Sample records for studies utilising dehydroabietic

  1. Laboratory study on OH-initiated degradation kinetics of dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chengyue; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Jinzhu; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2015-04-28

    Dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) is a specific organic tracer for the pyrolysis of conifer resin. To understand its atmospheric stability, the degradation behavior of particulate DHAA in the presence of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was investigated under different environmental conditions using a stainless steel reactor with volume of 30 cm(3), in the dark. At 25 °C and 40% relative humidity (RH), the second-order rate constant (k2) of pure DHAA with OH was measured to be 5.72 ± 0.87 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The influence of temperature, RH and mixing state on the degradation kinetics of DHAA were also investigated. At 40% RH, k2 of pure DHAA increases with increasing temperature and follows the Arrhenius equation k2 = (8.9 ± 1.9) × 10(-10)?exp[-(1508.2 ± 64.2)/T], while RH does not have significant impact on k2 at 25 °C. At 25 °C and 40% RH, compared with pure DHAA, the corresponding k2 for DHAA mixed with (NH4)2SO4 decreased to 4.58 ± 0.95 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), while the value was 3.30 ± 0.79 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) when mixed with soot. The atmospheric lifetime of DHAA varied from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 4.4 ± 0.8 days under different environmental conditions. This study indicates that degradation of DHAA by OH radicals is appreciable, and a significant error in source apportionment should be introduced if the contribution of degradation to DHAA concentration is not considered during air mass aging. PMID:25824374

  2. (+)-Dehydroabietic Acid, an Abietane-Type Diterpene, Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fallarero, Adyary; Skogman, Malena; Kujala, Janni; Rajaratnam, Mohanathas; Moreira, Vânia M.; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Vuorela, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Potent drugs are desperately needed to counteract bacterial biofilm infections, especially those caused by gram-positive organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, anti-biofilm compounds/agents that can be used as chemical tools are also needed for basic in vitro or in vivo studies aimed at exploring biofilms behavior and functionability. In this contribution, a collection of naturally-occurring abietane-type diterpenes and their derivatives was tested against S. aureus biofilms using a platform consisting of two phenotypic assays that have been previously published by our group. Three active compounds were identified: nordehydroabietylamine (1), (+)-dehydroabietic acid (2) and (+)-dehydroabietylamine (3) that prevented biofilm formation in the low micromolar range, and unlike typical antibiotics, only 2 to 4-fold higher concentrations were needed to significantly reduce viability and biomass of existing biofilms. Compound 2, (+)-dehydroabietic acid, was the most selective towards biofilm bacteria, achieving high killing efficacy (based on log Reduction values) and it was best tolerated by three different mammalian cell lines. Since (+)-dehydroabietic acid is an easily available compound, it holds great potential to be used as a molecular probe in biofilms-related studies as well as to serve as inspirational chemical model for the development of potent drug candidates. PMID:23739682

  3. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii and its major compound, dehydroabietic acid, against multidrug-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Luís Fernando; Cardoso, Miguel Jorge Oliveira; Silva, Sandro Donizeti Caetano; Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Ambrosio, Sergio Ricardo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2014-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have emerged from the widespread use of antibiotics worldwide and have prompted the search for new sources of antimicrobial substances. Pinus spp. contain several bioactive compounds consisting mainly of terpenes, terpenoids and some other aromatic and aliphatic constituents. These compounds exert important biological effects, and pine oils have found wide application in the industry. In the present study, we have evaluated the potential activity of the resin-oil of Pinus elliottii and its major compound dehydroabietic acid (DA) against multiresistant bacteria by MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill assays. The MIC of the resin-oil of P. elliottii varied between 25 and 100 µg ml(-1). As for DA, the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration varied between 6.25 and 50 and between 6.25 and 100 µg ml(-1), respectively. The time-kill assay conducted with DA at 6.25 µg ml(-1) evidenced bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (American Type Culture Collection 14990) within 24 h. On the basis of these results, the resin-oil of P. elliottii and its major compound DA play an important part in the search for novel sources of agents that can act against multiresistant bacteria. PMID:25261060

  4. Local cerebral glucose utilisation in chronic alcoholics: a positron tomographic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Samson; J C Baron; A Feline; J Bories; C Crouzel

    1986-01-01

    Using positron tomography, a study of regional cerebral glucose utilisation was performed prospectively in a highly selected group of six neurologically unaffected primary chronic alcoholics. In this group, neuropsychological, behavioural and CT scan anomalies were comparable with those previously reported in more extensive studies. With respect to age-matched control values, cerebral metabolic rate was not significantly modified in the selected

  5. Coping and health service utilisation in a UK study of paediatric sickle cell pain

    PubMed Central

    Anie, K; Steptoe, A; Ball, S; Dick, M; Smalling, B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess sickle cell pain and coping in children and to examine the relation between these factors and the utilisation of health services. Methods: Cross sectional study involving 67 children with sickle cell disease attending three London hospitals. Interviews and questionnaires involved measures of pain, health service utilisation, and coping responses (measured with the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), revised for children with sickle cell disease). Medical data on complications, haemoglobin (Hb) levels, and foetal haemoglobin (HbF) percentage were also collected. Results: Pain accounted for about 24% of hospital service use, independent of age, sex, number of with sickle cell disease complications, and Hb levels. However, 42% of patients had not utilised hospital services in the past 12 months. Three higher order factors emerged from analysis of the CSQ (active coping, affective coping, passive adherence coping). Pain severity was predicted by passive adherence coping, while utilisation of hospital services was predicted by active coping. Conclusions: Sickle cell disease in children involves severe recurrent pain leading to hospitalisation in some cases. Psychological coping patterns are relevant to both pain experience, and the use of acute hospital services. It is likely that children would benefit from community based interventions that incorporate both medical and psychological assessments. PMID:11970920

  6. Ice core records of biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and dehydroabietic, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids) and total organic carbon for past 300 years in the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Izawa, Yusuke; Mochida, Michihiro; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    We successfully detected biomass burning tracers including levoglucosan and vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic and dehydroabietic acids in an ice core (153 m long, ca. 300 years old) taken from Ushkovsky ice cap (altitude, 3903 m), the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northeast Asia. Concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) were also determined in the ice core. Levoglucosan, which is produced by pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose and thus is a general tracer of biomass burning, showed sporadic peaks in the years of 1705, 1759, 1883, 1915, 1949 and 1972, with the largest peak in 1949. However, its concentrations did not show a systematic increase in the last century although the concentration peaks seemingly corresponded to the higher ambient temperatures in the northern high latitudes. In contrast, dehydroabietic acid, a specific tracer of the pyrolysis of conifer resin, showed a gradual increase from the early 1900s to 1990s with a significant peak in 1970. Contributions of dehydroabietic acid to TOC also showed an increasing trend for the 20th century. Similarly, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids presented higher concentrations in the last half-century with sporadic peaks in 1705, 1759 and 1949. This study showed that general biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan have been sporadically transported over the glacier of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In contrast, the ice core record of dehydroabietic acid indicated that fires of boreal conifer forest have more frequently and increasingly occurred in Far East and Siberia during the last century and transported to the Northwestern Pacific. The present study demonstrates that organic tracers of biomass burning preserved in ice core could provide historical records of biomass burning and boreal forest fires.

  7. Impact of headache on sickness absence and utilisation of medical services: a Danish population study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B K Rasmussen; R Jensen; J Olesen

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study the extent and type of health service utilisation, medication habits, and sickness absence due to the primary headaches. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional epidemiological survey of headache disorders in a general population. Headache was diagnosed according to a structured interview and a neurological examination using the criteria of the International Headache Society. SETTING--A random

  8. Dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) alters metabolic enzyme activity and the effects of 17?-estradiol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Pandelides, Z; Guchardi, J; Holdway, D

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), a resin acid present in pulp and paper mill effluent, affects liver energy metabolism and may have anti-estrogenic effects in fish. A chronic-exposure toxicity experiment using immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was conducted in order to assess the endocrine disrupting and liver metabolic effects of the model estrogen 17?-estradiol (E2) and the wood extractives DHAA and ?-sitosterol (BS), regularly present in pulp and paper mill effluents. Exposure to 5ppm of E2 significantly increased hepatosomatic index (HSI), vitellogenin (VTG) and plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). This latter effect was reduced by mixing E2 with DHAA, indicating that DHAA does not cause its endocrine disrupting effects indirectly due to liver damage. Exposure to 0.5ppm of DHAA as well as all the DHAA mixed treatments caused significant increases in liver citrate synthase (CS), activity after 7 days, however, the fish returned to control values by 28 days. Results indicate that DHAA may alter metabolic enzyme activity as well as alter the effects of E2 in juvenile rainbow trout. PMID:24507142

  9. Drug Utilisation Study in a Tertiary Care Center: Recommendations for Improving Hospital Drug Dispensing Policies

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R.; Singh, I.; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

  10. Growth, Induction, and Substrate Specificity of Dehydroabietic Acid-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from a Kraft Mill Effluent Enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. BICHO; V. MARTIN; N. SADDLER

    1995-01-01

    We investigated resin acid degradation infive bacteria isolated from a bleach kraft mill effluent enrichment. All of the bacteria grew on dehydroabietic acid (DHA), a resin acid routinely detected in pulping effluents, or glycerol as the sole carbon source. None of the strains grew on acetate or methanol. Glycerol-grown, high- density, resting-cell suspensions were found to undergo a lag for

  11. Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs). Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs). Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR) decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR) followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by humanitarian agencies working in complex settings. Humanitarian organisations should however endeavour to disseminate routinely collected mortality data and improve utilisation of data for operational planning and evaluation. Accurate population estimation continues to be a challenge, limiting the accuracy of mortality estimates. PMID:23186330

  12. Combined effects of pulp and paper effluent, dehydroabietic acid, and hypoxia on swimming performance, metabolism, and hematology of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Landman, Michael J; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Finley, Megan; Bannon, Henry J; Ling, Nicholas

    2006-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of a thermomechanical (TMP)/bleached kraft pulp and paper mill effluent (BKME), dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), hypoxia, and combinations of hypoxia and effluent on juvenile rainbow trout. In the first two experiments, trout were exposed for 4 weeks to 0%, 10%, 30%, and 70% TMP/BKME or 0, 35, 110, and 250 microgL(-1) DHAA, respectively. Endpoints of those dose-response studies included critical swimming speed, oxygen consumption, and hematology. Reduced swimming performance was found for fish exposed to 70% TMP/BKME. Moderate increases in mean cell hemoglobin concentration at 70% TMP/BKME and blood glucose at 30% and 70% TMP/BKME were also seen. The opposite trend for glucose was found for DHAA-exposed fish, where a slight decrease in glucose was seen at 110 and 250 microgL(-1) DHAA. The third experiment examined the effects of 15% v/v TMP/BKME exposure at 2.5 and 5.0 mgL(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO) for 4 weeks. This experiment found no effect of low DO on swimming ability. An interactive effect between DO and effluent exposure was seen only on hematocrit, where effluent caused an increase in hematocrit at 5 mgL(-1) and a decrease at 2.5 mgL(-1) DO. Effluent exposure in this experiment resulted in a greater number of smaller red blood cells. The current study demonstrated physiological effects in rainbow trout exposed to varying concentrations (15-70% v/v) of a TMP/BKME and no substantial effects of DHAA exposure. With the exception of the reduced swimming performance in fish exposed to TMP/BKME, the observed effects are considered relatively small in magnitude but are occurring at concentrations of effluent that occur in the receiving environment. PMID:16318874

  13. Formal home-care utilisation by older adults in Ireland: evidence from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Catriona M; Whelan, Brendan J; Normand, Charles

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a population-based estimate of the utilisation of publicly financed formal home care by older adults in Ireland and to identify the principal characteristics of those utilising formal home care. Data were collected through computer-aided personal interviews from a representative sample of community living older adults in Ireland. The interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 as part of the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). The study is cross-sectional in design and limited to participants aged 65 years and older (n = 3507). Results reveal that 8.2% (95% CI 7.1%-9.3%) of participants utilised publicly financed formal home care in the form of home help and/or personal care. Key determinants of formal home-care utilisation were Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) difficulty (Adj OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.7-5.3), older age (Adj OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-4.8) and living alone (Adj OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.8). Almost half of those utilising formal care did not self-report an Activity of Daily Living (ADL) difficulty or an IADL difficulty. Government policy aims to reduce the need for long-term residential care by providing formal home care for older adults with low to moderate levels of dependency. This requires an increasing emphasis on personal care provision in the home. No evidence was found in this study to suggest that a shift in emphasis from formal domestic to personal care is taking place in Ireland. The absence of standardised assessment and eligibility criteria are deemed to be barriers to reorientation of the system. From a health services perspective, the current situation is not sustainable into the future and requires a focused policy response. PMID:25442330

  14. In their own words: qualitative study of high-utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dwamena, Francesca C; Lyles, Judith S; Frankel, Richard M; Smith, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Background High utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) often frustrate their primary care providers. Studies that elucidate the attitudes of these patients may help to increase understanding and improve confidence of clinicians who care for them. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze perceptions and lived experiences of high utilising primary care patients with MUS. Methods A purposive sample of 19 high utilising primary care patients for whom at least 50% (69.6% in this sample) of visits for two years could not be explained medically, were encouraged to talk spontaneously about themselves and answer semi-structured questions. Verbatim transcripts of interviews were analyzed using an iterative consensus building process. Results Patients with MUS almost universally described current and/or past family dysfunction and were subjected to excessive testing and ineffective empirical treatments. Three distinct groups emerged from the data. 1) Some patients, who had achieved a significant degree of psychological insight and had success in life, primarily sought explanations for their symptoms. 2) Patients who had less psychological insight were more disabled by their symptoms and felt strongly entitled to be excused from normal social obligations. Typically, these patients primarily sought symptom relief, legitimization, and support. 3) Patients who expressed worry about missed diagnoses demanded excessive care and complained when their demands were resisted. Conclusion High utilising primary care patients are a heterogeneous group with similar experiences and different perceptions, behaviours and needs. Recognizing these differences may be critical to effective treatment and reduction in utilisation. PMID:19772582

  15. Barriers and gateways: a study of nursing students' utilisation of learning support resources.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Mort, P; McVeigh, C

    2001-04-01

    Many first year nursing students require additional academic support from both their lecturers and learning resources. Anecdotal evidence at an Australian university suggested that 'at risk' students did not follow up lecturer referral. This study identified what learning resources were accessed and what factors influenced students' decisions to follow up or not to follow up lecturer referral. First-year nursing students (n =150) were surveyed towards the end of their second semester regarding their use of learning support services. Twelve students were randomly selected and interviewed regarding their use of learning support and their first year learning experience. Demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. Results revealed learning support utilisation was related to age and publicity but unrelated to gender or culture. Older students entering through non-traditional entry modes displayed a tendency to self refer to learning support. Younger students (<25 years) often lacked effective learning strategies and were reluctant to access on-campus learning support. For all students positive on and off campus support led to positive outcomes. Faculty and learning support lecturers need to foster integration of learning support for all students and encourage peer-learning partnerships within the foundation subjects. PMID:11322812

  16. Effect of Frailty on Functional Gain, Resource Utilisation, and Discharge Destination: An Observational Prospective Study in a GEM Ward

    PubMed Central

    Kawryshanker, Sujatha; Raymond, Warren; Inderjeeth, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. A geriatric evaluation and management unit (GEM) manages elderly inpatients with functional impairments. There is a paucity of literature on frailty and whether this impacts on rehabilitation outcomes. Objectives. To examine frailty score (FS) as a predictor of functional gain, resource utilisation, and destinations for GEM patients. Methods. A single centre prospective case study design. Participants (n = 136) were ?65 years old and admitted to a tertiary hospital GEM. Five patients were excluded by the preset exclusion criteria, that is, medically unstable, severe dementia or communication difficulties after stroke. Core data included demographics, frailty score (FS), and functional independence. Results. The mean functional improvement (FIM) from admission to discharge was 11.26 (95% CI 8.87, 13.66; P < 0.001). Discharge FIM was positively correlated with admission FIM (? = 0.748; P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with frailty score (? = ?1.151; P = 0.014). The majority of the patients were in the “frail” group. “Frail” and “severely frail” subgroups improved more on mean FIM scores at discharge, relative to that experienced by the “pre-frail” group. Conclusion. All patients experienced functional improvement. Frailer patients improved more on their FIM and improved relatively more than their prefrail counterparts. Higher frailty correlated with reduced independence and greater resource utilisation. This study demonstrates that FS could be a prognostic indicator of physical independence and resource utilisation. PMID:24695584

  17. Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources. PMID:21070641

  18. Bacteria obtained from a sequencing batch reactor that are capable of growth on dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, W W

    1995-01-01

    Eleven isolates capable of growth on the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DhA) were obtained from a sequencing batch reactor designed to treat a high-strength process stream from a paper mill. The isolates belonged to two groups, represented by strains DhA-33 and DhA-35, which were characterized. In the bioreactor, bacteria like DhA-35 were more abundant than those like DhA-33. The population in the bioreactor of organisms capable of growth on DhA was estimated to be 1.1 x 10(6) propagules per ml, based on a most-probable-number determination. Analysis of small-subunit rRNA partial sequences indicated that DhA-33 was most closely related to Sphingomonas yanoikuyae (Sab = 0.875) and that DhA-35 was most closely related to Zoogloea ramigera (Sab = 0.849). Both isolates additionally grew on other abietanes, i.e., abietic and palustric acids, but not on the pimaranes, pimaric and isopimaric acids. For DhA-33 and DhA-35 with DhA as the sole organic substrate, doubling times were 2.7 and 2.2 h, respectively, and growth yields were 0.30 and 0.25 g of protein per g of DhA, respectively. Glucose as a cosubstrate stimulated growth of DhA-33 on DhA and stimulated DhA degradation by the culture. Pyruvate as a cosubstrate did not stimulate growth of DhA-35 on DhA and reduced the specific rate of DhA degradation of the culture. DhA induced DhA and abietic acid degradation activities in both strains, and these activities were heat labile. Cell suspensions of both strains consumed DhA at a rate of 6 mumol mg of protein-1 h-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793937

  19. An increased utilisation rate and better compliance to guidelines for primary radiotherapy for breast cancer from 1997 till 2008: A population-based study in The Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk Struikmans; Mieke J. Aarts; Jan J. Jobsen; Caro C. E. Koning; Jos W. S. Merkus; Marnix L. Lybeert; Jos Immerzeel; Philip M. Poortmans; Laetitia Veerbeek; Marieke W. Louwman; Jan Willem W. Coebergh

    2011-01-01

    Only scarce data are available on the utilisation rate of primary radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer. In this study, we compared the use of primary RT for patients with stages I–III breast cancer in 4 of the 9 Dutch Comprehensive Cancer Centres, focussing specifically on time trends as well as age effects. From the population-based cancer registries, we

  20. Technology Utilisation in Elementary Schools in Turkey's Capital: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaca, Feride; Can, Gulfidan; Yildirim, Soner

    2013-01-01

    A case study was conducted to explore teachers' current technology use in elementary schools in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The data were collected through a survey, and participants included 1030 classroom teachers across eight districts. The present study results revealed that significant challenges remain with regard to technology use…

  1. Utilising a Virtual World to Teach Performance Appraisal: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Shona

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of an explorative study

  2. The association of smoking status with healthcare utilisation, productivity loss and resulting costs: results from the population-based KORA F4 study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking is seen as the most important single risk to health today, and is responsible for a high financial burden on healthcare systems and society. This population-based cross-sectional study compares healthcare utilisation, direct medical costs, and costs of productivity losses for different smoking groups: current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers. Methods Using a bottom-up approach, data were taken from the German KORA F4 study (2006/2008) on self-reported healthcare utilisation and work absence due to illness for 3,071 adults aged 32-81 years. Unit costs from a societal perspective were applied to utilisation. Utilisation and resulting costs were compared across different smoking groups using generalised linear models to adjust for age, sex, education, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Results Average annual total costs per survey participant were estimated as €3,844 [95% confidence interval: 3,447-4,233], and differed considerably between smoking groups with never smokers showing €3,237 [2,802-3,735] and former smokers causing €4,398 [3,796-5,058]. There was a positive effect of current and former smoking on the utilisation of healthcare services and on direct and indirect costs. Total annual costs were more than 20% higher (p<0.05) for current smokers and 35% higher (p<0.01) for former smokers compared with never smokers, which corresponds to annual excess costs of €743 and €1,108 per current and former smoker, respectively. Conclusions Results indicate that excess costs for current and former smokers impose a large burden on society, and that previous top-down cost approaches produced lower estimates for the costs of care for smoking-related diseases. Efforts must be focused on prevention of smoking to achieve sustainable containment on behalf of the public interest. PMID:23866993

  3. Substrate utilisation during exercise and shivering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Tipton; G. M. Franks; G. S. Meneilly; I. B. Mekjavic

    1997-01-01

    It is generally assumed that exercise and shivering are analogous processes with regard to substrate utilisation and that, as a consequence, exercise can be used as a model for shivering. In the present study, substrate utilisation during exercise and shivering at the same oxygen consumption (V£O2) were compared. Following an overnight fast, eight male subjects undertook a 2-h immersion in

  4. A Robust Co-Localisation Measurement Utilising Z-Stack Image Intensity Similarities for Biological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinhai; Ledgerwood, Craig; Grills, Claire; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Hamilton, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Co-localisation is a widely used measurement in immunohistochemical analysis to determine if fluorescently labelled biological entities, such as cells, proteins or molecules share a same location. However the measurement of co-localisation is challenging due to the complex nature of such fluorescent images, especially when multiple focal planes are captured. The current state-of-art co-localisation measurements of 3-dimensional (3D) image stacks are biased by noise and cross-overs from non-consecutive planes. Method In this study, we have developed Co-localisation Intensity Coefficients (CICs) and Co-localisation Binary Coefficients (CBCs), which uses rich z-stack data from neighbouring focal planes to identify similarities between image intensities of two and potentially more fluorescently-labelled biological entities. This was developed using z-stack images from murine organotypic slice cultures from central nervous system tissue, and two sets of pseudo-data. A large amount of non-specific cross-over situations are excluded using this method. This proposed method is also proven to be robust in recognising co-localisations even when images are polluted with a range of noises. Results The proposed CBCs and CICs produce robust co-localisation measurements which are easy to interpret, resilient to noise and capable of removing a large amount of false positivity, such as non-specific cross-overs. Performance of this method of measurement is significantly more accurate than existing measurements, as determined statistically using pseudo datasets of known values. This method provides an important and reliable tool for fluorescent 3D neurobiological studies, and will benefit other biological studies which measure fluorescence co-localisation in 3D. PMID:22363456

  5. Study of calcification formation and disease diagnostics utilising advanced vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerssens, Marleen Maartje

    The accurate and safe diagnosis of breast cancer is a significant societal issue, with annual disease incidence of 48,000 women and around 370 men in the UK. Early diagnosis of the disease allows more conservative treatments and better patient outcomes. Microcalcifications in breast tissue are an important indicator for breast cancers, and often the only sign of their presence. Several studies have suggested that the type of calcification formed may act as a marker for malignancy and its presence may be of biological significance. In this work, breast calcifications are studied with FTIR, synchrotron FTIR, ATR FTIR, and Raman mapping to explore their disease specific composition. From a comparison between vibrational spectroscopy and routine staining procedures it becomes clear that calcium builds up prior to calcification formation. Raman and FTIR indicate the same size for calcifications and are in agreement with routine staining techniques. From the synchrotron FTIR measurements it can be proven that amide is present in the centre of the calcifications and the intensity of the bands depends on the pathology. Special attention is paid to the type of carbonate substitution in the calcifications relating to different pathology grades. In contrast to mammography, Raman spectroscopy has the capability to distinguish calcifications based on their chemical composition. The ultimate goal is to turn the acquired knowledge from the mapping studies into a clinical tool based on deep Raman spectroscopy. Deep Raman techniques have a considerable potential to reduce large numbers of normal biopsies, reduce the time delay between screening and diagnosis and therefore diminish patient anxiety. In order to achieve this, a deep Raman system is designed and after evaluation of its performance tested on buried calcification standards in porcine soft tissue and human mammary tissue. It is shown that, when the calcification is probed through tissue, the strong 960 cm-1 phosphate band can be used as a pseudo marker for carbonate substitution which is related to the pathology of the surrounding tissue. Furthermore, the first study in which human breast calcifications are measured in bulk tissue with a thickness of several millimetres to centimetres is presented. To date, measurements have been performed at 41 specimens with a thickness up to 25 mm. Measurements could be performed through skin and blue dye. The proposed deep Raman technique is promising for probing of calcifications through tissue but will need refinement before being adopted in hospitals.

  6. Utilising a collective case study system theory mixed methods approach: a rural health example

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insight into local health service provision in rural communities is limited in the literature. The dominant workforce focus in the rural health literature, while revealing issues of shortage of maldistribution, does not describe service provision in rural towns. Similarly aggregation of data tends to render local health service provision virtually invisible. This paper describes a methodology to explore specific aspects of rural health service provision with an initial focus on understanding rurality as it pertains to rural physiotherapy service provision. Method A system theory-case study heuristic combined with a sequential mixed methods approach to provide a framework for both quantitative and qualitative exploration across sites. Stakeholder perspectives were obtained through surveys and in depth interviews. The investigation site was a large area of one Australian state with a mix of rural, regional and remote communities. Results 39 surveys were received from 11 locations within the investigation site and 19 in depth interviews were conducted. Stakeholder perspectives of rurality and workforce numbers informed the development of six case types relevant to the exploration of rural physiotherapy service provision. Participant perspective of rurality often differed with the geographical classification of their location. The numbers of onsite colleagues and local access to health services contributed to participant perceptions of rurality. Conclusions The complexity of understanding the concept of rurality was revealed by interview participants when providing their perspectives about rural physiotherapy service provision. Dual measures, such as rurality and workforce numbers, provide more relevant differentiation of sites to explore specific services, such rural physiotherapy service provision, than single measure of rurality as defined by geographic classification. The system theory-case study heuristic supports both qualitative and quantitative exploration in rural health services research. PMID:25066241

  7. Obesity in pregnancy: a retrospective prevalence-based study on health service utilisation and costs on the NHS

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kelly L; Rahman, Muhammad A; Macey, Steven; Atkinson, Mark D; Hill, Rebecca A; Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Paranjothy, Shantini; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Brophy, Sinead T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the direct healthcare cost of being overweight or obese throughout pregnancy to the National Health Service in Wales. Design Retrospective prevalence-based study. Setting Combined linked anonymised electronic datasets gathered on a cohort of women enrolled on the Growing Up in Wales: Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) study. Women were categorised into two groups: normal body mass index (BMI; n=260) and overweight/obese (BMI>25; n=224). Participants 484 singleton pregnancies with available health service records and an antenatal BMI. Primary outcome measure Total health service utilisation (comprising all general practitioner visits and prescribed medications, inpatient admissions and outpatient visits) and direct healthcare costs for providing these services in the year 2011–2012. Costs are calculated as cost of mother (no infant costs are included) and are related to health service usage throughout pregnancy and 2?months following delivery. Results There was a strong association between healthcare usage cost and BMI (p<0.001). Adjusting for maternal age, parity, ethnicity and comorbidity, mean total costs were 23% higher among overweight women (rate ratios (RR)?1.23, 95% CI 1.230 to 1.233) and 37% higher among obese women (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.39) compared with women with normal weight. Adjusting for smoking, consumption of alcohol, or the presence of any comorbidities did not materially affect the results. The total mean cost estimates were £3546.3 for normal weight, £4244.4 for overweight and £4717.64 for obese women. Conclusions Increased health service usage and healthcare costs during pregnancy are associated with increasing maternal BMI; this was apparent across all health services considered within this study. Interventions costing less than £1171.34 per person could be cost-effective if they reduce healthcare usage among obese pregnant women to levels equivalent to that of normal weight women. PMID:24578535

  8. Drug utilisation profile in the neonatal unit of a university hospital: a prospective observational study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Adriana Cristina de Souza; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Gusmão, Ana Carolina Marçal; Bouzada, Maria Cândida Ferrarez

    2015-08-01

    Background Advances in neonatology have contributed to changes in the drug utilisation profile in neonates, both in the number of drugs and the pharmacotherapeutic groups. Objective To analyse drug use in the neonatal care unit of a teaching hospital in Brazil and to evaluate the associations among perinatal, clinical care and drug use data. Setting The neonatal care unit of a teaching hospital in Brazil. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted. Perinatal, clinical care and pharmacotherapy data were collected from the patients' medical records. Labelling information regarding neonatal use was analysed for prescribed drugs. The data were analysed using univariate descriptive statistics and quasi-Poisson regression. Main outcome measure Frequency of drug use by gestational age. Results The study included 187 patients; 157 (84.0 %) received drugs. The mean gestational age was 35.8 weeks. The mean number of drugs prescribed per patient was 6.4. The number of drugs used was inversely correlated to gestational age and birth weight. The most commonly prescribed drugs belonged to the following anatomical therapeutic chemical groups: nervous system drugs, anti-infectives for systemic use, and alimentary tract and metabolism drugs. Information regarding neonatal use was given in the labelling of only 20.5 % of the prescribed drugs. Of these, only 9.5 % had information specific for preterm infants. Conclusions Drug administration to neonates is frequently and inversely correlated to gestational age and birth weight. Neonates are exposed to different therapeutic classes, reflecting scientific advances in neonatology. In Brazil, the percentage of drugs with neonate-specific labelling information is low. Consequently, there is an evident need for efforts to guarantee effective and safe pharmacotherapy for neonates. PMID:25832676

  9. Aged Residential Care Health Utilisation Study (ARCHUS): a randomised controlled trial to reduce acute hospitalisations from residential aged care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For residents of long term care, hospitalisations can cause distress and disruption, and often result in further medical complications. Multi-disciplinary team interventions have been shown to improve the health of Residential Aged Care (RAC) residents, decreasing the need for acute hospitalisation, yet there are few randomised controlled trials of these complex interventions. This paper describes a randomised controlled trial of a structured multi-disciplinary team and gerontology nurse specialist (GNS) intervention aiming to reduce residents’ avoidable hospitalisations. Methods/Design This Aged Residential Care Healthcare Utilisation Study (ARCHUS) is a cluster- randomised controlled trial (n?=?1700 residents) of a complex multi-disciplinary team intervention in long-term care facilities. Eligible facilities certified for residential care were selected from those identified as at moderate or higher risk of resident potentially avoidable hospitalisations by statistical modelling. The facilities were all located in the Auckland region, New Zealand and were stratified by District Health Board (DHB). Intervention The intervention provided a structured GNS intervention including a baseline facility needs assessment, quality indicator benchmarking, a staff education programme and care coordination. Alongside this, three multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings were held involving a geriatrician, facility GP, pharmacist, GNS and senior nursing staff. Outcomes Hospitalisations are recorded from routinely-collected acute admissions during the 9-month intervention period followed by a 5-month follow-up period. ICD diagnosis codes are used in a pre-specified definition of potentially reducible admissions. Discussion This randomised-controlled trial will evaluate a complex intervention to increase early identification and intervention to improve the health of residents of long term care. The results of this trial are expected in early 2013. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN 12611000187943 PMID:22974314

  10. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species.

    PubMed

    Schrama, J W; Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Heinsbroek, L T N; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (k(gDE)). Furthermore, literature data on k(gDE) across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient composition. A total of twelve groups of fish were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two diets ('fat' v. 'starch') and two feeding levels ('low' v. 'high'). In the 'fat'-diet, 125 g fish oil and in the 'starch'-diet 300 g maize starch were added to 875 g of an identical basal mixture. Fish were fed restrictively one of two ration levels ('low' or 'high') for estimating k(gDE). Nutrient digestibility, N and energy balances were measured. For estimating k(gDE), data of the present study were combined with previous data of Nile tilapia fed similar diets to satiation. The type of NPE affected k(gDE) (0.561 and 0.663 with the 'starch' and 'fat'-diets, respectively; P < 0.001). Across fish species, literature values of k(gDE) range from 0.31 to 0.82. Variability in k(gDE) was related to dietary macronutrient composition, the trophic level of the fish species and the composition of growth (fat:protein gain ratio). The across-species comparison suggested that the relationships of k(gDE) with trophic level and with growth composition were predominantly induced by dietary macronutrient composition. Reported k(gDE) values increased linearly with increasing dietary fat content and decreasing dietary carbohydrate content. In contrast, k(gDE) related curvilinearly to dietary crude protein content. In conclusion, energy utilisation for growth is influenced by dietary macronutrient composition. PMID:22004562

  11. Early primary care physician contact and health service utilisation in a large sample of recently released ex-prisoners in Australia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold-Reed, Diane; Preen, David; Bulsara, Max; Lennox, Nick; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between ex-prisoner primary care physician contact within 1?month of prison release and health service utilisation in the 6?months following release. Design A cohort from the Passports study with a mean follow-up of 219 (±44) days postrelease. Associations were assessed using a multivariate Andersen-Gill model, controlling for a range of other factors. Setting Face-to-face, baseline interviews were conducted in a sample of prisoners within 6?weeks of expected release from seven prisons in Queensland, Australia, from 2008 to 2010, with telephone follow-up interviews 1, 3 and 6?months postrelease. Participants From an original population-based sample of 1325 sentenced adult (?18?years) prisoners, 478 participants were excluded due to not being released from prison during follow-up (n=7, 0.5%), loss to follow-up (n=257, 19.4%), or lacking exposure data (n=214, 16.2%). A total of 847 (63.9%) participants were included in the analyses. Exposure Primary care physician contact within 1 month of follow-up as a dichotomous measure. Main outcome measures Adjusted time-to-event hazard rates for hospital, mental health, alcohol and other drug and subsequent primary care physician service utilisations assessed as multiple failure time-interval data. Results Primary care physician contact prevalence within 1 month of follow-up was 46.5%. One-month primary care physician contact was positively associated with hospital (adjusted HR (AHR)=2.07; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.09), mental health (AHR=1.65; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.19), alcohol and other drug (AHR=1.48; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.90) and subsequent primary care physician service utilisation (AHR=1.47; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.72) over 6?months of follow-up. Conclusions Engagement with primary care physician services soon after prison release increases health service utilisation during the critical community transition period for ex-prisoners. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000232336). PMID:26068513

  12. Population-based cross-sectional study of barriers to utilisation of refraction services in South India: Rapid Assessment of Refractive Errors (RARE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, Jill E; Raman, Usha; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess the barriers to the uptake of refraction services in the age group of 15–49?years in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling to enumerate 3300 individuals from 55 clusters. A validated questionnaire was used to elicit information on barriers to utilisation of services among individuals with uncorrected refractive error (presenting visual acuity <6/12 but improving to ?6/12 on using a pinhole) and presbyopia (binocular near vision 35?years with binocular distance visual acuity of ?6/12). Results 3095 (94%) were available for examination. Those with uncorrected refractive errors cited affordability as the main barrier to the uptake of eye-care services. Among people with uncorrected presbyopia, lack of ‘felt need’ was the leading barrier. Conclusion The barriers that were ‘relatively easy to change’ were reported by those with uncorrected refractive errors in contrast to ‘difficult to change’ barriers reported by those with uncorrected presbyopia. Together, the data on prevalence and an understanding of the barriers for the uptake of services are critical to the planning of refractive error services. PMID:22021782

  13. Prostate specific antigen testing is associated with men’s psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation in a nationally representative sample: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer incidence has risen considerably in recent years, primarily due to Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in primary care. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between PSA testing and the psychological and physical health, and healthcare utilisation of men in a population where PSA testing is widespread. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population-representative sample of men ?50 years enrolled in The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA participants underwent structured interviews, health assessments and completed standardised questionnaires. Men were classified as ever/never having received a PSA test. Multivariate logistic regression (Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) was used to determine associations between PSA testing, and men’s psychological and physical health and healthcare utilisation. Results This analysis included 3,628 men, 68.2% of whom ever had a PSA test. In adjusted analysis, men with sub-threshold depression were significantly less likely to have had a PSA test, (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.97). Likelihood of having a PSA test was inversely associated with anxiety, but this was not significant (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI 0.57-1.09). Frailty (OR?=?0.61, 95% CI 0.31-1.05) and eligibility for free primary care (OR?=?0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.77) were also inversely associated with PSA testing. Positive associations were observed between PSA testing and more chronic illnesses (OR?=?1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.19), more primary care visits (OR?=?1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and preventative health practices, including cholesterol testing and influenza vaccination (OR?=?1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.60). Conclusions Men’s psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation are associated with PSA testing in primary care. The association between poorer psychological health, in particular sub-threshold depression, and reduced likelihood of PSA testing in primary care requires further investigation. These findings may have wider implications for other cancer screening. PMID:24938184

  14. Increased utilisation of primary healthcare in persons exposed to severe stress in prenatal life: a national population-based study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiong; Yang, Hu; Guldin, Mai-Britt; Vedsted, Peter; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that stress in a pregnant mother may affect the future health of the unborn child negatively. An excellent proxy for health problems is the use of healthcare resources. Using nationwide data, we examined whether persons born to mothers who lost a close relative during pregnancy have more contacts to general practice. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants We included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2002 (N=2?032?528). Exposure of prenatal stress was defined as maternal bereavement by the death of a close relative during the antenatal period. The outcome of interest was contact with general practice between 2003 and 2009 when the participants were between 1 and 35?years of age. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between exposure and outcome. Outcome measures Contacts to general practitioner. Results Overall, persons exposed to prenatal stress had 2% more GP contacts than those not exposed, primarily due to increased utilisation of healthcare services during late adolescence and early adulthood. The exposed persons born to mothers who had lost a spouse had a higher risk (relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.14) and so did those born to mothers who had lost a close relative due to unexpected death (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.06). Exposed persons had more contacts to general practice in daytime and more psychometric tests, talk therapies and C reactive protein tests than unexposed persons. Conclusions Prenatal stress following maternal bereavement was associated with a slightly increased utilisation of primary healthcare, mainly due to increased healthcare needs related to mental health and infections. Understanding how stress during pregnancy influences the future health of the child is an important aspect of prenatal care. PMID:25573520

  15. Barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Carrion; Phil Woods; Ian Norman

    2004-01-01

    This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design to identify barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses. A postal questionnaire was sent to the total population of 88 registered nurses working in a forensic mental health hospital in the UK. Forty-seven responded representing a response rate of 53%. Results showed that the greatest barriers to research utilisation were those

  16. Early Complications Following Oesophagectomy for Cancer in Relation to Long-Term Healthcare Utilisation: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Doorakkers, Eva; Konings, Peter; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Jesper; Brusselaers, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about how early postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer influence healthcare utilisation in the long-term. We hypothesised that these complications also increase healthcare utilisation long after the recovery period. Methods This was a prospective, nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study of patients who underwent curatively intended oesophagectomy for cancer in 2001-2005 and survived at least 1 year postoperatively (n = 390). Total days of in-hospitalisation, number of hospitalisations and number of visits to the outpatient clinic within 5 years of surgery were analysed using quasi-Poisson models with adjustment for patient, tumour and treatment characteristics and are expressed as incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results There was an increased in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years after surgery in patients with more than 1 complication (IRR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4). The IRR for the number of hospitalisations by number of complications was 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.6), and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6) for number of outpatient visits in patients with more than 1 complication. The IRR for in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years following oesophagectomy was 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.0) for patients with anastomotic insufficiency and 1.5 (95% CI 0.9-2.5) for patients with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications. We found no association with number of hospitalisations (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-2.0) or number of outpatient visits (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.7) after anastomotic insufficiency, or after cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-1.9) and (IRR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.5) respectively. Conclusion This study showed an increased total in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years after oesophagectomy for cancer in patients with postoperative complications, particularly following anastomotic insufficiency. PMID:25768921

  17. Utilisation of Data Derived from Large-Scale Experiments and Study of Natural Blockages for Blast-Fill Dam Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. F. Korchevskiy; A. V. Kolichko; A. L. Strom; L. M. Pernik; K. E. Abdrakhmatov

    \\u000a Blast-fill and, especially, blast-rockslide technology allows construction of large dams with high safety factor and at the\\u000a acceptable cost at those sites, which geological and seismological conditions complicate or even prevent construction of dams\\u000a of other types. Large-scale field experiments and study of natural dams of the same size as the designed structures have been\\u000a carried out to obtain reliable

  18. Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternity care provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little known about women’s concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners. Methods A sub-study of pregnant women (n=2445) was undertaken from the nationally-representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Women’s consultations with conventional practitioners (obstetricians, GPs and midwives) and CAM practitioners for pregnancy-related health conditions were analysed. The analysis included Pearson chi-square tests to compare categorical variables. Results The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate = 79.2%). A substantial number (49.4%) of respondents consulted with a CAM practitioner for pregnancy-related health conditions. Many participants consulted only with a CAM practitioner for assistance with certain conditions such as neck pain (74.6%) and sciatica (40.4%). Meanwhile, women consulted both CAM practitioners and conventional maternity health professionals (obstetricians, midwives and GPs) for back pain (61.8%) and gestational diabetes (22.2%). Women visiting a general practitioner (GP) 3–4 times for pregnancy care were more likely to consult with acupuncturists compared with those consulting a GP less often (p=<0.001, x2=20.5). Women who had more frequent visits to a midwife were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist (p=<0.001, x2=18.9) or a doula (p=<0.001, x2=23.2) than those visiting midwives less frequently for their pregnancy care. Conclusions The results emphasise the necessity for a considered and collaborative approach to interactions between pregnant women, conventional maternity health providers and CAM practitioners to accommodate appropriate information transferral and co-ordinated maternity care. The absence of sufficient clinical evidence regarding many commonly used CAM practices during pregnancy also requires urgent attention. PMID:23231765

  19. Portrait of rural emergency departments in Quebec and utilisation of the Quebec Emergency Department Management Guide: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Richard; Archambault, Patrick; Légaré, France; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Ouimet, Mathieu; Dupuis, Gilles; Haggerty, Jeannie; Poitras, Julien; Tanguay, Alain; Simard-Racine, Geneviève; Gauthier, Josée

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Emergency departments are important safety nets for people who live in rural areas. Moreover, a serious problem in access to healthcare services has emerged in these regions. The challenges of providing access to quality rural emergency care include recruitment and retention issues, lack of advanced imagery technology, lack of specialist support and the heavy reliance on ambulance transport over great distances. The Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services published a new version of the Emergency Department Management Guide, a document designed to improve the emergency department management and to humanise emergency department care and services. In particular, the Guide recommends solutions to problems that plague rural emergency departments. Unfortunately, no studies have evaluated the implementation of the proposed recommendations. Methods and analysis To develop a comprehensive portrait of all rural emergency departments in Quebec, data will be gathered from databases at the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services, the Quebec Trauma Registry and from emergency departments and ambulance services managers. Statistics Canada data will be used to describe populations and rural regions. To evaluate the use of the 2006 Emergency Department Management Guide and the implementation of its various recommendations, an online survey and a phone interview will be administered to emergency department managers. Two online surveys will evaluate quality of work life among physicians and nurses working at rural emergency departments. Quality-of-care indicators will be collected from databases and patient medical files. Data will be analysed using statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the CSSS Alphonse–Desjardins research ethics committee (Project MP-HDL-1213-011). The results will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at one or more scientific conferences. PMID:23633423

  20. Utilisation of rheumatology care services in Germany: the case of physical therapy and self-help groups

    PubMed Central

    Thieme, Holm; Borgetto, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Physical Therapy (PT) and self-help groups (SHG) are important components of health care in rheumatic diseases. The utilisation of PT and SHG by patients with rheumatic diseases may be influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence on PT and SHG utilisation of patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. We systematically searched the MEDLINE-database for studies that evaluated the utilisation and factors that possibly influence the utilisation of PT and SHG. Eight studies were found for PT-utilisation and one for SHG-utilisation. Between 25 and 59 percent of patients with rheumatic diseases received PT services. Several individual and contextual factors that may influence the utilisation could be identified. In conclusion, evidence exists for wide variations in the utilisation of PT services and an underuse of such services among patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. By contrast, little evidence exists on the utilisation of SHG. PMID:23133502

  1. Capacity utilisation in medical education.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-05-01

    It is uncertain as to whether medical schools are operating to their maximum capacity or whether they could further maximise their capacity. It is also uncertain what problems medical schools might run into by striving to drive maximum capacity utilisation. Certainly there is no shortage of reports on why and how medical education providers should scale up, and yet there is inadequate scholarship on how medical education might do this in practice. It makes economic sense for medical schools to operate at maximum efficient capacity and yet adverse effects might result if schools are driven too hard. The main casualty of nearing the maximum efficient capacity is likely to be staff and staff morale. Staff will start to suffer from stress as a result of continually working to their limits. It is better to get buy-in from staff before implementing major changes that might increase capacity utilisation. PMID:24848401

  2. Good Practice Chaplaincy: An Exploratory Study Identifying the Appropriate Skills, Attitudes and Practices for the Selection, Training and Utilisation of Chaplains.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Rumbold, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    This article presents an overview of exploratory research regarding the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices considered necessary for chaplains to be highly competent in providing holistic care to clients and staff. Utilising a qualitative methodology, two focus groups comprising Salvation Army chaplains and their managers provided data about their expectations of chaplaincy personnel and about the pastoral care interventions undertaken by chaplains. The results indicated that while there were some differences in opinion, nevertheless, in overall terms, there was general agreement between chaplains and their managers about particular personal and professional qualities necessary for chaplains to be considered appropriate and proficient. Evidence was also obtained indicating a need for change with regard to the organisational attitude and culture of The Salvation Army towards chaplaincy. Recommendations are presented concerning (1) the selection criteria for chaplaincy, (2) training and utilisation of chaplains plus (3) issues relating to organizational cultural change necessary to develop a future-ready chaplaincy more suitable for the twenty-first century. PMID:25371346

  3. Case management for at-risk elderly patients in the English integrated care pilots: observational study of staff and patient experience and secondary care utilisation

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Martin; Lewis, Richard; Steventon, Adam; Abel, Gary; Adams, John; Bardsley, Martin; Brereton, Laura; Chitnis, Xavier; Conklin, Annalijn; Staetsky, Laura; Tunkel, Sarah; Ling, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In 2009, the English Department of Health appointed 16 integrated care pilots which aimed to provide better integrated care. We report the quantitative results from a multi-method evaluation of six of the demonstration projects which used risk profiling tools to identify older people at risk of emergency hospital admission, combined with intensive case management for people identified as at risk. The interventions focused mainly on delivery system redesign and improved clinical information systems, two key elements of Wagner’s Chronic Care Model. Methods Questionnaires to staff and patients. Difference-in-differences analysis of secondary care utilisation using data on 3646 patients and 17,311 matched controls, and changes in overall secondary care utilisation. Results Most staff thought that care for their patients had improved. More patients reported having a care plan but they found it significantly harder to see a doctor or nurse of their choice and felt less involved in decisions about their care. Case management interventions were associated with a 9% increase in emergency admissions. We found some evidence of imbalance between cases and controls which could have biased this estimate, but simulations of the possible effect of unobserved confounders showed that it was very unlikely that the sites achieved their goal of reducing emergency admissions. However, we found significant reductions of 21% and 22% in elective admissions and outpatient attendance in the six months following an intervention, and overall inpatient and outpatient costs were significantly reduced by 9% during this period. Area level analyses of whole practice populations suggested that overall outpatient attendances were significantly reduced by 5% two years after the start of the case management schemes. Conclusion Case management may result in improvements in some aspects of care and has the potential to reduce secondary care costs. However, to improve patient experience, case management approaches need to be introduced in a way which respects patients’ wishes, for example the ability to see a familiar doctor or nurse. PMID:23593045

  4. A cross-sectional study describing factors associated with utilisation of GP services by a cohort of people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs (PWID) use healthcare services, including primary care, at a disproportionately high rate. We investigated key correlates of general practitioner (GP) related service utilisation within a cohort of PWID. Methods Using baseline data from a cohort of 645 community-recruited PWID based in Melbourne, Victoria, we conducted a secondary analysis of associations between past month use of GP services unrelated to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and socio-demographic and drug use characteristics and self-reported health using multivariate logistic regression. Results Just under one-third (29%) of PWID had accessed GP services in the month prior to being surveyed. Participants who reported living with children (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.04 - 3.73) or having had contact with a social worker in the past month (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.24 - 2.98) were more likely to have seen a GP in the past month. Participants who were injecting daily or more frequently (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 - 0.83) or had a weekly income of less than $400 (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 - 0.91) were less likely to report having seen a GP in the past month. Conclusions Our sample frequently attended GP services for health needs unrelated to OST. Findings highlight both the characteristics of PWID accessing GP services and also those potentially missing out on primary care and preventive services. PMID:25030526

  5. Comparative assessment of compost and zeolite utilisation for the simultaneous removal of BTEX, Cd and Zn from the aqueous phase: Batch and continuous flow study.

    PubMed

    Simantiraki, Fotini; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-08-15

    The present study focuses on the comparison of two materials, compost from municipal solid waste and natural zeolite for the simultaneous removal of petroleum hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes - BTEX) and toxic metals from groundwater. First, batch experiments were conducted to identify the optimal removal conditions. All of the kinetic experiments were fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model; equilibrium was reached within approximately 8 h for the zeolite and 12 h for the compost. An increase in the adsorbent dose and the pH value as well as a decrease in the initial concentration enhanced the pollutants' removal. The removal selectivity of both materials with slight differences follows the order Cd > Zn & toluene > ethylbenzene > m- & p-xylene > o-xylene > benzene. According, to the results derived from the continuous flow experiments the maximum adsorption capacity of the compost (90%) referred to Cd (0.88 mmol/g) whereas the minimum refers to benzene (65%) with a capacity up to 0.065 mmol/g. Zeolite had lower efficiencies for the studied pollutants with a higher performance corresponding to Cd (0.26 mmol/g), whereas the minimum zeolite capacity (63%) corresponds to toluene (0.045 mmol/g). Thus, this paper provides evidence that compost, a low cost material produced from waste, is capable for the simultaneous removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater, and its performance is superior to zeolite. PMID:26024993

  6. Recycling and utilisation of industrial solid waste: An explorative study on gold deposit tailings of ductile shear zone type in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Fei; Du, Runxiang; Zhao, Chunming; Li, Yongli; Yu, Haoran

    2015-06-01

    Tailings are solid waste arising from mineral processing. This type of waste can cause severe damage to the environment during stockpiling as a result of the leaching of something harmful into the ecosystem. Gold deposit of ductile shear zone type is an important type of gold deposit, and the recycling of its tailings has been challenging researchers for a long time. In this article, the characteristics of this type of tailings were systematically studied by using modern technical means. Considering the characteristics of the tailings, clay was selected to make up for the shortcomings of the tailings and improve their performance. Water and raw materials were mixed to produce green bodies, which are subsequently sintered into ceramic bodies at 980?°C~1020?°C (sintering temperature). The results showed that some new kinds of mineral phases, such as mullite, anorthite and orthoclase, appear in ceramic bodies. Furthermore, the ceramic bodies have a surface hardness of 5 to 6 (Mohs scale), and their water absorption and modulus of rupture can meet some technical requirements of ceramic materials described in ISO?13006-2012 and GB?5001-1985. These gold mine tailings can be made into ceramic tiles, domestic ceramic bodies, and other kinds of ceramic bodies for commercial and industrial purposes after further improvements. PMID:26060235

  7. Utilisations thrapeutiques des interfaces cerveau-ordinateur

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .nguyen@chu-nantes.fr) Résumé--Les interfaces cerveau-ordinateur (BCI : Brain- Computer Interfaces) permettent une communication. Ces interfaces, pour la plupart invasives par nature, établissent une communication de lUtilisations thérapeutiques des interfaces cerveau-ordinateur Aurélien Van Langhenhove LAGIS, CNRS

  8. ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT

    E-print Network

    Sóbester, András

    ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT N.C. Townsend nick@soton.ac.uk Fluid Structure of a marine vessel can induce gyroscopic precession. x y Z 0 Figure 1: A Schematic of a Single Unit Gyroscopic the gyroscopic effect) Experimental sea trials will be conducted in 2011. The motivation behind the project

  9. Determinants of postnatal service utilisation among mothers in rural settings of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Precious William C; Rattanapan, Cheerawit; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine significant predictors for the utilisation of postnatal service among mothers. A total of 295 postnatal mothers were enrolled in a cross-sectional study design undertaken in six health facilities of Lilongwe District using two-stage cluster sampling with a response rate of 100%. The data were collected by interview from December 2012 to January 2013 using a structured questionnaire. The result showed that over half of the mothers (56.6%) utilised postnatal service within 6 weeks after delivery. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant determinants of utilisation of postnatal service among mothers. After adjusting for confounding factors, utilisation of an alternative local source of care in home after delivery [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 7.77, 95% CI: 4.14-14.58], women's perception on performance of health workforce during delivery and postnatal service (aOR: 6.56, 95% CI: 3.09-13.94), health education before hospital discharge of postnatal mothers (aOR: 4.08, 95% CI: 2.11-7.92), place of delivery (aOR: 4.32, 95% CI: 1.32-14.12), family income (aOR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.03-3.46) and the occurrence of no complications during delivery (aOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.50) were significantly associated with the utilisation of postnatal service. Hence, this study suggests that improved health workforce performance coupled with effective health education may increase the utilisation of postnatal service. Furthermore, the utilisation of postnatal service may also be increased through reducing home deliveries, delivery complications and the use of alternative local care at home after delivery. Integration of postnatal service in outreach clinics might also assist through reducing the cost of accessing postnatal service among mothers. PMID:25319930

  10. Utilising UDT to push the bandwidth envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, B.; Davies, B.

    eScience applications, in particular High Energy Physics, often involve large amounts of data and/or computing and often require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries, and are thus not easily handled by today's networking infrastructures. By utilising the switched lightpath connections provided by the UKLight network it has been possible to research the use of alternate protocols for data transport. While the HEP projects make use of a number of middleware solutions for data storage and transport, they all rely on GridFTP for WAN transport. The GridFTP protocol runs over TCP as the layer 3 protocol by default, however with the latest released of the Globus toolkit it is possible to utilise alternate protocols at the layer 3 level. One of the alternatives is a reliable version of UDP called UDT. This report presents the results of the tests measuring the performance of single-threaded file transfers using GridFTP running over both TCP and the UDT protocol.

  11. Agri-environment schemes and butterflies: the utilisation of 6 m grass margins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Field; T. Gardiner; C. F. Mason; J. Hill

    2005-01-01

    The utilisation of 6 m countryside stewardship scheme (CSS) grass margins by butterflies was studied at two farms in Essex between 1997 and 2000. The aim of the study was to establish whether grass margins in cereal fields, as set up and managed under CSS guidelines, would be beneficial to common farmland butterflies. Eight 6 m grass margins (total length 3492 m) and

  12. Rural/urban differences in the association between deprivation and healthcare utilisation.

    PubMed

    Gilthorpe, Mark S; Wilson, Richard C

    2003-12-01

    Whilst associations between inequalities in healthcare utilisation and socio-economic deprivation are well established in the UK it is argued that deprivation indices, such as the Townsend index, remain insensitive to rural/urban differences. This study examines how Townsend and its components differ in their association with healthcare utilisation across the rural/urban spectrum of a large health region. Our research was carried out in the West Midlands National Health Service region (population 5.3 million), comprising of a similar geographical population diversity to that of the United Kingdom (UK) using Hospital Episode Statistics (1994/5-1998/9) and 1991 census socio-demographic data. Retrospective multilevel multivariate models compare three ward-level healthcare utilisation measures (standardised episode-, admission-, and bed-rates) in relation to the Townsend index of material deprivation, its components, and four rural/urban characteristics (population density, population potential, electoral ward area and perimeter size). The associations between outcomes and Townsend were generally not attenuated by the rural/urban characteristics. The constituent component of car-ownership was similarly unperturbed, whereas population potential significantly perturbed the home-ownership model and overcrowding was significantly perturbed by all four rural/urban characteristics considered. A deprivation index may encapsulate different meanings to that of its components when used to assess variations in healthcare utilisation. Constituent components may yield considerable perturbation in relation to healthcare utilisation across the rural/urban spectrum, whilst the composite measure does not. In particular, and contrary to anecdotal opinion, car-ownership and unemployment (as recorded in the 1991 UK census) exhibited a stable relationship across different rural/urban areas with respect to healthcare utilisation. PMID:14512237

  13. Guide d'utilisation de SSJ Langage Java

    E-print Network

    Vázquez-Abad, Felisa J.

    Guide d'utilisation de SSJ Langage Java 15 Janvier 2001 ­ Dans votre .cshrc, rajouter la ligne'un de xdvi guide.dvi & acroread guide.pdf & 1 Version Java Nous utilisons la version 1.2 de Java. Elle votre programme (par exemple Tulipe.java) utilisant les objets de SSJ, compiler simplement avec la

  14. Does increased investment in coronary angiography and revascularisation reduce socioeconomic inequalities in utilisation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Manson-Siddle; M. B. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether additional resources for tertiary cardiology services, aimed at increasing coronary angiography and revascularisation rates, can improve socioeconomic equity of utilisation. DESIGN: Cross sectional ecological study, using the Super Profile classification of enumeration districts and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) standardised mortality ratios (SMR) as a proxy for need. The degree of equity before the provision of extra

  15. Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests that Australian prescribers may have acted in response to scientific evidence or international safety warnings (EMA, FDA), prior to the response of the TGA. Minor effects were observed after bladder cancer warnings on pioglitazone utilisation. PMID:24708579

  16. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

  17. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For diffuse UV exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than 60° and 50° respectively can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-330 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of damaging UVA observed in full sun.

  18. LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 47 UTILISATION PDAGOGIQUE DE L'INFORMATIQUE UTILISATION PEDAGOGIQUE DE L'INFORMATIQUE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    98 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N° 47 UTILISATION PÉDAGOGIQUE DE L'INFORMATIQUE UTILISATION PEDAGOGIQUE DE L'INFORMATIQUE Didier HARTEMANN "Le danger de développer la part des techniques aux dépens des aspects pédagogiques est grand. L'outil informatique doit être maîtrisé mais pas pour lui-même, pour

  19. Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

    1984-02-01

    In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

  20. Document Classification Utilising Ontologies and Relations between Documents

    E-print Network

    Hyvönen, Eero

    Document Classification Utilising Ontologies and Relations between Documents Katariina Nyberg be utilized in auto- matic document classification as background information: relations between terms. Keywords document classification, ontologies, relational models 1. INTRODUCTION More and more documents

  1. Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, M; Good, A

    2013-07-01

    Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are driven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor. PMID:23802203

  2. Agri-environment schemes and butterflies: the utilisation of two metre arable field margins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Field; T. Gardiner; C. F. Mason; J. Hill

    2007-01-01

    The utilisation of two metre field margins by butterflies was studied at three farms in Essex, south east England between\\u000a 1997 and 2000. The aim of the study was to establish whether field margins, as set up and managed under Countryside Stewardship\\u000a Scheme guidelines, were beneficial to common farmland butterflies. Thirteen two metre margins (total length 4478 m) and three

  3. Estimation of an optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate for cancer: setting an evidence-based benchmark for quality cancer care.

    PubMed

    Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

    2015-02-01

    There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications. PMID:25455844

  4. Utilisation of nitrates--a decisive criterion in the selection of Lactobacilli for bioconservation of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Hybenová, E; Drdák, M; Guoth, R; Gracák, J

    1995-03-01

    This work presents results of the observations of cabbage and carrot juice fermentation after inoculation with pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria. From the point of view of nitrates, utilisation, the most suitable microorganisms found from those studied were Lactobacillus plantarum 92H, Lb. plantarum 90H and Lb. delbrueckii 37H. At the same time, other observed parameters were assessed as well for their suitability for vegetable bioconservation. PMID:7785347

  5. Effect of probiotic supplementation on growth, nitrogen utilisation and serum cholesterol in broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mohan; R. Kadirvel; A. Natarajan; M. Bhaskaran

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on the growth, nitrogen utilisation and serum cholesterol content of broiler chickens was studied in 2 trials.2. In experiment 1, the birds receiving the 0, 75, 100, 125 mg probiotic\\/kg diets had weight gains of 1204.0, 1272.0, 1268.3 and 1210.5 g, respectively at the end of 8 weeks of feeding. The group of

  6. LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 47 UTILISATION DE L'INFORMATIQUE EN STE UTILISATION DE L'INFORMATIQUE EN STE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    141 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N° 47 UTILISATION DE L'INFORMATIQUE EN STE UTILISATION DE L'INFORMATIQUE'entreprise, secrétariat, techniques commerciales, informatique... Si en seconde option gestion et en première G, les'utilisation ? Nos élèves ne seront jamais des informaticiens mais des utilisateurs de l'informatique dans les

  7. Regulation of methanol utilisation pathway genes in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

    2006-01-01

    Methylotrophic yeasts such as Candida boidinii, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia methanolica and Pichia pastoris are an emerging group of eukaryotic hosts for recombinant protein production with an ever increasing number of applications during the last 30 years. Their applications are linked to the use of strong methanol-inducible promoters derived from genes of the methanol utilisation pathway. These promoters are tightly regulated, highly repressed in presence of non-limiting concentrations of glucose in the medium and strongly induced if methanol is used as carbon source. Several factors involved in this tight control and their regulatory effects have been described so far. This review summarises available data about the regulation of promoters from methanol utilisation pathway genes. Furthermore, the role of cis and trans acting factors (e.g. transcription factors, glucose processing enzymes) in the expression of methanol utilisation pathway genes is reviewed both in the context of the native cell environment as well as in heterologous hosts. PMID:17169150

  8. The use of secure anonymised data linkage to determine changes in healthcare utilisation following severe open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Page, Piers R J; Trickett, Ryan W; Rahman, Shakeel M; Walters, Angharad; Pinder, Leila M; Brooks, Caroline J; Hutchings, Hayley; Pallister, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Severe open fractures of the lower limbs are complex injuries requiring expert multidisciplinary management in appropriate orthoplastic centres. This study aimed to assess the impact of open fractures on healthcare utilisation and test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation between the year before and year after injury, and that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation in the year post-injury between patients admitted directly to an orthoplastic centre in keeping with the joint BOA/BAPRAS standards and those having initial surgery elsewhere. This retrospective cohort study utilising secure anonymised information linkage (SAIL), a novel databank of anonymised nationally pooled health records, recruited patients over 18 years of age sustaining severe open lower limb fractures managed primarily or secondarily at our centre and who had data available in the SAIL databank. 101 patients met inclusion criteria and 90 of these had records in the SAIL databank. The number of days in hospital, number of primary care attendances, number of outpatient attendances and number of emergency department attendances in the years prior and subsequent to injury were recorded. Patients sustaining open fractures had significantly different healthcare utilisation in the year after injury when compared with the year before, in terms of days spent in hospital (23.42 vs. 1.70, p=0.000), outpatient attendances (11.98 vs. 1.05, p=0.000), primary care attendances (29.48 vs. 11.99, p=0.000) and emergency department presentations (0.2 vs. 0.01, p=0.025). Patients admitted directly to orthoplastic centres had significantly fewer operations (1.78 vs. 3.31) and GP attendances (23.6 vs. 33.52) than those transferred in subsequent to initial management in other units. There is a significant increase in healthcare utilisation after open tibial fracture. Adherence to national standards minimises the impact of this on both patients and health services. PMID:25916805

  9. A rapid appraisal of access to and utilisation of psychotropic medicines in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A major aspect of providing mental healthcare is access to and use of psychotropic medications. Bihar is a state in northeast India with limited mental healthcare provision; consequently access to and utilisation of psychotropic medications are likely to be limited. However, to date there has been no research assessing the situation. This study therefore aims to analyse the psychotropic medications management cycle (selection, procurement, distribution and use), and identify the barriers to access and utilisation, and their underlying causes. Method A rapid appraisal method was used in which primary and secondary data sources were collected and analysed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-two stakeholders and twenty-one service users from the government, non-governmental organisation (NGO) and private sectors. The qualitative data collected was analysed using a comparative thematic approach. The research was supported by the NGOs BasicNeeds and Nav Bharat Jagriti Kendra. Results Availability, distance and cost were the main barriers to access and utilisation. At the medical college hospital level a lack of supply appears to be due to a discrepancy between orders made by the hospital and medications supplied by the manufacturers. At the primary health centre and district hospital level the main barrier is a cycle between lack of demand for treatments for mental illness by doctors and patients. Conclusion Further investigation and monitoring is necessary to ensure the availability of psychotropic medications at the medical college hospital level. In addition, implementation of the District Mental Health Programme is likely to address the access and utilisation barriers due to its potential to break the current cycle of lack of demand. PMID:25053976

  10. Milk utilisation patterns in the low-input production systems in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mapekula, Monde; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the utilisation patterns of milk assists in designing appropriate dairy development schemes in rural communities. The objective of the study was to determine milk utilisation patterns in different smallholder farming systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected through the administration of recording sheets to 130 randomly selected households in Alice, Fort Beaufort and Queenstown districts. Amounts of milk produced per household ranged from 9 to 21 l per household per day. Milk consumption/household/day was similar among the three districts. Milk consumption in the early lactation doubled the amount consumed in late lactation (P < 0.05). Milk in the communal areas was largely utilised as fresh or sour milk. Fresh milk was mostly used in tea/coffee or to make porridge for children. Sour milk was consumed with thick boiled maize meal. Fort Beaufort (10.2 +/- 1.37 l/day) had the highest sour milk sales whilst Queenstown had the highest fresh milk sales (9.7 +/- 5.57 l/day). It was concluded that quantities of milk consumed or sold as fresh or sour were generally low and varied across smallholder farming systems. PMID:20383605

  11. Homeopathic use of modern medicines: utilisation of the curative rebound effect.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian

    2003-02-01

    Homeopathy is a therapeutic method based on the application of the similitude principle, utilising medicinal substances that produce effects that are similar to the symptoms being treated. In this process, the organism is stimulated to react against its own disturbances through a vital (paradoxical, secondary or homeostatic) reaction, oriented by the primary effect of the used drug. This effect should have properties that are similar to the symptom that is being treated. This secondary reaction of the organism to a medicinal stimulus is observed in hundreds of modern drugs, and is referred to as a rebound effect. In this study we propose the utilisation of modern drugs according to the principle of homeopathic cure, employing the rebound effect as a curative reaction. For that we suggest the compilation of a Common Materia Medica that would group all symptoms produced by the medications in human individuals (therapeutic, adverse and side effects), utilising them, a posteriori, following a partial or total similitude, in minimal or ponderous doses. By doing that, we can take advantage of the numerous modern pharmacological compendiums, amplifying the spectrum of homeopathic cure with a wide range of new symptoms and medications. PMID:12606247

  12. Psychosocial and Psychodynamic Factors Influencing Health Care Utilisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Maier

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to elucidate some dysfunctional aspects of health care utilisation by combining concepts from modern systems theory and from psychoanalysis. Contemporary health care in industrialised countries can be conceived as a social system in terms of modern systems theory. According to this theory, social systems are operating on the basis of a ‘guiding difference,’ which in the case

  13. REGLEMENT INTERIEUR DES INSTALLATIONS SPORTIVES (conditions techniques d'utilisation)

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    REGLEMENT INTERIEUR DES INSTALLATIONS SPORTIVES (conditions techniques d'utilisation) Article 1 L'occupation des salle est réservé aux adhérents de l'U-Sports. Il est obligatoire d'être en possession de la carte étudiant avec la vignette «Campus-Sports» ou de la carte de membre de l'U-Sports. Celles-ci seront

  14. N-Alkane uptake and utilisation by Streptomyces strains.

    PubMed

    Barabás, G; Vargha, G; Szabó, I M; Penyige, A; Damjanovich, S; Szöllösi, J; Matkó, J; Hirano, T; Mátyus, A; Szabó, I

    2001-09-01

    Streptomyces strains isolated from the Kuwait Burgan oil field were defined as S. griseoflavus, S. parvus, and S. plicatus utilised n-hexadecane, n-octadecane (purified fractions of mineral oil), kerosene, and crude oil as sole carbon and energy sources. The strains were incubated with n-alkanes and increase of the fatty acid content with chain length equivalent to the employed n-alkanes was observed. Signal transducing GTP-binding proteins (GBPs) play an important role in n-alkane uptake in streptomycetes. Specific activators of GBPs increased the uptake of hydrocarbons. Using the hydrophobic fluorescent dye diphenylhexatrien (DPH) as a probe, it was found that the microviscosity of the hydrophobic inner region of the cellular membrane is significantly lower in hydrocarbon utilisers than in non-utilisers. This difference probably reflects differences in the fatty acid composition of the strains. When cultures were grown in n-alkane containing media, electron microscopy revealed that the hydrocarbon utilisers showed less-electron dense areas as inclusions in the cytoplasm. Soil samples inoculated with Streptomyces strains eliminated hydrocarbons much faster than those not containing these strains, serving as control. When inorganic medium was supplied with n-hexadecane-1-14C as sole carbon and energy source, radioactive CO2 was detected. Since streptomycetes have not been used until now for oil elimination, though they are known as abundant soil bacteria tolerating extreme conditions, their possible use for bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils is discussed. PMID:11816969

  15. Utilisation and Impact of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Database (TEEAL) on Library Services in a Nigerian University of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwole, A. A.; Sowole, A. O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the utilisation of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Library database (TEEAL) at the University of Agriculture Library, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection was by questionnaire following a purposive sampling technique. A total of 104 out 150 (69.3 per cent) responses were received and…

  16. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  17. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch. PMID:25692978

  18. A Qualitative Case Study Approach To Examine Information Resources Management. (Utilisation d'une Approche Qualitative par Methode de cas pour Etudier la Gestion des Ressources D'information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates how a qualitative approach was used to study the complex and poorly defined concept of information resources management. Explains the general approach to data collection, its advantages and limitations, and the process used to analyze the data. Presents results, along with lessons learned through using method. (Author/AEF)

  19. The potential contribution of non-timber forest product extraction to tropical forest conservation and development: lessons from a case study of bamboo utilisation in a Sierra madre community, the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen Kusters; Mirjam A. F. Ros-Tonen; A. J. Dietz; Ton Dietz

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of bamboo exploitation carried out in a village in the Sierra Madre, the Philippines. With a view to providing evidence for the hypothesised link between exploitation and conservation\\/development in the non-timber forest product (NTFP) debate, it evaluates the feasibility of using the commercial exploitation of buho ( Schizostachyum lumampao ) as a

  20. Nutrient Utilisation in Growing Cambodian Cattle

    E-print Network

    forage types (rice bran, rice straw, para grass, cassava foliage, leucaena leaves, water hyacinth leaves. In an experimental study examining the effects of different levels of dietary supplementation with sun-dried cassava to increase with increasing intake of cassava foliage, but DM and fibre digestibility decreased

  1. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.

    PubMed

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

    2013-01-01

    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed. PMID:23163241

  2. Correction des dfauts de gnralisation dans les diagrammes de cas d'utilisation UML

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Correction des défauts de généralisation dans les diagrammes de cas d'utilisation UML X. Dolques, L de développement basé sur la notation UML, les dia- grammes de cas d'utilisation et les modèles ou'une approche permettant la correction de certains défauts des diagrammes de cas d'utilisation UML (liés à une

  3. Genital warts incidence and healthcare resource utilisation in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Pirotta; Alicia N Stein; E Lynne Conway; Christopher Harrison; Helena Britt; Suzanne Garland

    2009-01-01

    ObjectivesTo estimate for the first time the incidence and healthcare resource utilisation associated with genital warts (GW) in Australia prior to the human papillomavirus vaccination programme.MethodThe authors analysed data from the nationally representative Bettering the Evaluation of Care and Health general practice cross-sectional programme and from the National Hospital Morbidity Database to estimate age-related incidence and community (non-hospital) and hospital-related

  4. Buffer sensitivity of photosynthetic carbon utilisation in eight tropical seagrasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Uku; Sven Beer; Mats Björk

    2005-01-01

    Some of the mechanisms involved in inorganic carbon (Ci) acquisition by tropical seagrasses from the western Indian Ocean\\u000a were described by Björk et al. (Mar Biol 129:363–366, 1997). However, since then, it has been found that an additional, buffer-sensitive, system of Ci utilisation may operate in some\\u000a temperate seagrasses (Hellblom et al. in Aquat Bot 69:55–62, 2001, Hellblom and Axelsson

  5. Reducing errors in the development, maintenance and utilisation of ontologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaomeng Chang; Janis P. Terpenny; C. Patrick Koelling

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies and ontology-based information systems are becoming more commonplace in knowledge management. For engineering applications such as product design, ontologies can be utilised for knowledge capture\\/reuse and frameworks that allow for the integration and collaboration of a wide variety of tools and methods as well as participants in design (marketing\\/sales, engineers, customers, suppliers, distributors, manufacturing, etc.) who may be distributed

  6. Frequency of current utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annett Apel; Brigitte Greim; Nicolaus König; Uwe K. Zettl

    2006-01-01

    Objective  The purpose of the study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)\\u000a use among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  In order to collect sociodemographic and disease related variables as well as aspects of CAM utilisation 254 MS patients were\\u000a examined with an interview. The investigation was completed by data of the neurological examination.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  At the

  7. Why carers of people with dementia do not utilise out-of-home respite services.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, Lyn; Magee, Christopher; Jones, Sandra C

    2013-07-01

    While many people with dementia require institutional care, having a co-resident carer improves the likelihood that people can live at home. Although caregiving can have positive aspects, carers still report a high need for respite. Despite this need, the use of respite services for carers of people with dementia is often low. This article investigates carer beliefs regarding out-of-home respite services and why some carers do not utilise them. A total of 152/294 (51.7%) carers of community-dwelling people with dementia (NSW, Australia) who were sent a survey completed it (November 2009-January 2010). Despite reporting unmet need for both services, 44.2% of those surveyed were not utilising day respite and 60.2% were not utilising residential respite programmes. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with non-use using the Theory of Planned Behaviour within an expanded Andersen Behavioural Model on a final sample of 113 (due to missing data). The model explained 66.9% of the variation for day centres, and 42% for residential respite services. Beliefs that service use would result in negative outcomes for the care recipient were strongly associated with non-use of both day care [OR 13.11; 95% CI (3.75, 45.89)] and residential respite care [OR 6.13; 95% CI (2.02, 18.70)] and were more strongly associated with service non-use than other predisposing, impeding and need variables. For some carers who used services despite negative outcome beliefs, the benefits of respite service use may also be diminished. To improve use of out-of-home respite services in this vulnerable group, service beliefs should be addressed through service development and promotion that emphasises benefits for both carer and care recipients. Future research utilising behavioural service models may also be improved via the inclusion of service beliefs in the study of health and social service use. PMID:23496258

  8. Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, JC

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

  9. Feeding Behaviour and Food Utilisation in Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus: Effect of Sex Ratio and Relationship With the Endocrine Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aboubacar Toguyeni; Benoit Fauconneau; Thierry Boujard; Alexis Fostier; Eduard R Kuhn; Koen A Mol; Jean-François Baroiller

    1997-01-01

    Toguyeni, A., B. Fauconneau, T. Boujard, A. Fostier, E. R. Kuhn, K. A. Mol and J. F. Baroiller. Feeding behaviour and food utilisation in Tilapia, Orechromis niloticus: Effects of sex ratio and relationship with the endocrine status. Physiol Behav 62(2) 273–279, 1997.—The feeding behaviour of male monosex, female monosex, and mixed groups of Oreochromis niloticus was studied under conditions of

  10. Measurement of horizontal inequity in health care utilisation using European panel data.

    PubMed

    Bago d'Uva, Teresa; Jones, Andrew M; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2009-03-01

    Measurement of inequity in health care delivery has focused on the extent to which health care utilisation is or is not distributed according to need, irrespective of income. Studies using cross-sectional data have proposed various ways of measuring and standardizing for need, but inevitably much of the inter-individual variation in needs remains unobserved in cross-sections. This paper exploits panel data methods to improve the measurement by including the time-invariant part of unobserved heterogeneity into the need-standardization procedure. Using latent class hurdle models for GP and specialist visits estimated on 8 annual waves of the European Community Household Panel we compute indices of horizontal equity that partition total income-related variation in use into a need- and a non-need related part, not only for the observed but also for the unobserved but time-invariant component. We also propose and compare a more conservative index of horizontal inequity to the conventional statistic. We find that many of the cross-country comparative results appear fairly robust to the panel data test, although the panel-based methods lead to significantly higher estimates of horizontal inequity for most countries. This confirms that better estimation and control for need often reveals more pro-rich distributions of doctor utilisation. PMID:19041148

  11. Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation in a multiple health insurance system: does insurance affiliation matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many countries striving to achieve universal health insurance coverage have done so by means of multiple health insurance funds covering different population groups. However, existence of multiple health insurance funds may also cause variation in access to health care, due to the differential revenue raising capacities and benefit packages offered by the various funds resulting in inequity and inefficiency within the health system. This paper examines how the existence of multiple health insurance funds affects health care seeking behaviour and utilisation among members of the Community Health Fund, the National Health Insurance Fund and non-members in two districts in Tanzania. Methods Using household survey data collected in 2011 with a sample of 3290 individuals, the study uses a multinomial logit model to examine the influence of predisposing, enabling and need characteristics on the probability of seeking care and choice of provider. Results Generally, health insurance is found to increase the probability of seeking care and reduce delays. However, the probability, timing of seeking care and choice of provider varies across the CHF and NHIF members. Conclusions Reducing fragmentation is necessary to provide opportunities for redistribution and to promote equity in utilisation of health services. Improvement in the delivery of services is crucial for achievement of improved access and financial protection and for increased enrolment into the CHF, which is essential for broadening redistribution and cross-subsidisation to promote equity. PMID:24645876

  12. Access and utilisation of maternity care for disabled women who experience domestic abuse: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data were analysed to identify: the factors that facilitate or compromise access to care; the consequences of inadequate care for pregnant women’s health and wellbeing; and the effectiveness of existing strategies for improvement. Results Findings indicate that a mental health diagnosis, poor relationships with health professionals and environmental barriers can compromise women’s utilisation of maternity services. Domestic abuse can both compromise, and catalyse, access to services and social support is a positive factor when accessing care. Delayed and inadequate care has adverse effects on women’s physical and psychological health, however further research is required to fully explore the nature and extent of these consequences. Only one study identified strategies currently being used to improve access to services for disabled women experiencing abuse. Conclusions Based upon the barriers and facilitators identified within the review, we suggest that future strategies for improvement should focus on: understanding women’s reasons for accessing care; fostering positive relationships; being women-centred; promoting environmental accessibility; and improving the strength of the evidence base. PMID:25029907

  13. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  14. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ? R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape Province (rural). In that financial year, a total of 5369 registered nurses could have been employed in lieu of nursing agency expenditure. Conclusions The study findings should inform workforce planning in South Africa. There is a need for uniform policies and improved management of commercial nursing agencies in the public health sector. PMID:25537936

  15. Utilisation of feed energy by growing ruminants M. VERMOREL H. BICKEL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Utilisation of feed energy by growing ruminants M. VERMOREL H. BICKEL *Laboratoire d'Etude du value of feeds for growing ruminants is generally calculated from the data obtained from adult sheep Utilisation de l'énergie par les ruminants en croissance La valeur énergétique des aliments destinés aux

  16. Canal sans fils: utilisation de la diversit des canaux multi-trajets

    E-print Network

    Andriyanova, Iryna

    Rappel: Canal sans fils: utilisation de la diversité des canaux multi-trajets Diversité en temps canal avec le temps (paramètre important ­ le temps de cohérence TC ). Les canaux sont supposés d utilisent le changement du canal avec le temps (paramètre important ­ le temps de cohérence TC ). Les canaux

  17. Articulating Injustice: An Exploration of Young People's Experiences of Participation in a Conflict Transformation Programme That Utilises the Arts as a Form of Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on a study that explores young people's engagement with the Art: a Resource for Reconciliation Over the World (ARROW) programme. The programme utilises the arts to promote critical dialogue amongst young people growing up in divided communities around the world. Dialogue has been criticised for its inability to tackle…

  18. How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Jason; Lim, Tow Keang

    2008-01-01

    Background In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA) and the online resource UpToDate. Methods This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Results Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3%) owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7%) used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Conclusion Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice. PMID:18625038

  19. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

  20. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions. These include infertility, gastro-intestinal disorders, safe parturition, stomach ulcers, rheumatism and fibroid. Traditional Yorubic medicine also accommodated some situations that are out of the range of conventional medicine like boosting sales, conferring invisibility, removing bad luck, appeasing/wading off witches cum evil forces and money rituals. Some of these situations specifically require juvenile, or even pregnant female animals. Conclusion Traditional Yorubic medical practices eats deep into the reproductive base of the species, presently listed in Appendix II of CITES and Schedule I of the Nigerian Decree 11 (1985), both of which recommended strict control in sales and utilisation of this species. Its numerous medicinal values, folk culture and financial benefits of these activities are the main factors promoting the commercialisation and use of this species. Pharmacological studies on the various preparations are required to identify the bioactive compounds in them. There is a need for improved and urgent measures to conserve populations of this species in-situ. Massive education and enlightenment is urgently needed for the populace to have the necessary awareness and orientation about the conservation of this species. PMID:19961597

  1. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top are decreased by almost 10 %. Furthermore, if the vertical location of the open well section is directly located below the caprock, vertical displacements at the ground surface are significantly higher compared to a lower open hole position. Consequently, a focus in site characterisation in the scope of geological underground utilisation should be on detailed assessment of caprock permeability. These data may be derived by well logs and hydraulic tests as well as laboratory tests on core samples. Kempka, T., Nielsen, C.M., Frykman, P., Shi, J.-Q., Bacci, G., Dalhoff, F. Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Simulations of CO2 Storage Supported by Pressure Management Demonstrate Synergy Benefits from Simultaneous Formation Fluid Extraction (2014) Oil Gas Sci Technol, doi:10.2516/ogst/2014029. Klimkowski, ?., Nagy, S., Papiernik, B., Orlic, B., Kempka, T. Numerical simulations of enhanced gas recovery at the Za??cze gas field in Poland confirm high storage capacities and mechanical integrity (2015) Oil Gas Sci Technol (accepted). Tillner, E., Shi, J-.Q., Bacci, G., Nielsen, C.M., Frykman, P., Dalhoff, F., Kempka, T. Coupled Dynamic Flow and Geomechanical Simulations for an Integrated Assessment of CO2 Storage Impacts in a Saline Aquifer (2014) Energy Procedia, 63:2879-2893, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.311.

  2. England, M. (2013) An Implementation of CAD in Maple Utilising Problem Formulation, Equational Constraints and Truth-Table

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    England, M. (2013) An Implementation of CAD in Maple Utilising Problem Formulation, Equational the document. #12;Department of Computer Science Technical Report An implementation of CAD in Maple utilising-9497 #12;An implementation of CAD in Maple utilising problem formulation, equational constraints and truth

  3. Estimation of an Optimal Chemotherapy Utilisation Rate for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: Setting an Evidence-Based Benchmark for the Best-Quality Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Weng; Jacob, Susannah; Delaney, Geoff; Do, Viet; Barton, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aims. The proportion of patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers that received chemotherapy varies widely in Australia and internationally, indicating a need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. We developed evidence-based models for upper gastrointestinal cancers to estimate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates that can serve as useful benchmarks for measuring and improving the quality of care. Materials and Methods. Optimal chemotherapy utilisation models for cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and primary liver were constructed using indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based guidelines. Results. Based on the best available evidence, the optimal proportion of upper gastrointestinal cancers that should receive chemotherapy at least once during the course of the patients' illness was estimated to be 79% for oesophageal cancer, 83% for gastric cancer, 35% for pancreatic cancer, 80% for gallbladder cancer, and 27% for primary liver cancer. Conclusions. The reported chemotherapy utilisation rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers (with the exception of primary liver cancer) appear to be substantially lower than the estimated optimal rates suggesting that chemotherapy may be underutilised. Further studies to elucidate the reasons for the potential underutilisation of chemotherapy in upper gastrointestinal tumours are required to bridge the gap between the ideal and actual practice identified. PMID:25883645

  4. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon ?1B was the only such agent available. Interferon ?1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease. PMID:25194821

  5. Utilisation digestive apparente des acides amins de quelques aliments chez le rat en croissance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nitrogen contents of the samples, the balanced diets contained different proportions of wheat starch de l'effet d'un traitement thermique susceptible d'agir directement sur l'utilisation digestive des

  6. Out-of-pocket payments, health care access and utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria: a gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Onah, Michael N; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

  7. UTILISATION COMPARE DE L'ENSILAGE DE MAS ET DE L'ENSILAGE D'HERBE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UTILISATION COMPARÉE DE L'ENSILAGE DE MAÏS ET DE L'ENSILAGE D'HERBE POUR LA PRODUCTION LAITIÈRE R-Champanelle RÉSUMÉ Le but de l'essai a été de comparer l'utilisation de l'ensilage de maïs et de l'ensilage d'herbe'une d'ensilage d'herbe (« lot herbe ») et l'autre d'ensilage de maïs (« lot maïs ») et contenant toutes

  8. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  9. Factors influencing the utilisation of e-learning in post-registration nursing students.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The learning environment extends beyond the classroom and establishing an e-learning culture is seen as essential to the future of nurse education and the facilitation of life long learning. This paper reports on a study that sought to identify the factors that may influence the utilisation of e-learning by nursing, midwifery and health visiting students undertaking post-registration studies. The findings presented draw on quantitative and qualitative data drawn from analysis of a questionnaire exploring experience and perceptions of e-learning. This research finds the perception of e-learning is positively influenced by its flexibility in time management, pace of learning, self direction and widening access to information. Potential barriers relate to the functional capability of students, perceived levels of computer literacy, perceptions of e-learning as time consuming, competing home life elements and the lack of work based support. Student expectations in relation to reasons for choosing this mode of learning and the probability that they may be inadequately supported to make the best use e-learning were inherent in the findings. This raised questions of the potential for inequity in educational delivery with increasing use of e-learning. The implications from this research highlight the challenge for nurse educators in understanding, developing awareness of and identifying strategies to manage these factors. PMID:18774625

  10. The effect of partial replacement of soyabean meal with sunflower meal on ileal adaptation, nutrient utilisation and growth performance of young turkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jankowski; A. Lecewicz; Z. Zdunczyk; J. Juskiewicz; B. A. Slominski

    2011-01-01

    1. A 4?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of graded levels of sunflower meal (SFM; 0,?70,?140 and 210?g\\/kg) and enzyme supplementation on gut morphology, nutrient utilisation and growth performance of young turkeys from 0 to 8 weeks of age. The enzyme supplement used in the study contained non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading activities and supplied 500?U pectinase,

  11. Predictors of traditional medicines utilisation in the Ghanaian health care practice: interrogating the Ashanti situation.

    PubMed

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

    2015-04-01

    Traditional medicine (TRM) use remains universal among individuals, families and communities the world over but the predictive variables of TRM use is still confounding. This population-based study analysed the predictors of TRM use in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative survey involving systematic random sampled participants (N = 324) was conducted. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used as research instruments. Data were analysed with logit regression, Pearson's Chi square and Fisher's exact tests from the PASW for Windows application (V. 17.0). Overall, 86.1 % (n = 279) reported use of TRM with biologically-based and distant/prayer therapies as the major forms of TRM utilised in the previous 12 months. Among the general population, TRM use was predicted by having low-income levels [odds ratio (OR) 2.883, confidence interval (CI) 1.142-7.277], being a trader (OR 2.321, CI 1.037-5.194), perceiving TRM as effective (OR 4.430, CI 1.645-11.934) and safe (OR 2.730, CI 0.986-4.321), good affective behaviour of traditional medical practitioner (TMP) (OR 2.943, CI 0.875-9.896) and having chronic ill-health (OR 3.821, CI 1.213-11.311). The prevalence of TRM use is high. The study provides evidence that people's experience, personal attributes, health beliefs, attitude to TRM, attitude of TMP to clients and medical history are largely accountable for the upsurge use of TRM rather than socio-demographic factors. Understanding the health-seeking behaviour of individuals is exigent to ascribe appropriate medical care by health care providers. PMID:25173694

  12. Etude d'une nouvelle utilisation des transistors de puissance dans les convertisseurs haute tension frquence leve

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    333 Etude d'une nouvelle utilisation des transistors de puissance dans les convertisseurs haute'utilisation de ce composant, ils proposent une structure de convertisseur continu/continu, à étage intermédiaire de ce convertisseur permet d'en évaluer les caractéristiques et les limitations. Une représentation

  13. Charte informatique Mnhn_Ed11.doc Page 1/7 Charte d'utilisation des ressources informatiques

    E-print Network

    Charte informatique Mnhn_Ed11.doc Page 1/7 Charte d'utilisation des ressources informatiques du détermine les conditions d'utilisation et d'accès aux ressources informatiques du Muséum et précise la ressources informatiques, téléphoniques et des services Internet. Elle concerne tout utilisateur des moyens

  14. UTILISATION PAR LA POULE PONDEUSE DE L'HUILE D'ARACHIDE ISOMRISE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UTILISATION PAR LA POULE PONDEUSE DE L'HUILE D'ARACHIDE ISOMÉRISÉE I. — SES EFFETS SUR LA Recherche agronomique SOMMAIRE Ingérés par la Poule pondeuse, les acides gras trans (huile d biosynthèse de l'acide stéarique. INTRODUCTION Dans un essai précédent, nous avions distribué à des poules

  15. UTILISATION MTABOLIQUE DES ACIDES GRAS DU TISSU ADIPEUX PAR LA POULE EN PONTE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UTILISATION MÉTABOLIQUE DES ACIDES GRAS DU TISSU ADIPEUX PAR LA POULE EN PONTE B. LECLERCQ Marie . Le tissu adipeux de huit poules pondeuses est marqué par l'acide palmitique-1-14C. On suit pendant z8 contribution des réserves pour la vitellogenèse varie beaucoup d'une poule à l'autre et ne peut s'expliquer par

  16. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. E. W. Leuven; F. H. G. Willems

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environmental benefits, these secondary building materials contain various metals that may leach into river water. A leaching model

  17. The utilisation of an intranet as a knowledge management tool in academic libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Retha Snyman

    2004-01-01

    The intranet has emerged as one of today's most effective tools for knowledge management. This article reports on the extent to which three South African academic libraries, selected by means of the purposive sampling method, utilise the intranet as a knowledge management tool. Based on the literature, knowledge management and an intranet are briefly defined. The advantages of the intranet

  18. LA REVUE DE L'EPI N 78 BANQUES D'IMAGES CRATION ET UTILISATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    D'IMAGES Il en est de même en ce qui concerne les fichiers-images compri- més, car il faut le temps193 LA REVUE DE L'EPI N° 78 BANQUES D'IMAGES CRÉATION ET UTILISATION DE BANQUES D'IMAGES Raymond LESTOURNELLE IMPORTANCE DES IMAGES DANS L'ENSEIGNEMENT Dans certaines disciplines comme les Sciences de la Vie

  19. UTILISATION DIGESTIVE ET RETENTION PAR LE PORC DU PHOSPHORE ET DU CALCIUM D'UN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UTILISATION DIGESTIVE ET RETENTION PAR LE PORC DU PHOSPHORE ET DU CALCIUM D'UN PHOSPHATE NATUREL suivant : acétylgluconate, phosphate tricalcique, lactate, carbonate, phosphate d'éthyle et de calcium du calcium de ce phosphate par le porc en croissance. La mesure des quantités d'aliments ingérés et

  20. Article original Utilisation du lupin blanc doux pour l'alimentation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Article original Utilisation du lupin blanc doux pour l'alimentation des ruminants : résultats et'alimentation du bétail mais également être valori- sées directement pour nourrir les ruminants dans les ruminants sur la base du sys- tème des protéines digestibles dans l'intestin (PDI). Les essais menés sur

  1. Strengthening of an artificially degraded steel beam utilising a carbon\\/glass composite system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Photiou; L. C. Hollaway; M. K. Chryssanthopoulos

    2006-01-01

    To rehabilitate damaged or sub-standard steel structures, techniques utilising the lightweight, high strength and corrosion resistance of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been proposed. The flexural load carrying capacity of a steel girder can be increased significantly by adhesively bonding carbon fibre polymer (CFRP) composites to its tension flange. This paper discusses the experimental results to investigate the effectiveness

  2. Utilisation du glucose et du cellobiose par trois souches de Fibrobacter succinogenes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Utilisation du glucose et du cellobiose par trois souches de Fibrobacter succinogenes G Gaudet KJ compared with respect to their growth using glucose andlor cellobiose as the carbon and energy substrate(s) and their capacities to de- grade cellulose. The growth rate of F succinogenes strain S85 was the same using glucose

  3. Utilising Year Three NAPLAN Results to Improve Queensland Teachers' Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Klinken, Eduarda

    2010-01-01

    Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…

  4. Protein utilisation The basis of feeding standards for protein in growing

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Protein utilisation The basis of feeding standards for protein in growing and fattening beef cattle The historical background to protein feeding standards in the UK and the shortcomings of digestible crude protein and available protein as standards for the future are considered. The proposed ARC protein system, which takes

  5. Utilisation of fruits waste for citric acid production by solid state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kumar; V. K. Jain; G. Shanker; A. Srivastava

    2003-01-01

    A solid state fermentation method was used to utilise pineapple, mixed fruit and maosmi waste as substrates for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger DS 1. Experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of methanol at different moisture levels. In the absence of methanol the maximum citric acid was obtained at 60% moisture level whereas in the presence

  6. Pont mine, vieil elephant mangeur de bananes, et utilisation de la programmation par ensembles reponses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pont min´e, vieil ´el´ephant mangeur de bananes, et utilisation de la programmation par ensembles r. Moinard INRIA Bretagne-Atlantique IRISA () ASP : Pont min´e, ´el´ephant & bananes 15 juin 2012, IRIT Bretagne-Atlantique IRISA () ASP : Pont min´e, ´el´ephant & bananes 15 juin 2012, IRIT, Toulouse 2 / 60 hal

  7. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  8. Energy conservation and resource utilisation in waste-water treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Tassou

    1988-01-01

    The operation of waste-water treatment plants is to a large extent energy-dependent. This paper examines the energy requirements of these plants and explores ways of conserving energy through electrical and thermal load management and resource recovery and utilisation. The gas produced during the process of anaerobic digestion can be used to drive packaged CHP systems for local heat and power

  9. Utilisation de nouveaux paramtres base de fractale pour la discrimination des fontes arabes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Utilisation de nouveaux paramètres à base de fractale pour la discrimination des fontes arabes S,benabdelhafid}@univ-lehavre.fr Résumé : La méthode présentée dans cet article permet l'identification des fontes arabes dans des images-clés : AOFR (Reconnaissance Optique de Fontes Arabes), OCR, analyse de texture, dimension fractale, k

  10. Communication n 23 Atelier 19 : TIC : utilisation dans les pdagogies scolaires

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Communication n° 23 Atelier 19 : TIC : utilisation dans les pédagogies scolaires USAGES DES TIC les résultats d'une étude qualitative portant sur les usages des TIC par des formateurs dans le cadre à la présente recherche. Les entretiens semi- directifs ont porté sur des usages des TIC que font

  11. Usage, msusage et non-utilisation des TIC : repenser la fracture numrique en entreprise

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chapitre 4 Usage, mésusage et non-utilisation des TIC : repenser la fracture numérique en les technologies d'information et de communication (TIC). Dans l'analyse de ce phénomène les conditionnent l'appropriation et l'usage social des TIC. À cette « fracture numérique » aisément identifiable et

  12. Utilisation d'Excel pour traiter ses donnes Note pralable sur les limites d'Excel

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    Utilisation d'Excel pour traiter ses données numériques Note préalable sur les limites d'Excel une traiter vos données sous Excel. Le plus facile: PRN (ou TAB) o Vous allez enregistrer un fichier *.PRN ou des tabulations. o Vous ouvrez le logiciel Excel. o Pour ouvrir le fichier : Vous faites un glisser

  13. Utilisation des Enchres dans les Rseaux Radio Cognitifs pour l'Accs Dynamique au Spectre

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    'objectif principal de la Radio Cognitive (RC) est d'améliorer l'utilisation du spectre sans fil. Pour gérer théorie des ventes aux enchères pour l'accès dynamique au spectre. Mots-clés : radio cognitive; théorie place. Dans ce papier, nous commençons par définir la RC et ses différentes fonctions, ensuite nous

  14. L'UTILISATION DE MODLES INTERMDIAIRES DYNAMIQUES POUR LA SYNTHSE AUDIO-GRAPHIQUE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hugues Genevois Émilien Ghomi LAM - Institut Jean le Rond d'Alembert vincent@mazirkat.org LAM - InstitutL'UTILISATION DE MODÈLES INTERMÉDIAIRES DYNAMIQUES POUR LA SYNTHÈSE AUDIO-GRAPHIQUE Vincent Goudard Jean le Rond d'Alembert genevois@lam.jussieu.fr LRI ­ Université Paris Sud 11 emilien

  15. An. Sri. forent., 1075, 32 (z), 73-92. UTILISATION DES PHOTOGRAPHIES HMISPHRIQUES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Seichamps RÉSUMÉ La mesure directe du rayonnement solaire pendant de longues périodes pose de nombreux rayonnement solaire. L'auteur propose pour cela une méthode qui utilise les photo- graphies hémisphériques. Le perméabilité du feuillage au rayonnement solaire. Au niveau méthodologique, le déroulement pratique des

  16. Utilisation of Local Inputs in the Funding and Administration of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiri, Agharuwhe A.

    2014-01-01

    The article discussed how, why and who is in charge of administering and funding schools in Nigeria. The author utilised the relevant statistical approach which examined and discussed various political and historical trends affecting education. Besides this, relevant documented statistical data were used to both buttress and substantiate related…

  17. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margareth Øverland; Anne-Helene Tauson; Karl Shearer; Anders Skrede

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical

  18. Homeopathic use of modern medicines: utilisation of the curative rebound effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2003-01-01

    Homeopathy is a therapeutic method based on the application of the similitude principle, utilising medicinal substances that produce effects that are similar to the symptoms being treated. In this process, the organism is stimulated to react against its own disturbances through a vital (paradoxical, secondary or homeostatic) reaction, oriented by the primary effect of the used drug. This effect should

  19. Analysis of glyphosate and glufosinate by capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry utilising a sheathless microelectrospray interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Goodwin; James R. Startin; Brendan J. Keely; David M. Goodall

    2003-01-01

    The potential of capillary electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of two herbicides (glyphosate and glufosinate) and their metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid and methylphosphinicopropionic acid) as the native species is demonstrated utilising a simple microelectrospray interface. The interface uses the voltage applied to the CE capillary to drive separation and generate the electrospray, avoiding sample dilution associated with

  20. Thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of high-strength distillery wastewater (potato stillage)--utilisation of main carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Krzywonos, Ma?gorzata; Cibis, Edmund; Lasik, Ma?gorzata; Nowak, Jacek; Mi?kiewicz, Tadeusz

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the extent to which temperature influences the utilisation of main carbon sources (reducing substances determined before and after hydrolysis, glycerol and organic acids) by a mixed culture of thermo- and mesophilic bacteria of the genus Bacillus in the course of aerobic batch biodegradation of potato stillage, a high-strength distillery effluent (COD=51.88 g O(2)/l). The experiments were performed at 20, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60 and 63 degrees C, at pH 7, in a 5l working volume stirred-tank bioreactor (Biostat B, B. Braun Biotech International) with a stirrer speed of 550 rpm and aeration at 1.6 vvm. Particular consideration was given to the following issues: (1) the sequence in which the main carbon sources in the stillage were assimilated and (2) the extent of their assimilation achieved under these conditions. PMID:19138516

  1. Effects of glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Bochenek, Maciej; Samuelsson, Anne-Cathrine; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A completely randomised design study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to observe effects of an emulsifier (glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate (GPR)) on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were used to determine the influence of GPR (without addition or added at 0.04% of diet) and two levels of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) (according to standard requirements (Diets SE) or energy reduced by 0.4 MJ/kg diet (Diets LE)) on birds' performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). ATTD of ether extract (EE) and AMEN were measured on d 14 and 35, and ATTD of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was measured on d 35. All diets were based on wheat-maize-soybean meal with rapeseed oil and lard (blend of 50:50) as fat sources. During the grower period and the whole trial, birds fed Diets supplemented with GPR were characterised by higher body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to chicken receiving diets without GPR (p < 0.05). At the end of experiment, birds fed Diet LE without GPR were characterised by lower BWG and higher FCR (p < 0.05). Supplementation with GPR caused a higher ATTD of EE for diets SE and LE at d 14 and 35 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GPR addition to Diet LE improved ATTD of NDF at d 35 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings suggest that GPR effects the digestion of a blend of animal fat/rapeseed oil positively, even in a practical maize-wheat-based broiler diet with decreased AMEN level. PMID:26147512

  2. Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Top, Y

    2015-01-01

    The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system. PMID:25453314

  3. Effects of mannanoligosaccharide in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, energy utilisation, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Iji, P A; Kocher, A; Thomson, E; Mikkelsen, L L; Choct, M

    2008-03-01

    1. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS, Bio-MOS, Alltech Inc.) on the growth performance, energy utilisation, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora of birds given a sorghum-wheat based diet. Two MOS levels (1 and 2 g/kg) were included in the diet. 2. Inclusion of MOS at both levels in the diet improved the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) values of the diet. However, these effects were not as pronounced as those of zinc bacitracin (ZnB) treatment. Dietary ZnB also significantly improved the net energy value of the diet. No significant differences between the different levels of MOS were noticed in the growth performance, AME and net energy values of the diet. Compared to the negative control, inclusion of 2 g/kg MOS tended to improve feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in the starter phase. 3. Dietary MOS did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients compared to the negative control. In contrast, ZnB significantly improved the protein digestibility and tended to increase the starch digestibility. The addition of MOS reduced the concentration of arabinose in the soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) fraction in the excreta of birds; whereas, the concentrations of individual sugars in the insoluble NSP and free sugar fractions were increased by ZnB. 4. A decrease in the populations of lactobacilli and coliforms in the ileal and caecal lumen was observed for MOS and ZnB treatments. Correspondingly, pH and microbial fermentation in the gut was altered. The addition of MOS tended to reduce the coliform load at the gut mucosa. 5. Results from the current study suggest that MOS can improve the apparent energy utilisation of the diet and tend to improve FCE of birds in the first three posthatch weeks, which may be partly related to the modulatory effects of MOS on the gut microflora. PMID:18409093

  4. Original article Utilising historical tree-ring data for

    E-print Network

    a different climate response from the mature living trees used for calibration studies. The short mean segment living and historical TR width series of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) sampled in the Lower

  5. The Equity in Prescription Medicines Use Study: Using community pharmacy databases to study medicines utilisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Horsburgh; Pauline Norris; Gordon Becket; Peter Crampton; Bruce Arroll; Jacqueline Cumming; Peter Herbison; Gerald Sides

    2010-01-01

    PurposePharmacy dispensing databases provide a comprehensive source of data on medicines use free from many of the biases inherent in administrative databases. There are challenges associated with using pharmacy databases however. This paper describes the methods we used, and their performance, so that other researchers considering using pharmacy databases may benefit from our experiences.

  6. Patterns of mental health service utilisation in Italy and Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Salvador-Carulla; Giuseppe Tibaldi; Sonia Johnson; Elena Scala; Cristina Romero; Carmine Munizza

    2005-01-01

    Background Methods for comparing local mental health service systems are needed to allow identification of different patterns of service provision and of inequities within and between countries. Aim The aim of this study was to describe and compare mental health service systems in 13 catchment areas in Spain and Italy. Within each country, a range of area characteristics was represented.

  7. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

  8. Utilisation of Malaysian Coal: Merit Pila in the Gasification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Nor Fadzilah; Bosrooh, Mohd Hariffin; Majid, Kamsani Abdul

    2011-06-01

    Gasification is the most efficient Clean Coal Technology. Gasification of Merit Pila coal had been studied in a laboratory-scale, atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air-steam as fluidizing agent. Merit Pila coal was chosen for the gasification study because of its high reactivity in nitrogen. Determination of the producer gas compositions were conducted using Gas Chromatography. Gasification experiments were conducted at bed temperature of 650-800 °C, different equivalence ratios, ER and different bed heights. Low heating value, LHVpg of the producer gas were in the range of 2.0-5.5 MJ/Nm3. Introduction of steam as the gasifying agents had shown significant increased of CO, CH4 and H2 contents in producer gas. LHV also increased about 35% with the presence of steam.

  9. Healthcare utilisation and knowledge concerning prescribed drugs among older people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmie Kristensson; Sara Modig; Patrik Midlöv; Ingalill Rahm Hallberg; Ulf Jakobsson

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to explore healthcare consumption in relation to more versus less knowledge concerning prescribed\\u000a drugs among older people with functional dependency and repeated healthcare contacts, and to explore the determinants of more\\u000a versus less knowledge\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The sample comprised 63 persons (mean age 82.8 years). Data concerning use and knowledge about drugs, demographics, health\\u000a complaints and self-reported

  10. Utilising proteomic approaches to understand oncogenic human herpesviruses (Review)

    PubMed Central

    OWEN, CHRISTOPHER B.; HUGHES, DAVID J.; BAQUERO-PEREZ, BELINDA; BERNDT, ANJA; SCHUMANN, SOPHIE; JACKSON, BRIAN R.; WHITEHOUSE, ADRIAN

    2014-01-01

    The ?-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are successful pathogens, each infecting a large proportion of the human population. These viruses persist for the life of the host and may each contribute to a number of malignancies, for which there are currently no cures. Large-scale proteomic-based approaches provide an excellent means of increasing the collective understanding of the proteomes of these complex viruses and elucidating their numerous interactions within the infected host cell. These large-scale studies are important for the identification of the intricacies of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics against these two important pathogens. PMID:25279171

  11. Western Saudi adolescent age estimation utilising third molar development

    PubMed Central

    Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish reference data on third molar morphology/development for age estimation in Western Saudi adolescents, between ages 14 and 23 years of old. Materials and Methods: The orthopantomograms of 130 individuals (males and females), were examined, and the stage of third molar development were evaluated. Results: Mean ages, standard deviations, and percentile distributions are presented for each stage of development. The mean estimated age for all participants (n = 130) was 219.7 months, and this differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the mean chronological age (226.5 months). Deviations of predicted age from real age showed 28.5% of all participants had their age estimated within 1 year (±12 months) of their chronological age. Most (43%) had their age underestimated by more than 12 months and the remaining 28.5% had their age overestimated by more than 12 months of their chronological age. Differences in left-right symmetry information of third molars were detected and were higher in the maxilla (92%) than in the mandible (82%). For all molars reaching stage “H” most individuals (males and females) were over the age 18 years of old. Males reach the developmental stages earlier than females. Conclusion: Third molar tooth development can be reliably used to generate mean age and the estimated age range for an individual of unknown chronological age. Further studies with large populations are needed for better statistical results. PMID:25202206

  12. Performance of biofuel processes utilising separate lignin and carbohydrate processing.

    PubMed

    Melin, Kristian; Kohl, Thomas; Koskinen, Jukka; Hurme, Markku

    2015-09-01

    Novel biofuel pathways with increased product yields are evaluated against conventional lignocellulosic biofuel production processes: methanol or methane production via gasification and ethanol production via steam-explosion pre-treatment. The novel processes studied are ethanol production combined with methanol production by gasification, hydrocarbon fuel production with additional hydrogen produced from lignin residue gasification, methanol or methane synthesis using synthesis gas from lignin residue gasification and additional hydrogen obtained by aqueous phase reforming in synthesis gas production. The material and energy balances of the processes were calculated by Aspen flow sheet models and add on excel calculations applicable at the conceptual design stage to evaluate the pre-feasibility of the alternatives. The processes were compared using the following criteria: energy efficiency from biomass to products, primary energy efficiency, GHG reduction potential and economy (expressed as net present value: NPV). Several novel biorefinery concepts gave higher energy yields, GHG reduction potential and NPV. PMID:26056782

  13. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval', Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. PMID:26060198

  14. Utilising polyphenols for the clinical management of Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Sherry, Leighann; Rajendran, Ranjith; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ramage, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    Polyphenols (PPs) are secondary metabolites abundant in plant-derived foods. They are reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity that may offer an alternative to existing antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal potential of PPs against Candida albicans biofilms that are commonly recalcitrant to antifungal therapy. The antifungal activity of 14 PPs was assessed in terms of planktonic and sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (PMICs and SMICs, respectively) against various C. albicans clinical isolates. The most active PPs were further tested for their effect on C. albicans adhesion and biofilm growth using standard biomass assays, microscopy and quantitative gene expression. Of the 14 PPs tested, 7 were effective inhibitors of planktonic growth, of which pyrogallol (PYG) was the most effective (PMIC??=78 ?g/mL), followed by curcumin (CUR) (PMIC??=100 ?g/mL) and pyrocatechol (PMIC??=625 ?g/mL). Both PYG and CUR displayed activity against C. albicans biofilms (SMIC??=40 ?g/mL and 50 ?g/mL, respectively), although they did not disrupt the biofilm or directly affect the cellular structure. Overall, CUR displayed superior biofilm activity, significantly inhibiting initial cell adhesion following pre-coating (P<0.01), biofilm growth (P<0.05) and gene expression (P<0.05). This inhibitory effect diminished with prolonged CUR exposure, although it still inhibited by 50% after 4h adhesion. Overall, CUR exhibited positive antibiofilm properties that could be used at the basis for development of similar molecules, although further cellular and in vivo studies are required to explore its precise mechanism of action. PMID:25104135

  15. Context-Aware Service Utilisation in the Clouds and Energy Conservation

    E-print Network

    Kiani, Saad Liaquat; Antonopoulos, Nick; Knappmeyer, Michael; Baker, Nigel; McClatchey, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing environments are characterised by smart, interconnected artefacts embedded in our physical world that are projected to provide useful services to human inhabitants unobtrusively. Mobile devices are becoming the primary tools of human interaction with these embedded artefacts and utilisation of services available in smart computing environments such as clouds. Advancements in capabilities of mobile devices allow a number of user and environment related context consumers to be hosted on these devices. Without a coordinating component, these context consumers and providers are a potential burden on device resources; specifically the effect of uncoordinated computation and communication with cloud-enabled services can negatively impact the battery life. Therefore energy conservation is a major concern in realising the collaboration and utilisation of mobile device based context-aware applications and cloud based services. This paper presents the concept of a context-brokering component to aid...

  16. Effects of demand-side financing on utilisation, experiences and outcomes of maternity care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Demand-side financing, where funds for specific services are channelled through, or to, prospective users, is now employed in health and education sectors in many low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review aimed to critically examine the evidence on application of this approach to promote maternal health in these settings. Five modes were considered: unconditional cash transfers, conditional cash transfers, short-term payments to offset costs of accessing maternity services, vouchers for maternity services, and vouchers for merit goods. We sought to assess the effects of these interventions on utilisation of maternity services and on maternal health outcomes and infant health, the situation of underprivileged women and the healthcare system. Methods The protocol aimed for collection and synthesis of a broad range of evidence from quantitative, qualitative and economic studies. Nineteen health and social policy databases, seven unpublished research databases and 27 websites were searched; with additional searches of Indian journals and websites. Studies were included if they examined demand-side financing interventions to increase consumption of services or goods intended to impact on maternal health, and met relevant quality criteria. Quality assessment, data extraction and analysis used Joanna Briggs Institute standardised tools and software. Outcomes of interest included maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, service utilisation, factors required for successful implementation, recipient and provider experiences, ethical issues, and cost-effectiveness. Findings on Effectiveness, Feasibility, Appropriateness and Meaningfulness were presented by narrative synthesis. Results Thirty-three quantitative studies, 46 qualitative studies, and four economic studies from 17 countries met the inclusion criteria. Evidence on unconditional cash transfers was scanty. Other demand-side financing modes were found to increase utilisation of maternal healthcare in the index pregnancy or uptake of related merit goods. Evidence of effects on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity outcomes was insufficient. Important implementation aspects include targeting and eligibility criteria, monitoring, respectful treatment of beneficiaries, suitable incentives for providers, quality of care and affordable referral systems. Conclusions Demand-side financing schemes can increase utilisation of maternity services, but attention must be paid to supply-side conditions, the fine-grain of implementation and sustainability. Comparative studies and research on health impact and cost-effectiveness are required. PMID:24438560

  17. Utilisation of Immunochemical Methods for Detection of Colletotrichum spp. in Strawberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAELA ZEMÁNKOVÁ

    2002-01-01

    KRÁTKÁ J., PEKÁROVÁ-KYN?ROVÁ B., KUDLÍKOVÁ I., SLOVÁ?EK J., ZEMÁNKOVÁ M. (2002): Utilisation of immu- nochemical methods for detection of Colletotrichum spp. in strawberry. Plant Protect. Sci., 38: 55-63. Four polyclonal and two monoclonal antibodies were prepared and tested to detect a quarantine pathogen of strawberry - Colletotrichum acutatum. Only one of them, polyclonal IgG K91, was sensitive enough to recognize

  18. Abundance, residency, and habitat utilisation of Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Bejder; Steve Dawson

    2001-01-01

    Theodolite tracking and boat?based photo?identification surveys were carried out in the austral summers of 1995\\/96 and 1996\\/97 to assess abundance, residency, and habitat utilisation of Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori van Beneden 1881) in Porpoise Bay, on the south?east corner of the South Island of New Zealand. Data are consistent with the model of a small resident population that is visited

  19. Methane formation and substrate utilisation in anaerobic rice soils as affected by fertilisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amnat Chidthaisong; Hitoshi Obata; Iwao Watanabe

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of air-dried rice soils was carried out to investigate the effects of long-term fertiliser application on CH4 formation and the utilisation of glucose and acetate. The soil samples were taken after the crop harvest in 1995 from the long-term experimental plots which had been fertilised with chemical fertiliser alone (CF), or chemical fertiliser in combination with rice straw

  20. Decline in breast cancer incidence after decrease in utilisation of hormone replacement therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Katalinic; Rajesh Rawal

    2008-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been implicated as a risk factor for breast cancer and the use of HRT has decreased\\u000a substantially in general population over the last years. Recently, there are first indications that breast cancer incidence\\u000a has started declining. We examined recent breast cancer incidence and actual data on HRT utilisation in Schleswig-Holstein,\\u000a Germany, to find out population

  1. Building Cost-effective Research Platforms: Utilising Free | Open source Software in Research Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Meyer

    2003-01-01

    When prototyping or developing a system for use in research work, it is often necessary to create an entire system, even if only one part of the system is the focus of the research. Free | open-source software offers a solution to this problem, allowing the creation of cost-effective research platforms, utilising peer- reviewed, rapidly-developed code that is easily modified.

  2. Rapid discrimination of maggots utilising ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Claire L; Hands, James R; Fullwood, Leanne M; Smith, Judith A; Baker, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Entomological evidence is used in forensic investigations to indicate time since death. The species and age of maggots or flies that are present at the scene can be used when estimating how much time has passed since death. Current methods that are used to identify species and developmental stage of larvae and fly samples are highly subjective, costly and often time consuming processes and require the expertise of an entomologist or species identification via DNA analysis. The use of vibrational spectroscopy, as an alternative identification method, would allow for a quicker, cheaper and less subjective technique and would allow entomological evidence to be used more commonly in the forensic process. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) as a rapid tool for differentiating between various species of larvae, such as those commonly found at crime scenes. The proposed regime would provide a rapid and valuable tool resulting in reduced time for both species identification and life cycle determination, particularly in forensic situations. PMID:25703014

  3. Utilisation of biochar and superabsorbent polymers for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Ekebafe, M O; Ekebafe, L O; Maliki, M

    2013-01-01

    The application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and/or biochars to stressed lands offer solutions to several critical ecological, energy and economic challenges posed by degraded lands due to human activities. These substances are like, 'artificial humus' as they are hydrophilic and contain carboxylic groups (SAPs) which enable them to bind cations and water and sequester carbon from air to reverse global warming (biochars). Several research studies using these substances point to their ability to increase the plant-available water in the soil which enables the plants to survive longer with water shortage, increase soil fertility and agricultural yields, improve soil structure, aeration and water penetration, reduce use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, reduce nitrous oxide and methane emission from soil, reduce nitrate and farm chemicals leaching into watersheds, convert green and brown wastes into valuable resources, and reduce the evapotranspiration rate of the plants. SAPs and biochars induce a significantly higher growth rate in plants; they bind heavy metals and mitigate their action on plants as well as mitigate the effects of salinity. This paper reviews what is known about these claims and considers the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processess. The intention is not just to summarise the current knowledge but also to identify gaps that require further research. PMID:23738439

  4. Utilisation and Off-Label Prescriptions of Respiratory Drugs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedl, Sven; Fischer, Rainald; Ibáñez, Luisa; Fortuny, Joan; Klungel, Olaf H.; Reynolds, Robert; Gerlach, Roman; Tauscher, Martin; Thürmann, Petra; Hasford, Joerg; Rottenkolber, Marietta

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ?18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children) between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs) per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374–575 per 10,000 children) and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378–527 per 10,000 children). Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold) whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (?97%). Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3%) and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%). The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n?=?67,084; 42.0%) and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n?=?18,897; 20.7%). Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections underlining the essential need for a more rational prescribing in this area. PMID:25180704

  5. L’utilisation d’objets comme outils: un développement continu

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Björn Alexander; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Le débat autour des origines développementales de la capacité humaine à utiliser des outils de manière souple reste ouvert. Alors que l’approche dominante se focalise sur un changement qualitatif cognitif vers la fin de la première année, la théorie perception-action fournit des indices importants sur la manière dont les comportements exploratoires plus précoces des nourrissons jettent les bases pour l’émergence de cette capacité. En particulier, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont les tentatives des nourrissons de mettre en rapport les objets et les surfaces leur permettent d’apprendre comment les objets peuvent servir d’extension de la main et fournissent l’occasion d’exercer des actions qui seront recrutées plus tard pour l’utilisation d’outils. Dans ce contexte, nous discutons des études comportementales et cinématiques portant sur la manipulation d’objets, qui montrent que les nourrissons font interagir les objets et les surfaces avec discernement et que leur contrôle de la frappe (banging) augmente au cours de leur première année. En conclusion, une perspective perception-action suggère que l’utilisation d’outils émerge de manière plus continue au cours du développement que ce qui a été traditionnellement envisagé. PMID:24511151

  6. Amlioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la complmentation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Amélioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la and Leng, 1986 ILCA/Addis Ababa). Un essai d'amélioration de pailles de Sorghum bicolor complémenté à l

  7. L'ordinateur : un outil de sélection ? Utilisation de l'informatique, salaire et risque de chômage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Kramarz; Michel Gollac

    1997-01-01

    [fre] L'ordinateur : un outil de sélection ? Utilisation de l'informatique, salaire et risque de chômage. . À l'aide d'enquêtes statistiques et d'interviews de salariés, nous mettons en évidence les effets de sélection qui sont favorisés par la mise en place de l'informatique dans les entreprises. En particulier, cette sélection se voit sur les salaires - les salariés utilisant l'informatique

  8. Health care utilisation in subjects with osteoarthritis, chronic back pain and osteoporosis aged 65 years and more: mediating effects of limitations in activities of daily living, pain intensity and mental diseases.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Tanja Alexandra; Pieber, Karin; Blasche, Gerhard; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases (MDs) have major consequences for the individual, and also for society and may thus lead to increased use of health care. It was the aim of this study to explore health care utilisation in patients with self-reported osteoarthritis, chronic back pain or osteoporosis compared with people of the same age without those diseases, based on data of the Austrian health interview survey including 3,097 subjects aged ? 65 years. Patients with MDs in our study visited a general practitioner (GP) and were hospitalised significantly more often compared with persons without the respective diseases. Problems in the activities of daily living (ADLs), pain intensity and anxiety/depression influenced GP consultations. Complex factors explain the higher health care utilisation in subjects with MDs in our study. Our results indicate that integrated strategies are needed to manage those patients, which should focus on management of ADL problems, pain and mental health. PMID:24468829

  9. Genome-wide associations for feed utilisation complex in primiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from experimental research herds in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Veerkamp, R F; Coffey, M P; Berry, D P; de Haas, Y; Strandberg, E; Bovenhuis, H; Calus, M P L; Wall, E

    2012-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies for difficult-to-measure traits are generally limited by the sample size with accurate phenotypic data. The objective of this study was to utilise data on primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows from experimental farms in Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Sweden to identify genomic regions associated with the feed utilisation complex: fat and protein corrected milk yield (FPCM), dry matter intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS) and live-weight (LW). Phenotypic data and 37 590 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available on up to 1629 animals. Genetic parameters of the traits were estimated using a linear animal model with pedigree information, and univariate genome-wide association analyses were undertaken using Bayesian stochastic search variable selection performed using Gibbs sampling. The variation in the phenotypes explained by the SNPs on each chromosome was related to the size of the chromosome and was relatively consistent for each trait with the possible exceptions of BTA4 for BCS, BTA7, BTA13, BTA14, BTA18 for LW and BTA27 for DMI. For LW, BCS, DMI and FPCM, 266, 178, 206 and 254 SNPs had a Bayes factor .3, respectively. Olfactory genes and genes involved in the sensory smell process were overrepresented in a 500 kbp window around the significant SNPs. Potential candidate genes were involved with functions linked to insulin, epidermal growth factor and tryptophan. PMID:23031337

  10. Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

  11. Does spatial location matter? Traditional therapy utilisation among the general population in a Ghanaian rural and urban setting.

    PubMed

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Asante, Felix; Segbefia, Alexander Yao; Abass, Kabila; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah; Eshun, Gabriel; Adjei, Prince Osei-Wusu

    2015-06-01

    Despite the recognition for rising consumption rate of traditional medicine (TRM) in health and spatio-medical literature in the global scale, the impact of location in traditional therapy use has been explored least in Ghana. This paper analysed the role of spatial variation in TRM use in Kumasi Metropolis and Sekyere South District of Ashanti Region, Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional and place-based survey was conducted in a representative sample (N=324) selected through systematic random sampling technique. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were espoused as the main research instruments. Data were analysed with Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests from the Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) version 17.0. The study found that over 86% reported TRM use. Whilst majority (59.1%) of the respondents had used TRM two or more times within the last 12 months, biologically-based therapies and energy healing were common forms of TRM accessed. Although, the use of TRM did not vary (p>0.05), knowledge about TRM, modalities of TRM and the sources of TRM differed significantly across geographically demarcated rural and urban splits (p<0.005). The study advances our understanding of the spatial dimensions as regards TRM utilisation. PMID:26051580

  12. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    PubMed

    Leuven, R S E W; Willems, F H G

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environmental benefits, these secondary building materials contain various metals that may leach into river water. A leaching model was used to predict annual emissions of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Under the current utilisation and model assumptions, the contribution of secondary building materials to metal pollution in Dutch surface waters is expected to be relatively low compared to other sources (less than 0.1% and 0.2% in the years 2000 and 2025, respectively). However, continued and widespread large-scale applications of secondary building materials will increase pollutant leaching and may require further cuts to be made in emissions from other sources to meet emission reduction targets and water quality standards. It is recommended to validate available leaching models under various field conditions. Complete registration of secondary building materials will be required to improve input data for leaching models. PMID:15053116

  13. What accounts for the regional differences in the utilisation of hospitals in Germany?

    PubMed

    Augurzky, Boris; Kopetsch, Thomas; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2013-08-01

    There are huge regional variations in the utilisation of hospital services in Germany. In 2007 and 2008 the states of Hamburg and Baden-Württemberg had on average just under 38 % fewer hospitalisations per capita than Saxony-Anhalt. We use data from the DRG statistics aggregated at the county level in combination with numerous other data sources (e.g. INKAR Database, accounting data from the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KBV), Federal Medical Registry, Germany Hospital Directory, population structure per county) to establish the proportion of the observed regional differences that can be explained at county and state levels. Overall we are able to account for 73 % of the variation at state level in terms of observable factors. By far the most important reason for the regional variation in the utilisation of in-patient services is differences in medical needs. Differences in the supply of medical services and the substitutability of outpatient and inpatient treatment are also relevant, but to a lesser extent. PMID:22760519

  14. Analysis of healthcare financing, supply and utilisation trends in the new EU countries.

    PubMed

    Ruseski, Jane E

    2006-01-01

    The EU expanded in 2004 to include eight transition countries, i.e. Central and Eastern European (CEE) and newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, and two other CEE countries are scheduled to join the EU in 2007. Each of these countries has undertaken substantial healthcare reform efforts over the past 15 years. The paths of healthcare reform are diverse for a number of reasons including differences in initial economic, political and structural conditions. The objective of this article is to evaluate the process and preliminary outcomes of healthcare reform in the new EU and candidate countries by analysing trends in aggregate financing, supply and utilisation indicators using data drawn from the WHO Health for All database. The analysis is done in the context of an analytical framework built around common healthcare reform themes. The key reform measures examined include implementing social insurance systems, implementing payment systems that promote efficiency, and removal of excess capacity. The trend analysis highlights the importance of the economic, political and social context in driving the direction and pace of healthcare reform. For example, the transition to social insurance systems was smoother in countries with stronger economies and political commitment to reform. Policies aimed at improving the efficiency of the healthcare system, reducing utilisation and reducing excess capacity were met with some success in all of the countries. However, the reform effort continues as the countries are still addressing the initial challenges of insufficient funding, informal payments, excess capacity and inefficiencies in the provision of healthcare. PMID:17249839

  15. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.

    PubMed

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl; Skrede, Anders

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance. PMID:20578647

  16. A systematic review of the predictors of health service utilisation by adults with mental disorders in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Conal D; Baldwin, David S; Hopfe, Maren; Cieza, Alarcos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify variables that predict health service utilisation (HSU) by adults with mental disorders in the UK, and to determine the evidence level for these predictors. Design A narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed studies published after the year 2000. The search was conducted using four databases (ie, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus with full text, MEDLINE and EMBASE) and completed on 25 March 2014. Setting The majority of included studies were set in health services across primary, secondary, specialist and inpatient care. Some studies used data from household and postal surveys. Participants Included were UK-based studies that predicted HSU by adults with mental disorders. Participants had a range of mental disorders including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and dementia. Primary outcome A wide range of HSU outcomes were examined, including general practitioner (GP) contacts, medication usage, psychiatrist contacts, psychotherapy attendances, inpatient days, accident and emergency admissions and ‘total HSU’. Results Taking into account study quality, 28 studies identified a range of variables with good preliminary evidence supporting their ability to predict HSU. Of these variables, comorbidity, personality disorder, age (heterogeneous age ranges), neurotic symptoms, female gender, a marital status of divorced, separated or widowed, non-white ethnicity, high previous HSU and activities of daily living, were associated with increased HSU. Moreover, good preliminary evidence was found for associations of accessing a primary care psychological treatment service and medication use with decreased HSU. Conclusions The findings can inform decisions about which variables might be used to derive mental health clusters in ‘payment by results’ systems in the UK. The findings also support the need to investigate whether combining broad diagnoses with care pathways is an effective method for mental health clustering, and the need for research to further examine the association between mental health clusters and HSU. PMID:26150142

  17. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Melba, E-mail: mnavarro@ibecbarcelona.eu [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom) [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom); Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona, 08028 (Spain); Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A. [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom)] [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  18. Detection of Sialic Acid-Utilising Bacteria in a Caecal Community Batch Culture Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Young, Wayne; Egert, Markus; Bassett, Shalome A.; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health. PMID:25816158

  19. Detection of sialic acid-utilising bacteria in a caecal community batch culture using RNA-based stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Young, Wayne; Egert, Markus; Bassett, Shalome A; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health. PMID:25816158

  20. Temperature monitoring utilising thermoacoustic signals during pulsed microwave thermotherapy: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lou, Cunguang; Xing, Da

    2010-01-01

    Thermotherapy is an attractive alternative to surgery and radiation therapy because of its ability to locally kill tumours while preserving surrounding normal tissues. An important part of successful thermotherapy is real-time temperature monitoring to control the area being heated while protecting normal tissue. The pulsed microwave absorbed by biological tissue can excite ultrasonic waves via thermoelastic expansion, while the magnitude of the acoustic signal is temperature-dependent. The goal of this work is to develop an approach for treatment monitoring of thermotherapy. The pulsed microwave serves as an acoustic excitation source as well as heating source. Temperature is real-time monitored by the magnitude of the thermoacoustic signals. Experiments were conducted in phantoms and fresh ex vivo tissues, an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C was obtained. This approach has the potential to be developed into a viable alternative to current clinical temperature monitoring device for microwave thermotherapy. PMID:20345268

  1. International perspectives and the results of carbon dioxide capture disposal and utilisation studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierce W. F. Riemer; William G. Ormerod

    1995-01-01

    In response to the increase in the global concentrations of greenhouse gases, the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme is carrying out an assessment of greenhouse gas abatement technologies with particular reference to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel power generation systems. The work is supported internationally by 13 OECD countries as well as the Commission of European Communities and two sponsors

  2. Utilising Six Sigma for Improving Pass Percentage of Students: A Technical Institute Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushik, Prabhakar; Khanduja, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Service sector accounts for a substantial share in Indian economy and among the service industries, education sector is emerging as a major commercial activity in the nation. Globalization, growing competition among institutions, emergence of new technologies, changing socio-economic profiles of nations and knowledge driven economies have created…

  3. Health care utilisation of infants with chronic lung disease, related to hospitalisation for RSV infection

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, A; Cox, S; Alexander, J; Lenney, W; Turnbull, F; Burgess, S; Chetcuti, P; Shaw, N; Woods, A; Boorman, J; Coles, S; Turner, J; RUSSELL, G.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To compare the use of health care resources and associated costs between infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) who had or had not an admission with a proven respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.?METHODS—Review of community care, outpatient attendances, and readmissions in the first two years after birth. Patients: 235 infants (median gestational age 27 weeks) evaluated in four groups: 45infants with a proven RSV admission (RSV proven); 24 with a probable bronchiolitis admission; 60 with other respiratory admissions; and 106 with non-respiratory or no admissions.?RESULTS—The RSV proven compared to the other groups required more frequent and longer admissions to general paediatric wards and intensive care units, more outpatient attendances and GP consultations for respiratory related disorders, and had a higher total cost of care.?CONCLUSION—RSV hospitalisation in patients with CLD is associated with increased health service utilisation and costs in the first two years after birth.? PMID:11719328

  4. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR. PMID:16115724

  5. Utilisation of chemical signals by inquiline wasps in entering their host figs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ding; Yang, Da-Rong

    2013-10-01

    The fig tree, Ficus curtipes, hosts an obligate pollinating wasp, an undescribed Eupristina sp., but can also be pollinated by two inquiline (living in the burrow, nest, gall, or other habitation of another animal) wasps, Diaziella yangi and an undescribed Lipothymus sp. The two inquilines are unable to independently induce galls and depend on the galls induced by the obligate pollinator for reproduction and, therefore, normally enter receptive F. curtipes figs colonised by the obligate pollinators. However, sometimes the inquilines also enter figs that are not colonised by the pollinators, despite consequent reproductive failure. It is still unknown which signal(s) the inquilines use in entering the colonised and non-colonised figs. We conducted behavioural experiments to investigate several possible signals utilised by the inquilines in entering their host receptive figs. Our investigation showed that both inquiline species enter the receptive F. curtipes figs in response to the body odours of the obligate wasps and one of the main compounds emitted by the figs, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. The compound was not found in the pollinator body odours, suggesting that the two inquiline wasps can utilise two signals to enter their host figs, which is significant for the evolution of the fig-fig wasp system. These inquilines could evolve to become mutualists of the figs if they evolve the ability to independently gall fig flowers; there is, however, another possibility that a monoecious Ficus species hosting such inquilines may evolve into a dioecious one if these inquilines cannot evolve the above-mentioned ability. Additionally, this finding provides evidence for the evolution of chemical communication between plants and insects. PMID:23973817

  6. Development and utilisation of a real-time display of logged in radiology information system users.

    PubMed

    Rumball-Smith, Alistair; MacDonald, Sharyn

    2011-04-01

    In radiology departments with multiple geographically separated reporting areas, locating radiologists can be challenging. We have developed an in-house solution to minimise the time spent looking for radiologists utilising near real-time data stored with our radiology information system (RIS). An auto updating Extensible Markup Language (XML) data feed from our RIS provider provides information about users logged into the RIS. It includes user names, their contact details and specialty interests, their location within the department, and a time stamp of last recorded dictation or report verification. The information is then displayed on our internal intranet and on a self-refreshing screen in our main department corridor. In order to estimate time savings made through the tools creation, usage statistics were calculated and combined with assessments of time taken to find a named radiologist prior to the tools implementation. Over the month of April 2009, there were 2,798 hits on the locator page. Radiologists were responsible for 1,248 hits and radiology administration staff for 1,550 hits. The average time for using the tool was calculated at 5 s. Reviewing a roster and calling/paging a radiologist took on average 30 s, and a full walk around of the department took 195 s. Through utilisation of near real-time data available within our RIS system and display of these data in an accessible form, we have developed a tool that has realised savings of up to 16 h of radiologist reporting time per week. PMID:20532945

  7. Impact of Noncommunicable Disease Multimorbidity on Healthcare Utilisation and Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures in Middle-Income Countries: Cross Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Tayu; Hamid, Fozia; Pati, Sanghamitra; Atun, Rifat; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs) has grown rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where populations are ageing, with rising prevalence of multimorbidity (more than two co-existing chronic conditions) that will significantly increase pressure on already stretched health systems. We assess the impact of NCD multimorbidity on healthcare utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditures in six middle-income countries: China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Methods Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from adult participants (>18 years) in the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) 2007–2010. We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic correlates of multimorbidity. Association between the number of NCDs and healthcare utilisation as well as out-of-pocket spending was assessed using logistic, negative binominal and log-linear models. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity in the adult population varied from 3?9% in Ghana to 33?6% in Russia. Number of visits to doctors in primary and secondary care rose substantially for persons with increasing numbers of co-existing NCDs. Multimorbidity was associated with more outpatient visits in China (coefficient for number of NCD = 0?56, 95% CI = 0?46, 0?66), a higher likelihood of being hospitalised in India (AOR = 1?59, 95% CI = 1?45, 1?75), higher out-of-pocket expenditures for outpatient visits in India and China, and higher expenditures for hospital visits in Russia. Medicines constituted the largest proportion of out-of-pocket expenditures in persons with multimorbidity (88?3% for outpatient, 55?9% for inpatient visit in China) in most countries. Conclusion Multimorbidity is associated with higher levels of healthcare utilisation and greater financial burden for individuals in middle-income countries. Our study supports the WHO call for universal health insurance and health service coverage in LMICs, particularly for vulnerable groups such as the elderly with multimorbidity. PMID:26154083

  8. Cette oeuvre est mise disposition selon les termes de la Licence Creative Commons Attribution -Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale -Pas de Modification 3.0 France.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 3.0 France. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/fr Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis et CNRS GREDEG CNRS/UNSA Groupe de Recherche en Droit termes de la Licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 3.0

  9. Utilisation of MSWI bottom ash as sub-base in road construction: First results from a large-scale test site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Hjelmar; Jesper Holm; Kim Crillesen

    2007-01-01

    The preferred management option for municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in Denmark is utilisation rather than landfilling, but the current environmental quality criteria for bottom ash to be utilised in bulk quantities are rather strict. To evaluate the impact and risk assessments, upon which those criteria are based, a large-scale test site has been established. Three different MSWI

  10. Brain glucose utilisation in acquired childhood aphasia associated with a sylvian arachnoid cyst: recovery after shunting as demonstrated by PET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A G De Volder; C Michel; C Thauvoy; G Willems; G Ferrière

    1994-01-01

    Regional brain glucose utilisation was investigated with PET and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in a case of epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome) associated with a left sylvian arachnoid cyst. CT and MRI had failed to disclose any mass effect of the cyst on surrounding brain structures. Sequential metabolic measurements showed a comparable pronounced hypometabolism in cortical regions around the cyst, involving speech areas,

  11. Utilisation de données multi-versions et de l'ordonnancement contrôlé par rétroaction pour les transactions temps réel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emna Bouazizi

    Résumé : Ces dernières années, les besoins en termes de données et de services temps réel se sont beaucoup accrus dans un grand nombre d'applications. La quan- tité de données temps réel acquises par des capteurs rend nécessaire l'utilisation de SGBDTR1 qui permettent de prendre en compte les contraintes temps réel des appli- cations. Ces applications doivent aussi faire face

  12. A compact 420 kV line utilising line surge arresters for areas with low isokeraunic levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diarmid Loudon; Kjell Halsan; Uno Jonsson; Svenska Kraftnet; Dan Karlsson; Lennart Stenstrøm; Jan Lundquist

    SUMMARY This report describes the work carried out to develop a delta 420 kV compact line with 5 m phase spacing, utilising line surge arresters and eliminating shield wires. Long term audible noise measurements were taken on a full-scale outdoors test line. Special grading rings were developed and tested. The design is based on tension towers only, to overcome the

  13. Influence des cilis du rumen sur l'utilisation digestive de diffrents rgimes riches en glucides solubles

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    saccharose et du lactose (1) J.-P. JOUANY J. SENAUD Laboratoire de la Digestion des Ruminants, I'amidon. Reprod. Nutr. Déve- lop., 1982, 22, 735-752. #12;Introduction. La ration de base des Ruminants lactose) dont l'utilisation dans la ration des Ruminants est récente (Thivend, 1978). La digestion de l

  14. La dmocratisation de l'Union europenne et l'utilisation d'Internet dans la politique de

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - La démocratisation de l'Union européenne et l'utilisation d'Internet dans la politique de communication de l'Union européenne Olivier Le Saëc, Université Montpellier 3 de l'Union européenne se caractérisent par une démocratisation du système politique européen, il

  15. Peptidase activity and the ability of wine yeasts to utilise grape must proteins as sole nitrogen source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Conterno; C. Delfini

    1994-01-01

    Peptidase activity of 14 Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains was tested with API ZYM kits LRA ZYM AP?III and LRA ZYM AP?IV, each containing 10 different enzymatic substrates. The ability of the yeast strains to utilise grape must proteins directly as sole nitrogen source was also examined by growth and fermentation tests in synthetic nutrient medium without additional nitrogen compounds, using

  16. Buckling control using embedded shape memory actuators and the utilisation of smart technology in future aerospace platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Loughlan; S. P Thompson; H Smith

    2002-01-01

    In this paper experimental tests are described and discussed which illustrate the feasibility of buckling control in composite structural elements using induced strain actuation in a smart technological manner. Compressive tests on simply supported square composite plates which utilise the shape memory effect for buckling control are shown to exhibit substantially reduced post-buckling deflections when under activated control in comparison

  17. Etude des possibilits d'utilisation agronomique des composts d'ordures mnagres en milieu tropical (1)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Etude des possibilités d'utilisation agronomique des composts d'ordures ménagères en milieu'avère nécessaire uniquement en saison sèche pour obtenir un compost dont le rapport C/N se situe autour de Ordures les composts des paysompos age. industrialisés. La proportion équilibrée des oligo-éléments et la

  18. Utilisation de la grille pour la simulation de temprature de brillance dans une atmosphre nuageuse compose de cirrus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , in particular in the current context of climate change. Satellite observations are very well adaptedUtilisation de la grille pour la simulation de température de brillance dans une atmosphère, performant et permettant des simulations réalistes c'est-à-dire dans une atmosphère nuageuse

  19. Project Modelling To utilise the types of integrated design system that can be described with the modelling and

    E-print Network

    Goodman, James R.

    Chapter 7 Project Modelling To utilise the types of integrated design system that can be described the tasks and people involved in the projects in which the integrated system is used. This level of modelling enables an integrated design system to be customised for use in a specific project. Project

  20. Animals of different phenotype differentially utilise dietary niche — the case of the Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Hromada; Lechoslaw Kuczynski; Anton Kriòtín

    2003-01-01

    We tested the morphological trait utility in Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor. The food composition was used as an indicator of phenotype performance advantage in utilising of particular dietary niche. Mounts and accompanying data (measurements and stomach contents) from the Slovak extensive collection, involving adult birds obtained from April to October, were selected for analysis (n = 48). Ordination methods

  1. MODE D'ACTION DE L'ISORIBOFLAVINE SUR L'UTILISATION DE LA VITAMINE B2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    vitamine B2 par voie microbiologique selon la méthode de SNELL et STRONG (I939) qui utilise Lactobacillus pour inhiber le développement de Lactobacillus casei. Cependant, selon cet auteur, l de la riboflavine. Nous avons testé l'effet de l'isoriboflavine sur la croissance de Lactobacillus

  2. INFLUENCE DE L'UTILISATION DU PIGE A POLLEN SUR LE RENDEMENT EN MIEL DES COLONIES D'ABEILLES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . LAVIE Station expérimentale d'Apiculture, Centre de Recherches agronomiques du Sud-Est, 84 - MontfavetESNnYF). L'auteur a étudié principa- lement l'influence de l'utilisation du piège à pollen en apiculture également selon les utilisateurs. Depuis la création de la Station expérimentale d'Apiculture nous nous

  3. Utilisation de l'outil SIG dans l'tude des gravures protohistoriques de la rgion du mont Bego

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    13 Utilisation de l'outil SIG dans l'étude des gravures protohistoriques de la région du mont Bego concentration de quelques 35000 gravures pique- tées (dont environ 20000 figuratives) réalisées probable- ment et son équipe mènent l'inventaire systématique des gravures en centralisant l'ensemble des données et

  4. Actualit de la Recherche en Education et en Formation, Strasbourg 2007 L'utilisation d'aide-mmoire

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    fonctions. Mots-clés : Aide-mémoire, outils cognitifs, enseignement primaire, pratiques des enseignants. hal'ensei- gnant, dans son travail, fait couramment usage d'aide-mémoire afin d'alléger sa charge cognitive et moindre aide cognitive paraît peu réaliste, l'étude de la manière dont les enseignants utilisent de telles

  5. INFLUENCE DE LA COAGULATION DES PROTINES DU LAIT SUR L'UTILISATION DIGESTIVE D'UN LAIT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE INFLUENCE DE LA COAGULATION DES PROTÉINES DU LAIT SUR L'UTILISATION DIGESTIVE D'UN LAIT DE. R. A.,., Theix, 63110 Beaumont RÉSUMÉ L'influence de la coagulation des protéines sur l suppression de la coagulation n'a pas eu de conséquence néfaste sur la fréquence des diarrhées. L

  6. Heterofermentative metabolism of glucose and ribose and utilisation of citrate by the smooth biotype of Lactobacillus amylovorus NCFB 2745

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Whitley; V. M. Marshall

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacillus amylovorus NCFB 2745 exhibits a rough colony morphology, ferments glucose homofermentatively and cannot utilise ribose. After five transfers in de Man Rogosa and Sharpe media (containing glucose and citrate) Lb. amylovorus 2745 appears smooth on agar plates; smooth cultures reverted to rough by culturing in aerobic conditions. The smooth type shows patterns of fermentation that are typical of a

  7. Vulnerability of DM watermarking of non-iid host signals to attacks utilising the statistics of independent components

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Vulnerability of DM watermarking of non-iid host signals to attacks utilising the statistics of a watermarking scheme, because hidden messages such as copyright information are likely to face hostile attacks. In this paper, we question the security of an important class of watermarking schemes based on Dither Modulation

  8. De l'acheteur "cost killer" l'acheteur "business L'utilisation du contrle pour se crer une identit

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 De l'acheteur "cost killer" à l'acheteur "business partner L'utilisation du contrôle pour se killers » à « business partner » des acteurs organisationnels. En nous appuyant sur une étude qualitative from "cost killers" to "business partners". The aim of this article is to understand how actors move

  9. Ethnic Factors in Mental Health Service Utilisation among People with Intellectual Disability in High-Income Countries: Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. Aims: To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income…

  10. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Significant Contribution of Methyl/Methanol-Utilising Methanogenic Pathway in a Subsurface Biogas Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Str?po?, Dariusz; Ashby, Matt; Wood, Ladonna; Levinson, Rick; Huizinga, Bradley

    Methanogenesis is considered the main terminal process of subsurface anaerobic organic-matter degradation. Previous geochemical studies have reported CO2-reducing and acetoclastic methanogenesis as the predominant subsurface methanogenic pathways for primary and secondary biogenic gas generation (i.e. in oil biodegradation or coalbed methane settings). In lab-scale experiments and microbiology literature, however, methanogens have been shown to be able to utilise a wider variety of substrates, typically containing methyl groups, i.e. dimethyl sulphide (DMS), methyl amines (e.g. TMA), formate, and methanol. Additional methanogenic substrates include CO and other primary alcohols and secondary alcohols (Whitman et al., 2006; Fig. 25.1). Here, we describe a volumetrically important natural biogenic gas field in which these methylotrophic pathways have contributed significantly to biomethane formation.

  11. How equitable is bed net ownership and utilisation in Tanzania? A practical application of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity

    PubMed Central

    Matovu, Fred; Goodman, Catherine; Wiseman, Virginia; Mwengee, William

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies show that the burden of malaria remains huge particularly in low-income settings. Although effective malaria control measures such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been promoted, relatively little is known about their equity dimension. Understanding variations in their use in low-income settings is important for scaling up malaria control programmes particularly ITNs. The objective of this paper is to measure the extent and causes of inequalities in the ownership and utilisation of bed nets across socioeconomic groups (SEGs) and age groups in Tanga District, north-eastern Tanzania. Methods A questionnaire was administered to heads of 1,603 households from rural and urban areas. Households were categorized into SEGs using both an asset-based wealth index and education level of the household head. Concentration indices and regression-based measures of inequality were computed to analyse both vertical and horizontal inequalities in ownership and utilisation of bed nets. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were used to explore community perspectives on the causes of inequalities. Results Use of ITNs remained appallingly low compared to the RBM target of 80% coverage. Inequalities in ownership of ITNs and all nets combined were significantly pro-rich and were much more pronounced in rural areas. FGDs revealed that lack of money was the key factor for not using ITNs followed by negative perceptions about the effect of insecticides on the health of users. Household SES, living within the urban areas and being under-five were positively associated with bed net ownership and/or utilisation. Conclusion The results highlight the need for mass distribution of ITN; a community-wide programme to treat all untreated nets and to promote the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal nets (LLINs) or longer-lasting treatment of nets. The rural population and under-fives should be targeted through highly subsidised schemes and mass distribution of free nets. Public campaigns are also needed to encourage people to use treated nets and mitigate negative perceptions about insecticides. PMID:19460153

  12. Investigation of Matlab® as platform in navigation and control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle utilising an omnivision sensor.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed. PMID:25157548

  13. L'organisation et l'utilisation du temps scolaire l'cole primaire : enjeux et effets sur les lves

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    L'organisation et l'utilisation du temps scolaire à l'école primaire : enjeux et effets sur les élèves Bruno Suchaut Irédu-CNRS et Université de Bourgogne Mai 2009 Le temps scolaire est une notion être abordée sous des angles divers, c'est principalement la répartition du temps qui retient le plus l

  14. Hospital bed utilisation in the NHS, Kaiser Permanente, and the US Medicare programme: analysis of routine data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Ham; Nick York; Steve Sutch; Rob Shaw

    2003-01-01

    AbstractObjective To compare the utilisation of hospital beds in the NHS in England, Kaiser Permanente in California, and the Medicare programme in the United States and California.Design Analysis of routinely available data from 2000 and 2001 on inpatient admissions, lengths of stay, and bed days in populations aged over 65 for 11 leading causes of use of acute beds.Setting Comparison

  15. INFLUENCE DE LA CASTRATION TARDIVE DU PORC MALE SUR LA QUALIT DES CARCASSES ET L'UTILISATION DE LA VIANDE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INFLUENCE DE LA CASTRATION TARDIVE DU PORC MALE SUR LA QUALITÉ DES CARCASSES ET L'UTILISATION DE LA- ments : a) castrés à 25 kg, b) castrés à 70 kg, c) castrés à go kg, d) non castrés. La castration était,5, 4,3, 4,0 et 4,0. La castration tardive à go kg et la non-cas- tration permettent donc un gain de 10

  16. L'utilisation des techniques d'hybridation in situ et de clonage de squences d'ADN pour

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L'utilisation des techniques d'hybridation in situ et de clonage de séquences d'ADN pour l des méthodes utilisées pour le clonage de séquences d'ADN dans des vecteurs comme des plasmides'hybridation in situ est basée sur le principe de la formation de duplexes ARN-ADN ou (1) Adresse actuelle :Department

  17. Utilisation of Blood Components in Cardiac Surgery: A Single-Centre Retrospective Analysis with Regard to Diagnosis-Related Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Rotering, Heinrich; Buddendick, Hubert; Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Kwiecien, Robert; Sibrowski, Walter; Scheld, Hans H.; Martens, Sven; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background More blood components are required in cardiac surgery than in most other medical disciplines. The overall blood demand may increase as a function of the total number of cardiothoracic and vascular surgical interventions and their level of complexity, and also when considering the demographic ageing. Awareness has grown with respect to adverse events, such as transfusion-related immunomodulation by allogeneic blood supply, which can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, programmes of patient blood management (PBM) have been implemented to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions and to standardise the indication of blood transfusions more strictly with aim to improve patients' overall outcomes. Methods A comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilisation of blood components in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) was performed over a 4-year period. Based on a medical reporting system of all medical disciplines, which was established as part of a PBM initiative, all transfused patients in cardiac surgery and their blood components were identified in a diagnosis- and medical procedure-related system, which allows the precise allocation of blood consumption to interventional procedures in cardiac surgery, such as coronary or valve surgery. Results This retrospective single centre study included all in-patients in cardiac surgery at the UKM from 2009 to 2012, corresponding to a total of 1,405-1,644 cases per year. A blood supply was provided for 55.6-61.9% of the cardiac surgery patients, whereas approximately 9% of all in-patients at the UKM required blood transfusions. Most of the blood units were applied during cardiac valve surgery and during coronary surgery. Further surgical activities with considerable use of blood components included thoracic surgery, aortic surgery, heart transplantations and the use of artificial hearts. Under the measures of PBM in 2012 a noticeable decrease in the number of transfused cases was observed compared to the period from 2009 to 2011 before implementation of the PBM initiative (red blood cells p < 0.002; fresh frozen plasma p < 0.0006; platelets p < 0.00006). Conclusion Until now, cardiac surgery comes along with a significant blood supply. By using a case-related data evaluation programme, the consumption of each blood component can be linked to clinical performance groups and, if necessary, to individual patients. Based on the results obtained from this retrospective analysis, prospective studies are underway to begin conducting target / actual performance comparisons to better understand the individual decision-making by the attending physicians with respect to transfusions. PMID:26019702

  18. Recent results utilising Satellite Laser Ranging to estimate Parameterised Post-Newtonian parameters Gamma and Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combrinck, Ludwig

    Satellite Laser Ranging provides very accurate ranges to satellites, which allow precise orbit determination. As part of the orbit analysis process, one can estimate geophysical, orbital, gravitational and other parameters. In particular, the LAGEOS satellites are suitable to esti-mate the Parameterised Post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters Gamma and Beta, which in PPN formalism describe the metric theories of gravitation. In this application, using the PPN for-malism, Beta describes the nonlineartity of gravitation and Gamma represents the curvature of space produced by Earth. These two parameters should equal unity in PPN formalism when applied to General Relativity (GR); evaluation of these parameters is therefore a test of GR. The strategy involved in this work utilises the relativistic acceleration of the satellites, instead of the normal approaches found in the literature which are based on either the perigee or nodal rates, or a combination of these two rates. Schwarzchild, geodesic (de Sitter) and Lense-Thirring precession are taken into account. As the accelerations due to GR are very small, other orbital perturbations can easily mask the relativistic accelerations, so careful modelling is required, which includes making provision for atmospheric drag at the heights of the exosphere. Very accurate new gravitational models are used, although provision must be made for estimating dynamic coefficients of these models. Although current results (standard deviations in the re-gion ± 0.0005) are not as good as some of the best published results using other techniques, this approach is very promising and it is expected that future refinements in modelling will improve results.

  19. Without gaps - 3D photo-reconstruction of gully headcuts by combined utilisation of UAV and close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, Claudia; Karrasch, Pierre; Eltner, Anette

    2015-04-01

    Gully erosion is a worldwide phenomenon causing permanent degradation of fertile land. Especially in the Mediterranean, gullies contribute to high soil loss rates which necessitate multi-temporal and high resolution monitoring. Gullies naturally exhibit complex surface morphologies and hence are difficult to measure. Images acquired airborne or terrestrial are possible data sources for digital gully modelling due to availing of photogrammetric methods to achieve 3D models. In this regard unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) allow for low cost, flexible and frequent areal gully monitoring, but exhibit limitations as a result of the birds-eye view - i.e. at steep sidewalls and overhanging areas. Terrestrial images offer advantages at local assessments and can be obtained spontaneously as needed. However, images acquired from ground are not able to ensure areal coverage. To integrate the advantages of both data sources and to overcome the above mentioned limitations, this study introduces a methodological approach of combined utilisation of nadir UAV data and oblique terrestrial images for 3D photo reconstruction. Two gully headcuts in Andalusia (Spain) are analysed to confirm the suitability of the synergetic data usage. The results show that the UAV model of the gully, generated from images from flying heights of 15 m, implies inconsistency of data at slope gradients of 50 to 60 °. To eliminate these gaps additional terrestrial images can be integrated, which are geo-referenced solely using information of the already calculated 3D model and orthophoto from the UAV images. Referencing errors of the terrestrial point clouds are fixed by applying fine registration. The final merged digital gully model reveals a resolution of 0.5 cm and an accuracy of 1 cm. Concluding, high density point clouds based on the fusion of UAV and terrestrial image data show a significant improvement of 3D photo-reconstruction of two gully headcuts compared to detached processing of single data sources. This allows for new insights into gully morphology because comprehensive gully models can be calculated with high spatial resolution and at frequent intervals, which enables multi-temporal monitoring and 3D volume change computations.

  20. Utilisation of galacto-oligosaccharides as selective substrates for growth by lactic acid bacteria including Bifidobacterium lactis DR10 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pramod K Gopal; Patrick A Sullivan; John B Smart

    2001-01-01

    Two probiotic strains of bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis DR10 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20 were tested for their ability to utilise and grow on galacto-oligosaccharides present in a commercial hydrolysed lactose milk powder. The results clearly demonstrated that B. lactis DR10 preferentially utilises tri- and tetra-saccharides whereas Lb. rhamnosus DR20 prefers sugars with a lower degree of polymerisation, i.e., disaccharides and monosaccharides.

  1. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The wide-ranging utilisation of Rapakivi Granite in St Petersburg is typified by the the famous Alexander Column, and 114 stone columns of St Isaac's Cathedralas well as the pedestal of the Nicholas I monument, and portals and basements of buildings of the Admiralty, General Staff, Senate and Synod. The stone is also frequently seen among pavement slabs and in parapets of embankments and bridges around the city. This list of examples where Rapakivi Granite has been used could be expanded further. All Rapakivi Granites used in the buildings of St.Petersburg were quarried from the so-called Vyborg massif. At present it has been found that the massif occupies an area of about 18 000 km2. In the past granite of the Vyborg massif was worked from several quarries in the vicinity of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) in Finland for use in St Peterburg. The best known granite quarries are at Piterlaks (Piuterlahti) and Gimmekyul (Hämeenkylä). Sometimes Rapakivi Granite form Finland differs in appearance from typical varieties. Thus columns of a classical portal in the house at N 7 in Pochtamtskaya Street are hewn from this greyish variety. Other examples are the plinth of the General Staff and Trade Store buildings. After the 1960s varieties from the Leningrad district, and Korosten (Ukraine) massifs were used in St Petersburg. Today it is possible to find examples of Rapakivi Granite from Finland in cities in the USA, South Africa, United Kingdom and Germany. It is a long used stone as demonstrated by its cultural heritage. It is also used as an ornamental or decorative stone in modern architecture. References: 1) Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English). 2) Tutakova, A.Ya., Romanovskiy, A.Z., Bulakh, A.G., and Leer, V.I. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p. (In Russian). 3) Bulakh, A. G. Stone Town Guide, St Petersburg, 1-5. URL: [PDF] stone - GTK - Projects projects.gtk.fi/export/.../Bulakh_Stone_Guide 4) Paavo, H, Selonen, O, Luodes, H. The Wiborg Granite Batholith. The Main Production Area for Granite in Finland. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 5. Springer. 2015. P. 259-262. 5) Bulakh, A. G. Ornamental Stone in the History of St Petersburg Architecture. Geological Society, London, 2015. SP407. Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones.

  2. GPU-based Space Situational Awareness Simulation utilising Parallelism for Enhanced Multi-sensor Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, T.; Clarkson, V.

    2012-09-01

    As a result of continual space activity since the 1950s, there are now a large number of man-made Resident Space Objects (RSOs) orbiting the Earth. Because of the large number of items and their relative speeds, the possibility of destructive collisions involving important space assets is now of significant concern to users and operators of space-borne technologies. As a result, a growing number of international agencies are researching methods for improving techniques to maintain Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Computer simulation is a method commonly used by many countries to validate competing methodologies prior to full scale adoption. The use of supercomputing and/or reduced scale testing is often necessary to effectively simulate such a complex problem on todays computers. Recently the authors presented a simulation aimed at reducing the computational burden by selecting the minimum level of fidelity necessary for contrasting methodologies and by utilising multi-core CPU parallelism for increased computational efficiency. The resulting simulation runs on a single PC while maintaining the ability to effectively evaluate competing methodologies. Nonetheless, the ability to control the scale and expand upon the computational demands of the sensor management system is limited. In this paper, we examine the advantages of increasing the parallelism of the simulation by means of General Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU). As many sub-processes pertaining to SSA management are independent, we demonstrate how parallelisation via GPGPU has the potential to significantly enhance not only research into techniques for maintaining SSA, but also to enhance the level of sophistication of existing space surveillance sensors and sensor management systems. Nonetheless, the use of GPGPU imposes certain limitations and adds to the implementation complexity, both of which require consideration to achieve an effective system. We discuss these challenges and how they can be overcome. We further describe an application of the parallelised system where visibility prediction is used to enhance sensor management. This facilitates significant improvement in maximum catalogue error when RSOs become temporarily unobservable. The objective is to demonstrate the enhanced scalability and increased computational capability of the system.

  3. A Mechanical Principle for Acquisition of useful Power on a Celestial Body Through Utilisation of its Planetary Precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulkov, K.

    In consequence of the phenomenon of planetary precession there emerges a possibility for acquisition of power through utilisation of the rotary motions in the universe. The idea is to acquire useful power on the working shaft of a properly designed machine installed on a celestial body (planet), at the expense of the motional energy of the latter. Strange as it may appear, this is possible if only the regulation of the machine be brought in line with the parameters of the precession. The principle of action of such a planetary engine, including an energy balance, is put forward in the present paper.

  4. Bacteria Obtained from a Sequencing Batch Reactor That Are Capable of Growth on Dehydroabietic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM W. MOHN

    1995-01-01

    organisms capable of growth on DhA was estimated to be 1.1 3 10 6 propagules per ml, based on a most- probable-numberdetermination.Analysisofsmall-subunitrRNApartialsequencesindicatedthatDhA-33was most closely related to Sphingomonas yanoikuyae (Sab 5 0.875) and that DhA-35 was most closely related to Zoogloea ramigera(Sab 50.849). Both isolates additionally grew on other abietanes, i.e., abietic and palustric acids, but not on the pimaranes, pimaric

  5. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46?mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements. PMID:22619599

  6. Progrès récents dans l'utilisation de la Chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse pour la détermination des propriétés acide-base des surfaces solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papirer, E.; Brendlé, E.

    1998-01-01

    Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) is a method well suited for the study of divided solids, but also of fibres. In this paper, the principles of IGC, its advantages such as ease and rapidity of measurement, but also limitations due essentially to the energetic heterogeneity of the solid surfaces are discussed. Finally, a new procedure allowing to estimate the acidity and basicity of the surface involving topology concepts of the molecules used to probe the surface is presented. Experimental results of the Laboratory, but also results extracted from the literature concerning silica, titanium dioxide, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ethylene) fibers, are taken to verify the proposed method. La chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse (CGI) s'avère comme une méthode de choix pour l'étude des solides divisés, mais aussi de fibres. Après avoir rappelé quelques principes de base de la CGI, les avantages de la méthode comme la facilité de mise en oeuvre, sa rapidité..., nous soulignerons ses limites qui sont essentiellement à attribuer à l'hétérogénéité énergétique des surfaces solides. Finalement, nous décrirons une nouvelle approche de l'acidité et de la basicité de surface grâce à l'utilisation des concepts de topologie des molécules employées pour sonder la surface. Des résultats expérimentaux obtenus au Laboratoire, mais aussi tirés de la littérature et concernant la silice, l'oxyde de titane, la poly(méthacrylate de méthyle) et les fibres de poly(éthylène), permettent d'illustrer la pertinence de la méthode proposée.

  7. Healthcare provider perspectives on barriers to HIV-care access and utilisation among Latinos living with HIV in the US-Mexico border

    PubMed Central

    Servin, Argentina E.; Muñoz, Fátima A.; Zúñiga, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Latinos living with HIV residing in the US-Mexico border region frequently seek care on both sides of the border. Given this fact, a border health perspective to understanding barriers to care is imperative to improve patient health outcomes. This qualitative study describes and compares experiences and perceptions of Mexican and US HIV care providers regarding barriers to HIV care access for Latino patients living in the US-Mexico border region. In 2010, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with HIV care providers in Tijuana (n = 10) and San Diego (n = 9). We identified important similarities and differences between Mexican and US healthcare provider perspectives on HIV care access and barriers to service utilisation. Similarities included the fact that HIV-positive Latino patients struggle with access to ART medication, mental health illness, substance abuse and HIV-related stigma. Differences included Mexican provider perceptions of medication shortages and US providers feeling that insurance gaps influenced medication access. Differences and similarities have important implications for cross-border efforts to coordinate health services for patients who seek care in both countries. PMID:24592920

  8. Utilising an LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker approach to assess mycotoxin exposure in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Petchkongkaew, Awanwee; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Human exposures to mycotoxins through dietary intake are a major health hazard and may result in various pathophysiological effects. Although Thailand is a country at increased risk due to its climatic conditions, no comprehensive dataset is available to perform proper exposure assessment of its population with regard to mycotoxins. Therefore, this pilot study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the exposure levels of major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes). Sixty first-morning urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers who live in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces (Pathumthani, Nonthaburi, Samutprakarn and Samutsakorn). Urine samples were analysed by a LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker method following a so-called 'dilute and shoot' approach. Results generally indicated low mycotoxin exposures in most individuals through the determination of the four biomarkers that were detected in urine samples, i.e. aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A (OTA), as well as the deoxynivalenol (DON) metabolites DON-3-glucuronide and DON-15-glucuronide in 10 of 60 individuals. The maximum concentrations were used to estimate the daily intake confirming that none of the individuals exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON (maximum 26% of TDI) or OTA (maximum 22% of TDI). However, the maximum exposure of aflatoxin B1, estimated to be 0.91 µg (kg bw)(-1) day(-1), should raise some concerns and suggests further studies utilising a more sensitive method. Low exposure to Fusarium toxins was also confirmed by the absence of zearalenone, ?-zearalanol, ?-zearalanol and zearalenone-14-glucuronide as well as T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and free DON. This is the first multi-mycotoxin biomarker study performed in Southeast Asia. PMID:25268629

  9. Flare frequency, healthcare resource utilisation and costs among patients with gout in a managed care setting: a retrospective medical claims-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert; Shiozawa, Aki; Buysman, Erin K; Altan, Aylin; Korrer, Stephanie; Choi, Hyon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives For most gout patients, excruciatingly painful gout attacks are the major clinical burden of the disease. The goal of this study was to assess the association of frequent gout flares with healthcare burden, and to quantify how much lower gout-related costs and resource use are for those with infrequent flares compared to frequent gout flares. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Administrative claims data from a large US health plan. Participants Patients aged 18?years or above, and with evidence of gout based on medical and pharmacy claims between January 2009 and April 2012 were eligible for inclusion. Patient characteristics were assessed during a 12-month baseline period. Outcome measures Frequency of gout flares, healthcare costs and resource utilisation were assessed in the 12?months following the first qualifying gout claim. Generalised linear models were employed to assess the impact of flare frequency on cost outcomes after adjusting for covariates. Results 102?703 patients with gout met study inclusion criteria; 89?201 had 0–1 gout flares, 9714 had 2 flares, and 3788 had 3+ flares. Average counts of gout-related inpatient stays, emergency room visits and ambulatory visits were higher among patients with 2 or 3+ flares, compared to those with 0–1 flares (all p<0.001). Adjusted annual gout-related costs were $1804, $3014 and $4363 in those with 0–1, 2 and 3+ gout flares, respectively (p<0.001 comparing 0–1 flares to 2 or 3+ flares). Conclusions Gout-related costs and resource use were lower for those with infrequent flares, suggesting significant cost benefit to a gout management plan that has a goal of reducing flare frequency. PMID:26109113

  10. A flexible wide-field FLIM endoscope utilising blue excitation light for label-free contrast of tissue.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Hugh; Warren, Sean; Guedes, Joana; Yoshida, Nagisa; Charn, Tze Choong; Guerra, Nadia; Tatla, Taranjit; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) has previously been shown to provide contrast between normal and diseased tissue. Here we present progress towards clinical and preclinical FLIM endoscopy of tissue autofluorescence, demonstrating a flexible wide-field endoscope that utilised a low average power blue picosecond laser diode excitation source and was able to acquire ?mm-scale spatial maps of autofluorescence lifetimes from fresh ex vivo diseased human larynx biopsies in ?8 seconds using an average excitation power of ?0.5 mW at the specimen. To illustrate its potential for FLIM at higher acquisition rates, a higher power mode-locked frequency doubled Ti:Sapphire laser was used to demonstrate FLIM of ex vivo mouse bowel at up to 2.5 Hz using 10 mW of average excitation power at the specimen. PMID:24573953

  11. RAINFALL DISPOSITION STUDIES ON SMALL PLOTS AT OOTACAMUND (IWDIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. DAS; B. RAGHUNATH; P. K. THOMAS

    SUMMARY The study is aimed at finding out the utilisation of incident rainfall in the watershed itself, to decide whether the disposition is favourable in this region. The water balance equation used is: P = ETp+Q+Dp&AS The portion utilised on the watershed is: P- (Q+Dp) = (ETp&AS). This was worked out on a weekly basis from the retention opportunity (RO)

  12. Effects of microbial phytase on growth and mineral utilisation in broilers fed on maize soyabean-based diets.

    PubMed

    Zanini, S F; Sazzad, M H

    1999-07-01

    1. A 3-week feeding trial with 96 sexed d-old broiler chickens was conducted to examine the effects of microbial phytase supplementation (Natuphos 5000) at 2 dietary energy concentrations on their performance, and the utilisation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) and on tibiae ash, Ca, P and Zn concentrations. Four replicate pens (6 birds per pen) of a completely randomised design were used in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 contents of metabolisable energy (11.72 and 12.55 MJ ME/kg) and 2 additions of phytase (0 and 500 U of microbial phytase/kg). 2. Phytase supplementation significantly improved the utilisation of N, P, Ca and Zn (as a percentage of intake) and increased the concentration of Ca and Zn in the tibiae (P<0.05) because of higher intakes of dry matter, N, P, Ca and Zn. Phytase also significantly reduced the amount of P in the excreta (P<0.05). 3. The AME content of the diet influenced significantly (P<0.05) the excretion of N, P, Ca and Zn and the concentration of P and Ca in tibiae with the birds fed on the high AME diet excreting more minerals and having a smaller percentage of these minerals in their tibiae. However, there were strong interactions between phytase addition and AME in tibia ash and P, with the phytase supplementation producing a higher ash content at the higher AME a and a lower P content at the lower AME. PMID:10475631

  13. Nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation of diets based on wheat, sorghum or maize by the newly hatched broiler chick.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D V; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G

    2008-07-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to measure changes in nutrient utilisation in the newly hatched broiler chicken. The first experiment determined the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(N)) and total tract digestibility of starch and fat in diets based on wheat, sorghum and maize during the first two weeks post-hatch. The second experiment was conducted to confirm the results of Experiment 1 using wheat- and maize-based diets and was of 21 d duration. 2. In both experiments, changes to AME(N) with age were similar irrespective of the diet type, declining from d 3 to d 5-9 and then increasing after d 9. 3. In Experiment 1, the total tract digestibility of starch and fat exhibited a pattern similar to that of AME(N). 4. In Experiment 1, cereal effects were significant, with maize- and sorghum-based diets having higher AME(N) values than the wheat-based diet. Total tract starch digestibility determined for d 5, 7 and 14 showed no cereal differences. Total tract fat digestibility on d 7 was significantly lower for the wheat- and sorghum-based diets than for the maize-based diet, but no cereal differences were observed on d 5 or 14. 5. In Experiment 2, cereal effects were significant, with the maize-based diet having a higher AME(N) than the wheat-based diet. 6. These results showed that nutrient utilisation is compromised during the first week of life of the broiler chick. PMID:18704789

  14. Cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates treatment in osteoporotic women: an empirical approach based on healthcare utilisation databases

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Lorenza; Arfè, Andrea; Zambon, Antonella; Merlino, Luca; Corrao, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adherence with bisphosphonates therapy is generally low. Enhancing adherence with bisphosphonates would be effective in achieving the full benefits of therapy albeit a growth in the expenditure for supporting incremented drug use is expected. The cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates in a large population of osteoporotic women has been assessed in the current study. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Healthcare utilisation databases of Lombardy Region, Italy. Participants A cohort of 28?558 women aged 45?years or more, resident in the Italian Region of Lombardy, who were newly treated with oral bisphosphonates during 2003–2004, was followed for 6?years after index prescription. Outcome measures Fracture-free survival time, healthcare cost and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of enhancing adherence, that is, the additional cost that would be spent every year for gaining one fracture-free year as a consequence of enhancing adherence at a certain level. Results Enhanced adherence from 33% (baseline) to 80%, increased both fracture-free survivals from 970 to 973?years and healthcare costs from €118?000 to €265?000 every 1000 woman-years, with ICER value of €53?000 (95% CI €49?000 to €58?000). ICER values were lower for older women (€50?000; 95% CI €42?000 to €58?000) and for those suffering from at least a chronic comorbidity (€25000; 95% CI 95% CI €7000 to €47?000). Conclusions Enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates offers important benefits in reducing the risk of fracture, although at a substantial cost. PMID:24662445

  15. LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 37 UTILISATION DE L'INFORMATIQUE EN SECONDE LA CONSTRUCTION D'UN INDICE DES PRIX INSEE,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DES PRIX INSEE, EXEMPLE D'UTILISATION DE L'INFORMATIQUE DANS UNE CLASSE DE SECONDE INDIFFÉRENCIÉE Jean. Parmi d'autres activités communes, l'idée de construire un indice des prix type INSEE avec cette classe programme de 2de en économie. Par ailleurs, la connaissance des prix de vente et des structures de marché

  16. Utiliser le fichier emploi-du-temps.xml ou emploi-du-temps2.xml (que vous avez cr dans les TD prcdents) pour rpondre aux questions suivantes

    E-print Network

    Belaïd, Abdel

    TD : Xpath Exercice 1 Utiliser le fichier emploi-du-temps.xml ou emploi-du-temps2.xml (que vous cours ayant lieu, un jour donné Exercice 2 Reproduire le fichier emploi-du-temps.xml en effectuant une Exercice 3 Reproduire le fichier emploi-du-temps.xml en ajoutant, pour chaque salle de cours, une boucle

  17. Utilisation d'ondes de Love pour dterminer l'paisseur d'une couche de cuivre dpose lectrolytiquement sur un substrat d'acier

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    557 Utilisation d'ondes de Love pour déterminer l'épaisseur d'une couche de cuivre déposée horizontales du type de Love. Les principes théoriques de la méthode appliquée ont été développés par les of shear horizontal surface waves of the Love type. Theoretical principles of the method were developed

  18. Classification de Donnees Cerebrales par Syst`eme d'Inference Flou pour l'Utilisation d'Interfaces Cerveau-Ordinateur en Realite Virtuelle

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ´etat-de-l'art sur l'utilisation des interfaces cerveau- ordinateur en r´ealit´e virtuelle. De telles quinzaine d'ann´ees, un nouveau type d'interface se d´eveloppe de mani`ere spectaculaire : les interfaces do- maines de la r´ehabilitation et du handicap. En effet, les BCI sont un nouveau moyen de

  19. Utilisation de la nifdipine et de la nicardipine dans le traitement de la menace d'accouchement prmature : Donnes observationnelles en population

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Page 1 Utilisation de la nifédipine et de la nicardipine dans le traitement de la menace d'accouchement prématurée : Données observationnelles en population Nifedipine or nicardipine in management of threatened nifédipine (Adalate®) par voie orale, et la nicardipine (Loxen®) par voie IV. Aucune étude n'a comparé l

  20. Devillers, R., Y. Bedard & M. Gervais, 2004, Indicateurs de qualit pour rduire les risques de mauvaise utilisation des donnes gospatiales, Revue Internationale de Gomatique,Vol. 14,

    E-print Network

    Devillers, R., Y. Bedard & M. Gervais, 2004, Indicateurs de qualité pour réduire les risques de réduire les risques de mauvaise utilisation des données géospatiales Rodolphe Devillers *,** -- Yvan Casault, Québec G1K 7P4 (QC), Canada rodolphe.devillers.1@ulaval.ca ; [yvan

  1. Utilisation de la DG-FDTD pour un calcul de dosimtrie dans un problme fortement multichelle : dtermination du DAS oeil pour

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Utilisation de la DG-FDTD pour un calcul de dosimétrie dans un problème fortement multiéchelle électromagnétique la plus utilisée est probablement la FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain). Cette méthode est. Le maillage de la FDTD standard étant uniforme, cet aspect devient encore plus problématique quand l

  2. A paratre dans Revue Tiers Monde, N188, Dcembre 2006, pp. 773-798 Conditions, rsultats et perspectives d'utilisation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    perspectives d'utilisation du coton génétiquement modifié (coton Bt) dans les PED Michel FOK (CIRAD, France) I'efficacité. On alertait sur les risques environnementaux, liés à l'évolution de la faune ou de la flore en conséquence de

  3. Sur l'utilisation des filtres du premier-ordre pour l'estimation d'un canal radio-mobile de Rayleigh vanouissement plat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sur l'utilisation des filtres du premier-ordre pour l'estimation d'un canal radio-mobile de traitons de l'estimation d'un canal de communication radio-mobile aléatoire selon un modèle de Rayleigh à approcher les variations du canal par un modèle Auto- Régressif du premier ordre (AR1) dont le paramètre est

  4. L'utilisation de la Bible dans la Psychomachie de Prudence Paru dans Vita Latina, 168, 2003, pp. 94-124

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L'utilisation de la Bible dans la Psychomachie de Prudence Paru dans Vita Latina, 168, 2003, pp. 94 Ecritures1. Pourtant la Bible est un élément fondamental dans la poésie de Prudence, beaucoup l'ont déjà dit Bible nourrit et informe sa poésie. Curieusement pourtant, la manière dont il intègre l'Ecriture méditée

  5. Merging and scoring molecular interactions utilising existing community standards: tools, use-cases and a case study.

    PubMed

    Villaveces, J M; Jiménez, R C; Porras, P; Del-Toro, N; Duesbury, M; Dumousseau, M; Orchard, S; Choi, H; Ping, P; Zong, N C; Askenazi, M; Habermann, B H; Hermjakob, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The evidence that two molecules interact in a living cell is often inferred from multiple different experiments. Experimental data is captured in multiple repositories, but there is no simple way to assess the evidence of an interaction occurring in a cellular environment. Merging and scoring of data are commonly required operations after querying for the details of specific molecular interactions, to remove redundancy and assess the strength of accompanying experimental evidence. We have developed both a merging algorithm and a scoring system for molecular interactions based on the proteomics standard initiative-molecular interaction standards. In this manuscript, we introduce these two algorithms and provide community access to the tool suite, describe examples of how these tools are useful to selectively present molecular interaction data and demonstrate a case where the algorithms were successfully used to identify a systematic error in an existing dataset. PMID:25652942

  6. Failing Westphalia: Demonstrating complex sovereignty through a study of the Angolan Oil Economy 

    E-print Network

    Carryer, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Abstract In contemporary studies of Africa the Westphalian style ‘sovereign state’ is often utilised as the primary analytical tool. As this concept of sovereignty presumes that the state is in a sense ‘all powerful’, ...

  7. RELEASE FROM RECYCLED CEMENT BASED MATERIALS UTILISING THE DATA HANDLING AND MODELLING TOOL LEACH-XS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian J. Engelsen; Hans A. van der Sloot; Erik Stoltenberg-Hansson; Gordana Petkovic

    In this study leaching properties were studied from a geochemical modelling point of view in order to explain mechanisms such as sorption to iron and aluminium (hydr)oxide surfaces, complexation to organic matter, precipitation and dissolution of mineral phases. Release experiments were conducted for laboratory prepared concrete samples as well as aged samples using a standardized pH dependent leaching method. Characteristic

  8. Utilisation des nmatodes Mononchida et des Collemboles pour caractriser des phnomnes pdobiologiques

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , INRA, Ardon F-45160 Olivet Synopsis: The authors have studied Collembola and Mononchida nematodes-humus-microfauna they respond to a complementary way: Collembola would be better indicators of litter's element (thickness

  9. Changes in silicate utilisation and upwelling intensity off Peru since the Last Glacial Maximum - insights from silicon and neodymium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, C.; Grasse, P.; Frank, M.

    2013-07-01

    We combine the stable silicon isotope composition (?30Si) of diatoms and the radiogenic neodymium isotope compositions (?Nd) of past seawater extracted from the authigenic fraction of the sediments (Mn-Fe coatings of particles and benthic foraminifers), as well as the radiogenic isotope compositions (Nd, Sr) of the detrital material itself to reconstruct silicic acid utilisation, water mass mixing, and upwelling intensity from the same marine sediments in the Peruvian upwelling region during the past 20,000 years. Additionally, the sedimentary signals were compared to the water column isotope compositions. Along the Peruvian shelf, the dissolved ?Nd in the water column ranges from -5.7 to +0.6. The corresponding ?Nd signatures of the coatings and the benthic foraminifers of the surface sediments range from -4.5 to +1.8 and from -2.5 to +2.2, respectively. The detrital ?Nd (87Sr/86Sr) signatures range from -6.3 to 0 (0.70508-0.71049). All phases show a trend from more radiogenic ?Nd values in the north towards less radiogenic values in the south broadly reflecting local weathering inputs and hinterland geology. The ?Nd signatures of the coatings extracted from sediment core SO147-106KL located in the present day centre of coastal upwelling near 12°S have been essentially constant (-1.5) throughout the past 20,000 years, while the detrital ?Nd (87Sr/86Sr) varied between values of -0.7 (0.70620) during the Last Glacial and -4.5 (0.70849) during the late Holocene reflecting changes in the origin of the sediment and current transport from a more northerly towards a more southerly source and from overall stronger to weaker upwelling. The ?30Si signature of both total biogenic opal (?30Siopal) and of hand-picked diatoms (?30Sidiatom) ranged from +0.3‰ (Last Glacial) to +1.4‰ (late Holocene) confirming large variations in upwelling intensity driving silicic acid utilisation by diatoms. Our combined bSiO2 MAR, ?30Siopal and detrital radiogenic isotope results demonstrate that the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation conditions off Peru of the past 20 ka have prevailed during the past 5 ka.

  10. Optimal utilisation of natural resources for agricultural sustainability in rainfed hill plateaus of Orissa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwitikrishna Panigrahi; Pradeep Kumar Mohanty; Milu Acharya; Prafulla Chandra Senapati

    2010-01-01

    The climatic data for 17 years from 1988 to 2004 of the rainfed hill plateaus of Kandhamal district of Orissa (India) were analyzed to find out the monthly climatic index from the calculated values of effective rainfall and evapotranspiration. The 80% dependable monthly climatic index was correlated with crop coefficient and suitable cropping period and sequences for the study area

  11. Combined Industrial Cooling and Heating with Transcritical CO2 Heat Pumps Utilising the Work of Expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben M. Hansen; Ian K. Smith; Nikola Stosic

    1. Abstract The use of CO2 as a refrigerant in transcritical vapour compression cycles has significant advantages, for systems which require simultaneous heating and cooling at approximately equal rates. However, then need for a compressor, to operate across high pressure differences, and the large throttle losses associated with these pressure differences have limited its use. This paper describes a study

  12. Female sex workers as health educators with men who buy sex: Utilising narratives of rationalisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teela Sanders

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an ethnographic study of female sex workers who work in the indoor sex markets in a British city. An unexpected finding was the collective narratives that sex workers construct to rationalise their involvement in the sex industry. Fifty-five respondents who took part in in-depth interviews maintained that prostitution is a useful occupation and function

  13. Better utilisation of the skidder winch can decrease the overrun on the logging site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. C. Colton; M. P. Brink

    1999-01-01

    A study of seven articulated wheel skidders was conducted at five different locations, where the winch line was pulled out for a distance of up to 60 metres from the skid trail. The further the winch line is pulled porn a skid trail to hitch a load, the further apart the skid trail spacing can be, with the resultant decrease

  14. Utilising a Construct of Teacher Capacity to Examine National Curriculum Reform in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qinqiong; Stephens, Max

    2013-01-01

    This study involving 120 Australian and Chinese teachers introduces a construct of teacher capacity to analyse how teachers help students connect arithmetic learning and emerging algebraic thinking. Four criteria formed the basis of our construct of teacher capacity: knowledge of mathematics, interpretation of the intentions of official curriculum…

  15. Capacity improvement through random timeslot opposing (RTO) algorithm in cellular TDD systems with asymmetric channel utilisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Haas; P. K. Jain; B. Wegmann

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the performance of the RTO algorithm at different asymmetries favouring uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) is studied. The RTO algorithm is a dynamic channel allocation (DCA) algorithm that yields a significant interference reduction (min. 3 dB, max. 20 dB) compared to a fixed channel assignment (FCA) algorithm. The FCA algorithm used, emulates an equivalent FDD system which

  16. Case Management in a Psychiatric Hospital: Review of Outcomes and Resource Utilisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Mahendran; M Hendriks; V Thambyrajah; T Vellayan

    Objective: Case management is a heterogeneous concept used in psychiatry and other health, welfare, and service sectors. The several models of case management in psychiatry can be viewed as arising from task areas of psychiatric care, namely medical, rehabilitation, social control, growth, and development. This study investigated the development of the brokerage model of case management in acute psychiatric care

  17. Drug utilisation, supply and expenditure at Chitungwiza, Gweru, Mpilo, Parirenyatwa and United Bulawayo Hospitals in one year (1987-1988).

    PubMed

    Nhachi, F B; Kasilo, O J; Mutengezanwa, A; Zvandaziva, E A

    1991-06-01

    From 1987 to 1988 a total of 759,602 items were supplied to the five hospitals at a cost of Z$4,603,256.17. Over that period 373,203 (49.13pc) were supplied by the Government Medical Stores (GMS) at a cost of Z$1,341,675.32 while 386,399 (50.87pc) of the items were supplied by the Private Sector (PS) at a cost of Z$3,261,580.85. The disease pattern in hospitals' main causes of admission was used as a parameter to indicate the rationality of drug use and expenditure. The defined daily dose (DD), was used as a standard of comparison on drug usage at the five hospitals. Anti-infectives ranked highest in both use and expenditure in most hospitals while cytotoxics and vitamins respectively accounted for the highest expenditures and usage at Parirenyatwa hospital. The source of drug supplies to the hospitals was mainly the PS. Foreign currency shortages and the ineffective distribution system in the GMS seem to play an important factor in the provision and the utilisation of drugs in the public sector. In the public sector, physicians often prescribe expensive brand name products rather than the corresponding generic drugs. PMID:1790559

  18. Utilising a construct of teacher capacity to examine national curriculum reform in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinqiong; Stephens, Max

    2013-12-01

    This study involving 120 Australian and Chinese teachers introduces a construct of teacher capacity to analyse how teachers help students connect arithmetic learning and emerging algebraic thinking. Four criteria formed the basis of our construct of teacher capacity: knowledge of mathematics, interpretation of the intentions of official curriculum documents, understanding of students' thinking, and design of teaching. While these key elements connect to what other researchers refer to as mathematical knowledge for teaching, several differences are made clear. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that our construct was robust and effective in distinguishing between different levels of teacher capacity.

  19. Cerebral glucose utilisation in hepatitis C virus infection-associated encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, Meike; Weissenborn, Karin; Arvanitis, Dimitrios; Bokemeyer, Martin; Goldbecker, Annemarie; Tountopoulou, Argyro; Peschel, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Hecker, Hartmut; Buchert, Ralph; Berding, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently show neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study aims to help clarify the neurochemical mechanisms behind these symptoms and to add further proof to the hypothesis that HCV may affect brain function. Therefore, 15 patients who reported increasing chronic fatigue, mood alterations, and/or cognitive decline since their HCV infection underwent neurologic and neuropsychological examination, magnetic resonance imaging, 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography of the brain, and single photon emission tomography of striatal dopamine and midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) availability. None of the patients had liver cirrhosis. Patients' data were compared with data of age-matched controls. In addition, regression analysis was performed between cognitive deficits, and mood and fatigue scores as dependent variables, and cerebral glucose metabolism, dopamine, or SERT availability as predictors. Patients showed significant cognitive deficits, significantly decreased striatal dopamine and midbrain SERT availability, and significantly reduced glucose metabolism in the limbic association cortex, and in the frontal, parietal, and superior temporal cortices, all of which correlated with dopamine transporter availability and psychometric results. Thus, the study provides further evidence of central nervous system affection in HCV-afflicted patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Data indicate alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission as a possible mechanism of cognitive decline. PMID:21629258

  20. Utilisation of referral services by high risk pregnant population in rural Varanasi.

    PubMed

    Swain, S; Prakash, A

    1992-01-01

    Poor utilization of maternal-child health care is an important cause of high perinatal and maternal mortality and morbidity in rural areas of India. The study was conducted in the Cholapur Primary Health Center area, about 35 km from the Banaras Hindu University Hospital and about 30 km from the District Hospital, Varanasi, which institutions are the main centers of referral in this locality. Cholapur block is connected to the hospitals by road. 9 subcenters were selected at random for the study, each subcenter serving a population of about 5000. The antenatal registers maintained at the subcenters were analyzed and high-risk pregnant referrals were personally interviewed. The study period lasted for 1 year from July 1988. The records pertained to 1047 pregnant women, of these, 466 (44.50%) who registered for antenatal care at the subcenters were high-risk cases. Out of these 466 high-risk cases, 167 cases were referred: 82 (49%) to the primary health care (PHC), 56 (33.5%) to the district hospital, and 29 (17.3%) to the medical college hospital. Grand multigravida status in 57 cases (34.13%) and bad obstetric history in 41 cases (24.56%) were the main risk factors for referral. Only 15 (9%) cases out of the 167 cases took advantage of the referral services: 5 (33.3%) were seen by the doctors at PHC, 7 (46.6%) at the district hospital, and 3 (20%) at the medical college hospital. Those women who did not benefit from the referral services stated financial exigency to be the major factor for nonuse of the referral services (34.2%). In rural areas, screening can be done by health workers after considering age, parity, previous obstetric history, nutritional parameters (such as height, weight, and hemoglobin status), abdominal examination findings (fundal height, suspicion of big or small baby, twins, and malpresentations). The health worker should refer these high-risk cases to the nearest physician or the primary health center. PMID:12288814

  1. Broadband low-density radiation source utilising argon, krypton, and xenon chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Shuaibov, Aleksandr K; Dashchenko, Arkadii I; Shevera, Igor V [Uzhgorod National University, Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

    2002-03-31

    The parameters of a broadband excimer radiation source emitting in the 175-310-nm range and excited by a dc glow discharge in an Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixture are studied. The emission spectrum of the discharge consists of the ArCl, KrCl, XeCl, and Cl{sub 2} molecular emission bands. The optimal partial pressure of argon in the mixture is 1.3 kPa, those of krypton and xenon are 0.24 kPa each, and the partial chlorine pressure is in the 0.15-0.30-kPa range. The UV-VUV radiation power emitted from the entire side surface of the discharge tube amounts to 4-6 W for an efficiency of 15%-25%. The radiation source is of interest for applications in photometry, microelectronics, photochemistry, and medicine. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  2. Utilisation des technologies d'impression pour le remplissage industriel des trous d'interconnexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blonde, Paul

    This master project concerns a feasibility study about the use of inkjet drop-on-demand to fill through silicon vias in MEMS "via last" microfabrication process. The aim of our research was to develop a comprehensive process based on the use of a dispersion of a gold/tin alloy (Au80Sn 20) of nanoparticles in suspension in a carrier fluid. Our work mainly focused on the preparation of stable suspensions of nanoparticles and on the high precision filling of the vias. We first developed a method to form a stable suspension of nanoparticles in a carrier fluid using a surfactant, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Tests performed on various solvents allowed us to determine that isopropanol was the best carrier fluid to achieve high volume fractions of suspended nanoparticles. The volume fraction of the stable dispersion with the highest content reached 11 %. The conditions to generate stable individual microdroplets from a piezoelectric printing actuator were then analyzed. The generation of monodisperse microdroplets beiing a complex process, partly described by Fromm's theory and the theory of waveguides, we investigated the operating conditions permitting to precisely set the drop volume and ejection velocity. We therefore characterized an "ejectability zone" model universally usable to generate microdrops with desired output parameters based on the amplitude, width, and frequency of the electric pulse applied to the piezoelectric actuator of a print head having a 50 mum diameter aperture. We also developed a theoretical kinematical model describing the trajectories of microdrops during printing in order to understand the influence of their volume and initial velocity on the accuracy, reproducibility and homogeneity of the deposits in the presence of air fluctuations. This model was implemented in MATLAB and validated in real operating conditions. The results showed that a print head with a 50 mum diameter aperture will generate microdroplets with diameters between 30 and 60 microns with a maximum placement error on the substrate of the order of +/- 20 microns. We estimated that filling TSVs with an opening of 70 microns and higher is possible with our inkjet DOD (non defined) process. Finally, we experimentally addressed the vias filling by studying the behavior of nanoparticles in the vias during the evaporation of the carrier fluid and the annealing of the gold/tin alloy nanoparticles of eutectic composition. This last step revealed the incompatibility of non-homogenous AuSn alloy particles with the temperature window requirement used during sintering. To overcome this defect we replaced the Au80Sn20 by tin nanoparticles to complete our analysis of the impact of the use of PVP in the suspension of nanoparticles on the resistivity after annealing in the vias. Most aspects of this project being interrelated, much attention has been paid to the study of the influence of the various parameters on the quality of prints realized. The main conclusion is that we are able to validate the use of inkjet technologies as an alternative to perform the filling of TSVs by metal alloy nanoparticles. This conclusion is subject to the feasibility of the adaptation of our suspension and annealing methods to nanopowders alloys other than gold/tin and tin.

  3. Cloning of the cbhI and cbhII genes involved in cellulose utilisation by the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jia; P. S. Dyer; J. A. Buswell; J. F. Peberdy

    1999-01-01

    The straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea is cultivated on substrates rich in cellulose and has been shown to produce a family of cellulolytic enzymes. A PCR-based\\u000a strategy was adopted to clone genes involved in cellulose utilisation, using degenerate primers designed to amplify conserved\\u000a catalytic domain sequences of cellobiohydrolases (CBHs). PCR with these primers produced two DNA fragments with sequence similarity\\u000a to

  4. Feeding strategies, resource utilisation and potential mechanisms for competitive coexistence of Atlantic salmon and alpine bullhead in a subArctic river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi-Marie Gabler; Per-Arne Amundsen

    2010-01-01

    We scrutinised the seasonal food-niche utilisation of river dwelling Atlantic salmon parr and alpine bullhead in order to\\u000a examine potential mechanisms that may facilitate coexistence of species with similar niches. Fish were sampled monthly during\\u000a the ice-free season, and diet composition and feeding strategy of the two species were compared by analyses of stomach contents.\\u000a The dietary niches and feeding

  5. Snakes avec a priori en utilisant l'alignement de formes M-A Charmi1, S. Derrode2, F. Ghorbel1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Snakes avec a priori en utilisant l'alignement de formes M-A Charmi1, S. Derrode2, F. Ghorbel1 1´ethode de snakes avec a priori de forme g´eom´etrique. Nous utilisons l'alignement du snake en cours d snakes vers la forme de r´ef´erence. La m´ethode propos´ee permet d'am´eliorer les r´esultats de l

  6. Hospital admissions for severe mental illness in England: Changes in equity of utilisation at the small area level between 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    White, Jonathan; Gutacker, Nils; Jacobs, Rowena; Mason, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Severe Mental Illness (SMI) encompasses a range of chronic conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychoses. Patients with SMI often require inpatient psychiatric care. Despite equity being a key objective in the English National Health Service (NHS) and in many other health care systems worldwide, little is known about the socio-economic equity of hospital care utilisation for patients with SMI and how it has changed over time. This analysis seeks to address that gap in the evidence base. We exploit a five-year (2006–2010) panel dataset of admission rates at small area level (n = 162,410). The choice of control variables was informed by a systematic literature search. To assess changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation, OLS-based standardisation was first used to conduct analysis of discrete deprivation groups. Geographical inequity was then illustrated by plotting standardised and crude admission rates at local purchaser level. Lastly, formal statistical tests for changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation were applied to a continuous measure of deprivation using pooled negative binomial regression analysis, adjusting for a range of risk factors. Our results suggest that one additional percentage point of area income deprivation is associated with a 1.5% (p < 0.001) increase in admissions for SMI after controlling for population size, age, sex, prevalence of SMI in the local population, as well as other need and supply factors. This finding is robust to sensitivity analyses, suggesting that a pro-poor inequality in utilisation exists for SMI-related inpatient services. One possible explanation is that the supply or quality of primary, community or social care for people with mental health problems is suboptimal in deprived areas. Although there is some evidence that inequity has reduced over time, the changes are small and not always robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:25262312

  7. New concepts for the avoidance or utilisation of methane in life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenn, Franz

    2011-08-01

    Due to high resupply costs, especially for long-duration stays in space habitats beyond low earth orbit, future manned space missions will require life support systems (LSS) with a high degree of regenerativity. Possible ways to overcome the waste of resources and to save on resupply mass are therefore of major interest for the development of next generation environmental control and life support systems. The advanced closed-loop system (ACLS) for air revitalization, which is currently being developed by the European Space Agency, will be able to recover the oxygen from exhaled carbon dioxide by use of a Sabatier reactor (see Fig. 1). However, the employed process generates methane as a side product. Current plans envisage it to be vented over board, but the resulting loss would necessitate the resupply of hydrogen. In order to prevent this waste of methane, there are three options: The LSS could be altered to not produce any methane at all, the methane could be cracked into its constituents and reused, or methane itself could be put to use as a resource. Different approaches were examined, and ideas for a Bosch-Boudouard reactor (no methane production) as well as the design study of a pyrolysis thruster (methane cracking and partial use for propulsion) are presented in this paper.

  8. Caracterisation des signatures de decharges partielles en utilisant une nouvelle generation de coupleurs piezoelectriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danouj, Boujemaa

    An important issue affecting the sustainability of power transformers is systematic and progressive deterioration of the insulation system by the action of partial discharge. Ideally, it is appropriate to use on line, non-destructive techniques for detection and diagnosis of failures related to insulation systems, in order to determine whether preventive maintenance action is required. Thus, huge material losses can be saved (spared), while improving reliability and system availability. Based on a new generation of piezoelectric sensors (High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers HTUTs), recently developed by the Industrial Materials Institute (IMI) in Boucherville (Qc, Canada) and offers very interesting features (broad band frequency response, flexible, miniature, economic, etc..), we propose in this thesis an investigation on the applicability of this technology to the problematic of partial discharges. This work presents an analysis of the metrological performance of these sensors and demonstrated empirically the consistency of their measures. It outlines the results of validation from a comparative study with the measures of a standard detection circuit. In addition, it also presents the potential of these sensors to locate partial discharge source position by acoustic emission.

  9. Plutonium and minor actinide utilisation in a pebble-bed high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, B. Y.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.; De Haas, J. B. M. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    This paper contains results of the analysis of the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled PUMA reactor loaded with plutonium and minor actinide (Pu/MA) fuel. Starting from knowledge and experience gained in the Euratom FP5 projects HTR-N and HTR-N1, this study aims at demonstrating the potential of high temperature reactors to utilize or transmute Pu/MA fuel. The work has been performed within the Euratom FP6 project PUMA. A number of different fuel types and fuel configurations have been analyzed and compared with respect to incineration performance and safety-related reactor parameters. The results show the excellent plutonium and minor actinide burning capabilities of the high temperature reactor. The largest degree of incineration is attained in the case of an HTR fuelled by pure plutonium fuel as it remains critical at very deep burnup of the discharged pebbles. Addition of minor actinides to the fuel leads to decrease of the achievable discharge burnup and therefore smaller fraction of actinides incinerated during reactor operation. The inert-matrix fuel design improves the transmutation performance of the reactor, while the 'wallpaper' fuel does not have advantage over the standard fuel design in this respect. After 100 years of decay following the fuel discharge, the total amount of actinides remains almost unchanged for all of the fuel types considered. Among the plutonium isotopes, only the amount of Pu-241 is reduced significantly due to its relatively short half-life. (authors)

  10. Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Desogus, Paolo; Schulenburg, Sven; Arenella, Mariarita; Renella, Giancarlo; Brännvall, Evelina; Lagerkvist, Anders; Andreas, Lale; Sjöblom, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe(0) was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe(0) treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required. PMID:23709267

  11. Identification, utilisation and mapping of novel transcriptome-based markers from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deep-level second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies are now being applied to non-model species as a viable and favourable alternative to Sanger sequencing. Large-scale SNP discovery was undertaken in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) using transcriptome-based 2GS 454 sequencing on the parental genotypes of a reference mapping population, to generate large numbers of novel markers for the construction of a high-density linkage map. Results Over 700,000 reads were produced, from which a total of 7,000 SNPs were found. A subset of polymorphic SNPs was selected to develop a 384-SNP OPA assay using the Illumina BeadXpress platform. Additionally, the data enabled identification of 3,000 novel EST-SSRs. The selected SNPs and SSRs were validated across diverse Ribes germplasm, including mapping populations and other selected Ribes species. SNP-based maps were developed from two blackcurrant mapping populations, incorporating 48% and 27% of assayed SNPs respectively. A relatively high proportion of visually monomorphic SNPs were investigated further by quantitative trait mapping of theta score outputs from BeadStudio analysis, and this enabled additional SNPs to be placed on the two maps. Conclusions The use of 2GS technology for the development of markers is superior to previously described methods, in both numbers of markers and biological informativeness of those markers. Whilst the numbers of reads and assembled contigs were comparable to similar sized studies of other non-model species, here a high proportion of novel genes were discovered across a wide range of putative function and localisation. The potential utility of markers developed using the 2GS approach in downstream breeding applications is discussed. PMID:22035129

  12. Chitin utilisation by broilers and its effect on body composition and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hossain, S M; Blair, R

    2007-02-01

    1. Little is known about the ability of farmed poultry to digest chitin and derive nutrients from the ingestion of insects. 2. Commercial chitin derived from crustacean shell waste was found to contain 373 g crude protein, 265 g ash, 23.5 g ether extract, 130 g calcium and 16.4 g phosphorus per kg, on an air-dry basis. 3. It was included in diets at 0, 25, 50 and 75 g chitin per kg and fed to 320 1-d-old broiler males, over a 21-d period. There were no statistically significant treatment effects on weight gain or feed efficiency. Apparent digestibility of chitin protein was 0.48, 0.50 and 0.45, at the 25, 50 and 75 g per kg inclusions, respectively. Mean AME and AMEN values of chitin were determined as 8.97 and 8.86 MJ/kg. 4. In a subsequent study, mean TME and TMEN values of chitin were determined to be 8.23 and 8.21 MJ per kg, respectively. Addition of chitinase to the diet increased TME and TMEN of chitin to 8.81 and 8.79 MJ per kg, respectively (P<0.05). True digestibility of chitin protein was determined to be 0.87. 5. Triglyceride concentrations in liver and breast meat were significantly reduced by chitin inclusion. No significant differences in carcase yield at 21 d of age were found. Serum cholesterol and triglycerol concentrations were reduced significantly by dietary chitin, the lowest levels being observed at the 50 g per kg inclusion level. 6. These findings indicate the ability of modern poultry to digest chitin but suggest that the ingestion of insects is not an important source of nutrients, at least from the exoskeleton. PMID:17364538

  13. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8?months of age, 152?±?12.6?kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n?=?5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180?days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180?days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p?

  14. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la sédation, les chutes et la surdose peuvent être minimisées en utilisant des doses initiales faibles, un titrage plus lent, un sevrage des benzodiazépines et une bonne éducation des patients. Dans le cas des femmes enceintes qui prennent des opioïdes chaque jour, il faut faire un sevrage progressif et cesser complètement. Si ce n’est pas possible, il faut administrer la dose efficace la plus faible. Les femmes enceintes qui ont une dépendance aux opioïdes devraient recevoir un traitement à la méthadone. Les adolescents sont à risque élevé de surdose d’opioïdes, d’usage abusif et de dépendance. Les patients qui ont des adolescents qui vivent à la maison devraient entreposer leurs opioïdes dans un lieu sûr. Les adolescents ont rarement besoin d’une thérapie à long terme aux opioïdes. Conclusion Les médecins de famille doivent tenir compte de l’âge, de la condition psychiatrique, du degré de risque de dépendance du patient et d’autres facteurs quand ils prescrivent des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique.

  15. Toxines botuliques : utilisation pratique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Durand; G Serment

    2003-01-01

    Botulinum toxins (A and B) are neurotoxins derived from Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium are anaerobic bacteria. C. botulinum produces exotoxins (A to G) with distinct antigenicities. The neurotoxins inhibit the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from the axon terminals of motor neurons. Botulinum toxin is officially used in clinic for the treatment of muscular hyperactivity (strabismus, blepharospam, cervical dystonia). Botulinum toxins

  16. Grassland systems of red meat production: integration between biodiversity, plant nutrient utilisation, greenhouse gas emissions and meat nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Dawson, L E R; O'Kiely, P; Moloney, A P; Vipond, J E; Wylie, A R G; Carson, A F; Hyslop, J

    2011-08-01

    Government policies relating to red meat production take account of the carbon footprint, environmental impact, and contributions to human health and nutrition, biodiversity and food security. This paper reviews the impact of grazing on these parameters and their interactions, identifying those practices that best meet governments' strategic goals. The recent focus of research on livestock grazing and biodiversity has been on reducing grazing intensity on hill and upland areas. Although this produces rapid increases in sward height and herbage mass, changes in structural diversity and plant species are slower, with no appreciable short-term increases in biodiversity so that environmental policies that simply involve reductions in numbers of livestock may not result in increased biodiversity. Furthermore, upland areas rely heavily on nutrient inputs to pastures so that withdrawal of these inputs can threaten food security. Differences in grazing patterns among breeds increase our ability to manage biodiversity if they are matched appropriately to different conservation grazing goals. Lowland grassland systems differ from upland pastures in that additional nutrients in the form of organic and inorganic fertilisers are more frequently applied to lowland pastures. Appropriate management of these nutrient applications is required, to reduce the associated environmental impact. New slurry-spreading techniques and technologies (e.g. the trailing shoe) help reduce nutrient losses but high nitrogen losses from urine deposition remain a key issue for lowland grassland systems. Nitrification inhibitors have the greatest potential to successfully tackle this problem. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are lower from indoor-based systems that use concentrates to shorten finishing periods. The challenge is to achieve the same level of performance from grass-based systems. Research has shown potential solutions through the use of forages containing condensed tannins or establishing swards with a high proportion of clover and high-sugar grasses. Relative to feeding conserved forage or concentrates, grazing fresh grass not only reduces GHG emissions but also enhances the fatty acid composition of meat in terms of consumer health. It is possible to influence biodiversity, nutrient utilisation, GHG emissions and the nutritional quality of meat in grass-based systems, but each of these parameters is intrinsically linked and should not be considered in isolation. Interactions between these parameters must be considered carefully when policies are being developed, in order to ensure that strategies designed to achieve positive gains in one category do not lead to a negative impact in another. Some win-win outcomes are identified. PMID:22440290

  17. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices canadiennes offrent des conseils dont les médecins avaient grand besoin pour les aider à en arriver à un juste équilibre entre le contrôle optimal de la douleur et la sécurité.

  18. WILD RUMINANT STUDY AT BRENDA MINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Taylor; R. P. Bio; P. McKee

    A wild ruminant study was undertaken at the Brenda Mines site in 1999 to determine the numbers of mule deer and whether they showed symptoms of molybdenosis. About 32 mule deer were estimated to utilise the site during the summer. This number included both breeding and non- breeding adults and fawns. Because animals tend to return to familiar summer home

  19. Investigating Over Critical Thresholds of Forest Megafires Danger Conditions in Europe Utilising the ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroliagkis, Thomas I.; Camia, Andrea; Liberta, Giorgio; Durrant, Tracy; Pappenberger, Florian; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus

    2014-05-01

    The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) has been established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment (DG ENV) of the European Commission (EC) to support the services in charge of the protection of forests against fires in the EU and neighbour countries, and also to provide the EC services and the European Parliament with information on forest fires in Europe. Within its applications, EFFIS provides current and forecast meteorological fire danger maps up to 6 days. Weather plays a key role in affecting wildfire occurrence and behaviour. Meteorological parameters can be used to derive meteorological fire weather indices that provide estimations of fire danger level at a given time over a specified area of interest. In this work, we investigate the suitability of critical thresholds of fire danger to provide an early warning for megafires (fires > 500 ha) over Europe. Past trends of fire danger are analysed computing daily fire danger from weather data taken from re-analysis fields for a period of 31 years (1980 to 2010). Re-analysis global data sets coming from the construction of high-quality climate records, which combine past observations collected from many different observing and measuring platforms, are capable of describing how Fire Danger Indices have evolved over time at a global scale. The latest and most updated ERA-Interim dataset of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) was used to extract meteorological variables needed to compute daily values of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI) over Europe, with a horizontal resolution of about 75x75 km. Daily time series of CFWI were constructed and analysed over a total of 1,071 European NUTS3 centroids, resulting in a set of percentiles and critical thresholds. Such percentiles could be used as thresholds to help fire services establish a measure of the significance of CFWI outputs as they relate to levels of fire potential, fuel conditions and fire danger. Median percentile values of fire days accumulated over the 31-year period were compared to median values of all days from that period. As expected, the CWFI time series exhibit different values on fire days than on all days. In addition, a percentile analysis was performed in order to determine the behaviour of index values corresponding to fire events falling into the megafire category. This analysis resulted in a set of critical thresholds based on percentiles. By utilising such thresholds, an initial framework of an early warning system has being established. By lowering the value of any of these thresholds, the number of hits could be increased until all extremes were captured (resulting in zero misses). However, in doing so, the number of false alarms tends to increase significantly. Consequently, an optimal trade-off between hits and false alarms has to be established when setting different (critical) CFWI thresholds.

  20. Capitalising on experience for an evolving era : eflective practitioner study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athol Barrett

    2010-01-01

    This study is about tapping the under utilised resource of tacit knowledge, embedded in human experience, in tackling the complex challenges of managing a neo-postmodern era. The study shows how this may be achieved by using reflective practice in mining a lifetime of tacit knowledge embedded within the experience of one practitioner. It is an example for others in generating

  1. Preliminary opto-electronic study on vertebral movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Vanneuville; Th Kyndt; M Massaux; Y Harmand; JM Garcier; JP Monnet; M Guillot; P Cluzel; G Escande; G Poumarat

    1994-01-01

    Summary Opto-electronic systems utilising measurement of displacement of skin markers allows study of movement in the living subject. The authors have used this method in a kinematic study of the thoracic and lumbar spine measuring the displacement of skin markers placed over the spinous processes. It was possible to approach the physiological state of these complex movements once the apparatus

  2. Dermal Exposure to Terpenic Resin Acids in Swedish Carpentry Workshops and Sawmills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KÅRE ERIKSSON; LEIF WIKLUND; CECILIA LARSSON

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate dermal exposure to the resin acids abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid during collecting in sawmills and during sawing in carpentry workshops, respectively. Methods: Sampling was performed by fastening patches at 12 different areas on a sampling overall, one patch on the front of a cap, one patch on the

  3. Occupational asthma induced by tall oil in the rubber tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M

    1992-01-01

    A worker in the rubber tyre industry is described with occupational asthma from exposure to a solution of tall oil, a pine resin, confirmed by specific inhalation challenge. This supports studies of contact dermatitis which have suggested abietic and dehydroabietic acid oxidants to be the cause of colophony induced allergic reactions. PMID:1551039

  4. Les recommandations thérapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associés à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il faudrait évaluer ces recommandations d’après les avis d’experts plutôt que d’après les données probantes. CONCLUSION : Les cliniciens doivent savoir que les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération ont le potentiel d’induire des effets secondaires neurologiques et devraient faire preuve d’une extrême vigilance lorsqu’ils en prescrivent. PMID:24082814

  5. Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2014-01-14

    The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

  6. Commande d'un drone en vue de la conversion vol rapide -vol stationnaire A l'heure actuelle, de nombreux projets d'utilisation de drones s'intressent la capacit des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Commande d'un drone en vue de la conversion vol rapide - vol stationnaire A l'heure actuelle, de nombreux projets d'utilisation de drones s'intéressent à la capacité des véhicules à alterner des phases de, avec l'application au VERTIGO, drone de type VTOL a rotors contrarotatifs et volets déflecteurs de flux

  7. Knowledge and Knowing in Mathematics and Pedagogy: A Case Study of Mathematics Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Erika; Pursiainen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on mathematics student teachers' epistemological beliefs in mathematics and education. The study aimed at gaining insight into the challenges that students experience in the consolidation of knowledge in the two disciplines. The case study with three mathematics pre-service teachers utilised mathematical and pedagogical…

  8. The occurrence and removal of selected pharmaceutical compounds in a sewage treatment works utilising activated sludge treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. H. Jones; N. Voulvoulis; J. N. Lester

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceutical substances have been detected in sewage effluents as well as receiving waters in many parts of the world. In this study, the occurrence and removal of a number of drug compounds were studied within a large sewage treatment plant in the south of England. Samples were processed using solid phase extraction and analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The

  9. [Results of the marketing research study "Acceptance of physician's office computer systems"].

    PubMed

    Steinhausen, D; Brinkmann, F; Engelhard, A

    1998-01-01

    We report on a market research study on the acceptance of computer systems in surgeries. 11,000 returned questionnaires of surgeons--user and nonuser--were analysed. We found out that most of the surgeons used their computers in a limited way, i.e. as a device for accounting. Concerning the level of utilisation there are differentials of Men-Women, West-East and Young-Old. In this study we also analysed the computer using behaviour of gynaecologic surgeons. As a result two third of all nonusers are not intending to utilise a computer in the future. PMID:9556905

  10. Complementary use of inter-laboratory certification study data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Hässelbarth

    1999-01-01

    The agreed purpose of an inter-laboratory certification study is to characterise a certified reference material (CRM). In\\u000a addition to this, any (successful) certification study may also be utilised as a laboratory\\/method performance study by the\\u000a participants. The intention of this note is to emphasise the complementary use of certification study data by the participants\\u000a of the certification study and to

  11. The Effect of an Education Program Utilising PRECEDE Model on the Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…

  12. Utilisation de la séquence SSFSE pour la Ciné-IRM du rachis cervical du rugbyman professionnel de première ligne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph. Adam; B. Castinel; Ph. Turblin; N. Sans; J. J. Railhac

    2006-01-01

    A SSFSE sequence is proposed in the sagittal plane for a cine-MRI of the cervical spine in front-line rugby players. Thus one can complete the static study and improve the detection of canal stenosis and the prevention of spinal cord injuries.

  13. Good phonetic errors in poor spellers are associated with right-handedness and possible weak utilisation of visuospatial abilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Eglinton; Marian Annett

    2008-01-01

    Poor spellers in normal schools, who were not poor readers, were studied for handedness, visuospatial and other cognitive abilities in order to explore contrasts between poor spellers with and without good phonology. It was predicted by the right shift (RS) theory of handedness and cerebral dominance that those with good phonology would have strong bias to dextrality and relative weakness

  14. ARTIFICIAL MIND SYSTEM: AS AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO THE LANGUAGE ACQUISITION STUDIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriko AKIHO-TOYODA; Tetsuya HOYA

    The approaches utilising Artificial Intelligence (AI)1 have provided useful tools towards elucidating the various faculties of human language. This presentation will focus on the contribution of an engineering approach to linguistics and the possibility of an AI approach for language acquisition. This study briefly introduces a novel connectionist model. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a branch of AI study. Research

  15. EPR RELAXATION STUDY OF A LIQUID CRYSTAL F. PU0160NIK, M. SCHARA, M. 0160ENTJURC

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    - sively studied by NMR in order to collect information on molecular dynamics [1, 2]. On the other hand665 EPR RELAXATION STUDY OF A LIQUID CRYSTAL F. PU0160NIK, M. SCHARA, M. 0160ENTJURC Institute « Jo utilisant le potentiel de McMillan. Abstract. 2014 Molecular dynamics in the nematic and smectic A phases

  16. Work-Related Road Safety Risk Assessment: Utilisation of Self-Report Surveys to Predict Organisational Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Rowland; J. Davey; J. Freeman

    Work-related driving safety is an emerging concern for Australian and overseas organisations. Research has shown that road crashes are the most common cause of work-related fatalities, injuries and absences from work. This study's objectives were to identify driver characteristics which pose potential risks to work-related driving safety within the organisation, as well as determining the value of such self-reported data

  17. Utilisation of satellite data in identification of geomorphic landform and its role in arsenic release in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Singh, N.; Shashtri, S.; Mukherjee, S.

    2014-11-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the influence of geomorphic features of the area on the mobilization of arsenic in groundwater. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to prepare the geomorphic and slope map of the area. Different geomorphic features were identified on the basis of spectral signature on the LISS III and Landsat satellite image and field survey. Groundwater samples were collected from each representative geomorphic feature to inspect the arsenic contamination in the area. The study area is drained by the Brahmaputra river and its tributaries and contain mainly fluvial geomorphic units especially older flood plain, palaeochannels, oxbow lakes, channel islands; and hilly areas at some of the places. In this study it was observed that enrichment of arsenic in groundwater varies along the geomorphic units in following trends Paleochannel> Younger alluvial plain> Active flood plain> channel island > dissected hills. The above trend shows that a higher concentration of arsenic is found in the groundwater samples collected from the fluvial landforms as compared to those collected from structural landforms. Brahmaputra River and its tributaries carry the sediment load from the Himalayan foothills, which get deposited in these features during the lateral shift of the river's courses. Arsenic bearing minerals may get transported through river and deposit in the geomorphological features along with organic matter. The flat terrain of the area as seen from the slope map provides more residence time to water to infiltrate into the aquifer. The microbial degradation of organic matter generates the reducing environment and facilitates the dissolution of iron hydroxide thus releasing the adsorbed arsenic into the groundwater.

  18. Correlation of drug utilisation and morbidity at the municipality level. High use of antibiotics associated with low use of antihypertensives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lars G. Nilsson; Gunnar Lindberg; Hans Johansson; Arne Melander

    2006-01-01

    Objective  The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between Swedish drug sales data per municipality and morbidity per municipality. The morbidity was expressed as “sickness numbers” which are assumed to function as proxy for morbidity.Methods  Sickness numbers per municipality were correlated to volumes of drug sales per municipality in 2003. In addition, the sales volumes of antibiotics were correlated

  19. tude l'aide de mthionine 35S de l'utilisation de la mthionine chez la chvre

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Genes-Champanelle 63110 Beaumont Summary. Utilization of35S methionine by the goat. In order to study the metabolic fate of ingested methionine in the rumen, a mixture of 2.5 g of D,L-methionine and 2.1 mCi of L-35S methionine had been fed meadow hay and a concentrate containing 2.5 g of D,L-methionine for 3 months. Abomasal

  20. Utilising human embryonic stem cells as ‘catalysts’ for biological repair and regeneration. Challenges and some possible strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Heng; H. Liu; T. Cao

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   In recent years, much interest has been generated over the potential of human embryonic stem cells in transplantation medicine.\\u000a The groundbreaking study of Fraidenraich and colleagues conclusively demonstrated that rescue of lethal cardiac defects in\\u000a Id knockout mutant mouse embryos was not due to transplanted embryonic stem cells giving rise to functional new tissues within\\u000a the defective embryonic heart.

  1. Utilisation of erythrocyte 6-thioguanine metabolite levels to optimise azathioprine therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Cuffari; S Hunt; T Bayless

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMThe immunosuppressive properties of 6-mercaptopurine and its parent compound azathioprine are mediated by their intracellular metabolism into active 6-thioguanine (6-TG) metabolites. Measurement of erythrocyte 6-TG metabolite levels has been proposed as a useful clinical tool for assessing treatment efficacy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).AIMThe purpose of the study was to establish a therapeutic index of treatment

  2. Effect of silage dry matter content and rapeseed meal supplementation on dairy cows. 1. Milk production and feed utilisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Kokkonen; M Tuori; V Leivonen; L Syrjälä-Qvist

    2000-01-01

    Twelve cows (8 multiparous and 4 primiparous) were divided into four treatments to study the effects of direct-cut and wilted silage with or without rapeseed meal supplementation (RSM0 or RSM16) on feed intake and milk production. Experimental design consisted of a 4×4 balanced Latin square with four 3-week periods. Silages were given ad libitum and the concentrate was provided in

  3. 10 kHz microsecond pulsed X-ray generator utilising a hot-cathode triode with variable durations for biomedical radiography.

    PubMed

    Sato, E; Sagae, M; Takahashi, K; Shikoda, A; Oizumi, T; Hayasi, Y; Tamakawa, Y; Yanagisawa, T

    1994-05-01

    A 10 kHz pulsed X-ray generator utilising a hot-cathode triode in conjunction with a new type of grid control device for controlling X-ray duration is described. The energy-storage condenser was charged up to 70 kV by a power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the X-ray tube repetitively by the grid control device. The maximum values of the grid voltage (negative value), the tube voltage, and the tube current were -1.5 kV, 70 kV, and 0.4 A, respectively. The duration of the flash X-ray pulse was primarily determined by the time constant of the grid control device and the cut-off voltage of thermoelectrons. The X-ray duration was controlled within a region of less than 1 ms; the X-ray intensity with a pulse width of 0.27 ms, a charged voltage of 70 kV, and a peak tube current of 0.4 A was 0.92 microC kg-1 at 0.5 m per pulse. The maximum repetition rate was about 10 kHz, and the size of the focal spot was about 3.5 x 3.5 mm. PMID:7934253

  4. Prévalence de l'utilisation des anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens chez les femmes enceintes à Lubumbashi (République Démocratique du Congo)

    PubMed Central

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Shamashanga, Laurent Kwete; Mwaba, Jean-Jacques Mulubwa; Kasongo, Christian Busambwa; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    Malgré l'importance de leurs effets secondaires sur la femme enceinte et le fœtus, les anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) continuent à être largement utilisés par les femmes enceintes. Leur rapport bénéfice-risque n'est pas toujours bien évalué en pratique courante. L'objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer l'usage des AINS chez la femme enceinte, de discuter les risques potentiels encourus aussi bien par la mère que par le fœtus, et enfin d'en tirer des recommandations éventuelles à la femme enceinte. Du 22 août au 11 septembre 2012, une enquête a été menée auprès de 145 femmes enceintes suivies en consultation prénatale à l'Hôpital Sendwe. Un formulaire reprenant les informations sur les AINS consommés a été remis à chacune d'elle. Les résultats montrent que 75% des femmes interrogées reconnaissent avoir consommé des AINS surtout en automédication et principalement pendant les deux derniers trimestres de la grossesse pour soulager des douleurs d'origines diverses. Cette étude montre que des efforts restent encore à déployer à Lubumbashi afin de combattre l'utilisation des AINS surtout en automédication chez la femme enceinte. PMID:25419270

  5. Improvement in mechanical properties of jute fibres through mild alkali treatment as demonstrated by utilisation of the Weibull distribution model.

    PubMed

    Roy, Aparna; Chakraborty, Sumit; Kundu, Sarada Prasad; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Majumder, Subhasish Basu; Adhikari, Basudam

    2012-03-01

    Chemically modified jute fibres are potentially useful as natural reinforcement in composite materials. Jute fibres were treated with 0.25%-1.0% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 0.5-48 h. The hydrophilicity, surface morphology, crystallinity index, thermal and mechanical characteristics of untreated and alkali treated fibres were studied.The two-parameter Weibull distribution model was applied to deal with the variation in mechanical properties of the natural fibres. Alkali treatment enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break by 82% and 45%, respectively but decreased the hydrophilicity by 50.5% and the diameter of the fibres by 37%. PMID:22209134

  6. Effect of feeding some plant foods as source of dietary fibre on biological utilisation of diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, V; Chauhan, B M

    1989-06-01

    Isoproteinous diets containing 1% cholesterol and 10% fibre derived from plant foods namely, peepalbanti (Ficus religiosa), barbanti (Ficus bengalensis), gullar (Ficus glomerata), teent (Capparis decidua) and khejri beans (Prsopsis cineria) or pure cellulose, were fed to rats for 40 days. Effect of incorporation of these whole plant parts on feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), dry matter digestibility (DMD) and true protein digestibility (TPD) in weanling rats was studied. Their inclusion did not affect the weight gain significantly whereas all other parameters were influenced to a varying extent. Foods rich in lignin had relatively lower FER, DMD and TPD whereas cellulose and pectin rich foods had higher DMD and TPD. PMID:2548174

  7. Biodegradation of free cyanide and subsequent utilisation of biodegradation by-products by Bacillus consortia: optimisation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Ntwampe, Seteno Karabo Obed; Jackson, Vanessa Angela

    2015-07-01

    A mesophilic alkali-tolerant bacterial consortium belonging to the Bacillus genus was evaluated for its ability to biodegrade high free cyanide (CN(-)) concentration (up to 500 mg CN(-)/L), subsequent to the oxidation of the formed ammonium and nitrates in a continuous bioreactor system solely supplemented with whey waste. Furthermore, an optimisation study for successful cyanide biodegradation by this consortium was evaluated in batch bioreactors (BBs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The input variables, that is, pH, temperature and whey-waste concentration, were optimised using a numerical optimisation technique where the optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pH 9.88, temperature 33.60 °C and whey-waste concentration of 14.27 g/L, under which 206.53 mg CN(-)/L in 96 h can be biodegraded by the microbial species from an initial cyanide concentration of 500 mg CN(-)/L. Furthermore, using the optimised data, cyanide biodegradation in a continuous mode was evaluated in a dual-stage packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) connected in series to a pneumatic bioreactor system (PBS) used for simultaneous nitrification, including aerobic denitrification. The whey-supported Bacillus sp. culture was not inhibited by the free cyanide concentration of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L, with an overall degradation efficiency of ?99 % with subsequent nitrification and aerobic denitrification of the formed ammonium and nitrates over a period of 80 days. This is the first study to report free cyanide biodegradation at concentrations of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L in a continuous system using whey waste as a microbial feedstock. The results showed that the process has the potential for the bioremediation of cyanide-containing wastewaters. PMID:25721526

  8. Utilisation de la teledetection pour l'estimation de la reserve hydrique au bassin du Mackenzie au nord ouest Canadien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temimi, Marouane

    This work elaborates a method to estimate soil moisture and open water extent using remote sensing data. Specifically, Microwave data are used in this work in combination with other sources of information. This study is applied to Mackenzie River Basin as it was conducted in the framework of the MAGS project (Mackenzie GEWEX Study). The methodology developed in this work is based on the concept of the wetness index which is a surrogate of the measured soil moisture. Firstly, it was proposed to used wetness index derived from a linear combination of brightness temperatures measured by the SSM/I sensor. Beside the correlation of this index with the observed discharge at some observing points of the Mackenzie River basin, it was noticed that the empirical parameter of the index were affected by the variation in space and time of the surface conditions. The sensitivity of the wetness index was improved by considering this effect. Secondly, the potential of combination of passive microwave data and discharge observation for flood forecasting was investigated. The methodology was based on the concept of the rating curve model. The Kaman filter was used to update the parameters of the rating model at the reception of each new satellite image. The estimated water surface fractions using the discharge observations showed a reasonable concordance with those derived from visible images (NOAA-AVHRR). The publication of the AMSR-E data has enabled us to improve the spatial resolution of the passive microwave data. Thus, a new formulation of a wetness index was proposed in the third part of this work. The proposed Basin Wetness Index is based on the difference of the sensitivity of passive microwave and visible images to soil moisture. Microwave data are sensitive to the soil water content and open water extent. However, visible images can mirror only the water extent. Information about soil moisture can be derived from the difference of these sensitivities. This index was able to qualitatively describe the temporal evolution of the wetness over the Mackenzie River Basin. It is worth mentioning that vegetation distribution was considered in the formulation of the proposed index by the segregation between bare and vegetated soil soils by the mosaic approach. The BWI was finally downscaled using Digital Elevation Model data. The sensitivity of the topography attributes to the spatial distribution of soil moisture was assessed. A classical formulation of topographical index was modified in this study to take into account the difference of sensitivity of topographical attributes over bare and covered soils. The combination of the modified topographical index and the proposed BWI enabled us to downscale the soil water content estimation and provide an estimate of soil moisture at the scale of the Digital elevation Model. Overall, the downscaling approach provided satisfactory resultants when compared to precipitation and temperature variation. Further works are needed to assess the reliability of the proposed approaches using results of distributed hydrological model outputs.

  9. Simulation numerique de l'effet du reflecteur radial sur les cellules rep en utilisant les codes DRAGON et DONJON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejaoui, Najoua

    The pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWRs) is the largest fleet of nuclear reactors in operation around the world. Although these reactors have been studied extensively by designers and operators using efficient numerical methods, there are still some calculation weaknesses, given the geometric complexity of the core, still unresolved such as the analysis of the neutron flux's behavior at the core-reflector interface. The standard calculation scheme is a two steps process. In the first step, a detailed calculation at the assembly level with reflective boundary conditions, provides homogenized cross-sections for the assemblies, condensed to a reduced number of groups; this step is called the lattice calculation. The second step uses homogenized properties in each assemblies to calculate reactor properties at the core level. This step is called the full-core calculation or whole-core calculation. This decoupling of the two calculation steps is the origin of methodological bias particularly at the interface core reflector: the periodicity hypothesis used to calculate cross section librairies becomes less pertinent for assemblies that are adjacent to the reflector generally represented by these two models: thus the introduction of equivalent reflector or albedo matrices. The reflector helps to slowdown neutrons leaving the reactor and returning them to the core. This effect leads to two fission peaks in fuel assemblies localised at the core/reflector interface, the fission rate increasing due to the greater proportion of reentrant neutrons. This change in the neutron spectrum arises deep inside the fuel located on the outskirts of the core. To remedy this we simulated a peripheral assembly reflected with TMI-PWR reflector and developed an advanced calculation scheme that takes into account the environment of the peripheral assemblies and generate equivalent neutronic properties for the reflector. This scheme is tested on a core without control mechanisms and charged with fresh fuel. The results of this study showed that explicit representation of reflector and calculation of peripheral assembly with our advanced scheme allow corrections to the energy spectrum at the core interface and increase the peripheral power by up to 12% compared with that of the reference scheme.

  10. Hospitalisation Utilisation and Costs in Schizophrenia Patients in Finland before and after Initiation of Risperidone Long-Acting Injection

    PubMed Central

    Asseburg, Christian; Willis, Michael; Löthgren, Mickael; Seppälä, Niko; Hakala, Mika; Persson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Quantify changes in hospital resource use in Finland following initiation of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Materials and Methods. A retrospective multi-center chart review (naturalistic setting) was used to compare annual hospital bed-days and hospital episodes for 177 schizophrenia patients (mean age 47.1 years, 52% female, 72% hospitalized) before and after initiation of RLAI (between January 2004 and June 2005) using the within-patient “mirror-image” study design. The base case analytical approach allocated hospital episodes overlapping the start date entirely to the preinitiation period. In order to investigate the impact of inpatient care ongoing at baseline, the change in bed-days was also estimated using an alternative analytical approached related to economic modelling. Results. In the conventional analysis, the mean annual hospitalisation costs declined by €11,900 and the number of bed-days was reduced by 40%, corresponding to 0.19 fewer hospital episodes per year. The reductions in bed-days per patient-year were similar for patients switched to RLAI as inpatients and as outpatients. In the modelling-based analysis, an 8% reduction in bed-days per year was observed. Conclusion. Despite uncertainty in the choice of analytic approach for allocating inpatient episodes that overlapping this initiation, consistent reductions in resource use are associated with the initiation of RLAI in Finland. PMID:22966445

  11. Forces and shapes as determinants of micro-swimming: effect on synchronisation and the utilisation of drag.

    PubMed

    Pande, Jayant; Smith, Ana-Sun?ana

    2015-03-28

    In this analytical study we demonstrate the richness of behaviour exhibited by bead-spring micro-swimmers, both in terms of known yet not fully explained effects such as synchronisation, and hitherto undiscovered phenomena such as the existence of two transport regimes where the swimmer shape has fundamentally different effects on the velocity. For this purpose we employ a micro-swimmer model composed of three arbitrarily-shaped rigid beads connected linearly by two springs. By analysing this swimmer in terms of the forces on the different beads, we determine the optimal kinematic parameters for sinusoidal driving, and also explain the pusher/puller nature of the swimmer. Moreover, we show that the phase difference between the swimmer's arms automatically attains values which maximise the swimming speed for a large region of the parameter space. Apart from this, we determine precisely the optimal bead shapes that maximise the velocity when the beads are constrained to be ellipsoids of a constant volume or surface area. On doing so, we discover the surprising existence of the aforementioned transport regimes in micro-swimming, where the motion is dominated by either a reduction of the drag force opposing the beads, or by the hydrodynamic interaction amongst them. Under some conditions, these regimes lead to counter-intuitive effects such as the most streamlined shapes forming locally the slowest swimmers. PMID:25675985

  12. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS. PMID:25421162

  13. Landscape management of fire and grazing regimes alters the fine-scale habitat utilisation by feral cats.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores. PMID:25329902

  14. Systems analysis utilising pathway interactions identifies sonic hedgehog pathway as a primary biomarker and oncogenic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Efroni, Sol; Meerzaman, Daoud; Schaefer, Carl F; Greenblum, Sharon; Soo-Lyu, Myung; Hu, Ying; Cultraro, Constance; Meshorer, Eran; Buetow, Kenneth H

    2013-12-01

    The development and progression of cancer is associated with disruption of biological networks. Historically studies have identified sets of signature genes involved in events ultimately leading to the development of cancer. Identification of such sets does not indicate which biologic processes are oncogenic drivers and makes it difficult to identify key networks to target for interventions. Using a comprehensive, integrated computational approach, the authors identify the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway as the gene network that most significantly distinguishes tumour and tumour-adjacent samples in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The analysis reveals that the SHH pathway is commonly activated in the tumour samples and its activity most significantly differentiates tumour from the non-tumour samples. The authors experimentally validate these in silico findings in the same biologic material using Western blot analysis. This analysis reveals that the expression levels of SHH, phosphorylated cyclin B1, and CDK7 levels are much higher in most tumour tissues as compared to normal tissue. It is also shown that siRNA-mediated silencing of SHH gene expression resulted in a significant reduction of cell proliferation in a liver cancer cell line, SNU449 indicating that SHH plays a major role in promoting cell proliferation in liver cancer. The SHH pathway is a key network underpinning HCC aetiology which may guide the development of interventions for this most common form of human liver cancer. PMID:24712101

  15. Home Range Utilisation and Long-Range Movement of Estuarine Crocodiles during the Breeding and Nesting Season

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Hamish A.; Dwyer, Ross G.; Irwin, Terri R.; Franklin, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92±0.013 metres total length (TL), mean ± S.E., n?=?4) occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49±0.9 km d?1; n?=?8) during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17±0.14 m TL) exhibited a ‘site-fidelic’ strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81±0.08 m TL) exhibited ‘nomadic’ behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the ‘site-fidelic’ males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the ‘nomadic’ males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions. PMID:23650510

  16. Utilising conservative tracers and spatial surveys to identify controls on pathways and DOC exports in an Arctic catchment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessels, J. S.; Tetzlaff, D.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Street, L. E.; Dean, J.; Washbourne, I. J.; Billett, M. F.; Baxter, R.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is typically the predominant form of carbon exported from headwater streams, it therefore represents a major carbon export from Arctic catchments. The projected deepening of thaw depth in permafrost regions, due to an increase in air temperature, may have a significant effect on the amount of DOC exported from these systems. However, quantification of the impacts of climate driven changes on DOC export are still highly uncertain. Understanding the processes controlling DOC export is therefore crucial in predicting the potential impact of projected environmental changes. The controls of DOC production and transport are heavily influenced by soil and vegetation, which are highly variable across the landscape. To completely understand these systems information regarding spatial variability of plants, soils and thaw depths must be taken into account. In this study sub-weekly sampling of DOC was undertaken throughout 2014 in a headwater (<1 km2) catchment in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Spatial surveys of soil properties, active thaw depth and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) were collected and used in conjunction with conservative stable water isotopes tracers and major ions to understand sources, flow pathways and timing of DOC exports from the catchment. Stable isotope tracers act as fingerprints of water allowing sources and pathways to be assessed. Observations reveal changing DOC concentrations throughout the season as the active layer deepens and the connectivity of the soils to the stream network throughout the catchment increases. Linking the DOC data with the conservative tracer response improves the identification of carbon pathways and fluxes from the soils; preliminary analysis indicates DOC is being delivered via deeper more mineral soils later in the season. The results indicate that the active layer depth has a strong influence on the amount of DOC exported from the system, independent of the amount of carbon stored in these deeper soils.

  17. La modelisation des evenements de givrage atmospherique : Interpolation de la narr pour l'utilisation de gem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camion, Amelie

    The wind industry is growing in cold climates. These environments are conductive to ice accumulation causing wind turbine and meteorological instruments failures, output power reduction and humans hazards. Therefore, the understanding and the characterizations of the atmospheric icing are required to optimize the wind farm installation. The production of an icing map in North America can be supported by the numerical weather prediction model and microphysics schemes detailing the different precipitation and accumulation types. Nevertheless, it is important to create such a atlas on a historical basis, because these events vary each winter. The use of input files for these models should contain a maximum of atmospheric data covering a large geographical area to ensure to cover the significant weather phenomena. In this study, a methodology consisting to model the icing events, based on the meso-scale method, was developed. This methodology is complementary to an icing map allowing to get more information on a local site. The main objective is to develop a tool to make compatible the input data, NARR (North Regional Re-Analysis), with the weather prediction model GEM (Global Environnemental Multi-Scale). With this model, it will be possible to model the icing events in Canada at a spatial resolution of 32 km. Then, a model at a spatial resolution of 5 km will allow to get more information in icing on Québec region. The secondary objective is to install weather instruments what can provide information regarding the duration, intensity and frequency of icing events. Thereby, a measuring station has been installed including an ice meter and an heated rain gauge. Finally, the results of this research show promising results of the icing precipitation modeling for the preparation of an icing map. These models may be modeled by the reanalyse data.

  18. Utilisation of controlled pore topology for the separation of bioparticles in a mixed-glass beads column.

    PubMed

    Mota, M; Teixeira, J; Yelshin, A; Cortez, S

    2006-10-20

    To study the flow of shaped particles in porous media, elution of spherical and rod-like micro-organisms was performed through beds of spherical glass beads. A 0.04 cm/s constant flow rate was used with 5 microm yeast suspensions, 1 microm latex micro-spheres and rod-like bacilli Lactobacillus bulgaricus 6 microm long and 0.5 microm in diameter. Yeast cells' diameter is close to the bacilli length and micro-spheres have the same diameter as bacilli. All particle types have similar density. To make the different packing beds, 1.125 mm coarse beads and 0.1115 mm fine beads were used. Experiments were carried out using a column loaded with the binary packing (volume fraction of coarse particles in the mixture 0.7) or a monosize packing with the same amount of coarse or fine particles as used in the binary packing. Analysis of experimental results was based on two models: pure exclusion effect and hydrodynamic separation model [hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC)]. Results for spheres show that the classic HDC model fits to the experimental data whenever the ratio of particle size to the pathway bend scale is high ( approximately 1/100, micro-spheres). However, if this ratio increases and becomes approximately 1/20, the HDC model needs to be corrected due to the effect of channel wall curvature on exclusion. This led to a modified HDC equation of the form R=B/(1+2lambda-2.8lambda(2)), where R is the retention, lambda is the aspect ratio and constant B>or=1. Bacillus separation follows an exclusion mechanism, since pore topology is important in the separation of shaped particles when the aspect ratio approaches lambda=0.1. In the case of a binary packing bed, rod-like particles display a different behaviour than the one exhibited by the spherical particles of the same scale as bacilli, either in length or in diameter. This may be explained by the interaction between rod-like bacilli and the bed's pore topology. A generalised exclusion model for particles was proposed to be R=A/(1-lambda)(z), where A is the coefficient proportional to the tortuosity and the parameter z=1, 2 or 3 depends mainly on pore shape. Controlled pore topology opens interesting applications for bio-separation (in porous micro-fluidic devices, deep bed filtration) and might be especially important for macromolecules and micro-organisms separation with different shapes. PMID:16815763

  19. Health Care Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Expenditure Associated with Back Pain: A Nationally Representative Survey of Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Emma R.; Broom, Alex F.; Sibbritt, David W.; Refshauge, Kathryn M.; Adams, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Background Back pain impacts on a significant proportion of the Australian population over the life course and has high prevalence rates among women, particularly in older age. Back pain care is characterised by multiple practitioner and self-prescribed treatment options, and the out-of-pocket costs associated with consultations and self-prescribed treatments have not been examined to date. Objective To analyse the extent of health care practitioner consultations and self-prescribed treatment for back pain care among Australian women, and to assess the self-reported costs associated with such usage. Methods Survey of 1,310 women (response rate 80.9%) who reported seeking help for back pain from the ‘1946-51 cohort’ of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Women were asked about their use of health care practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain and the costs associated with such usage. Results In the past year 76.4% consulted a complementary and alternative practitioner, 56% an allied health practitioner and 59.2% a GP/medical specialist. Overall, women consulted with, on average, 3.0 (SD?=?2.0) different health care practitioners, and had, on average, 12.2 (SD?=?9.7) discrete health care practitioner consultations for back pain. Average self-reported out-of-pocket expenditure on practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain care per annum was AU$873.10. Conclusions Multiple provider usage for various but distinct purposes (i.e. pain/mobility versus anxiety/stress) points to the need for further research into patient motivations and experiences of back pain care in order to improve and enhance access to and continuity of care. Our results suggest that the cost of back pain care represents a significant burden, and may ultimately limit women’s access to multiple providers. We extrapolate that for Australian working-age women, total out-of-pocket expenditure on back pain care per annum is in excess of AU$1.4billion, thus indicating the prominence of back pain as a major economic, social and health burden. PMID:24376716

  20. Ecological Thresholds in the Savanna Landscape: Developing a Protocol for Monitoring the Change in Composition and Utilisation of Large Trees

    PubMed Central

    Druce, Dave J.; Shannon, Graeme; Page, Bruce R.; Grant, Rina; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure - particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts - is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (?5 m in height) play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0–6.6 km in length) and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0–1.6 km in length). Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease) which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. Conclusions/Significance The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next stage is to integrate that protocol into a decision-making system, which highlights potential leading indicators of change. Frequent monitoring would be required to establish the rate and direction of change. This approach may be useful in generating monitoring protocols for other dynamic systems. PMID:19092993

  1. The effects of socioeconomic status, accessibility to services and patient type on hospital use in Western Australia: a retrospective cohort study of patients with homogenous health status

    PubMed Central

    Moorin, Rachael E; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2006-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS) via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision. PMID:16774689

  2. Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of ?13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest ?13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during the vegetation period the values were much lower (-21.85 o). This coincided with a strong increase of the PLFA 18:2 (from 0.99 up to 2.37 nmol g dry wt soil-1), indicating utilisation of old organic matter by fungi, while mono-unsaturated PLFAs, indicating Gram-negative bacteria, were more frequent before and after the growing season. Microbial dynamics in the unfertilised control followed the same seasonal pattern but PLFAs were less enriched in 13C due to lower yields compared with the N-fertilised treatment. The addition of organic amendments (straw or sewage sludge) lowered ?13C-values in PLFAs below values of the control due to input of labile material with C3-origin. PLFAs in the bare fallow treatment, that had not received plant carbon inputs during twelve years, were most 13C depleted among the treatments but still enriched by about 2o compared with SOM, indicating a degree of microbial fractionation.

  3. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  4. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An epidemiological population based study of women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnstein Mykletun; Felice Jacka; Lana Williams; Julie Pasco; Margaret Henry; Geoffrey C Nicholson; Mark A Kotowicz; Michael Berk

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association

  5. Teacher-Child Relationships in Turkish and United States Schools: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyazkurk, Derya; Kesner, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Recent educational research utilising Bowlby's attachment theory has focused on children's interpersonal relationships with their teachers. Research in this area has indicated that the security of the teacher-child relationship influences children's development in many of the same ways as secure parent-child attachments. The purpose of this study

  6. Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

  7. A fundamental study of ferric oxalate for dissolving gold in thiosulfate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Chandra; M. I. Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental study was undertaken of the dissolution of gold using a novel thiosulfate leaching system that utilises ferric oxalate as the oxidant in place of the traditional cupric ammine. The key advantage of the ferric oxalate system is that the thiosulfate consumption is negligible compared to the cupric ammine system. The gold leaching kinetics were measured using the rotating

  8. A behavioural study of the decision processes underpinning disposals by property fund managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. MacCowan; Allison M. Orr

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The main aim of this paper is to investigate the specific factors that influence fund managers' decisions to dispose of property. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study explores the reasons behind the decision-making processes associated with the disposal of real estate within a portfolio, and the information sources utilised by fund managers. A behavioural finance approach is adopted with the

  9. A Third Use of Sociology of Scientific Knowledge: A Lens for Studying Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Avery, Leanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, science educators and science education researchers have grown increasingly interested in utilising insights from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) to inform their work and research. To date, researchers in science education have focused on two applications: results of sociological studies of science have been…

  10. Parent–child interactions and anxiety disorders: an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L Hudson; Ronald M Rapee

    2001-01-01

    Past research has indicated a potential link between anxiety and parenting styles that are characterised by control and rejection. However, few studies have utilised observational methods to support these findings. In the current study, mother–child interactions were observed while the child completed two difficult cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of clinically anxious children (n=43), oppositional defiant children (n=20) and non-clinical

  11. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  12. Strategic Development of Library Reference Collections in Higher Education: a case study at Loughborough University Library (UK)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Reid; Graham Walton; Peter Lund

    Within the Higher Education sector there have been significant and ongoing changes in the methods utilised by library users to acquire information. In light of this recognition, a study was undertaken by a project team at the University Library, Loughborough University, to determine the most appropriate strategy for developing its extensive collection of printed reference material. Issues of space were

  13. A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

    1994-01-01

    A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

  14. Unipolar depression across cultures: A Delphi analysis of the methodological and conceptual issues confronting the cross-cultural study of depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda Redmond; Rosanna Rooney; Brian Bishop

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research is to investigate the epistemological and methodological discrepancies involved in the cross-cultural study of unipolar depression. These discrepancies include the methodological design and measurement of depression and culture, and the epistemological variation in researchers as to whether depression is a universal or socially constructed phenomenon. A Delphi procedure was utilised which enabled a group of

  15. Involving health professionals in the development of an advanced symptom management system for young people: The ASyMS ©-YG study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gibson; S. Aldiss; R. M. Taylor; R. Maguire; N. Kearney

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of the studyASyMS© is an advanced symptom management system utilising mobile phone technology for patients to report cancer chemotherapy-related symptoms. The aim of this paper is to present health professionals involvement in the development of ASyMS© for use with young people (YG) and evaluate their perceptions of the system.

  16. A study considering the force required for broken glass bottles to penetrate a skin simulant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Nolan; Simon Lawes; Sarah Hainsworth; Guy Rutty

    Injuries and assaults related to alcohol consumption are a growing concern in many countries. In such cases, the use of impulsive\\u000a weapons, an object from the immediate environment, such as a glass bottle, is not uncommon. This current study utilises a\\u000a material testing system to measure the force required to push a broken glass bottle into a skin simulant with

  17. A Study of Sulphate Minerals using a Novel X-Ray Diffraction Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, S. M. R.; Hansford, G. M.; Bridges, J. C.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Vernon, D.

    2013-09-01

    Here we present an analysis of sulphate minerals from the Triassic coastline of the South West UK, utilising an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction (EDXRD) instrument in a novel back-reflection geometry which enables analysis of unprepared rock samples. Sulphate minerals are of particular interest in planetary science as they are a product of an aqueous altered environment. This study highlights the potential of a lightweight, compact instrument that could be deployed on the robotic arm of a Mars rover.

  18. Meeting the Need for Knowledge Management in Schools with Knowledge-Based Systems - A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anneli Edman

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a Usually the aim with knowledge management is to increase the profit, through capturing, storing, sharing, and utilising knowledge\\u000a in an innovative way. Can knowledge management be of use in organisations as schools, where profit is of no interest? This\\u000a article discusses the need for knowledge management from the perspectives of students, teachers and parents. In a case study\\u000a master students

  19. A study of the antimicrobial activity of selected naturally occurring and synthetic coumarins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Smyth; V. N. Ramachandran; W. F. Smyth

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 43 naturally occurring and synthetic coumarins were studied. Using a microtitre assay developed in-house, a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including a hospital isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),were utilised. The coumarins exhibiting good bioactivity (i.e. a lowminimum inhibitory concentration) against two S. aureus strains were then assessed for their antimicrobial activities against a range

  20. Enqute auprs de pharmaciens hospitaliers sur l'information pharmaceutique : quels besoins ? Quelles sources ? Quelle utilisation et quel impact d'un centre

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    among hospital pharmacist about pharmaceutical information : what needs ? Which sources? What use Objectives. To study the impact of information's needs of French hospital pharmaceutical teams1 Enquête auprès de pharmaciens hospitaliers sur l'information pharmaceutique : quels besoins

  1. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par le BrdU au niveau cellulaire. Notre hypothese (basee sur des resultats preliminaires effectues dans notre laboratoire) est que l'irradiation de l'ADN cellulaire en presence de BrdU augmentera le nombre de bris simple brin sans toutefois augmenter le nombre de bris double brin. Les resultats presentes dans ce memoire semblent corroborer cette hypothese. Les nouvelles methodes d'analyse, soient l'essai comete et la detection des foci gamma-H2AX remettent en question ce qui a ete dit sur le BrdU au sujet de l'induction des cassures double brin depuis plusieurs annees. L'ensemble de ces nouveaux resultats effectue a l'aide de cellules ayant incorporees du BrdU sont en correlation avec de precedents resultats obtenus dans notre laboratoire sur des oligonucleotides bromes. Ils reaffirment que l'irradiation combinee au BrdU augmente l'induction de bris simple brin mais pas de bris double brin. L'investigation approfondie des mecanismes d'action non elucides du BrdU au niveau cellulaire et son utilisation a des moments strategiques pendant le traitement de radiotherapie pourraient accroitre son efficacite a des fins d'utilisation clinique. Mots cles : 5-bromodeoxyuridine, dimeres interbrins, dommage a l'ADN, essai comete, H2AX, radiosensibilisateur, radiotherapie

  2. Social Service Utilisation Patterns among Children with Mild Intellectual Disability--Differences between Children Integrated into Mainstream Classes and Children in Self-Contained Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Lena M.; Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth; Granlund, Mats; Huus, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with a mild intellectual disability (ID) and their families often require social services; however, because of the characteristics of the formal service system, these families may be at risk of not receiving necessary services. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge regarding the types and number of services that…

  3. L'utilisation de stratégies d'apprentissage en fonction de la réussite chez des adolescents apprenant l'anglais langue seconde

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Lafontaine

    The purpose of this study was to determine which strategies found in O'Malley & Chamot's (1990) taxonomy distinguishing between strong and poor ESL learners. A questionnaire comprised of 80 strategies was developed and completed by 310 fifth-year secondary school francophone English learners. Results of the end of semester exam - com- pleted three months following data gathering - were analyzed.

  4. Connaissance et utilisation des deux langues en milieu partiellement bilingue (Knowledge and Use of Two Languages in a Partially Bilingual Situation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enparantza, Jose Luis Alvarez

    A study of the difference between knowledge and use of two languages by bilinguals in a partially bilingual situation looks at what is known about language knowledge and language usage, the linguistic and communication tensions affecting monolinguals in a community, some special cases, and the possibilities for diachronic analysis of language…

  5. Résolution d'un problème inverse par utilisation d'un modèle réduit modal. Application au frottement d'un pion sur un disque en rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Quéméner; Jean-Luc Battaglia; Alain Neveu

    2003-01-01

    This study allows solving rapidly an inverse heat conduction problem containing a term of heat transport, for a system whose numerical comportment description leads large scale matrix using.The resolution is based on the modal method, which permits to obtain the eigenmodes of the homogeneous problem, from the spatial discretisation of the domain. The idea is that out of the contribution

  6. Couplage des équations de transfert de masse et des lois d'interactions solution-solide par l'utilisation des lanthanides comme traceurs — Approche expérimentale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, S.; Treuil, M.; Dumonceau, J.; Fromage, F.

    1984-02-01

    In underground flow tracing studies, the estimation of the nature and the importance of interactions undergone by the substance used very often constitutes an obstacle to good modeling of mass-transfer processes in solution. We propose a method to quantify these phenomena by the use of lanthanides as tracers. For this study, we set up an analytical methodology adapted to routine measurements. The quality of five lanthanides as indicators has been examined. We have demonstrated the formation, by substitution, of a carbonate complex which is extremely stable in the natural environment. The field experiments carried out demonstrated the efficiency of those tracers and confirmed their great stability. Tracer recovery graphs show that, in accord with our hypothesis, convection and dispersion are identical for all the lanthanide elements. Moreover, we have established a direct relation between their fixing rate on earth materials and the value of their stability constants. Thus, we demonstrate the possibility of correlative multitracing, with known and quantifiable interelement relations.

  7. Etude ab initio des proprietes electroniques et optiques d'un systeme donneur-accepteur organique utilise dans les cellules photovoltaiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Arnaud

    The search for new sources of clean and renewable energy has recently been encouraged by the growing energy demand caused by the industrialization of developing countries and by population growth. In this context, the generation of electricity through the exploitation of solar energy with photovoltaic cells is particularly interesting, since this energy source is largely unused compared to its full potential. Nevertheless, large scale electricity generation with the current design of photovoltaic cells based on silicon is hindered by the large manufacturing cost of these devices. A new generation of photovoltaic cells, which includes organic photovoltaic cells that use semiconducting polymers, is under intense development in order to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs. The replacement of conventional materials with conjugated polymers in photovoltaic cells opens the possibility of using large scale manufacturing processes to produce large-area devices at low cost. However, the power conversion efficiency and the lifetime of organic photovoltaic cells are currently too low for these devices to be cost effective. A better understanding of the organic photovoltaic process is therefore necessary to improve the power conversion efficiency of these devices. The operating principle of photovoltaic cells requires the charge transfer between a polymer acting as an electron donor and a molecule acting as an electron acceptor to enable the dissociation of photogenerated excitons into free charge carriers. Furthermore, to ensure that the majority of the photogenerated excitons dissociates, the active region of an organic photovoltaic cell is typically formed by a bulk heterojunction between the donor and the acceptor. Many experimental studies have shown that the power conversion efficiency of these devices, which is proportional to the product of their short-circuit current Isc with their open circuit potential Voc, is strongly governed by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction defined as the local order of the two phases and the organization of the donor-acceptor interfaces. Even though these studies have helped to increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells, the relations linking the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction to their electronic and optical properties are still to be established. The objective of the research project is to computationally study the electronic and optical properties of organic bulk heterojunctions composed of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT) and C60, two materials typically used in organic photovoltaic cells. In this study, the microstructure of the donor-acceptor systems can be directly controlled, which facilitates the systematic study of the influence of this parameter on the electronic and optical properties of the organic bulk heterojunctions. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the ground state geometric and electronic properties of multiple bulk heterojunction systems, while the time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is used to study the optical properties of these systems. The SIESTA software package is used to study periodic systems representing perfectly crystalline materials. The results obtained in this research project show that the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells is strongly modulated by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunctions. Indeed, the size of the rrP3HT crystalline domains must be optimized to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic devices, since Voc and Isc have opposite behaviors with respect to ?-stacking of the rrP3HT chains. In addition, the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells could be improved by imposing geometrical constraints in the bulk heterojunctions through manufacturing methods in order to increase the value of Voc without altering the value of Isc. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  8. Utilisation of pH stacking in conjunction with a highly absorbing chromophore, 5-aminofluorescein, to improve the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis for carbohydrate analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artaches A. Kazarian; Emily F. Hilder; Michael C. Breadmore

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the use of pH stacking in conjunction with 5-aminofluorescein as a derivatization agent for the sensitive analysis of simple sugars such as glucose, lactose and maltotriose by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The derivatization agent was selected on the basis of its extremely high molar absorptivity, its compatibility with a 488nm light-emitting diode (LED) and the fact that it

  9. Utilisation du questionnaire de fatigue chez de jeunes enfants sportifs : effets de l'activité sportive, de l'âge et du sexe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V.-A. Bricout; A. Favre-Juvin

    2006-01-01

    In children, fatigue induced by regular sport activity with important training sessions and competitions is still difficult to objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fatigue induced by intensive training, with an auto-questionnaire of fatigue specially elaborated for sport children aged in 8 to 16 year-old, and the incidence of age, sex and the type of sport practiced.

  10. TUDE DES CIBLES MINCES CHARGES DE TRITIUM UTILISES DANS LES ACCLRATEURS PRODUISANT DES NEUTRONS RAPIDES PAR LA RACTION D-T

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    61 �TUDE DES CIBLES MINCES CHARG�ES DE TRITIUM UTILIS�ES DANS LES ACC�L�RATEURS PRODUISANT DES [titane-tritium]préparées par le Département des Radioéléments de Saclay. Dix sept cibles ont été ainsi rendement. Abstract. 2014 This study permits the determination of the efficiency of titan-tritium targets

  11. Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on diet digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolite concentrations and nutrient utilisation of dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Shingfield; S. Jaakkola; P. Huhtanen

    2002-01-01

    The current study was conducted to establish if variations in nutrient supply due to forage conservation method could be compensated for by increases in concentrate feeding or supplements of a glucogenic substrate. Thirty two Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-day experimental periods and a 4×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the

  12. Résection endoscopique des polypes colorectaux pédiculés en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé: une alternative a la polypectomie conventionnelle? A propos d'une série de cas

    PubMed Central

    Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Tagni-Sartre, Michèle; Modjo, Gabriel; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap

    2014-01-01

    L'intérêt de l'endoscopie dans la résection des polypes colorectaux a été rapporté dans plusieurs études. Les techniques de résection endoscopique sont multiples et maîtrisées dans les pays occidentaux. La technique de mucosectomie endoscopique et celle de la pose d'une anse largable en nylon (endoloop) ont élargi le champ des lésions résécables par endoscopie. Toutefois, malgré cette évolution, la vulgarisation de la polypectomie n'est pas effective. En Afrique subsaharienne, la prise en charge de ces polypes de grande taille nécessite souvent une intervention chirurgicale à ciel ouvert ou une évacuation sanitaire onéreuse dans un pays en Occident. Nous rapportons une nouvelle approche de polypectomie endoscopique des polypes pédiculés colorectaux, en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé 2/0. Les polypes pédiculés étaient situés soit au niveau du sigmoïde soit au rectum. Après avoir passé le lasso autour du pédicule, le n'ud du lasso est serré autour de celui-ci pour strangulation. En moyenne 6 jours après la procédure, le polype est récupéré dans les selles. Une colonoscopie de contrôle est nécessaire pour confirmer la résection du polype. Cette technique peu coûteuse et accessible, devrait être vulgarisée dans les pays en voie de développement avec des plateaux techniques pauvres. Elle a ses limites et ses inconvénients qui doivent être connus de l'opérateur. PMID:25360198

  13. Treatment satisfaction and efficacy of the rapid release formulation of sumatriptan 100 mg tablets utilising an early intervention paradigm in patients previously unsatisfied with sumatriptan

    PubMed Central

    Newman, L C; Cady, R K; Landy, S; O’Carroll, P; Kwong, W J; Burch, S P; Nelsen, A C; McDonald, S A

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate treatment satisfaction, efficacy and functional ability of the rapid release formulation of sumatriptan 100 mg tablets (sumatriptan RT 100 mg) in an early intervention paradigm in patients who were dissatisfied with low-dose sumatriptan and not completely satisfied with their current migraine regimen. Methods: Experienced migraineurs who reported a mild migraine pain phase, dissatisfaction with the previous sumatriptan treatment and some dissatisfaction with their current treatment regimen had no experience with sumatriptan at the 100 mg dose were enrolled in an open-label, single group study. Subjects were instructed to treat four migraine attacks within 30 min of the onset of mild pain. Treatment satisfaction was measured with the Patient Perception of Migraine Questionnaire Revised version (PPMQ-R) questionnaire. Results: More than half of the subjects were either very satisfied or satisfied with the efficacy of early intervention sumatriptan RT 100 mg after each attack and at the follow-up study visit. The mean total PPMQ-R score was 75.2 out of 100. Between 63% and 73% of subjects were pain-free within 4 h of dosing. Between 79% and 90% of subjects reported an ability to function normally within 4 h of taking the study medication. Conclusion: Subjects who were previously unsatisfied with lower doses of sumatriptan and less than very satisfied with their current treatment regimen were more likely to be satisfied or very satisfied with sumatriptan RT 100 mg in an early intervention paradigm. Results were consistent across four migraine attacks and at a follow-up visit. The treatment satisfaction results corresponded with positive results on efficacy measures and a functional status measure. PMID:19166436

  14. Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes. PMID:20712897

  15. Clinical utilisation of a rapid low-pass whole genome sequencing technique for the diagnosis of aneuploidy in human embryos prior to implantation

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Dagan; Kaur, Kulvinder; Grifo, Jamie; Glassner, Michael; Taylor, Jenny C; Fragouli, Elpida; Munne, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of human embryos created using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques are aneuploid. Comprehensive chromosome screening methods, applicable to single cells biopsied from preimplantation embryos, allow reliable identification and transfer of euploid embryos. Recently, randomised trials using such methods have indicated that aneuploidy screening improves IVF success rates. However, the high cost of testing has restricted the availability of this potentially beneficial strategy. This study aimed to harness next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with the intention of lowering the costs of preimplantation aneuploidy screening. Methods Embryo biopsy, whole genome amplification and semiconductor sequencing. Results A rapid (<15?h) NGS protocol was developed, with consumable cost only two-thirds that of the most widely used method for embryo aneuploidy detection. Validation involved blinded analysis of 54 cells from cell lines or biopsies from human embryos. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The method was applied clinically, assisting in the selection of euploid embryos in two IVF cycles, producing healthy children in both cases. The NGS approach was also able to reveal specified mutations in the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes in parallel with chromosome assessment. Interestingly, elevated mitochondrial DNA content was associated with aneuploidy (p<0.05), a finding suggestive of a link between mitochondria and chromosomal malsegregation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that NGS provides highly accurate, low-cost diagnosis of aneuploidy in cells from human preimplantation embryos and is rapid enough to allow testing without embryo cryopreservation. The method described also has the potential to shed light on other aspects of embryo genetics of relevance to health and viability. PMID:25031024

  16. Social inequality in coronary risk: Central obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Evidence from the Whitehall II study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Brunner; M. G. Marmot; K. Nanchahal; M. J. Shipley; S. A. Stansfeld; M. Juneja; K. G. M. M. Alberti

    1997-01-01

    Summary  This report describes the social distribution of central obesity and the metabolic syndrome at the Whitehall II study phase\\u000a 3 examination, and assesses the contribution of health related behaviours to their distribution. Cross-sectional analyses\\u000a were conducted utilising data collected in 1991–1993 from 4978 men and 2035 women aged 39–63 years who completed an oral glucose\\u000a tolerance test. There was an

  17. In vivo assessment of high-grade glioma biochemistry using microdialysis: a study of energy-related molecules, growth factors and cytokines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hani J. Marcus; Keri L. H. Carpenter; Stephen J. Price; Peter J. Hutchinson

    2010-01-01

    Microdialysis enables measurement of the chemistry of the cerebral extracellular fluid. This study’s objective was to utilise\\u000a microdialysis to monitor levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate and glycerol in patients following surgery for intrinsic\\u000a brain tumours, and to assess the concentration of growth factors, cytokines and other proteins involved in the pathogenesis\\u000a of high-grade gliomas in vivo. Eight patients with

  18. Food utilisation by coastal fish assemblages in rocky and soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Inference for identification of essential fish habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stål, Johan; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

    2007-02-01

    The concept of essential fish habitats (EFHs) is widely accepted for conservational and management purposes. EFHs are often considered as high quality habitats for fisheries species and subsequently of high values for society. In this study, fish and Substrate-Associated Prey (SAP) were sampled during the productive summer season 1998 (fish) and 2003 and 2004 (SAP) in shallow coastal rocky- and soft-bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast. The aim was to study the spatial and monthly variation of SAP as well as abundance and biomass of fish, and to examine if food items found in the diet of the fish assemblage were derived from SAP. We also examined if the diet of Ctenolabrus rupestris, a resident and abundant fish species in the shallow coastal habitats, and the diet of four seasonally abundant and commercially important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Pleuronectes platessa, Salmo trutta and Scomber scombrus) were derived from SAP. There were significantly higher mean species number and abundance of the SAP assemblage on rocky compared to soft bottoms and the highest values were found on the rocky bottoms in August and in the shallowest (0-3 m) depth strata. There were no significant differences in number of fish species caught in the two habitats, although mean number of fish and mean biomass were significantly higher on rocky bottoms. Both habitats showed the same seasonal variation and the highest values of number of fish species, abundance and biomass were observed in June. On rocky bottoms, gastropods and amphipods were the most frequent food items in the diet of the entire fish assemblage and these items were also the most abundant SAP in this habitat. The dominant food items of the soft-bottom fish assemblage were decapods and fish, which were not common SAP. However, except for S. scombrus, the diet of the selected fish species showed a strong association to the SAP availability. Gadus morhua displayed the strongest association to SAP on rocky bottoms and P. platessa and C. rupestris to SAP on soft bottoms. Further, for C. rupestris, multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association to the SAP assemblage on both rocky and soft bottoms. These results provide vital new information for the management and conservation of Essential Fish Habitats on the Swedish west coast.

  19. Utilising monitoring and modelling of estuarine environments to investigate catchment conditions responsible for stratification events in a typically well-mixed urbanised estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Serena B.; Birch, Gavin F.

    2012-10-01

    Estuarine health is affected by contamination from stormwater, particularly in highly-urbanised environments. For systems where catchment monitoring is insufficient, novel techniques must be employed to determine the impact of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. In the present work, estuarine monitoring and modelling were successfully employed to determine stormwater runoff volumes and establish an appropriate rainfall/runoff relationship capable of replicating fresh-water discharge due to the full range of precipitation conditions in the Sydney Estuary, Australia. Using estuary response to determine relationships between catchment rainfall and runoff is a widely applicable method and may be of assistance in the study of waterways where monitoring fluvial discharges is not practical or is beyond the capacity of management authorities. For the Sydney Estuary, the SCS-CN method replicated rainfall/runoff and was applied in numerical modelling experiments investigating the hydrodynamic characteristics affecting stratification and estuary recovery following high precipitation. Numerical modelling showed stratification in the Sydney Estuary was dominated by fresh-water discharge. Spring tides and up-estuary winds contributed to mixing and neap tides and down-estuary winds enhanced stratification.

  20. Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 ?M and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

  1. Healthcare use and costs associated with obesity in Badalona, Spain: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antonio; Gil, Joan; Mora, Toni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ayma, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of the study are twofold. First, to calculate healthcare resource utilisation and costs for a cohort of adult overweight and obese patients observed in primary and hospital care centres during eight consecutive years (2003-2010) in an urban setting in Spain. An analysis of whether these costs vary by groups of individuals and types of disease, and of how they compare with the previous literature, is carried out in order to predict actions or policies for resource optimisation. The second objective is to estimate the impact of overweight and obesity on the consumption of resources and costs, accounting for a wide array of controls. Methods and analysis Observational and retrospective cohort data are used, consisting of medical records of patients followed up in outpatient and hospital care facilities during the years 2003-2010. Three cohorts of patients are analysed: normal weight (18.5? body mass index (BMI) <25), overweight (25? BMI <30) and obese (BMI ?30); BMI is computed using clinical information. Individual-level data on comorbidity, resource utilisation and costs are available, and external information provided by the population census regarding socioeconomic status is used. Utilisation and associated costs across BMI groups are compared by computing ratios for overweight and obese individuals relative to those of normal weight. Count data regression models (hurdle and finite mixture models) are used, together with two-part model regression models and taking into account the panel structure of the data set to explore the impact of overweight and obesity on the increased utilisation of health services and costs, accounting for a wide set of controls. PMID:22267689

  2. Healthcare use and costs associated with obesity in Badalona, Spain: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Joan; Mora, Toni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ayma, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of the study are twofold. First, to calculate healthcare resource utilisation and costs for a cohort of adult overweight and obese patients observed in primary and hospital care centres during eight consecutive years (2003–2010) in an urban setting in Spain. An analysis of whether these costs vary by groups of individuals and types of disease, and of how they compare with the previous literature, is carried out in order to predict actions or policies for resource optimisation. The second objective is to estimate the impact of overweight and obesity on the consumption of resources and costs, accounting for a wide array of controls. Methods and analysis Observational and retrospective cohort data are used, consisting of medical records of patients followed up in outpatient and hospital care facilities during the years 2003–2010. Three cohorts of patients are analysed: normal weight (18.5? body mass index (BMI) <25), overweight (25? BMI <30) and obese (BMI ?30); BMI is computed using clinical information. Individual-level data on comorbidity, resource utilisation and costs are available, and external information provided by the population census regarding socioeconomic status is used. Utilisation and associated costs across BMI groups are compared by computing ratios for overweight and obese individuals relative to those of normal weight. Count data regression models (hurdle and finite mixture models) are used, together with two-part model regression models and taking into account the panel structure of the data set to explore the impact of overweight and obesity on the increased utilisation of health services and costs, accounting for a wide set of controls. PMID:22267689

  3. Determinants of antenatal and delivery care utilization in Tigray region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite the international emphasis in the last few years on the need to address the unmet health needs of pregnant women and children, progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow. This is particularly worrying in sub-Saharan Africa where over 162,000 women still die each year during pregnancy and childbirth, most of them because of the lack of access to skilled delivery attendance and emergency care. With a maternal mortality ratio of 673 per 100,000 live births and 19,000 maternal deaths annually, Ethiopia is a major contributor to the worldwide death toll of mothers. While some studies have looked at different risk factors for antenatal care (ANC) and delivery service utilisation in the country, information coming from community-based studies related to the Health Extension Programme (HEP) in rural areas is limited. This study aims to determine the prevalence of maternal health care utilisation and explore its determinants among rural women aged 15–49 years in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods The study was a community-based cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire. A cluster sampling technique was used to select women who had given birth at least once in the five years prior to the survey period. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to elicit the impact of each factor on ANC and institutional delivery service utilisation. Results The response rate was 99% (n=1113). The mean age of the participants was 30.4 years. The proportion of women who received ANC for their recent births was 54%; only 46 (4.1%) of women gave birth at a health facility. Factors associated with ANC utilisation were marital status, education, proximity of health facility to the village, and husband’s occupation, while use of institutional delivery was mainly associated with parity, education, having received ANC advice, a history of difficult/prolonged labour, and husbands’ occupation. Conclusions A relatively acceptable utilisation of ANC services but extremely low institutional delivery was observed. Classical socio-demographic factors were associated with both ANC and institutional delivery attendance. ANC advice can contribute to increase institutional delivery use. Different aspects of HEP need to be strengthened to improve maternal health in Tigray. PMID:23672203

  4. Cell-Based Therapies Used to Treat Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies and Human Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Oehme, David; Goldschlager, Tony; Ghosh, Peter; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.; Jenkin, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain and degenerative disc disease are a significant cause of pain and disability worldwide. Advances in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies, particularly the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and intervertebral disc chondrocytes, have led to the publication of numerous studies and clinical trials utilising these biological therapies to treat degenerative spinal conditions, often reporting favourable outcomes. Stem cell mediated disc regeneration may bridge the gap between the two current alternatives for patients with low back pain, often inadequate pain management at one end and invasive surgery at the other. Through cartilage formation and disc regeneration or via modification of pain pathways stem cells are well suited to enhance spinal surgery practice. This paper will systematically review the current status of basic science studies, preclinical and clinical trials utilising cell-based therapies to repair the degenerate intervertebral disc. The mechanism of action of transplanted cells, as well as the limitations of published studies, will be discussed.

  5. Carbohydrate catabolic flexibility in the mammalian intestinal commensal Lactobacillus ruminis revealed by fermentation studies aligned to genome annotations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus ruminis is a poorly characterized member of the Lactobacillus salivarius clade that is part of the intestinal microbiota of pigs, humans and other mammals. Its variable abundance in human and animals may be linked to historical changes over time and geographical differences in dietary intake of complex carbohydrates. Results In this study, we investigated the ability of nine L. ruminis strains of human and bovine origin to utilize fifty carbohydrates including simple sugars, oligosaccharides, and prebiotic polysaccharides. The growth patterns were compared with metabolic pathways predicted by annotation of a high quality draft genome sequence of ATCC 25644 (human isolate) and the complete genome of ATCC 27782 (bovine isolate). All of the strains tested utilized prebiotics including fructooligosaccharides (FOS), soybean-oligosaccharides (SOS) and 1,3:1,4-?-D-gluco-oligosaccharides to varying degrees. Six strains isolated from humans utilized FOS-enriched inulin, as well as FOS. In contrast, three strains isolated from cows grew poorly in FOS-supplemented medium. In general, carbohydrate utilisation patterns were strain-dependent and also varied depending on the degree of polymerisation or complexity of structure. Six putative operons were identified in the genome of the human isolate ATCC 25644 for the transport and utilisation of the prebiotics FOS, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), SOS, and 1,3:1,4-?-D-Gluco-oligosaccharides. One of these comprised a novel FOS utilisation operon with predicted capacity to degrade chicory-derived FOS. However, only three of these operons were identified in the ATCC 27782 genome that might account for the utilisation of only SOS and 1,3:1,4-?-D-Gluco-oligosaccharides. Conclusions This study has provided definitive genome-based evidence to support the fermentation patterns of nine strains of Lactobacillus ruminis, and has linked it to gene distribution patterns in strains from different sources. Furthermore, the study has identified prebiotic carbohydrates with the potential to promote L. ruminis growth in vivo. PMID:21995520

  6. Possibilities and limitations of wind energy utilisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Feustel

    1981-01-01

    The existing wind resource, the most favorable locations, applications, and designs of windpowered generators are reviewed, along with descriptions of current and historic wind turbines and lines of research. Coastal regions, plains, hill summits, and mountains with funneling regions are noted to have the highest annual wind averages, with energy densities exceeding the annual solar insolation at average wind speeds

  7. INNOVATIVE NEW ROV TECHNOLOGY UTILISING WATER HYDRAULICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry Karin HAUGEN; Finn CONRAD; Mads GRAHL-MADSEN

    2005-01-01

    Today, Remotely Operated Vehicles, or ROV's, are the dominating type of vehicles for underwater operations and very much the working horse of the North Sea, and both the military and the scientific sectors are increasing their use of ROVs. An ROV is normally designed for underwater work using oil hydraulics or electricity for propulsion and tool control. ROV's using the

  8. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. PMID:16010760

  9. Utilisation of cod backbone by biochemical fractionation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asbjørn Gildberg; Jan A Arnesen; Mats Carlehög

    2002-01-01

    The backbone fraction obtained from industrial processing of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) yields about 15% of the whole fish weight. Due to a high content of muscle and bone proteins, it is a valuable raw material for further processing. In the present work minced backbones were subjected to gentle hydrolysis by proteinases to solubilize muscle proteins before the pure bone

  10. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kilian A. Engel

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of

  11. 8, 21292141, 2008 Utilising PPO for high

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that the population experiences. This requires methods to understand the solar UV radiation environment that humans in creating a human biological response. However, this does not mean that UVA radiation has no impact on human such a response is much larger than UVB radiation. UVA radiation penetrates much deeper into human20 skin tissue

  12. A study of attitudes to student-centred learning and teaching, and concepts of andragogy in senior nurse educationalists in england

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette M. Jinks; Nick C. Boreham; Christine Webb

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study that investigated the attitudes of senior nurse educationalists in England towards the importance of student-centred learning and teaching, and concepts of andragogy in vocational pre-registration nurse education. An in-depth literature review was conducted which formed the basis of development of a measuring instrument that utilised a Likert scale. The findings reveal overall

  13. 101 What degree of pulmonary hypertension predicts poor outcome in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction? A 10-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B R Szwejkowski; D H J Elder; A M J Choy; S D Pringle; A D Struthers; C C Lang

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionThe presence of pulmonary hypertension in left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) is an ominous sign. It remains unclear the level at which pulmonary hypertension conveys a mortality risk in patients with LVSD.MethodsWe performed a record-linkage study in Tayside, UK (population approximately 400 000) utilising the Tayside echocardiogram database (>100 000 echo's) maintained by the Health Informatics Centre (HIC). Datasets from

  14. SU-E-T-215: Interactive Dose Shaping: Proof of Concept Study for Six Prostate Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerling, CP [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Ziegenhein, P; Oelfke, U [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Sterzing, F [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide a proof of concept study for IMRT treatment planning through interactive dose shaping (IDS) by utilising the respective tools to create IMRT treatment plans for six prostate patients. Methods: The IDS planning paradigm aims to perform interactive local dose adaptations of an IMRT plan without compromising already established valuable dose features in real-time. Various IDS tools are available in our in-house treatment planning software Dynaplan and were utilised to create IMRT treatment plans for six patients with an adeno-carcinoma of the prostate. The sequenced IDS treatment plans were compared to conventionally optimised clinically approved plans (9 beams, co-planar). The starting point consisted of open fields. The IDS tools were utilised to sculpt dose out of the rectum and bladder. For each patient, several IDS plans were created, with different trade-offs between organ sparing and target coverage. The reference dose distributions were imported into Dynaplan. For each patient, the IDS treatment plan with a similar or better trade-off between target coverage and OAR sparing was selected for plan evaluation, guided by a physician. Pencil beam dose calculation was performed on a grid with a voxel size of 1.95×1.95×2.0 mm{sup 3}. D98%, D2%, mean dose and dose-volume indicators as specified by Quantec were calculated for plan evaluation. Results: It was possible to utilise the software prototype to generate treatment plans for prostate patient geometries in 15–45 minutes. Individual local dose adaptations could be performed in less than one second. The average differences compared to the reference plans were for the mean dose: 0.0 Gy (boost) and 1.2 Gy (CTV), for D98%: ?1.1 Gy and for D2%: 1.1 Gy (both target volumes). The dose-volume quality indicators were well below the Quantec constraints. Conclusion: Real-time treatment planning utilising IDS is feasible and has the potential to be implemented clinically. Research at The Institute of Cancer Research is supported by Cancer Research UK under Programme C46/A10588.

  15. The Muon LINAC for the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    A. Kurup, C. Bontoiu, Morteza Aslaninejad, J. Pozimski, A. Bogacz, V.S. Morozov, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

    2011-09-01

    The first stage of muon acceleration in the Neutrino Factory utilises a superconducting linac to accelerate muons from 244 MeV to 900 MeV. The linac was split into three types of cryomodules with decreasing magnetic fields and increasing amounts of RF voltage but with the design of the superconducting solenoid and RF cavities being the same for all cryomodules. The current status of the muon linac for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory will be presented including a final lattice design of the linac and tracking simulations.

  16. LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 45 UTILISATION DE DIDACTICIELS EN MATHEMATIQUE UTILISATION DE DIDACTICIELS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    instanciations d'un TE. Cette solution met en jeu un ensemble Rte de règles de réécriture & d'inférence ; la nature des éléments de Rte permet de structurer l'ensemble E des TE. On dira que TE' est ascendant de TE si Rte' est inclus strictement dans Rte. TE' est dit antécédent de TE si Rte' est maximal dans Rte

  17. Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins. PMID:19803772

  18. Image guidance during breast radiotherapy: a phantom dosimetry and radiation-induced second cancer risk study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, A.; Holloway, L.; Metcalfe, P.

    2013-06-01

    Imaging procedures utilised for patient position verification during breast radiotherapy can add a considerable dose to organs surrounding the target volume on top of therapeutic scatter dose. This study investigated the dose from a breast kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT), a breast megavoltage fan-beam CT (MV-FBCT), and a TomoDirectTM breast treatment. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within a female anthropomorphic phantom were utilised to measure the dose to various organs and tissues. The contralateral breast, lungs and heart received 0.40 cGy, 0.45 cGy and 0.40 cGy from the kV-CBCT and 1.74 cGy, 1.39 cGy and 1.73 cGy from the MV-FBCT. In comparison to treatment alone, daily imaging would increase the contralateral breast, contralateral lung and heart dose by a relative 12%, 24% and 13% for the kV-CBCT, and 52%, 101% and 58% for the MV-FBCT. The impact of the imaging dose relative to the treatment dose was assessed with linear and linear-quadratic radiation-induced secondary cancer risk models for the contralateral breast. The additional imaging dose and risk estimates presented in this study should be taken into account when considering an image modality and frequency for patient position verification protocols in breast radiotherapy.

  19. The impact of injuries study. multicentre study assessing physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning post injury - a protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Large numbers of people are killed or severely injured following injuries each year and these injuries place a large burden on health care resources. The majority of the severely injured are not fully recovered 12-18 months later. Psychological disorders are common post injury and are associated with poorer functional and occupational outcomes. Much of this evidence comes from countries other than the UK, with differing health care and compensation systems. Early interventions can be effective in treating psychological morbidity, hence the scale and nature of the problem and its impact of functioning in the UK must be known before services can be designed to identify and manage psychological morbidity post injury. Methods/Design A longitudinal multi-centre study of 680 injured patients admitted to hospital in four areas across the UK: Nottingham, Leicester/Loughborough, Bristol and Surrey. A stratified sample of injuries will ensure a range of common and less common injuries will be included. Participants will complete a baseline questionnaire about their injury and pre-injury quality of life, and follow-up questionnaires 1, 2, 4, and 12 months post injury. Measures will include health and social care utilisation, perceptions of recovery, physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health-related quality of life. A nested qualitative study will explore the experiences of a sample of participants, their carers and service providers to inform service design. Discussion This study will quantify physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health and social care utilisation following a range of different types of injury and will assess the impact of psychological disorders on function and health service use. The findings will be used to guide the development of interventions to maximise recovery post injury. PMID:22208707

  20. Systematic study of (p,?) reactions on Ni isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Simon; A. Spyrou; T. Rauscher; C. Fröhlich; S. J. Quinn; A. Battaglia; A. Best; B. Bucher; M. Couder; P. A. DeYoung; X. Fang; J. Görres; A. Kontos; Q. Li; L. -Y. Lin; A. Long; S. Lyons; A. Roberts; D. Robertson; K. Smith; M. K. Smith; E. Stech; B. Stefanek; W. P. Tan; X. D. Tang; M. Wiescher

    2013-05-06

    A systematic study of the radiative proton capture reaction for all stable nickel isotopes is presented. The results were obtained using 2.0 - 6.0 MeV protons from the 11 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Notre Dame. The \\gamma-rays were detected by the NSCL SuN detector utilising the \\gamma-summing technique. The results are compared to a compilation of earlier measurements and discrepancies between the previous data are resolved. The experimental results are also compared to the theoretical predictions obtained using the NON-SMOKER and SMARAGD codes. Based on these comparisons an improved set of astrophysical reaction rates is proposed for the (p,\\gamma) reactions on the stable nickel isotopes as well as for the 56Ni(p,\\gamma)57Cu reaction.

  1. Study of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin; Aslam, O. P. M.

    2013-09-01

    Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, its causes and consequences have been studied for the last several decades. However, the assessment of continuously changing behaviour of the sun, plasma and field flows in the interplanetary space and their influence on geomagnetic activity is still a subject of intense research. Search for the best possible coupling function is also important for space weather prediction. We utilise four geomagnetic indices (ap, aa, AE and Dst) as parameters of geomagnetic activity level in the earth's magnetosphere. In addition to these indices, we utilise various solar wind plasma and field parameters for the corresponding periods. We analyse the geomagnetic activity and plasma/field parameters at yearly, half-yearly, 27-day, daily, 3-hourly, and hourly time resolutions. Regression analysis using geomagnetic and solar wind data of different time resolutions, over a continuous long period, and at different phases of solar activity (increasing including maximum/decreasing including minimum) led us to suggest that two parameters BV/1000 (mV m-1) and BV2 (mV s-1) are highly correlated with the all four geomagnetic activity indices not only at any particular time scale but at different time scales. It probably suggests for some role of the fluctuations/variations in interplanetary electric potential, its spacial variation [i.e., interplanetary electric field BV (mV m-1)] and/or time variation [BV2 (mV s-1)], in influencing the reconnection rate.

  2. Experimental studies with selected light sources for NIRS of brain tissue: quantifying tissue chromophore concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllylä, Teemu; Korhonen, Vesa; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Tuchin, Valery

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) based techniques are utilised in quantifying changes of chromophore concentrations in tissue. Particularly, non-invasive in vivo measurements of tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex are of interest. The measurement method is based on illuminating tissue and measuring the back-scattered light at wavelengths of interest. Tissue illumination can be realised using different techniques and various light sources. Commonly, lasers and laser diodes (LD) are utilised, but also high-power light emitting diodes (HPLED) are becoming more common. At the moment, a wide range of available narrow-band light sources exists, covering basically the entire spectrum of interest in brain tissue NIRS measurements. In this paper, in the centre of our interest are LDs and HPLEDs, because of their affordability, efficiency in terms of radiant flux versus size and easiness to adopt in in vivo medical applications. We compare characteristics of LDs and HPLEDs at specific wavelengths and their suitability for in vivo quantifying of different tissue chromophore concentration, particularly in cerebral blood flow (CBF). A special focus is on shape and width of the wavelength bands of interest, generated by the LDs and HPLEDs. Moreover, we experimentally study such effects as, spectroscopy cross talk, separability and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when quantifying tissue chromophore concentration. Chromophores of our interest are cytochrome, haemoglobin and water. Various LDs and HPLEDs, producing narrow-band wavelengths in the range from 500 nm to 1000 nm are tested.

  3. An exploratory study of the patient experience of pharmacist supplementary prescribing in a secondary care mental health setting

    PubMed Central

    Deslandes, Rhian E.; John, Dai N.; Deslandes, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of chronic disease has become an increasing challenge to the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. The introduction of supplementary prescribing was seen as a possible mechanism to address the needs of this patient group. Individuals with mental illness were considered particularly suitable for management in this way. Objective: To explore the views and experiences of patients with mental illness on being managed by a pharmacist supplementary prescriber in a secondary care outpatient setting. Methods: A study of patient experiences utilising semi-structured interviews and self-completion diaries was adopted. Eleven patients participated in the study. Data were analysed utilising code and retrieve, and content analysis respectively. Results: Patients valued the increased accessibility to, and continuity of, their prescriber compared with their experience of other healthcare professionals. Patients reported they were able to trust the pharmacist’s knowledge of medication, were provided with sufficient information regarding reasons for treatment and side effects, and felt that they had an active role in decisions concerning their healthcare. Conclusions: This exploratory study showed that patients had positive views of being managed by a supplementary prescriber. However, it should be noted that the number of participants was small. It is therefore important that further, more wide ranging research is conducted to evaluate pharmacist prescribing within mental health settings. PMID:26131043

  4. Utilisation en routine de l’analyse du segment ST de l’électrocardiogramme fœtal pour la surveillance du travail. Une année d’expérience (résultats préliminaires)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Haberstich; C Vayssière; E David; V Sebahoun; B Schmitt; B Langer; I Nisand

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. – Two randomized trials found that monitoring labor by analyzing the fetal electrocardiogram (STAN™) appears to offer better sensitivity and specificity in screening for metabolic acidosis than cardiotocography (CTG) does. We report here the results of a descriptive study of 173 cases between 1 June 2001 and 31 May 2002, the objectives of which were twofold: to determine the number of possible

  5. Identification of new scavengers for hydroxyl radicals and superoxide dismutase by utilising ultraviolet A photoreaction of 8-methoxypsoralen and a variety of mutants of Escherichia coli: implications on certain diseases of DNA repair deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shamim I; Yokoi, Masayuki; Hanaoka, Fumio

    2012-11-01

    8-Methoxypsoralen+UVA (ultraviolet light of 320-400 nm) known as PUVA has been in use for a number of years for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo. The treatment possibly works on the basis of UVA photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen binding to DNA forming both single strand and double strand type damage. We have used Escherichia coli as model system in studying PUVA induced DNA damage and repair. It has been known for some time that the photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen, besides intercalating with DNA, generates at least two reactive oxygen species (ROS): hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions, and also singlet oxygen. In this study it has been found that, in E. coli, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase can protect cells from PUVA killing presumably by scavenging these ROS. Possible mechanisms have been proposed for these enzymes as cell protectors. Studies also suggest the potential for the use of PUVA in the treatment of a large number of human diseases. This study also finds that, unlike 8-methoxypsoralen, trioxsalen (4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, another derivative of psoralens) does not generate ROS by UVA photoactivation; and hence the mode of action of trioxsalen and PUVA overlaps only in the binding of these molecules to DNA in the presence of UVA. PMID:22940499

  6. a Mine Planning Case Study

    E-print Network

    2015-02-07

    Nov 17, 2014 ... Once the grade control plan is constructed we need to solve the utilisation prob- ..... information, such as a suggestion of the partitioning point for the movements. ... On average there are 4.6 blocks and 1.4 stockpiles per.

  7. Referral for psychological therapy of people with long term conditions improves adherence to antidepressants and reduces emergency department attendance: Controlled before and after study

    PubMed Central

    de Lusignan, Simon; Chan, Tom; Tejerina Arreal, Maria C.; Parry, Glenys; Dent-Brown, Kim; Kendrick, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Referral to psychological therapies is recommended for people with common mental health problems (CMHP) however its impact on healthcare utilisation in people with long term conditions (LTCs) is not known. Method Routinely collected primary care, psychological therapy clinic and hospital data were extracted for the registered population of 20 practices (N = 121199). These data were linked using the SAPREL (Secure and Private Record Linkage) method. We linked the 1118 people referred to psychological therapies with 6711 controls, matched for age, gender and practice. We compared utilisation of healthcare resources by people with LTCs, 6 months before and after referral, and conducted a controlled before and after study to compare health utilisation with controls. We made the assumption that collection of a greater number of repeat prescriptions for antidepressants was associated with greater adherence. Results Overall 21.8% of people with an LTC had CMHP vs. 18.8% without (p < 0.001). People with LTCs before referral were more likely to use health care resources (2-tailed t-test p < 0.001). Cases with LTCs showed referral to the psychological therapies clinic was associated with increased antidepressant medication prescribing (mean differences 0.62, p < 0.001) and less use of emergency department than controls (mean difference ?0.21, p = 0.003). Conclusions Referral to improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) services appears of value to people with LTC. It is associated with the issue of a greater number of prescriptions for anti-depressant medicines and less use of emergency services. Further studies are needed to explore bed occupancy and outpatient attendance. PMID:23639304

  8. Etude theorique et experimentale de la correlation entre la resistance aux chocs thermiques et aux chocs mecaniques des materiaux refractaires utilises dans les fours de traitement de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebbani, Mohamed Jamal Eddine

    2001-07-01

    This work is a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the resistance to thermal shock and mechanical shock of refractory materials. The study of thermal shock showed that the Bahr and Hasselman approaches are alike and that they can be combined into a single, more general approach. This generalisation allowed the division of the theoretical models into two groups: the Hasselman model and the Harmuth model. However, neither of these approaches can predict the behaviour of all refractory materials submitted to thermal shock. Therefore, the generalisation of the Hasselman approach is more appropriate for more dense materials while the Hartmuth approach is more appropriate for less dense materials. The influence of porosity on the energy of rupture helped to explain the behaviour of the less dense material. The absence of generalisation in this case allows those parameters that could be correlated with thermal shock resistance to be dependent on the type of refractory. The study of mechanical shock provided a better understanding of this mechanism. The work performed showed, theoretically and experimentally, that the resistance of the refractory materials could be correlated with the parameter s20 Egwof n-22 . This new parameter helped to explain the statistical correlation between the resistance to mechanical impact and the soxRst parameter established in earlier work. The sintering influence, which makes the refractories more resistant to this type of demand, notably by reducing the "n" coefficient, was shown. This part of the study allowed the establishment of equivalence between thermal fatigue and fatigue by mechanical impact. An evaluation of the correlation between the two mechanisms demonstrated, theoretically and experimentally, that the mechanical and thermal demands could only be exceptionally correlated. In the case of thermal shock, which are imposed deformation demands, it is the shorter cracks which are the most dangerous. However, in the case of mechanical shock, which is constraint imposed, it is the longer cracks that are the most harmful. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. A study of the antimicrobial activity of selected naturally occurring and synthetic coumarins.

    PubMed

    Smyth, T; Ramachandran, V N; Smyth, W F

    2009-05-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 43 naturally occurring and synthetic coumarins were studied. Using a microtitre assay developed in-house, a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including a hospital isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),were utilised. The coumarins exhibiting good bioactivity (i.e. a low minimum inhibitory concentration) against two S. aureus strains were then assessed for their antimicrobial activities against a range of eight clinically isolated MRSA strains. The study showed that nearly one-half of the tested compounds displayed antimicrobial activity. Sixteen of these coumarins also possessed resistance-modifying activity, which reversed the resistance mechanism in MRSA allowing the antimicrobial oxacillin to exert an enhanced effect against an MRSA hospital strain. When tested in combination with oxacillin, 8-iodo-5,7-dihydroxycoumarin (32) had a similar activity to vancomycin, which is the current drug of choice for the treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:19155158

  10. L'utilisation de la polarimetrie radar et de la decomposition de Touzi pour la caracterisation et la classification des physionomies vegetales des milieux humides : le cas du lac Saint-Pierre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Gabriel

    Wetlands fill many important ecological functions and contribute to the biodiversity of fauna and flora. Although there is a growing recognition of the importance to protect these areas, it remains that their integrity is still threatened by the pressure of human activities. The inventory and the systematic monitoring of wetlands are a necessity and remote sensing is the only realistic way to achieve this goal. The primary objective of this thesis is to contribute and improve the wetland characterization using satellite polarimetric data acquired in L (ALOS-PALSAR) and C (RADARSAT-2) band. This thesis is based on two hypotheses (Ch. 1). The first hypothesis stipulate that classes of plant physiognomies, based on plant structure, are more appropriate than classes of plant species because they are best adapted to the information content of polarimetric radar data. The second hypothesis states that polarimetric decomposition algorithms allow an optimal extraction of polarimetric information compared to a multi-polarized approach based on the HH, HV and VV channels (Ch. 3). In particular, the contribution of the incoherent Touzi decomposition for the inventory and monitoring of wetlands is examined in detail. This decomposition allows the characterization of the scattering type, its phase, orientation, symmetry, degree of polarization and the backscattered power of a target with a series of parameters extracted from an analysis of the coherency matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The lake Saint-Pierre region was chosen as the study site because of the great diversity of its wetlands that are covering more than 20 000 ha. One of the challenges posed by this thesis is that there is neither a standard system enumerating all the possible physiognomic classes nor an accurate description of their characteristics and dimensions. Special attention was given to the creation of these classes by combining several data sources and more than 50 plant species were grouped into nine physiognomic classes (Ch. 7, 8 and 9). Several analyzes are proposed to validate the hypotheses of this thesis (Ch. 9). Sensitivity analysis using scatter plots are performs to study the characteristics and dispersion of plant physiognomic classes in various features space consisting of polarimetric parameters or polarization channels (Ch. 10 and 12). Time series of made of RADARSAT-2 images are used to deepen the understanding of the seasonal evolution of plant physiognomies (Ch. 12). The transformed divergence algorithm is used to quantify the separability between physiognomic classes and to identify the parameters (s) that contribute the most to their separability (Ch. 11 and 13). Classifications are also proposed and the results compared to an existing map of the lake Saint-Pierre wetlands (Ch. 14). Finally, an analysis of the potential of polarimetric parameters in C and L-band is proposed for the monitoring of peatlands hydrology (Ch. 15 and 16). Sensitivity analyses show that the parameters of the 1st component, relative to the dominant (polarized) part of the signal, are sufficient for a general characterization of plant physiognomies. The parameters of the second and third components are, however, needed for better class separability (Ch. 11 and 13) and a better discrimination between wetlands and uplands (Ch. 14). This thesis shows that it is preferable to consider individually the parameters of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd components rather than their weighted sum by their respective eigenvalues (Ch. 10 and 12). This thesis also examines the complementarity between the structural parameters and those related to the backscattered power, often ignored and normalized by most polarimetric decomposition. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Reduction du taux de rejet et de la variation des degagements dans le compresseur haute-pression lors de l'assemblage de moteurs turbopropulseurs par l'utilisation de l'assemblage selectif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, Pierre-Luc

    With over 15 000 components containing multiple key characteristics to respect, the assembly of a turbopropeller plane engine presents several challenges. Among them is the control of two critical clearances inside the high-pressure compressor section. Currently, the engine rejection rate resulting from the failure to comply with these clearances is 33%. The objective of this paper is to find a permanent method to reduce this rejection rate, that can also be easily implemented within an assembly line environment and that does not require significant investments. Following a root cause analysis of this issue, the dimensional variation of the components was identified as the main contributor. Since trying to control the variation of the components can hardly be achieved without any significant investments, the best available alternative is to focus on controlling the variation propagation throughout the assembly itself. The use of selective assembly is proposed to achieve this goal. Contrary to previous papers published on selective assembly, this paper differs in many aspects, namely the clearances discussed are lengthwise and not radial, the assembly contains many parts instead of two, and most importantly, some components have more than one dimension which affects each clearance. Traditionally, each component has only one dimension that impacts only one clearance. To fully understand the impact of these multiparametric parts, a stack-up study of the assembly is performed. This analysis allows to clearly identify the key dimensions of each component that interact with the clearances. Subsequently, a method based on the statistical analysis of each of the key dimensions and their manufacturing processes, and the ease of implementation in a production environment requirement, is proposed to classify the parts for the selective assembly process. Each of the manufacturing processes is linked to a probability distribution function and characterized by its performance index, the Ppk. A computer program is then built to create a virtual population of parts and to create an assembly population. This virtual population is used to test the validity and efficiency of the proposed method by comparing it to the actual situation. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the use of selective assembly does have a positive effect on the control of the variation propagation, but that there is also still room for improvement.

  12. Etude de l'effet du vieillissement sur les proprietes d'un tissu en melange KevlarRTM-PBI utilise dans le revetement exterieur des habits de protection contre le feu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Carlos

    The aim of this work is to study and model the effect of three aging factors, temperature, humidity and light radiation, on the properties of a fabric made of a blend of KevlarRTM and PBI fibers frequently used to manufacture fire-protective garments. Accelarated-aging treatments carried out at carefully chosen conditions for the three factors resulted in a sizeable loss of mechanical performance. The breaking force of both the fabric and the yarns extracted from it decreases to less than 50% after one month of continuous exposure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests performed on thermally-aged samples indicated an increase of the crystallinity of the fabric, whereas the disappearance of Raman spectral lines suggested instead a reduction of the crystallinity following thermal aging. To explain these seemingly contradictory results, a hypothesis was introduced, stating that two different processes occurred simultaneously during thermal aging. The first one, an increase of size of the crystallites in the direction of the fibers' axis, accounted for the increase in crystallinity observed in XRD tests. The second one, an increase in the gap separating lamellar crystallites that causes a non-measurable reduction of the crystallinity of the sample, was highlighted by the Raman analyses. The results of the dielectric spectroscopy analyses carried out on thermally-aged samples confirmed the XRD results showing a significant change in the Kevlar's morphology during thermal aging. Despite the important decrease of the breaking force that ensued thermal aging, no evidence of a chemical structure modification of KevlarRTM was found. On the other hand, differential thermal analyses conducted on thermally aged fabric samples indicated a reduction of the glass transition temperature of the other component of the blend, namely the PBI, a fact that suggests a decrease of molecular weight after thermal aging. Infrared spectroscopy analyses performed on samples exposed to high humidity levels showed the development of a new absorbing band in the spectrum of aged KevlarRTM yarns. This band was ascribed to the formation of carboxylic acid groups. Based on these results, the humidity aging mechanism was inferred. This mechanism corresponds to the hydrolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM catalyzed by an acid. The progress of the hydrolysis reaction was modeled mathematically using the evolution of the concentration of carboxylic acid groups. The mechanism of light radiation aging was also determined from infrared spectroscopy analyses as the absorbing band attributed to the carboxylic acid groups was once again observed. In the case of light radiation, the degradation mechanism corresponds to a photo-oxidation reaction initiated by the photolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM. The accumulation of Photo-Fries products on the surface of yarns is believed to slow down of the oxidation reaction, as indicated by the overlapping of breaking force vs. aging time curves for the light-radiation aged samples. Expressions based on the Arrhenius law were used to characterize both the thermal and hydrolytic aging, whereas an expression taking into account the irradiance as well as the temperature was used to model the light radiation aging. The global damage produced by the joint action of the three aging factors was modeled after Palmgren-Miner's linear cumulative damage theory.

  13. Utilisation de la teledetection, des SIG et de l'intelligence artificielle pour determiner le niveau de susceptibilite aux mouvements de terrain: Application dans les Andes de la Bolivie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloquin, Stephane

    1999-11-01

    The socio-economic impact of mass movements for our society is getting more and more serious. The loss of lives and economic losses are now ten times greater than they were at the beginning of the decade. In the hope of reducing these impacts, it is essential to adopt a preventive policy that will encourage mapping of mass movement susceptibility level (MMSL) in critical zones. However, this task is complex and only experts using present techniques can provide satisfactory results. To make possible the production of these maps by a larger number of individuals, we have developed an expert system called EXPERIM that uses remote sensing data and geographic information systems to facilitate the complex tasks without requiring the user to be highly competent in this field of study. This thesis presents the results obtained from a complete strategy developed for a region surrounding Cochabamba, Bolivia. The operational expert system prototype will soon be integrated within the watershed management program directed by the local executing organisation PROMIC. The knowledge acquisition and its expression in concrete terms constitute the principal axis of this research, while the results obtained are the heart of the EXPERIM expert system. These strategic steps aim to establish a knowledge base of data and rules that describe field conditions for each MMSL. We have been able to extract this information by using binary discriminant analysis of a MMSL map produced by an expert for a pilot zone called Cuenca Taquina, which is geoecologically representative of the 38 neighbouring watersheds. Using this technique, we were able to establish a sensitivity model that recreates the expert's map with a success rate of 89% and 78% when two or three MMS levels are used. Based on a detailed analysis of the susceptibility model it was evident that stability conditions are the result of the topographic, geologic and geomorphologic environments. The level of susceptibility was found to be independent of the vegetation condition. In order to apply the model to the surrounding watersheds, we integrated remotely sensed data within the spatial database to map the presence/absence of five essential geoecological units required by the susceptibility model. This was done using a hierarchical classification method. Three sensors were evaluated: Landsat, SPOT and RADARSAT. In the elaboration of this specific step, we evaluated the most efficient spectral band combinations within each image and between images for each of the five geoecological units. For each of the land cover types, the analysis shows that LANDSAT constitutes the most powerful sensor to map these units and that image fusion does not provide significantly better results when compared to the extra amount of work that this requires. Using remote sensing data instead of field data or airphotograph interpretation in watersheds where only topographic data are available decreases the level of accuracy by less than 10%.

  14. Comparative study of three types of microbial fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis A. Ieropoulos; John Greenman; Chris Melhuish; John Hart

    2005-01-01

    Three different generations (Gen-I, -II and -III) of microbial fuel cell (MFC), distinguished by their historical development and mechanisms of electron transfer, were compared. Gen-I utilised synthetic redox mediators combined with Escherichia coli. In contrast, the Gen-II exemplar utilised the natural mediating properties of sulphate\\/sulphide with the sulphate reducing species Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Gen-III MFCs were based on the anodophillic species

  15. A laboratory study of the activities of dried rumen microorganisms

    E-print Network

    Harbers, Leniel Henry

    1958-01-01

    INTRODU II' Ruminants differ from monogastric animals by having a more complicated digestive tract which makes possible the utilisation of large amounts of readily available cellulosic materials. Besearch over the last century has established... conclusively that microoxganisms living in the digestive tract - principally in the rumen - are responsible for the breakdown of cellulose into compounds which can be absoxbed and utilised by the host, animals The conversion of simple nitrogenous compounds...

  16. European Studies Undergraduate Studies

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    and humanities. Our 8,500 students work with internationally renowned scholars in 20 academic departments for university study. Campus life revolves around the Students' Union, which runs over 100 societies and sports clubs, and we are recognised as London's best sporting college. #12;3European Studies European Studies

  17. International collaboration on capture, storage and utilisation of greenhouse gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Freund

    1998-01-01

    Climate change will have world-wide implications. So it is highly appropriate that there should be international collaboration to investigate technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, the root cause of the problem. Sixteen countries, as well as three industrial sponsors, support the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme and, in many cases, industry is also involved indirectly, through the national memberships.

  18. CONTRIBUTION A L'TUDE DE L'UTILISATION DIGESTIVE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ET LES RUMINANTS A. M. LEROY, G. LERY, Z. ZELTER Laboratoire de recherches de la Chaire de Zootechnie de Zootechnie. - 1952 #12;La teneur en matières azotées, bien que faible, n'est donc pas négligeable

  19. A new process for advanced utilisation of shrimp waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asbjørn Gildberg; Even Stenberg

    2001-01-01

    A high quality chitosan for application in cosmetics can be produced from the processing waste of Northern shrimp (Pandalusborealis). A major fraction of the shrimp waste is protein tissues, which are normally wasted during conventional chitosan preparation. The present work shows that the shrimp waste proteins can be hydrolysed by a commercially available protease (Alcalase) and recovered as a protein

  20. Utilisation of seafood processing waste - challenges and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Knuckey; Clive Sinclair; Aravind Surapaneni; William Ashcroft

    During the processing of fish generally only the fillets are retained while the bulk of product (up to 66%) is discarded. Across the seafood industry in south-eastern Australia alone, it is estimated that >20,000 t of fish product waste is produced annually. Some of this fish waste is rendered, but most is dumped to landfill at a cost of up

  1. Utilising thermoporometry to obtain new insights into nanostructured materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joakim Riikonen; Jarno Salonen; Vesa-Pekka Lehto

    Thermoporometry is a relatively new method of characterising porous properties of nanostructured materials based on observation\\u000a of solid–liquid phase transitions of materials confined in pores. It provides several advantages over the conventional characterisation\\u000a methods, mercury porosimetry and gas sorption. The advantages include possibility of using short measurement times, non-toxic\\u000a chemicals and wet samples. In addition, complicated sample preparation and specialised

  2. UTILISATION DE DONNEES HISTORIQUES POUR CARACTERISER LE MILLESIME EN COURS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    les baies de raisin durant la maturation. Le test de ce modèle sur des jeux de données réels a permis'évolution de la teneur en sucres dans les baies, paramètre essentiel dans le choix de la date de vendange et la

  3. Progressing the utilisation of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics into clinical care.

    PubMed

    Trent, Ronald J; Cheong, Pak Leng; Chua, Eng Wee; Kennedy, Martin A

    2013-06-01

    Understanding human genetic variation and how it impacts on gene function is a major focus in genomic-based research. Translation of this knowledge into clinical care is exemplified by pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. The identification of particular gene variants that might influence drug uptake, metabolism, distribution or excretion promises a more effective personalised medicine approach in choosing the right drug or its dose for any particular individual. Adverse drug responses can then be avoided or mitigated. An understanding of germline or acquired (somatic) DNA mutations can also be used to identify drugs that are more likely to be therapeutically beneficial. This represents an area of growing interest in the treatment of cancer. PMID:23594690

  4. An assessment of mine methane mitigation and utilisation technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi Su; Andrew Beath; Hua Guo; Cliff Mallett

    2005-01-01

    Fugitive methane, emitted from coalmines around the world, represents approximately 8% of the world's anthropogenic methane emissions that constitute a 17% contribution to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Coal mine methane is a general description for all methane released prior to, during and after mining operations. As such, there is considerable variability in flow rate and composition of the various

  5. Le bissap ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) : composition et principales utilisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mady Cisse; Manuel Dornier; Mama Sakho; Augustin Ndiaye; Max Reynes; Oumar Sock

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a herbaceous plant, cultivated largely in tropical and subtropical areas of both hemispheres. This plant is used for its fibre; mainly for its calyx, which is of three types: green, red and dark red. Composition. The red calyxes are the most used and are characterised by their concentration of anthocyanin, which can reach 1.5 g·kg

  6. Utilisation of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) for egg production.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M; Reddy, V R; Reddy, P V; Reddy, P S

    1991-07-01

    1. The performance of White Leghorn laying hens on diets providing pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) at 300 and 600 g/kg to replace maize, part per part, or "maize mix" isoenergetically and isonitrogenously in the first experiment and at 600 g/kg diet to replace maize in toto, part per part, in the second experiment were examined. In the first experiment, 3 groups of 12 laying hens were placed on each of the 5 dietary treatments for 3 x 28 d, whereas in the second experiment, each of the two diets was offered to 10 groups of 15 laying hens for 6 x 28 d. 2. Inclusion of pearl millet in the diet at the expense of maize, part per part, did not significantly influence hen-day egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency and body weight in either experiment. Incorporation of pearl millet isoenergetically at the expense of "maize mix" at any level, i.e. 300 g or 600 g/kg (Experiment 1), also did not influence hen-day egg production but at the end of periods 2 and 3 did result in decreased feed intakes with consequent improvements in feed efficiency. 3. Egg weight in general showed a tendency to improve with diets providing pearl millet at 600 g/kg. 4. Profits from egg sales over feed cost were directly proportional to the inclusion of pearl millet in the diet either at the expense of maize, part per part, or "maize mix" isoenergetically. PMID:1893260

  7. Value-added utilisation of waste glass in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Shayan; Aimin Xu

    2004-01-01

    A large proportion of the postconsumer glass is recycled into the packaging stream again, and some smaller proportions are used for a variety of purposes, including concrete aggregate. However, a significant proportion, which does not meet the strict criteria for packaging glass, is sent to landfill, taking the space that could be allocated to more urgent uses. Glass is unstable

  8. Utilisation des Rseaux Baysiens Dynamiques pour la prdiction de survenue

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    against the Nosocomial Infection showed its efficiency. MOTS-CLÉS : Les Réseaux Bayésiens Dynamiques, les, Nosocomial infections hal-00467554,version1-28Apr2010 Author manuscript, published in "5èmes Journées

  9. LES PLANTES UTILISES PAR LES ABEILLES AU TCHAD MRIDIONAL

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Nympheaceae. Psidium gayai,a. The taxa determined with pollen analysis reflect the local floristic composition'analyse pollinique reflètent la composition floristique régionale, en particulier la structure des spectres saisonnière des compositions polliniques des miels reflète la phénologie régionale et particulièrement son

  10. Utilisation des Protocoles HARQ pour la Radio Cognitive

    E-print Network

    Dobigeon, Nicolas

    Cognitive Définition [Hay05] "Cognitive radio is a wireless communication system that is aware : · highly reliable communication whenever and wherever needed ; · efficient utilization of the radio conditions de canaux HARQ et Radio Cognitive | R.Tajan | 19/01/2012 4 / 35 #12;Intro. Chaîne de communication

  11. Utilisation des substrats glucoformateurs par les hpatocytes isols de mouton

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    'activité de la pyruvate carboxylase. L'uréogenèse à partir de l'ammoniac (5 mM) est stimulée par le propiona lactate en pyruvate, soit d'une conversion très lente du pyru- vate en oxaloacétate. Le propionate est par

  12. Utilising eduroamTM architecture in building wireless community networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karri Huhtanen; Heikki Vatiainen; Sami Keski-Kasari; Jarmo Harju

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – eduroam™ has already been proved to be a scalable, secure and feasible way for universities and research institutions to connect their wireless networks into a WLAN roaming community, but the advantages of eduroam™ have not yet been fully discovered in the wireless community networks aimed at regular consumers. This aim of this paper is to describe how eduroam™

  13. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  14. MICROMACHINED W-BAND RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE UTILISING SU8

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ismail; R. S. A Raja Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    As the operation frequency of microwave devices for example rectangular waveguide is increased, their physical size is reduced. This is due to the dependency of the size of some microwave devices to certain operating frequencies. Hence devices that operate in the millimeter-wave region are difficult to produce by conventional means. Micromachining therefore offers an alternative technology. This paper is a

  15. NOTE TECHNIQUE Utilisation des ultra-sons pour purifier les

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    microsclérotes (WHALLEY & TAYLOR, 1976). C. Détachement microsclérotes-hyphes Un léger grattage superficiel de la Equipment. 30 s à 3 D.C. Ampères. Ce traitement des hyphes les détache des microsclérotes et permet de les

  16. Statistiques d'utilisation des clusters du DIT -Juillet 2012

    E-print Network

    ci-dessous donnent un accès direct aux statistiques des machines mentionnées. Statistiques Callisto Statistiques Greedy 1 #12;Callisto Usage by School jobs that ended between 01/07/2012 and 01/08/2012 Usage 8 ENAC 0.00 0.60 4 32 32 VPAI 0.00 0.04 1 8 8 Total 100.00 691684.24 2091 1 #12;Callisto 2 #12

  17. Silica Waste Utilisation Phase II - Preliminary Laboratory Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Lund; T. L. Boyd

    1995-01-01

    A second phase of laboratory testing is being performed on waste silica from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Mexico. The main objective is to produce mixes of various combinations of hydrated lime, portland cement, and plastic fibers with the waste silica from disposal ponds to determine their suitability for use as insulating bricks in low cost housing. Silica-cement mixtures

  18. Integrated utilisation of green biomass in the green biorefinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margrethe Andersen; Pauli Kiel

    2000-01-01

    Grass, clover and alfalfa are used for production of fodder pellets. In the green crop drying factories in the northern countries the drying is combined with pressing of the green crops resulting in production of large volumes of plant juices, green and brown juice. In order to get rid of these enormous amounts of plant juice, representing an environmental threat,

  19. Novel dual-gate HEMT utilising multiple split gates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Collier; J. R. A. Cleaver

    1998-01-01

    We apply the split-gate structure to dual-gate HEMTs, configured so that a parallel array of channels is defined by split gates that control the effective device width whilst a further continuous gate controls the carrier density within the channels defined by the array. This is a different principle of operation to conventional dual-gate HEMTs. We describe the fabrication of the

  20. The ESA standard for telemetry and telecommand packet utilisation: PUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    ESA has developed standards for packet telemetry and telecommand, which are derived from the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). These standards are now mandatory for future ESA programs as well as for many programs currently under development. However, while these packet standards address the end-to-end transfer of telemetry and telecommand data between applications on the ground and Application Processes on-board, they leave open the internal structure or content of the packets. This paper presents the ESA Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) which addresses this very subject and, as such, serves to extend and complement the ESA packet standards. The goal of the PUS is to be applicable to future ESA missions in all application areas (Telecommunications, Science, Earth Resources, microgravity, etc.). The production of the PUS falls under the responsibility of the ESA Committee for Operations and EGSE Standards (COES).

  1. Survey of utilisation of fuzzy technology in Medicine and Healthcare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maysam F. Abbod; Diedrich Graf V. Keyserlingk; Derek A. Linkens; Mahdi Mahfouf

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of biological systems, unlike physical science applications, makes the development of computerised systems for medicine not a straightforward algorithmic solution because of the inherent uncertainty which arises as a natural occurrence in these types of applications. Human minds work from approximate data, extract meaningful information from massive data, and produce crisp solutions. Fuzzy logic provides a suitable basis

  2. Optical scattering in muscle tissue and its utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Pavel; Prokopyeva, Elena; Tománek, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes optical scattering properties of muscle t issue, special traits, and the difficulties its composition causes. The pH of tissue and angle of the myofibrils relative to the incident light used as a probe changes the results of measurements. Distribution of colagen, as well as other substances that can be found in muscle tissue, also affect the outcome of any attempt to examine the sample via the means of optical analysis. Measurement results and scattering models are compared in effectiveness of characterization of the non-linear optical system that is muscle tissue for both medical use and food quality control, depending on the properties and composition of the tested sample.

  3. Solid state 13C NMR characterisation study on fourth generation Ziegler-Natta catalysts.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Harri; Liitiä, Tiina; Virkkunen, Ville; Leinonen, Timo; Helaja, Tuulamari; Denifl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy was utilised to characterize and identify the metal-ester coordination in active fourth generation (phthalate) Ziegler-Natta catalysts. It is known that different donors affect the active species in ZN catalysts. However, there is still limited data available of detailed molecular information how the donors and the active species are interplaying. One of the main goals of this work was to get better insight into the interactions of donor and active species. Based on the anisotropy tensor values (?(11), ?(22), ?(33)) from low magic-angle spinning (MAS) (13)C NMR spectra in combination with chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) calculations (?(aniso) and ?), both the coordinative metal (Mg/Ti) and the symmetry of this interaction between metal and the internal donor in the active catalyst (MgCl(2)/TiCl(4)/electron donor) system could be identified. PMID:22425229

  4. A NMR metabolomics study of the ripening process of the Fiore Sardo cheese produced with autochthonous adjunct cultures.

    PubMed

    Piras, Cristina; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren B; Cosentino, Sofia; Viale, Silvia; Pisano, Maria Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Fiore Sardo (FS) is a traditional Italian raw ewe's milk cheese carrying a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). This study investigated the kinetics of FS cheese ripening by physicochemical parameters, microbial counting, and NMR metabolomics using aqueous extracts. Four Fiore Sardo cheeses, manufactured from milk with deliberately added autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or commercial starters were studied during a period of 90days of ripening. Major differences in the metabolic profiles were observed amongst the samples as a function of the adjunct culture utilised. (1)H NMR metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis was able to classify cheese samples on the basis of their maturation age and the type of added cultures. These findings lay the metabolic basis for the authentication of Fiore Sardo cheese produced in compliance with PDO specifications which allow the use of only native LAB cultures. PMID:23870939

  5. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A immunity in male genitourinary medicine clinic attenders: a case control study of heterosexual and homosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J; Ghanem, M; Tariq, A; Gilleran, G; Winter, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the seroprevalence of hepatitis A in homosexual and heterosexual men to determine their susceptibility to infection and provide guidance for a policy on vaccination. Methods: A case-control study design was utilised to compare the risk factors associated with hepatitis A in homosexual and heterosexual men attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic. Demographic and sexual behavioural characteristics were included in univariate and multivariate models. Results: The overall seropositivity rate was 29% with no significant difference between homosexual and heterosexual men. Ethnicity and age were strongly associated with hepatitis A seropositivity in both homosexuals and heterosexuals. A history of sex in a sauna in homosexual men, and being born outside the United Kingdom for heterosexual men, was associated with hepatitis A seropositivity. Conclusions: Targeted hepatitis A screening and vaccination of homosexual men attending UK genitourinary medicine clinics is not supported by the results of this study. PMID:12238647

  6. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. PMID:20863600

  7. Genome-wide association study of vitamin D levels in children: replication in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D; Holt, B J; Pennell, C E; Holt, P G; Hart, P H; Blackwell, J M

    2014-12-01

    This genome-wide association study (GWAS) utilises data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels measured in blood collected at age 6 years (n=673) and at age 14 years (n=1140). Replication of significantly associated genes from previous GWASs was found for both ages. Genome-wide significant associations were found both at age 6 and 14 with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 11p15 in PDE3B/CYP2R1 (age 6: rs1007392, P=3.9 × 10(-8); age14: rs11023332, P=2.2 × 10(-10)) and on chromosome 4q13 in GC (age 6: rs17467825, P=4.2 × 10(-9); age14: rs1155563; P=3.9 × 10(-9)). In addition, a novel association was observed at age 6 with SNPs on chromosome 7p15 near NPY (age 6: rs156299, P=1.3 × 10(-6)) that could be of functional interest in highlighting alternative pathways for vitamin D metabolism in this age group and merits further analysis in other cohort studies. PMID:25208829

  8. Network analysis: a new approach to study endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Stevens, A; De Leonibus, C; Hanson, D; Dowsey, A W; Whatmore, A; Meyer, S; Donn, R P; Chatelain, P; Banerjee, I; Cosgrove, K E; Clayton, P E; Dunne, M J

    2014-02-01

    Systems biology is the study of the interactions that occur between the components of individual cells - including genes, proteins, transcription factors, small molecules, and metabolites, and their relationships to complex physiological and pathological processes. The application of systems biology to medicine promises rapid advances in both our understanding of disease and the development of novel treatment options. Network biology has emerged as the primary tool for studying systems biology as it utilises the mathematical analysis of the relationships between connected objects in a biological system and allows the integration of varied 'omic' datasets (including genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, etc.). Analysis of network biology generates interactome models to infer and assess function; to understand mechanisms, and to prioritise candidates for further investigation. This review provides an overview of network methods used to support this research and an insight into current applications of network analysis applied to endocrinology. A wide spectrum of endocrine disorders are included ranging from congenital hyperinsulinism in infancy, through childhood developmental and growth disorders, to the development of metabolic diseases in early and late adulthood, such as obesity and obesity-related pathologies. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of diseases processes, network biology is also central to the development of personalised treatment strategies which will integrate pharmacogenomics with systems biology of the individual. PMID:24085748

  9. ATBC Study - Study Details

    Cancer.gov

    The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study was conducted in Finland as a joint project between the National Institute for Health and Welfare of Finland and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) . The overall design, rationale, objectives, and initial results of this intervention study have been published1,2. Briefly, this was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary prevention trial to determine whether daily supplementation with alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, or both would reduce the incidence of lung or other cancers among male smokers.

  10. Identification of chlorophyll ( with application of IRS-P4 OCM data and Geographical Information System - a case study of part of Bay of Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan Dayaker, T.

    2002-05-01

    As 60 - 70 % of the world's population live within 20 - 30 km of the coastline, coastal zone management and optimisation of ocean resources have grown in of importance. The study of the ocean encompasses its physical chemical, biological properties and its interaction with land and biological productivity. Mapping of coastal zone gives us insight about how to conserve its eco-balance and implement effective coastal zone management. Effective Coastal Zone Management will need accurate and comprehensive scientific data, on which decisions can be based. In the present study Ocean Color Monitor ( OCM ) data is used for identification of chlorophyll, which inturn indicates the presence of phytoplankton, which is the primary producer in the food chain, and also to fish . The study area is part of Bay of Bengal Sea near the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Remote sensing in optical region is found useful in understanding the spatial distribution of ocean water constituents, in which phytoplankton pigment which impart a green colour to the sea water, has a definite response in the visible region, which enables plant material to be distinguished from the other suspended matter. Normalised Differential Vegetative Index ( NDVI ), which is mainly used on land applications for the identification of vegetation based on chlorophyll absorption, is used on water surface in the present study. The positive value of NDVI is an indication of the presence of pigment concentration / chlorophyll / phytoplankton / fish. The successful launch of the IRS - P4 satellite which provides us a challenging opportunity to study ocean resources and its characteristics and see how best we can benefit, over a period of time, in several areas of human survival specifically related to food security on a sustained basis. This study is first of its kind in utilising the latest technology to explore the marine resources for mapping the fishing zones and the results, clearly indicate that NDVI can be utilised as an indicator for the presence of phytoplankton on water surface.

  11. Chemical characterization of plywood veneer dryer emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronn, Dagmar R.; Truitt, Sharon G.; Campbell, Malcolm J.

    The chemical composition of the plywood veneer dryer emissions from eight steam- or gas-heated mills in the U.S. were analyzed by flame ionization detection gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feed stocks examined consisted of three Pacific Northwestern species and three Southern yellow pines. The composition and the amount of emissions have changed since a 1972 study. The bulk of emissions was gaseous, and 40-95 % of total emissions consisted of ten terpenes. Of 28 components in the condensable portion of the emissions, 13 were identified by name and 4 by functional group. Isopimaric, dehydroabietic and oleic acids were most common. Some emissions were contaminants present in the air before entry into the dryers. Gaseous dryer emissions are similar to the foliage emissions and the cortical oleoresin content of living trees. Non-gaseous emissions are similar to biogenic components in rural aerosols and in wood extracts.

  12. Individual empowerment in overweight and obese patients: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Struzzo, Pierluigi; Fumato, Raffaella; Tillati, Silvia; Cacitti, Anita; Gangi, Fabrizio; Stefani, Alessia; Torcutti, Alessia; Crapesi, Lucia; Tubaro, Gianni; Balestrieri, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem in Europe and it causes many diseases. Many weight-reducing methods are reported in medical literature, but none of them proved to be effective in maintaining the results achieved over time. Self-empowerment can be an important innovative method, but an effectiveness study is necessary. In order to standardise the procedures for a randomised controlled study, a pilot study will be run to observe, measure and evaluate the effects of a period of self-empowerment group treatment on overweight/obese patients. Methods and analysis Non-controlled, experimental, pilot study. A selected group of patients with body mass index >25, with no severe psychiatric disorders, with no aesthetic or therapeutic motivation will be included in the study. A set of quantitative and qualitative measures will be utilised to evaluate the effects of a self-empowerment course in a 12?month time. Group therapy and medical examinations will also complete this observational phase. At the end of this pilot study, a set of appropriate measures and procedures to determine the effectiveness of individual empowerment will be identified and agreed among the different professional figures. Results will be recorded and analysed to start a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Udine in March 2012. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events involving the local administrations of the towns where the trial participants are resident. Trial Registration http://www.clinicalstrials.gov identifier NCT01644708. PMID:23676799

  13. Enhancing clinical learning in the workplace: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Magnier, K; Wang, R; Dale, V H M; Murphy, R; Hammond, R A; Mossop, L; Freeman, S L; Anderson, C; Pead, M J

    Workplace learning (WPL) is seen as an essential component of clinical veterinary education by the veterinary profession. This study sought to understand this type of learning experience more deeply. This was done utilising observations of students on intramural rotations (IMR) and interviews with students and clinical staff. WPL was seen as an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and develop clinical and professional skills in what is generally regarded as a safe, authentic environment. Clinical staff had clear ideas of what they expected from students in terms of interest, engagement, professionalism, and active participation, where this was appropriate. In contrast, students often did not know what to expect and sometimes felt under-prepared when entering the workplace, particularly in a new species area. With the support of staff acting as mentors, students learned to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills, which could then be addressed during specific IMR work placements. Findings such as these illustrate both the complexities of WPL and the diversity of different workplace settings encountered by the students. PMID:22090156

  14. Enhancing clinical learning in the workplace: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Magnier, K.; Wang, R.; Dale, V. H. M.; Murphy, R.; Hammond, R. A.; Mossop, L.; Freeman, S. L.; Anderson, C.; Pead, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace learning (WPL) is seen as an essential component of clinical veterinary education by the veterinary profession. This study sought to understand this type of learning experience more deeply. This was done utilising observations of students on intramural rotations (IMR) and interviews with students and clinical staff. WPL was seen as an opportunity for students to apply knowledge and develop clinical and professional skills in what is generally regarded as a safe, authentic environment. Clinical staff had clear ideas of what they expected from students in terms of interest, engagement, professionalism, and active participation, where this was appropriate. In contrast, students often did not know what to expect and sometimes felt under-prepared when entering the workplace, particularly in a new species area. With the support of staff acting as mentors, students learned to identify gaps in their knowledge and skills, which could then be addressed during specific IMR work placements. Findings such as these illustrate both the complexities of WPL and the diversity of different workplace settings encountered by the students. PMID:22090156

  15. Understanding “revolving door” patients in general practice: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background ‘Revolving door’ patients in general practice are repeatedly removed from general practitioners’ (GP) lists. This paper reports a qualitative portion of the first mixed methods study of these marginalised patients. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with six practitioner services staff and six GPs in Scotland, utilizing Charmazian grounded theory to characterise ‘revolving door’ patients and their impact from professionals’ perspectives. Results ‘Revolving door’ patients were reported as having three necessary characteristics; they had unreasonable expectations, exhibited inappropriate behaviours and had unmet health needs. A range of boundary breaches were reported too when ‘revolving door’ patients interacted with NHS staff. Conclusions We utilise the ‘sensitising concepts’ of legitimacy by drawing on literature about ‘good and bad’ patients and ‘dirty work designations.’ We relate these to the core work of general practice and explore the role that medical and moral schemas have in how health service professionals understand and work with ‘revolving door’ patients. We suggest this may have wider relevance for the problem doctor patient relationship literature. PMID:24524363

  16. MitoPhAST, a new automated mitogenomic phylogeny tool in the post-genomic era with a case study of 89 decapod mitogenomes including eight new freshwater crayfish mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST. PMID:25721538

  17. Multicentre observational cohort study of NSAIDs as risk factors for postoperative adverse events in gastrointestinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Chapman, Stephen J; Glasbey, James C D; Kelly, Michael; Khatri, Chetan; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Bhangu, Aneel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended as postoperative analgesia by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Society. Recent studies have raised concerns that NSAID administration following colorectal anastomosis may be associated with increased risk of anastomotic leak. This multicentre study aims to determine NSAIDs’ safety profile following gastrointestinal resection. Methods and analysis This prospective, multicentre cohort study will be performed over a 2-week period utilising a collaborative methodology. Consecutive adults undergoing open or laparoscopic, elective or emergency gastrointestinal resection will be included. The primary end point will be the 30-day morbidity, assessed using the Clavien-Dindo classification. This study will be disseminated through medical student networks, with an anticipated recruitment of at least 900 patients. The study will be powered to detect a 10% increase in complication rates with NSAID use. Ethics and dissemination Following the Research Ethics Committee Chairperson's review, a formal waiver was received. This study will be registered as a clinical audit or service evaluation at each participating hospital. Dissemination will take place through previously described novel research collaborative networks. PMID:24972607

  18. Scale model seismicity: a detailed study of deformation localisation from laboratory acoustic emission data 

    E-print Network

    Graham, Caroline C.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic emissions (AE) can provide information relating to the internal state of a deforming rock sample during laboratory testing and have been utilised to quantify damage progression for time-dependent failure modeling. ...

  19. Evaluation of polyphenolic profile and nutritional value of non-traditional fruit species in the Czech Republic--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri; Rop, Otakar; Ml?ek, Ji?í; Balla, Stefan; Szekeres, Ladislav; Zitný, Rastislav; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Dry matter, organic acids, ascorbic acid, minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium) and polyphenolic profile of a number of non-traditional fruit species and their genotypes, namely blue honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.), Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), black mulberry (Morus nigra), Tomentosa cherry (Prunus tomentosa Thunb.) and jostaberry (Ribes nigrum x Grossularia uva-crispa) were investigated. The results showed that Lonicera genotypes displayed high levels of ascorbic acid and they were rich in minerals, with the cultivar ‘Amfora’ achieving the leading position in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content among all lesser known fruit species. Amelanchier cultivars represented a valuable source of ascorbic acid and calcium, ‘Tiš?ovský’ and ‘Smoky’ together with Morus nigra ‘Jugoslavska’ accumulated the highest level of examined polyphenolic compounds. Regular consumption of studied less common fruit species can bring health benefits so they can represent a high potential value for fruit growers and in addition they can be utilised as functional foods. PMID:22842642

  20. Changes in schemas of patients with severe borderline personality disorder: the Oulu BPD study.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Virpi; Kärki, Anna; Saariaho, Tom; Lindeman, Sari; Hakko, Helinä

    2015-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a relatively common and severe psychiatric disorder that can impair quality of life in many ways. The aim of this study was to determine whether a combined treatment model for BPD patients, utilising major principles from schema-focused therapy (SFT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), could be more effective in relieving early maladaptive schemas of BPD patients, compared to treatment as usual (TAU). This study is a part of the Oulu BPD study conducted at mental health care services run by Oulu city social and health care services. The study is a multisite, randomized controlled trial conducted over a one year period, involving two groups of patients with severe BPD: (1) Community Treatment By Experts (CTBE) patients (n = 18) receiving the combined treatment model, and 2) TAU patients (n = 27). The patients' schemas were assessed using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-L3a) before and after one year of treatment. The results reveal that CTBE patients who attended the combined treatment model showed a statistically significant reduction in eight out of 18 early maladaptive schemas, while patients receiving treatment as usual did not demonstrate any significant changes in schemas. The cognitive therapeutic treatment model can be applied for clinical use in public mental health settings using existing professionals, and appears to produce positive changes in patients with BPD. PMID:25358652

  1. Using quantitative risk information in decisions about statins: a qualitative study in a community setting

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background A large literature informs guidance for GPs about communicating quantitative risk information so as to facilitate shared decision making. However, relatively little has been written about how patients utilise such information in practice. Aim To understand the role of quantitative risk information in patients’ accounts of decisions about taking statins. Design and setting This was a qualitative study, with participants recruited and interviewed in community settings. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 participants aged >50 years, all of whom had been offered statins. Data were analysed thematically, using elements of the constant comparative method. Results Interviewees drew frequently on numerical test results to explain their decisions about preventive medication. In contrast, they seldom mentioned quantitative risk information, and never offered it as a rationale for action. Test results were spoken of as objects of concern despite an often-explicit absence of understanding, so lack of understanding seems unlikely to explain the non-use of risk estimates. Preventive medication was seen as ‘necessary’ either to treat test results, or because of personalised, unequivocal advice from a doctor. Conclusion This study’s findings call into question the assumption that people will heed and use numerical risk information once they understand it; these data highlight the need to consider the ways in which different kinds of knowledge are used in practice in everyday contexts. There was little evidence from this study that understanding probabilistic risk information was a necessary or valued condition for making decisions about statin use. PMID:25824187

  2. Ancillary Studies

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links Ongoing Collaborations CISNET ACS FAVOR Comprehensive Cancer Centers Ancillary Studies Ancillary Studies Year

  3. 1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES Students gain knowledge of contemporary feminist theories of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' arts and humanities programs, women's studies examines women's lives's programs · Bachelor of Arts with a major in women's studies (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/womens-studies

  4. A minimally invasive technique for decompression of Chiari malformation type I (DECMI study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Liu, Jiagang; Chen, Haifeng; Jiang, Shu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Yuan; Gong, Shuhui; Wang, Yuelong; Huang, Siqing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is a congenital hindbrain anomaly that requires surgical decompression in symptomatic patients. Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) has been widely practiced in Chiari decompression, but dural opening carries a high risk of surgical complications. A minimally invasive technique, dural splitting decompression (DSD), preserves the inner layer of the dura without dural opening and duraplasty, potentially reducing surgical complications, length of operative time and hospital stay, and cost. If DSD is non-inferior to PFDD in terms of clinical improvement, DSD could be an alternative treatment modality for CM-I. So far, no randomised study of surgical treatment of CM-I has been reported. This study aims to evaluate if DSD is an effective, safe and cost-saving treatment modality for adult CM-I patients, and may provide evidence for using the minimally invasive procedure extensively. Methods and analysis DECMI is a randomised controlled, single-masked, non-inferiority, single centre clinical trial. Participants meeting the criteria will be randomised to the DSD group and the PFDD group in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome is the rate of clinical improvement, which is defined as the complete resolution or partial improvement of the presenting symptoms/signs. The secondary outcomes consist of the incidence of syrinx reduction, postoperative morbidity rates, reoperation rate, quality of life (QoL) and healthcare resource utilisation. A total of 160 patients will be included and followed up at 3 and 12?months postoperatively. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Biological and Medical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital. The findings of this trial will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and presented at scientific conferences. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-14004099. PMID:25926152

  5. Extended-release nifedipine and the risk of intestinal obstruction: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Juurlink, David N; Hellings, Chelsea; Gomes, Tara; Huang, Anjie; Paterson, J Michael; Urbach, David R; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the risk of bowel obstruction in older adults during treatment with extended-release nifedipine compared with patients treated with amlodipine. Design Retrospective cohort study using multiple linked healthcare databases. Setting Ontario, Canada from 1 April 1997 to 31 December 2010. Participants We identified patients aged 66?years and older who started treatment with Adalat XL, an extended-release nifedipine product employing a tablet delivery system associated with mechanical bowel obstruction. For comparison, we studied patients receiving amlodipine, a long-acting calcium channel blocker that does not utilise the same delivery system and has not been implicated as a cause of bowel obstruction. Propensity score matching was used to ensure similarity of patients receiving the two drugs. Primary outcome measure HR for the association between extended-release nifedipine relative to amlodipine and hospitalisation for bowel obstruction during therapy. Results Over the 13-year study period, we identified 103?657 patients treated with extended-release nifedipine and 204?733 patients treated with amlodipine. In these two groups, 591 (0.6%) and 1185 (0.6%) of patients were hospitalised for bowel obstruction, respectively. We found no difference in the risk of bowel obstruction among patients treated with extended-release nifedipine compared with amlodipine (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.24). Conclusions Bowel obstruction during treatment with extended-release nidefipine is rare, and the risk is not appreciably greater than that during treatment with amlodipine. PMID:25059971

  6. The use of metabolomics in the study of metals in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Jones, Oliver A H; Dias, Daniel A; Callahan, Damien L; Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Beale, David J; Roessner, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics may be defined as the comprehensive quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of all metabolites present in a bio-fluid, cell, tissue, or organism. It is essentially the study of biochemical phenotypes (or metabotypes). Metabolic profiles are context dependent, and vary in response to a variety of factors including environment and environmental stimuli, health status, disease and a myriad of other factors; as such, metabolomics has been applied to a wide range of fields and has been increasingly utilised to the study of the roles played by metals in a range of biological systems as well as, encouragingly, in understanding the underlying biochemical mechanisms. The role of metals (and metalloids) in biological organisms is complex and the majority of studies in this area have been performed in plants but the fields of natural product chemistry, human health and even bacterial corrosion of water distribution systems have been investigated using this technique. In this review some of the novel approaches in which the metabolomics toolbox has been used to unravel the roles of metals and metalloids in a range of biological systems are discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:25047028

  7. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) study of saliva in the early detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, Kiang W.; Malini, Olivo; Shen, Ze Xiang; Soo, Khee Chee

    2005-03-01

    Worldwide, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes. In Singapore, the 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is about 50%. The high mortality rate has been attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease in an early treatable stage. Currently, the standard screening procedures for oral cancer are histopathology examination of biopsied tissues and exfoliative cytological assessment. These techniques, unfortunately, are low in sensitivity. In this study, we exploit the high amplification factor of SERS to investigate on the possibility of utilising molecular vibrational information from saliva samples to detect oral cancer early. All raw saliva samples were centrifuged at 13,000 krpm for 5 minutes to remove unwanted particles prior to SERS measurements. The purified saliva samples were then applied directly on gold particle films, followed by excitation with a 633 nm HeNe laser. SERS spectrum can be obtained in less than 2 minutes for each sample. We have studied the saliva spectra acquired from 5 normal individuals and 5 patients with oral cancer. In addition, we also observe new peaks at 1097 cm-1 and 1627 cm-1 in some of the abnormal samples. These peaks are not present in the spectra acquired from the normal samples. Preliminary measurements will be presented. This study may lead to the development of a sensitive and portable diagnostics system for oral cancer.

  8. Nursing Studies Nursing Studies highlights

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Nursing Studies Nursing Studies highlights Autumn 2013 #12;Nursing Studies The University by the validation panel as `leading edge'. Nursing Studies at the University of Edinburgh has enjoyed another consecutive year, the Bachelor of Nursing with Honours programme achieved the top place in the Guardian's UK

  9. Biofeasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparian, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of bioremediation as a method for disposing of contaminants by exploiting natural biodegradation processes. The process of conducting a biofeasibility study and a case study are reviewed. (LZ)

  10. Sleep Studies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Studies? Sleep studies are tests that measure how ... Sleep." Rate This Content: NEXT >> March 29, 2012 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  11. Standardised studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM): a need.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; Ghanim, A; Manton, D J; Weerheijm, K L

    2015-06-01

    In November 2014, a review of literature concerning prevalence data of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM) was performed. A search of PubMed online databases was conducted for relevant articles published until November 2014. The reference lists of all retrieved articles were hand-searched. Studies were included after assessing the eligibility of the full-text article. Out of 1078 manuscripts, a total of 157 English written publications were selected based on title and abstract. Of these 157, 60 were included in the study and allocated as 52 MIH and 5 HSPM, and 3 for both MIH and HSPM. These studies utilised the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry judgment criteria, the modified index of developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) and self-devised criteria, and demonstrated a wide variation in the reported prevalence (MIH 2.9-44 %; HSPM 0-21.8 %). Most values mentioned were representative for specific areas. More studies were performed in cities compared with rural areas. A great variation was found in calibration methods, number of participants, number of examiners and research protocols between the studies. The majority of the prevalence studies also investigated possible aetiological factors. To compare MIH and HSPM prevalence and or aetiological data around the world, standardisation of such studies seems essential. Standardisation of the research protocol should include a clearly described sample of children (minimum number of 300 for prevalence and 1000 for aetiology studies) and use of the same calibration sets and methods whereas aetiological studies need to be prospective in nature. A standardised protocol for future MIH and HSPM prevalence and aetiology studies is recommended. PMID:25894247

  12. Intelligence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…

  13. Developing Objective Metrics for Unit Staffing (DOMUS) study

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, I; Whittingham, B; Meadowcroft, K; Richardson, M; Cooper, J C; Belcher, J; Morris, E; Ismail, K M K

    2014-01-01

    Objective Safe midwifery staffing levels on delivery suites is a priority area for any maternity service. Escalation policies are tools that provide an operational response to emergency pressures. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a scoring system to contemporaneously assess the required staffing level based on demand and use this to determine delivery suite escalation level and utilise the information generated regarding clinical activity (Demand) and staffing levels (Capacity) to generate unit-specific calculation for the actual number of midwifery staff required. Setting A maternity unit of a university-affiliated tertiary referral hospital. Design Over a 12-month period, specifically designed scoring sheets were completed by delivery suite shift co-ordinators four times a day (04:00, 10:00, 16:00 and 22:00). Based on the dependency score (Demand) and the number of midwifery staff available (Capacity), an escalation level was determined for each shift. The 80th centile of the demand was used to determine optimal capacity. Results A total of 1160 scoring sheets were completed. Average staff number throughout the year on any shift was 7 (range 3–11). Average dependency score was 7 (range 1–14). The 80th centile for demand was calculated to be 11. Conclusions This study stresses the importance and usefulness of a simple tool that can be used to determine the level of escalation on delivery suite based on an objective scoring system and can also be used to determine the appropriate staffing on delivery suite. PMID:25217367

  14. Using a Popular Pet Fish Species to Study Territorial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abante, Maria E.

    2005-01-01

    The colourful, vigorous territorial display behaviour of the Siamese fighting fish, "Betta splendens", has great appeal for both pet enthusiasts and animal behaviourists. Their beauty, longevity, easy maintenance and rearing make them a popular pet and an ideal science laboratory specimen. This investigation utilises "B. splendens" to test for the…

  15. Young People on the Margins: Australian Studies of Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelsberg, Harry Joseph; Martin-Giles, Bonnie Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon empirical data from four research projects undertaken in Adelaide, South Australia, we examine the cumulative effects of deprivation on the lives of young people. Utilising a social exclusion framework for analysis we demonstrate the dynamic interplay between the various dimensions of social exclusion. We present the experiences and…

  16. Time-frequency-domain analysis: one-dimensional phantom studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Nicholas

    1982-01-01

    Two methods have been adopted to date for investigating the interference effects resulting from the scattering of ultrasound by soft mammalian tissues; one involves the conversion of time-domain signals into the frequency-domain, where the broad spectral characteristics of a short acoustic pulse are utilised, whilst the other varies the orientation of the specimen with reference to the incident beam and

  17. Contractor selection in government procurement auctions: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidhartha Siladitya Padhi; Pratap Kumar Jagadev Mohapatra

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present a combined fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Simple Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART) approach to deal with the contractor selection problem in government procurement auctions. The proposed approach utilises a set of ten attributes for the evaluation of a contractor. In this approach, the attributes of both the past performance and the present status of

  18. Coping with Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: a Correlational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Singh; P Sharan; P Kulhara

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine socio-demographic and clinical correlates of coping strategies employed by patients with chronic schizophrenia to manage hallucinations. Patients and Methods: Seventy five patients with chronic stable schizophrenia with hallucina- tions (in any form) were enrolled. Data on socio-demographic and clinical variables were recorded. The following scales were utilised: Phenomenology of Hallucinations, Attitude towards Hallucinations, and Instrument for Assessment

  19. Sound Studies Meets Deaf Studies

    E-print Network

    Friedner, Michele Ilana

    Sound studies and Deaf studies may seem at first impression to operate in worlds apart. We argue in this article, however, that similar renderings of hearing, deafness, and seeing as ideal types - and as often essentialized ...

  20. 1 Peace Studies PEACE STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Peace Studies PEACE STUDIES The peace studies program encourages students to explore the multiple meanings of peace, the relationship between peace and conflict, and the role of peace on local and global levels. The program provides students the opportunity to examine peace in its philosophical and religious

  1. 1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES Housed in the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Film Studies Program covers classical film aesthetics, surveys the history of world cinema and takes an in-depth look at films from America, France, Germany, Japan, Russia and the Hispanic world. UNDERGRADUATE Minor · Minor

  2. Arm and wrist surface potential mapping for wearable ECG rhythm recording devices: a pilot clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, W. D.; Escalona, O. J.; McEneaney, D. J.

    2013-06-01

    This study addresses an important question in the development of a ECG device that enables long term monitoring of cardiac rhythm. This device would utilise edge sensor technologies for dry, non-irritant skin contact suitable for distal limb application and would be supported by embedded ECG denoising processes. Contemporary ECG databases including those provided by MIT-BIH and Physionet are focused on interpretation of cardiac disease and rhythm tracking. The data is recorded using chest leads as in standard clinical practise. For the development of a peripherally located heart rhythm monitor, such data would be of limited use. To provide a useful database adequate for the development of the above mentioned cardiac monitoring device a unipolar body surface potential map from the left arm and wrist was gathered in 37 volunteer patients and characterized in this study. For this, the reference electrode was placed at the wrist. Bipolar far-field electrogram leads were derived and analysed. Factors such as skin variability, 50Hz noise interference, electrode contact noise, motion artifacts and electromyographic noise, presented a challenge. The objective was quantify the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the far-field locations. Preliminary results reveal that an electrogram indicative of the QRS complex can be recorded on the distal portion of the left arm when denoised using signal averaging techniques.

  3. The natural history of somatic morbidity in disintegrative psychosis and infantile autism: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, S E; Rich, B; Isager, T

    1999-10-01

    In order to study the validity of disintegrative psychosis (DP) as defined in ICD-9, we compared the natural history of somatic morbidity of 13 patients given this diagnosis in childhood with a control group of 39 patients with infantile autism (IA) matched for gender, age, IQ and social class. Average follow-up time was 22 and 23 (11-33) years, respectively. Significantly more DP patients (85 versus 41%) had been admitted to a non-psychiatric hospital during the follow-up period. They also had significantly more admissions (3.6 versus 1.0) and stayed longer in hospital (78 versus 4 days) than patients with IA. Three of the DP individuals had an associated medical disorder and made extensive use of somatic services during the follow-up period. Altogether the DP group had utilised the medical health care system more than patients with IA suggesting that they had more medical symptoms than the IA group. On the whole our findings suggest that individuals with DP and IA should be conceptualised as essentially distinct and should be studied separately as regards aetiology, pathophysiology, course and treatment. PMID:10522520

  4. Experimental and numerical study of shock-driven collapse of multiple cavity arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betney, Matthew; Anderson, Phillip; Tully, Brett; Doyle, Hugo; Hawker, Nicholas; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a numerical and experimental investigation of the interaction of a single shock wave with multiple air-filled spherical cavities. The 5 mm diameter cavities are cast in a hydrogel, and collapsed by a shock wave generated by the impact of a projectile fired from a single-stage light-gas gun. Incident shock pressures of up to 1 GPa have been measured, and the results compared to simulations conducted using a front-tracking approach. The authors have previously studied the collapse dynamics of a single cavity. An important process is the formation of a high-speed transverse jet, which impacts the leeward cavity wall and produces a shockwave. The speed of this shock has been measured using schlieren imaging, and the density has been measured with a fibre optic probe. This confirmed the computational prediction that the produced shock is of a higher pressure than the original incident shock. When employing multiple cavity arrays, the strong shock produced by the collapse of one cavity can substantially affect the collapse of further cavities. With control over cavity placement, these effects may be utilised to intensify collapse. This intensification is experimentally measured via analysis of the optical emission.

  5. Post-metabolic response to passive normobaric hypoxic exposure in sedendary overweight males: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present pilot study was designed to test the impact of passive acute normobaric hypoxic exposure (PAH) and passive short-term normobaric hypoxic exposure (PSH) conditions on energy expenditure (EE) and substrates utilisation (glucose and lipid oxidation). Methods Eleven participants have completed the PAH session while the control group (CG) underwent a simulated experimental condition in normobaric normoxic condition. A subset of 6 participants underwent an additional six 3-hour sessions on consecutive days. Metabolic rates were obtained pre- and post-treatments on the morning following an overnight (12 hours) fast in PAH, PSH, and CG groups. Results The statistical outcomes showed a significant increase in EE for PAH, control, and PSH while a shift in substrate utilization towards lipid sources was only detected for PAH and PSH, respectively. Conclusion This pilot study showed that passive acute normobaric hypoxic exposure did affect EE and fuel utilization in sedentary overweight males and that further passive normobaric hypoxic exposures (PSH) magnified these metabolic adjustments. These outcomes provide valuable information for further research in the area of hypoxia as a new therapeutic strategy to improve the management of weight loss. PMID:23157699

  6. SurgiCal Obesity Treatment Study (SCOTS): protocol for a national prospective cohort study of patients undergoing bariatric surgery in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Jennifer; Stewart, Sally; Munro, Jane; Grieve, Eleanor; Lean, Mike; Lindsay, Robert S; Bruce, Duff; Ali, Abdulmajid; Briggs, Andrew; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of bariatric surgery for large-scale, long-term weight loss is well established. However, many questions remain over the continual benefits and cost-effectiveness of that weight loss for overall health, particularly when accounting for potential complications and adverse events of surgery. Health research institutes in the UK and the USA have called for high-quality longitudinal cohort studies of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, assessing outcomes such as surgical complications, mortality, diabetes remission, microvascular complications, cardiovascular events, mental health, cost and healthcare use. Methods and analysis SurgiCal Obesity Treatment Study (SCOTS) is a national, prospective, observational, cohort study of patients undergoing primary bariatric surgical procedures in Scotland. This study aims to recruit 2000 patients and conduct a follow-up for 10?years postbariatric surgery using multiple data collection methods: surgeon-recorded data, electronic health record linkage, and patient-reported outcome measures. Outcomes measured will include: mortality, weight change, diabetes, surgical, cardiovascular, cancer, behavioural, reproductive/urological and nutritional variables. Healthcare utilisation and economic productivity will be collected to inform cost-effectiveness analysis. Ethics and dissemination The study has received a favourable ethical opinion from the West of Scotland Research Ethics committee. All publications arising from this cohort study will be published in open-access peer-reviewed journals. All SCOTS investigators (all members of the research team at every recruiting site) will have the ability to propose research suggestions and potential publications using SCOTS data; a publications committee will approve all requests for use of SCOTS data and propose writing committees and timelines. Lay-person summaries of all research findings will be published simultaneously on the SCOTS website (http://www.scotsurgeystudy.org.uk). PMID:26002692

  7. Statistical power calculations for mixed pharmacokinetic study designs using a population approach.

    PubMed

    Kloprogge, Frank; Simpson, Julie A; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Tarning, Joel

    2014-09-01

    Simultaneous modelling of dense and sparse pharmacokinetic data is possible with a population approach. To determine the number of individuals required to detect the effect of a covariate, simulation-based power calculation methodologies can be employed. The Monte Carlo Mapped Power method (a simulation-based power calculation methodology using the likelihood ratio test) was extended in the current study to perform sample size calculations for mixed pharmacokinetic studies (i.e. both sparse and dense data collection). A workflow guiding an easy and straightforward pharmacokinetic study design, considering also the cost-effectiveness of alternative study designs, was used in this analysis. Initially, data were simulated for a hypothetical drug and then for the anti-malarial drug, dihydroartemisinin. Two datasets (sampling design A: dense; sampling design B: sparse) were simulated using a pharmacokinetic model that included a binary covariate effect and subsequently re-estimated using (1) the same model and (2) a model not including the covariate effect in NONMEM 7.2. Power calculations were performed for varying numbers of patients with sampling designs A and B. Study designs with statistical power >80% were selected and further evaluated for cost-effectiveness. The simulation studies of the hypothetical drug and the anti-malarial drug dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that the simulation-based power calculation methodology, based on the Monte Carlo Mapped Power method, can be utilised to evaluate and determine the sample size of mixed (part sparsely and part densely sampled) study designs. The developed method can contribute to the design of robust and efficient pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:25011414

  8. Determining appropriate imaging parameters for kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring: an experimental phantom study.

    PubMed

    Wallace, D; Ng, J A; Keall, P J; O'Brien, R T; Poulsen, P R; Juneja, P; Booth, J T

    2015-06-21

    Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) utilises the kV imager during treatment for real-time tracking of prostate fiducial markers. However, its effectiveness relies on sufficient image quality for the fiducial tracking task. To guide the performance characterisation of KIM under different clinically relevant conditions, the effect of different kV parameters and patient size on image quality, and quantification of MV scatter from the patient to the kV detector panel were investigated in this study.Image quality was determined for a range of kV acquisition frame rates, kV exposure, MV dose rates and patient sizes. Two methods were used to determine image quality; the ratio of kV signal through the patient to the MV scatter from the patient incident on the kilovoltage detector, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The effect of patient size and frame rate on MV scatter was evaluated in a homogeneous CIRS pelvis phantom and marker segmentation was determined utilising the Rando phantom with embedded markers.MV scatter incident on the detector was shown to be dependent on patient thickness and frame rate. The segmentation code was shown to be successful for all frame rates above 3?Hz for the Rando phantom corresponding to a kV to MV ratio of 0.16 and an SNR of 1.67. For a maximum patient dimension less than 36.4?cm the conservative kV parameters of 5?Hz at 1?mAs can be used to reduce dose while retaining image quality, where the current baseline kV parameters of 10?Hz at 1?mAs is shown to be adequate for marker segmentation up to a patient dimension of 40?cm.In conclusion, the MV scatter component of image quality noise for KIM has been quantified. For most prostate patients, use of KIM with 10?Hz imaging at 1?mAs is adequate however image quality can be maintained and imaging dose reduced by altering existing acquisition parameters. PMID:26057776

  9. Determining appropriate imaging parameters for kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring: an experimental phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, D.; Ng, J. A.; Keall, P. J.; O’Brien, R. T.; Poulsen, P. R.; Juneja, P.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-06-01

    Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) utilises the kV imager during treatment for real-time tracking of prostate fiducial markers. However, its effectiveness relies on sufficient image quality for the fiducial tracking task. To guide the performance characterisation of KIM under different clinically relevant conditions, the effect of different kV parameters and patient size on image quality, and quantification of MV scatter from the patient to the kV detector panel were investigated in this study. Image quality was determined for a range of kV acquisition frame rates, kV exposure, MV dose rates and patient sizes. Two methods were used to determine image quality; the ratio of kV signal through the patient to the MV scatter from the patient incident on the kilovoltage detector, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The effect of patient size and frame rate on MV scatter was evaluated in a homogeneous CIRS pelvis phantom and marker segmentation was determined utilising the Rando phantom with embedded markers. MV scatter incident on the detector was shown to be dependent on patient thickness and frame rate. The segmentation code was shown to be successful for all frame rates above 3?Hz for the Rando phantom corresponding to a kV to MV ratio of 0.16 and an SNR of 1.67. For a maximum patient dimension less than 36.4?cm the conservative kV parameters of 5?Hz at 1?mAs can be used to reduce dose while retaining image quality, where the current baseline kV parameters of 10?Hz at 1?mAs is shown to be adequate for marker segmentation up to a patient dimension of 40?cm. In conclusion, the MV scatter component of image quality noise for KIM has been quantified. For most prostate patients, use of KIM with 10?Hz imaging at 1?mAs is adequate however image quality can be maintained and imaging dose reduced by altering existing acquisition parameters.

  10. Prayer Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathy Gallucci

    2004-02-01

    Students read an article about a study of the effects of intercessory prayer on cardiac patients published in a renowned medical journal. After reading the case and discussing the questions in small groups, students evaluate the study for its scientific validity and defend their reasoning.

  11. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cam, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on social studies instruction and technology: (1) "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Social Studies Teacher Educators Collaborate To Integrate Technology into Methods' Courses" (Cheryl Mason, Marsha Alibrandi, Michael Berson, Kara Dawson, Rich Diem, Tony Dralle, David Hicks, Tim Keiper, and John Lee); (2)…

  12. Russian studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    College and Research Library News has posted this new annotated directory to aid students and researchers working in Russian studies. This site casts a wide net over English and Cyrillic sites in Russian studies, offering a sampling of search engines, news media, meta-indexes, online publications, academic research, and subject-specific sites, just to name a few.

  13. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  14. Studying Zooarchaeology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Molly; Wolf, Deborah; Butler, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    Children often associate the study of bones with dinosaurs or crime scenes. This unit introduces students to "zooarchaeology," the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. Students in grades 3-5 engage in hands-on activities examining bones, shells, and other "hard parts" of animals. They use their observations as a starting point for…

  15. Private costs almost equal health care costs when intervening in mild Alzheimer's: a cohort study alongside the DAISY trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia and affects about 25 million people worldwide. Recent studies have evaluated the effect of early interventions for dementia, but few studies have considered private time and transportation costs associated with the intervention. This study assessed the total economic costs associated with a multifaceted intervention for mild Alzheimer's disease, including an estimate of the ratio of public to private costs. Methods The study sample comprised 163 dyads of patients and caregivers who received a multifaceted intervention of counselling sessions, courses and informational packages. The typical duration of the intervention was 7 months. A micro-costing approach was applied using prospectively collected data on resource utilisation that included estimates of participant time and transportation. Precision estimates were calculated using a bootstrapping technique and structural uncertainty was assessed with sensitivity analysis. Results The direct intervention cost was estimated at EUR 1,070 (95% CI 1,029;1,109). The total cost (including private costs) was estimated at EUR 2,020 (95% CI 1,929;2,106) i.e. the ratio of private to public costs was almost 1:1. Conclusion Intervention for mild Alzheimer's disease can be undertaken at a relatively low cost to public funds. However, policy planners should pay attention to the significant private costs associated with an intervention, which may ultimately pose a threat to equity in access to health care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN74848736. PMID:19939249

  16. Does interprofessional simulation increase self-efficacy: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Colm; Reedy, Gabriel; Ross, Alastair; Morgan, Nicola J; Handslip, Rhodri; Jaye, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this work, we have compared uniprofessional and interprofessional versions of a simulation education intervention, in an attempt to understand more about whether it improves trainees’ self-efficacy. Background Interprofessionalism has been climbing the healthcare agenda for over 50?years. Simulation education attempts to create an environment for healthcare professionals to learn, without potential safety risks for patients. Integrating simulation and interprofessional education can provide benefits to individual learners. Setting The intervention took place in a high-fidelity simulation facility located on the campus of a large urban hospital. The centre provides educational activities for an Academic Health Sciences Centre. Approximately 2500 staff are trained at the centre each year. Participants One hundred and fifteen nurses and midwives along with 156 doctors, all within the early years of their postgraduate experience participated. All were included on the basis of their ongoing postgraduate education. Methods Each course was a one-day simulation course incorporating five clinical and one communication scenarios. After each a facilitated debriefing took place. A mixed methods approach utilised precourse and postcourse questionnaires measuring self-efficacy in managing emergency situations, communication, teamwork and leadership. Results Thematic analysis of qualitative data showed improvements in communication/teamwork and leadership, for doctors and nurses undergoing simulation training. These findings were confirmed by statistical analysis showing that confidence ratings improved in nurses and doctors overall (p<0.001). Improved outcomes from baseline were observed for interprofessional versus uniprofessional trained nurses (n=115; p<0.001). Postcourse ratings for doctors showed that interprofessional training was significantly associated with better final outcomes for a communication/teamwork dimension (n=156; p<0.05). Conclusions This study provides evidence that simulation training enhances participants’ self-efficacy in clinical situations. It also leads to increases in their perceived abilities relating to communication/teamwork and leadership/management of clinical scenarios. Interprofessional training showed increased positive effects on self-efficacy for nurses and doctors. PMID:25586366

  17. International journal of mental health systems: a bibliometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Journal of Mental Health Systems (IJMHS) was launched in August 2007 and has recently been given a formal impact factor. This study uses bibliometric indicators to review the performance of the Journal against its original stated objectives and aspirations. Methods All articles published in IJMHS since publication commenced were included (n?=?158). Selected bibliometric measures indicating Journal productivity, author affiliation, impact, geographic reach, and international collaboration were utilised. Results IJMHS published 158 articles in seven volumes over six years. Articles with three to five authors constitute the dominant authorship pattern, and authors’ affiliations are varied. IJMHS has received an impact factor of 1.06 from Thomson Reuters, and the SCImago Journal Ranking shows IJMHS to be well positioned in the four categories in which it is listed, including in comparisons with well-established BMC journals that have similar scientific interests. Geographic authorship patterns show contributions from a large number of countries, including many low- and middle-income countries. Discussion Manuscript submissions from a wide range of countries, including low- and middle-income countries, are mostly from academic institutions. Authors from some geographic areas of the world are significantly under-represented. The calculation of an impact factor and encouraging rankings on the SCImago Journal Rank index are expected to lead to increased submission of high quality manuscripts. Conclusion The performance of IJMHS over the first six years is promising, and the Journal is on the way to achieving the aims set out in the inaugural Editorial. IJMHS will continue to enhance its current impact through a number of new initiatives, including the introduction of thematic series and a broader range of article categories. PMID:24393301

  18. Environmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Discussion, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Reports on a study of a pre-cooperative (the Sidi Saad pre-cooperative, Province of Tunis) as an environment in which a functional literacy program, integrated with socioeconomic development, was to be developed. (EB)

  19. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, the author describes in detail experimental cholera infection of mammals (infection by the oral route, intragastric inoculation, and intestinal, gall-bladder, and parenteral infection). The pathogenicity for lower animals is examined, and certain observations on insects are included. The second part of the study is devoted to the pathology of human cholera (morbid anatomy distribution of the causative organisms in the dead bodies of cholera victims, and pathogenesis). PMID:13284569

  20. Cognitive processes in children’s dietary recalls: Insight from methodological studies

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel

    2009-01-01

    Objective This article summarises 12 dietary-reporting methodological studies with children (six validation studies, one non-validation study, five secondary analyses studies of data from one or more of the six validation studies), identifies research gaps, and provides recommendations for (a) improving children’s recall accuracy and (b) details to specify in publications of studies that utilise children’s dietary recalls. Subjects/Methods Randomly selected children (ages nine to ten) were observed eating school breakfast and school lunch, and interviewed to obtain dietary recalls. Results Children’s recall accuracy improved slightly between the first and third recalls, but individual children’s accuracy was inconsistent from one interview to the next. Although accuracy was poor overall, it was better for boys with reverse-order (evening-to-morning) prompts, but for girls with forward-order (morning-to-evening) prompts. Children recalled breakfast intake less accurately than lunch intake. Children’s accuracy did not depend on whether recalls were obtained in-person or by telephone, but was better for recalls obtained with open than meal format. Retention interval was crucial as children’s accuracy was better for prior-24-hour recalls (about the 24 hours immediately preceding the interview) than previous-day recalls (about midnight to midnight of the day before the interview). Observations of school meals did not affect children's recalls. Children’s recall accuracy was related to their age/sex body mass index percentile. Conventional report rates (which disregard accuracy for items and amounts) overestimated accuracy for energy and macronutrients, and masked complexities of recall error. Conclusions Research concerning errors in Children’s dietary recalls provides insight for improving children’s recall accuracy. PMID:19190640

  1. (13)C-labelled microdialysis studies of cerebral metabolism in TBI patients.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Keri L H; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Gallagher, Clare N; Grice, Peter; Howe, Duncan J; Mason, Andrew; Timofeev, Ivan; Helmy, Adel; Murphy, Michael P; Menon, David K; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Sutherland, Garnette R; Pickard, John D; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2014-06-16

    Human brain chemistry is incompletely understood and better methodologies are needed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes metabolic perturbations, one result of which includes increased brain lactate levels. Attention has largely focussed on glycolysis, whereby glucose is converted to pyruvate and lactate, and is proposed to act as an energy source by feeding into neurons' tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, generating ATP. Also reportedly upregulated by TBI is the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) that does not generate ATP but produces various molecules that are putatively neuroprotective, antioxidant and reparative, in addition to lactate among the end products. We have developed a novel combination of (13)C-labelled cerebral microdialysis both to deliver (13)C-labelled substrates into brains of TBI patients and recover the (13)C-labelled metabolites, with high-resolution (13)C NMR analysis of the microdialysates. This methodology has enabled us to achieve the first direct demonstration in humans that the brain can utilise lactate via the TCA cycle. We are currently using this methodology to make the first direct comparison of glycolysis and the PPP in human brain. In this article, we consider the application of (13)C-labelled cerebral microdialysis for studying brain energy metabolism in patients. We set this methodology within the context of metabolic pathways in the brain, and (13)C research modalities addressing them. PMID:24361470

  2. Google Calendar: A single case experimental design study of a man with severe memory problems.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Victoria N; Powell, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    A single case experimental design across behaviours was utilised to explore the effectiveness of Google Calendar text alerts delivered to a mobile phone as a memory aid. The participant was a 43-year-old man (JA) with severe memory problems and executive difficulties caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). JA was initially very unwilling to use any memory aid and so a detailed assessment of his beliefs about memory aids, his cognitive difficulties and his social context was performed and a set of specifications for an aid was produced collaboratively. Six weeks of baseline data and six weeks of intervention data were collected for three target memory behaviours and three control memory behaviours. Results were analysed using nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) analysis which showed a reduction in forgetting in the three target behaviours and no change in two of the three control behaviours. A subjective measure (the revised Everyday Memory Questionnaire) also suggested improvement. This study illustrates that Google Calendar is a highly effective memory aid and emphasises the importance of choosing a memory aid to suit the person's lifestyle and beliefs. PMID:25263266

  3. Prostate clinical study of a full inversion unconstrained ultrasound elastography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. Reza; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Samani, Abbas

    2014-03-01

    Prostate cancer detection at early stages is crucial for desirable treatment outcome. Among available imaging modalities, ultrasound (US) elastography is being developed as an effective clinical tool for prostate cancer diagnosis. Current clinical US elastography systems utilise strain imaging where tissue strain images are generated to approximate the tissue elastic modulus distribution. While strain images can be generated in real-time fashion, they lack the accuracy necessary for having desirable sensitivity and specificity. To improve strain imaging, full inversion based elastography techniques were proposed. Among these techniques, a constrained elastography technique was developed which showed promising results as long as the tumor and prostate geometry can be obtained accurately from the imaging modality used in conjunction with the elastography system. This requirement is not easy to fulfill, especially with US imaging. To address this issue, we present an unconstrained full inversion prostate elastography method in conjunction with US imaging where knowledge of tissue geometry is not necessary. One of the reasons that full inversion elastography techniques have not been routinely used in the clinic is lack of clinical validation studies. To our knowledge, no quasistatic full inversion based prostate US elastography technique has been applied in vivo before. In this work, the proposed method was applied to clinical prostate data and reconstructed elasticity images were compared to corresponding annotated histopathology images which is the first quasi-static full inversion based prostate US elastography technique applied successfully in vivo. Results demonstrated a good potential for clinical utility of the proposed method.

  4. Oxidative stress and depressive symptoms in older adults: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Shantel L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Cockayne, Nicole; Hermens, Daniel F; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-07-15

    Major depression is common in older adults and associated with greater health care utilisation and increased risk of poor health outcomes. Oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and can be measured via the neurometabolite glutathione using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). This study aimed to examine the relationship between glutathione concentration and depressive symptom severity in older adults 'at-risk' of depression. In total, fifty-eight older adults considered 'at-risk' of depression (DEP) and 12 controls underwent (1)H-MRS, medical and neuropsychological assessments. Glutathione was measured in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and calculated as a ratio to creatine. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Compared to controls, DEP patients had increased glutathione/creatine ratios in the ACC (t=2.7, p=0.012). In turn, these increased ratios were associated with greater depressive symptoms (r=0.28, p=0.038), and poorer performance on a verbal learning task (r=-0.28, p=0.040). In conclusion, depressive symptoms in older people are associated with increased glutathione in the ACC. Oxidative stress may be pathophysiologically linked to illness development and may represent an early compensatory response. Further research examining the utility of glutathione as a marker for depressive symptoms and cognitive decline is now required. PMID:25881278

  5. Ordered mesoporous silica and alumina thin films studied by X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, M.; Idrissi-Kandri, N.; Ayral, A.; van der Lee, A.; Guizard, C.

    2002-07-01

    The use of X-ray techniques for the characterisation of ordered mesoporous films is demonstrated. Both silica and alumina thin layers with an ordered mesoporosity are studied using low-angle diffraction and grazing incidence reflectometry. It is shown how the internal structure evolves upon drying and how texture can be easily detected using a two-circle diffractometer. The reflectometry data are correlated with results from nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiments. Nous montrons comment les techniques de rayons-X peuvent être utilisées pour la caractérisation des couches à mésoporosité ordonnée. Des couches minces de silice et d'alumine à mésoporosité ordonnée ont été étudiées par diffraction aux petits angles et réflectométrie en incidence rasante. Il est montré comment la structure interne évolue au cours du séchage et comment la texture peut être analysée en utilisant un diffractomètre deux-cercles. Les données de réflectométrie sont corrélées avec les résultats obtenus par des mesures d'adsorption-désorption d'azote.

  6. Refractive index, molar refraction and comparative refractive index study of propylene carbonate binary liquid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wankhede, Dnyaneshwar Shamrao

    2012-06-01

    Refractive indices (n) have been experimentally determined for the binary liquid-liquid mixtures of Propylene carbonate (PC) (1) with benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene and p-xylene (2) at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K over the entire mole fraction range. The experimental values of n are utilised to calculate deviation in refractive index (?n), molar refraction (R) and deviation in molar refraction (?R). A comparative study of Arago-Biot (A-B), Newton (NW), Eyring and John (E-J) equations for determining refractive index of a liquid has been carried out to test their validity for all the binary mixtures over the entire composition range at 298.15 K. Comparison of various mixing relations is represented in terms of average deviation (AVD). The ?n and ?R values have been fitted to Redlich-Kister equation at 298.15 K and standard deviations have been calculated. The results are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions present amongst the components. PMID:24061238

  7. Documentary evidence for the study of droughts in the Czech Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ezní?ková, Ladislava; Brázdil, Rudolf; Kotyza, Old?ich; Valášek, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The study of droughts in the instrumental period can be based on various drought indices calculated usually from precipitation and temperature series. Documentary evidence, overlapping partly also with meteorological measurements, represents another important source utilisable particularly for the pre-instrumental period. Direct reports of drought or indirect indications of its impacts may be found in various individual or institutional sources: narrative written sources (annals, chronicles, commemorative records), weather diaries, personal and official correspondence, stall-keepers' and market songs, journalism, financial-economic records, religious sources (rogations, sermons, praying), special printed sources, chronograms, epigraphic sources ("hunger" stones). Corresponding data indicate directly meteorological drought and with describing of drought impacts also agricultural and hydrological droughts. The first credible direct drought information from the Czech Lands reports not any rain or snowfall during the 1090/1091 winter (Monk of Sázava). But data before AD 1500 are relatively scarce and they are related prevailingly to Bohemia. Density of precipitation/drought documentary records in the Czech Lands increases significantly after 1500. This allows create series of precipitation indices with classification of dry months in the scale -1 as dry, -2 as very dry and -3 as extremely dry month. Such dataset is important for the creation of 500-year Czech drought chronology.

  8. A comparative study to screen dementia and APOE genotypes in an ageing East African population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Mizuno, Toshiki; Elston, Robert; Kariuki, Monica M; Hall, Kathleen; Unverzagt, Fred; Hendrie, Hugh; Gatere, Samuel; Kioy, Paul; Patel, Nilesh B; Friedland, Robert P; Kalaria, Raj N

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have established cross-cultural methods to screen for ageing- related dementia and susceptibility genes, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) among the Canadian Cree, African Americans and Yoruba in Nigeria. We determined whether the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID), translated into Kikuyu, a major language of Kenya, could be used to evaluate dementia of the Alzheimer type. Using two sets of coefficients of cognitive and informant scores, two discriminant function (DF) scores were calculated for each of 100 elderly (>65 years) Nyeri Kenyans. When the cut-off points were selected for 100% sensitivities, the specificities of the DF scores were remarkably similar (93.75%) in the Kenyan sample. We propose the adapted CSID can be utilised to detect dementia among East Africans. We also show that apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele frequencies were high (approximately 30%) and not different between normal subjects and those with probable AD. There was no evidence to suggest years of education or vascular factors were associated with dementia status. PMID:18703255

  9. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  10. 13C-labelled microdialysis studies of cerebral metabolism in TBI patients?

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Keri L.H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Gallagher, Clare N.; Grice, Peter; Howe, Duncan J.; Mason, Andrew; Timofeev, Ivan; Helmy, Adel; Murphy, Michael P.; Menon, David K.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Sutherland, Garnette R.; Pickard, John D.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Human brain chemistry is incompletely understood and better methodologies are needed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes metabolic perturbations, one result of which includes increased brain lactate levels. Attention has largely focussed on glycolysis, whereby glucose is converted to pyruvate and lactate, and is proposed to act as an energy source by feeding into neurons’ tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, generating ATP. Also reportedly upregulated by TBI is the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) that does not generate ATP but produces various molecules that are putatively neuroprotective, antioxidant and reparative, in addition to lactate among the end products. We have developed a novel combination of 13C-labelled cerebral microdialysis both to deliver 13C-labelled substrates into brains of TBI patients and recover the 13C-labelled metabolites, with high-resolution 13C NMR analysis of the microdialysates. This methodology has enabled us to achieve the first direct demonstration in humans that the brain can utilise lactate via the TCA cycle. We are currently using this methodology to make the first direct comparison of glycolysis and the PPP in human brain. In this article, we consider the application of 13C-labelled cerebral microdialysis for studying brain energy metabolism in patients. We set this methodology within the context of metabolic pathways in the brain, and 13C research modalities addressing them. PMID:24361470

  11. Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections in primary healthcare in Denmark: a 12-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Dalager-Pedersen, M; Søgaard, M; Schønheyder, H C

    2011-08-01

    A rise in community-onset Staphylococcus aureus infections has been observed in European countries. To ascertain secular trends of S. aureus infections in primary healthcare in Denmark, we conducted this register-based study in the North Denmark region, during the period 1997-2008. We identified all skin and mucosa specimens obtained by general practitioners and all prescriptions for the preferred oral anti-staphylococcal antibiotic, dicloxacillin. Repeat observations within a 12-month period were excluded prior to the calculation of age and gender standardised incidence rates per 100,000 person-years. We included 108,758 specimens, of which 42,778 (39%) yielded S. aureus. The annual incidence rate of specimens doubled during the study period, reaching 2,399 in 2008. The overall rate of S. aureus isolates increased 2-fold to a stable rate at about 850, but for isolates from children and for impetigo specimens, the increase was steeper, with a peak in 2002. A total of 156,462 dicloxacillin prescriptions had been redeemed and the annual prescription rate increased 2.5-fold, peaking at 3,714 in 2007. In conclusion, the annual rates of specimens, S. aureus infections and dicloxacillin prescriptions more than doubled in primary healthcare during the 12-year study period. A major impetigo epidemic and calls for antibiotic stewardship with increased utilisation of specimens were contributing factors. PMID:21279531

  12. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.; Burrows, W.

    1955-01-01

    Relevant information regarding the numerous problems encountered in cholera immunity is dealt with in great detail in this study. Toxin production, bacterial virulence, serological reactions, and the antigenic structure of V. cholerae are discussed. Natural, passive, and active cholera immunity receives special attention, the authors describing the various means of vaccination as well as the evaluation of the immunity induced. PMID:13240451

  13. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1954-01-01

    In this, the first of a series of cholera studies, the history of the disease from its earliest recorded appearance up to 1923 is outlined, and its geographical distribution described. The origins and main routes of spread of the six great pandemics are indicated; possible causes of the variations in mortality which accompanied them are discussed. PMID:13160764

  14. IMMUNOTOXICITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few D/DBPs have been evaluated for effects on the immune system, but certain studies suggest that immunosuppression may follow exposure to D/DBPs. Suppressed immune function is associated with increased susceptibility to infectious disease and certain types of cancer in humans a...

  15. Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Background: Action Research about my 2nd grade classroom in the Buffalo School District. I examined three areas of interest and tried to find some conclusions related to behavior management. Purpose: The purpose of this study is how will implementing procedures, rules, and consequences help improve student behavior. Research Design: Descriptive;…

  16. Quelle amélioration glycémique peut-on attendre de l’utilisation de la pompe à insuline couplée à une mesure continue du glucose par des patients diabétiques de type 1 non éduqués spécifiquement à l’interprétation de ces données ? Résultats d’une étude randomisée

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Borot; S. Donath

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis  The objective of this study was to assess the impact of patient-led sensor-guided pump management on glycaemic control, and\\u000a compare the effect with that of standard insulin pump therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  An open multicentre parallel randomised controlled trial was conducted at five tertiary diabetes centres. Participants aged\\u000a 13.0–40.0 years with well-controlled type 1 diabetes were randomised 1:1 to either study group

  17. Can we implement ethnic monitoring in primary health care and use the data? A feasibility study and staff attitudes in North East England 

    E-print Network

    Sangowawa, O; Bhopal, Raj

    2000-01-01

    The concept of ethnic monitoring has evolved over time as a consequence of growing concern around variations in health status and health service utilisation between the different ethnic groups in Britain. Unfortunately, ...

  18. ELLIPSE Study

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Ambrun, Alexis; Decullier, Evelyne; Samson, Géraldine; Roux, Adeline; Fargeton, Anne-Emmanuelle; Rioufol, Catherine; Schwiertz, Verane; Disant, François; Chapuis, François; Donazzolo, Yves; Paintaud, Gilles; Edery, Patrick; Faure, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited genetic vascular disorder in which epistaxis is the most frequent manifestation, responsible for high morbidity. Management of this symptom has no standard, and local treatments are often aggressive. Their efficacy is variable and has not been proven. Anti-angiogenic drugs, such as bevacizumab, are a new treatment strategy. Its systemic administration in patients with HHT improves liver damage-related symptoms and epistaxis. To limit the systemic adverse effects of bevacizumab and to ease administration, a local administration seems suitable. Primary objective: To evaluate the tolerance of increasing doses of bevacizumab administered as a nasal spray in patients with HHT-related epistaxis. Secondary objectives were to study the bioavailability and efficacy of bevacizumab against epistaxis when given as a nasal spray. Methodology: Phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, monocentric study performed sequentially (dose escalation) on 5 groups of 8 patients. Each group was made up of 6 verum and 2 placebos. Five increasing doses of bevacizumab nasal spray (25 mg/mL) were evaluated: 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg. Results: A total of 40 patients were included between October 2011 and October 2012. Bevacizumab nasal spray was well tolerated in all patients and the drug was not detected in their serum. No dose limiting toxicity was observed. No efficacy was observed at any dose in this study. Conclusion: Based on these results, bevacizumab nasal spray is a safe treatment of epistaxis in HHT. However, a randomized Phase 2 study is needed to determine its efficacy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier #NCT01507480 PMID:24481211

  19. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1956-01-01

    The first portion of this study describes in detail the different aspects of stool examinations, including the collection, preservation, and pooling of specimens, macroscopic and bacterioscopic examination, enrichment methods, and cultivation on a variety of solid media. The author also deals with the examination of vomits and of water. The performance and value of different identification tests (agglutination, haemolysis, and bacteriophage) and confirmatory tests are then considered. An annex is included on bacteriological procedures in the laboratory diagnosis of cholera. PMID:13356145

  20. Blastoid studies

    E-print Network

    Fay, R. O.

    1961-10-30

    Hydrospires 14 Genus Heteroblastus Etheridge & Carpenter, Hydrospire plate 14 1886 75 Fused hydrospire plate 15 Genus Lophoblastus Rowley, 1901 75 Hydrospire pores 15 Genus Mesoblastus Etheridge & Carpenter, Oral plates 15 1886 76 Anal plates... be revised, with emphasis placed upon internal, anal, and oral features. In the present work only 44 genera are studied (12 new; 3 Permian, 41 Mississippian and older) because of a time limit. These are arranged alphabetically under the orders Fissiculata...