocha

2007-01-01

364

Identification of new scavengers for hydroxyl radicals and superoxide dismutase by utilising ultraviolet A photoreaction of 8-methoxypsoralen and a variety of mutants of Escherichia coli: implications on certain diseases of DNA repair deficiency.  

PubMed

8-Methoxypsoralen+UVA (ultraviolet light of 320-400 nm) known as PUVA has been in use for a number of years for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo. The treatment possibly works on the basis of UVA photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen binding to DNA forming both single strand and double strand type damage. We have used Escherichia coli as model system in studying PUVA induced DNA damage and repair. It has been known for some time that the photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen, besides intercalating with DNA, generates at least two reactive oxygen species (ROS): hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions, and also singlet oxygen. In this study it has been found that, in E. coli, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase can protect cells from PUVA killing presumably by scavenging these ROS. Possible mechanisms have been proposed for these enzymes as cell protectors. Studies also suggest the potential for the use of PUVA in the treatment of a large number of human diseases. This study also finds that, unlike 8-methoxypsoralen, trioxsalen (4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, another derivative of psoralens) does not generate ROS by UVA photoactivation; and hence the mode of action of trioxsalen and PUVA overlaps only in the binding of these molecules to DNA in the presence of UVA. PMID:22940499

Ahmad, Shamim I; Yokoi, Masayuki; Hanaoka, Fumio

2012-11-01

365

Interaction of microstructure and microcrack growth in cortical bone: a finite element study.  

PubMed

Microstructural features including osteons and cement lines are considered to play an important role in determining the crack growth behaviour in cortical bone. This study aims to develop a computational mechanics approach to evaluate microscale fracture mechanisms in bone. In this study, finite element models based on actual human cortical bone images that allow for arbitrary crack growth were utilised to determine the crack propagation behaviour. The simulations varied the cement line and osteon strength and fracture toughness in different bone microstructures to assess the crack propagation trajectory, stress-strain relationship and nonlinear strain energy density. The findings of this study provide additional insight into the individual influence of microstructural features and their properties on crack growth behaviour in bone using a computational approach. PMID:21970670

Mischinski, Susan; Ural, Ani

2013-01-01

366

Operational effectiveness and quality assurance mechanisms with stochastic demand of blood supply: blood bank case study.  

PubMed

A general overview of various blood products operational effectiveness and related strategies that can be utilised by service providers (in particular, healthcare providers) is presented in the present study. In terms of the massive volumes of blood products, the North American blood centres collect more than eight million units of whole blood, which represents appropriately 50% of the US and Quebec, Canada?s volunteer donor blood supply. A case study of the quality inspection and inventory control concerns of the Central Blood Bank, located in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA, is presented. Initially, brief introduction to its general operating environment is followed by sections describing its general situation, quality-service initiatives, and followed by a fairly detailed discussion of the practical applications of lessons learned from the case study. PMID:22189177

Smith, Alan D

2011-01-01

367

Lessons learned from Sphingomonas species that degrade abietane triterpenoids.  

PubMed

Abietane terpenoid-degrading organisms include Sphingomonas spp which inhabit natural environments and biological treatment systems. An isolate from the high Arctic indicates that these organisms occur far from trees which synthesize abietanes and suggests that some of these organisms can occupy a niche in hydrocarbon-degrading soil communities. Abietane-degrading Sphingomonas spp provide additional evidence that the phylogeny of this genus is independent of the catabolic capabilities of its members. Studies of Sphingomonas sp DhA-33 demonstrate that biological treatment systems for pulp mill effluents have the potential to mineralize abietane resin acids. On the other hand, these studies indicate that some chlorinated dehydroabietic acids are quite recalcitrant. Strain DhA-33 grows relatively well on some chlorinated dehydroabietic acids but transforms others to stable metabolites. Using strain DhA-33, a novel method was developed to measure the metabolic activity of an individual population within a complex microbial community. Oligonucleotide hybridization probes were used to assay the 16S rRNA:rDNA ratio of DhA-33 as it grew in an activated sludge community. However, this method proved not to be sufficiently sensitive to measure naturally occurring resin acid-degrading populations. We propose that the same approach can be modified to use more sensitive assays. PMID:11423958

Mohn, W W; Yu, Z; Moore, E R B; Muttray, A F

1999-10-01

368

A mixed methods pilot study to investigate the impact of a hospital-specific iPhone application (iTreat) within a British junior doctor cohort.  

PubMed

We present a pilot study to investigate the impact of introducing a hospital-specific smartphone application into a cohort of British junior doctors. We created the iPhone application 'iTreat' that contained disease management and antibiotic dosing guidelines specific to our hospital, together with a postgraduate education department really simple syndication feed, a contact number phonebook and a favourites section. This intervention was trialled in a group of 39 foundation grade junior doctors, in a UK hospital, for a time period of 4 months. Mixed methods data capture, utilising survey and semi-structured interviews, was used to evaluate application usage patterns and potential barriers to endorsement of smartphone technology in the hospital setting. Sixty eight per cent of participants felt the application saved them time during clinical activities, with a decrease in the frequency of participants not referring to hospital clinical guidelines. The findings from this pilot study point towards the internal hospital environment as having a major impact upon smartphone usage. Participants viewed smartphone use as unprofessional in the ward-based setting, with a perceived negative attitude from other healthcare staff. An understanding of how healthcare staff choose to utilise smartphones in the clinical environment is crucial to enable the successful assimilation of smartphone technology into the hospital setting. This pilot study provides experience and parameters for future substantive studies being carried out by this group. PMID:24550565

Payne, Karl Fb; Weeks, Lucy; Dunning, Paul

2014-03-01

369

Gender-inclusive technology materials for the primary school: A case study in curriculum development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how an idea for technology education materials developed into a process for producing unique curriculum modules for teaching technology in a gender-inclusive way to primary children. Using a case-study format, the paper describes the interaction between participants, the sequential evolution of the materials themselves and the degree to which success was achieved in terms of the original goals. The study demonstrates how an awareness of gender bias needs to be a feature from the earliest stages of curriculum development, through to the trialling and modification stages. The curriculum materials were a product of effective cooperation between teachers, science educators and community representatives. They utilise a “process” approach to the teaching of technology and in this presentation, we demonstrate how this same approach is a useful framework for describing this particular curriculum development.

Kinnear, Adrianne; Treagust, David; Rennie, Leonie

1991-12-01

370

Should vitamin B12 tablets be included in more Canadian drug formularies? An economic model of the cost-saving potential from increased utilisation of oral versus intramuscular vitamin B12 maintenance therapy for Alberta seniors  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-savings attainable if all patients aged ?65 years in Alberta, Canada, currently on intramuscular therapy were switched to oral therapy, from the perspective of a provincial ministry of health. Setting Primary care setting in Alberta, Canada. Participants Seniors of age 65 years and older currently receiving intramuscular vitamin B12 therapy. Intervention Oral vitamin B12 therapy at 1000??g/day versus intramuscular therapy at 1000??g/month. Primary and secondary outcome measures Cost saving from oral therapy over intramuscular therapy, from the perspective of the Alberta Ministry of Health, including drug costs, dispensing fees, injection administration fees, additional laboratory monitoring and physician visit fees. Results Over 5?years, if all Albertans aged 65 years and older who currently receive intramuscular B12 are switched to oral therapy, our model found that $C13?975?883 can be saved. Even if no additional physician visits are billed for among patients receiving intramuscular therapy, $C8?444?346 could be saved from reduced administration costs alone. Conclusions Oral B12 therapy has been shown to be an effective therapeutic option for patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, yet only three provinces and the Non-Insured Health Benefits program include oral tablets on their formulary rather than the parenteral preparation. To ensure judicious use of limited health resources, clinicians and formulary committees are encouraged to adopt oral B12 therapy as a clinically and cost-effective first-line therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24793247

Houle, Sherilyn K D; Kolber, Michael R; Chuck, Anderson W

2014-01-01

371

Inclusion cylinder method for aortic valve replacement utilising the Ross operation in adults with predominant aortic stenosis – 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years  

PubMed Central

Background: To report our experience with the Ross operation in patients with predominant aortic stenosis (AS) using an inclusion cylinder (IC) method. Methods: Out of 324 adults undergoing a Ross operation, 204 patients of mean age of 41.3 years (limits 16–62) underwent this procedure for either AS or mixed AS and regurgitation (AS/AR) between October, 1992 and February, 2012, implanting the PA with an IC method. Clinical follow up and serial echo data for this group is 97% complete with late mortality follow up 99% complete. Results: There has been zero (0%) early mortality, and late survival at 15 years is 98% (96%, 100%). Only one re-operation on the aortic valve for progressive aortic regurgitation (AR) has been required with freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years being 99% (96%, 100%). The freedom from all re-operations on the aortic and pulmonary valves at 15 years is 97% (94%, 100%). Echo analysis at the most recent study shows that 98% have nil, trivial or mild AR. Aortic root size has remained stable, shown by long-term (15 year) echo follow up. Conclusions: In an experience spanning 19 years, the Ross operation used for predominant AS using the IC method described, results in 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years, better than any other tissue or mechanical valve. For adults under 65 years without significant co-morbidities who present with predominant AS, the pulmonary autograft inserted with this technique gives excellent results. PMID:24749112

Skillington, Peter D.; Mokhles, M. Mostafa; Wilson, William; Grigg, Leeanne; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Takkenberg, Johanna

2013-01-01

372

Steps in forecasting with seasonal regression: a case study from the carbonated soft drink market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forecasting enables the efficient utilisation of a firm’s resources. There are various types of forecasting models that can be built. Illustrates the steps involved in building a forecasting model utilising seasonal regression with a practical example. The model obtained for the carbonated soft drink brand under consideration estimates a growth rate of 3,568 units per month during the last five

Albert Caruana

2001-01-01

373

The Smoking MUMS (Maternal Use of Medications and Safety) Study: protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data  

PubMed Central

Introduction Approximately 14% of Australian women smoke during pregnancy. Although the risk of adverse outcomes is reduced by smoking cessation, less than 35% of Australian women quit smoking spontaneously during pregnancy. Evidence for the efficacy of bupropion, varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy as smoking cessation aids in the non-pregnant population suggest that pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation is worth exploring in women of childbearing age. Currently, little is known about the utilisation, effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy; neither the extent to which they are used prior to pregnancy nor whether their use has changed in response to related policy reforms. The Smoking MUMS (Maternal Use of Medications and Safety) Study will explore these issues using linked person-level data for a population-based cohort of Australian mothers. Methods and analysis The cohort will be assembled by linking administrative health records for all women who gave birth in New South Wales or Western Australia since 2003 and their children, including records relating to childbirth, use of pharmaceuticals, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations and deaths. These longitudinal linked data will be used to identify utilisation of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during and between pregnancies and to explore the associated smoking cessation rates and maternal and child health outcomes. Subgroup and temporal analyses will identify potential differences between population groups including indigenous mothers and social security recipients and track changes associated with policy reforms that have made alternative smoking cessation pharmacotherapies available. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. To enhance the translation of the project's findings into policy and practice, policy and clinical stakeholders will be engaged through a reference group and a policy forum will be held. Outputs from the project will include scientific papers and summary reports designed for policy audiences. PMID:24056492

Havard, Alys; Jorm, Louisa R; Preen, David; Daube, Michael; Kemp, Anna; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah; Tran, Duong Thuy

2013-01-01

374

A laboratory study of the activities of dried rumen microorganisms  

E-print Network

INTRODU II' Ruminants differ from monogastric animals by having a more complicated digestive tract which makes possible the utilisation of large amounts of readily available cellulosic materials. Besearch over the last century has established... conclusively that microoxganisms living in the digestive tract - principally in the rumen - are responsible for the breakdown of cellulose into compounds which can be absoxbed and utilised by the host, animals The conversion of simple nitrogenous compounds...

Harbers, Leniel Henry

2012-06-07

375

The healthcare experiences of Koreans living in North Carolina: a mixed methods study.  

PubMed

This study examined the healthcare experiences of Korean immigrants aged 40-64 living in the North Carolina Triangle area of the Southeastern United States. Using a mixed methods design, we collected quantitative data via a questionnaire from 125 participants and conducted a focus group with 10 interviewees from December 2010 to February 2011. The quantitative data were analysed using t-tests and chi-square tests, and a thematic analysis was used for the focus group study. Questionnaire findings showed that only 27.2% had sufficient English skills to communicate adequately. Participants with insurance were significantly more likely to be employed (P < 0.001), had higher incomes (P = 0.011) and higher education (P < 0.001), and had greater English-speaking ability (P = 0.011) than those without insurance. Participants who did not use healthcare services showed significantly less knowledge (P < 0.001) of and less satisfaction (P = 0.034) with the healthcare system than those using healthcare services. Sixty-two participants (49.6%) reported having no health insurance for one or more of the following reasons: high costs (75.8%), medical tourism (22.6%) and lack of information or knowledge (6.5%). The following themes emerged from the data collected during the focus group: (i) barriers to utilisation of healthcare services; (ii) facilitators of utilisation of healthcare services; and (iii) social support seeking for health management. Our mixed methods study findings indicate that healthcare disparities exist among Korean immigrants and that a number of factors, including health literacy, may contribute to their poor health outcomes. Continued collaboration among community members, healthcare professionals and academicians is needed to discuss the community's health concerns and to develop sustainable programmes that will ensure meaningful access to care for those with limited English proficiency and medically underserved populations. PMID:24621370

De Gagne, Jennie C; Oh, Jina; So, Aeyoung; Kim, Suk-Sun

2014-07-01

376

AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES & ETHNICITYETHNICITYETHNICITY  

E-print Network

AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES & ETHNICITYETHNICITYETHNICITY This major of the United States with a particular emphasis on comparative study of the peoples, cultures, history: Introduction to American Studies and Ethnicity -- Introduction to American studies and ethnic studies. Provides

Krylov, Anna I.

377

Innovative production treatment hydroponic farm for primary municipal sewage utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this work were to investigate a conceptual layout for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary municipal wastewater to discharge standards. Furthermore, the system may provide an increased supply of safe water for irrigation with low operational costs and produce commercially valuable plants for small communities in arid and semi-arid areas. A commercial hydroponic system

Abdellah A. Rababah; Nicholas J. Ashbolt

2000-01-01

378

Utilising Human Audio Visual Response for Lip Synchronisation in  

E-print Network

by the user. Much work has yet to be done on how best to incorporate this type of technology into multimedia rates cannot be guaranteed within a multitasking multimedia environment these persona technologies an approach that allows persona interactions to be investigated within multimedia applications on technology

Bowden, Richard

379

Utilising thermoporometry to obtain new insights into nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoporometry is a relatively new method of characterising porous properties of nanostructured materials based on observation\\u000a of solid–liquid phase transitions of materials confined in pores. It provides several advantages over the conventional characterisation\\u000a methods, mercury porosimetry and gas sorption. The advantages include possibility of using short measurement times, non-toxic\\u000a chemicals and wet samples. In addition, complicated sample preparation and specialised

Joakim Riikonen; Jarno Salonen; Vesa-Pekka Lehto

380

Integrated utilisation of green biomass in the green biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass, clover and alfalfa are used for production of fodder pellets. In the green crop drying factories in the northern countries the drying is combined with pressing of the green crops resulting in production of large volumes of plant juices, green and brown juice. In order to get rid of these enormous amounts of plant juice, representing an environmental threat,

Margrethe Andersen; Pauli Kiel

2000-01-01

381

Information retrieval and knowledge discovery utilising a biomedical Semantic Web.  

PubMed

Although various ontologies and knowledge sources have been developed in recent years to facilitate biomedical research, it is difficult to assimilate information from multiple knowledge sources. To enable researchers to easily gain understanding of a biomedical concept, a biomedical Semantic Web that seamlessly integrates knowledge from biomedical ontologies, publications and patents would be very helpful. In this paper, current research efforts in representing biomedical knowledge in Semantic Web languages are surveyed. Techniques are presented for information retrieval and knowledge discovery from the Semantic Web that extend traditional keyword search and database querying techniques. Finally, some of the challenges that have to be addressed to make the vision of a biomedical Semantic Web a reality are discussed. PMID:16212773

Mukherjea, Sougata

2005-09-01

382

Progressing the utilisation of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics into clinical care.  

PubMed

Understanding human genetic variation and how it impacts on gene function is a major focus in genomic-based research. Translation of this knowledge into clinical care is exemplified by pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. The identification of particular gene variants that might influence drug uptake, metabolism, distribution or excretion promises a more effective personalised medicine approach in choosing the right drug or its dose for any particular individual. Adverse drug responses can then be avoided or mitigated. An understanding of germline or acquired (somatic) DNA mutations can also be used to identify drugs that are more likely to be therapeutically beneficial. This represents an area of growing interest in the treatment of cancer. PMID:23594690

Trent, Ronald J; Cheong, Pak Leng; Chua, Eng Wee; Kennedy, Martin A

2013-06-01

383

Utilising eduroam[TM] Architecture in Building Wireless Community Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: eduroam[TM] has already been proved to be a scalable, secure and feasible way for universities and research institutions to connect their wireless networks into a WLAN roaming community, but the advantages of eduroam[TM] have not yet been fully discovered in the wireless community networks aimed at regular consumers. This aim of this…

Huhtanen, Karri; Vatiainen, Heikki; Keski-Kasari, Sami; Harju, Jarmo

2008-01-01

384

Barriers to research utilisation: the clinical setting and nurses themselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advance of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement has been evident in almost every Western country and health system over the past two or three decades, fuelled by an ever-rising demand on resources. Nurses at all levels are increasingly expected to address the key challenge of EBP, which is to use research evidence in a conscientious, explicit and judicious way

John Sitzia

2002-01-01

385

Occlusion analysis: Learning and utilising depth maps in object tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex scenes such as underground stations and malls are composed of static occlusion structures such as walls, entrances, colu mns, turnstiles, bar- riers, etc. Unless this occlusion landscape is made explicit such structures can defeat the process of tracking individuals through the scene. This paper describes a method of generating the probability density functions (PDFs) for the depth of the

Darrel Greenhill; John-paul Renno; James Orwell; Graeme A. Jones

2008-01-01

386

Cellules photovoltaques utilises en sparation spectrale 2014 I. Comparaison  

E-print Network

air-mass one yields a maximum efficiency of 30.4 % with solar concentration of 750, and the GaAs-Ge coupled system yields a maximum efficiency of 25.5 % with solar concentration of 600. Revue Phys. Appl. 18

Boyer, Edmond

387

Le bissap ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) : composition et principales utilisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a herbaceous plant, cultivated largely in tropical and subtropical areas of both hemispheres. This plant is used for its fibre; mainly for its calyx, which is of three types: green, red and dark red. Composition. The red calyxes are the most used and are characterised by their concentration of anthocyanin, which can reach 1.5 g·kg

Mady Cisse; Manuel Dornier; Mama Sakho; Augustin Ndiaye; Max Reynes; Oumar Sock

2009-01-01

388

A survey of trauma database utilisation in England.  

PubMed

Trauma registries are used worldwide to coordinate patient care as well as provide data for audit and research purposes. National registries collect this data, producing research opportunities, outcome standards and a means by which to benchmark trauma centre performance. The Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) is the UK national registry, with data upload being mandatory from all major trauma centres (MTCs), a process which is manual and time and resource intensive. A telephone survey was carried out to collect data from all 26 MTCs in England. A questionnaire was designed to identify how data was collected at a local level, what software and methods were used and what resources were allocated to collect and upload trauma data to the TARN. Further information on hospital size and number of beds was collected from internet searches. Twenty-three MTCs were contacted in total. The majority used Microsoft Excel, with the next most common programme being Bluespier. Other commercially available registries used included Collector, VTOMS and McKesson. One trust created its own software and three used no electronic database at all. Electronic patient record integration was variable and limited to some commercially available registries. The mean number of TARN data collectors was two per centre, with a mean duration of data collection of 4.5 years. The wide range of software options and their lack of integration with the hospital electronic patient records results in the duplication of data as well as requiring time and resources. This may also be due to the difference in data required for coordinating on-going patient care and that required for upload to the TARN. Whilst some of these programmes do have the capabilities for automatic data upload, further efforts must be made to provide a cohesive system that provides the required integration and customisability in order to improve efficiency and ultimately trauma care. PMID:24219900

Racy, M; Al-Nammari, S; Hing, C B

2014-03-01

389

Optical scattering in muscle tissue and its utilisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes optical scattering properties of muscle t issue, special traits, and the difficulties its composition causes. The pH of tissue and angle of the myofibrils relative to the incident light used as a probe changes the results of measurements. Distribution of colagen, as well as other substances that can be found in muscle tissue, also affect the outcome of any attempt to examine the sample via the means of optical analysis. Measurement results and scattering models are compared in effectiveness of characterization of the non-linear optical system that is muscle tissue for both medical use and food quality control, depending on the properties and composition of the tested sample.

Kaspar, Pavel; Prokopyeva, Elena; Tománek, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.

2015-01-01

390

Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

1998-01-01

391

Conclusions : Utilisation des faisceaux de m-sons IL-. -  

E-print Network

. (Dr A. Citron) étu- die la diffusion des mésons u sur le carbone, le transfert de quantité de complexes. BIBLIOGRAPHIE [1] CITRON (A.) et �VERAS (H.), Focusing channel for collecting 03BC2014 mesons from 03C02014 decay in flight. C. E. R. N. SC, 1957, 143. [2] CITRON (A.), FARLEY (F. J. M.), MICHAELIS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

392

Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

2009-06-01

393

Improving Pain Recognition Through Better Utilisation of Temporal Information.  

PubMed

Automatically recognizing pain from video is a very useful application as it has the potential to alert carers to patients that are in discomfort who would otherwise not be able to communicate such emotion (i.e young children, patients in postoperative care etc.). In previous work [1], a "pain-no pain" system was developed which used an AAM-SVM approach to good effect. However, as with any task involving a large amount of video data, there are memory constraints that need to be adhered to and in the previous work this was compressing the temporal signal using K-means clustering in the training phase. In visual speech recognition, it is well known that the dynamics of the signal play a vital role in recognition. As pain recognition is very similar to the task of visual speech recognition (i.e. recognising visual facial actions), it is our belief that compressing the temporal signal reduces the likelihood of accurately recognising pain. In this paper, we show that by compressing the spatial signal instead of the temporal signal, we achieve better pain recognition. Our results show the importance of the temporal signal in recognizing pain, however, we do highlight some problems associated with doing this due to the randomness of a patient's facial actions. PMID:25285316

Lucey, Patrick; Howlett, Jessica; Cohn, Jeff; Lucey, Simon; Sridharan, Sridha; Ambadar, Zara

2008-01-01

394

Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees.  

PubMed

Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance. PMID:19259641

Hepburn, H Randall; Radloff, Sarah E; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

2009-06-01

395

Individual determinants of primary healthcare utilisation in Gaza Strip, Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To examine the extent to which primary care patients are using the primary healthcare (PHC) services in Gaza Strip, Palestine, and to determine the factors that are associated with the use of these services.Methods:Using Andersen’s behavioural model, the authors interviewed 956 PHC attendees. Patients were questioned about predisposing factors: age, sex, marital status, education, work status, household size, life events

T Abu-Mourad; A Alegakis; S Shashaa; A Koutis; C Lionis; A Philalithis

2008-01-01

396

Finite element and photoelastic modelling of an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Rupture prediction of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains a clinical challenge. Finite element analysis (FEA) may allow for improved identification for intervention timing, but the method needs further substantiation. In this study, experimental photoelastic method and finite element techniques were compared using an idealised AAA geometry. There was good agreement between the numerical and experimental results. At the proximal and distal end of the AAA model, the maximum differences in principle strain for an internal pressure of 120 mmHg had differences ranging from 0.03 to 10.01%. The maximum difference in principle strain for the photoelastic and the finite element model at a pressure of 120 mmHg was 0.167 and 0.158, respectively. The current research strengthens the case for using FEA as an adjunct to the current clinical practice of utilising diameter measurement for intervention timing. PMID:21660780

Callanan, Anthony; Morris, Liam G; McGloughlin, Tim M

2012-01-01

397

Infrared near-field study of a localised absorption in a thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the conditions to perform micro-spectroscopy with a sub-wavelength lateral resolution in the wavelength spectral range from 3 to 20 ?m, taking advantage of the infrared spectral signature of different chemical species. We utilised CLIO, a free electron laser, as the photon source. The transmitted photons were collected by either fluoride or chalcogenide glass fibres. Fibre tips were obtained through chemical etching by organic solvents. Metallisation of the tips permits to achieve lateral resolution of the order of the tip size. However, parasitic propagation of the light in the film reduces the contrast between irradiated and non-irradiated zones. We exemplify our set up with near-field infrared spectra obtained for polymer thin films deposited onto silicon wafers.

Gross, N.; Dazzi, A.; Ortega, J. M.; Andouart, R.; Prazeres, R.; Chicanne, C.; Goudonnet, J.-P.; Lacroute, Y.; Boussard, C.; Fonteneau, G.; Hocdé, S.

2001-11-01

398

A prospective study of adolescent risk and protective factors for problem gambling among young adults.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of research examining prospective predictors of problem gambling. The current study utilised a large longitudinal data set (N = 2328) to examine a large range of adolescent risk and protective factors for problem gambling in young adulthood. These risk and protective factors covered the domains of the community, family, school, peer group and individual. Numerous predictors associated with the family, school and peer-individual were statistically significant in analyses adjusted for gender and age. However, in the fully adjusted multivariate analyses, only two predictors were statistically significant. Within this model, gender (female) was associated with a reduced risk of young adult problem gambling, while family rewards for prosocial involvement moderated the risk relationship between adolescent alcohol use and young adult problem gambling. These findings highlight the importance of adolescent alcohol use and family environment as potentially modifiable predictors of young adult problem gambling. PMID:24439627

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Dowling, Nicki A; Toumbourou, John W

2014-02-01

399

Africana Studies Film Studies  

E-print Network

CENTER EVENT OVAL Anthropology Dance Economics Human Rights Studies Physical Education Political Science COURTYARD LEHMAN LAWN Architecture Art History Classics & Ancient Studies Music Philosophy Religion DIANA Computer Science Environmental Science Mathematics Physics & Astronomy Statistics In the event of rain

400

The impact of increasing oximetry usage in India: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

The overall goal of the global oximetry (GO) project was to increase patient safety during anaesthesia and surgery in low and middle income countries by decreasing oximetry costs and increasing oximetry utilisation. Results from the overall project have been previously published. This paper reports specifically on pilot work undertaken in four hospitals in one Indian State. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of increasing oximetry provision in terms of benefits to anaesthetists and in the identification of patient problems during anaesthesia, to identify training needs and to explore perceptions regarding barriers to more comprehensive oximetry coverage. Data collection was by interview with hospital staff, use of a log-book to capture data on desaturation episodes and a follow-up questionnaire at 10 months after the introduction of additional oximeters. Increasing oximetry utilisation in the four hospitals was viewed positively by the anaesthetic staff and enabled improvement in monitoring patients. Of the 939 monitored patients studied, 214 patients (23%) experienced a total of 397 desaturation episodes. For nearly half of the patients undergoing caesarean section under regional anaesthesia following a desaturation event supplementary oxygen was required. In 53 of the 379 female sterilisations (14%) desaturation episodes occurred and in eight patients, there were 17 episodes of desaturation due to obstruction. In the recovery room, 91 of the 939 patients were monitored using the oximeters with 12 patients (13%) requiring oxygen. This study has highlighted that pulse oximetry must be used even in patients having surgical procedures or caesarean section under regional or local anaesthesia as these procedures are associated with hypoxic episodes. Anaesthetists must ensure they are complying with the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists monitoring standards for anaesthesia and ensure patients are monitored by pulse oximetry. PMID:21808394

McHugh, Gretl A; Pollard, Brian J; Hooda, Sarla; Thoms, Gavin MM

2011-01-01

401

LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 63 UTILISATION PDAGOGIQUE DES IMAGES L'UTILISATION PDAGOGIQUE DES IMAGES  

E-print Network

lycée a été doté d'un matériel pédagogique composé de : - un PC AT 286 à disque dur et carte graphique diapositives Chaque année un stage national a été organisé pour faire un bilan d'avancement de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

An electronic spectroscopic study of micellisation of surfactants and solvation of homomicelles formed by cationic or anionic surfactants using a solvatochromic electron donor acceptor dye.  

PubMed

Solvatochromic absorption and fluorescence bands of a donor-acceptor dye have been utilised for following the micellisation and for probing the polarity of the aqueous homomicellar phase provided separately by cationic (cetyltrimethylammonimum bromide, CTAB and dodecyltrimethylammonimum bromide, DTAB) and anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) surfactant. Results indicate that for a low concentration of surfactant (below cmc) the dye forms a dimer in aqueous solution. In a micellar media, however, the dye exists as monomers. A strong dye-micelle interaction, as indicated by the shift of the solvatochromic intramolecular charge transfer band of the dye, has also been indicated. The absorption and fluorescence parameters of the dye have been utilised for studying the onset of aggregation of the surfactants. An iterative procedure has been developed for the estimation of cmc and the distribution coefficient (KD) of the dye between the aqueous and the micellar phase. All the parameters provide convergent values of cmc. A high value of KD indicates that the dye exists predominantly in the micellar phase. The solvatochromic parameters characterising the dipolarity-polarisability (?(*)) and H-bond donation ability (?) of modes of solvation interaction in different micellar media have been estimated. The dye is found to distribute itself between two regions in a catanionic vesicle formed by surfactants SDS and DTAB, one being relatively polar than other. The distribution coefficients have been found out using the fluorescence data. PMID:24835943

Kedia, Niraja; Sarkar, Amrita; Purkayastha, Pradipta; Bagchi, Sanjib

2014-10-15

403

An electronic spectroscopic study of micellisation of surfactants and solvation of homomicelles formed by cationic or anionic surfactants using a solvatochromic electron donor acceptor dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solvatochromic absorption and fluorescence bands of a donor-acceptor dye have been utilised for following the micellisation and for probing the polarity of the aqueous homomicellar phase provided separately by cationic (cetyltrimethylammonimum bromide, CTAB and dodecyltrimethylammonimum bromide, DTAB) and anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) surfactant. Results indicate that for a low concentration of surfactant (below cmc) the dye forms a dimer in aqueous solution. In a micellar media, however, the dye exists as monomers. A strong dye-micelle interaction, as indicated by the shift of the solvatochromic intramolecular charge transfer band of the dye, has also been indicated. The absorption and fluorescence parameters of the dye have been utilised for studying the onset of aggregation of the surfactants. An iterative procedure has been developed for the estimation of cmc and the distribution coefficient (KD) of the dye between the aqueous and the micellar phase. All the parameters provide convergent values of cmc. A high value of KD indicates that the dye exists predominantly in the micellar phase. The solvatochromic parameters characterising the dipolarity-polarisability (?*) and H-bond donation ability (?) of modes of solvation interaction in different micellar media have been estimated. The dye is found to distribute itself between two regions in a catanionic vesicle formed by surfactants SDS and DTAB, one being relatively polar than other. The distribution coefficients have been found out using the fluorescence data.

Kedia, Niraja; Sarkar, Amrita; Purkayastha, Pradipta; Bagchi, Sanjib

2014-10-01

404

Study of a zirconia based inert matrix fuel under irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yttria-stabilised zirconia doped with erbia and plutonia has been selected as inert matrix fuel (IMF) at PSI, Switzerland. The results of experimental irradiation experiments on yttria-stabilised zirconia doped with erbia and thoria samples utilising accelerators, tests with yttria-stabilised zirconia doped with plutonia and erbia or urania pellets within research reactors, and a study of natural zirconia contacted to actinide rich rock are evaluated and compared. The results obtained for zirconia implantation with xenon as a representative fission product are analysed in term of swelling and inertness of the material. The reactor tests preformed in the material test Boiling Water Reactor, Halden and in the High Flux Reactor, Petten are also described, with emphasis on the IMF properties under in-pile irradiation. The natural analogue study of baddeleyite from Jacupiranga, southern Brazil, provides additional information. Baddeleyite crystals enclosed within uranpyrochlore grains and received intense irradiation, which did not affect either the structural integrity or the durability of the mineral. The results of these case studies, with accelerator, use in-pile and contacted with natural radioactive sources, provide useful information on the outstanding of the behaviour of zirconia under irradiation.

Degueldre, C.; Hellwig, Ch.

2003-07-01

405

Input determination for neural network models in water resources applications. Part 2. Case study: forecasting salinity in a river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the second of a two-part series in this issue that presents a methodology for determining an appropriate set of model inputs for artificial neural network (ANN) models in hydrologic applications. The first paper presented two input determination methods. The first method utilises a measure of dependence known as the partial mutual information (PMI) criterion to select significant model inputs. The second method utilises a self-organising map (SOM) to remove redundant input variables, and a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) and general regression neural network (GRNN) to select the inputs that have a significant influence on the model's forecast. In the first paper, both methods were applied to synthetic data sets and were shown to lead to a set of appropriate ANN model inputs. To verify the proposed techniques, it is important that they are applied to a real-world case study. In this paper, the PMI algorithm and the SOM-GAGRNN are used to find suitable inputs to an ANN model for forecasting salinity in the River Murray at Murray Bridge, South Australia. The proposed methods are also compared with two methods used in previous studies, for the same case study. The two proposed methods were found to lead to more parsimonious models with a lower forecasting error than the models developed using the methods from previous studies. To verify the robustness of each of the ANNs developed using the proposed methodology, a real-time forecasting simulation was conducted. This validation data set consisted of independent data from a six-year period from 1992 to 1998. The ANN developed using the inputs identified by the stepwise PMI algorithm was found to be the most robust for this validation set. The PMI scores obtained using the stepwise PMI algorithm revealed useful information about the order of importance of each significant input.

Bowden, Gavin J.; Maier, Holger R.; Dandy, Graeme C.

2005-01-01

406

ATBC Study - Study Details  

Cancer.gov

The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study was conducted in Finland as a joint project between the National Institute for Health and Welfare of Finland and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) . The overall design, rationale, objectives, and initial results of this intervention study have been published1,2. Briefly, this was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary prevention trial to determine whether daily supplementation with alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, or both would reduce the incidence of lung or other cancers among male smokers.

407

Features of double chamber bed and case study.  

PubMed

A double chamber bed (DCB) was developed in China in 1980 and has been utilised in more than 500 setups. This paper introduces the structure and operation features of DCB, and also the unique structure of DCB leads to its perfect operation features. It can be also considered as the best option in reconstruction projects which can replace other types of ion exchangers, such as fixed bed, double cell fluidized-bed, multi-bed. Four reconstruction project cases were introduced, which were selected from more than twenty plants designed by us. Through the case study, it is concluded that DCB can not only be used to treat different sources of water (river and well), but can also be used to treat water with the ratio of transient hardness to total cation to be less than 0.5 and the ratio of strong to weak anion to be more than 7.0. These findings enlarge the scope of application of DCB. PMID:12578201

Tian, W; Wen, X; Qian, Y

2003-01-01

408

Nitrogen fixation in the Baltic proper: an empirical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen as the limiting nutrient for primary production in the eutrophic Baltic proper has been under debate. Based on only a limited number of actual measurements, nitrogen fixation has been assumed to be the only significant internal nitrogen source. It is then assumed that about one fifth of the net nitrogen load to the Baltic proper comes from nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria. An alternative or additional source is utilisation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). In the present study, we hypothesise that nitrogen fixation is the only internal source for inorganic nitrogen. This was done in order to investigate its potential to maintain net primary production during summer. If inorganic nitrogen is depleted after the spring bloom and if inorganic phosphorus still remains in significant concentrations, then a continuous decrease in phosphorus may be coupled to the net nitrogen fixation rate by cyanobacteria. The estimated phosphorus consumption is adjusted for external and internal inputs. An estimate of the assumed net annual nitrogen fixation based on the proper Redfield ratio in the surface layer down to the seasonal thermocline is calculated for a number of monitoring stations in the Baltic proper. Typical values of nitrogen fixation are in the range 10-130 ?mol m -3 day -1. A simple integration over the Baltic proper gives an internal load in the range 30-260×10 3 ton N year -1. Another result is an east-west gradient in fixation rate that may reflect the nitrogen load.

Rahm, L.; Jönsson, A.; Wulff, F.

2000-07-01

409

Study of DT-diaphorase in pigment-producing cells.  

PubMed

DT-diaphorase is an FAD-containing enzyme capable of a two-electron reduction of ortho- and paraquinones. Nicotinamide coenzymes (NADH + H+ and NADPH + H+) serve as hydrogen sources in these reactions. The role of DT-diaphorase has been thoroughly investigated in situations when the enzyme is able to reduce exogenous and endogenous quinones, hence protecting the cells against these reactive intermediates. The enzyme has also been studied in connection with its ability to activate some quinoid cytostatics. It is surprising that DT-diaphorase has never been investigated in pigment-producing cells that are known to generate considerable amounts of ortho-quinones. Using a spectrophotometric method we could readily measure the activity of DT-diaphorase in epidermis and various cultured pigment cells. The melanocytes isolated from dark skin showed generally higher DT-diaphorase activity than those from fair skin samples. Also, darkly pigmented congenital naevus cells exhibited higher activity of this enzyme. The most striking was the high DT-diaphorase activity in melanoma cell cultures. In these cells DT-diaphorase activity could be induced by incubation of the cells with 4-hydroxyanisole. A similar effect was seen when a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor (3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-pentanedione (OR-462) was utilised. The induction was inhibited by cyclohexidine. PMID:10644008

Smit, N P; Hoogduijn, M J; Riley, P A; Pavel, S

1999-11-01

410

Empowerment and change management in Aboriginal organisations: a case study.  

PubMed

The social organisation of work, management styles and social relationships in the workplace all matter for health. It is now well recognised that people who have control over their work have better health and that stress in the workplace increases the level of disease. In the context of organisational change, the potential benefits of empowerment strategies are two-fold: a positive impact on the organisation's effectiveness and enhancements in staff health, wellbeing and sense of control. This case study describes the University of Queensland Empowerment Research Program's experience working with the Apunipima Cape York Health Council in a change management process. Participatory action research and empowerment strategies were utilised to facilitate shifts in work culture and group cohesion towards achieving Apunipima's vision of being an effective lead agency for Indigenous health reform in Cape York. As part of the project, staff morale and confidence were monitored using a pictorial tool, Change Curve, which outlined the phases of organisational change. The project findings indicated that organisational change did not follow a clear linear trajectory. In some ways the dynamics mapped over a period of 18 months mirror the type of struggles individuals commonly encounter as a part of personal growth and development. In this case, one of the factors which influenced the program's success was the willingness of executive employees to actively support and participate in the change management process. PMID:20797370

McEwan, Alexandra B; Tsey, Komla; McCalman, Janya; Travers, Helen J

2010-08-01

411

Multicentre observational cohort study of NSAIDs as risk factors for postoperative adverse events in gastrointestinal surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended as postoperative analgesia by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Society. Recent studies have raised concerns that NSAID administration following colorectal anastomosis may be associated with increased risk of anastomotic leak. This multicentre study aims to determine NSAIDs’ safety profile following gastrointestinal resection. Methods and analysis This prospective, multicentre cohort study will be performed over a 2-week period utilising a collaborative methodology. Consecutive adults undergoing open or laparoscopic, elective or emergency gastrointestinal resection will be included. The primary end point will be the 30-day morbidity, assessed using the Clavien-Dindo classification. This study will be disseminated through medical student networks, with an anticipated recruitment of at least 900 patients. The study will be powered to detect a 10% increase in complication rates with NSAID use. Ethics and dissemination Following the Research Ethics Committee Chairperson's review, a formal waiver was received. This study will be registered as a clinical audit or service evaluation at each participating hospital. Dissemination will take place through previously described novel research collaborative networks. PMID:24972607

Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Chapman, Stephen J; Glasbey, James C D; Kelly, Michael; Khatri, Chetan; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Bhangu, Aneel

2014-01-01

412

Enhancing the Use of Argos Satellite Data for Home Range and Long Distance Migration Studies of Marine Animals  

PubMed Central

Accurately quantifying animals’ spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM) constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) estimated from (a) highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b) locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68th percentile error was <1 km for LC 1, 2, and 3 while markedly less accurate (>4 km) for LC ?0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student’s t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3) and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD?=?2.2±2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio ?=?92.2% and 285.6 respectively). This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes. PMID:22808241

Hoenner, Xavier; Whiting, Scott D.; Hindell, Mark A.; McMahon, Clive R.

2012-01-01

413

MeteorologicalObservationsin Support of a Hill Cap Cloud Experiment  

E-print Network

cloud over theAgana mountain ridge in the northeast of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised was to utilise the hill cap cloud often situated over a mountain ridge in Tenerife to study aerosol processes

414

American studies Why American studies?  

E-print Network

American studies Why American studies? The US is the sole superpower in the 21st century and its may live. Studying American history, culture and society in the context of the Americas provides much What American studies courses are there? American Studies American Studies and English American Studies

Sussex, University of