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1

Fluorescence Characteristics of Some Dehydroabietic Acid-Based Arylamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption spectra and fluorescence data in nonpolar solvents are reported for seven novel dehydroabietic acid-based diarylamines,\\u000a which have potential as components of hole transport layers for molecular electronic devices. This bulky group has been found\\u000a to improve the possibilities for film formation of these compounds, and in this study we show that this does not significantly\\u000a affect their fluorescence characteristics,

H. D. Burrows; N. Chattopadhyay; M. A. Esteves; M. Fernandes; B. Gigante

2007-01-01

2

Levoglucosan and dehydroabietic acid: Evidence of biomass burning impact on aerosols in the Lower Fraser Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Pacific 2001 Air Quality Study in August 2001, aerosol samples were collected at three sites in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC twice daily over a 2-week period. In this paper, the results for two compounds in the samples, levoglucosan and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), both tracers for biomass burning plumes, are presented. Concentrations of the compounds were

Amy Leithead; Shao-Meng Li; Ray Hoff; Yu Cheng; Jeff Brook

2006-01-01

3

(+)-Dehydroabietic Acid, an Abietane-Type Diterpene, Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Potent drugs are desperately needed to counteract bacterial biofilm infections, especially those caused by gram-positive organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, anti-biofilm compounds/agents that can be used as chemical tools are also needed for basic in vitro or in vivo studies aimed at exploring biofilms behavior and functionability. In this contribution, a collection of naturally-occurring abietane-type diterpenes and their derivatives was tested against S. aureus biofilms using a platform consisting of two phenotypic assays that have been previously published by our group. Three active compounds were identified: nordehydroabietylamine (1), (+)-dehydroabietic acid (2) and (+)-dehydroabietylamine (3) that prevented biofilm formation in the low micromolar range, and unlike typical antibiotics, only 2 to 4-fold higher concentrations were needed to significantly reduce viability and biomass of existing biofilms. Compound 2, (+)-dehydroabietic acid, was the most selective towards biofilm bacteria, achieving high killing efficacy (based on log Reduction values) and it was best tolerated by three different mammalian cell lines. Since (+)-dehydroabietic acid is an easily available compound, it holds great potential to be used as a molecular probe in biofilms-related studies as well as to serve as inspirational chemical model for the development of potent drug candidates.

Fallarero, Adyary; Skogman, Malena; Kujala, Janni; Rajaratnam, Mohanathas; Moreira, Vania M.; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Vuorela, Pia

2013-01-01

4

Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide,

Hylton B Menz; Tiffany K Gill; Anne W Taylor; Catherine L Hill

2008-01-01

5

Local cerebral glucose utilisation in chronic alcoholics: a positron tomographic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using positron tomography, a study of regional cerebral glucose utilisation was performed prospectively in a highly selected group of six neurologically unaffected primary chronic alcoholics. In this group, neuropsychological, behavioural and CT scan anomalies were comparable with those previously reported in more extensive studies. With respect to age-matched control values, cerebral metabolic rate was not significantly modified in the selected

Y Samson; J C Baron; A Feline; J Bories; C Crouzel

1986-01-01

6

Ice core records of biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and dehydroabietic, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids) and total organic carbon for past 300 years in the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We successfully detected biomass burning tracers including levoglucosan and vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic and dehydroabietic acids in an ice core (153 m long, ca. 300 years old) taken from Ushkovsky ice cap (altitude, 3903 m), the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northeast Asia. Concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) were also determined in the ice core. Levoglucosan, which is produced by pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose and thus is a general tracer of biomass burning, showed sporadic peaks in the years of 1705, 1759, 1883, 1915, 1949 and 1972, with the largest peak in 1949. However, its concentrations did not show a systematic increase in the last century although the concentration peaks seemingly corresponded to the higher ambient temperatures in the northern high latitudes. In contrast, dehydroabietic acid, a specific tracer of the pyrolysis of conifer resin, showed a gradual increase from the early 1900s to 1990s with a significant peak in 1970. Contributions of dehydroabietic acid to TOC also showed an increasing trend for the 20th century. Similarly, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids presented higher concentrations in the last half-century with sporadic peaks in 1705, 1759 and 1949. This study showed that general biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan have been sporadically transported over the glacier of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In contrast, the ice core record of dehydroabietic acid indicated that fires of boreal conifer forest have more frequently and increasingly occurred in Far East and Siberia during the last century and transported to the Northwestern Pacific. The present study demonstrates that organic tracers of biomass burning preserved in ice core could provide historical records of biomass burning and boreal forest fires.

Kawamura, Kimitaka; Izawa, Yusuke; Mochida, Michihiro; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

2012-12-01

7

Socioeconomic determinants of psychotropic drug utilisation among elderly: a national population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Psychotropic drugs are commonly utilised among the elderly. This study aimed to analyse whether two socioeconomic determinants - income and marital status - are associated with differences in utilisation of psychotropic drugs and potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs among elderly in Sweden. METHODS: All individuals aged 75 years and older who had purchased a psychotropic drug in Sweden during

E. Lesen; Karolina Andersson; Max Petzold; Anders Carlsten

2010-01-01

8

Impact of headache on sickness absence and utilisation of medical services: a Danish population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study the extent and type of health service utilisation, medication habits, and sickness absence due to the primary headaches. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional epidemiological survey of headache disorders in a general population. Headache was diagnosed according to a structured interview and a neurological examination using the criteria of the International Headache Society. SETTING--A random

B K Rasmussen; R Jensen; J Olesen

1992-01-01

9

Dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) alters metabolic enzyme activity and the effects of 17?-estradiol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), a resin acid present in pulp and paper mill effluent, affects liver energy metabolism and may have anti-estrogenic effects in fish. A chronic-exposure toxicity experiment using immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was conducted in order to assess the endocrine disrupting and liver metabolic effects of the model estrogen 17?-estradiol (E2) and the wood extractives DHAA and ?-sitosterol (BS), regularly present in pulp and paper mill effluents. Exposure to 5ppm of E2 significantly increased hepatosomatic index (HSI), vitellogenin (VTG) and plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). This latter effect was reduced by mixing E2 with DHAA, indicating that DHAA does not cause its endocrine disrupting effects indirectly due to liver damage. Exposure to 0.5ppm of DHAA as well as all the DHAA mixed treatments caused significant increases in liver citrate synthase (CS), activity after 7 days, however, the fish returned to control values by 28 days. Results indicate that DHAA may alter metabolic enzyme activity as well as alter the effects of E2 in juvenile rainbow trout. PMID:24507142

Pandelides, Z; Guchardi, J; Holdway, D

2014-03-01

10

Socioeconomic determinants of psychotropic drug utilisation among elderly: a national population-based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Psychotropic drugs are commonly utilised among the elderly. This study aimed to analyse whether two socioeconomic determinants - income and marital status - are associated with differences in utilisation of psychotropic drugs and potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs among elderly in Sweden. Methods All individuals aged 75 years and older who had purchased a psychotropic drug in Sweden during 2006 were included (68.7% women, n = 384712). Data was collected from national individual-based registers. Outcome measures were utilisation of three or more psychotropic drugs and utilisation of potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs, as classified by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Results Individuals with low income were more likely to utilise three or more psychotropic drugs compared to those with high income; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.14). The non-married had a higher probability for utilising three or more psychotropic drugs compared to the married (aOR 1.22; CI 1.20-1.25). The highest probability was observed among the divorced and the never married. Potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs were more common among individuals with low compared to high income (aOR 1.14; CI 1.13-1.16). Compared to the married, potentially inappropriate psychotropic drug utilisation occurred more commonly among the non-married (aOR 1.08; CI 1.06-1.10). The never married and the divorced had the highest probability. Conclusions There was an association between socioeconomic determinants and psychotropic drug utilisation. The probability for utilising potentially inappropriate psychotropics was higher among individuals with low income and among the non-married.

2010-01-01

11

Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs). Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs). Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR) decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR) followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by humanitarian agencies working in complex settings. Humanitarian organisations should however endeavour to disseminate routinely collected mortality data and improve utilisation of data for operational planning and evaluation. Accurate population estimation continues to be a challenge, limiting the accuracy of mortality estimates.

2012-01-01

12

Dehydroabietic acid, a major effluent component of paper and pulp industry, decreases erythrocyte pH in lamprey ( Lampetra fluviatilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin acids, forming a major component of wood industry, cause numerous toxic effects on liver and red blood cells of fish. Effect of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) on erythrocyte pH of river lamprey was investigated using [14C]DMO distribution to determine pHi. Exposure of the cells to more than 200 ?M DHAA caused hemolysis within 10 min of incubation. Treatment with 50–200

Anna Yu. Bogdanova; Mikko Nikinmaa

1998-01-01

13

Correlations of siblings’ and mothers’ utilisation of primary and hospital health care: A record linkage study in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relationship between maternal and child use of general practitioners (GPs) has been shown to exist for some time, however, the reasons for this relationship are not clear and the extent to which this relationship extends to tertiary care is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the utilisation of health care by siblings and

Alison M. Ward; Nick de Klerk; Douglas Pritchard; Martin Firth; C. D’Arcy J. Holman

2006-01-01

14

Utilisation of the c-fos immunohistochemical method: a 2004 quantitative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide a quantitative view of the utilisation of the c-fos immunohistochemical method. Articles including the term "c-fos" in their title, abstract or keywords and published in 2004 were retrieved from the Current Content/Life Sciences or Current Content/Clinical Medicine collection of the SCI database. The 933 article-type documents retained were distributed in almost all the sub-disciplines of the Life Sciences and Clinical Medicine, but were principally published in the field of neuroscience. They were authored by researchers from 44 countries - the most prolific were the USA (435 articles), Japan (135) and the UK (55). The 933 articles were published in 283 different journals; all but one of the top-20 most prolific journals are in the Life Sciences discipline, and their Impact Factors ranged from 2.0 to 7.9. A comparison of the USA and the European Union scientific profiles is also made. PMID:17972047

Robert, C; Arreto, C D; Gaudy, J F; Wilson, C S

2007-10-01

15

Socioeconomic differences in childhood hospital inpatient service utilisation and costs: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To examine the association between socioeconomic position at the time of birth and the use and cost of hospital inpatient services during the first 10 years of life. Design: Analysis of a database of linked birth registrations, hospital records, and death certificates. Associations between the social class of the head of household and hospital inpatient service utilisation and costs during the first 10 years of life were analysed using multilevel multiple regression modelling. Participants and setting: All 117 212 children born to women who both lived and delivered in hospital in Oxfordshire or West Berkshire, southern England, during the period 1 January 1979 to 31 December 1988. Main results: The study showed that children born into social classes II, III-NM, III-M, IV, and V were more likely to be admitted to hospital, spend longer in hospital overall, and generate greater hospital costs than children born into social class I. The adjusted effect regarding hospital inpatient admissions, days, and costs was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.26, 1.27), 1.20 (1.19, 1.21), and 1.50 (1.49, 1.53), respectively, for children born into social class V when compared with children born into social class I. The impact of social class on hospital inpatient admissions, days, and costs was most acutely felt during years 3–10 of life as compared with the first two years of life. Conclusions: Health service decision makers need to be alert to the adverse sequelae that might result from socioeconomic disadvantage when planning health services for children. Particular attention should be paid to targeting deprived populations with prevention interventions that are known to be effective.

Petrou, S.; Kupek, E.

2005-01-01

16

Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study  

PubMed Central

Background This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of these services. Methods/Design The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers and refugees from Afghanistan, Iran and Somali (total planned sample of 600), as these are among the largest groups within the reception centres and municipalities in the Netherlands. The questionnaire that will be used will include questions on physical health (chronic and acute diseases and somatization), mental health (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), utilisation of health care services, pre- and post-migratory traumatic experiences, life-style, acculturation, social support and socio-demographic background. The questionnaire has gone through a translation process (translation and back-translation, several checks and a pilot-study) and cross-cultural adaptation. Respondents will be interviewed by bilingual and bicultural interviewers who will be specifically trained for this purpose. This article discusses the selection of the study population, the chosen outcome measures, the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the measurement instrument, the training of the interviewers and the practical execution of the study. The information provided may be useful for other researchers in this relatively new field of epidemiological research among various groups of asylum seekers and refugees.

Gerritsen, Annette AM; Bramsen, Inge; Deville, Walter; van Willigen, Loes HM; Hovens, Johannes E; van der Ploeg, Henk M

2004-01-01

17

Utilisation of eyecare services in an urban population in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo assess utilisation of eyecare services by people with visual impairment <6\\/18 or equivalent visual field loss in the better eye in the urban population of Hyderabad in southern India.METHODS2522 subjects of all ages, representative of the population of Hyderabad city, underwent a detailed interview and dilated examination as part of the population based Andhra Pradesh eye disease study. Subjects

Rakhi Dandona; Lalit Dandona; Thomas J Naduvilath; Catherine A McCarty; Gullapalli N Rao

2000-01-01

18

A prospective study of health care resource utilisation and selected costs of schizophrenia in France  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is among the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. To estimate the cost of schizophrenia in France, a longitudinal study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. The main objective of this study was to describe and update the cost of schizophrenia in a longitudinal, representative sample of French patients. The second objective was to identify cost drivers in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods Based on a cohort of 288 French schizophrenic patients during 2?years of prospective follow-up, this study collected clinical, patient reported outcomes, quality of life, functioning, patient management, care giver involvement and resource utilisation data every 6?months. For each service, information was collected on the type of service, the frequency of attendance and type of intervention provided to the patient. Unit costs were based on available French databases. Mean service use and costs over the five time points were estimated using between-effects regression models. Results In the total sample of 288 patients aged 18-64?years, the mean total cost (€ 3 534) was mainly accounted for by the cost of inpatient treatment (€ 1 390) and day care (€ 1 331). The estimate of the annual cost for direct medical health care for all French schizophrenic patients was € 1 581 million, including € 621 million for inpatient treatment and € 595 million for day care (77%). The costs for medication accounted for 16.1% of total annual costs. The remaining costs (6.9%) included visits to psychiatrists, general practitioners, other physicians and psychologists. The direct resource allocation showed inpatient treatment as the main direct cost. Unemployment was identified as a major indirect cost of schizophrenia treatment. Positive and depressive schizophrenia symptoms at baseline and relapse occurrence during the follow-up period were associated with a higher cost of treatment. Health satisfaction or negative symptoms of schizophrenia at baseline were associated with lower costs. Conclusion Several cost drivers were identified. Based on the results obtained in France, we suggest further analysis of mechanisms that influence the service-specific costs for schizophrenia in other areas of the world.

2012-01-01

19

Clinical outcomes and resource utilisation in Medicare patients with chronic liver disease: a historical cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to assess recent trends in health resource utilisation and patient outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries with chronic liver disease (CLD). Setting Liver-related mortality is the 10th leading cause of death in the USA, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the major causes of CLD. As the US population ages and becomes more obese, the impact of CLD is expected to become more prominent for the Medicare population. Participants This is a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of CLD based on inpatient (N=21?576; 14?977 unique patients) and outpatient (N=515?990; 244?196 patients) claims from 2005 to 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study outcomes included hospital length of stay (LOS) and inpatient mortality as well as inpatient and outpatient inflation-adjusted payments. Results Between 2005 and 2010, there was an annual decrease in LOS of 3.17% for CLD-related hospitalisations. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality decreased (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.94), while short-term postdischarge mortality remained stable (1.00, 0.98 to 1.03). Inpatient per-claim payment increased from $11?769 in 2005 to $12?347 in 2010 (p=0.0006). Similarly, the average yearly payments for outpatient care increased from $366 to $404 (p<0.0001). This change in payment was observed together with a consistent decrease in the proportion of beneficiary-paid amount (25.4–20%, p<0.0001) as opposed to Medicare-paid amount (73.1–80%, p<0.0001). The major predictors of higher outpatient payments were younger age, Asian race or Hispanic ethnicity, living in California, and having more diagnoses and outpatient procedures per claim. The predictors of inpatient spending also included younger age, location and the number of inpatient procedures. Conclusions Length of inpatient stay and inpatient mortality among Medicare beneficiaries with CLD decreased, while inpatient and outpatient spending increased.

Younossi, Zobair M; Zheng, Li; Stepanova, Maria; Venkatesan, Chapy; Mishra, Alita

2014-01-01

20

Dehydroabietic Acid Isolated from Commiphora opobalsamum Causes Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Pulmonary Artery via PI3K/Akt-eNOS Signaling Pathway.  

PubMed

Commiphora opobalsamum is a Traditional Chinese Medicine used to treat traumatic injury, mainly by relaxing blood vessels. In this study, two diterpenes, dehydroabietic acid (DA) and sandaracopimaric acid (SA) were obtained from it by a bioassay-guided approach using isolated rat pulmonary artery rings. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, HR-ESI-MS). Both DA and SA reduced the contraction of phenylephrine-induced pulmonary arteries in a concentration-dependent manner, and endothelium contributed greatly to the vasodilatory effect of DA. This effect of DA was attenuated by NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an eNOS inhibitor). Meanwhile, DA increased nitric oxide (NO) production, along with the increase of phosphorylation level of eNOS and Akt in endothelial cells. LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) could reverse this effect, which suggested the endothelial PI3K/Akt pathway involved in the mechanism underlying DA-induced relaxation of pulmonary artery. This work provided evidence of vasorelaxant substances in Commiphora opobalsamum and validated that PI3K/Akt-eNOS pathway was associated with DA-induced pulmonary artery vasodilation. PMID:24959678

Gao, Wenyan; Dong, Xiaoyan; Xie, Nan; Zhou, Chunlan; Fan, Yuhua; Chen, Guoyou; Wang, Yanming; Wei, Taiming; Zhu, Daling

2014-01-01

21

Utilisation of Healthcare and Associated Services in Huntington's disease: a data mining study  

PubMed Central

Background: People with Huntington’s disease (HD) often require tailored healthcare and support packages that develop as the disease progresses. The Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI) gathers retrospective information on service utilization. This study investigated the use of formal services and informal care as measured by the CSRI and explored associations between informal care, disease severity and functional ability as measured by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS) and functional scales. Methods: All monitored longitudinal data from annual clinical assessments of UHDRS-TMS and functional assessments and CSRI collected under the auspices of the European Huntington’s Disease Network (EHDN) REGISTRY study between the years 2004 and 2009 were utilised in the analyses. Disease severity was reflected by UHDRS-TMS. Functional ability was measured using the UHDRS functional scales. CSRI data were analysed according to percentage use of individual formal services and total estimated hours per week of informal care. Regression analyses were conducted to identify any associations between disease severity, functional ability and hours of informal care. Results: 451 HD patients (212 female; 239 male) completed one visit; 105 patients (54 females; 51 males) completed two visits and 47 patients (20 females; 27 males) completed three visits in total over the 5 year period. The mean time between visits was 1.2 years. At visit one, 74% of the participants reported being in receipt of at least one formal hospital-based service in the previous six months, and 89% reported receipt of formal primary and community care services. In contrast, at the third visit, 62% of people had used hospital based services and 94% formal community based services in the previous six months. Fifty % of individuals required some form of informal care in the home at visit 1; this increased to 68% at visits 2 and 3. The mean (SD) estimated weekly total informal care hours at visits 1, 2 and 3 were 32.8 (49.4); 21.6 (53.6) and 21.3 (62.4) respectively. Only the scores on the Functional Assessment Scale (FAS) accounted for the variance in the weekly total informal care hours at each visit. Conclusions: Although it must be acknowledged that service use is supply driven, most HD patients across Europe surveyed as part of this study were in receipt of formal primary and community care services and to a lesser extent formal hospital based services. There was however a large reliance on informal care in the home. The FAS appear to have predictive value on informal care requirements and may have utility in facilitating pro-active service provision and in particular when managing carer burden in this population.

Busse, Monica; Al-Madfai, Dr. Hasan; Kenkre, Joyce; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Bentivoglio, AnnaRita; Rosser, Anne

2011-01-01

22

Juvenile obesity and its association with utilisation and costs of pharmaceuticals - results from the KiGGS study  

PubMed Central

Background According to a national reference, 15% of German children and adolescents are overweight (including obese) and 6.3% are obese. An earlier study analysed the impact of childhood overweight and obesity on different components of direct medical costs (physician, hospital and therapists). To complement the existing literature for Germany, this study aims to explore the association of body mass index (BMI) with utilisation of pharmaceuticals and related costs in German children and adolescents. Methods Based on data from 14, 836 respondents aged 3-17 years in the German Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), drug intake and associated costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. To investigate the association of BMI with utilisation and costs, univariate analyses and multivariate generalised mixed models were conducted. Results There was no significant difference between BMI groups regarding the probability of drug utilisation. However, the number of pharmaceuticals used was significantly higher (14%) for obese children than for normal weight children. Furthermore, there was a trend for more physician-prescribed medication in obese children and adolescents. Among children with pharmaceutical intake, estimated costs were 24% higher for obese children compared with the normal weight group. Conclusions This is the first study to estimate excess drug costs for obesity based on a representative cross-sectional sample of the child and adolescent population in Germany. The results suggest that obese children should be classified as a priority group for prevention. This study complements the existing literature and provides important information concerning the relevance of childhood obesity as a health problem.

2011-01-01

23

Effect of Socioeconomic Deprivation and Health Service Utilisation on Antepartum and Intrapartum Stillbirth: Population Cohort Study from Rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background No studies have examined the effect of socioeconomic deprivation on antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths in the poorest women in low income countries. Methodology/ Principal Findings This study used data from a prospective population based surveillance system involving all women of childbearing age and their babies in rural Ghana. The primary objective was to evaluate associations between household wealth and risk of antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth. The secondary objective was to assess whether any differences in risk were mediated by utilisation of health services during pregnancy. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Random effect models adjusted for clustering of women who delivered more than one infant. There were 80267 babies delivered from 1 July 2003 to 30 September 2008: 77666 live births and 2601 stillbirths. Of the stillbirths 1367 (52.6%) were antepartum, 989 (38.0%) were intrapartum and 245 (9.4%) had no data on the timing of death. 94.8% of the babies born in the study (76129/80267) had complete data on all covariates and outcomes. 36 878 (48.4%) of babies were born to women in the two poorest quintiles and 3697 (4.9%) had no pregnancy care. There was no association between wealth and antepartum stillbirths. There was a marked ‘dose response’ of increasing risk of intrapartum stillbirth with increasing levels of socioeconomic deprivation (adjOR 1.09 [1.03–1.16] p value 0.002). Women in the poorest two quintiles had greater risk of intrapartum stillbirth (adjOR 1.19 [1.02–1.38] p value 0.023) compared to the richest women. Adjusting for heath service utilisation and other variables did not alter results. Conclusions/ Significance Poor women had a high risk of intrapartum stillbirth and this risk was not influenced by health service utilisation. Health system strengthening is required to meet the needs of poor women in our study population.

Ha, Yoonhee P.; Hurt, Lisa S.; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Kirkwood, Betty R.; Edmond, Karen M.

2012-01-01

24

Correlations of siblings' and mothers' utilisation of primary and hospital health care: a record linkage study in Western Australia.  

PubMed

A relationship between maternal and child use of general practitioners (GPs) has been shown to exist for some time, however, the reasons for this relationship are not clear and the extent to which this relationship extends to tertiary care is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the utilisation of health care by siblings and mothers over a 14 year period. A retrospective cohort study of 756 mothers and their 1494 children up to age 14 years was conducted in three general practices in Western Australia. Medicare claims and hospital morbidity records for 1984-1997 were linked using deterministic and probabilistic matching. Generalised Estimating Equations and correlations were used to examine the relationships between the utilisation of primary and hospital health care by family members. Significant correlations were found between hospital admissions of all participants and their GP visits, specialist visits, pathology and diagnostic imaging combined and hospital length of stay. There was a strong association between siblings' use of GPs. A child's rate of GP attendance increased with that of its mother. There was a weak but significant relationship between siblings' use of hospitals, and a child's hospital admission rate increased with that of its mother. It is concluded that there is a strong relationship between siblings' use of GPs and a weaker but still significant association between the hospital admissions of siblings. As expected, there were strong associations between mother and child visits to GPs. There was also an association between a mother's use of hospital and that of her children. This finding reduces the plausibility that the relationships found between utilisation of health care by siblings and mothers can be explained entirely by behavioural factors, and suggests the presence of intergenerational correlation of morbidity. PMID:16242824

Ward, Alison M; de Klerk, Nick; Pritchard, Douglas; Firth, Martin; Holman, C D'Arcy J

2006-03-01

25

The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health.

2014-01-01

26

Acceptance and utilisation of the Incident Command System in first response and allied disciplines: an Ohio study.  

PubMed

In response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, an effort was made to establish a common and uniform command structure for use by the nation's first responder organisations, as well as those disciplines generally expected to assist first responders during a major incident or disaster. The result was the issuance of the National Incident Management System1 or NIMS by the US Department of Homeland Security in 2004. Included in the NIMS document was an embracing of the Incident Command System or ICS, long utilised in the fire service for the effective management of emergency response. The NIMS doctrine also identified certain allied disciplines that needed to adopt this new system for responding to major events. Some of these disciplines included specialised first response units, such as, bomb squads and hazardous materials teams. Other partner disciplines not usually associated with emergency response to include public health and public works were also included. This study will attempt to look at a single component of NIMS, specifically the Incident Command System, and measure its acceptance and utilisation by first responder organisations and selected allied disciplines in the state of Ohio. This is particularly important at this time since the US government is being forced to reduce budgets significantly and determine which laudable policies and programmes will be cut. PMID:22130340

Decker, Russell J

2011-10-01

27

Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4th and 5th quintile, ?1257 meters) from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status). When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56). Conclusion Distance to the closest health facility was negatively associated with neonatal mortality risk. Health care utilisation in the prenatal period could partly explain this risk elevation since there was a distance decay in health system usage prior to and at delivery. The geographical dimension must be taken into consideration when planning interventions for improved neonatal survival, especially when targeting socio-economically disadvantaged groups.

2010-01-01

28

Estimation of drought and flood recurrence interval from historical discharge data: a case study utilising the power law distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of which statistical distribution to fit to historical discharge data is critical when attempting to predict the most extreme flows. It has been shown that depending upon the distribution selected, the calculated return periods can vary dramatically. Cunnane (1985) discussed the factors affecting the choice of distribution for river flow series data, and was able to show that small differences in the Extreme Value Type 1 (Gumbel), Type 2, and Type 3 can lead to large differences in the predicted return period. Indeed this divergence increases as the return period becomes larger: a finding which has obvious implications for fluvial management. Despite this, in many studies which fit a frequency-magnitude distribution to fluvial discharge data, the choice of distribution appears driven by regional convention, or even by some other apparently arbitrary factor. Benson (1968) analysed data for ten US stations, and compared the fit using the log-normal, gamma, Gumbel, log-Gumbel, Hazen and log-Pearson type 3 distributions. On the basis of this study alone, the standard approach to flow frequency estimation in the USA became the fitting of a log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) distribution (US Water Resources Council, 1982). While several other countries have adopted a similar approach, usage of the LP3 distribution is not geographically universal. Hydrologists in the United Kingdom conventionally utilise a fitted generalised logistic distribution for flow frequency estimation (Robson and Reed, 1999) while Chinese hydrologists utilise the log-normal distribution (Singh, 2002). Choice of fitted distribution is obviously crucial, since selecting one distribution rather than another will change the estimated probabilities of future droughts and floods, particularly the largest and rarest events. Malamud et al. (1996) showed that a flood of equivalent size to that experienced on the Mississippi in 1993 has a recurrence interval on the order of 100 years when a power-law distribution is fitted, but a much longer recurrence interval — on the order of 1000 years — using the USA's standard LP3 method. In addition Pandey et al. (1998) found that fitting a power-law distribution, compared with fitting a Generalized Extreme Value distribution, can lead to a large decrease in the predicted return period for a given flood event. Both these findings have obvious implications for river management design. Power-law distributions have been fitted to fluvial discharge data by many authors (most notably by Malamud et al., 1996 and Pandey et al., 1998), who then use these fitted distributions to estimate flow probabilities. These authors found that the power-law performed as well or better than many of the distributions currently used around the world, despite utilising fewer parameters. The power-law has not, however, been officially adopted by any country for fitting to fluvial discharge data. This paper demonstrates a statistically robust method, based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation, for fitting a power-law distribution to mean daily streamflows. The fitted distribution is then used to calculate return periods, which are compared to the return periods obtained by other, more commonly used, distributions. The implications for river management, extremes of flow in particular, are then explored.

Eadie, Chris; Favis-Mortlock, David

2010-05-01

29

Stroke patients' utilisation of extrinsic feedback from computer-based technology in the home: a multiple case study realistic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence indicates that post???stroke rehabilitation improves function, independence and quality of life. A key aspect of rehabilitation is the provision of appropriate information and feedback to the learner. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have allowed for the development of various systems to complement stroke rehabilitation that could be used in the home setting. These systems may increase the provision of rehabilitation a stroke survivor receives and carries out, as well as providing a learning platform that facilitates long-term self-managed rehabilitation and behaviour change. This paper describes the application of an innovative evaluative methodology to explore the utilisation of feedback for post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home. Methods Using the principles of realistic evaluation, this study aimed to test and refine intervention theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes that arise from technology deployment in the home. Methods included focus groups followed by multi-method case studies (n?=?5) before, during and after the use of computer-based equipment. Data were analysed in relation to the context-mechanism-outcome hypotheses case by case. This was followed by a synthesis of the findings to answer the question, ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances and respects?’ Results Data analysis reveals that to achieve desired outcomes through the use of ICT, key elements of computer feedback, such as accuracy, measurability, rewarding feedback, adaptability, and knowledge of results feedback, are required to trigger the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the intervention. In addition, the pre-existing context and the personal and environmental contexts, such as previous experience of service delivery, personal goals, trust in the technology, and social circumstances may also enable or constrain the underpinning theory-driven mechanisms. Conclusions Findings suggest that the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the utilisation of feedback from computer-based technology for home-based upper-limb post-stroke rehabilitation are dependent on key elements of computer feedback and the personal and environmental context. The identification of these elements may therefore inform the development of technology; therapy education and the subsequent adoption of technology and a self-management paradigm; long-term self-managed rehabilitation; and importantly, improvements in the physical and psychosocial aspects of recovery.

2014-01-01

30

Low birthweight infants and total parenteral nutrition immediately after birth. III. Randomised study of energy substrate utilisation, nitrogen balance, and carbon dioxide production.  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate energy substrate utilisation and nitrogen balance in low birthweight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition during the first days of life, and in particular, to determine the effect of two different glucose intakes on carbon dioxide production. Twenty infants (mean (SE) birthweight 1314 (65) g, mean (SE) gestation 30.9 (0.4) weeks) were recruited to the study. Immediately after birth they were randomised to a carbohydrate intake of 8 g/kg/day (5.5 mg/kg/minute) or 12 g/kg/day (8.3 mg/kg/minute). After 24 hours they were changed to the alternative regimen which was continued for a further 24 hours. Fat and protein intakes were kept constant throughout the study. Indirect calorimetry was performed during each of the regimens, urine was collected for urinary nitrogen, and substrate utilisation calculated for 12 infants. The carbohydrate utilisation rate was increased during the higher carbohydrate intake. Lipid utilisation rates were significantly different, with net lipid synthesis occurring during high carbohydrate intake. Protein utilisation rates were not influenced by the different carbohydrate intakes. The mean plasma glucose concentration was higher during the high carbohydrate intake but the mean highest and lowest values were not significantly different during the two study periods. A plasma glucose below 2.6 mmol/l was recorded more frequently during the low glucose intake (9/20 v 5/20). Capillary PCO2 values measured during high and low glucose intakes were similar (5.9 (0.2) v 6.2 (0.3) kPa. Carbon dioxide production rates were increased during the higher carbohydrate intake but the differences were not significant. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the respiratory quotients (RQ), oxygen consumption, or energy expenditure during the two study periods.

Forsyth, J. S.; Murdock, N.; Crighton, A.

1995-01-01

31

Technology Utilisation in Elementary Schools in Turkey's Capital: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study was conducted to explore teachers' current technology use in elementary schools in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The data were collected through a survey, and participants included 1030 classroom teachers across eight districts. The present study results revealed that significant challenges remain with regard to technology use…

Karaca, Feride; Can, Gulfidan; Yildirim, Soner

2013-01-01

32

Utilising a Virtual World to Teach Performance Appraisal: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of an explorative study

Morse, Shona

2010-01-01

33

Cross-sectional study of consumption, compliance and awareness about antibiotic utilisation amongst the urban community in Kolkata.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was conducted upon 500 respondents, comprising of 250 adults and 250 children who did consume antibiotics in the previous three months. Data were analysed to determine the patterns of utilisation, compliance and awareness regarding antibiotic medication amongst a selected urban population at Kolkata. Antibiotic consumption without prescription was evident amongst 41.2% of adults in comparison to that of 8.4% in children (P < 0.01). Compliance to daily dosage was observed in 40.8% of adults in comparison to 82.8% in children (P < 0.01). Awareness pattern regarding antibiotics were reported to have been more in the children group (16.4%) while compared to the adults (8%). The knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance remained more or less similar in both the groups. The study concludes that high over the counter (OTC) sale and inadequate compliance to antibitotic medication needs further intervention approach towards information, education and communication (IEC) to all concerned. PMID:12841499

Ray, Krishangshu; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Dutt, D; Chatterjee, P K; Roychowdhury, P K; Roy, Kashmiri; Banerjee, S N

2003-01-01

34

Comparison of two alternative study designs in assessment of medicines utilisation in neonates  

PubMed Central

Background Estimates of prevalence are known to be affected by the design of cross-sectional studies. A pan-European study provided an opportunity to compare the effect of two cross-sectional study designs on estimates of medicines use. Methods A Service evaluation survey (SES) and a web-based point-prevalence study (PPS) were conducted as part of a European study of neonatal exposure to excipients. Neonatal units from all European Union countries plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Serbia were invited to participate. All medicines prescribed to neonates were recorded during three-day and one-day study periods in the SES and PPS, respectively. In the PPS individual demographic and prescription data were also collected. To compare the probabilities that a particular medicine would be reported by each study multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models with crossed random effects were applied. The relationship between medicines exposure at the unit and individual levels in the PPS data was assessed using polynomial regression with square root transformation. Results Of 31 invited countries 20 and 21 with 115 and 89 units joined the SES and PPS, respectively. Out of 5,572,859 live births in invited countries in 2010 a higher proportion was covered by units participating in the SES compared to the PPS (11% vs 6%, respectively; OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.87-1.89). A greater number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), manufacturers and trade names were registered in the SES compared to the PPS. High correlation between the two studies in frequency of use for each specified API was seen (R2?=?0.86). The average probability of a department to use a given API was greater in the SES compared to the PPS (OR 2.36; 95% CI 2.05-2.73) with higher frequency of use and longer average duration of prescription further increasing the difference. The polynomial regression model described the correlation between APIs exposure on unit and individual level well (R2?=?0.93). Conclusion The simple data structure and longer study period of the SES resulted in improved recruitment and higher likelihood of capture for a given API. The frequency of use at the unit level appears a good surrogate of individual exposure rates.

2014-01-01

35

Utilising Multimodal Interaction Metaphors in E-learning Applications: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental study conducted to investigate the use of multimodal metaphors to communicate information in the interface of e-learning applications. This investigation involved developing two different interface versions of the experimental e-learning tool. In the first interface, only text with graphics was used to deliver learning information about class diagram notation. The second version of the experimental

Marwan Alseid; Dimitrios Rigas

2009-01-01

36

Assessing agroforestry adoption potential utilising market segmentation: A case study in Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, agroforestry adoption has lagged behind progress in agroforestry systems research. This study sought\\u000a to facilitate the communication of landowner land management objectives, values, knowledge and perceptions of the barriers\\u000a and benefits to agroforestry through applied social marketing research methods and market segmentation analysis. A mail survey\\u000a instrument was sent to 250 members of the Pennsylvania Association

Nicole A. Strong; Michael G. Jacobson

2005-01-01

37

Utilising a collective case study system theory mixed methods approach: a rural health example  

PubMed Central

Background Insight into local health service provision in rural communities is limited in the literature. The dominant workforce focus in the rural health literature, while revealing issues of shortage of maldistribution, does not describe service provision in rural towns. Similarly aggregation of data tends to render local health service provision virtually invisible. This paper describes a methodology to explore specific aspects of rural health service provision with an initial focus on understanding rurality as it pertains to rural physiotherapy service provision. Method A system theory-case study heuristic combined with a sequential mixed methods approach to provide a framework for both quantitative and qualitative exploration across sites. Stakeholder perspectives were obtained through surveys and in depth interviews. The investigation site was a large area of one Australian state with a mix of rural, regional and remote communities. Results 39 surveys were received from 11 locations within the investigation site and 19 in depth interviews were conducted. Stakeholder perspectives of rurality and workforce numbers informed the development of six case types relevant to the exploration of rural physiotherapy service provision. Participant perspective of rurality often differed with the geographical classification of their location. The numbers of onsite colleagues and local access to health services contributed to participant perceptions of rurality. Conclusions The complexity of understanding the concept of rurality was revealed by interview participants when providing their perspectives about rural physiotherapy service provision. Dual measures, such as rurality and workforce numbers, provide more relevant differentiation of sites to explore specific services, such rural physiotherapy service provision, than single measure of rurality as defined by geographic classification. The system theory-case study heuristic supports both qualitative and quantitative exploration in rural health services research.

2014-01-01

38

Counsellors contact dementia caregivers - predictors of utilisation in a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Counselling of family members is an established procedure in the support of dementia patients' relatives. In absence of widespread specialised dementia care services in most countries, however, counselling services are often not taken up or only very late in the course of the disease. Object In order to promote acceptance of this service, a new counselling concept was implemented where general practitioners recommended family counsellors, who then actively contacted the family caregivers to offer counselling ("Counsellors Contact Caregivers", CCC). The research questions were: To what extent can the rate of family counselling be increased by CCC? What are the predictors for usage of this form of family counselling? Methods The study started in June 2006 in Middle Franconia for patients with mild to moderate dementia. At baseline, 110 family caregivers were offered counselling based on the CCC guideline. Data was analysed from 97 patient-caregiver dyads who received counselling for one year. The mean age of the patients with dementia (67 women and 30 men) was 80.7 years (SD = 6.2). The mean age of their primary family caregivers (68 women, 23 men) was 60.8 years (SD = 13.8). Results 35 family members (36%) made use of more extensive counselling (more than one personal contact). By contrast, 29 family members (30%) had no personal contact or only one personal contact (33 cases, 34%). The factors "spouse" (p = .001) and "degree of care" (p = .005) were identified as significant predictors for acceptance of extensive counselling. Conclusions Actively contacting patients and their caregivers is a successful means of establishing early and frequent contact with family members of patients with mild to moderate dementia. Use of extensive counselling is made especially by spouses of patients requiring intensified care. Trial Registration ISRCTN68329593

2010-01-01

39

Aged Residential Care Health Utilisation Study (ARCHUS): a randomised controlled trial to reduce acute hospitalisations from residential aged care  

PubMed Central

Background For residents of long term care, hospitalisations can cause distress and disruption, and often result in further medical complications. Multi-disciplinary team interventions have been shown to improve the health of Residential Aged Care (RAC) residents, decreasing the need for acute hospitalisation, yet there are few randomised controlled trials of these complex interventions. This paper describes a randomised controlled trial of a structured multi-disciplinary team and gerontology nurse specialist (GNS) intervention aiming to reduce residents’ avoidable hospitalisations. Methods/Design This Aged Residential Care Healthcare Utilisation Study (ARCHUS) is a cluster- randomised controlled trial (n?=?1700 residents) of a complex multi-disciplinary team intervention in long-term care facilities. Eligible facilities certified for residential care were selected from those identified as at moderate or higher risk of resident potentially avoidable hospitalisations by statistical modelling. The facilities were all located in the Auckland region, New Zealand and were stratified by District Health Board (DHB). Intervention The intervention provided a structured GNS intervention including a baseline facility needs assessment, quality indicator benchmarking, a staff education programme and care coordination. Alongside this, three multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings were held involving a geriatrician, facility GP, pharmacist, GNS and senior nursing staff. Outcomes Hospitalisations are recorded from routinely-collected acute admissions during the 9-month intervention period followed by a 5-month follow-up period. ICD diagnosis codes are used in a pre-specified definition of potentially reducible admissions. Discussion This randomised-controlled trial will evaluate a complex intervention to increase early identification and intervention to improve the health of residents of long term care. The results of this trial are expected in early 2013. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN 12611000187943

2012-01-01

40

How are caseload and service utilisation of psychiatric services influenced by distance? A geographical approach to the study of community-based mental health services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The aim of this study was to assess how the caseload and the utilisation of community-based mental health services is influenced\\u000a by distance and to socioeconomic characteristics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Spatial and statistical analyses were conducted with a sample of 12,347 patients, with ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis, who had\\u000a at least one contact with psychiatric services in Verona, Italy, between 2000 and 2006. Three

Grazia Zulian; Valeria Donisi; Giacomo Secco; Riccardo Pertile; Michele Tansella; Francesco Amaddeo

41

Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species.  

PubMed

The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (k(gDE)). Furthermore, literature data on k(gDE) across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient composition. A total of twelve groups of fish were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two diets ('fat' v. 'starch') and two feeding levels ('low' v. 'high'). In the 'fat'-diet, 125 g fish oil and in the 'starch'-diet 300 g maize starch were added to 875 g of an identical basal mixture. Fish were fed restrictively one of two ration levels ('low' or 'high') for estimating k(gDE). Nutrient digestibility, N and energy balances were measured. For estimating k(gDE), data of the present study were combined with previous data of Nile tilapia fed similar diets to satiation. The type of NPE affected k(gDE) (0.561 and 0.663 with the 'starch' and 'fat'-diets, respectively; P < 0.001). Across fish species, literature values of k(gDE) range from 0.31 to 0.82. Variability in k(gDE) was related to dietary macronutrient composition, the trophic level of the fish species and the composition of growth (fat:protein gain ratio). The across-species comparison suggested that the relationships of k(gDE) with trophic level and with growth composition were predominantly induced by dietary macronutrient composition. Reported k(gDE) values increased linearly with increasing dietary fat content and decreasing dietary carbohydrate content. In contrast, k(gDE) related curvilinearly to dietary crude protein content. In conclusion, energy utilisation for growth is influenced by dietary macronutrient composition. PMID:22004562

Schrama, J W; Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Heinsbroek, L T N; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J

2012-07-01

42

Health care resource utilisation in primary care prior to and after a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, matched case-control study in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined medical resource utilisation patterns in the United Kingdom (UK) prior to and following Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnosis. Methods A patient cohort aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed AD between January 2008 and December 2010 was identified through the UK’s Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with a continuous record in the CPRD (formerly the General Practice Research Database [GPRD]) for both the 3 years prior to, and the 1 year following, AD diagnosis were eligible for inclusion. A control cohort was identified by matching general older adult (GOA) patients to patients with AD based on year of birth, gender, region, and Charlson Comorbidity Index at a ratio of 2:1. Medical resource utilisation was calculated in 6-month intervals over the 4-year study period. Comparisons between AD and GOA control cohorts were conducted using conditional logistic regression for patient characteristics and a generalised linear model for resource utilisation. Results Data for the AD cohort (N?=?3,896) and matched GOA control cohort (N?=?7,792) were extracted from the CPRD. The groups were 65% female and the AD cohort had a mean age of 79.9 years (standard deviation 6.5 years) at the date of diagnosis. Over the entire study period, the AD cohort had a significantly higher mean primary care consultation rate than the GOA cohort (p?utilisation, continuing beyond diagnosis. This evidence may be important to health care commissioners to facilitate effective mobilisation of appropriate AD-related health care resources.

2014-01-01

43

Population-based cross-sectional study of barriers to utilisation of refraction services in South India: Rapid Assessment of Refractive Errors (RARE) Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the barriers to the uptake of refraction services in the age group of 15–49?years in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling to enumerate 3300 individuals from 55 clusters. A validated questionnaire was used to elicit information on barriers to utilisation of services among individuals with uncorrected refractive error (presenting visual acuity <6/12 but improving to ?6/12 on using a pinhole) and presbyopia (binocular near vision 35?years with binocular distance visual acuity of ?6/12). Results 3095 (94%) were available for examination. Those with uncorrected refractive errors cited affordability as the main barrier to the uptake of eye-care services. Among people with uncorrected presbyopia, lack of ‘felt need’ was the leading barrier. Conclusion The barriers that were ‘relatively easy to change’ were reported by those with uncorrected refractive errors in contrast to ‘difficult to change’ barriers reported by those with uncorrected presbyopia. Together, the data on prevalence and an understanding of the barriers for the uptake of services are critical to the planning of refractive error services.

Keeffe, Jill E; Raman, Usha; Rao, Gullapalli N

2011-01-01

44

Prostate specific antigen testing is associated with men's psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation in a nationally representative sample: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate cancer incidence has risen considerably in recent years, primarily due to Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in primary care. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between PSA testing and the psychological and physical health, and healthcare utilisation of men in a population where PSA testing is widespread. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population-representative sample of men ?50 years enrolled in The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA participants underwent structured interviews, health assessments and completed standardised questionnaires. Men were classified as ever/never having received a PSA test. Multivariate logistic regression (Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) was used to determine associations between PSA testing, and men’s psychological and physical health and healthcare utilisation. Results This analysis included 3,628 men, 68.2% of whom ever had a PSA test. In adjusted analysis, men with sub-threshold depression were significantly less likely to have had a PSA test, (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.97). Likelihood of having a PSA test was inversely associated with anxiety, but this was not significant (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI 0.57-1.09). Frailty (OR?=?0.61, 95% CI 0.31-1.05) and eligibility for free primary care (OR?=?0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.77) were also inversely associated with PSA testing. Positive associations were observed between PSA testing and more chronic illnesses (OR?=?1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.19), more primary care visits (OR?=?1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and preventative health practices, including cholesterol testing and influenza vaccination (OR?=?1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.60). Conclusions Men’s psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation are associated with PSA testing in primary care. The association between poorer psychological health, in particular sub-threshold depression, and reduced likelihood of PSA testing in primary care requires further investigation. These findings may have wider implications for other cancer screening.

2014-01-01

45

Increased utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services prior to the diagnosis of Sj?gren's syndrome in female patients: a longitudinal population-based study in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services prior to the diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome in female Taiwanese patients. Design A nationwide, population-based case–control study. Setting Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Participants A total of 347 patients with a diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome from 2005 to 2010 and 1735 controls frequency matched on 10-year age interval and index year were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Diagnoses of eye disorder (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes from 360 to 370) were retrospectively screened to 1997. Main outcome measure The utilisation of eye disorder-related medical service over different intervals prior to diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome between cases and controls were compared using generalised estimating equations with negative binomial distribution and log link function. Results A significantly higher proportion of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (7.5%) utilised eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services over an 8-year interval prior to the diagnosis of the disease compared with controls (4.8%). The annual frequency of utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services increased significantly faster when closer to the index date in patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with controls (interaction effect, p=0.010). Subgroup analyses indicated that the changes over time in the utilisation of services related to disorders of lacrimal system (interaction effect, p=0.019) and conjunctiva (interaction effect, p=0.066) were significantly greater in patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with controls. Conclusions An increase in the utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services was observed in patients with Sjögren's syndrome several years prior to the diagnosis of the disease. General practitioners and ophthalmologists can play an important role by including Sjögren's syndrome in the diagnostic evaluation of their patients afflicted with relevant symptoms.

Lu, Ming-Chi; Fa, Wen-Hsiung; Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

2014-01-01

46

Population-Based Study on Incidence, Risk Factors, Clinical Complications and Drug Utilisation Associated with Influenza in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This large population-based study using the UK-based General Practice Research Database was conducted to quantify influenza-related\\u000a physician visits, clinical complications of and risk factors for influenza, and related drug use in all age groups from 1991\\u000a to 1996. A total of 141,293 subjects who had one or more diagnoses of influenza or influenza-like illness during the study\\u000a period as well

C. R. Meier; P. N. Napalkov; Y. Wegmüller; T. Jefferson; H. Jick

2000-01-01

47

Post-migration geographical mobility, mental health and health service utilisation among Somali refugees in the UK: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration is known to be associated with poor health outcomes for certain marginalised and socially disadvantaged populations. This paper reviews a number of reasons why residential mobility in the ‘host’ country may be associated with poor mental health for refugee populations and reports on a qualitative study of Somalis living in London, UK, and their beliefs about the relationship between

Nasir Warfa; Kamaldeep Bhui; Tom Craig; Sarah Curtis; Salaad Mohamud; Stephen Stansfeld; Paul McCrone; Graham Thornicroft

2006-01-01

48

Facilitating professional liaison in collaborative care for depression in UK primary care; a qualitative study utilising normalisation process theory  

PubMed Central

Background Collaborative care (CC) is an organisational framework which facilitates the delivery of a mental health intervention to patients by case managers in collaboration with more senior health professionals (supervisors and GPs), and is effective for the management of depression in primary care. However, there remains limited evidence on how to successfully implement this collaborative approach in UK primary care. This study aimed to explore to what extent CC impacts on professional working relationships, and if CC for depression could be implemented as routine in the primary care setting. Methods This qualitative study explored perspectives of the 6 case managers (CMs), 5 supervisors (trial research team members) and 15 general practitioners (GPs) from practices participating in a randomised controlled trial of CC for depression. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data was analysed using a two-step approach using an initial thematic analysis, and a secondary analysis using the Normalisation Process Theory concepts of coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring with respect to the implementation of CC in primary care. Results Supervisors and CMs demonstrated coherence in their understanding of CC, and consequently reported good levels of cognitive participation and collective action regarding delivering and supervising the intervention. GPs interviewed showed limited understanding of the CC framework, and reported limited collaboration with CMs: barriers to collaboration were identified. All participants identified the potential or experienced benefits of a collaborative approach to depression management and were able to discuss ways in which collaboration can be facilitated. Conclusion Primary care professionals in this study valued the potential for collaboration, but GPs’ understanding of CC and organisational barriers hindered opportunities for communication. Further work is needed to address these organisational barriers in order to facilitate collaboration around individual patients with depression, including shared IT systems, facilitating opportunities for informal discussion and building in formal collaboration into the CC framework. Trial registration ISRCTN32829227 30/9/2008.

2014-01-01

49

New chemodosimetric probe for the specific detection of Hg2+ in physiological condition and its utilisation for cell imaging studies.  

PubMed

A dithiane derivative of BODIPY is synthesized. This new reagent could be used for the specific and instantaneous detection of Hg(2+) in physiological condition. This dithiane reagent reacts specifically with Hg(2+) to regenerate the parent BODIPY-aldehyde with consequential change in visually detectable optical responses and this provides the possibility of using this reagent as a colorimetric probe or as a fluorescent biomarker/imaging reagent. Further, non-covalent interactions could be utilized for formation of an inclusion complex with biologically benign ?-cyclodextrin for enhancing its solubility in aqueous environment and this included adduct could be used as a fluorescent marker and imaging reagent for Hg(2+). Uptake of Hg(2+) ions in live HeLa cells, exposed to a solution having Hg(2+) ion concentration as low as 2 ppb, could also be detected by confocal laser microscopic studies. PMID:23999844

Saha, Sukdeb; Agarwalla, Hridesh; Gupta, Hariom; Baidya, Mithu; Suresh, E; Ghosh, Sudip K; Das, Amitava

2013-11-14

50

Health resource utilisation associated with skeletal-related events in European patients with lung cancer: ? subgroup analysis from a prospective multinational study  

PubMed Central

Bone complications or skeletal-related events (SREs), typically defined as radiation to bone, pathological fractures, surgery to bone and spinal cord compression, occur frequently in patients with bone metastases. As the survival of patients with advanced lung cancer improves, preventing SREs is becoming increasingly clinically relevant. The aim of this analysis was to assess the impact of SREs on health resource utilisation (HRU) in European lung cancer patients with bone metastasis. This multinational, observational study included patients who had at least one SRE in the 97 days prior to enrolment, a life expectancy of ?6 months and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–2. Data on HRU were retrospectively collected for up to 97 days prior to enrolment with a planned prospective follow-up for up to 18–21 months. The HRU measures included the number and length of inpatient hospitalisations and the number of outpatient visits and procedures. The investigators determined whether each HRU was attributable to a SRE. In total, 135 patients with lung cancer, enrolled at centres in Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, contributed 214 SREs to this analysis. The median length [quartile (Q)1, Q3] of follow-up ranged from 1.5 (0.7, 3.3) to 5.6 (2.0, 8.2) months across the countries. Overall, 41% of the SREs required an inpatient stay, with a median (Q1, Q3) duration of 19.0 (6.0, 28.0) days. Spinal cord compression and surgery to bone were the SRE types most frequently requiring inpatient stays. Radiation to bone was associated with the largest number of outpatient visits and procedures. All the SREs resulting from bone metastases in patients with lung cancer contribute considerably to HRU and efforts to minimise the incidence of bone complications in these patients through appropriate treatments may help reduce this burden.

LORUSSO, VITO; DURAN, IGNACIO; GARZON-RODRIGUEZ, CRISTINA; LUFTNER, DIANA; BAHL, AMIT; ASHCROFT, JOHN; HECHMATI, GUY; WEI, RACHEL; THOMAS, EMMA; HOEFELER, HERBERT

2014-01-01

51

The impact of sociodemographic factors on the utilisation of support services for family caregivers of elderly dependents - results from the German sample of the EUROFAMCARE study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: As in nearly all European countries, demographic developments in Germany have led to both a relative and an absolute increase in the country’s elderly population. The care and support needed by these people is primarily provided by relatives or friends and close acquaintances within the home environment. The major challenges for society are to sustain, promote and support these informal resources. In order to achieve this, it is crucial that family caregivers are provided with situation-specific services that support them and relieve their burden of care. The major challenges for society are therefore to sustain, promote and support informal resources and to provide the opportunity for the use of services aimed at assisting and relieving the burden of family caregivers. Methods: In the context of the EUROFAMCARE study, 1,003 family caregivers from Germany were interviewed at home about their experiences using a standardized questionnaire. Included in the study were primary caregivers providing at least four hours of personal care or support per week to a relative aged 65 years or older. Subjects solely providing financial support were excluded. In this paper, a linear regression analysis has been conducted to analyse impact of sociodemographic factors on the utilisation of support services. Results: The family caregivers were 54 years on average (SD=13.4), 76% of them were female. The dependent elderly were 80 years on average (SD=8.3), and 69% of them were women. 60% of them were receiving long-term care insurance benefits. Use of support services aimed directly at family caregivers is very low. After including certain services aimed primarily at those in need of care but also often serving as a source of relief for family caregivers, the percentage of caregivers using support services increased slightly. Among sociodemographic characteristics, caregivers’ gender and education level have the greatest influence on services use. Other influential factors are caregivers’ perception of their caregiving burden and their assessment of the dependent family member’s need for assistance and support.

Ludecke, Daniel; Mnich, Eva; Kofahl, Christopher

2012-01-01

52

Capacity utilisation in medical education.  

PubMed

It is uncertain as to whether medical schools are operating to their maximum capacity or whether they could further maximise their capacity. It is also uncertain what problems medical schools might run into by striving to drive maximum capacity utilisation. Certainly there is no shortage of reports on why and how medical education providers should scale up, and yet there is inadequate scholarship on how medical education might do this in practice. It makes economic sense for medical schools to operate at maximum efficient capacity and yet adverse effects might result if schools are driven too hard. The main casualty of nearing the maximum efficient capacity is likely to be staff and staff morale. Staff will start to suffer from stress as a result of continually working to their limits. It is better to get buy-in from staff before implementing major changes that might increase capacity utilisation. PMID:24848401

Walsh, Kieran

2014-05-01

53

Case management for at-risk elderly patients in the English integrated care pilots: observational study of staff and patient experience and secondary care utilisation  

PubMed Central

Introduction In 2009, the English Department of Health appointed 16 integrated care pilots which aimed to provide better integrated care. We report the quantitative results from a multi-method evaluation of six of the demonstration projects which used risk profiling tools to identify older people at risk of emergency hospital admission, combined with intensive case management for people identified as at risk. The interventions focused mainly on delivery system redesign and improved clinical information systems, two key elements of Wagner’s Chronic Care Model. Methods Questionnaires to staff and patients. Difference-in-differences analysis of secondary care utilisation using data on 3646 patients and 17,311 matched controls, and changes in overall secondary care utilisation. Results Most staff thought that care for their patients had improved. More patients reported having a care plan but they found it significantly harder to see a doctor or nurse of their choice and felt less involved in decisions about their care. Case management interventions were associated with a 9% increase in emergency admissions. We found some evidence of imbalance between cases and controls which could have biased this estimate, but simulations of the possible effect of unobserved confounders showed that it was very unlikely that the sites achieved their goal of reducing emergency admissions. However, we found significant reductions of 21% and 22% in elective admissions and outpatient attendance in the six months following an intervention, and overall inpatient and outpatient costs were significantly reduced by 9% during this period. Area level analyses of whole practice populations suggested that overall outpatient attendances were significantly reduced by 5% two years after the start of the case management schemes. Conclusion Case management may result in improvements in some aspects of care and has the potential to reduce secondary care costs. However, to improve patient experience, case management approaches need to be introduced in a way which respects patients’ wishes, for example the ability to see a familiar doctor or nurse.

Roland, Martin; Lewis, Richard; Steventon, Adam; Abel, Gary; Adams, John; Bardsley, Martin; Brereton, Laura; Chitnis, Xavier; Conklin, Annalijn; Staetsky, Laura; Tunkel, Sarah; Ling, Tom

2012-01-01

54

Utilisation of soapstone in Labrador by Indians, Eskimos and Norse  

Microsoft Academic Search

MUCH of our knowledge of prehistoric peoples of North America comes from the study of their utilisation of imperishable lithic (geological) resources. In some cases geochemical differences in the origin of a particular lithic material have resulted in trace element differences which can be used to characterise the geological source of this material1. Both geochemical and archaeological studies indicate that

R. O. Allen; K. K. Allen; C. G. HOLLAND; W. W. FITZHUGH

1978-01-01

55

Utilisation of synthetic soda-ash industry by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of soda-ash industry waste utilisation was analysed in this study. Two waste streams, distiller waste and sludge, were considered. The method described is based on calcium sulphate precipitation. The aims of this study were to find the optimal precipitation parameters and to perform simple economic analysis of the process.Except for calculating the direct (running) costs, the authors applied

Tomasz Kasikowski; Roman Buczkowski; Marcin Cichosz

2008-01-01

56

Maximum oxygen uptake utilising different treadmill protocols.  

PubMed Central

The study compared five treadmill protocols (four utilising a motorised, and one a non-motorised, treadmill) on maximum oxygen uptake. The five male and five female subjects, all actively engaged in training, were assigned the tests in random order. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the five protocols for maximal oxygen uptake, maximum ventilation, maximum heart rate and blood lactate inflection point, relative to maximal oxygen uptake. Significant differences were observed between the 3' protocol with incline increments of 1.5% and all other protocols on time to exhaustion (p = less than 0.01) and maximum blood lactate levels (HLA, p = less than 0.05). The results indicate that the protocols used in this study did not significantly influence the maximum oxygen uptake attained. Images p74-a p74-b p74-c

Davies, B.; Daggett, A.; Jakeman, P.; Mulhall, J.

1984-01-01

57

A cross-sectional study describing factors associated with utilisation of GP services by a cohort of people who inject drugs  

PubMed Central

Background People who inject drugs (PWID) use healthcare services, including primary care, at a disproportionately high rate. We investigated key correlates of general practitioner (GP) related service utilisation within a cohort of PWID. Methods Using baseline data from a cohort of 645 community-recruited PWID based in Melbourne, Victoria, we conducted a secondary analysis of associations between past month use of GP services unrelated to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and socio-demographic and drug use characteristics and self-reported health using multivariate logistic regression. Results Just under one-third (29%) of PWID had accessed GP services in the month prior to being surveyed. Participants who reported living with children (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.04 - 3.73) or having had contact with a social worker in the past month (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.24 - 2.98) were more likely to have seen a GP in the past month. Participants who were injecting daily or more frequently (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 - 0.83) or had a weekly income of less than $400 (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 - 0.91) were less likely to report having seen a GP in the past month. Conclusions Our sample frequently attended GP services for health needs unrelated to OST. Findings highlight both the characteristics of PWID accessing GP services and also those potentially missing out on primary care and preventive services.

2014-01-01

58

Utilisation by sheep of herbage under tree crops in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study conducted into the utilisation by sheep of herbage under a mango\\/cashew plantation at Kade (Ghana) showed the native herb,Asystasia gangetica to be the most preferred herbage.Centrosema pubescens was preferred toPueraria phaseoloides. The physical condition of the herbage affected their preference but the crude protein content did not have any influence.

F. H. K. Asiedu; E. N. W. Oppong; A. A. Opoku

1978-01-01

59

Utilisation of fly ash in a geopolymeric material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding means of utilising waste products is a very important field of research at the moment. In this study, fly ash, a waste product of the electricity and petrochemical industries, was investigated as a basic ingredient of a new geopolymeric material. The similarity of fly ash to natural pozzolans has encouraged the use of this waste product in the synthesis

J. C. Swanepoel; C. A. Strydom

2002-01-01

60

Ethnic Variation in Service Utilisation among Children with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…

Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

2009-01-01

61

Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of

Andrea Buron; Francesc Cots; Oscar Garcia; Oriol Vall; Xavier Castells

2008-01-01

62

The enzymology of sludge solubilisation utilising sulphate reducing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of ATP-sulphurylases in the enzymology of accelerated primary sludge solubilisation utilising sulphate reducing systems was investigated. ATP-sulphurylase levels were monitored in methanogenic (ATPSMR) and sulphidogenic (ATPSSR) bioreactor systems. ATPSMR and ATPSSR activities were mainly present in the cell free fractions of the bioreactor sludge. ATPSMR activity was significantly lower (10–20-fold) than the activity observed for ATPSSR. Studies of

Brett I. Pletschke; Peter D. Rose; Chris G. Whiteley

2002-01-01

63

Healthcare Utilisation and Empowerment Among Women in Liberia  

PubMed Central

Background Many efforts have been undertaken to improve access to healthcare services in low-income settings; nevertheless, underutilisation persists. Women’s lack of empowerment may be a central reason for underutilisation, but empirical literature establishing this relationship is sparse. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey. Our sample included all non-pregnant women who were currently married or living with a partner (N=3925 unweighted). We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the associations between constructs derived from the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) and healthcare utilisation. Results Two-thirds of women (65.6%) had been to a healthcare facility for herself or her children in the past 12 months. Constructs from the three major theoretical structures were associated with healthcare utilisation. Women with no education, compared with women with some education, were less likely to have been to a healthcare facility (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.93) as were women who had experienced sexual abuse (OR=0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.95) and women who were married (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.88). Women in higher wealth quintiles, compared with women in the next lower wealth quintile, and women with more decision-making power had greater odds of having been to a healthcare facility (OR=1.22; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.36 and OR=1.10; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20; respectively). Conclusions Strong associations exist between healthcare utilisation and empowerment among women in Liberia, and gender imbalances are prevalent. This fundamental issue likely needs to be addressed before large-scale improvement in health service utilisation can be expected.

Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora A; Bradley, Elizabeth; Harris, Benjamin; Johnson, Billy; Hansen, Nathan B

2014-01-01

64

Social inequalities in health care services utilisation after eight years of health care reforms: a cross-sectional study of Estonia, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental health care reforms in Estonia started in 1991 with the introduction of a social health insurance system. While increasing the efficiency of the health care system was one of the targets of the health care reforms, equity issues have received relatively less attention. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of social inequalities in health care

Jarno Habicht; Anton E. Kunst

2005-01-01

65

Utilising borehole image logs to interpret delta to estuarine system: A case study of the subsurface Lower Jurassic Cook Formation in the Norwegian northern North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Jurassic Cook Formation forms a regressive and transgressive sandstone wedge of shallow marine reservoir sandstones. It is distributed mainly in the Norwegian sector of the northern North Sea and the formation has proven to be hydrocarbon bearing. A case study of this formation from the Tampen Spur area presents a methodology for reconstructing depositional environments in areas of

Atle Folkestad; Zbynek Veselovsky; Paul Roberts

66

Utilising behavioural family therapy (BFT) to help support the system around a person with intellectual disability and complex mental health needs: a case study.  

PubMed

There is a higher incidence of mental health problems amongst people with intellectual disabilities. Family members and support staff who provide support to people with intellectual disabilities with mental health difficulties are more likely to experience increased stress. In the mainstream mental health literature it has been demonstrated that psycho-educational family interventions have a positive impact on the person with mental health difficulties and on the family members who support them. This article uses a case study to illustrate the implementation of a family intervention with the support system around someone with intellectual disabilities, autism and chronic mental health difficulties. Following intervention the family member reported a marked decrease in levels of strain. Both the family and team members reported improvement in functioning within the support system. PMID:22496309

Marshall, Keith; Ferris, Jan

2012-06-01

67

The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment  

PubMed Central

The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies.

Hanney, Stephen R; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A; Buxton, Martin J; Kogan, Maurice

2003-01-01

68

Utilisation of reproductive health services in rural Vietnam; are there equal opportunities to plan and protect pregnancies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe the utilisation of reproductive health services (family planning, antenatal care, and delivery services) and the socioeconomic determinants for utilisation of health services. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional survey, using a multistage sampling technique. SETTING: Tien Hai district, Thai Binh Province, Vietnam. Altogether 1132 mothers with children under 5 years of age were interviewed about antenatal,

N V Toan; H T Hoa; P V Trong; B Höjer; L A Persson; K Sundström

1996-01-01

69

Agroforestry and the utilisation of fragile ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

King, K.F.S., 1979. Agroforestry and the utilisation of fragile ecosystems. Forest Ecol. Manage., 2: 161—168. Sixty-five percent of the land in the tropical world occupies fragile ecosystems. The number of people who depend upon these areas for their food and livelihood is 630 million or 35% of the total population of the developing countries. Not only is the physical environment

K. F. S. KING

1979-01-01

70

Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Methods Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. Results People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany) compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Conclusions We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases.

2011-01-01

71

Routes of yolk utilisation in the newly-hatched chick.  

PubMed

1. This study was conducted to study the routes by which yolk is utilised in the chick during the initial posthatch phase. 2. Transfer from yolk to blood was examined by injecting, in the form of labelled compounds, oleic acid, triolein, inulin and dextran into the yolk; movement from yolk to blood was observed up to 72 h posthatch. 3. Transport of these molecules from blood to yolk was also observed by injecting them into the circulation and determining label in yolk. The yolk sac membrane was permcable in both directions for all labelled materials tested. 4. In the newly-hatched chick, blue dextran injected into the yolk sac could be seen moving in pulses into the intestine at irregular intervals. Transport of labelled materials from the yolk sac into the intestine was observed up to 72 h after hatching, and marker was found in the proximal small intestine and gizzard. The yolk stalk provided a pathway for transport to the intestine until lymphoid cells began to accumulate, with passage becoming partially occluded at 72 h posthatch. 5. Yolk utilisation was more rapid in fed than in fasted birds suggesting that the transport of yolk through the intestine could be increased by the greater intestinal activity found in fed chicks. PMID:9034588

Noy, Y; Uni, Z; Sklan, D

1996-12-01

72

Utilising UDT to push the bandwidth envelope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eScience applications, in particular High Energy Physics, often involve large amounts of data and/or computing and often require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries, and are thus not easily handled by today's networking infrastructures. By utilising the switched lightpath connections provided by the UKLight network it has been possible to research the use of alternate protocols for data transport. While the HEP projects make use of a number of middleware solutions for data storage and transport, they all rely on GridFTP for WAN transport. The GridFTP protocol runs over TCP as the layer 3 protocol by default, however with the latest released of the Globus toolkit it is possible to utilise alternate protocols at the layer 3 level. One of the alternatives is a reliable version of UDP called UDT. This report presents the results of the tests measuring the performance of single-threaded file transfers using GridFTP running over both TCP and the UDT protocol.

Garrett, B.; Davies, B.

73

Factors associated with utilisation of traditional Chinese medicine among Hong Kong Chinese.  

PubMed

The present study explored factors associated with belief in, and utilisation of, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as well as factors associated with trust in TCM practitioners (TCMPs) among Hong Kong Chinese individuals. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. A sample of 300 Hong Kong Chinese aged between 18 and 90?years old were recruited. The study used a number of outcome variables including demographic variables, health status, as measured by the SF-12, attitude towards TCM and Western medicine as measured by the Chinese-Western Medical Beliefs Scale, traditional Chinese values as measured by the Chinese Values Scale and trust in physicians. Findings revealed an association between age, gender and education level, with older age, being female and lower educational attainment all being predictive of TCM utilisation. Utilisation norms was predictive of trust in practitioners, indicating that frequent use of TCM lead to higher levels of trust in TCMP. Chinese values were differentially associated with use of and belief in TCM. Confucian obligation was predictive of belief in TCM and utilisation of TCM, while tolerance and harmony was not associated with belief and use of TCM. Younger respondents tended to score higher in tolerance and harmony, while older respondents scored higher in Confucian obligation, which goes some way to explain these differing trends in Chinese values and associations with TCM as older respondents were much more likely to utilise TCM than their younger counterparts. PMID:23869532

Rochelle, Tina L; Yim, K H

2014-01-01

74

Utilisation des technologies de pointe dans les etablissements de fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le present document analyse les caracteristiques des usines canadiennes de fabrication qui sont associees a l'utilisation des technologies de pointe. Les donnees employees sont tirees de l'Enquete sur les technologies de la fabrication de 1989 et sont liees aux donnees administratives du Recensement des manufactures. Par definition, l'utilisation de la technologie renvoie d'une part, a la frequence (le fait d'utiliser

John R. Diverty Brent Baldwin

1995-01-01

75

Characteristics and prenatal care utilisation of Romanian pregnant women.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective To describe the degree to which Romanian women access free prenatal care services, and to describe the demographic profile of women who are at risk for underutilisation. Methods Secondary data (n = 914) were taken from a large, nationally representative sample of Romanian mothers and children (N = 2117). Kotelchuck's Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation Index was used to measure the adequacy of prenatal care. Results Seventy-eight percent of mothers underutilised prenatal care services. Those who did so to the greatest degree were likely to be young, members of an ethnic minority, poor, uneducated, and rural. Conversely, those who utilised care to the greatest degree were likely to be older, members of the ethnic majority, wealthy, educated, and city dwelling. Conclusion Despite the fact that many of the risk factors for underutilisation in this sample were similar to those found elsewhere in Europe and the developed world, these findings illustrate the worrisome magnitude of the problem in Romania, particularly among women with low levels of income and educational attainment. Future studies should examine factors that contribute to underutilisation, whether it corresponds to negative health outcomes, and whether targeted social interventions and outreach could help improve care. PMID:24836590

Stativa, Ecaterina; Rus, Adrian V; Suciu, Nicolae; Pennings, Jacquelyn S; Butterfield, Max E; Wenyika, Reggies; Webster, Rebecca

2014-06-01

76

An Integrated Marine Propulsion System Utilising TRIGA{sup TM} Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the reactor physics, shielding, thermal hydraulics, reactor dynamics and safety studies conducted to develop a proposed Integrated Marine Propulsion System (IMPS) utilising TRIGA{sup TM} type uranium zirconium hydride fuel. The study has demonstrated that the IMPS plant is feasible and meets the design safety principles and safety criteria imposed on the study. (authors)

G. Manach; J. P. Monnez; M. J. Freeman; A. Newell; J. M. Brushwood; A. Thompson; C. Collins; N. Scholes; P. J. Hamilton; P. A. Beeley

2004-01-01

77

An Integrated Marine Propulsion System Utilising TRIGA{sup TM} Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the reactor physics, shielding, thermal hydraulics, reactor dynamics and safety studies conducted to develop a proposed Integrated Marine Propulsion System (IMPS) utilising TRIGA{sup TM} type uranium zirconium hydride fuel. The study has demonstrated that the IMPS plant is feasible and meets the design safety principles and safety criteria imposed on the study. (authors)

Manach, G.; Monnez, J-P. [Ecole des Applications Militaires de l'Energie Atomique, Cherbourg (France); Freeman, M.J.; Newell, A.; Brushwood, J.M.; Thompson, A.; Collins, C.; Scholes, N.; Hamilton, P.J.; Beeley, P.A. [Nuclear Department/ Flagship Training Ltd, HMS Sultan, Military Road, Gosport, PO12 3BY (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

78

Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings  

PubMed Central

Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests that Australian prescribers may have acted in response to scientific evidence or international safety warnings (EMA, FDA), prior to the response of the TGA. Minor effects were observed after bladder cancer warnings on pioglitazone utilisation.

2014-01-01

79

The Utilisation of Psychological Support Services in Primary Schools in Gauteng  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was conducted in four Gauteng public primary schools to assess the utilisation of psychological support services. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with various stakeholders. The results indicated an underutilisation of Psychological Support Services attributed to lack of staff within the support…

Pillay, Jace; Wasielewski, Tanya

2007-01-01

80

Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For diffuse UV exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than 60° and 50° respectively can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-330 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of damaging UVA observed in full sun.

Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

2008-01-01

81

Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

2008-06-01

82

Solid Residues from Coal Use: Disposal and Utilisation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the principal technical and economic issues affecting the disposal and utilisation of solid residues arising from coal use between now and the end of the century, taking particular account of the differences between Economic Assessmen...

D. R. Cope P. W. Dacey

1984-01-01

83

The effects of China's urban basic medical insurance schemes on the equity of health service utilisation: evidence from Shaanxi Province  

PubMed Central

Introduction In order to alleviate the problem of “Kan Bing Nan, Kan Bing Gui” (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive) and improve the equity of health service utilisation for urban residents in China, the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance scheme (UEBMI) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme (URBMI) were established in 1999 and 2007, respectively. This study aims to analyse the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on the equity of outpatient and inpatient utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China. Methods Using the data from the fourth National Health Services Survey in Shaanxi Province, the method of Propensity Score Matching was employed to generate comparable samples between the insured and uninsured residents, through a one-to-one match algorithm. Next, based on the matched data, the method of decomposition of the concentration index was employed to compare the horizontal inequity indexes of health service utilisation between the UEBMI/URBMI insured and the matched uninsured residents. Results For the UEBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are 0.1256 and -0.0511 respectively, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1222 and 0.2746 respectively. Meanwhile, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are -0.1593 and 0.0967 for the URBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1931 and 0.3199 respectively. Conclusions The implementation of UEBMI increased the pro-rich inequity of outpatient utilisation (rich people utilise outpatient facilities more than the poor people) and the implementation of URBMI increased the pro-poor inequity of outpatient utilisation. Both of these two health insurance schemes reduced the pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilisation.

2014-01-01

84

Social Structures, Isomorphic Pressures, and B2B Utilisation in the Thai Tourism Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to develop and test a theoretical model to investigate how Thai firms use B2B technology for interorganisational collaboration and productivity. We apply the institutional theory to investigate factors affecting firms' B2B technology utilisation and performance in the Thai tourism industry. This study posits that mimetic, coercive and normative pressures may influence B2B technology utilization and performance. Survey-based

Savanid Vatanasakdakul; Chadi Aoun

2009-01-01

85

Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of Barcelona. Methods The study population included all adults residing in the area of study and visiting the emergency department of Hospital del Mar in 2004. The emergency care episodes were selected from the Emergency Department register, and the population figures from the Statistics Department of Barcelona. Emergency care episodes were classified into five large clinical categories. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) of utilisation among foreign-born vs. Spanish-born residents were assessed through negative binomial regression. Results The overall utilisation rate was 382 emergency contacts per 1,000 persons-years. The RR for foreign-born versus Spanish-born residents was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52; 0.74%). The RR was also significantly below one in surgery (0.51, 95% CI: 0.42; 0.63), traumatology (0.47, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59), medicine (0.48, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59) and psychiatry (0.42, 95% CI: 0.18; 0.97). No differences were found in utilisation of gynaecology and minor emergency services. Conclusion The overall lower utilisation rates obtained for foreign-born residents is consistent with previous studies and is probably due to the "healthy immigrant effect". Thus, the population increase due to immigration does not translate directly into a corresponding increase in the number of emergency contacts. The lack of differences in minor and gynaecological emergency care supports the hypothesis that immigrants overcome certain barriers by using the emergency department to access to health services. The issue of healthcare barriers should therefore be addressed, especially among immigrants.

Buron, Andrea; Cots, Francesc; Garcia, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Castells, Xavier

2008-01-01

86

Comprehensive periodic health examination: impact on health care utilisation and costs in a working population in Japan.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the impact of a comprehensive periodic health examination programme on health care utilisation and costs in a working population. DESIGN--A cohort method was used to observe the trends in health care utilisation and costs for a group of local government employees from 1 February 1986 until 31 January 1992, during which time (in 1988) a comprehensive periodic health examination programme had been introduced. Health care utilisation was measured by a claim rate per employee (number of claims in a year divided by number of employees) and a utilisation rate per 100 employees (number of employees who submitted at least one claim in a year divided by number of employees x 100). Health care costs were measured by claim costs per employee (total cost of claims divided by number of employees). National and prefectural changes in per capita health care costs were used for the adjustment of claim costs. Internal comparisons were made in relation to the intensiveness of the periodic health examinations administered before the introduction of the comprehensive programme. SETTING--Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 19,146 local government employees (12,455 men, 6691 women) who worked in small cities, towns, and villages in Fukuoka Prefecture throughout the study period participated. MAIN RESULTS--Both the claim and utilisation rates showed an increase in 1988 when the comprehensive programme was introduced. After adjustment for the national changes in per capita health care costs and the aging effect of the study participants, substantial increases in claim costs were noted after introduction of the comprehensive programme. The programme had a greater but short term effect of increasing the health care utilisation of those who had received less intensive periodic health examinations before 1988, but no similar effect on claim costs was noted. CONCLUSIONS--The comprehensive programme had some role in increasing health care utilisation and costs. Its effect on costs was confirmed when the general population or another population was used as a reference. When comparisons were made internally, the comprehensive programme was seen to have had a greater but short term effect of increasing the utilisation of those who had previously received less intensive health examinations to equalise the health care utilisation and costs within the study population.

Ren, A; Okubo, T; Takahashi, K

1994-01-01

87

How are policy makers using evidence? Models of research utilisation and local NHS policy making  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—This paper is based on a qualitative study that aimed to identify factors that facilitate or impede evidence-based policy making at a local level in the UK National Health Service (NHS). It considers how models of research utilisation drawn from the social sciences map onto empirical evidence from this study.?DESIGN—A literature review and case studies of social research projects that were initiated by NHS health authority managers or GP fundholders in one region of the NHS. In depth interviews and document analysis were used.?SETTING—One NHS region in England.?PARTICIPANTS—Policy makers, GPs and researchers working on each of the social research projects selected as case studies.?MAIN RESULTS—The direct influence of research evidence on decision making was tempered by factors such as financial constraints, shifting timescales and decision makers' own experiential knowledge. Research was more likely to impact on policy in indirect ways, including shaping policy debate and mediating dialogue between service providers and users.?CONCLUSIONS—The study highlights the role of sustained dialogue between researchers and the users of research in improving the utilisation of research-based evidence in the policy process.???Keywords: evidence-based policy making; research/policy interface; research utilisation

Elliott, H.; Popay, J.

2000-01-01

88

European utilisation plan for the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document was finalised only days before the Space Shuttle Columbia accident of 1 February 2003. It is a comprehensive overview of the projected utilisation by Europe of the ISS, covering the science planned, the facilities under development and planned, and a full database of all the selected proposals in life and physical sciences, space science and technology. It also covers utilisation planning in the commercialisation and education areas. The information given here is an accurate reflection of the European plan as it stood at the end of January 2003. Assuming a successful recovery of the Space Shuttle programme and the re-establishment of regular Shuttle flights to complete, maintain and utilise the ISS, along with continuing support from our Russian partner, the Executive expects this plan to be re-joined in due course, albeit with some time delays occasioned by the loss of Columbia.

Wilson, Andrew; Clancy, Paul

2003-02-01

89

Effect of probiotic supplementation on growth, nitrogen utilisation and serum cholesterol in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on the growth, nitrogen utilisation and serum cholesterol content of broiler chickens was studied in 2 trials.2. In experiment 1, the birds receiving the 0, 75, 100, 125 mg probiotic\\/kg diets had weight gains of 1204.0, 1272.0, 1268.3 and 1210.5 g, respectively at the end of 8 weeks of feeding. The group of

B. Mohan; R. Kadirvel; A. Natarajan; M. Bhaskaran

1996-01-01

90

Digestibility in selected rainbow trout families and relation to growth and feed utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been carried out aimed at clarifying variations in the digestibility of dietary nutrients in rainbow trout\\u000a families and studying how differences in digestibility may be related to growth and feed utilisation at various growth rates.\\u000a The digestibility of protein, lipid, carbohydrates (nitrogen-free extracts, NFE) and dry matter was analysed in two experiments\\u000a involving eight rainbow trout families [Ab,

Richard Skøtt Rasmussen; Alfred Jokumsen

2009-01-01

91

Effect of taurine on intestinal morphology and utilisation of soy oil in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of taurine on intestinal morphology and utilisation of dietary fatty acids in chicken. One-day-old broilers chickens were fed with a maize- and soybean-based diet containing soy oil, and supplemented with taurine at either 0 or 0·5 g\\/kg.2.?Result showed that the total bile acid in blood and lipase activity in

J. M. Yuan; Z. H. Wang

2010-01-01

92

Ecological analysis of health care utilisation for China's rural population: association with a rural county's socioeconomic characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The problem of accessibility and affordability of health care is reported to be a major social concern in modern China. It is pronounced in rural households which represent 60% of China's population. There are a few large scale studies which have been conducted into socioeconomic inequalities in health care utilisation for rural populations. Those studies that exist are mainly

Kam Ling Chau

2010-01-01

93

Technical\\/economic\\/environmental analysis of biogas utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas may be utilised for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production or for transport fuel production (CH4-enriched biogas). When used to produce transport fuel either electricity is imported to power the plant or some of the biogas is used in a small CHP unit to meet electricity demand on site. The potential revenue from CH4-enriched biogas when replacing petrol is

J. D. Murphy; E. McKeogh; G. Kiely

2004-01-01

94

Explaining income-related inequalities in doctor utilisation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new international comparative evidence on the factors driving inequalities in the use of GP and specialist services in 12 EU member states. The data are taken from the 1996 wave of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). We examine two types of utilisation (the probability of a visit and the conditional number of positive visits) for two

Eddy van Doorslaer; Xander Koolman; Andrew M. Jones

2004-01-01

95

Modelling of mechanical systems vibrations by utilisation of GRAFSIM software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a modelling process and a numerical vibration analysis of the ABB 4400\\/60 robot model by utilisation of GRAFSIM engineering program. The model has a discrete distribution of the parameters and is considered in two working positions. It has been attracted to two kinematic and one dynamic excitation. The GRAFSIM program that has been used to perform dynamic

G. Wszo?ek

2005-01-01

96

IGCC power plant for biomass utilisation, värnamo, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sydkraft AB has built the world's first complete IGCC Power Plant which utilises wood as fuel. The plant is located in Värnamo, Sweden, and the technology used in the power plant is based on gasification in a pressurised circulating fluidised bed gasifier. The gasification technology is developed in co-operation between Sydkraft AB and Foster Wheeler Energy International Inc., who also

Krister Ståhl; Magnus Neergaard

1998-01-01

97

A rapid appraisal of access to and utilisation of psychotropic medicines in Bihar, India  

PubMed Central

Background A major aspect of providing mental healthcare is access to and use of psychotropic medications. Bihar is a state in northeast India with limited mental healthcare provision; consequently access to and utilisation of psychotropic medications are likely to be limited. However, to date there has been no research assessing the situation. This study therefore aims to analyse the psychotropic medications management cycle (selection, procurement, distribution and use), and identify the barriers to access and utilisation, and their underlying causes. Method A rapid appraisal method was used in which primary and secondary data sources were collected and analysed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-two stakeholders and twenty-one service users from the government, non-governmental organisation (NGO) and private sectors. The qualitative data collected was analysed using a comparative thematic approach. The research was supported by the NGOs BasicNeeds and Nav Bharat Jagriti Kendra. Results Availability, distance and cost were the main barriers to access and utilisation. At the medical college hospital level a lack of supply appears to be due to a discrepancy between orders made by the hospital and medications supplied by the manufacturers. At the primary health centre and district hospital level the main barrier is a cycle between lack of demand for treatments for mental illness by doctors and patients. Conclusion Further investigation and monitoring is necessary to ensure the availability of psychotropic medications at the medical college hospital level. In addition, implementation of the District Mental Health Programme is likely to address the access and utilisation barriers due to its potential to break the current cycle of lack of demand.

2014-01-01

98

Milk utilisation patterns in the low-input production systems in South Africa.  

PubMed

Understanding the utilisation patterns of milk assists in designing appropriate dairy development schemes in rural communities. The objective of the study was to determine milk utilisation patterns in different smallholder farming systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected through the administration of recording sheets to 130 randomly selected households in Alice, Fort Beaufort and Queenstown districts. Amounts of milk produced per household ranged from 9 to 21 l per household per day. Milk consumption/household/day was similar among the three districts. Milk consumption in the early lactation doubled the amount consumed in late lactation (P < 0.05). Milk in the communal areas was largely utilised as fresh or sour milk. Fresh milk was mostly used in tea/coffee or to make porridge for children. Sour milk was consumed with thick boiled maize meal. Fort Beaufort (10.2 +/- 1.37 l/day) had the highest sour milk sales whilst Queenstown had the highest fresh milk sales (9.7 +/- 5.57 l/day). It was concluded that quantities of milk consumed or sold as fresh or sour were generally low and varied across smallholder farming systems. PMID:20383605

Mapekula, Monde; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

2010-10-01

99

Homeopathic use of modern medicines: utilisation of the curative rebound effect.  

PubMed

Homeopathy is a therapeutic method based on the application of the similitude principle, utilising medicinal substances that produce effects that are similar to the symptoms being treated. In this process, the organism is stimulated to react against its own disturbances through a vital (paradoxical, secondary or homeostatic) reaction, oriented by the primary effect of the used drug. This effect should have properties that are similar to the symptom that is being treated. This secondary reaction of the organism to a medicinal stimulus is observed in hundreds of modern drugs, and is referred to as a rebound effect. In this study we propose the utilisation of modern drugs according to the principle of homeopathic cure, employing the rebound effect as a curative reaction. For that we suggest the compilation of a Common Materia Medica that would group all symptoms produced by the medications in human individuals (therapeutic, adverse and side effects), utilising them, a posteriori, following a partial or total similitude, in minimal or ponderous doses. By doing that, we can take advantage of the numerous modern pharmacological compendiums, amplifying the spectrum of homeopathic cure with a wide range of new symptoms and medications. PMID:12606247

Teixeira, Marcus Zulian

2003-02-01

100

Donor blood procurement and utilisation at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City.  

PubMed

Banked blood is a limited resource in Nigeria. We sought to evaluate factors that may further limit the effective utilisation of donor blood in a tertiary hospital in Benin City. The records of the blood transfusion unit of the hospital were studied to identify the methods of blood procurement and utilisation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. A total of 11,021 units of blood were received in the blood transfusion unit within this period out of which 1491 (13.5%) donor blood samples were found unfit for transfusion and, hence, discarded. Commercial blood donation accounted for 95.3%, compared to 4.7% from replacement and volunteer donors. Commercial blood donation was a major risk factor for likely disposal of donor blood (chi2 = 74.3, p < 0.0001, OR = 21.1. 95% CI = 7.8-56.7). Expired units of blood with low PCV were discarded for lack of infrastructure to fractionate and store them. Over 0.8million naira (US$6000.00) is wasted annually on discarded units of donor blood mainly from commercial donors. A policy on blood procurement to include subgroup selection of donors and improved funding of blood banking services may enhance efficient and effective utilisation of donor blood. PMID:15623119

Enosolease, M E; Imarengiaye, C O; Awodu, O A

2004-08-01

101

Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room Walls PDM/CAD Tele-operations Product Control room External World

Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

2004-08-01

102

Improved sugar co-utilisation by encapsulation of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in alginate-chitosan capsules  

PubMed Central

Background Two major hurdles for successful production of second-generation bioethanol are the presence of inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic media, and the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally utilise pentoses. There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. A non-recombinant way to increase yeast tolerance to hydrolysates is by encapsulation of the yeast. This can be explained by concentration gradients occuring in the cell pellet inside the capsule. In the current study, we hypothesised that encapsulation might also lead to improved simultaneous utilisation of hexoses and pentoses because of such sugar concentration gradients. Results In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. Simulations also showed pronounced concentration gradients of sugars, which resulted in simultaneous xylose and glucose consumption and a steady state xylose consumption rate up to 220-fold higher than that found in suspension culture. To validate the results experimentally, a xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae strain, CEN.PK XXX, was constructed and encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan liquid core gel capsules. In defined media, encapsulation not only increased the tolerance of the yeast to inhibitors, but also promoted simultaneous utilisation of glucose and xylose. Encapsulation of the yeast resulted in consumption of at least 50% more xylose compared with suspended cells over 96-hour fermentations in medium containing both sugars. The higher consumption of xylose led to final ethanol titres that were approximately 15% higher. In an inhibitory dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, freely suspended yeast cells consumed the sugars in a sequential manner after a long lag phase, whereas no lag phase was observed for the encapsulated yeast, and glucose, mannose, galactose and xylose were utilised in parallel from the beginning of the cultivation. Conclusions Encapsulation of xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae leads to improved simultaneous and efficient utilisation of several sugars, which are utilised sequentially by suspended cells. The greatest improvement is obtained in inhibitory media. These findings show that encapsulation is a promising option for production of second-generation bioethanol.

2014-01-01

103

Predictors of treatment utilisation at cognitive remediation groups for schizophrenia: The roles of neuropsychological, psychological and clinical variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study highlights the importance of carefully assessing neuropsychological functioning at the outset of cognitive remediation (CR) treatment. The effects of neuropsychological, psychological, and clinical variables on treatment utilisation (TU) in CR groups for individuals with schizophrenia were examined. Data included neuropsychological and psychosocial assessments conducted with 39 adult clients enrolled in CR as part of their ongoing outpatient

Amanda L. Gooding; Alice Saperstein; Monica Rivera Mindt; Alice Medalia

2012-01-01

104

Cervical cancer screening service utilisation in UK.  

PubMed

This study investigates empirically how past screening behaviour, individual and household characteristics affect the current uptake of cervical cancer screening in UK. For the conceptual framework, we use a modified Grossman model which is extended for non-economic factors. A dynamic version of a random effects panel probit model with initial conditions is estimated on the balanced sub-sample of the data. The analysis sample is restricted to women of age 16 and older and grouped into different age categories with respect to the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP). As dataset a balanced panel data of 857 women with 11,998 observations from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) for the period from 1992 to 2008 is used for the analysis. Results suggest show that previous screening uptake, age, partner status, employment status and a previous GP visit have a significant influence on the likelihood of the uptake of cervical cancer screening. PMID:23917486

Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank; Kedir, Abbi

2013-01-01

105

Cervical Cancer Screening Service Utilisation in UK  

PubMed Central

This study investigates empirically how past screening behaviour, individual and household characteristics affect the current uptake of cervical cancer screening in UK. For the conceptual framework, we use a modified Grossman model which is extended for non-economic factors. A dynamic version of a random effects panel probit model with initial conditions is estimated on the balanced sub-sample of the data. The analysis sample is restricted to women of age 16 and older and grouped into different age categories with respect to the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP). As dataset a balanced panel data of 857 women with 11,998 observations from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) for the period from 1992 to 2008 is used for the analysis. Results suggest show that previous screening uptake, age, partner status, employment status and a previous GP visit have a significant influence on the likelihood of the uptake of cervical cancer screening.

Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank; Kedir, Abbi

2013-01-01

106

Biological utilisation of pearl millet fluor fermented with yeasts and lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed culture fermentation of pearl millet flour withSaccharomyces diastaticus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus brevis andLactobacillus fermentum brought about an improvement in its biological utilisation in rats. Protein efficiency ratio, feed efficiency ratio, apparent protein digestibility, true protein digestibility, net protein utilisation, net protein retention, protein retention efficiency and utilisable protein values in case of pure culture fermented pearl millet four were

N. Khetarpaul; B. M. Chauhan

1991-01-01

107

Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes.  

PubMed

The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled, and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation, and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate. The microbial studies of biodegradation process revealed following peculiarities: (i) gradual quantitative increasing of Lactobacillus sp. (from 10(3) to 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) per ml), (ii) activation of Clostridia sp. (from 10(2) to 10(4)CFU/ml), (iii) elimination of aerobic conventional pathogens (Enterobacteriaceae sp., Protea sp., staphylococci). The obtained results allow to evaluate effectiveness of proposed technology and to determine the leading role of lactobacilli and clostridia in process of natural wastes biodegradation. Our further investigations shall further be concentrated on creation of artificial inoculi for launching of food wastes biodegradation. These inoculi will include active and adapted strains of clostridia and lactobacilli. PMID:14692419

Ilyin, V K; Smirnov, I A; Soldatov, P E; Korniushenkova, I N; Grinin, A S; Lykov, I N; Safronova, S A

2004-03-01

108

Utilisation of biomass for the supply of energy carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because biomass is a widely available, renewable resource, its utilisation for the production of energy has great potential\\u000a for reducing CO2 emissions and thereby preventing global warming. In this mini-review the `state of the art' of several fermentation processes\\u000a is discussed, starting with the most advanced process of ethanol production. This is followed by methane production, an established\\u000a process for

P. A. M. Claassen; J. B. van Lier; A. M. Lopez Contreras; E. W. J. van Niel; L. Sijtsma; A. J. M. Stams; S. S. de Vries; R. A. Weusthuis

1999-01-01

109

Biomass combustion research and utilisation in IEA countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projects and achievements within the activity “Wood Combustion and Oxidation of Wet Biomass” in the triennium 1992–1994 are reviewed. The projects include modelling of wood combustion and pyrolysis, characterisation of biomass fuels and ashes, emission comparisons, emission reduction techniques, measurement techniques, comparison of test standards, utilisation of contaminated wood waste, oxidation of wet biomass, condensing systems and co-generation and co-firing

JE Hustad; Ø Skreiberg

1995-01-01

110

An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure that post-treatment needs and recommendations for care are met.

2012-01-01

111

The MentDis_ICF65+ study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation  

PubMed Central

Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders in the elderly. Method/design Using a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, this multi-centre study from six European countries and associated states (Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) is based on age-stratified, random samples of elderly people living in the community. The study program consists of three phases: (1) a methodological phase devoted primarily to the adaptation of age- and gender-specific assessment tools for older people (e.g., the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) as well as psychometric evaluations including translation, back translation; (2) a baseline community study in all participating countries to assess the lifetime, 12 month and 1 month prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders, including prior course, quality of life, health care utilization and helpseeking, impairments and participation and, (3) a 12 month follow-up of all baseline participants to monitor course and outcome as well as examine predictors. Discussion The study is an essential step forward towards the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of mental disorders as well as the evaluation of activity impairment and participation in older adults. This study will also facilitate the comparison of cross-cultural results. These results will have bearing on mental health care in the EU and will offer a starting point for necessary structural changes to be initiated for mental health care policy at the level of mental health care politics.

2013-01-01

112

Professional Service Utilisation among Patients with Severe Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Generally, patients with serious mental disorders (SMD) are frequent users of services who generate high care-related costs. Current reforms aim to increase service integration and primary care for improved patient care and health-care efficiency. This article identifies and compares variables associated with the use by patients with SMD of services offered by psychiatrists, case managers, and general practitioners (GPs). It also compares frequent and infrequent service use. Method One hundred forty patients with SMD from five regions in Quebec, Canada, were interviewed on their use of services in the previous year. Patients were also required to complete a questionnaire on needs-assessment. In addition, data were collected from clinical records. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Most patients used services from psychiatrists and case managers, but no more than half consulted GPs. Most patients were followed at least by two professionals, chiefly psychiatrists and case managers. Care access, continuity of care, and total help received were the most important variables associated with the different types of professional consultation. These variables were also associated with frequent use of professional service, as compared with infrequent service use. In all, enabling factors rather than need factors were the core predictors of frequency of service utilisation by patients with SMD. Conclusion This study reveals that health care system organisation and professional practice - rather than patient need profiles - are the core predictors of professional consultation by patients with SMD. The homogeneity of our study population, i.e. mainly users with schizophrenia, recently discharged from hospital, may partly account for these results. Our findings also underscored the limited involvement of GPs in this patient population's care. As comorbidity is often associated with serious mental disorders, closer follow-up by GPs is needed. Globally, more effort should be directed at increasing shared-care initiatives, which would enhance coordination among psychiatrists, GPs, and psychosocial teams (including case managers). Finally, there is a need to increase awareness among health care providers, especially GPs, of the level of care required by patients with disabling and serious mental disorders.

2010-01-01

113

Centrifugal Blower Noise Studies Literature Survey and Noise Measurements (Etudes des Bruits Associees a l'Utilisation des Souffleurs Centrifuges Etude de la Litterature Specialisee et Mesures des Bruits).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the existing literature on the subject of centrifugal fan and blower noise studies is presented in this report to establish further areas of research needed to aid in the development of a quiet blower. Noise measurements on a wide variety of b...

G. Krishnappa

1976-01-01

114

Expenditure and resource utilisation for cervical screening in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that women aged 18–69 years are screened with conventional cytology every 2 years. Publicly funded HPV vaccination was introduced in 2007, and partly as a consequence, a renewal of the screening program that includes a review of screening recommendations has recently been announced. This study aimed to provide a baseline for such a review by quantifying screening program resource utilisation and costs in 2010. Methods A detailed model of current cervical screening practice in Australia was constructed and we used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry to model age-specific compliance with screening and follow-up. We applied model-derived rate estimates to the 2010 Australian female population to calculate costs and numbers of colposcopies, biopsies, treatments for precancer and cervical cancers in that year, assuming that the numbers of these procedures were not yet substantially impacted by vaccination. Results The total cost of the screening program in 2010 (excluding administrative program overheads) was estimated to be A$194.8M. We estimated that a total of 1.7 million primary screening smears costing $96.7M were conducted, a further 188,900 smears costing $10.9M were conducted to follow-up low grade abnormalities, 70,900 colposcopy and 34,100 histological evaluations together costing $21.2M were conducted, and about 18,900 treatments for precancerous lesions were performed (including retreatments), associated with a cost of $45.5M for treatment and post-treatment follow-up. We also estimated that $20.5M was spent on work-up and treatment for approximately 761 women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. Overall, an estimated $23 was spent in 2010 for each adult woman in Australia on cervical screening program-related activities. Conclusions Approximately half of the total cost of the screening program is spent on delivery of primary screening tests; but the introduction of HPV vaccination, new technologies, increasing the interval and changing the age range of screening is expected to have a substantial impact on this expenditure, as well as having some impact on follow-up and management costs. These estimates provide a benchmark for future assessment of the impact of changes to screening program recommendations to the costs of cervical screening in Australia.

2012-01-01

115

Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing\\u000a Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective\\u000a of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data pertaining to the

Hylton B Menz

2009-01-01

116

Prehydrolysis improves utilisation of dietary protein in the larval teleost Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein preparation labelled by incorporation of [U]14C-AA was hydrolysed to various degrees and administered to a teleost fish larva (Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) by tube-feeding, and its post-administration utilisation was studied. Three treatments were prepared: IntP—intact protein, PHP—pepsin-hydrolysed protein, and HHP—highly hydrolysed protein (using pepsin, trypsin, endoproteinase Glu-C, Asp-N, and Pro-C). At small doses (11.4±1.5 ?g larvae?1), the

Sigurd K. Tonheim; Marit Espe; Kristin Hamre; Ivar Rønnestad

2005-01-01

117

Factors affecting the utilisation of improved ventilated latrines among communities in Mtwara Rural District, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Tanzania government, working in partnership with other stakeholders implemented a community-based project aimed at increasing access to clean and safe water basic sanitation and promotion of personal hygiene in Mtwara Rural District. Mid-term evaluation revealed that progress had been made towards improved ventilated latrines; however, there was no adequate information on utilisation of these latrines and associated factors. This study was therefore conducted to establish the factors influencing the utilisation of these latrines. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 randomly selected households using a pre-tested questionnaire to determine whether the households owned improved ventilated latrines and how they utilised them. Resuls About half (50.5%) of the households had an improved ventilated latrine and households with earnings of more than 50,000 Tanzanian Shillings were two times more likely to own an improved latrine than those that earned less (AOR 2.1, 95% CI=1.1-4.0, p= 0.034). The likelihood of owning an improved latrine was reduced by more than 60 percent for female-headed households (AOR=0.38; 95% CI=0.20-0.71; p=0.002). Furthermore, it was established that all members of a household were more likely to use a latrine if it was an improved ventilated latrine (AOR=2.4; 95% CI=1.1-5.1; p= 0.024). Conclusion Findings suggest adoption of strategies to improve the wellbeing of households and deploying those who had acquired improved ventilated latrines as resource persons to help train others. Furthermore, efforts are needed to increase access to soft loans for disadvantaged members and increasing community participation.

Kema, Koronel; Semali, Innocent; Mkuwa, Serafina; Kagonji, Ignatio; Temu, Florence; Ilako, Festus; Mkuye, Martin

2012-01-01

118

Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents.  

PubMed

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid phase in a biphasic solvent system. This paper describes a previously unreported use of MIPs as solvent extraction reagents, their successful application to aqueous sample media and the opportunities for utilisation of this unique system in novel biosensing and separation procedures. This study demonstrates the development of a novel biphasic solvent system utilising MIP in the extracting phase to enhance both efficiency and selectivity of a simple two phase liquid extraction. Monodisperse propranolol imprinted polymer microspheres [p(divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid)] were prepared by precipitation polymerisation. Initially, the affinity of the polymers for (R,S)-propranolol was assessed by established techniques whereby the MIP demonstrated greater affinity for the template than did the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP). Importantly, MIP performance was also assessed using the novel dual solvent system. The depletion of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase into the polymer containing organic phase was determined. When compared to control extractions containing no polymer the presence of MIP in the extracting solvent phase resulted in an increased extraction of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase. Importantly, this extraction was significantly greater in the presence of MIP when compared to NIP. This unique principle generates opportunities for MIP based extractions and chemical enrichments in industrial applications, offering commercial, ecological and practical advantages to traditional solvent extraction techniques. The technique is readily transferable to analytical microsystems utilising MIP recognition elements generating promising opportunities for MIP based sensing of aqueous sample media. PMID:16938448

Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

2006-10-15

119

Fish Utilisation of Wetland Nurseries with Complex Hydrological Connectivity  

PubMed Central

The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting ‘facultative wetland resident’ group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the ’interrupted persistence’ group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the ‘facultative wetland resident’ and ‘delayed recruitment group’, and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the ‘delayed recruitment’ group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity. Consequently, there is a need to incorporate this diversity into understandings of habitat function, conservation and management.

Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

2012-01-01

120

Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.  

PubMed

The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity. Consequently, there is a need to incorporate this diversity into understandings of habitat function, conservation and management. PMID:23152857

Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

2012-01-01

121

Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.  

PubMed

In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P?

Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojt?ch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

2014-05-01

122

Measurement of horizontal inequity in health care utilisation using European panel data.  

PubMed

Measurement of inequity in health care delivery has focused on the extent to which health care utilisation is or is not distributed according to need, irrespective of income. Studies using cross-sectional data have proposed various ways of measuring and standardizing for need, but inevitably much of the inter-individual variation in needs remains unobserved in cross-sections. This paper exploits panel data methods to improve the measurement by including the time-invariant part of unobserved heterogeneity into the need-standardization procedure. Using latent class hurdle models for GP and specialist visits estimated on 8 annual waves of the European Community Household Panel we compute indices of horizontal equity that partition total income-related variation in use into a need- and a non-need related part, not only for the observed but also for the unobserved but time-invariant component. We also propose and compare a more conservative index of horizontal inequity to the conventional statistic. We find that many of the cross-country comparative results appear fairly robust to the panel data test, although the panel-based methods lead to significantly higher estimates of horizontal inequity for most countries. This confirms that better estimation and control for need often reveals more pro-rich distributions of doctor utilisation. PMID:19041148

Bago d'Uva, Teresa; Jones, Andrew M; van Doorslaer, Eddy

2009-03-01

123

A laser induced fluorescence technique for quantifying transient liquid fuel films utilising total internal reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique to quantify the thickness and spatial distribution of transient liquid fuel films formed as a result of spray-wall interaction. The LIF technique relies on the principle that upon excitation by laser radiation the intensity of the fluorescent signal from a tracer like 3-pentanone is proportional to the film thickness. A binary solution of 10% (v/v) of 3-pentanone in iso-octane is used as a test fuel with a Nd:YAG laser as the excitation light source (utilising the fourth harmonic at wavelength 266 nm) and an intensified CCD camera is used to record the results as fluorescent images. The propagation of the excitation laser beam through the optical piston is carefully controlled by total internal reflection so that only the fuel film is excited and not the airborne droplets above the film, which had been previously shown to induce significant error. Other known sources of error are also carefully minimised. Calibrated temporally resolved benchmark results of a transient spray from a gasoline direct injector impinging on a flat quartz crown under atmospheric conditions are presented, with observations and discussion of the transient development of the fuel film. The calibrated measurements are consistent with previous studies of this event and demonstrate the applicability of the technique particularly for appraisal of CFD predictions. The potential utilisation of the technique under typical elevated ambient conditions is commented upon.

Alonso, Mario; Kay, Peter J.; Bowen, Phil J.; Gilchrist, Robert; Sapsford, Steve

2010-01-01

124

Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation in a multiple health insurance system: does insurance affiliation matter?  

PubMed Central

Background Many countries striving to achieve universal health insurance coverage have done so by means of multiple health insurance funds covering different population groups. However, existence of multiple health insurance funds may also cause variation in access to health care, due to the differential revenue raising capacities and benefit packages offered by the various funds resulting in inequity and inefficiency within the health system. This paper examines how the existence of multiple health insurance funds affects health care seeking behaviour and utilisation among members of the Community Health Fund, the National Health Insurance Fund and non-members in two districts in Tanzania. Methods Using household survey data collected in 2011 with a sample of 3290 individuals, the study uses a multinomial logit model to examine the influence of predisposing, enabling and need characteristics on the probability of seeking care and choice of provider. Results Generally, health insurance is found to increase the probability of seeking care and reduce delays. However, the probability, timing of seeking care and choice of provider varies across the CHF and NHIF members. Conclusions Reducing fragmentation is necessary to provide opportunities for redistribution and to promote equity in utilisation of health services. Improvement in the delivery of services is crucial for achievement of improved access and financial protection and for increased enrolment into the CHF, which is essential for broadening redistribution and cross-subsidisation to promote equity.

2014-01-01

125

Material utilisation when depositing CdTe layers by inline AP-MOCVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of precursors' usage during deposition of cadmium telluride (CdTe) layers via atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapour deposition (AP-MOCVD) for thin film photovoltaic solar cells. Precursors were released from a showerhead assembly normal to the glass substrate 0.7 mm thick (5×7.5 cm2) being deposited which was kept stationary or moved under the showerhead assembly, with speed of upto 2.25 cm/min. In order to estimate the effective precursor utilisation, the weight deposit (layer) was compared against the theoretical values calculated for ideal molar supply. The layer thickness, composition, morphology, and crystallinity were also measured using profilometry, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It is shown that over 40% material utilisation can be achieved depending on the deposition parameters of substrate temperature and speed, partial pressure of precursors and total gas flow. The activation energy derived from an Arrhenius plot of deposition rate equals 49 kJ mol-1 and is consistent with previous reports of MOCVD CdTe using a horizontal reactor. This confirms that, despite the very different reactor geometry, the alkyl radical homolysis and reaction mechanism applies in the case of the inline injector geometry in the work presented here. These results demonstrate an alternative path to high throughput processing of CdTe thin film solar cells by inline AP-MOCVD.

Barrioz, V.; Kartopu, G.; Irvine, S. J. C.; Monir, S.; Yang, X.

2012-09-01

126

Effect of high digestible protein to digestible energy ratio on lysine utilisation by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the efficiency of lysine utilisation for liveweight gain (LG), protein gain (PG) and lysine gain (LysG) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr fed a diet with a high digestible protein (DP) to digestible energy (DE) ratio. Twelve diets containing 10.15 to 20.79g dietary digestible lysine (DDLys) kg?1 at a constant 25.0g DP MJ DE?1 (25.0 DP

Chris G. Carter; Rhys C. Hauler

2011-01-01

127

Health care utilisation in Europe: new evidence from the ECHP.  

PubMed

The ECHP is used to analyse health care utilisation care in Europe. We estimate a new latent class hurdle model for panel data and compare it with the latent class NegBin model and the standard hurdle model. Latent class specifications outperform the standard hurdle model and the latent class hurdle model reveals income effects that are masked in the NegBin model. For specialist visits, low users are more income elastic than high users and the probability of using care is more income elastic than the conditional number of visits. The effects of income on total use of GPs are mostly negative or insignificant but positive elasticities are found for Austria, Greece and, to a greater extent, Portugal. On the whole, richer individuals tend to use more specialist care, especially in Portugal, Ireland, Finland, Greece and Austria. Features of the health care systems of these countries may contribute to the observed inequities. PMID:19128848

Bago d'Uva, Teresa; Jones, Andrew M

2009-03-01

128

The Effect of Urban Basic Medical Insurance on Health Service Utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: A Comparison of Two Schemes  

PubMed Central

Background Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Results Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p<0.10), whilst the significant effect on hospitalisation was evident in the CEM method (p<0.10). The effect of URBMI was limited in that although being insured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Conclusion Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services.

Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

129

Modeling abiotic production of apparent oxygen utilisation in the oligotrophic subtropical North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent oxygen utilisation is potentially biased by abiotic, physical processes. Using a coupled 3-D circulation-oxygen model, this potential is quantitatively estimated for a region in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic, called the Beta Triangle, where an inconsistency exists between observational estimates of high carbon export from the euphotic zone, based on oxygen utilisation rates in the thermocline (Jenkins 1982), and

Heiner Dietze; Andreas Oschlies

2005-01-01

130

Spatial modelling of healthcare utilisation for treatment of fever in Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background Health care utilization is affected by several factors including geographic accessibility. Empirical data on utilization of health facilities is important to understanding geographic accessibility and defining health facility catchments at a national level. Accurately defining catchment population improves the analysis of gaps in access, commodity needs and interpretation of disease incidence. Here, empirical household survey data on treatment seeking for fever were used to model the utilisation of public health facilities and define their catchment areas and populations in northern Namibia. Method This study uses data from the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) of 2009 on treatment seeking for fever among children under the age of five years to characterize facility utilisation. Probability of attendance of public health facilities for fever treatment was modelled against a theoretical surface of travel times using a three parameter logistic model. The fitted model was then applied to a population surface to predict the number of children likely to use a public health facility during an episode of fever in northern Namibia. Results Overall, from the MIS survey, the prevalence of fever among children was 17.6% CI [16.0-19.1] (401 of 2,283 children) while public health facility attendance for fever was 51.1%, [95%CI: 46.2-56.0]. The coefficients of the logistic model of travel time against fever treatment at public health facilities were all significant (p < 0.001). From this model, probability of facility attendance remained relatively high up to 180 minutes (3 hours) and thereafter decreased steadily. Total public health facility catchment population of children under the age five was estimated to be 162,286 in northern Namibia with an estimated fever burden of 24,830 children. Of the estimated fevers, 8,021 (32.3%) were within 30 minutes of travel time to the nearest health facility while 14,902 (60.0%) were within 1 hour. Conclusion This study demonstrates the potential of routine household surveys to empirically model health care utilisation for the treatment of childhood fever and define catchment populations enhancing the possibilities of accurate commodity needs assessment and calculation of disease incidence. These methods could be extended to other African countries where detailed mapping of health facilities exists.

2012-01-01

131

Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8%) reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25%) of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%), private clinics (50%), hospital (27%) and health centres (13%). Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

2011-01-01

132

The effect of protein supplement source or supply pattern on the intake, digestibility, rumen kinetics, nitrogen utilisation and growth of Ethiopian Menz sheep fed teff straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of trials were conducted to study the effect of either nitrogen source or supply pattern on the growth, rumen fermentation pattern and utilisation of straw by Ethiopian Menz sheep. All experimental sheep were given teff straw basal diet (CON). Irrespective of the trial, treatment sheep were offered either cottonseed cake (CSC), leucaena (LEU) and sesbania (SESM) in the

M. L. K. Bonsi; A. K. Tuah; P. O. Osuji; V. I. Nsahlai; N. N. Umunna

1996-01-01

133

Utilisation of agricultural databases for statistical evaluation of yields of barley and wheat in relation to soil variables and management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to utilise existing databases for evaluating effects of soil and management factors on the yields of barley and wheat in Norway. In a multiple regression model, 17% and 19% of the variation of barley and wheat yield, respectively, was explained by 15 significant predictors. The highest-ranking predictors for barley yield were percent area of

Arne Grønlund; Arnor Njøs; Live S. Vestgarden; Ingvar Lyngstad

2006-01-01

134

New perspectives on nutritional interventions to augment lipid utilisation during exercise.  

PubMed

The enhancement of fat oxidation during exercise is an aim for both recreational exercising individuals and endurance athletes. Nutritional status may explain a large part of the variation in maximal rates of fat oxidation during exercise. This review reveals novel insights into nutritional manipulation of substrate selection during exercise, explaining putative mechanisms of action and evaluating the current evidence. Lowering the glycaemic index of the pre-exercise meal can enhance lipid utilisation by up to 100 % through reduced insulin concentrations, although its application may be restricted to specific training sessions rather than competition. Chronic effects of dietary glycaemic index are less clear and warrant future study before firm recommendations can be made. A flurry of recent advances has overthrown the conventional view of l-carnitine supplementation, with skeletal muscle uptake possible under certain dietary conditions and providing a strategy to influence energy metabolism in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. Use of non-carbohydrate nutrients to stimulate muscle l-carnitine uptake may prove more beneficial for optimising lipid utilisation, but this requires more research. Studies investigating fish oil supplementation on fat oxidation during exercise are conflicting. In spite of some strong putative mechanisms, the only crossover trial showed no significant effect on lipid use during exercise. Ca may increase NEFA availability although it is not clear whether these effects occur. Ca and caffeine can increase NEFA availability under certain circumstances which could theoretically enhance fat oxidation, yet strong experimental evidence for this effect during exercise is lacking. Co-administration of nutrients to maximise their effectiveness needs further investigation. PMID:22136984

Gonzalez, Javier T; Stevenson, Emma J

2012-02-01

135

Liquid level sensor utilising a long period fiber grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose here a liquid level sensor using a long period fiber grating (LPFG) in which direct liquid level measurement is carried out by utilising an LPFG, 100mm in length and a periodicity of 1mm. The LPFG was exposed to liquids with varying levels and the wavelength shift of a selected loss band of the transmission spectra was monitored using a broadband light source and an optical spectrum analyzer. The mechanism of this LPFG sensor is based on the fact that the effective Refractive Index (RI) of a cladding mode is directly dependant on the RI of the surrounding medium, be it air, or in this case water and petrol. As the surrounding RI changes, so does the phase matching condition of the LPFG. The result for the level change of the liquid with a specific RI is both a shift in wavelength and a change in the attenuation level of the selected loss band. For the selected loss band, continuous wavelength shifts of 9.5 nm and 25 nm for 100 mm of water and petrol level change have been observed respectively, with sub-millimetre accuracy.

Grice, S.; Zhang, W.; Sugden, K.; Bennion, I.

2009-02-01

136

Rhinovirus infection and healthcare utilisation in prematurely born infants.  

PubMed

Our aim was to determine whether rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in prematurely born infants increase health-related cost of care during infancy. 153 infants born at <36 weeks of gestation were prospectively followed to 1 year. Cost of care was calculated from the National Health Service reference costing scheme and healthcare utilisation determined by examining hospital/general practitioner records. 20 infants developed RV LRTIs (RV group), 17 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) LRTIs (RSV group), 12 both RV and RSV LRTIs (RV/RSV group) and 74 had no LRTI (no LRTI group). Compared with the no LRTI group, the RV/RSV LRTI group had the greatest increase in adjusted mean cost (difference GBP 5769), followed by the RV LRTI group (difference GBP 278) and, finally, the RSV LRTI group (difference GBP 172) (p=0.045). The RV group had more outpatient (p<0.05) and respiratory-related general practitioner (p<0.05) attendances, more wheezed at follow-up (p<0.001) than the no LRTI group and more had respiratory-related outpatient attendances than the RSV LRTI group (p<0.05). We conclude that RV LRTIs were associated with increased health-related cost of care during infancy; our results suggest that the RV group compared with the RSV group suffered greater chronic respiratory morbidity. PMID:23563263

Drysdale, Simon B; Alcazar-Paris, Mireia; Wilson, Theresa; Smith, Melvyn; Zuckerman, Mark; Broughton, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Peacock, Janet L; Johnston, Sebastian L; Greenough, Anne

2013-10-01

137

Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam  

PubMed Central

Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.

2012-01-01

138

A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health.

2014-01-01

139

Genetic Resources (Including Wild and Cultivated Solanum Species) and Progress in their Utilisation in Potato Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic resources available for the improvement of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are reviewed along with progress in their utilisation. The conclusions are as follows. The wild and cultivated species of\\u000a potato have been utilised in potato breeding to good effect, but only a very small sample of the available biodiversity has\\u000a been exploited. New knowledge and technology will

J. E. Bradshaw; G. J. Bryan; G. Ramsay

2006-01-01

140

Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective  

PubMed Central

Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households.

Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

2014-01-01

141

Impact of technology on the utilisation of positron emission tomography in lymphoma: current and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) has now gained a place in the management of patients with cancer, including those with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Restaging studies and those addressing the monitoring of response to treatment are especially in focus. Most of the knowledge gained has been achieved with dedicated BGO-based PET technology, but there are a number of developments that will impact on the use of this metabolic imaging technique in the investigation of patients with lymphoma. The challenges ahead are determined by the need for high-quality whole-body imaging associated with increased patient throughput and the need to investigate the role of new labelled ligands. The latter are likely to yield new insights into tumour cell characterisation, tumour behaviour and tumour outcome assessment. The study of new radiolabelled ligands will impose further demands for rapid dynamic data acquisition and accurate tracer quantification. Current and future developments in PET technology range from the use of new detector materials to different detector geometries and data acquisition modes. The search for alternatives to BGO scintillation materials for PET has led to the development of PET instruments utilising new crystals such as LSO and GSO. The use of these new detectors and the increased sensitivity achieved with 3D data acquisitions represent the most significant current developments in the field. With the increasing demands imposed on the clinical utilisation of PET, issues such as study cost and patient throughput will emerge as significant future factors. As a consequence, low-cost units are being offered by the manufacturers through the utilisation of gamma camera-based SPET systems for PET coincidence imaging. Unfortunately, clinical studies in lymphoma and other cancers have already demonstrated the limitations of this technology, with 20% of lesions <15 mm in size escaping detection. On the other hand, the recent development of combined PET/CT devices attempts to address the lack of anatomical information inherent with PET images, taking advantage of further improvement in patient throughput and hence cost-effectiveness. Preliminary studies using this multimodality imaging approach have already demonstrated the potential of the technique. Although the potential exists, certain technical issues with PET/CT require refinement of the methodology. Such issues include organ movement (such as respiratory motion), which strongly influences the image fusion of a rapidly acquired CT scan with the slower acquisition of a PET dataset, and the derivation of CT-based attenuation coefficients in the presence of contrast agents or metallic implants. The application of the technology for radiotherapy planning also poses a number of associated challenges. Finally, the development of dedicated PET systems based on planar detector arrangements with new detector components has the potential to improve clinical throughput by over 100%, but clinical trials using such systems have still to be carried out in order to establish the associated whole-body image quality. PMID:12748830

Visvikis, D; Ell, P J

2003-06-01

142

High-throughput genotyping of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) utilising diversity arrays technology (DArT).  

PubMed

Implementation of molecular methods in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) breeding is dependent on the availability of sizeable numbers of polymorphic markers and a comprehensive understanding of genetic variation. However, use of molecular marker technology is limited due to expense, time inefficiency, laborious methodology and dependence on DNA sequence information. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) is a high-throughput cost-effective method for the discovery of large numbers of quality polymorphic markers without reliance on DNA sequence information. This study is the first to utilise DArT for hop genotyping, identifying 730 polymorphic markers from 92 hop accessions. The marker quality was high and similar to the quality of DArT markers previously generated for other species; although percentage polymorphism and polymorphism information content (PIC) were lower than in previous studies deploying other marker systems in hop. Genetic relationships in hop illustrated by DArT in this study coincide with knowledge generated using alternate methods. Several statistical analyses separated the hop accessions into genetically differentiated North American and European groupings, with hybrids between the two groups clearly distinguishable. Levels of genetic diversity were similar in the North American and European groups, but higher in the hybrid group. The markers produced from this time and cost-efficient genotyping tool will be a valuable resource for numerous applications in hop breeding and genetics studies, such as mapping, marker-assisted selection, genetic identity testing, guidance in the maintenance of genetic diversity and the directed breeding of superior cultivars. PMID:21243330

Howard, E L; Whittock, S P; Jakše, J; Carling, J; Matthews, P D; Probasco, G; Henning, J A; Darby, P; Cerenak, A; Javornik, B; Kilian, A; Koutoulis, A

2011-05-01

143

A systematic review of the literature exploring illness perceptions in mental health utilising the self-regulation model.  

PubMed

Psychologists have utilised a range of social cognition models to understand variation in physical health and illness-related behaviours. The most widely studied model of illness perceptions has been the Self-Regulation Model (SRM, Leventhal, Nerenz, & Steele, 1984). The illness perceptions questionnaire (IPQ) and its revised version (IPQ-R) have been utilised to explore illness beliefs in physical health. This review examined 13 quantitative studies, which used the IPQ and IPQ-R in mental health in their exploration of illness perceptions in psychosis, bipolar disorder, eating disorders, depression and adolescents experiencing mood disorders. Across these studies the SRM illness dimensions were largely supported. Mental illnesses were commonly viewed as cyclical and chronic, with serious negative consequences. Perceptions regarding chronicity, controllability and negative consequences were associated with coping and help seeking, while engagement with services and help seeking were also related to illness coherence beliefs. Treatment adherence was linked to beliefs that treatment could control one's illness. Whilst a major limitation of the reviewed studies was the use of cross-sectional designs, overall the applicability of the SRM to mental health was supported. The IPQ and IPQ-R were shown to be valuable measures of illness perceptions in mental health, offering implications for clinical practice. PMID:23108509

Baines, Tineke; Wittkowski, Anja

2013-09-01

144

Analysis of the diversity of substrate utilisation of soil bacteria exposed to Cd and earthworm activity using generalised additive models.  

PubMed

Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

2014-01-01

145

Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models  

PubMed Central

Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd.

Muniz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, Maria P.; Jimenez, Juan Jose; Navarro, Enrique

2014-01-01

146

Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture  

SciTech Connect

Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

Wagner, Andreas Otto, E-mail: Andreas.Wagner@uibk.ac.a [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Gstrauntaler, Gudrun [Abfallbeseitigungsverband Westtirol, Breite Mure, A-6426 Roppen (Austria); Illmer, Paul [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2010-10-15

147

Mechanism of action of insulin in diabetic patients: a dose-related effect on glucose production and utilisation  

PubMed Central

Six insulin-requiring diabetics were studied after insulin had been withheld for 24 hours. On three separate occasions each received a two-hour infusion of insulin at a low dose (2·6 U/h) and a high dose (10·6 U/h) and an infusion of saline as control. The rates of production and utilisation of glucose were measured isotopically. The rate of fall of plasma glucose concentration was faster on the high-dose infusion of insulin than on the low, whereas the fall in plasma free fatty acids, glycerol, and keton bodies was the same on both insulin infusions. The mechanism whereby the two rates of insulin administration lowered plasma glucose concentration differed: during the low-dose infusion the decrease in the glucose concentration was produced entirely by a fall of hepatic glucose output, whereas during the high-dose insulin infusion the glucose concentration fell because both the rate of glucose production fell and the rate of glucose utilisation rose. In all experiments there was a direct relation between a fall in serum potassium concentration and the fall in plasma glucose concentration irrespective of the mechanism that reduced the glucose concentration. These results indicate that in uncontrolled diabetics low-dose insulin infusions lower the blood glucose concentration entirely by reducing glucose production from the liver and that the effect of insulin on potassium transport is independent of its effect on glucose uptake.

Brown, P M; Tompkins, C V; Juul, S; Sonksen, P H

1978-01-01

148

Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees’ perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.4–98.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.2–95.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ?30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services.

Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Ezeama, Nkiru N.; Ifeadike, Chigozie Ozoemena; Okezie, Obasi Kanu

2014-01-01

149

Implementation of direct torque control of induction machine utilising TMS320C31 digital signal processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital signal processors (DSPs) are becoming more popular in the area of AC motor control, in particular the induction motor drives. The fast number crunching capabilities of DSPs which are traditionally meant for data processing tasks such as image processing and speech recognition, are being utilised to perform on-line calculation of the AC motor variables, such as electromagnetic torque, fluxes,

A. H. M. Yatim; N. R. N. Idris

2001-01-01

150

Expenditure on the NHS during and after the Thatcher years: its growth and utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Has government expenditure on the National Health and Personal Social Services increased significantly in real terms over the past decade? If so, where has this growth in expenditure been utilised? This paper investigates claims of real increases in expenditure by examining trends in total expenditure on the NHS between 1979 and 1992, and disaggregating these trends to concentrate on different

Karen Bloor; Alan Maynard

1993-01-01

151

Ash-related Problems during Biomass Combustion and Possibilities for a Sustainable Ash Utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of biomass fuels and especially the contents of ash forming elements influence the choice of an appropriate combustion and process control technology. They affect deposit formation, fly ash emissions and ash handling as well as ash utilisation\\/disposal options. Major ash forming elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Si) are of relevance for the ash melting

Friedrich Biedermann; Ingwald Obernberger; BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME

152

Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the

W. Permchart; S. Tanatvanit

2007-01-01

153

Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical

Margareth Øverland; Anne-Helene Tauson; Karl Shearer; Anders Skrede

2010-01-01

154

Adaptive trajectory control of microcantilever's tip utilised in atomic force microscopy-based manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a hybrid distributed-parameters model and an adaptive control framework for microcantilevers utilised in atomic force microscope systems for controlled force manipulations. The model assumes a general nonlinear interaction force between the microcantilever's tip and the surface of the sample. This interaction force includes the sample's surface and probe's tip distance as well as the first and second

Sohrab Eslami; Nader Jalili

2011-01-01

155

CONDITIONS FOR THE UTILISATION OF LOW-ENTHALPY HYDROGEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN GERMANY - AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilisation of geothermal energy is regarded as a promising possibility to cover a substantial part of mankind's ever increasing energy demand. Today the hydrogeothermal resources used in Germany for low temperature heat supply cover only a small part of the current energy demand. Restrictions for a more wide- spread application result from a variety of factors of different nature

K. Erbas; E. Huenges

156

Rankings of importance of location-based services utilisation for emergency management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driven by several issues from earlier commercial public alerting projects, this paper investigates people's opinions in regard to the current and expected deployments of mobile location-based services under national emergency alerting and warning systems. In particular, the paper examines general public perspective of the importance of utilising the services in different types of emergency events, categorised as natural and human-caused.

Anas Aloudat; Yehia Alzoubi

2010-01-01

157

Modification of myocardial substrate utilisation: a new therapeutic paradigm in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapies that aim to modify cardiac substrate utilisation are designed to increase metabolic efficiency. Although the main energy supply for the heart is generally provided by the oxidation of fatty acids, the heart is a metabolic omnivore and able to consume glucose as well as lactate and amino acids in varying proportions. A shift from fatty acid oxidation to glucose

Roger M Beadle; Michael Frenneaux

2010-01-01

158

Evaluation of the environmental impact of waste wood co-utilisation for energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a practical, economic and environmentally sound solution for waste wood arises from the requirements for resource conservation and recent regulations. Co-firing with coal is a promising option for the thermal recycling of waste wood. The overall environmental impact caused by the co-utilisation of waste wood with coal was evaluated by using life cycle assessment as established by

G. Skodras; P. Grammelis; E. Kakaras; G. P. Sakellaropoulos

2004-01-01

159

Solar energy utilisation efficiency in environment-controlled agriculture in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of an analysis of the solar radiation and temperature resources in different part of China, this paper classifies Environment-Controlled Agriculture (ECA) in China into zones and briefly introduces the feature of each zone. Meanwhile, features of different ECA types such as heliogreenhouse, plastic arched shed, adumbral net and their contributions to increasing solar energy utilisation efficiency are

Li Pingping; Hu Yongguang; Liu Jizhan

2004-01-01

160

Utilisation of fruits waste for citric acid production by solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid state fermentation method was used to utilise pineapple, mixed fruit and maosmi waste as substrates for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger DS 1. Experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of methanol at different moisture levels. In the absence of methanol the maximum citric acid was obtained at 60% moisture level whereas in the presence

D. Kumar; V. K. Jain; G. Shanker; A. Srivastava

2003-01-01

161

Utilising Year Three NAPLAN Results to Improve Queensland Teachers' Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…

van Klinken, Eduarda

2010-01-01

162

Standardisation vs. Personalisation: An Alternative View of the Problem of Under-utilised Corporate Intranets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although intranets are well-established organisational information environments, employees often complain that their intranets do not help them in their daily activities, and, as a consequent, the technology is left under-utilised. The reason typically assumed, by managers and scholars alike, is that the intranets are too wild and ill structured, and the medicine prescribed is thus tighter management control. In this

Dick Stenmark

163

Towards better utilisation of non-conventional feed sources by sheep and goats in some African and Asian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Current pattern of utilisation of non-conventional feed resources (NCFRs) in Africa and Asia and techniques for their efficient use in small ruminant feeding are discussed in this paper. Chronic feed deficits represent a major constraint to animal production in many developing countries. Expanding the feed resource base through utilisation of NCFRs, especially those that do not compete with

H. Ben Salem; H. P. S. Makkar; A. Nefzaoui

164

206?Prospects for utilisation of late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells as therapy to prevent transplant vasculopathy.  

PubMed

: Renal transplantation is a successful treatment for patients with renal failure but its long-term efficacy is limited by untreatable transplant vasculopathy (TA). Endothelial damage contributes to TA and is potentially repairable by circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). The frequency and function of EPC is variably influenced by end-stage renal failure (ESRF). This study aimed to characterise the late-outgrowth EPC (LO-EPC) from ESRF patients with a view to utilising autologous LO-EPC for endothelial repair following renal transplantation. LO-EPC isolated from ESRF patients and healthy volunteers were characterised phenotypically and functionally and their integrin expression profile was determined.ESRF patients generated more LO-EPC colonies than healthy controls, had higher plasma levels of IL-1r?, IL-16, IL-6, MIF, VEGF, Prolactin and PLGF. Patients' LO-EPC displayed normal endothelial cell morphology, increased secretion of PLGF, MCP-1 and IL-1?, decreased senescence and normal network formation in vitro and in vivo , but demonstrated decreased adhesion to extracellular matrix. Integrin gene profiles and protein expression were comparable in patients and healthy volunteers. In some patients, mesenchymal stem cells were co-isolated from peripheral blood and these could be differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro . This is the first study to characterise LO-EPC from ESRF patients. Their behaviour in vitro reflects the presence of elevated trophic factors; their ability to proliferate in vitro and angiogenic function makes them candidates for prevention of transplant vasculopathy. Their impaired adhesion and the presence of MSC are areas for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:24922782

Zhao, Jing; Bolton, Eleanor; Randle, Lucy; Bradley, J Andrew; Lever, Andrew

2014-06-01

165

Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as unmanned airborne systems (UAS) or remotely piloted airborne systems (RPAS), are an established platform for close range airborne photogrammetry. Compared to manned platforms, the acquisition of local remote sensing data by UAVs is a convenient and very flexible option. For the application in photogrammetry UAVs are typically equipped with an autopilot and a lightweight digital camera. The autopilot includes several navigation sensors, which might allow an automated waypoint flight and offer a systematic data acquisition of the object resp. scene of interest. Assuming a sufficient overlap between the captured images, the position (3 coordinates: x, y, z) and the orientation (3 angles: roll, pitch, yaw) of the images can be estimated within a bundle block adjustment. Subsequently, coordinates of observed points that appear in at least two images, can be determined by measuring their image coordinates or a dense surface model can be generated from all acquired images by automated image matching. For the bundle block adjustment approximate values of the position and the orientation of the images are needed. To gather this information, several methods exist. We introduce in this contribution one of them: the direct georeferencing of images by using the navigation sensors (mainly GNSS and INS) of a low-cost on-board autopilot. Beside automated flights, the autopilot offers the possibility to record the position and the orientation of the platform during the flight. These values don't correspond directly to those of the images. To compute the position and the orientation of the images two requirements must be fulfilled. First the misalignment angles and the positional differences between the camera and the autopilot must be determined (mounting calibration). Second the synchronization between the camera and the autopilot has to be established. Due to the limited accuracy of the navigation sensors, a small number of ground control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

2014-05-01

166

Analysis of regulation of pentose utilisation in Aspergillus niger reveals evolutionary adaptations in Eurotiales  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli are commonly found in soil and on decaying plant material. D-xylose and L-arabinose are highly abundant components of plant biomass. They are released from polysaccharides by fungi using a set of extracellular enzymes and subsequently converted intracellularly through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP). In this study, the L-arabinose responsive transcriptional activator (AraR) is identified in Aspergillus niger and was shown to control the L-arabinose catabolic pathway as well as expression of genes encoding extracellular L-arabinose releasing enzymes. AraR interacts with the D-xylose-responsive transcriptional activator XlnR in the regulation of the pentose catabolic pathway, but not with respect to release of L-arabinose and D-xylose. AraR was only identified in the Eurotiales, more specifically in the family Trichocomaceae and appears to have originated from a gene duplication event (from XlnR) after this order or family split from the other filamentous ascomycetes. XlnR is present in all filamentous ascomycetes with the exception of members of the Onygenales. Since the Onygenales and Eurotiales are both part of the subclass Eurotiomycetidae, this indicates that strong adaptation of the regulation of pentose utilisation has occurred at this evolutionary node. In Eurotiales a unique two-component regulatory system for pentose release and metabolism has evolved, while the regulatory system was lost in the Onygenales. The observed evolutionary changes (in Eurotiomycetidae) mainly affect the regulatory system as in contrast, homologues for most genes of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway are present in all the filamentous fungi, irrespective of the presence of XlnR and/or AraR.

Battaglia, E.; Visser, L.; Nijssen, A.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wosten, H.A.B.; de Vries, R.P.

2011-01-01

167

Utilisation of preharvest dropped apple peels as a flour substitute for a lower glycaemic index and higher fibre cake.  

PubMed

Fibre-enriched materials (FEMs) obtained from preharvest dropped apple peels were utilised as a source of dietary fibre in baked cakes and their effects on the textural/nutritional qualities and starch digestibility (glucose release behaviour, starch digestion fraction, predicted glycaemic index) of the cakes were evaluated. When FEMs were incorporated into the cake formulation (3?g and 6?g of dietary fibre per serving (100?g)), the volume of the cakes seemed to be reduced and their texture become harder. However, 3?g of FEMs did not degrade the cake qualities. The use of FEMs in cakes significantly reduced the levels of rapidly digestible starch and slowly digestible starch, while the levels of resistant starch increased. Additionally, the cake samples prepared with FEMs exhibited a lower predicted glycaemic index. This study may give rise to multi-functional bakery products with acceptable quality and low glycaemic index. PMID:23992534

Jun, Yujin; Bae, In Young; Lee, Suyong; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

2014-02-01

168

Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation  

PubMed Central

During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovacs, Kristof; Thurner, Andrea

2013-01-01

169

Characterisation of the Cartilage/Bone Interface Utilising Reflectance Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optical reflection spectra of the cartilage/bone interface from hip joints of cows were studied. When comparing to ultrasonic measurement, it was found that cartilage thickness could be extracted using optical reflectance spectroscopy. For thicker cartila...

P. A. Oberg T. Sundqvist A. Johansson M. Sundberg

2001-01-01

170

Factors associated with non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in Timor-Leste: evidence from the 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Timor-Leste is a young developing country in Asia. Most of its infrastructure was destroyed after a long armed conflict for independence. Despite recent expansion of health facilities and investment in healthcare, maternal mortality remains high with most mothers still giving birth at home. This study investigated factors affecting the non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in the aftermath of the independence conflict. Methods The Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 was the latest two-stage national survey, which used validated questionnaires to obtain information from 26 clusters derived from 13 districts of the country. Factors influencing non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth were investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, accounting for the cluster sampling and sample weight of the survey. Results Of the total 5986 participants included in the study, 4472 (74.8%) did not deliver their last child at a health facility. Lack of education for the mother (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 2.66) and her partner (OR: 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.84), low household wealth status (OR: 5.20; 95% CI 3.93 to 6.90), and rural residence (OR: 2.83; 95% CI 2.22 to 3.66), were associated with increased likelihood of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth. Working mothers (OR: 1.55; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.81), who had high parity (OR: 1.78; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.32) and did not attend antenatal care service (OR: 4.68; 95% CI 2.65 to 8.28) were also vulnerable for not delivering at a health facility. Conversely, the prevalence of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth reduced with increasing number of service components received during antenatal care visits (OR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). Conclusions Only a quarter of Timorese women delivered at a health facility. In order to reduce maternal mortality, future interventions should target disadvantaged mothers from poor families, those residing in rural areas, have higher parity but no education, and who seldom attend antenatal care service, by improving their utilisation of health facility for childbirth.

2014-01-01

171

Utilisation of municipal solid wastes for mortar production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the thermal co-processing of municipal solid waste (MSW) and other raw materials needed for the production of clinker, and consequently of mortar, without causing environmental problems. The technique is related to a method of manufacturing mortar by firing at high temperature a mixture of mineral raw materials (limestone, clayey materials, silicates and iron oxides) together

C. A. Sikalidis; A. A Zabaniotou; S. P. Famellos

2002-01-01

172

Utilisation du Modele MEDEE 3 (Utilization of Model MEDEE 3).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prospective study on the energy market in the European Community up to 2000, using the MEDEE 3 model adapted to each EEC country. The report describes the basic hypotheses, the methods used and the results obtained. Three coherent scenarios have been stud...

M. Camos

1984-01-01

173

Utilisation of business excellence models: Australian and international experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the international use of business excellence (BE) models and the practices used by BE framework (BEF) custodians to encourage use. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review, three surveys, a series of focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted. The study involved input from 16 countries and was part of a

Max Saunders; Robin S. Mann; Nigel P. Grigg

2008-01-01

174

Utilisation of Malaysian Coal: Merit Pila in the Gasification System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasification is the most efficient Clean Coal Technology. Gasification of Merit Pila coal had been studied in a laboratory-scale, atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air-steam as fluidizing agent. Merit Pila coal was chosen for the gasification study because of its high reactivity in nitrogen. Determination of the producer gas compositions were conducted using Gas Chromatography. Gasification experiments were conducted at bed temperature of 650-800 °C, different equivalence ratios, ER and different bed heights. Low heating value, LHVpg of the producer gas were in the range of 2.0-5.5 MJ/Nm3. Introduction of steam as the gasifying agents had shown significant increased of CO, CH4 and H2 contents in producer gas. LHV also increased about 35% with the presence of steam.

Othman, Nor Fadzilah; Bosrooh, Mohd Hariffin; Majid, Kamsani Abdul

2011-06-01

175

Course of post-traumatic stress disorder and health care utilisation among resettled refugees in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major health problem among refugees worldwide. After resettlement, the prevalence of PTSD remains high despite the fact that various PTSD treatments are known to be effective. Methods We examined the course of PTSD and the role of mental health care utilisation at a 7-year interval (2003–2010) among a cohort of refugees from Iran, Afghanistan, and Somalia after resettlement in the Netherlands. Results The unchanged high prevalence of PTSD (16.3% in 2003 and 15.2% in 2010) was attributable in part to late onset of PTSD symptoms (half of the respondents with PTSD at T2 were new cases for whom PTSD developed after 2003). The second reason concerned the low use of mental health care services at T1. Whereas the multivariate analyses showed the effectiveness of mental health care, only 21% of respondents with PTSD at T1 had had contact with a mental health care provider at that time. Use of mental health care during the first wave increased the odds of improvement in PTSD symptoms between both measurements (OR 7.58, 95% CI 1.01; 56.85). Conclusions The findings of this study suggest there are two possible explanations for the persistently high prevalence of PTSD among refugees. One is the late onset of PTSD and the other is the low utilisation of mental health care. Health care professionals should be aware of these issues, especially given the effectiveness of mental health care for this condition.

2014-01-01

176

Utilisation of bottom ash in road construction: evaluation of the environmental impact.  

PubMed

France incinerates about 40% of its municipal solid waste (MSW), producing 2.7 million tons of bottom ash annually. Utilisation of bottom ash (BA) is encouraged in France but strictly regulated. Only bottom ash meeting specific criteria and produced in accordance with a quality assurance plan can be used in roadbeds and embankments. In order to evaluate the environmental impact of BA used in road construction under real conditions, two road sections were built: one containing a sub-layer of BA and the other, constructed using only natural gravel to serve as a reference. Water percolating through each roadbed was collected and sampled periodically over three years. Analysis of the samples shows minimal leaching of pollutants from BA. The results are encouraging and indicate that BA utilisation can be safe and can have an environmental impact no greater than that of natural materials. PMID:12201685

Bruder-Hubscher, V; Lagarde, F; Leroy, M J; Coughanowr, C; Enguehard, F

2001-12-01

177

Utilisation of biochar and superabsorbent polymers for soil amendment.  

PubMed

The application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and/or biochars to stressed lands offer solutions to several critical ecological, energy and economic challenges posed by degraded lands due to human activities. These substances are like, 'artificial humus' as they are hydrophilic and contain carboxylic groups (SAPs) which enable them to bind cations and water and sequester carbon from air to reverse global warming (biochars). Several research studies using these substances point to their ability to increase the plant-available water in the soil which enables the plants to survive longer with water shortage, increase soil fertility and agricultural yields, improve soil structure, aeration and water penetration, reduce use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, reduce nitrous oxide and methane emission from soil, reduce nitrate and farm chemicals leaching into watersheds, convert green and brown wastes into valuable resources, and reduce the evapotranspiration rate of the plants. SAPs and biochars induce a significantly higher growth rate in plants; they bind heavy metals and mitigate their action on plants as well as mitigate the effects of salinity. This paper reviews what is known about these claims and considers the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processess. The intention is not just to summarise the current knowledge but also to identify gaps that require further research. PMID:23738439

Ekebafe, M O; Ekebafe, L O; Maliki, M

2013-01-01

178

Yolk and copper utilisation during embryogenesis of the freshwater prawn Caridina nilotica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yolk and copper utilisation during embryogenesis of the fresh-water prawnCaridina nilotica var.bengalensis (De Man) have been described. The egg number\\/brood increased with increase in length as well as volume (L\\u000a 8) of the mother animal. The water content increased from 61·3% (I stage) to 76·4% (III stage) as development proceeded. Fat\\u000a appeared to be the major source of energy for

R Ponnuchamy; S Ayyappan; S Ravichandra Reddy; Katre Shakuntala

1979-01-01

179

De L'opportunité d'utiliser les coefficients de corrélation en météorologie forestière  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé En complément d'une étude précédente, les auteurs ont examiné si les coefficients de corrélation pouvaient s'utiliser avec profit pour résoudre les problèmes écologiques et plus spécialement de météorologie forestière. Pour cela ils ont calculé les coefficients résultant de la comparaison de l'accroissement forestier avec 12 grandeurs météorologiques. Afin d'obtenir des coefficients plus élévés ils ont considéré ensuite la courbe

Bernard Primault; Walter Kuhn

1954-01-01

180

Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium,

M. O. Benka-Coker; A. Olumagin

1995-01-01

181

Pacific women's decisions about exercise adoption: utilising the stage-of-exercise-adoption model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To analyse the exercise patterns of Pacific women utilising the stage-of- exercise-adoption model, and to investigate how the pros and cons of exercising, exercise self-efficacy, self-reported health, and sociodemographic barriers to exercise influence exercise adoption. Methods A non-random questionnaire survey of 106 Pacific women living in the North Island of New Zealand. Results Thirty percent of the sample was

Denise Kingi; Andy Towers; Renée Seebeck; Ross Flett

182

Building Cost-effective Research Platforms: Utilising Free | Open source Software in Research Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

When prototyping or developing a system for use in research work, it is often necessary to create an entire system, even if only one part of the system is the focus of the research. Free | open-source software offers a solution to this problem, allowing the creation of cost-effective research platforms, utilising peer- reviewed, rapidly-developed code that is easily modified.

Tony Meyer

2003-01-01

183

L'utilisation des équipements scolaires en dehors des heures de classe  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’expérience d’un certain nombre de pays de l’OCDE montre aujourd’hui comment l’utilisation des écoles en dehors des heures de classe peut améliorer les résultats des élèves en leur donnant davantage de temps pour étudier, enrichir le programme scolaire par des activités hors programme, donner aux adultes des possibilités de développement personnel ou de formation et offrir à la population en

1999-01-01

184

An exploration of midwives' attitudes to research and perceived barriers to research utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to explore midwives' views about research and their perceived barriers to research utilisation.Setting: thirty-two midwives from four midwifery units in the north west of England. The units ranged in size from a small district unit (52 midwives, and 1200 deliveries per annum), to a large regional centre (290 midwives, 6500 deliveries per annum).Methods: midwives' opinions concerning research were explored

Nicola A. Cullum; K LUKER

1996-01-01

185

Utilisation des Contrats de Service pour gérer le Système d'Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

RÉSUMÉ. Les organisations possèdent des infrastructures supportant le Système d'Information de plus en plus distribuées et coûteuses. Ceci implique la mise en place d'outils pour évaluer et améliorer la qualité de service concernant le fonctionnement de l'entreprise. Pour ce faire, on peut utiliser un réseau de contrats de service (ou réseau de contrats de niveau de service) : chaque contrat

Hervé Mathieu; Thierry Galinho

2007-01-01

186

Sex-Based Differences in Cardiac Arrhythmias, ICD Utilisation and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important differences in the presentation and clinical course of cardiac arrhythmias are present between men and women\\u000a that should be accounted for in clinical practice. In this paper, we review published data on gender differences in cardiac\\u000a excitable properties, supraventricular tachycardias, ventricular tachycardias, sudden cardiac death, and the utilisation of\\u000a implantable defibrillators and cardiac resynchronisation therapy. Women have a

A. Ghani; A. H. E. M. Maas; P. P. H. M. Delnoy; A. R. Ramdat Misier; J. P. Ottervanger; A. Elvan

2011-01-01

187

Solar energy utilisation and evacuated tubular solar collectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been constructed and their performance evaluated. The characteristics of the collectors are then compared and their design strengths assessed. One of the designs, a flat absorber with a single glass cover using glass to metal seals was found to have the best performance among the four designs which included a dewar vessel type collector, a heat pipe collector and a black liquid collector with an optical efficiency of 87.7 pct. and an overall heat loss coefficient of 12.3 Wm(exp -2)/C. The performance of the dewar vessel type and black liquid collectors was found to be comparable to the glass to metal seal collector. A detailed analysis of the optical and thermal processes in evacuated tubular collectors was made. On the basis of this analysis a computer simulation model using a finite difference technique has been developed to predict the performance of evacuated tubular collectors. The computer simulation results are then compared with the test results. For the majority of the tests the discrepancy between the simulation and the test results was within the error band of the test results (maximum 12 pct.). For the published test results the maximum discrepancy for operating temperature below 100 C was found to be 6 pct. The computer simulation model was compared with other published models and its advantages and disadvantages discussed. In some analytical and semi-analytical simulation models the energy absorbed by the glass cover and the heat loss from joints and supports has to be ignored. The present model has none of these deficiencies and more complex designs can be simulated. The developed computer simulation program might be used as an aid in the design of evacuated tubular collectors. Using the computer simulation, a parametric study of the three commmercially available collectors was made. The results are discussed and the areas of improvement are identified.

Parand, Foroutan

188

L'utilisation d'objets comme outils: un d?veloppement continu  

PubMed Central

Le débat autour des origines développementales de la capacité humaine à utiliser des outils de manière souple reste ouvert. Alors que l’approche dominante se focalise sur un changement qualitatif cognitif vers la fin de la première année, la théorie perception-action fournit des indices importants sur la manière dont les comportements exploratoires plus précoces des nourrissons jettent les bases pour l’émergence de cette capacité. En particulier, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont les tentatives des nourrissons de mettre en rapport les objets et les surfaces leur permettent d’apprendre comment les objets peuvent servir d’extension de la main et fournissent l’occasion d’exercer des actions qui seront recrutées plus tard pour l’utilisation d’outils. Dans ce contexte, nous discutons des études comportementales et cinématiques portant sur la manipulation d’objets, qui montrent que les nourrissons font interagir les objets et les surfaces avec discernement et que leur contrôle de la frappe (banging) augmente au cours de leur première année. En conclusion, une perspective perception-action suggère que l’utilisation d’outils émerge de manière plus continue au cours du développement que ce qui a été traditionnellement envisagé.

Kahrs, Bjorn Alexander; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

2014-01-01

189

Behavioural plasticity in a large marine herbivore: contrasting patterns of depth utilisation between two green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used time-depth recorders to measure depth utilisation in gravid green turtles (Chelonia mydas) during the internesting period at northern Cyprus (Mediterranean), a nesting area where individuals feed, and at Ascension\\u000a Island (mid-Atlantic), a nesting area where individuals fast. There were contrasting patterns of depth utilisation between\\u000a the two sites, illustrating that the behaviour of this species is shaped by

G. C. Hays; F. Glen; A. C. Broderick; B. J. Godley; J. D. Metcalfe

2002-01-01

190

Utilisation of antibiotics in young children: opposite relationships to adult educational levels in Danish and Swedish counties  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAntibiotic utilisation varies profoundly among and within countries, and the extent of antibiotic utilisation correlates with the frequency of bacterial resistance, particularly among children. Hence, it is important to assess which factors may influence prescribing. In addition to variations in morbidity, health-care organisation, drug regulatory and supply systems, prescriber's attitudes, parents' behaviour, attitudes and socio-economic positions seem important. We compared

Eva Melander; Aase Nissen; Karin Henricson; Juan Merlo; Sigvard Mölstad; Jens P. Kampmann; Thor Lithman; Ebba Holme Hansen; Arne Melander

2003-01-01

191

L'ordinateur : un outil de sélection ? Utilisation de l'informatique, salaire et risque de chômage  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] L'ordinateur : un outil de sélection ? Utilisation de l'informatique, salaire et risque de chômage. . À l'aide d'enquêtes statistiques et d'interviews de salariés, nous mettons en évidence les effets de sélection qui sont favorisés par la mise en place de l'informatique dans les entreprises. En particulier, cette sélection se voit sur les salaires - les salariés utilisant l'informatique

Francis Kramarz; Michel Gollac

1997-01-01

192

Anthelmintic utilisation practices and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep kept in the urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town.  

PubMed

Assessment of the anthelmintic (AH) utilisation practices and estimation of the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep were carried out from November 2010 to April 2011 in urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town, central Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was employed to assess the AH utilisation practices in sheep of 310 owners/households, while floatation and sedimentation techniques were used to study the prevalence of helminth infections. Faecal examinations revealed that 53.9 % of sheep harboured gastrointestinal helminth infections with a high frequency due to strongyles (77.3 %). The questionnaire survey revealed that sources of AH for sheep were government and private veterinary clinics for 98.5 % of urban and 65.4 % peri-urban respondents. In peri-urban areas, AH were also purchased from open markets and illegal dealers. Albendazole was the most common (75.5 %) drug used in sheep followed by ivermectin (18.7 %) and tetramisole (5.8 %). The criteria for selecting AH were: prescription by veterinarians (51.6 %), efficacy (31.9 %), price (12.3 %) and arbitrary reasons (4.2 %). Treatment frequency was minimal with 51.3, 32.3 and 15.8 % of the owners treating their sheep once, twice and less than once per year, respectively. Treatments mainly depended on manifestations of general (45.8 %) and digestive (23.3 %) symptoms. Irrespective of the body weight of the sheep, albendazole was the only drug reported to be given at half bolus/sheep (14.1 %). Owing to this practice, albendazole faces the risk of reduced efficacy or AH resistance due to its wide spread utilisation, handling by untrained personnel and suspected underdosage, which altogether support the perception of sheep owners on its lower effect on the performance of treated sheep. PMID:23015354

Datiko, Jallale; Terefe, Getachew; Bekele, Jemere

2013-02-01

193

Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

Grant, T. J.

1993-01-01

194

Changes in paediatric hospital ENT service utilisation following the implementation of a mobile, indigenous health screening service.  

PubMed

In 2009, we established a mobile ear-screening service for children in a remote community approximately 350 km north-west of Brisbane. We compared pre-implementation health service utilisation data (2006-2008) with data for the following three years. The study included only children in schools that had participated in screening since the start of the screening programme and for which data for the 6-year study period were available. In the baseline period there were 329 ear, nose and throat (ENT) outpatient appointments at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Brisbane for children from the selected catchment area. Of these, 166 (51%) were failure-to-attends (FTAs). In the following three years, there were 105 appointments, of which 40 (38%) were FTAs. In the baseline period, 100 children received surgical procedures at the RCH; in the following three years there were 43. In the three years following implementation, 136 children were booked to receive surgical procedures locally at the Cherbourg hospital, and 117 (86%) were completed. Since no other major health service changes occurred in the region during the study period, we conclude that the telemedicine-enabled screening service improved access to specialist care in the community and resulted in fewer outpatient and surgical appointments at the tertiary centre in Brisbane. PMID:24218353

Smith, Anthony C; Armfield, Nigel R; Wu, Wei-I; Brown, Cecil A; Mickan, Brooke; Perry, Chris

2013-10-01

195

Layer specific geostatistical coregionalisation of soil organic carbon utilising terrain attributes and spatial patterns of soil redistribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution soil organic carbon (SOC) maps are a major prerequisite for many environmental studies dealing with carbon stocks and fluxes as well as for biogeochemical modelling. Hence, the development of time and cost effective mapping methods is an important issue. In most cases these maps are interpolated based on measured point SOC data with different horizontal resolution, whereas additional secondary (terrain) information is often utilised. In this study the potential of external drift kriging (EDK) to improve the soil layer specific (I: 0-0.25 m, II: 0.25-0.5 m and III: 0.5-0.9 m) interpolation of SOC concentrations in a hilly 4.2 ha agriculturally used catchment was tested using three different input data densities (6, 16.9, and 37.9 soil samples/ha). A number of covariables were used in EDK with a special focus on those representing processes of soil moisture distribution and soil redistribution. The later was, among others, represented by the results of a relatively simple and robust water and tillage erosion model (WaTEM/SEDEM). With the EDK method a significant improvement of the precision of SOC maps derived from different input data densities was observed particularly for deeper soil layers. While in the plough layer only slight improvements could be found, covariables representing soil moisture distribution and especially soil redistribution substantially improved predictions in the two subsoil layers. A maximum relative improvement of 15.5% was found for soil layer III (16.9 soil samples/ha; Root Mean Square Error 0.153% kg kg-1). Comparing EDK results of medium and low resolution SOC input data (16.9 and 6 samples/ha) with OK results of high resolution inputs (37.9 samples/ha) shows a similar or even improved precision for soil layers I and III, while the reduction of input data density could not be fully compensated utilising covariables in soil layer II. In general, the results indicate the potential of EDK to improve SOC maps and to reduce sampling density without substantial precision loss, especially when using more complex process-oriented covariables such as spatial patterns of soil redistribution. Especially, patterns of tillage erosion show a significant influence upon the spatial distribution of SOC and hence show some potential to improve SOC maps of agriculturally used land also on larger scales. However, it has to be recognised that the optimal covariables vary between different soil layers indicating different processes responsible for the soil layer specific SOC distribution. Hence, no general covariable is successfully applicable for bulk samples.

Dlugoß, V.; Fiener, P.; Schneider, K.

2009-04-01

196

Health care utilisation in subjects with osteoarthritis, chronic back pain and osteoporosis aged 65 years and more: mediating effects of limitations in activities of daily living, pain intensity and mental diseases.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal diseases (MDs) have major consequences for the individual, and also for society and may thus lead to increased use of health care. It was the aim of this study to explore health care utilisation in patients with self-reported osteoarthritis, chronic back pain or osteoporosis compared with people of the same age without those diseases, based on data of the Austrian health interview survey including 3,097 subjects aged ? 65 years. Patients with MDs in our study visited a general practitioner (GP) and were hospitalised significantly more often compared with persons without the respective diseases. Problems in the activities of daily living (ADLs), pain intensity and anxiety/depression influenced GP consultations. Complex factors explain the higher health care utilisation in subjects with MDs in our study. Our results indicate that integrated strategies are needed to manage those patients, which should focus on management of ADL problems, pain and mental health. PMID:24468829

Stamm, Tanja Alexandra; Pieber, Karin; Blasche, Gerhard; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

2014-04-01

197

Using a population-based approach to prevent hepatocellular cancer in New South Wales, Australia: effects on health services utilisation  

PubMed Central

Background Australians born in countries where hepatitis B infection is endemic are 6-12 times more likely to develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC) than Australian-born individuals. However, a program of screening, surveillance and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in high risk populations could significantly reduce disease progression and death related to end-stage liver disease and HCC. Consequently we are implementing the B Positive pilot project, aiming to optimise the management of CHB in at-risk populations in south-west Sydney. Program participants receive routine care, enhanced disease surveillance or specialist referral, according to their stage of CHB infection, level of viral load and extent of liver injury. In this paper we examine the program's potential impact on health services utilisation in the study area. Methods Estimated numbers of CHB infections were derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics data and applying estimates of HBV prevalence rates from migrants' countries of birth. These figures were entered into a Markov model of disease progression, constructing a hypothetical cohort of Asian-born adults with CHB infection. We calculated the number of participants in different CHB disease states and estimated the numbers of GP and specialist consultations and liver ultrasound examinations the cohort would require annually over the life of the program. Results Assuming a 25% participation rate among the 5,800 local residents estimated to have chronic hepatitis B infection, approximately 750 people would require routine follow up, 260 enhanced disease surveillance and 210 specialist care during the first year after recruitment is completed. This translates into 5 additional appointments per year for each local GP, 25 for each specialist and 420 additional liver ultrasound examinations. Conclusions While the program will not greatly affect the volume of local GP consultations, it will lead to a significant increase in demand for specialist services. New models of CHB care may be required to aid program implementation and up scaling the program will need to factor in additional demands on health care utilisation in areas of high hepatitis B sero-prevalence.

2010-01-01

198

Are racist attitudes related to experiences of racial discrimination? Within sample testing utilising nationally representative survey data.  

PubMed

Although the relationship between an individual's racist attitudes and discriminatory behaviours has been widely studied, the association between racist attitudes among perpetrators and experiences of racism among targets has been under-examined. Based on data from the 2001-8 Australian Challenging Racism Project survey, this paper details a novel method to investigate the link between racist attitudes and experiences of discrimination utilising two separate models linked by nomination of cultural or ethnic groups who do not fit into Australian society (i.e., out-groups). Those identified as out-groups were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than those who were not nominated as out-groups. Overall, out-group nomination by those with racist attitudes strongly predict experiences of discrimination among these same target out-groups, OR=2.2, F(6, 12,348)=78.61, p<.001. Racist attitudes are related to racist behaviours among perpetrators that are, in turn, related to experiences of racial discrimination among targets. This study demonstrates that attitudes not only affect majority group behaviour but also drive the resulting experiences of discrimination for minority group members. PMID:24913953

Habtegiorgis, Amanuel E; Paradies, Yin C; Dunn, Kevin M

2014-09-01

199

Enterovirus71 (EV71) Utilise Host microRNAs to Mediate Host Immune System Enhancing Survival during Infection  

PubMed Central

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection.

Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

2014-01-01

200

Influence of palm oil and palm oil fractions on protein utilisation.  

PubMed

The influence of dietary palm-oil fractions on protein utilisation has been investigated in the growing rat. At 30 days of age, 4-6 groups of four animals were offered one of six semi-purified diets that differed only in the palm-oil fraction. Diets contained 200g casein, 550 g carbohydrate, and 200g fat/kg. The different palm-oil fractions were: crude palm oil (CPO), refined palm-kernel oil (PKO), refined palm olein (RPO), refined palm stearin (RPS), refined palm oil (RPOL). The control groups were given Olive oil (OO) as the dietary fat source. The conversion efficiency of dietary protein was assessed as Net Protein Utilisation (NPU), using a 10-day comparative carcass technique. Weight gain and food intake were not altered by the various palm-oil fractions. However, the NPU of rats given RPO was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of rats given all other palm-oil fractions or the OO control. It is concluded that the RPO has the potential to significantly improve NPU in the rat, compared to four other palm-oil fractions as well as olive oil. PMID:24394656

Henry, C J; Ghusain-Choueiri, A; Gurr, M I

1997-03-01

201

Utilisation of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus Is Strain-Dependent  

PubMed Central

Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ?90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease.

Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Tailford, Louise E.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

2013-01-01

202

Minimisation and utilisation of waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production.  

PubMed

Various approaches to waste minimisation, waste treatment and recycling or safe disposal of the waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production are presented and critically discussed. Some most promising actions for waste (or its harmful potential) reduction on the production level are identified. These include: a) use of better raw materials (richer boron ore), b) improvement of the ore leaching process, and c) intensification of sludge washing and dewatering. These source reduction measures have already resulted in 50% reduction of boron content in the sludge. Utilisation of the raw or treated (e.g. dried, compacted) waste sludge could be found in agriculture, civil engineering and construction material production. Agricultural use (as a lime substitute) is based on favourable content of calcium-magnesium minerals and alkali pH value of the sludge, and simultaneous absence of heavy metals. Application in civil engineering (as an aggregate) is possible after calcination, which is costly, or as a cement kiln additive. Stabilisation of sludge before disposal, when no utilisation is available, is possible by small addition of commercial binders (e.g. Portland cement) or larger amounts of pozzolanic wastes (e.g. coal fly ash). PMID:12498478

Grilc, Viktor; Jersan, Rok

2002-10-01

203

Spatial accessibility of primary health care utilising the two step floating catchment area method: an assessment of recent improvements  

PubMed Central

Background The two step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method has emerged in the last decade as a key measure of spatial accessibility, particularly in its application to primary health care access. Many recent ‘improvements’ to the original 2SFCA method have been developed, which generally either account for distance-decay within a catchment or enable the usage of variable catchment sizes. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of various proposed methods within these two improvement groups. Moreover, its assessment focuses on how well these improvements operate within and between rural and metropolitan populations over large geographical regions. Results Demonstrating these improvements to the whole state of Victoria, Australia, this paper presents the first comparison between continuous and zonal (step) decay functions and specifically their effect within both rural and metropolitan populations. Especially in metropolitan populations, the application of either type of distance-decay function is shown to be problematic by itself. Its inclusion necessitates the addition of a variable catchment size function which can enable the 2SFCA method to dynamically define more appropriate catchments which align with actual health service supply and utilisation. Conclusion This study assesses recent ‘improvements’ to the 2SFCA when applied over large geographic regions of both large and small populations. Its findings demonstrate the necessary combination of both a distance-decay function and variable catchment size function in order for the 2SFCA to appropriately measure healthcare access across all geographical regions.

2012-01-01

204

Feeding behaviour and food utilisation in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: effect of sex ratio and relationship with the endocrine status.  

PubMed

The feeding behaviour of male monosex, female monosex, and mixed groups of Oreochromis niloticus was studied under conditions of self-feeding. Feeding activity was observed almost exclusively during the light period. The food intake pattern was similar whatever the sex ratio, and voluntary food intake (VFI) appeared lower in the male monosex groups than in the others. Male monosex groups displayed higher specific growth rates (SGR) and a lower food conversion ratio than female monosex and mixed groups. The SGR of males was higher in the monosex than in the mixed groups, whereas females of mixed and monosex groups displayed no significant difference in SGR. The efficiency of food utilisation was also analysed: nutrient retention ratios were higher in male monosex than in female monosex and mixed groups. Males displayed a distinctly higher metabolic capacity. Differences in sex-related hormones (11 ketotestosterone = 11-KT, 17beta-Oestradiol = 17beta-E2) and a metabolic hormone (triiodothyronine = T3) were observed between males and females. The hypothesis of an involvement of these hormones in the higher metabolic capacity of males is discussed. The observed differences in feeding behaviour between the different groups also suggest an effect of social interactions on the efficiency of food conversion and thus on the differential growth of males and females. PMID:9251968

Toguyeni, A; Fauconneau, B; Boujard, T; Fostier, A; Kuhn, E R; Mol, K A; Baroiller, J F

1997-08-01

205

The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

Navarro, Melba, E-mail: mnavarro@ibecbarcelona.eu [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom) [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom); Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona, 08028 (Spain); Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A. [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom)] [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15

206

Health status and utilisation of the healthcare system by homeless and non-homeless people in Vienna.  

PubMed

This case-control study describes the health situation, internal and external resources, and utilisation of healthcare facilities by a marginalised population consisting of homeless people in Vienna, Austria, compared with a non-homeless control population. Among the homeless group, participants lived in halfway houses (70%) or permanent housing (30%) in Vienna. Personal interviews were conducted in July 2010 with 66 homeless individuals, and their data were compared with data from non-homeless subjects from the Austrian Health Interview Survey using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the control group, homeless persons suffered more often from chronic diseases (P < 0.001) and rated their health considerably lower than the comparison group (P < 0.001). Homeless people suffered significantly more often from psychiatric disorders, respiratory diseases, hypertension (P < 0.001), digestive system diseases (P = 0.002) and heart diseases (P = 0.015) in comparison with the control group. Additionally, among homeless and non-homeless individuals, the former more often consulted a general practitioner in a period of 28 days (P = 0.002). A significantly greater proportion of homeless people did not have any teeth (P = 0.024) and smoked significantly more (P = 0.002). The results demonstrate deficits in the areas of health, health behaviour, and individual and social resources of homeless people, even though homeless people seek medical care at a higher rate than controls. Continuing health promotion projects for this high-risk group and the strengthening of social resources are recommended. PMID:24354859

Wagner, Julia; Diehl, Katharina; Mutsch, Livia; Löffler, Walter; Burkert, Nathalie; Freidl, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

207

Numerical system utilising a Monte Carlo calculation method for accurate dose assessment in radiation accidents.  

PubMed

A system utilising radiation transport codes has been developed to derive accurate dose distributions in a human body for radiological accidents. A suitable model is quite essential for a numerical analysis. Therefore, two tools were developed to setup a 'problem-dependent' input file, defining a radiation source and an exposed person to simulate the radiation transport in an accident with the Monte Carlo calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. Necessary resources are defined by a dialogue method with a generally used personal computer for both the tools. The tools prepare human body and source models described in the input file format of the employed Monte Carlo codes. The tools were validated for dose assessment in comparison with a past criticality accident and a hypothesized exposure. PMID:17510203

Takahashi, F; Endo, A

2007-01-01

208

Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.  

PubMed

This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR. PMID:16115724

Mbaiwa, Joseph E

2005-10-01

209

Utilising Six Sigma for Improving Pass Percentage of Students: A Technical Institute Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Service sector accounts for a substantial share in Indian economy and among the service industries, education sector is emerging as a major commercial activity in the nation. Globalization, growing competition among institutions, emergence of new technologies, changing socio-economic profiles of nations and knowledge driven economies have created…

Kaushik, Prabhakar; Khanduja, Dinesh

2010-01-01

210

International perspectives and the results of carbon dioxide capture disposal and utilisation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the increase in the global concentrations of greenhouse gases, the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme is carrying out an assessment of greenhouse gas abatement technologies with particular reference to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel power generation systems. The work is supported internationally by 13 OECD countries as well as the Commission of European Communities and two sponsors

Pierce W. F. Riemer; William G. Ormerod

1995-01-01

211

A Study Exploring the Strategies Utilised by Indian Middle-School Students in Identifying Unfamiliar Artefacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the strategies employed by Indian middle-school students working in groups to identify three unfamiliar artefacts. The activity described in this paper was aimed at sensitising students to the close link between form and function and to bring a certain amount of uncertainty in the tasks before the actual design task. It was…

Ara, Farhat; Natarajan, Chitra; Chunawala, Sugra

2009-01-01

212

Barriers and Gateways: A Study of Nursing Students' Utilisation of Learning Support Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 150 first-year nursing students indicated that 65% had been referred to the learning development center. Older students admitted through nontraditional access points were more likely to self-refer; younger students were more reluctant to access learning support resources, although they lacked effective learning strategies. (SK)

Stewart, Lyn; Mort, Pam; McVeigh, Carol

2001-01-01

213

Carbon exergy tax ( CET): its impact on conventional energy system design and its contribution to advanced systems utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposed analytical procedure for a charge on CO2 emissions is used to determine its impact on the design process of different conventional energy systems. The charge on CO2 emissions is defined as a Carbon Exergy Tax (CET). The CET utilises the concept of Efficiency Penalty of the energy system coupled with the Index of CO2Emissions, which connects the amount

A. F. Massardo; M. Santarelli; R. Borchiellini

2003-01-01

214

Ethnic Factors in Mental Health Service Utilisation among People with Intellectual Disability in High-Income Countries: Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. Aims: To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income…

Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

2012-01-01

215

Utilisation and cost of professional care and assistance according to disability of patients with multiple sclerosis in Flanders (Belgium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo assess the utilisation of medical services and social (community) assistance in patients with multiple sclerosis of different disability and to calculate the direct healthcare costs to society.METHODS(1) One hundred and eighty four patients with multiple sclerosis were classified into four grades of disability according to a simplified Kurzke disability status scale. (2) Patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire

H Carton; R Loos; J Pacolet; K Versieck; R Vlietinck

1998-01-01

216

Utilisation de données multi-versions et de l'ordonnancement contrôlé par rétroaction pour les transactions temps réel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé : Ces dernières années, les besoins en termes de données et de services temps réel se sont beaucoup accrus dans un grand nombre d'applications. La quan- tité de données temps réel acquises par des capteurs rend nécessaire l'utilisation de SGBDTR1 qui permettent de prendre en compte les contraintes temps réel des appli- cations. Ces applications doivent aussi faire face

Emna Bouazizi

217

The effect of COPD health forecasting on hospitalisation and health care utilisation in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exacerbations are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as having a large impact on health care utilisation (HCU). They are more frequent during periods of cold weather with a corresponding increase in hospital admissions. It has been hypothesised that COPD exacerbations and admissions can be reduced by predicting periods

N. D. Bakerly; June A Roberts; Anna R Thomson; Matthew Dyer

2011-01-01

218

How equitable is bed net ownership and utilisation in Tanzania? A practical application of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity  

PubMed Central

Background Studies show that the burden of malaria remains huge particularly in low-income settings. Although effective malaria control measures such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been promoted, relatively little is known about their equity dimension. Understanding variations in their use in low-income settings is important for scaling up malaria control programmes particularly ITNs. The objective of this paper is to measure the extent and causes of inequalities in the ownership and utilisation of bed nets across socioeconomic groups (SEGs) and age groups in Tanga District, north-eastern Tanzania. Methods A questionnaire was administered to heads of 1,603 households from rural and urban areas. Households were categorized into SEGs using both an asset-based wealth index and education level of the household head. Concentration indices and regression-based measures of inequality were computed to analyse both vertical and horizontal inequalities in ownership and utilisation of bed nets. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were used to explore community perspectives on the causes of inequalities. Results Use of ITNs remained appallingly low compared to the RBM target of 80% coverage. Inequalities in ownership of ITNs and all nets combined were significantly pro-rich and were much more pronounced in rural areas. FGDs revealed that lack of money was the key factor for not using ITNs followed by negative perceptions about the effect of insecticides on the health of users. Household SES, living within the urban areas and being under-five were positively associated with bed net ownership and/or utilisation. Conclusion The results highlight the need for mass distribution of ITN; a community-wide programme to treat all untreated nets and to promote the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal nets (LLINs) or longer-lasting treatment of nets. The rural population and under-fives should be targeted through highly subsidised schemes and mass distribution of free nets. Public campaigns are also needed to encourage people to use treated nets and mitigate negative perceptions about insecticides.

Matovu, Fred; Goodman, Catherine; Wiseman, Virginia; Mwengee, William

2009-01-01

219

Atherogenic, fibrotic and glucose utilising actions of glucokinase activators on vascular endothelium and smooth muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmaceutical interventions for diabetes aim to control glycaemia and to prevent the development of complications, such as cardiovascular diseases. Some anti-hyperglycaemic drugs have been found to have adverse cardiovascular effects in their own right, limiting their therapeutic role. Glucokinase activity in the pancreas is critical in enhancing insulin release in response to hyperglycaemia. Glucokinase activators (GKAs) are novel agents for diabetes which act by enhancing the formation of glucose-6-phosphate leading to increased insulin production and subsequent suppression of blood glucose. Little, however, is known about the direct effects of GKAs on cardiovascular cells. Methods The effect of the GKAs RO28-1675 and Compound A on glucose utilisation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and rat MIN6 was observed by culturing the cells at high and low glucose concentration in the presence and absence of the GKAs and measuring glucose consumption. The effect of RO28-1675 at various concentrations on glucose-dependent signalling in BAEC was observed by measuring Smad2 phosphorylation by Western blotting. The effect of RO28-1675 on TGF-? stimulated proteoglycan synthesis was measured by 35S-SO4 incorporation and assessment of proteoglycan size by SDS-PAGE. The effects of RO28-1675 on TGF-? mediated Smad2C phosphorylation in BAEC was observed by measurement of pSmad2C levels. The direct actions of RO28-1675 on vascular reactivity were observed by measuring arteriole tone and lumen diameter. Results GKAs were demonstrated to increase glucose utilisation in pancreatic but not endothelial cells. Glucose-activated Smad2 phosphorylation was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of RO28-1675. No effect of RO28-1675 was observed on TGF-? stimulated proteoglycan production. RO28-1675 caused a modest dilation in arteriole but not contractile sensitivity. Conclusions GKA RO28-1675 did not increase glucose consumption in endothelial cells indicating the absence of glucokinase in those cells. No direct deleterious actions, in terms of atherogenic changes or excessive vasoactive effects were seen on cells or vessels of the cardiovascular system in response to GKAs. If reflected in vivo, these drugs are unlikely to have their use compromised by direct cardiovascular toxicity.

2014-01-01

220

Mise ? jour sur l'utilisation clinique de la bupr?norphine  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Examiner les données scientifiques actuelles sur la buprénorphine-naloxone pour le traitement des troubles liés aux opioïdes, en insistant sur le contexte des soins primaires. Qualité des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE et la base de données Cochrane des synthèses critiques. Les données probantes sont surtout de niveau I. Message principal La buprénorphine est un agoniste partiel des récepteurs ? des opioïdes et un antagoniste des récepteurs ? des opioïdes ayant une longue demi-vie et un potentiel moins grand que la méthadone d’entraîner un usage abusif. Pour une désintoxication, la buprénorphine est au moins équivalente à la méthadone et supérieure à la clonidine. Comme thérapie de substitution, la buprénorphine est clairement supérieure au placebo. La méthadone comporte de légers avantages en ce qui a trait à la rétention en thérapie, mais une approche par étape en utilisant initialement la buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi efficace. Il est possible, sécuritaire et efficace de recourir à la buprénorphine en milieu de soins primaires. On peut obtenir l’autorisation de prescrire de la buprénorphine après avoir suivi une formation en ligne. Conclusion La buprénorphine est un agent sécuritaire et efficace pour la désintoxication en cas de dépendance aux opioïdes. Elle peut servir d’agent de première intention dans les programmes de thérapie de substitution, en raison de son potentiel plus faible d’usage abusif en comparaison d’autres opioïdes. Son efficacité en milieux de soins primaires en fait un outil thérapeutique utile pour les médecins de famille.

Ducharme, Simon; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

2012-01-01

221

Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. PMID:21550223

Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

2011-08-01

222

A simple solution to the problem of effective utilisation of the target material for pulsed laser deposition of thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The factors determining the efficiency of the target material utilisation for pulsed laser deposition of films are considered. The target volume is calculated, which is evaporated in the ablation process by the focused laser radiation having a rectangular form. The new device is suggested and developed for obtaining thin films by the method of laser deposition, which is specific in the employment of a simple optical system mounted outside a deposition chamber that comprises two lenses and the diaphragm and focuses the laser beam onto a target in the form of a sector-like spot. Thin films of CuO and YBaCuO were deposited with this device. Several deposition cycles revealed that the target material is consumed uniformly from the entire surface of the target. A maximal spread of the target thickness was not greater than +/-2% both prior to deposition and after it. The device designed provides a high coefficient of the target material utilisation efficiency.

Kuzanyan, A. S.; Kuzanyan, A. A.; Petrosyan, V. A.; Pilosyan, S. Kh; Grasiuk, A. Z.

2013-12-01

223

Use of nitrate non-utilising (Nit) mutants to determine vegetative compatibility in Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate non-utilising (Nit) mutants of six field strains and three single-ascospore strains of Botryotinia fuckeliana were selected by plating mycelial plugs onto a nitrate-containing minimal medium amended with chlorate. Mutants were characterised by growth responses on minimal medium amended with various sole nitrogen sources. For each parental strain two mutants were produced: nit1, defective in nitrate reductase apoenzyme; and NitM,

Ross E. Beever; Stephanie L. Parkes

2003-01-01

224

Psychosocial determinants for frequent primary health care utilisation in patients with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Objective: Psychosocial symptoms are common in patients with heart failure. Little research, however, has been done to determine which psychosocial factors influence primary care patients’ consultation frequency in the case of heart failure. Methods: We recruited 310 primary care patients with heart failure by analysing electronic patient records. At baseline, psychological distress (anxiety and depression; HADS), disease coping (FKV), negative affectivity and social inhibition (DS-14), disease-specific quality of life (MLHFQ) and social support (F-SozU) were measured by validated questionnaires. Severity of heart failure (according to NYHA-classification and Goldman’s Specific Activity Scale) and sociodemographic characteristics were documented by self-report instruments. Nine month later, patients were contacted by telephone in order to assess GP consultation frequency. Logistic regression was done to determine whether these psychological, medical and sociodemographic factors were associated with primary care utilisation. Results: On average, patients consulted their general practitioner (GP) 8.2 times during nine months. Female subjects and patients with higher levels of perceived heart failure severity, physical problems and anxiety or depression as well as those living alone visited their GP significantly more often. In multivariate analysis, frequent attendance in general practices was predicted by physical problems and living alone. These factors explained 11.6% of the variance of frequent attendance in general practices. Conclusion: Psychosocial factors of help-seeking behaviour in heart failure patients focus on mental and physical discomfort and a lonely home situation. These factors might need to be compensated by GP consultation. GPs should address the rearrangement of physical, mental, and social resources to strengthen self-reliance of patients with heart failure.

Scherer, Martin; Himmel, Wolfgang; Kochen, Michael M.; Koschack, Janka; Ahrens, Dirk; Chenot, Jean-Francois; Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

2008-01-01

225

Culture environment regulates amino acid turnover and glucose utilisation in human ES cells.  

PubMed

Human embryonic stem (ES) cells have been proposed as a renewable source of pluripotent cells that can be differentiated into various cell types for use in research, drug discovery and in the emerging area of regenerative medicine. Exploitation of this potential will require the development of ES cell culture conditions that promote pluripotency and a normal cell metabolism, and quality control parameters that measure these outcomes. There is, however, relatively little known about the metabolism of pluripotent cells or the impact of culture environment and differentiation on their metabolic pathways. The effect of two commonly used medium supplements and cell differentiation on metabolic indicators in human ES cells were examined. Medium modifications and differentiation were compared in a chemically defined and feeder-independent culture system. Adding serum increased glucose utilisation and altered amino acid turnover by the cells, as well as inducing a small proportion of the cells to differentiate. Cell differentiation could be mitigated by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK activity). The addition of Knockout Serum Replacer also increased glucose uptake and changed amino acid turnover by the cells. These changes were distinct from those induced by serum and occurred in the absence of detectable differentiation. Induction of differentiation by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), in contrast, did not alter metabolite turnover. Deviations from metabolite turnover by ES cells in fully defined medium demonstrated that culture environment can alter metabolite use. The challenge remains to understand the impact of metabolic changes on long-term cell maintenance and the functionality of derived cell populations. PMID:23759283

Rathjen, Joy; Yeo, Christine; Yap, Charlotte; Tan, Boon Siang Nicholas; Rathjen, Peter D; Gardner, David K

2014-06-01

226

Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (P<0·0001) than healthy udders. The relationship between UST and CMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; P<0·001), and UST was linearly increased as the CMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; P<0·001]. Additionally, high correlations were obtained between UST and SCC score (r=0·75; P<0·001) and the relationship between UST and SCC was fitted best to a logarithmic equation [UST, °C=33·39+0·88×Log (SCC, ×103 cells/ml), R 2=0·61, P<0·001]. The cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for UST were 35·15 °C, 0·90, 0·98, and 0·95, respectively, when subclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently. PMID:24331516

Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

2014-02-01

227

The use of phase inversion temperature (PIT) microemulsion technology to enhance oil utilisation during Streptomyces rimosus fed-batch fermentations to produce oxytetracycline.  

PubMed

The use of a rapeseed oil emulsion feed, produced by a phase inversion temperature (PIT) process, produced more biomass, gave a 3-fold increase in oil utilisation and a higher oxytetracycline titre but a higher residual oil concentration when compared to a conventional fed-batch Streptomyces rimosus process fed with crude rapeseed oil. Importantly, microbial utilisation of the surfactant was confirmed for the first time. PMID:16245177

Papapanagiotou, Panos A; Quinn, Henry; Molitor, Jean-Pierre; Nienow, Alvin W; Hewitt, Christopher J

2005-10-01

228

Génération d'un supercontinumm utilisant le doublage et le triplage de fréquence dans une fibre microstructurée  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous présentons une nouvelle méthode permettant de générer un supercontinuum ultra large entre 240?et 1800?nm. Ce principe utilise une source de pompage unique à 1064?nm injectée dans une fibre optique microstructurée fortement non linéaire et biréfringente à profil innovant. L'élargissement spectral est engendré par des effets d'instabilités modulationnelles en fort régime de dispersion normale. L'initiation de ce phénomène est réalisée grâce à un doublage et un triplage de la longueur d'onde de pompe directement dans la fibre.

Lesvigne, C.; Tombelaine, V.; Grossard, L.; Leproux, P.; Blondy, J. M.; Auguste, J. L.; Roy, P.; Couderc, V.; Huss, G.; Pioger, P. H.

2006-10-01

229

A transpose optical interconnect utilising metamaterial Luneburg waveguide lenses for switch fabric on-a-chip applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in silicon photonics motivate the consideration of on-chip switch fabrics that combine switch elements into larger port-count switches. A major challenge is the large number of inter-stage waveguide crossovers. A novel freespace architecture utilising micro-lenses, capable of near zero insertion loss and crosstalk, is described and its principles of operation explained. The architecture is mapped to a planar implementation by the substitution of propagation in a slab-waveguide for free-space propagation and Luneburg lenses for the micro-lenses. Simulations show the careful approximation of the graded index of the Luneburg lens by a metamaterial introduces minimal additional crosstalk.

Nikkhah, Hamdam; Hall, Trevor

2013-03-01

230

Substrate source utilisation in long-term diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients at rest, and during exercise and subsequent recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Disturbances in substrate source metabolism and, more particularly, in fatty acid metabolism, play an important role in the\\u000a aetiology and progression of type 2 diabetes. However, data on substrate source utilisation in type 2 diabetes are inconclusive.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  [U-13C]palmitate and [6,6-2H2]glucose tracers were used to assess plasma NEFA and glucose oxidation rates and to estimate the use of muscle- and\\/or lipoprotein-derived

H. Boon; E. E. Blaak; W. H. M. Saris; H. A. Keizer; A. J. M. Wagenmakers; L. J. C. van Loon

2007-01-01

231

Underestimation of D -glucose utilisation as judged from the conversion of D -[3- 3 H]glucose to 3 HOH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. The conversion of D-[3-3H]glucose to 3HOH is currently measured to assess D-glucose utilisation. The validity of such a procedure was re-evaluated. Methods. The conversion of D-[3-3H]glucose and D-[5-3H]glucose to 3HOH was measured in rat pancreatic islets, parotid cells and erythrocytes. The tritiation of lipids were also examined in islets exposed to D-[3-3H]glucose or D-[5-3H]glucose. Results. In rat pancreatic islets

A. Sener; M.-H. Giroix; W. Malaisse

2002-01-01

232

The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility and increase C stocks of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines, abandoned industrial zones, degraded natural areas and exhausted landfill sites. Such land management options may serve as a precondition for landscaping and reclamation of degraded areas, reforestation or agriculture. In fact, previous results have shown that compost application to the capping layer of a landfill covering soil significantly enhanced the fertility, evidenced by an improvement in soil structure, porosity and water holding capacity, an increase in the relative proportion of recalcitrant C pools and an increase in soil nutrient content, microbial activity and soil microbial biomass. Proper management of MWC requires a capacity to understand and predict their impacts on C dynamics in the field subsequent to application. Although numerous works deal with the effects of compost application in agricultural systems, little is known on how land rehabilitation practices effect C dynamics in such relatively young soil systems. The estimation of SOC pools and their potential turnover rates in land reclamation activities is fundamental to our understanding of terrestrial C dynamics. In the framework of a long-term field experiment, the objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal and spatial dynamics of compost-derived organic matter with respect to the major processes involved in organic matter cycling in an anthropogenic landfill covering soil originally amended with a single dose of MWC. We investigated long-term organic C dynamics in such systems by collecting samples at different depths over a 10 year chronosequence subsequent to compost application to the top layer of the landfill covering soil. Variations in the stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of the soil samples show that even after 10 years, amended topsoils were significantly enriched in compost-derived organic matter, confirming that the utilisation of such organic inputs in land reclamation activities has the potential to enhance the C stocks of degraded areas. The addition of compost to the superficial layer also resulted in a significant input of soluble organic compounds subject to leaching along the soil profile. Sorption isotherms for compost-derived water-extractable organic matter onto mineral materials used for landfill covering suggest that sorptive preservation was primarily responsible for the increase in C content and the shift in the C isotopic signature to values similar to that of the applied compost, in the deeper soil horizons over the 10 year experimental period. This was also confirmed by the accumulation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, analysis for non-cellulosic carbohydrates in soils samples and their respective water-extractable fractions suggest that a proportion of compost-derived, labile organic matter fraction is leached through the soil profile and potentially lost from the soil system, particularly in the years immediately after compost application.

Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

2009-04-01

233

Diffusion des rayonnements X et visibles ; microscopie en champ proche : utilisation comparée pour la caractérisation des surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trois méthodes ont été utilisées pour caractériser la rugosité de quelques échantillons. Deux de ces méthodes sont basées sur la mesure du rayonnement diffusé (visible et X). La troisième utilise la microscopie en champ proche (MCP). Dans un premier temps, une comparaison des deux premières techniques a été menée en utilisant une même théorie vectorielle de la diffusion. Bien adaptée au domaine du visible, cette théorie peut aussi être utilisée dans le cas du rayonnement X. Les densités spectrales de puissance (dsp) de la rugosité, déterminées expérimentalement pour deux échantillons d'Alacrite XSH (alliage quaternaire à base de cobalt utilisé en métrologie des masses), montrent des allures identiques dans le cas du visible et du rayonnement X à des incidences très rasantes. Dans un deuxième temps, la hauteur quadratique moyenne ? , caractéristique de la rugosité de ces deux échantillons, a été déterminée de façon "directe" par microscopie en champ proche, et à partir des dsp pour les deux autres techniques. La restriction à une bande commune des fréquences spatiales accessibles à ces techniques, conduit à des valeurs de ? comparables aux incertitudes près. Une validation des mesures X ainsi faite, un accent est mis sur leur apport complémentaire par rapport au visible.

Tollens, E.; Menecier, S.; Haidar, Y.; Zerrouki, C.; Chassevent, M.; de Fornel, F.; Bonnet, J. J.

2004-11-01

234

Hospital bed utilisation in the NHS, Kaiser Permanente, and the US Medicare programme: analysis of routine data  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the utilisation of hospital beds in the NHS in England, Kaiser Permanente in California, and the Medicare programme in the United States and California. Design Analysis of routinely available data from 2000 and 2001 on inpatient admissions, lengths of stay, and bed days in populations aged over 65 for 11 leading causes of use of acute beds. Setting Comparison of NHS data with data from Kaiser Permanente in California and the Medicare programme in California and the United States; interviews with Kaiser Permanente staff and visits to Kaiser facilities. Results Bed day use in the NHS for the 11 leading causes is three and a half times that of Kaiser's standardised rate, almost twice that of the Medicare California's standardised rate, and more than 50% higher than the standardised rate in Medicare in the United States. Kaiser achieves these results through a combination of low admission rates and relatively short stays. The lower use of bed days in Medicare in California compared with Medicare in the United States suggests there is a “California effect” as well as a “Kaiser effect” in hospital utilisation. Conclusion The NHS can learn from Kaiser's integrated approach, the focus on chronic diseases and their effective management, the emphasis placed on self care, the role of intermediate care, and the leadership provided by doctors in developing and supporting this model of care.

Ham, Chris; York, Nick; Sutch, Steve; Shaw, Rob

2003-01-01

235

Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.  

PubMed

Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p < 0.01) for the biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers. PMID:23305236

Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

2013-01-01

236

'If you feel that nobody wants you you'll withdraw into your own': Gypsies/Travellers, networks and healthcare utilisation.  

PubMed

Gypsies and Travellers are the unhealthiest group in British society, suffering from higher levels of physical and mental illness, lower life expectancy and with low levels of healthcare utilisation. They also continue to experience the highest level of prejudice and discrimination in society. While studies indicate that social networks play an important role in shaping health beliefs and the response to symptoms, evidence on the influence of networks on health is unclear and contradictory. This article draws on social network theory and research into the relation between discrimination and health to critically examine how networks mediate between collective experiences of racism and health-related behavior. Qualitative interviews with 39 adult Gypsies and Travellers were conducted in the South-East of England to explore the wider structural and institutional context and the influence those contexts play in shaping health beliefs and decisions whether to access formal health services. The findings indicate that the influence networks play in shaping health behaviour is dependent on the particular social context of the group and its status in relation to wider social structures, making generalization problematic. PMID:23574153

Smith, David; Ruston, Annmarie

2013-11-01

237

Healthcare provider perspectives on barriers to HIV-care access and utilisation among Latinos living with HIV in the US-Mexico border.  

PubMed

Latinos living with HIV residing in the US-Mexico border region frequently seek care on both sides of the border. Given this fact, a border health perspective to understanding barriers to care is imperative to improve patient health outcomes. This qualitative study describes and compares experiences and perceptions of Mexican and US HIV care providers regarding barriers to HIV care access for Latino patients living in the US-Mexico border region. In 2010, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with HIV care providers in Tijuana (n = 10) and San Diego (n = 9). We identified important similarities and differences between Mexican and US healthcare provider perspectives on HIV care access and barriers to service utilisation. Similarities included the fact that HIV-positive Latino patients struggle with access to ART medication, mental health illness, substance abuse and HIV-related stigma. Differences included Mexican provider perceptions of medication shortages and US providers feeling that insurance gaps influenced medication access. Differences and similarities have important implications for cross-border efforts to coordinate health services for patients who seek care in both countries. PMID:24592920

Servin, Argentina E; Muñoz, Fátima A; Zúñiga, María Luisa

2014-01-01

238

Progrès récents dans l'utilisation de la Chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse pour la détermination des propriétés acide-base des surfaces solides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) is a method well suited for the study of divided solids, but also of fibres. In this paper, the principles of IGC, its advantages such as ease and rapidity of measurement, but also limitations due essentially to the energetic heterogeneity of the solid surfaces are discussed. Finally, a new procedure allowing to estimate the acidity and basicity of the surface involving topology concepts of the molecules used to probe the surface is presented. Experimental results of the Laboratory, but also results extracted from the literature concerning silica, titanium dioxide, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ethylene) fibers, are taken to verify the proposed method. La chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse (CGI) s'avère comme une méthode de choix pour l'étude des solides divisés, mais aussi de fibres. Après avoir rappelé quelques principes de base de la CGI, les avantages de la méthode comme la facilité de mise en oeuvre, sa rapidité..., nous soulignerons ses limites qui sont essentiellement à attribuer à l'hétérogénéité énergétique des surfaces solides. Finalement, nous décrirons une nouvelle approche de l'acidité et de la basicité de surface grâce à l'utilisation des concepts de topologie des molécules employées pour sonder la surface. Des résultats expérimentaux obtenus au Laboratoire, mais aussi tirés de la littérature et concernant la silice, l'oxyde de titane, la poly(méthacrylate de méthyle) et les fibres de poly(éthylène), permettent d'illustrer la pertinence de la méthode proposée.

Papirer, E.; Brendlé, E.

1998-01-01

239

L'utilisation du pr?m?lange de monensin chez les vaches laiti?res : un suivi simple et essentiel pour s'assurer d'une utilisation ad?quate  

PubMed Central

Le prémélange de monensin est utilisé fréquemment sur les fermes laitières canadiennes. L’ingrédient actif de ce produit est le monensin sodique. Bien que son utilisation chez les vaches laitières soit sécuritaire, des cas de surdose ont été rapportés à la suite de consommation de niveaux de monensin plus élevés que ceux recommandés. Un suivi hebdomadaire du pourcentage de matières grasses du réservoir de lait de la ferme devrait être fait de routine suite à la livraison d’aliment médicamenteux contenant du monensin pour détecter rapidement les situations de surdose. L’observation d’une baisse soudaine de la consommation volontaire de matière sèche et l’apparition de diarrhée dans un troupeau sont d’autres signes cliniques de surdose de monensin. Une détection rapide de ces cas permettra de corriger la situation.

Dubuc, Jocelyn; Baril, Jean; DesCoteaux, Luc

2009-01-01

240

Chronic illness and multimorbidity among problem drug users: a comparative cross sectional pilot study in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although multimorbidity has important implications for patient care in general practice, limited research has examined chronic illness and health service utilisation among problem drug users. This study aimed to determine chronic illness prevalence and health service utilisation among problem drug users attending primary care for methadone treatment, to compare these rates with matched 'controls' and to develop and pilot

Walter Cullen; Sarah O'Brien; Austin O'Carroll; Fergus D O'Kelly; Gerard Bury

2009-01-01

241

Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.  

PubMed

A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field. PMID:19181661

Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

2009-01-01

242

Understanding where policies and decisions can go wrong: Utilising a 360 analysis model as a proactive reputation management strategy.  

PubMed

An organisation's reputation is its most relevant asset. The perceptions of the various audiences with which an organisation interacts both directly and indirectly can enhance or destroy that reputation. Due to the critical role these audiences play in an organisation's reputation, they should be actively considered as a part of an organisation's reputation management strategy. This paper introduces the 360 analysis model, which considers the benefits, detriments and potential fallout in regard to different audiences when creating policy or making important organisational decisions. The model's goal is to foster well-considered policy and decisions that proactively protect an organisation's reputation. The model is also designed to be used as a research construct that can be utilised in the expansion of the reputation management literature in regard to heterogeneity and dynamics within and across audiences that can have an impact on an organisation's reputation. PMID:24854733

Cwiak, Carol L

2014-01-01

243

Potential analysis for the optimization of the electrical network of large modern civil and future single aisle aircraft and examples of the network capacity utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many design objectives drive airplane development. One main driver is the reduction of aircraft weight, while retaining safety, function and performance. As extensive measurement campaigns have revealed, weight can be saved, as the electrical network exhibits low utilisation of the given network capacities. This is driven by requirements to be met, coincidence effects, and unexpectedly low system power consumptions for

Torben Schroeter; Brice Herve Nya; Detlef Schulz

2010-01-01

244

High versus restricted use of home oxygen therapy, health care utilisation and the cost of care in chronic lung disease infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of home oxygen therapy for prematurely born infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) can facilitate early discharge, but affected infants might require more readmissions. Our aim was to determine if health care utilisation and associated costs in the first 2 years were greater in centres with a high compared to centres with restricted use of home oxygen therapy. A

Anne Greenough; John Alexander; Sal Burgess; Phillip A. J. Chetcuti; Sarah Cox; Warren Lenney; Francis Turnbull; Nigel J. Shaw; Alison Woods; Jill Boorman; Stephen Coles; Jackie Turner

2004-01-01

245

Enzyme pretreatment of fibrous ingredients for carnivorous fish: Effects on nutrient utilisation and technical feed quality in rainbow trout ( Oncurhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivorous fish have limited ability to utilise fibrous structures as a source of energy. Treatment with exogenous enzymes targeted at degradation of non starch polysaccharides (NSP) could help to improve the nutritive value of these components. Two experiments were conducted. In the first in vitro experiment, three defatted oilseeds; soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM) and sunflower cake (SFC) as

Vegard Denstadli; Marie Hillestad; Viviane Verlhac; Mikkel Klausen; Margareth Øverland

2011-01-01

246

Effects of supplemental phytase on performance and phosphorus utilisation in broiler chickens fed a low phosphorus diet without addition of inorganic phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary addition of fungal phytase (derived from Aspergillus niger) on the performance and phosphorus utilisation in broiler chickens receiving low phosphorus diets without additional inorganic phosphates.2. Graded amounts of supplemental phytase (125, 250, or 500 PU\\/kg diet) resulted in significant increases in both growth rate and food intake. However,

J. Broz; P. Oldale; G. Rychen; J. Schulze; C. Simoes Nunes

1994-01-01

247

Utilisation of a hydrogen uranyl phosphate-based ion exchanger supported on a biofilm for the removal of cobalt, strontium and caesium from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of nuclear waste treatment and decontamination have been paramount for a number of years and continue to adversely affect the acceptability and expanded uses of nuclear power. By and large, methodologies for waste treatment exist at varying efficiency and correspondingly high expense. With a view to nuclear waste remediation, a novel bio-inorganic ion exchanger was developed which utilises

M. Paterson-Beedle; L. E. Macaskie; C. H. Lee; J. A. Hriljac; K. Y. Jee; W. H. Kim

2006-01-01

248

Digestibility, growth and nutrient utilisation of Atlantic salmon parr ( Salmo salar L.) in relation to temperature, feed fat content and oil source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of temperature, feed fat content and dietary oil source on growth and nutrient utilisation of Atlantic salmon parr (?19 g). The fish were reared in freshwater at 2 or 8 °C for 6 months at light\\/dark cycles of 12 h:12 h. Each of four feeds was provided to triplicate groups of fish

E. Å. Bendiksen; O. K. Berg; M. Jobling; A. M. Arnesen; K. Måsøval

2003-01-01

249

Mission to the Moon: Europe's Priorities for the Scientific Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefit...

B. Battrick C. Barron

1992-01-01

250

The effect of partial replacement of soyabean meal with sunflower meal on ileal adaptation, nutrient utilisation and growth performance of young turkeys.  

PubMed

1. A 4 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of graded levels of sunflower meal (SFM; 0, 70, 140 and 210 g/kg) and enzyme supplementation on gut morphology, nutrient utilisation and growth performance of young turkeys from 0 to 8 weeks of age. The enzyme supplement used in the study contained non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading activities and supplied 500 U pectinase, 40 U cellulase, 1600 U xylanase, 800 U glucanase, 200 U mannanase, 20 U galactanase per kg diet. 2. The use of SFM resulted in an increase in the height and width of intestinal villi, and a linear decrease in crypt depth. Dry matter digestibility and energy metabolisability decreased in groups fed diets with a moderate (140 g/kg) and high (210 g/kg) SFM content. 3. A decrease in dry matter digestibility and energy metabolisability was most likely the reason for a reduction in body weights of 8-week-old turkeys fed on diets containing 140 g/kg (from 4 x 17 to 4 x 01 kg) and 210 g/kg (from 4 x 17 to 3 x 93?kg) of SFM. 4. The addition of enzyme resulted in a slight increase in villus height, a significant increase in the number of goblet cells and an increase in digestibility coefficients for crude fat. 5. The results of this study demonstrate that turkey diets can be effectively supplemented with high-quality sunflower meal at a concentration of approximately 70 g/kg. It should be noted, however, that at 8 weeks of age the body weight of turkeys fed on diets containing 140 and 210 g/kg of SFM could be lower by 4 and 6%, respectively, than in those receiving the soyabean meal-based diets. PMID:21919573

Jankowski, J; Lecewicz, A; Zdunczyk, Z; Juskiewicz, J; Slominski, B A

2011-08-01

251

Infant care practices in rural China and their relation to prenatal care utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies describing postpartum childcare practices and the influence of prenatal care on infant care outcomes in rural China are scarce. This study looked at data for 1479 women who had given birth during the preceding 2 years (median age of the child was 8 months). Data were available from a Knowledge, Attitude and Perception cross-sectional survey collected from 2001 to

B. I. Nwaru; Z. Wu; E. Hemminki

2011-01-01

252

Next generation planar waveguide detection of microcystins in freshwater and cyanobacterial extracts, utilising a novel lysis method for portable sample preparation and analysis.  

PubMed

The study details the development of a fully validated, rapid and portable sensor based method for the on-site analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples. The process employs a novel lysis method for the mechanical lysis of cyanobacterial cells, with glass beads and a handheld frother in only 10 min. The assay utilises an innovative planar waveguide device that, via an evanescent wave excites fluorescent probes, for amplification of signal in a competitive immunoassay, using an anti-microcystin monoclonal with cross-reactivity against the most common, and toxic variants. Validation of the assay showed the limit of detection (LOD) to be 0.78 ng mL(-1) and the CC? to be 1 ng mL(-1). Robustness of the assay was demonstrated by intra- and inter-assay testing. Intra-assay analysis had % C.V.s between 8 and 26% and recoveries between 73 and 101%, with inter-assay analysis demonstrating % C.V.s between 5 and 14% and recoveries between 78 and 91%. Comparison with LC-MS/MS showed a high correlation (R(2)=0.9954) between the calculated concentrations of 5 different Microcystis aeruginosa cultures for total microcystin content. Total microcystin content was ascertained by the individual measurement of free and cell-bound microcystins. Free microcystins can be measured to 1 ng mL(-1), and with a 10-fold concentration step in the intracellular microcystin protocol (which brings the sample within the range of the calibration curve), intracellular pools may be determined to 0.1 ng mL(-1). This allows the determination of microcystins at and below the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of 1 ?g L(-1). This sensor represents a major advancement in portable analysis capabilities and has the potential for numerous other applications. PMID:23498128

Devlin, Shauna; Meneely, Julie P; Greer, Brett; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T

2013-03-26

253

Stability and consensus analysis on the Delphi study for the utilisation of renewable energy sources in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non renewable nature and the accelerated demand of conventional energy has forced planners and policy makers to look for alternative sources. Renewable energy sources can contribute significantly in meeting the increasing energy demand of the country. It is one area which is expanding rapidly and a number of innovations are taking place. But the qualitative functions such as awareness

S. Iniyan; L. Suganthi; A. A. Samuel

1998-01-01

254

Optimal utilisation of small-scale embedded generators in a developing country – A case study in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems are likely to become a dominant type of small-scale embedded generator (SSEG) on public low voltage (LV) distribution network in Malaysia due to the enormous amount of initiatives and efforts taken by the government to promote the use of BIPV. The growth of BIPV systems on LV distribution networks has the potential to alter the

Jianhui Wong; Yun Seng Lim; Phil Taylor; Stella Morris

2011-01-01

255

Selective activation of glycosyl donors utilising electrochemical techniques: a study of the thermodynamic oxidation potentials of a range of chalcoglycosides.  

PubMed

A series of six chalcoglycosides (phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-1-seleno-beta-D-glucopyranoside, phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-1-seleno-beta-D-glucopyranoside, phenyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-tolyl-2,3,4,6-O-benzoyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-tolyl-2,3,4,6-O-benzyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and phenyl-2,3,4,6-O-benzyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) are voltammetrically interrogated in dimethyl sulfoxide, so as to determine their formal (i.e. thermodynamic) redox potentials. The electrochemical oxidation of the chalcoglycoside is shown to follow an overall EC-type mechanism, in which the electro-generated cation radical undergoes an irreversible carbon-chalcogen bond rupture to produce the corresponding glycosyl cation, which may react further. The kinetics of the initial heterogeneous electron transfer process and subsequent irreversible homogeneous chemical degradation of the radical cation are reported, with values for the standard electrochemical rate constant k(0) in the order of 10(-2) cm s(-1) and the first order homogeneous rate constant, k(1), of the order of 10(3) s(-1). The formal oxidation potentials were found to vary according to the identity of the chalcogenide, such that OPh > SPh similar to STol > SePh. PMID:15280954

France, Robert R; Rees, Neil V; Wadhawan, Jay D; Fairbanks, Antony J; Compton, Richard G

2004-08-01

256

The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population.

2014-01-01

257

Reducing Haemorrhagic Transformation after Thrombolysis for Stroke: A Strategy Utilising Minocycline  

PubMed Central

Haemorrhagic transformation (HT) of recently ischaemic brain is a feared complication of thrombolytic therapy that may be caused or compounded by ischaemia-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The tetracycline antibiotic minocycline inhibits matrix MMPs and reduces macroscopic HT in rodents with stroke treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The West Australian Intravenous Minocycline and TPA Stroke Study (WAIMATSS) aims to determine the safety and efficacy of adding minocycline to tPA in acute ischaemic stroke. The WAIMATSS is a multicentre, prospective, and randomised pilot study of intravenous minocycline, 200?mg 12 hourly for 5 doses, compared with standard care, in patients with ischaemic stroke treated with intravenous tPA. The primary endpoint is HT diagnosed by brain CT and MRI. Secondary endpoints include clinical outcome measures. Some illustrative cases from the early recruitment phase of this study will be presented, and future perspectives will be discussed.

Blacker, David J.; Prentice, David; Alvaro, Anthony; Bates, Timothy R.; Bynevelt, Michael; Kelly, Andrew; Kho, Lay Kun; Kohler, Edith; Hankey, Graeme J.; Thompson, Andrew; Major, Taryn

2013-01-01

258

Drug utilisation pattern and off-label use of medicines in Estonian neonatal units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To characterise neonatal hospital drug use and to compare the availability of drug information between Estonian Summaries\\u000a of Product Characteristics (SPCs) and other sources.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design  This was a prospective cohort study in which pharmacotherapy information on neonates admitted to Tartu University Clinics\\u000a between 1 February and 1 August 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital between 1 February and 1 August

Jana Lass; Ruth Käär; Kaarin Jõgi; Heili Varendi; Tuuli Metsvaht; Irja Lutsar

259

Prospects for utilisation of solar driven ejector-absorption cooling system in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar assisted refrigeration appears to be a promising alternative to the conventional electrical driven units. The main advantages of solar assisted refrigeration systems concern the reduction of peak loads for electricity utilities, the use of zero ozone depletion impact refrigerants, the decreased primary energy consumption and decreased global warming impact. The main focus of this study is to investigate usage

Adnan Sözen; Mehmet Özalp; Erol Arcaklio?lu

2004-01-01

260

Capacity improvement through random timeslot opposing (RTO) algorithm in cellular TDD systems with asymmetric channel utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the performance of the RTO algorithm at different asymmetries favouring uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) is studied. The RTO algorithm is a dynamic channel allocation (DCA) algorithm that yields a significant interference reduction (min. 3 dB, max. 20 dB) compared to a fixed channel assignment (FCA) algorithm. The FCA algorithm used, emulates an equivalent FDD system which

H. Haas; P. K. Jain; B. Wegmann

2003-01-01

261

Carbohydrate utilisation by microbial symbionts in the marine herbivorous fishes Odax cyanomelas and Crinodus lophodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate uptake and catabolism by the gut microbiota of two species of temperate marine herbivorous fish were investigated using enzyme extracts prepared from microbial pellets. The fish studied were the herring cale Odax cyanomelas (Family Odacidae), which feeds on Ecklonia radiata, and the sea carp Crinodus lophodon (Family Aplodactylidae), which feeds primarily on red and green algae. Constitutive phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase

G. S. Seeto; P. C. Veivers; K. D. Clements; M. Slaytor

1996-01-01

262

Historique de l’utilisation du tissu adipeux comme produit de comblement en chirurgie plastique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of adipous tissue transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery is not new, and has been the subject of numerous studies. Transfer of autologous adipose tissue was reported for the first time at the end of the 19th century. Ideas and techniques have greatly changed during the last century. Adipocyte transfer has attracted renewed interest in recent years, due in particular

A. Mojallal; J.-L. Foyatier

2004-01-01

263

Improving the quality of landscape ecological forest planning by utilising advanced decision-support tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of landscape ecological analyses and their integration with the multi-objective comparison of forest plans can be improved by making use of the decision-support methods, techniques, and tools produced by recent research on forest planning, as demonstrated in this study. Special attention is given to strengthening the ecological grounds of calculations through modelling expert knowledge, quantification of ecological evaluations,

Jyrki Kangas; Ron Store; Pekka Leskinen; Lauri Mehtätalo

2000-01-01

264

Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid

Oliver K. Castell; Christopher J. Allender; David A. Barrow

2006-01-01

265

Assessing meiofaunal variation among individuals utilising morphological and molecular approaches: an example using the Tardigrada  

PubMed Central

Background Meiofauna – multicellular animals captured between sieve size 45 ?m and 1000 ?m – are a fundamental component of terrestrial, and marine benthic ecosystems, forming an integral element of food webs, and playing a critical roll in nutrient recycling. Most phyla have meiofaunal representatives and studies of these taxa impact on a wide variety of sub-disciplines as well as having social and economic implications. However, studies of variation in meiofauna are presented with several important challenges. Isolating individuals from a sample substrate is a time consuming process, and identification requires increasingly scarce taxonomic expertise. Finding suitable morphological characters in many of these organisms is often difficult even for experts. Molecular markers are extremely useful for identifying variation in morphologically conserved organisms. However, for many species markers need to be developed de novo, while DNA can often only be extracted from pooled samples in order to obtain sufficient quantity and quality. Importantly, multiple independent markers are required to reconcile gene evolution with species evolution. In this primarily methodological paper we provide a proof of principle of a novel and effective protocol for the isolation of meiofauna from an environmental sample. We also go on to illustrate examples of the implications arising from subsequent screening for genetic variation at the level of the individual using ribosomal, mitochondrial and single copy nuclear markers. Results To isolate individual tardigrades from their habitat substrate we used a non-toxic density gradient media that did not interfere with downstream biochemical processes. Using a simple DNA release technique and nested polymerase chain reaction with universal primers we were able amplify multi-copy and, to some extent, single copy genes from individual tardigrades. Maximum likelihood trees from ribosomal 18S, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, and the single copy nuclear gene Wingless support a recent study indicating that the family Hypsibiidae is a non-monophyletic group. From these sequences we were able to detect variation between individuals at each locus that allowed us to identify the presence of cryptic taxa that would otherwise have been overlooked. Conclusion Molecular results obtained from individuals, rather than pooled samples, are a prerequisite to enable levels of variation to be placed into context. In this study we have provided a proof of principle of this approach for meiofaunal tardigrades, an important group of soil biota previously not considered amenable to such studies, thereby paving the way for more comprehensive phylogenetic studies using multiple nuclear markers, and population genetic studies.

Sands, Chester J; Convey, Peter; Linse, Katrin; McInnes, Sandra J

2008-01-01

266

Drug utilisation, supply and expenditure at Chitungwiza, Gweru, Mpilo, Parirenyatwa and United Bulawayo Hospitals in one year (1987-1988).  

PubMed

From 1987 to 1988 a total of 759,602 items were supplied to the five hospitals at a cost of Z$4,603,256.17. Over that period 373,203 (49.13pc) were supplied by the Government Medical Stores (GMS) at a cost of Z$1,341,675.32 while 386,399 (50.87pc) of the items were supplied by the Private Sector (PS) at a cost of Z$3,261,580.85. The disease pattern in hospitals' main causes of admission was used as a parameter to indicate the rationality of drug use and expenditure. The defined daily dose (DD), was used as a standard of comparison on drug usage at the five hospitals. Anti-infectives ranked highest in both use and expenditure in most hospitals while cytotoxics and vitamins respectively accounted for the highest expenditures and usage at Parirenyatwa hospital. The source of drug supplies to the hospitals was mainly the PS. Foreign currency shortages and the ineffective distribution system in the GMS seem to play an important factor in the provision and the utilisation of drugs in the public sector. In the public sector, physicians often prescribe expensive brand name products rather than the corresponding generic drugs. PMID:1790559

Nhachi, F B; Kasilo, O J; Mutengezanwa, A; Zvandaziva, E A

1991-06-01

267

Compatibility characteristics of five radiographic films utilised in Brazilian diagnostic radiology.  

PubMed

To evaluate the quality of the radiographic films in Brazil, according to the recommendations of ISO 9236-1, a radiographic images simulator was used. A study of the control of the quality in radiographic films was implemented. With regard to this study, the results of five films of different manufacturers are presented. The characteristic curves for the ISO qualities of 55, 70, 90 and 120 kV are presented. The PTW REX simulator was used to determine the image quality parameters. Film 2 presents problems due to high sensitivity. Film 1 has a higher energy dependence than the other films. Film 5 yields the best results for almost all the sensitometric parameters. In conclusion, existing films in the Brazilian market vary considerably with relation to image quality. PMID:23651656

Magalhaes, L A G; Drexler, G G; de Almeida, C E

2013-09-01

268

Comparisons of pastoralists perceptions about rangeland resource utilisation in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pastoralism is the most dominant land use form in the arid rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa, but this rangeland-based lifestyle is under threat. As a consequence a study was conducted in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the main objectives of assessing and comparing the broad perceptions of two pastoral groups (the Oromo ethnic group living in Kereyu–Fantale and the

E. Abule; H. A. Snyman; G. N. Smit

2005-01-01

269

Risk of elevated liver enzymes associated with TNF inhibitor utilisation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveLiver function test (LFT) elevations are reported with the use of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-Is). The aim of this study was to compare LFT elevations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETN) or infliximab (INF) enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America from October 2001 to March 2007.MethodsAlanine aminotransferase (ALT) and\\/or aspartate aminotransferase

Jeremy Sokolove; Vibeke Strand; Jeffrey D Greenberg; Jeffrey R Curtis; Arthur Kavanaugh; Joel M Kremer; Alina Anofrei; George Reed; Leonard Calabrese; Michele Hooper; Scott Baumgartner; Daniel E Furst

2010-01-01

270

Low enthalpy geothermal energy utilisation schemes for greenhouse and district heating at Traianoupolis Evros, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

A socio-economic study has been made of the possible use of low enthalpy geothermal resources for district and greenhouse heating in the Traianoupolis Evros region. The thermal energy potential of the Aristino-Traianoupolis geothermal field has been estimated at 10.8 MWth (discharge temperature of 25 °C). Geothermal wellhead water temperatures range from 53 to 92 °C, from 300 m deep wells yielding over

Constantine Karytsas; Dimitrios Mendrinos; Johann Goldbrunner

2003-01-01

271

The relationships between perfectionism, religious motivation, and mental health utilisation among latter-day saint students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the influence of perfectionism and religious motivation on help-seeking and attitudes towards mental health services (ATMHS) in a Latter-Day Saint sample of 119 undergraduates. Increased levels of perfectionism significantly predicted more negative ATMHS. Higher intrinsic religious motivation was significantly and positively related to help-seeking from religious sources, but not from mental health professionals. Intrinsic religious motivation

Kyler Ray Rasmussen; Niwako Yamawaki; Jamie Moses; Lindy Powell; Brandon Bastian

2012-01-01

272

Utilisation of Magnesium Phosphate Cements to Facilitate Biodegradation within a Stabilised\\/Solidified Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilisation\\/solidification (S\\/S) of heavy metals and a parallel biodegradation of an organic contaminant using magnesium\\u000a phosphate cements (MPC) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The study was aimed at improving the robustness of S\\/S\\u000a technology by encouraging biodegradation in order to bring about some form of contaminant attenuation over time. A silty sand\\u000a soil, amended with compost was spiked with an

Reginald B. Kogbara; Abir Al-Tabbaa; Srinath R. Iyengar

2011-01-01

273

Survey on blood ordering and utilisation patterns in elective urological surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Blood transfusion is an important part of the medical care service. As there has not been a regional study about blood requests for operations, this study was done to assess blood ordering for various types of elective urological surgery. Materials and methods In a descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study, blood requests for all patients undergoing elective urological surgery in Razi Hospital (Rasht, Iran) during the first 6 months of 2010 were studied. The patients’ data (age, sex, weight, type of surgery, haemoglobin level before and after surgery, number of units of blood cross-matched and number of units transfused in the operating theatre and in the 3 days after surgery) were collected from their clinical records. Patients with a history of coagulopathy or anticoagulant drug use were excluded. The cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio), transfusion index (TI) and transfusion probability (T%) were calculated. The level of statistical significance was set at P =0.05. Results Of the 435 patients studied, 327 (75.1%) were male and 108 (24.9%) were female. The mean age of patients was 51.74±19.33 years. The mean number of units of blood requested for each operation was 2.8±1.2, whereas the mean number transfused was 0.59±0.24; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The relationships between pre-operative haemoglobin concentration and both blood requested and blood used were also statistically significant (P =0.038 and P <0.001, respectively). Calculated for all the operations, the C/T ratio was 14.16, the TI was 0.11 and the T% was 8.85%. Overall, only 8.5% of the patients (n=37) need blood transfusion in the operating theatre and only 10.8% (n=47) required transfusion within the 72 hours after surgery. Discussion The amount of blood requested and cross-matched for elective urological surgery is much greater than the real level of consumption. An appropriate, standard blood order guideline would reduce costs and staff workload.

Khoshrang, Hossein; Madani, Ali Hamidi; Roshan, Zahra Atarkar; Ramezanzadeh, Maryam Soltani

2013-01-01

274

Utilising a construct of teacher capacity to examine national curriculum reform in mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study involving 120 Australian and Chinese teachers introduces a construct of teacher capacity to analyse how teachers help students connect arithmetic learning and emerging algebraic thinking. Four criteria formed the basis of our construct of teacher capacity: knowledge of mathematics, interpretation of the intentions of official curriculum documents, understanding of students' thinking, and design of teaching. While these key elements connect to what other researchers refer to as mathematical knowledge for teaching, several differences are made clear. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that our construct was robust and effective in distinguishing between different levels of teacher capacity.

Zhang, Qinqiong; Stephens, Max

2013-12-01

275

Groundwater and surface-water utilisation using a bank infiltration technique in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bank infiltration (BI) is one of the solutions to providing raw water for public supply in tropical countries. This study in Malaysia explores the use of BI to supplement a polluted surface-water resource with groundwater. Three major factors were investigated: (1) contribution of surface water through BI to the resulting abstraction, (2) input of local groundwater, and (3) water-quality characteristics of the resulting water supply. A geophysical method was employed to define the subsurface geology and hydrogeology, and isotope techniques were performed to identify the source of groundwater recharge and the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the local surface-water bodies and groundwater were analyzed before and during water abstraction. Extracted water revealed a 5-98 % decrease in turbidity, as well as reductions in HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, Ca2+, Al3+ and As concentrations compared with those of Langat River water. In addition, amounts of E. coli, total coliform and Giardia were significantly reduced (99.9 %). However, water samples from test wells during pumping showed high concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+. Pumping test results indicate that the two wells used in the study were able to sustain yields.

Shamsuddin, Mohd Khairul Nizar; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Suratman, Saim; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Samuding, Kamarudin

2014-05-01

276

Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.  

PubMed

The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the social cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with M?ori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international nursing students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection', 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of The Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. PMID:22225732

Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

2012-03-01

277

Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.  

PubMed

The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the socio-cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection" 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of the Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. PMID:21710911

Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

2011-04-01

278

Home Range Utilisation and Territorial Behaviour of Lions (Panthera leo) on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Interventionist conservation management of territorial large carnivores has increased in recent years, especially in South Africa. Understanding of spatial ecology is an important component of predator conservation and management. Spatial patterns are influenced by many, often interacting, factors making elucidation of key drivers difficult. We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo) after reintroduction onto the 85 km2 Karongwe Game Reserve, from 1999–2005, using radio-telemetry. In 2002 one male was removed from the paired coalition which had been present for the first three years. A second pride and male were in a fenced reserve adjacent of them to the east. This made it possible to separate social and resource factors in both a coalition and single male scenario, and the driving factors these seem to have on spatial ecology. Male ranging behaviour was not affected by coalition size, being driven more by resource rather than social factors. The females responded to the lions on the adjacent reserve by avoiding the area closest to them, therefore females may be more driven by social factors. Home range size and the resource response to water are important factors to consider when reintroducing lions to a small reserve, and it is hoped that these findings lead to other similar studies which will contribute to sound decisions regarding the management of lions on small reserves.

Lehmann, Monika B.; Funston, Paul J.; Owen, Cailey R.; Slotow, Rob

2008-01-01

279

Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana  

PubMed Central

The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the rural areas and in some of the regions. The government and other service providers (NGOs, religious institutions and private providers) may endeavor to improve on the distribution of health facilities, human resources, good roads and necessary infrastructure among other things in order to facilitate easy access to health care providers especially for the rural dwellers.

2012-01-01

280

Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.  

PubMed

Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of results for systems with electricity use as an environmental hot spot. The importance of assessing water use, an environmental impact not assessed by any of the reviewed studies, is highlighted. PMID:24121250

Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

2014-06-25

281

Broadband low-density radiation source utilising argon, krypton, and xenon chlorides  

SciTech Connect

The parameters of a broadband excimer radiation source emitting in the 175-310-nm range and excited by a dc glow discharge in an Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixture are studied. The emission spectrum of the discharge consists of the ArCl, KrCl, XeCl, and Cl{sub 2} molecular emission bands. The optimal partial pressure of argon in the mixture is 1.3 kPa, those of krypton and xenon are 0.24 kPa each, and the partial chlorine pressure is in the 0.15-0.30-kPa range. The UV-VUV radiation power emitted from the entire side surface of the discharge tube amounts to 4-6 W for an efficiency of 15%-25%. The radiation source is of interest for applications in photometry, microelectronics, photochemistry, and medicine. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

Shuaibov, Aleksandr K; Dashchenko, Arkadii I; Shevera, Igor V [Uzhgorod National University, Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

2002-03-31

282

Body weight changes and outpatient medical care utilisation: Results of the MONICA/KORA cohorts S3/F3 and S4/F4  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To test the effects of body weight maintenance, gain, and loss on health care utilisation in terms of outpatient visits to different kinds of physicians in the general adult population. Methods: Self-reported utilisation data were collected within two population-based cohorts (baseline surveys: MONICA-S3 1994/95 and KORA-S4 1999/2001; follow-ups: KORA-F3 2004/05 and KORA-F4 2006/08) in the region of Augsburg, Germany, and were pooled for present purposes. N=5,147 adults (complete cases) aged 25 to 64 years at baseline participated. Number of visits to general practitioners (GPs), internists, and other specialists as well as the total number of physician visits at follow-up were compared across 10 groups defined by body mass index (BMI) category maintenance or change. Body weight and height were measured anthropometrically. Hierarchical generalized linear regression analyses with negative binomial distribution adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), survey, and the need factors incident diabetes and first cancer between baseline and follow-up were conducted. Results: In fully adjusted models, compared to the group of participants that maintained normal weight from baseline to follow-up, the following groups had significantly higher GP utilisation rates: weight gain from normal weight (+36%), weight loss from preobesity (+39%), maintained preobesity (+34%), weight gain after preobesity (+43%), maintained moderate obesity (+48%), weight gain from moderate obesity (+107%), weight loss from severe obesity (+114%), and maintained severe obesity (+83%). Regarding internists, those maintaining moderate obesity reported +107% more visits; those with weight gain from moderate obesity reported +91%. The latter group also had +41% more consultations with other physicians. Across all physicians, mean number of visits were estimated at 7.8 per year for maintained normal weight, 9 for maintained preobesity, 11 for maintained moderate obesity, and 12 for maintained severe obesity. Among those with weight loss, the mean number of visits were 8.7, 10.6 and 10.8 for baseline preobesity, moderate obesity, and severe obesity, respectively. Finally, those with weight gain from normal weight and preobesity reported 9.4 and 9.3 visits, respectively, and those with baseline moderate and follow-up severe obesity reported 13.1 visits (the most overall). Women reported higher GP and other physician utilisation. While all utilisation rates increased with age, GP utilisation was lower in middle to high SES groups. Conclusion: Compared to maintained normal weight over a 7- to 10-year period, maintained overweight, weight gain and weight loss are associated with higher outpatient physician utilisation in adults, especially after baseline obesity. These effects only partly became insignificant after inclusion of incident diabetes or first cancer into the model. Future research should further elucidate the associations between weight development and health care utilisation by BMI status and the mechanisms underlying these associations.

Wolfenstetter, Silke B.; Menn, Petra; Holle, Rolf; Mielck, Andreas; Meisinger, Christa; von Lengerke, Thomas

2012-01-01

283

Utilisation des technologies d'impression pour le remplissage industriel des trous d'interconnexion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This master project concerns a feasibility study about the use of inkjet drop-on-demand to fill through silicon vias in MEMS "via last" microfabrication process. The aim of our research was to develop a comprehensive process based on the use of a dispersion of a gold/tin alloy (Au80Sn 20) of nanoparticles in suspension in a carrier fluid. Our work mainly focused on the preparation of stable suspensions of nanoparticles and on the high precision filling of the vias. We first developed a method to form a stable suspension of nanoparticles in a carrier fluid using a surfactant, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Tests performed on various solvents allowed us to determine that isopropanol was the best carrier fluid to achieve high volume fractions of suspended nanoparticles. The volume fraction of the stable dispersion with the highest content reached 11 %. The conditions to generate stable individual microdroplets from a piezoelectric printing actuator were then analyzed. The generation of monodisperse microdroplets beiing a complex process, partly described by Fromm's theory and the theory of waveguides, we investigated the operating conditions permitting to precisely set the drop volume and ejection velocity. We therefore characterized an "ejectability zone" model universally usable to generate microdrops with desired output parameters based on the amplitude, width, and frequency of the electric pulse applied to the piezoelectric actuator of a print head having a 50 mum diameter aperture. We also developed a theoretical kinematical model describing the trajectories of microdrops during printing in order to understand the influence of their volume and initial velocity on the accuracy, reproducibility and homogeneity of the deposits in the presence of air fluctuations. This model was implemented in MATLAB and validated in real operating conditions. The results showed that a print head with a 50 mum diameter aperture will generate microdroplets with diameters between 30 and 60 microns with a maximum placement error on the substrate of the order of +/- 20 microns. We estimated that filling TSVs with an opening of 70 microns and higher is possible with our inkjet DOD (non defined) process. Finally, we experimentally addressed the vias filling by studying the behavior of nanoparticles in the vias during the evaporation of the carrier fluid and the annealing of the gold/tin alloy nanoparticles of eutectic composition. This last step revealed the incompatibility of non-homogenous AuSn alloy particles with the temperature window requirement used during sintering. To overcome this defect we replaced the Au80Sn20 by tin nanoparticles to complete our analysis of the impact of the use of PVP in the suspension of nanoparticles on the resistivity after annealing in the vias. Most aspects of this project being interrelated, much attention has been paid to the study of the influence of the various parameters on the quality of prints realized. The main conclusion is that we are able to validate the use of inkjet technologies as an alternative to perform the filling of TSVs by metal alloy nanoparticles. This conclusion is subject to the feasibility of the adaptation of our suspension and annealing methods to nanopowders alloys other than gold/tin and tin.

Blonde, Paul

284

Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS) it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC) utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1%) had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3%) attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9%) delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91). Conclusion This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on those living nearby or in the same district where an HDSS is located even when not included in the surveillance system.

Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Gebregiorgis, Seifu Hagos; Roro, Meselech Assegid; Lemma, Alemayehu Mekonnen; Ahmed, Saifuddin

2014-01-01

285

Plutonium and minor actinide utilisation in a pebble-bed high temperature reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper contains results of the analysis of the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled PUMA reactor loaded with plutonium and minor actinide (Pu/MA) fuel. Starting from knowledge and experience gained in the Euratom FP5 projects HTR-N and HTR-N1, this study aims at demonstrating the potential of high temperature reactors to utilize or transmute Pu/MA fuel. The work has been performed within the Euratom FP6 project PUMA. A number of different fuel types and fuel configurations have been analyzed and compared with respect to incineration performance and safety-related reactor parameters. The results show the excellent plutonium and minor actinide burning capabilities of the high temperature reactor. The largest degree of incineration is attained in the case of an HTR fuelled by pure plutonium fuel as it remains critical at very deep burnup of the discharged pebbles. Addition of minor actinides to the fuel leads to decrease of the achievable discharge burnup and therefore smaller fraction of actinides incinerated during reactor operation. The inert-matrix fuel design improves the transmutation performance of the reactor, while the 'wallpaper' fuel does not have advantage over the standard fuel design in this respect. After 100 years of decay following the fuel discharge, the total amount of actinides remains almost unchanged for all of the fuel types considered. Among the plutonium isotopes, only the amount of Pu-241 is reduced significantly due to its relatively short half-life. (authors)

Petrov, B. Y.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.; De Haas, J. B. M. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2012-07-01

286

Assessing the performance of woody plants in uptake and utilisation of carbon, water and nutrients: Implications for designing agricultural mimic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a series of innovative experimental approaches for monitoring current and past performances of woody\\u000a plant species in utilisation of key resources within ecosystems. We demonstrate how such information might be useful for monitoring\\u000a the progress of any novel agricultural system which attempts to mimic such natural systems. The experimental data presented\\u000a principally involve the use of stable

J. S. Pate; T. E. Dawson

1999-01-01

287

Production of Phytophthora infestans-resistant potato (Solanum tuberosum) utilising Ensifer adhaerens OV14.  

PubMed

Based on the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation commodity crop improvement through genetic engineering is the fastest adopted crop technology in the world (James 2010). However, the complexity of the Agrobacterium patent landscape remains a challenge for non-patent holders who wish to generate novel varieties for a commercial purpose. The potential of non-Agrobacterium strains (Transbacter(™)) to modify a plant genome has previously been described. However, they are unlikely to be widely used without significant adjustments in transformation protocols in order to improve their gene transfer efficiencies. In this study we set out to identify alternative bacteria species that could (a) utilize vir genes for genetic transformation and (b) substitute for A. tumefaciens in existing transformation protocols, without a prerequisite for protocol modifications. To this end we isolated a collection (n=751) of plant-associated bacteria from the rhizosphere of commercially grown crops. Based on various screens, including plant transformation with the open-source vector pCAMBIA5105, we identified a strain of the bacterium Ensifer adhaerens with the capacity to transform both Arabidopsis thaliana (0.12%) and potato (mean transformation frequency 35.1%). Thereafter, Ensifer adhaerens was used to generate blight- (causative organism Phytophthora infestans) resistant potato using the Solanum bulbocastanum 'resistance to blight' (RB) gene. Resistant genotypes were confirmed by associated molecular analysis and resistant phenotypes demonstrated by the development of hypersensitive lesions on inoculated leaf tissue post-pathogen inoculation. These data confirm the potential of Ensifer-mediated transformation (EMT) as a novel platform for the high frequency generation of transgenic potato. PMID:21912851

Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

2012-06-01

288

Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe(0) was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe(0) treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required. PMID:23709267

Kumpiene, Jurate; Desogus, Paolo; Schulenburg, Sven; Arenella, Mariarita; Renella, Giancarlo; Brännvall, Evelina; Lagerkvist, Anders; Andreas, Lale; Sjöblom, Rolf

2013-12-01

289

Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8?months of age, 152?±?12.6?kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n?=?5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180?days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180?days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p?

Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

2013-04-01

290

Venous thromboembolism: annualised United States models for total, hospital-acquired and preventable costs utilising long-term attack rates.  

PubMed

Healthcare reform is upon the United States (US) healthcare system. Prioritisation of preventative efforts will guide necessary transitions within the US healthcare system. While annual deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) costs have recently been defined at the US national level, annual pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) costs have not yet been defined. A decision tree and cost model were developed to estimate US health care costs for total PE, total hospital-acquired PE, and total hospital-acquired "preventable" PE. The previously published DVT cost model was modified, updated and combined with the PE cost model to elucidate the same three categories of costs for VTE. Direct and indirect costs were also delineated. For VTE in the base model, annual cost ranges in 2011 US dollars for total, hospital- acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" costs and were $13.5-$27.2, $9.0-$18.2, and $4.5-$14.2 billion, respectively. The first sensitivity analysis, with higher incidence rates and costs, demonstrated annual US total, hospital-acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" VTE costs ranging from $32.1-$69.3, $23.7-$51.5, and $11.9-$39.3 billion, respectively. The second sensitivity analysis with long-term attack rates (LTAR) for recurrent events and post-thrombotic syndrome and chronic pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension demonstrated annual US total, hospital-acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" VTE costs ranging from $15.4-$34.4, $10.3-$25.4, and $5.1-$19.1 billion, respectively. PE costs comprised a majority of the VTE costs. Prioritisation of effective VTE preventative strategies will reduce significant costs, morbidity and mortality within the US healthcare system. The cost models may be utilised to estimate other countries' costs or VTE-specific disease states. PMID:22739656

Mahan, Charles E; Borrego, Matthew E; Woersching, Alex L; Federici, Robert; Downey, Ross; Tiongson, Jay; Bieniarz, Mark C; Cavanaugh, Brendan J; Spyropoulos, Alex C

2012-08-01

291

An integrated care pathway for menorrhagia across the primary-secondary interface: patients' experience, clinical outcomes, and service utilisation  

PubMed Central

Background “Referral” characterises a significant area of interaction between primary and secondary care. Despite advantages, it can be inflexible, and may lead to duplication. Objective To examine the outcomes of an integrated model that lends weight to general practitioner (GP)?led evidence based care. Design A prospective, non?random comparison of two services: women attending the new (Bridges) pathway compared with those attending a consultant?led one?stop menstrual clinic (OSMC). Patients' views were examined using patient career diaries, health and clinical outcomes, and resource utilisation. Follow?up was for 8?months. Setting A large teaching hospital and general practices within one primary care trust (PCT). Results Between March 2002 and June 2004, 99 women in the Bridges pathway were compared with 94 women referred to the OSMC by GPs from non?participating PCTs. The patient career diary demonstrated a significant improvement in the Bridges group for patient information, fitting in at the point of arrangements made for the patient to attend hospital (ease of access) (p<0.001), choice of doctor (p?=?0.020), waiting time for an appointment (p<0.001), and less “limbo” (patient experience of non?coordination between primary and secondary care) (p<0.001). At 8?months there were no significant differences between the two groups in surgical and medical treatment rates or in the use of GP clinic appointments. Significantly fewer (traditional) hospital outpatient appointments were made in the Bridges group than in the OSMC group (p<0.001). Conclusion A general practice?led model of integrated care can significantly reduce outpatient attendance while improving patient experience, and maintaining the quality of care.

Julian, Sophia; Naftalin, Nicholas J; Clark, Michael; Szczepura, Ala; Rashid, Aly; Baker, Richard; Taub, Nicholas; Habiba, Marwan

2007-01-01

292

High sample throughput flow immunoassay utilising restricted access columns for the separation of bound and free label.  

PubMed

A flow immunodetection system with high sample throughput capacity is described for the screening of various analytes. The immunochemical detection principle is based on the chromatographic separation of the formed immunocomplex (AbAg or AbAg*) and the free antigen (Ag) by a restricted access (RA) column, utilising size-exclusion and reversed-phase mechanism. A fluorescein labelled analyte (Ag*) was used in the competitive assay format with fluorescence detection. The speed and simplicity of the assay were the greatest advantages, allowing measurement of the analyte to be carried out in less than 1 min. The biocompatibility and capacity of the restricted access material allowed multiple injections of up to 5000, without any breakthrough of the fluorescent tracer molecule and thus need for regeneration. The flow immunoassay was developed using the well-known atrazine herbicide and some transformation products as model compounds, due to their human toxicity and widespread use. The sample throughput was 80 samples per hour and the detection limits were 1.4 nM (300 pg/ml) for atrazine (Ab I) and 2.3 nM (500 pg/ml) for the sum of triazines (Ab II-III). Different sample matrices, PBS buffer, creek water, and urine were successfully applied in the flow system without the need for any sample handling step. For plasma samples an additional clean-up step using solid-phase extraction had to be included. The resulting detection limits for atrazine in plasma and water samples using this clean-up and trace enrichment procedure were found to be 2 ng/ml and 20 pg/ml, respectively. The analysis could be performed at a sample throughput rate of 400 per 6-h working shift. PMID:9561764

Onnerfjord, P; Eremin, S A; Emnéus, J; Marko-Varga, G

1998-03-27

293

Are we using support workers effectively? the relationship between patient and team characteristics and support worker utilisation in older people's community-based rehabilitation services in England.  

PubMed

This research explores the relationship between support worker utilisation and patient- and team-level characteristics using a prospective longitudinal study of 20 older people's community rehabilitation teams. Between January and September 2009, 462 Whole Time Equivalent Staff and 1913 patients participated in the study. Patient dependency, health status (Therapy Outcome Measures, EQ-5D and Levels of Care tool) and demographic data were collected alongside detailed staff activity data for patients during the recruitment period. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between the proportion of care delivered by support workers team and patient variables. Support workers delivered up to 36% of direct patient care and spent less time per patient contact (36.0 minutes, SD 37.7, range 0-600) than qualified professionals (mean time per contact 75.8 minutes, SD 32.9, range 0-334). Less-dependent and female patients had a greater proportion of support worker input, with a 4.9% increase in face-to-face support worker time for every 0.1 unit increase in EQ-5D (95% CI 0.3-9.6, P = 0.038), while females had an additional 5.1% of their total contact time with support workers compared with males (95% CI 1.9-8.4, P = 0.002). In an analysis without EQ-5D, older patients had a greater proportion of support worker time (P = 0.006). Other factors associated with support worker input include the referral source, intensity of care, usual living arrangements and proportion of support staff in a team. Results indicate that patient- and team-level factors are a determinant in the proportion of support worker care delivered to older people in the community, suggesting that it may be appropriate to introduce a more explicit targeted deployment of support workers based on patient-level characteristics, which may facilitate a more effective use of qualified practitioner time for more complex, dependent patients. PMID:22607390

Moran, Anna; Nancarrow, Susan; Enderby, Pamela; Bradburn, Mike

2012-09-01

294

Utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l'implantation de cabinets automatis?s d?centralis?s en ?tablissement de sant?  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Il existe peu de données sur les conséquences de l’utilisation des cabinets automatisés décentralisés (CAD) en établissements de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive de la conformité des pratiques par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées dans le cadre de l’implantation de CAD. L’objectif principal de l’étude est d’évaluer la conformité globale et celle de chaque processus du circuit du médicament. L’étude se déroule au sein du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère–enfant de 500 lits. À partir des lignes directrices portant sur l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD de l’Institute for Safe Medication Practice (aux États-Unis) (2008) et de son outil d’autoévaluation (2009), nous avons évalué la conformité de la pratique à 30 jours et à 120 jours après l’implantation. Résultats : Nous avons procédé de novembre 2009 à avril 2010 à l’implantation de sept stations de CAD au sein du CHU Sainte-Justine. Le profil de conformité est passé de 66 % à 74 % de janvier à avril 2010. Pour chaque processus relatif à l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD, nous présentons une brève description des critères ainsi que les éléments de non-conformité liés à la technologie ou aux aspects organisationnels. Pour chaque élément de non-conformité, nous avons déterminé les actions requises auprès du fabricant afin de modifier l’équipement (c. à .d. aspects technologiques) et auprès de l’établissement afin de modifier les modalités d’utilisation (aspects organisationnels) en précisant le ou les processus impliqués. Conclusion : Cette étude décrit la conformité des pratiques au CHU Sainte-Justine par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées par l’Institute for Safe Medication Practices. L’utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement peut aider à guider les actions tant sur le plan technologique qu’organisationnel.

Brisseau, Lionel; Bussieres, Jean-Francois; Lebel, Denis; Atkinson, Suzanne; Robinette, Louise; Fortin, Sylvie; Lemay, Michel

2011-01-01

295

Predicate Invention and Utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) involves the synthesis of logicprograms from examples. In terms of scientific theory formation ILP systems defineobservational predicates in terms of a set of theoretical predicates. However,certain basic theorems indicate that with an inadequate theoretical vocabulary thisis not always possible. Predicate invention is the augmentation of a given theoreticalvocabulary to allow finite axiomatisation of the observational predicates.New

Stephen Muggleton

1994-01-01

296

Digestibility, ruminal fermentation, ingesta kinetics and nitrogen utilisation in dairy cows fed diets based on silage of a brown midrib or a standard maize hybrid.  

PubMed

The aim of the present experiment was to investigate an experimental brown midrib (Bm) maize hybrid in comparison with a control (Con) non-Bm maize hybrid on ruminal and total tract digestibility, ruminal fermentation, ruminal ingesta kinetics, nitrogen (N) utilisation and microbial efficiency. A total of six ruminally and duodenally cannulated German Holstein cows were used. Animals were fed diets of either 11.5 kg dry matter (DM) of a Con or a Bm maize silage plus 4.1 kg DM of concentrate. Ruminal and total tract digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre did not differ between hybrids. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations and pH in the rumen were not affected, but ruminal mean retention time was lower for Diet Bm (Con: 45.4 ± 2.39 h; Bm: 40.6 ± 2.39 h; least squares means ± standard error). Cows fed Diet Bm had greater efficiency of N utilisation (Con: 30.1 ± 1.37%; Bm: 33.1 ± 1.37%) and increased flow of microbial crude protein at the duodenum (MCPF) (Con: 7.0 ± 0.37 g/MJ metabolisable energy (ME); Bm: 8.1 ± 0.37 g/MJ ME). Thus, MCPF and utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) were greater for Diet Bm (MCPF - Con: 1117 ± 52.1 g/d; Bm: 1306 ± 52.1 g/d; uCP - Con: 1594 ± 57.9 g/d; Bm: 1807 ± 57.9 g/d) and ruminal N balance was lower for Diet Bm (Con: 98.7 ± 8.92 g/d; Bm: 65.6 ± 8.92 g/d). The present results show that the Bm maize hybrid might be advantageous for dairy cow nutrition with regard to N utilisation and MCPF. However, further research is necessary to draw more precise conclusions on the potential of Bm maize hybrids in general. PMID:24646152

Gorniak, Tobias; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Lebzien, Peter; Breves, Gerhard; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

2014-01-01

297

Peripheral blood culture contamination in adults and venepuncture technique: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:To test the hypothesis that compliance with a hospital protocol on peripheral blood culture (PBC) collection in adults is associated with a reduction in PBC contamination, and to investigate likely contributing factors for contamination.Methods:A prospective cohort study was conducted, utilising data collection by participant questionnaire completion, and utilising bacteriology laboratory results on PBCs. Participants were all healthcare workers involved in

A Qamruddin; N Khanna; D Orr

2008-01-01

298

Investigating Over Critical Thresholds of Forest Megafires Danger Conditions in Europe Utilising the ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) has been established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment (DG ENV) of the European Commission (EC) to support the services in charge of the protection of forests against fires in the EU and neighbour countries, and also to provide the EC services and the European Parliament with information on forest fires in Europe. Within its applications, EFFIS provides current and forecast meteorological fire danger maps up to 6 days. Weather plays a key role in affecting wildfire occurrence and behaviour. Meteorological parameters can be used to derive meteorological fire weather indices that provide estimations of fire danger level at a given time over a specified area of interest. In this work, we investigate the suitability of critical thresholds of fire danger to provide an early warning for megafires (fires > 500 ha) over Europe. Past trends of fire danger are analysed computing daily fire danger from weather data taken from re-analysis fields for a period of 31 years (1980 to 2010). Re-analysis global data sets coming from the construction of high-quality climate records, which combine past observations collected from many different observing and measuring platforms, are capable of describing how Fire Danger Indices have evolved over time at a global scale. The latest and most updated ERA-Interim dataset of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) was used to extract meteorological variables needed to compute daily values of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI) over Europe, with a horizontal resolution of about 75x75 km. Daily time series of CFWI were constructed and analysed over a total of 1,071 European NUTS3 centroids, resulting in a set of percentiles and critical thresholds. Such percentiles could be used as thresholds to help fire services establish a measure of the significance of CFWI outputs as they relate to levels of fire potential, fuel conditions and fire danger. Median percentile values of fire days accumulated over the 31-year period were compared to median values of all days from that period. As expected, the CWFI time series exhibit different values on fire days than on all days. In addition, a percentile analysis was performed in order to determine the behaviour of index values corresponding to fire events falling into the megafire category. This analysis resulted in a set of critical thresholds based on percentiles. By utilising such thresholds, an initial framework of an early warning system has being established. By lowering the value of any of these thresholds, the number of hits could be increased until all extremes were captured (resulting in zero misses). However, in doing so, the number of false alarms tends to increase significantly. Consequently, an optimal trade-off between hits and false alarms has to be established when setting different (critical) CFWI thresholds.

Petroliagkis, Thomas I.; Camia, Andrea; Liberta, Giorgio; Durrant, Tracy; Pappenberger, Florian; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus

2014-05-01

299

Effect of offering dairy cows diets differing in phosphorus concentration over four successive lactations: 2. Health, fertility, bone phosphorus reserves and nutrient utilisation.  

PubMed

This experiment examined the long-term effects of offering diets containing low levels of dietary phosphorus (P) on dairy cow health, fertility and bone composition, and the effect of dietary P level on nutrient utilisation. One hundred winter-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either 'high' or 'low' levels of dietary P over a 4-year period. Rations offered during the winter included grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and concentrates (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. Concentrate feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering concentrates containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM, respectively) and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P winter diets, respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P summer diets, respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations from 1 to 4, respectively. Neither the incidence of lameness or mastitis, or milk somatic cell count, were affected by dietary P level (P > 0.05), while none of the fertility parameters recorded in any of lactations from 1 to 4 was affected by the dietary P level (P > 0.05). Dietary P level had no effect on the specific gravity, ash or calcium content of rib cortical bone cores (n = 78 cows), while the P content of cortical bone (g/kg fresh, g/kg DM and mg/ml fresh bone) was lower with cows offered low P diets (P < 0.05). Dietary P level had no significant effect on the digestibility of either the DM, nitrogen, energy or acid detergent fibre fraction of the diet (P > 0.05), while faecal P excretions were reduced by a mean of 27 g/cow per day with cows offered the low P diets during the winter period. The results of this study indicate that dietary P levels can be reduced to proportionately 0.8 (approximately) of current UK feeding standards (Agricultural and Food Research Council, 1991), with no detrimental effect on dairy cow health or fertility, while having only minor effects on bone composition. PMID:22444043

Ferris, C P; McCoy, M A; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J

2010-04-01

300

IS Curriculum Career Tracks: A UK Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a comprehensive study on the specialisations or career tracks supported by the Information Systems (IS) curriculum in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilises the recently published IS curriculum guidelines (IS 2010) to develop a method for ranking the career tracks of…

Stefanidis, Angelos; Fitzgerald, Guy; Counsell, Steve

2013-01-01

301

Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

2014-01-14

302

Association between daily antiretroviral pill burden and treatment adherence, hospitalisation risk, and other healthcare utilisation and costs in a US medicaid population with HIV  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lower pill burden leads to improved antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV patients. Simpler dosing regimens have not been widely explored in real-world populations. We retrospectively assessed ART adherence, all-cause hospitalisation risk and costs, and other healthcare utilisation and costs in Medicaid enrollees with HIV treated with ART as a once-daily single-tablet regimen (STR) or two or more pills per day (2+PPD). Design Patients with an HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 receiving complete ART (ie, two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus a third agent) for ?60?days as STR or 2+PPD were selected and followed until the first of (1) discontinuation of the complete ART, (2) loss of enrolment or (3) end of database. Adherence was measured using the medication possession ratio. Monthly all-cause healthcare utilisation and costs were observed from regimen initiation until follow-up end. Results Of the 7381 patients who met inclusion criteria, 1797 were treated with STR and 5584 with 2+PPD. STR patients were significantly more likely to reach 95% adherence and had fewer hospitalisations than 2+PPD patients (both p<0.01). STR patients had mean (SD) total monthly costs of $2959 ($4962); 2+PPD patients had $3544 ($5811; p<0.001). Hospital costs accounted for 53.8% and pharmacy costs accounted for 32.5% of this difference. Multivariate analyses found that STR led to a 23% reduction in hospitalisations and a 17% reduction in overall healthcare costs. ART adherence appears to be a key mechanism mediating hospitalisation risk, as patients with ?95% adherence (regardless of regimen type) had a lower hospitalisation rate compared with <95% adherence. Conclusions While it was expected that STR patients would have lower pharmacy costs, we also found that STR patients had fewer hospitalisations and lower hospital costs than 2+PPD patients, resulting in significantly lower total healthcare costs for STR patients.

Cohen, Calvin J; Meyers, Juliana L; Davis, Keith L

2013-01-01

303

One-year study of nitro-organic compounds and their relation to wood burning in PM10 aerosol from a rural site in Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitro-organic compounds were determined in a one-year set of atmospheric PM10 filter samples that were collected at a rural background site in Hamme, Belgium. In an earlier study, it was found that the site was substantially impacted by wood burning, making the filter samples appropriate for further investigations on wood burning indicators. In total, four groups of nitro-aromatic compounds (with molecular weights (MWs) of 139, 155, 169, and 183), ?-pinene-related nitrooxy-organosulfates (MW 295), and the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DHAA, MW 300) were quantified using liquid chromatography combined with negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The annual mean concentrations were 0.94, 6.0, 7.7, 4.8, 7.8, and 1.76 ng m-3 for the sum of the nitrophenols (MW 139), 4-nitrocatechol (MW 155), the sums of the methyl-nitrocatechols (MW 169), of the dimethyl-nitrocatechols (MW 183), and of the ?-pinene-related nitrooxy-organosulfates (MW 295), and DHAA (MW 300), respectively. 4-nitrocatechol, the sum of the methyl-nitrocatechols, and the sum of the dimethyl-nitrocatechols were substantially correlated with levoglucosan (r-values of 0.71, 0.66, and 0.65, respectively), consistent with their proposed origin from biomass burning. The nitro-aromatic compounds were also observed during the summer months, indicating a non-negligible usage of wood burning for domestic purposes at the site. The ?-pinene-related nitrooxy-organosulfates (MW 295) were detected in high concentrations during the winter period, but they were poorly correlated with the biomass burning tracers. All of the targeted species showed a clear seasonal variation with highest concentrations in winter, followed by autumn, spring, and summer. Based on the DHAA measurements, it is suggested that burning of softwood is likely an important source for the formation of all the nitro-organic compounds measured.

Kahnt, Ariane; Behrouzi, Shabnam; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Safi Shalamzari, Mohammad; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward; Claeys, Magda; Maenhaut, Willy

2013-12-01

304

Experimental results from a 5 kW PEM fuel cell stack operated on simulated reformate from highly diluted hydrocarbon fuels: Efficiency, dilution, fuel utilisation, CO poisoning and design criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article analyses the effects of dilute biogas on efficiency, fuel utilisation, dynamics, control strategy, and design criteria for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system. The tested fuel compositions are exemplified by gas compositions that could be attained within various Swedish biofuel demonstration projects. Experimental data which can serve as a basis for design of PEFC biogas systems

Lars Hedström; Thomas Tingelöf; Per Alvfors; Göran Lindbergh

2009-01-01

305

The biology of Cobanus mandibularis, a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) from Costa Rica: intraspecific interactions, predatory behaviour, and silk utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intraspecific interactions and predatory behaviour of Cobanus mandibularis, a salticid spider from Costa Rica which builds large web-like nests on the undersides of leaves in the rainforest, are studied for the first time. Males use different mating tactics depending on the female’s maturity and location (courtship versatility): visual displays if the female is mature and away from her nest,

Robert R. Jackson

1989-01-01

306

Utilisation of New Materials. Synthesis Report. In-Service Education and Training of Teachers: Towards New Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both technological developments and the political context in which developments have occurred are considered, based on (1) an international conference organized by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in October 1978; (2) results of studies in different countries in collaboration with German agencies; (3) research in…

Dobrich, Peter; And Others

307

Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The article…

Dyke, Sarah

2013-01-01

308

MRI guidance of infra-red laser liver tumour ablations, utilising an open MRI configuration system: technique and early progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Primary and secondary liver tumours are a common clinical problem, with a poor prognosis in most cases. Surgical resection offers the best outcome, but is only appropriate for the minority. Thermal ablation techniques have been described, but the lack of an optimal means of monitoring has limited their use. We undertook a pilot study to assess the feasibility and

Michael G. de Jode; Gabrielle M Lamb; Howard C Thomas; Simon D Taylor-Robinson; Wladyslaw M. W Gedroyc

1999-01-01

309

The Effect of an Education Program Utilising PRECEDE Model on the Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…

Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.

2012-01-01

310

Value Creation through IT-supported Knowledge Management? The Utilisation of a Knowledge Management System in a Global Consulting Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many consulting companies have introduced IT-supported knowledge-management systems, and proponents of the literature continue to advocate knowledge management as a key to competitive advantage in consultancies, many knowledge management systems have fallen short of expectation in companies that have adopted them. However, empirical studies regarding the performance implications of these systems are missing. This paper reports such an empirical,

Karlheinz Kautz; Volker Mahnke

311

Enhancing the Quality of Engineering Education by Utilising Student Feedback: Quality and the Engineering Student Experience--An Institutional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the role of the current student experience questionnaire in gaining student views on their educational experiences while studying at a research-intensive university in Australia. In particular, the paper focuses on the experiences of engineering students. The paper goes on to examine the areas of best practice and those…

Nair, Chenicheri Sid; Patil, Arun; Mertova, Patricie

2011-01-01

312

Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of

A Acosta; I Iglesias; M Aineto; M Romero; J. Ma Rincón

2002-01-01

313

A second gene (qutH) within the Aspergillus nidulans-quinic-acid utilisation gene cluster encodes a protein with a putative zinc-cluster motif.  

PubMed

A sequence of 3299 nt, contiguous with the previously sequenced quinate permease-encoding (qutD) gene and encompassing the dehydroshikimate dehydratase-encoding (qutC) gene, has been determined. Northern-blot analysis detected (i) a quinate-inducible mRNA of the expected size for the qutC gene, and (ii) a quinate-inducible mRNA of 1.45 kb divergently transcribed away from qutC towards qutD. Computer-aided sequence analysis identified an ORF of 1047 nt corresponding to the qutC gene encoding dehydroshikimate dehydratase. In addition, a genetically uncharacterized 1188-nt gene, designated qutH and containing a putative intron of 61 nt, was identified between qutC and qutD. The inferred protein sequence encoded by qutH contains a putative 'zinc cluster' motif and has a low (16%) but significant similarity with the DNA-directed DNA polymerase of hepatitis B virus. The results are interpreted as being consistent with the view that the qutH gene encodes a DNA-binding protein, possibly involved in the regulation of genes essential for the utilisation of protocatechuic acid. PMID:1339361

Lamb, H K; Roberts, C F; Hawkins, A R

1992-03-15

314

Utilisation of pumice stone as support for the anaerobic treatment of vinasse with a fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the start?up procedure and operation of an 0.63?liter anaerobic fluidized bed reactor treating distillery wastewater and using pumice stone as support. Start?up with addition of methanol gave a rapid organic degradation (90% COD). Six different hydraulic retention times (between 0.5 and 2.48 days) were studied, achieving a COD removal efficiency of 76.5–94.1% and biogas production rates

M. D. Balaguer; M. T. Vicent; J. M. Paris

1991-01-01

315

Amélioration de la performance des machines frigorifiques á absorption par l'utilisation de cycles à absorption et désorption étagés  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with staged absorption and desorption cooling systems which increase the performance of absorption cycles that are driven by only low-grade energy, particularly when the working fluids are NH3?H20. Instead of working with only one absorber, these systems use a cascade of absorbers composed by one operating at the evaporator pressure, followed by a series of absorbers operating

Massamba Thioye

1997-01-01

316

Identification of cognitive profiles among women considering BRCA1\\/2 testing through the utilisation of cluster analytic techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the cognitive-social health information processing model, we identified cognitive profiles of women at risk for breast and ovarian cancer. Prior to genetic counselling, participants (N?=?171) completed a study questionnaire concerning their cognitive and affective responses to being at genetic risk. Using cluster analysis, four cognitive profiles were generated: (a) high perceived risk\\/low coping; (b) low value of screening\\/high

Pagona Roussi; Kerry A. Sherman; Suzanne M. Miller; Karen Hurley; Mary B. Daly; Andrew Godwin; Joanne S. Buzaglo; Kuang-Yi Wen

2011-01-01

317

Utilisation du jus d'ananas en tant qu'agent de contraste négatif en cholangiopancréatographie par résonance magnétique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography J Radiol 2004;85:1689-94 Purpose. The quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images is frequently degraded by high signal from the gastrointestinal tract on heavily T2W images. The purpose of this study is to evaluate pineapple juice (PJ) as an oral negative contrast agent in MRCP. Materials and

Fernand Widal; Joel Poupon

2011-01-01

318

Utilisation de la réflectométrie en domaine temporel pour l'étude des transferts d'humidité en milieu poreux perméable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of time domain reflectometry allows instantaneous highly accurate location of humidities in a cell filled with a porous medium. The principles and process of the method will be briefly surveyed. Then, reference will be given as to its performances when small quantities of water seep through the porous medium. This technique is likely to be increasingly used in a laboratory for further study of the kinetics of unsaturated flow as well as in a natural medium.

Aubic, J.; Bottreau, A. M.

1982-06-01

319

Correlation of drug utilisation and morbidity at the municipality level. High use of antibiotics associated with low use of antihypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between Swedish drug sales data per municipality and morbidity per municipality. The morbidity was expressed as “sickness numbers” which are assumed to function as proxy for morbidity.Methods  Sickness numbers per municipality were correlated to volumes of drug sales per municipality in 2003. In addition, the sales volumes of antibiotics were correlated

J. Lars G. Nilsson; Gunnar Lindberg; Hans Johansson; Arne Melander

2006-01-01

320

Utilisation of erythrocyte 6-thioguanine metabolite levels to optimise azathioprine therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMThe immunosuppressive properties of 6-mercaptopurine and its parent compound azathioprine are mediated by their intracellular metabolism into active 6-thioguanine (6-TG) metabolites. Measurement of erythrocyte 6-TG metabolite levels has been proposed as a useful clinical tool for assessing treatment efficacy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).AIMThe purpose of the study was to establish a therapeutic index of treatment

C Cuffari; S Hunt; T Bayless

2001-01-01

321

Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing.  

PubMed

The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of these kind of bricks from mixes of waste from ores of construction clays and to significant fraction of different ratios and clay granulometries mixed with IGCC slag. The results of this experimentation suggests that not only can IGCC slag be applied to a ceramic process, but also its use gives several advantages, as water and energy savings, as well as improvements on the final properties of products. PMID:12423050

Acosta, A; Iglesias, I; Aineto, M; Romero, M; Rincón, J Ma

2002-01-01

322

[Onchocerciasis chemotherapy. II. Evaluation of two therapeutic schemes on microfilarial density, utilising the association diethylcarbamazine and levamisole (author's transl)].  

PubMed

As the study of the association diethylcarbamazine-levamisole gave encouraging results on the dermal microfilarial density of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1893), the authors followed it up in order to determine the optimum regimen for mass treatment. Two therapeutic schemes have been tested: A--Initial treatment: 14 days with the dayly dosis of respectively 200 mg of diethylcarbamazine and 120 mg of levamisole progressively reached in four days. After one year: a single dayly dosis of respectively 200 mg and 60 mg for five days. B--Initial treatment: 7 days with the same dosis as above. After one year: dayly dosis of respectively 200 mg and 60 mg for seven days. It appears that scheme A may be considered as the best baseline to achieve the optimum regimen for the mass treatment of onchocerciasis. The aim of such a treatment is to decrease the dermal microfilarial density to a level compatible with the patient good condition. PMID:530049

Prod'hon, J; Sainte-Marie, F F; Moreau, J P; Desfontaine, M

1979-01-01

323

Towards a holistic approach for the urban environment and its impact on energy utilisation in buildings: the ATREUS project.  

PubMed

Enhanced urbanisation and its impact on the urban climate have a significant impact on the energy behaviour of buildings. Rising standards in indoor environmental quality lead to higher energy consumption values for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning purposes. ATREUS is a research and training network launched recently aiming to cover some of these aspects to enable a better understanding of the phenomena as well as providing high quality training for young European researchers. Having completed one year of work, some indicative results of the approach used within ATREUS have already produced both methodological approaches and combinatorial case studies; an example of the latter, based on the Thessaloniki experiment and the results produced by an extended field survey, will be discussed. PMID:15480499

Papadopoulos, A M; Moussiopoulos, N

2004-10-01

324

Utilising caging techniques to investigate metal assimilation in Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas at three Irish coastal locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution by metals has been of increasing concern for a number of decades but at present, the mechanism of metal accumulation in sentinel species is not fully understood and further studies are required for environmental risk assessment of metals in aquatic environments. The use of caging techniques has proven to be useful for assessment of water quality in coastal and estuarine environments. This study investigates the application of caging techniques for monitoring uptake of 20 elements [Li, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Cd and Zn] in three marine species namely Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Stable isotopes were used to determine predatory effects and also used for modelling metal uptake in test species and to track nutrient assimilation. Metal levels were monitored at three different coastal locations, namely Dublin Bay, Dunmore East and Omey Island over 18 weeks. Significant differences in concentrations of Mn, Co and Zn between mussels and oysters were found. Correlations between cadmium levels in N. lapillus and ?13C and ?15N suggest dietary influences in Cd uptake. Levels of Zn were highest in C. gigas compared to the other two species and levels of Zn were most elevated at the Dunmore East site. Copper levels were more elevated in all test species at both Dublin Bay and Dunmore East. Mercury was raised in all species at Dunmore East compared to the other two sites. Biotic accumulation of metals in the test species demonstrates that caging techniques can provide a valid tool for biomonitoring in metal impacted areas.

Giltrap, Michelle; Macken, Ailbhe; Davoren, Maria; McGovern, Evin; Foley, Barry; Larsen, Martin; White, Jonathan; McHugh, Brendan

2013-11-01

325

Utilisation de la teledetection pour l'estimation de la reserve hydrique au bassin du Mackenzie au nord ouest Canadien  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work elaborates a method to estimate soil moisture and open water extent using remote sensing data. Specifically, Microwave data are used in this work in combination with other sources of information. This study is applied to Mackenzie River Basin as it was conducted in the framework of the MAGS project (Mackenzie GEWEX Study). The methodology developed in this work is based on the concept of the wetness index which is a surrogate of the measured soil moisture. Firstly, it was proposed to used wetness index derived from a linear combination of brightness temperatures measured by the SSM/I sensor. Beside the correlation of this index with the observed discharge at some observing points of the Mackenzie River basin, it was noticed that the empirical parameter of the index were affected by the variation in space and time of the surface conditions. The sensitivity of the wetness index was improved by considering this effect. Secondly, the potential of combination of passive microwave data and discharge observation for flood forecasting was investigated. The methodology was based on the concept of the rating curve model. The Kaman filter was used to update the parameters of the rating model at the reception of each new satellite image. The estimated water surface fractions using the discharge observations showed a reasonable concordance with those derived from visible images (NOAA-AVHRR). The publication of the AMSR-E data has enabled us to improve the spatial resolution of the passive microwave data. Thus, a new formulation of a wetness index was proposed in the third part of this work. The proposed Basin Wetness Index is based on the difference of the sensitivity of passive microwave and visible images to soil moisture. Microwave data are sensitive to the soil water content and open water extent. However, visible images can mirror only the water extent. Information about soil moisture can be derived from the difference of these sensitivities. This index was able to qualitatively describe the temporal evolution of the wetness over the Mackenzie River Basin. It is worth mentioning that vegetation distribution was considered in the formulation of the proposed index by the segregation between bare and vegetated soil soils by the mosaic approach. The BWI was finally downscaled using Digital Elevation Model data. The sensitivity of the topography attributes to the spatial distribution of soil moisture was assessed. A classical formulation of topographical index was modified in this study to take into account the difference of sensitivity of topographical attributes over bare and covered soils. The combination of the modified topographical index and the proposed BWI enabled us to downscale the soil water content estimation and provide an estimate of soil moisture at the scale of the Digital elevation Model. Overall, the downscaling approach provided satisfactory resultants when compared to precipitation and temperature variation. Further works are needed to assess the reliability of the proposed approaches using results of distributed hydrological model outputs.

Temimi, Marouane

326

Simulation numerique de l'effet du reflecteur radial sur les cellules rep en utilisant les codes DRAGON et DONJON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWRs) is the largest fleet of nuclear reactors in operation around the world. Although these reactors have been studied extensively by designers and operators using efficient numerical methods, there are still some calculation weaknesses, given the geometric complexity of the core, still unresolved such as the analysis of the neutron flux's behavior at the core-reflector interface. The standard calculation scheme is a two steps process. In the first step, a detailed calculation at the assembly level with reflective boundary conditions, provides homogenized cross-sections for the assemblies, condensed to a reduced number of groups; this step is called the lattice calculation. The second step uses homogenized properties in each assemblies to calculate reactor properties at the core level. This step is called the full-core calculation or whole-core calculation. This decoupling of the two calculation steps is the origin of methodological bias particularly at the interface core reflector: the periodicity hypothesis used to calculate cross section librairies becomes less pertinent for assemblies that are adjacent to the reflector generally represented by these two models: thus the introduction of equivalent reflector or albedo matrices. The reflector helps to slowdown neutrons leaving the reactor and returning them to the core. This effect leads to two fission peaks in fuel assemblies localised at the core/reflector interface, the fission rate increasing due to the greater proportion of reentrant neutrons. This change in the neutron spectrum arises deep inside the fuel located on the outskirts of the core. To remedy this we simulated a peripheral assembly reflected with TMI-PWR reflector and developed an advanced calculation scheme that takes into account the environment of the peripheral assemblies and generate equivalent neutronic properties for the reflector. This scheme is tested on a core without control mechanisms and charged with fresh fuel. The results of this study showed that explicit representation of reflector and calculation of peripheral assembly with our advanced scheme allow corrections to the energy spectrum at the core interface and increase the peripheral power by up to 12% compared with that of the reference scheme.

Bejaoui, Najoua

327

Elucidation of the outer membrane proteome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium utilising a lipid-based protein immobilization technique  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The outer membrane proteins expressed by S. Typhimurium mediate the process of adhesion and internalisation within the intestinal epithelium of the host thus influencing the progression of disease. Since the outer membrane proteins are surface-exposed, they provide attractive targets for the development of improved antimicrobial agents and vaccines. Various techniques have been developed for their characterisation, but issues such as carryover of cytosolic proteins still remain a problem. In this study we attempted to characterise the surface proteome of S. Typhimurium using Lipid-based Protein Immobilisation technology in the form of LPI™ FlowCells. No detergents are required and no sample clean up is needed prior to downstream analysis. The immobilised proteins can be digested with proteases in multiple steps to increase sequence coverage, and the peptides eluted can be characterised directly by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and identified from mass spectral database searches. Results In this study, 54 outer membrane proteins, were identified with two or more peptide hits using a multi-step digest approach. Out of these 28 were lipoproteins, nine were involved in transport and three with enzyme activity These included the transporters BtuB which is responsible for the uptake of vitamin B12, LamB which is involved in the uptake of maltose and maltodextrins and LolB which is involved in the incorporation of lipoproteins in the outer membrane. Other proteins identified included the enzymes MltC which may play a role in cell elongation and division and NlpD which is involved in catabolic processes in cell wall formation as well as proteins involved in virulence such as Lpp1, Lpp2 and OmpX. Conclusion Using a multi-step digest approach the LPI™ technique enables the incorporation of a multi-step protease work flow ensuring enough sequence coverage of membrane proteins subsequently leading to the identification of more membrane proteins with higher confidence. Compared to current sub-cellular fractionation procedures and previous published work, the LPI™ technique currently provides the widest coverage of outer membrane proteins identified as demonstrated here for Salmonella Typhimurium.

2010-01-01

328

Effect of diet form and enzyme supplementation on growth, efficiency and energy utilisation of wheat-based diets for broilers.  

PubMed

1. The effect of diet form (mash, cold-pelleted, steam-conditioned/pelleted, wet mash, whole wheat with balancer pellet, restricted pellet) and enzyme inclusion (Avizyme 1300, absent, present) was studied in 2 trials using individually caged, male broilers from 14 to 42 d. Bird performance, viscosity of ileal contents and diet metabolisability (AME) were measured. 2. The performance of mash-fed birds was significantly poorer than for the other treatments in relation to dry matter intake, liveweight gain and gain:food. This was not due to reduced diet AME content. 3. There was no significant effect of heat treatment on any of the variables measured, although viscosity of ileal contents was increased by 30% as compared to the cold-pelleted diet. 4. Gain:food was improved with wet-mash feeding in comparison to the dry mash treatment but it was concluded that this was not due to any intrinsic improvement in diet quality, but rather to voluntary food restriction on introduction of the wet food. 5. Whole wheat feeding improved gain:food and diet AME content by 3% as compared to the complete diets and caused approximately a 50% increase in gizzard weight as compared with the pelleted diets. 6. Food enzyme inclusion did not improve performance although a significant improvement in diet AME content was observed with enzyme inclusion in trial 1. PMID:11081428

Preston, C M; McKracken, K J; McAllister, A

2000-07-01

329

Hospitalisation Utilisation and Costs in Schizophrenia Patients in Finland before and after Initiation of Risperidone Long-Acting Injection  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Quantify changes in hospital resource use in Finland following initiation of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Materials and Methods. A retrospective multi-center chart review (naturalistic setting) was used to compare annual hospital bed-days and hospital episodes for 177 schizophrenia patients (mean age 47.1 years, 52% female, 72% hospitalized) before and after initiation of RLAI (between January 2004 and June 2005) using the within-patient “mirror-image” study design. The base case analytical approach allocated hospital episodes overlapping the start date entirely to the preinitiation period. In order to investigate the impact of inpatient care ongoing at baseline, the change in bed-days was also estimated using an alternative analytical approached related to economic modelling. Results. In the conventional analysis, the mean annual hospitalisation costs declined by €11,900 and the number of bed-days was reduced by 40%, corresponding to 0.19 fewer hospital episodes per year. The reductions in bed-days per patient-year were similar for patients switched to RLAI as inpatients and as outpatients. In the modelling-based analysis, an 8% reduction in bed-days per year was observed. Conclusion. Despite uncertainty in the choice of analytic approach for allocating inpatient episodes that overlapping this initiation, consistent reductions in resource use are associated with the initiation of RLAI in Finland.

Asseburg, Christian; Willis, Michael; Lothgren, Mickael; Seppala, Niko; Hakala, Mika; Persson, Ulf

2012-01-01

330

An ecological approach to seeking and utilising the views of young people with intellectual disabilities in transition planning.  

PubMed

Transition planning using a person-centred approach has, in the main, failed to shape service provision. We offer an alternative based on an ecological understanding of human development linked to public health approaches that prioritise whole system planning. A total of 43 young people with intellectual disabilities, in Bradford, England, who were approaching transition from school or college were recruited to a qualitative study. Their ethnic breakdown was as follows: 16 white British, 24 Pakistani, 2 Bangladeshi and 1 Black African. Each young person was interviewed twice, at recruitment and a year later, to observe any changes in their social networks during transition. Interviews were undertaken with a semi-structured interview schedule and with the pictorial approach of Talking Mats. Both the networks the young people live within, and their sense of what the future might hold for them, are described and linked to Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development. The importance of the family and school is emphasised, as is the absence of engagement in leisure activities and work. Transition planning needs to start with mapping the systems individuals live within, areas of strength should be supported and parts of the system, which are not fit for purpose for these young people, should be prioritised for interventions. PMID:23940112

Small, Neil; Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, Nicole

2013-12-01

331

Systems analysis utilising pathway interactions identifies sonic hedgehog pathway as a primary biomarker and oncogenic target in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The development and progression of cancer is associated with disruption of biological networks. Historically studies have identified sets of signature genes involved in events ultimately leading to the development of cancer. Identification of such sets does not indicate which biologic processes are oncogenic drivers and makes it difficult to identify key networks to target for interventions. Using a comprehensive, integrated computational approach, the authors identify the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway as the gene network that most significantly distinguishes tumour and tumour-adjacent samples in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The analysis reveals that the SHH pathway is commonly activated in the tumour samples and its activity most significantly differentiates tumour from the non-tumour samples. The authors experimentally validate these in silico findings in the same biologic material using Western blot analysis. This analysis reveals that the expression levels of SHH, phosphorylated cyclin B1, and CDK7 levels are much higher in most tumour tissues as compared to normal tissue. It is also shown that siRNA-mediated silencing of SHH gene expression resulted in a significant reduction of cell proliferation in a liver cancer cell line, SNU449 indicating that SHH plays a major role in promoting cell proliferation in liver cancer. The SHH pathway is a key network underpinning HCC aetiology which may guide the development of interventions for this most common form of human liver cancer. PMID:24712101

Efroni, Sol; Meerzaman, Daoud; Schaefer, Carl F; Greenblum, Sharon; Soo-Lyu, Myung; Hu, Ying; Cultraro, Constance; Meshorer, Eran; Buetow, Kenneth H

2013-12-01

332

Identification of registered nursing care of residents in English nursing homes using the Minimum Data Set Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS\\/RAI) and Resource Utilisation Groups version III (RUG-III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: to determine if a combination of Minimum Data Set\\/Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS\\/RAI) assessment variables and the Resource Utilisation Groups version III (RUG-III) case-mix system could be used as a method of identifying and reimbursing registered nursing care needs in long-term care. Method: the sample included 193 nursing home residents from four nursing homes from three different locations and care

IAIN CARPENTER; M ICHELLE PERRY; D AVID CHALLIS; K EVIN HOPE

333

Quantification of malachite green in fish feed utilising liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a monolithic column.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of malachite green (MG) in fish feed using LC-ESI-MS/MS with a monolithic column as stationary phase. Fish feed was cleaned using ultrasonic assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The separation was achieved on a Chromolith(®) Performance RP-18e column (100 × 4.6 mm) using gradient mobile phase composition of methanol and 0.1% formic acid at the flow rate of 1.0 ml min(-1). The analyte was ionised using electrospray ionisation in positive mode. Mass spectral transitions were recorded in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode at m/z 329.78 ? m/z 314.75 with a collision energy (CE) of 52% for MG. The system suitability responses were calculated for reproducibility tests of the retention time, number of theoretical plates and capacity factor. System validation was evaluated for precision, specificity and linearity of MG. The linearity and calibration graph was plotted in the range of 15.0-250 ng ml(-1) with the regression coefficient of >0.997. The lower limits of detection and quantification for MG were 0.55 and 1.44 ng ml(-1), respectively, allowing easy determination in fish feed with accuracy evaluated as a percentage recovery of 92.1% and precision determined as % CV of < 5. The method was also extended to the determination of MG in an actual fish feed. The sensitivity and selectivity of LC-ESI-MS/MS using monolithic column offers a valuable alternative to the methodologies currently employed for the quantification of MG in fish feeds. PMID:24524279

Abro, Kamran; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Iqbal, Seema; Perveen, Shahnaz

2014-05-01

334

Home Range Utilisation and Long-Range Movement of Estuarine Crocodiles during the Breeding and Nesting Season  

PubMed Central

The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92±0.013 metres total length (TL), mean ± S.E., n?=?4) occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49±0.9 km d?1; n?=?8) during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17±0.14 m TL) exhibited a ‘site-fidelic’ strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81±0.08 m TL) exhibited ‘nomadic’ behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the ‘site-fidelic’ males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the ‘nomadic’ males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions.

Campbell, Hamish A.; Dwyer, Ross G.; Irwin, Terri R.; Franklin, Craig E.

2013-01-01

335

La modelisation des evenements de givrage atmospherique : Interpolation de la narr pour l'utilisation de gem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind industry is growing in cold climates. These environments are conductive to ice accumulation causing wind turbine and meteorological instruments failures, output power reduction and humans hazards. Therefore, the understanding and the characterizations of the atmospheric icing are required to optimize the wind farm installation. The production of an icing map in North America can be supported by the numerical weather prediction model and microphysics schemes detailing the different precipitation and accumulation types. Nevertheless, it is important to create such a atlas on a historical basis, because these events vary each winter. The use of input files for these models should contain a maximum of atmospheric data covering a large geographical area to ensure to cover the significant weather phenomena. In this study, a methodology consisting to model the icing events, based on the meso-scale method, was developed. This methodology is complementary to an icing map allowing to get more information on a local site. The main objective is to develop a tool to make compatible the input data, NARR (North Regional Re-Analysis), with the weather prediction model GEM (Global Environnemental Multi-Scale). With this model, it will be possible to model the icing events in Canada at a spatial resolution of 32 km. Then, a model at a spatial resolution of 5 km will allow to get more information in icing on Québec region. The secondary objective is to install weather instruments what can provide information regarding the duration, intensity and frequency of icing events. Thereby, a measuring station has been installed including an ice meter and an heated rain gauge. Finally, the results of this research show promising results of the icing precipitation modeling for the preparation of an icing map. These models may be modeled by the reanalyse data.

Camion, Amelie

336

A novel technique for post-mastectomy breast irradiation utilising non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate if non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the post-mastectomy setting can reduce the dose to normal structures and improve target coverage. We compared this IMRT technique with a standard partial wide tangential (PWT) plan and a five-field (5F) photon-electron plan. 10 patients who underwent left-sided mastectomy were planned to 50.4 Gy using either (1) PWT to cover the internal mammary (IM) nodes and supraclavicular fields, (2) 5F comprising standard tangents, supraclavicular fields and an electron field for the IM nodes or (3) IMRT. The planning target volume (PTV) included the left chest wall, supraclavicular, axillary and IM lymph nodes. No beams were directed at the right lung, right breast or heart. Mean dose–volume histograms were constructed by combining the dose–volume histogram data from all 10 patients. The mean PTV to receive 95% of the dose (V95%) was improved with the IMRT plan to 94.2% from 91.4% (p = 0.04) with the PWT plan and from 87.7% (p = 0.012) with the 5F plan. The mean V110% of the PTV was improved to 3.6% for the IMRT plan from 16.8% (p = 0.038) for the PWT plan and from 51.8% (p = 0.001) for the 5F plan. The mean fraction volume receiving 30 Gy (v30Gy) of the heart was improved with the IMRT plan to 2.3% from 7.5% (p = 0.01) for the PWT plan and 4.9% (p = 0.02) for the 5F plan. In conclusion, non-coplanar IMRT results in improved coverage of the PTV and a lower heart dose when compared with a 5F or PWT plan.

Koshy, M; Zhang, B; Naqvi, S; Liu, B; Mohiuddin, M M

2010-01-01

337

Clinical significance of perfusion techniques utilising different physiological mechanisms to detect myocardial viability: A comparative study with myocardial contrast echocardiography and single photon emission computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial uptake using 99mTc-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) depends largely on myocardial microvascular volume. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) is a relatively new technique that detects not only microvascular volume but also blood flow. These differing mechanisms may affect the relative accuracies of MCE and SPECT for detecting myocardial viability (MV) early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and thrombolysis.

Michael Hickman; Rajesh Janardhanan; Girish Dwivedi; Leah Burden; Roxy Senior

2007-01-01

338

Ecological Thresholds in the Savanna Landscape: Developing a Protocol for Monitoring the Change in Composition and Utilisation of Large Trees  

PubMed Central

Background Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure - particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts - is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (?5 m in height) play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0–6.6 km in length) and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0–1.6 km in length). Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease) which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. Conclusions/Significance The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next stage is to integrate that protocol into a decision-making system, which highlights potential leading indicators of change. Frequent monitoring would be required to establish the rate and direction of change. This approach may be useful in generating monitoring protocols for other dynamic systems.

Druce, Dave J.; Shannon, Graeme; Page, Bruce R.; Grant, Rina; Slotow, Rob

2008-01-01

339

Researching Primary Engineering Education: UK Perspectives, an Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of…

Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

2010-01-01

340

Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of ?13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest ?13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during the vegetation period the values were much lower (-21.85 o). This coincided with a strong increase of the PLFA 18:2 (from 0.99 up to 2.37 nmol g dry wt soil-1), indicating utilisation of old organic matter by fungi, while mono-unsaturated PLFAs, indicating Gram-negative bacteria, were more frequent before and after the growing season. Microbial dynamics in the unfertilised control followed the same seasonal pattern but PLFAs were less enriched in 13C due to lower yields compared with the N-fertilised treatment. The addition of organic amendments (straw or sewage sludge) lowered ?13C-values in PLFAs below values of the control due to input of labile material with C3-origin. PLFAs in the bare fallow treatment, that had not received plant carbon inputs during twelve years, were most 13C depleted among the treatments but still enriched by about 2o compared with SOM, indicating a degree of microbial fractionation.

Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

2014-05-01

341

Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l'utilisation s?curitaire et efficace des opio?des pour la douleur chronique non canc?reuse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la sédation, les chutes et la surdose peuvent être minimisées en utilisant des doses initiales faibles, un titrage plus lent, un sevrage des benzodiazépines et une bonne éducation des patients. Dans le cas des femmes enceintes qui prennent des opioïdes chaque jour, il faut faire un sevrage progressif et cesser complètement. Si ce n’est pas possible, il faut administrer la dose efficace la plus faible. Les femmes enceintes qui ont une dépendance aux opioïdes devraient recevoir un traitement à la méthadone. Les adolescents sont à risque élevé de surdose d’opioïdes, d’usage abusif et de dépendance. Les patients qui ont des adolescents qui vivent à la maison devraient entreposer leurs opioïdes dans un lieu sûr. Les adolescents ont rarement besoin d’une thérapie à long terme aux opioïdes. Conclusion Les médecins de famille doivent tenir compte de l’âge, de la condition psychiatrique, du degré de risque de dépendance du patient et d’autres facteurs quand ils prescrivent des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique.

Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

2011-01-01

342

Individual differences in study processes and the Quality of Learning Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the relationship between students' study processes and the structural complexity of their learning. Study processes are conceived in terms of three independent dimensions — utilising, internalising and achieving — each of which has a cognitive (strategic) and an affective (motivational) component; these are assessed by the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ). Learning quality is expressed in

John Biggs

1979-01-01

343

Enacted Capabilities on Adoption of Information Systems: A Study of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of studies into the adoption behaviour of Information systems (IS) have focused on small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). These past studies provide an understanding of the contextual factors offering a simple dichotomous measure such as adopters and non-adopters rather than the manner of usage (from adoption to utilisation). This study introduces the construct of enacted capabilities and

Noor Akma Mohd Salleh; Fiona Rohde

2005-01-01

344

[Results of the marketing research study "Acceptance of physician's office computer systems"].  

PubMed

We report on a market research study on the acceptance of computer systems in surgeries. 11,000 returned questionnaires of surgeons--user and nonuser--were analysed. We found out that most of the surgeons used their computers in a limited way, i.e. as a device for accounting. Concerning the level of utilisation there are differentials of Men-Women, West-East and Young-Old. In this study we also analysed the computer using behaviour of gynaecologic surgeons. As a result two third of all nonusers are not intending to utilise a computer in the future. PMID:9556905

Steinhausen, D; Brinkmann, F; Engelhard, A

1998-01-01

345

Utilising Discursive Positioning in Counselling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foucault's concern with the production of subjectivity has led to the development of positioning theory, as it has been called by Bronwyn Davies, Rom Harr and Luk van Langenhve. The concept of discursive positioning has particular value for counselling because it shows how people are positioned in discourse in particular moments by their own and…

Winslade, John M.

2005-01-01

346

Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l'utilisation s?curitaire et efficace des opio?des pour la douleur chronique non canc?reuse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices canadiennes offrent des conseils dont les médecins avaient grand besoin pour les aider à en arriver à un juste équilibre entre le contrôle optimal de la douleur et la sécurité.

Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

2011-01-01

347

Ion exchange and adsorption equilibrium studies on clinoptilolite, bentonite and vermiculite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper three natural minerals used in many industrial and environmental applications namely zeolite clinoptilolite and the clays bentonite and vermiculite are studied by utilising ion exchange and adsorption. In particular, the Dubinin–Astakhov adsorption isotherm is used modified by introducing a solubility-normalized adsorption potential for studying the ion exchange process. The equation, is applied in experimental isotherms in

V. J. Inglezakis; M. Stylianou; M. Loizidou

2010-01-01

348

The Applicability of Social Network Analysis to the Study of Networked Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying networked learning (NL) by applying social network analysis (SNA) has gained popularity in recent years. However, it appears that in the context of NL the choice of SNA indices is very often dictated by using easily achievable SNA tools. Most studies in this field only involve a single group of students and utilise simple indices, such as…

Toikkanen, Tarmo; Lipponen, Lasse

2011-01-01

349

Innovative study design for paediatric clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Despite representing a fundamental step towards the efficacious and safe utilisation of drugs in the paediatric population,\\u000a the conduct of clinical trials in children poses several problems. Methodological issues and ethical concerns represent the\\u000a major obstacles that have traditionally limited paediatric research. The randomised clinical trial, mainstay of clinical studies\\u000a to assess the effects of any therapeutic intervention, shows some

Paola Baiardi; Carlo Giaquinto; Silvia Girotto; Cristina Manfredi; Adriana Ceci

2011-01-01

350

Modélisation d'un choc thermique doux d'un verre S.S.C en utilisant l'approche thermomécanique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l'endommagement du verre silico-sodo-calcique (trois différentes épaisseurs : 2mm, 4mm, et 8mm) par choc thermique descendant. Nous avons utilisé l'approche thermomécanique en terme de facteur d'intensité de contrainte en se basant sur un calcul numérique. Le choc thermique descendant, est la mise en contact brutal d'un échantillon, préalablement chauffé à une température Ti, avec un milieu dont la température Tf est inférieure à Ti. Le gradient thermique engendré induit des contraintes de tension dans les couches superficielles du corps. Ces contraintes peuvent conduire à la rupture du matériau. Les hypothèses prises en compte lors de la simulation sont comme suit : Le refroidissement des échantillons en verre chauffés à différentes températures, inférieures à sa température de transition, est fait par jet d'air à 20° C pendant 6 secondes. Ce temps est suffisant pour que la température des échantillons atteigne l'ambiante. Le coefficient de transfert de chaleur est de 600 W/°C.m2. Les températures chaudes ont été variées entre 100° C et 450° C. Lors des calculs, nous avons intégré, l'évolutions en fonction de la température des propriétés thermoélastiques du verre. Dans un premier temps, nous avons déterminé les températures et les contraintes transitoires dans l'échantillon à tout instant du choc thermique. Ensuite, nous avons déterminé l'évolution du facteur d'intensité de contrainte (FIC) durant le refroidissement. Enfin, les FIC calculés sont comparés à la ténacité (K1c) du matériau. Cette dernière a été mesurée en utilisant la mécanique linéaire de la rupture. Nous avons vérifié que quand le facteur FIC atteint la valeur de la ténacité dans la zone des défauts critiques, ces derniers se propagent d'une manière brutale causant ainsi la dégradation de l'échantillon. Par cette technique, nous avons directement accès à l'écart de température critique au delà duquel le verre rompt. Nous avant trouvé qu' un choc thermique effectué à partir d'une température chaude de 250° C conduit à des écarts de température cœur surface plus importants à mesure que l'échantillon est plus épais. Ces conditions engendrent des contraintes transitoires maximales (21.2 MPa, 36 MPa et 56.2 MPa) au premiers instants du refroidissement (0.075 s, 0.23 s et 0.659 s) respectivement pour les épaisseurs 2 mm, 4 mm et 8 mm. L'évolution des facteurs d'intensité de contrainte FIC montre que les défauts préexistants atteignent la longueur la plus grande après choc thermique pour l'échantillon le plus épais. Le choc thermique descendant est plus néfaste pour la plus grande l'épaisseur.

Malou, Z.; Hamidouche, M.; Madjoubi, M. A.; Bousbaa, C.; Bouaouadja, N.

2005-05-01

351

Introducing mechanical biological waste treatment in South Africa: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the first pilot project on mechanical biological waste treatment (MBWT) in South Africa. The study has shown that biological waste treatment in windrows using a passive aeration system that utilises thermal convection to drive the aeration process within a windrow of waste is appropriate for South Africa, in relation to low capital costs, low

C. Trois; M. Griffith; J. Brummack; N. Mollekopf

2007-01-01

352

Study of the natural ageing of PVC insulation for electrical cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterisation of high voltage cable insulation waste is addressed in an effort to determine their further utilisation either as feed in reprocessing or for the recovery of the energy and material content by pyrolysis. Electrically aged (18 years outdoors at 6–10 kV) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cables were ground by mechanical or cryogenic procedures. The waste was studied in comparison

Mihai Brebu; Cornelia Vasile; Smaranda Rovana Antonie; Mihaela Chiriac; Margareta Precup; Jin Yang; Christian Roy

2000-01-01

353

Rethinking the Digital Divide: Findings from a Study of Marginalised Young People's ICT Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a study that investigated young people's ICT use and the capacity of service providers to utilise these technologies in their practice. The results suggest that ICT may be an important resource for mental health promotion, particularly in relation to engaging young people. It was found that young people…

Blanchard, Michele; Metcalf, Atari; Degney, Jo; Herrman, Helen; Burns, Jane

2008-01-01

354

A Third Use of Sociology of Scientific Knowledge: A Lens for Studying Teacher Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last two decades, science educators and science education researchers have grown increasingly interested in utilising insights from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) to inform their work and research. To date, researchers in science education have focused on two applications: results of sociological studies of science have been…

Meyer, Daniel Z.; Avery, Leanne M.

2010-01-01

355

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

356

Changes in BSc Business Administration and Psychology Students' Learning Styles over One, Two and Three Years of Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge on general or discipline-specific changes in the learning styles of university students can be utilised in the design and execution of courses, but little is known of such changes. The study examined the changes in the learning styles of three year groups of BSc Business Administration and Psychology students from admittance to one, two…

Nielsen, Tine

2013-01-01

357

Removal of congo red from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: Kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present investigation deals with the utilisation of bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as a waste material from bagasse fired boilers) and the use of activated carbons—commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL), as adsorbents for the removal of congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. Batch studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of BFA, ACC and ACL and the

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

358

Differential Effects of Atypical versus Typical Antipsychotic Medication on Earnings of Schizophrenia Patients: Estimates from a Prospective Naturalistic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rising public and private expenditure on antipsychotic medications is concentrated on the cost of second generation or `atypical' medications, which are more expensive than first generation medications and make up a rapidly growing share of all antipsychotic prescriptions. Previous studies have examined whether the higher acquisition costs of atypicals are offset by other cost and\\/or utilisation benefits. This paper

David Salkever; Eric Slade; Mustafa Karakus

2006-01-01

359

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

2010-01-01

360

The Isolated Perfused Lung for Drug Absorption Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 years, the isolated perfused lung (IPL) technique has been developed for the evaluation of pulmonary drug\\u000a absorption and disposition. The procedure for establishing the model requires a skilled operator, a validated technique for\\u000a intra-tracheal drug delivery and a system for maintenance and monitoring of the preparation. Most absorption studies to date\\u000a have utilised the ex vivo

Ann Tronde; Cynthia Bosquillon; Ben Forbes

361

Ilizarov wire tensioning and holding methods: a biomechanical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate and compare two specific methods of Ilizarov wire tensioning and hold.Method: This study utilised the vertical Hounsfield test machine H25KS, a stress\\/strain device with a load-cell linked to a computer program. Firstly, the department’s present mechanical tensioners were assessed. Secondly, the method of twisting the three designs of wire holding bolts to achieve wire tension, as described

A. W. Davidson; M. Mullins; David Goodier; M. Barry

2003-01-01

362

A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

1994-01-01

363

The chemical feeding ecology ofNeodiprion dubiosus schedl,N. rugifrons midd., andN. lecontei (Fitch) on jack pine (Pinus banksiana lamb.).  

PubMed

Two monophagous sawflies,Neodiprion dubiosus andN. rugifrons, actively avoid feeding on the current season's needles of jack pine,Pinus banksiana, while the polyphagousN. lecontei feeds indiscriminately on foliage of all age classes. Bioassay studies with needle extracts indicate thatN. dubiosus andN. rugifrons larval feeding preference is governed by a group of tricyclic diterpene resin acids. Resin acids commonly occur in needles of all ages; however, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids were at higher concentrations in the new needles.N. dubiosus was significantly deterred from feeding on 1-year-old foliage when treated with the pure resin acids, palustric and levopimaric, at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml MeOH.N. rugifrons larvae were deterred from feeding by pure dehydroabietic, neoabietic, and palustric acids at 1.0 mg/ml MeOH. PMID:24318850

Schuh, B A; Benjamin, D M

1984-07-01

364

Biotransformation, genotoxic, and histopathological effects of environmental contaminants in European eel ( Anguilla anguilla L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prolonged toxicity study was carried out in young European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants, namely, two individual standard compounds, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), and a complex mixture, bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (BKPME). Fish were exposed to BaP (0.22, 0.45, and 0.9?M) and BKPME (3.12%, 6.25%, and 12.5% (v\\/v)) for 3,

Mário Pacheco; Maria Ana Santos

2002-01-01

365

Variation in indications for cataract surgery in the United States, Denmark, Canada, and Spain: results from the International Cataract Surgery Outcomes Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND\\/AIMSInternational comparisons of clinical practice may help in assessing the magnitude and possible causes of variation in cross national healthcare utilisation. With this aim, the indications for cataract surgery in the United States, Denmark, the province of Manitoba (Canada), and the city of Barcelona (Spain) were compared.METHODSIn a prospective multicentre study, patients scheduled for first eye cataract surgery and aged

Jens Christian Norregaard; Peter Bernth-Petersen; Jordi Alonso; Elaine Dunn; Charlyn Black; Tavs Folmer Andersen; Mireia Espallargues; Lorne Bellan; Gerard F Anderson

1998-01-01

366

"There Is No Alternative?": Challenging Dominant Understandings of Youth Politics in Late Modernity through a Case Study of the 2010 UK Student Occupation Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilising an in-depth case study of a student occupation at Newcastle University as its focus, this article makes a critical appraisal of Beck, Giddens and Inglehart's ideas about youth and political agency in late modernity. In short, we argue that when considering the case of the 2010 UK student occupation movement, dominant theoretical thinking…

Rheingans, Rowan; Hollands, Robert

2013-01-01

367

Translating research into maternal health care policy: a qualitative case study of the use of evidence in policies for the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few empirical studies of research utilisation have been conducted in low and middle income countries. This paper explores how research information, in particular findings from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, informed policy making and clinical guideline development for the use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative case-study approach

Karen Daniels; Simon Lewin

2008-01-01

368

ESSAIS D'INTERFACE SOL\\/STRUCTURE UTILISANT L'APPAREIL DE CISAILLEMENT SIMPLE ANNULAIRE SOIL\\/STRUCTURE INTERFACE TESTS USING SIMPLE ANNULAR SHEAR APPARATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A testing device, the ACSA (device of annular simple shear) was developed in the CERMES, common centre of the ENPC and the LCPC. This device is intended for the study of ground \\/ structure interfaces. After the presentation of this device, we will give test examples where the ACSA offers interesting possibilities: monotonous tests, cyclic tests, study of the influence

G. Chambon; A. Corfdir; P. Lerat; J. Schmittbuhl

369

Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P?0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil. PMID:24249127

Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

1993-06-01

370

Utilisation of the sedimentological and hydrochemical dynamics of the Stump Bay Wetland along Lake Taupo, New Zealand, for the recognition of paleo-shoreline indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial sediments are generally simple to differentiate from lacustrine sediments, but the interface between the two is difficult to recognise when clean beach sand is absent. In addition, tracing the dispersal of pollutant trace metals at this interface can be a major problem because toxic and natural metal cycles often take the same path. To solve these problems, we studied

Michael R Rosen; Catherine Chagué-Goff; Prisca Eser; Lee Coshell

2002-01-01

371

Utilisation, contents and costs of prenatal care under a rural health insurance (New Cooperative Medical System) in rural China: lessons from implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In China, the New Co-operative Medical System (NCMS), a rural health insurance system, has expanded nationwide since 2003. This study aims to describe prenatal care use, content and costs of care in one county where prenatal care is included in the NCMS and two counties where it is not. It also explores the perceptions of stakeholders of the prenatal

Qian Long; Tuohong Zhang; Elina Hemminki; Xiaojun Tang; Kun Huang; Shengbin Xiao; Rachel Tolhurst

2010-01-01

373

Feed intake, growth, and protein utilisation by post-smolt Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) in response to graded levels of fish protein hydrolysate in the diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how partial dietary replacement of fish meal (FM) by a novel fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) affected feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, nutrient retention, and nutrient digestibility by Atlantic salmon in the early seawater stage. FM was replaced by FPH in increments, producing four extruded diets containing 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% FPH. Each diet was fed to

Ståle Refstie; Jan J. Olli; Håkon Standal

2004-01-01

374

Effects of dietary calcium, available phosphorus and vitamin d on growth rate, food utilisation, plasma and bone constituents and calcium and phosphorus retention of commercial broiler strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of different dietary concentrations of calcium (Ca), available phosphorus (AP) and vitamin D (D) on 5? to 16?day growth performance, and aspects of calcium and phosphorus (P) metabolism of chickens from three commercial strains were studied in two experiments.2. Increasing dietary Ca reduced weight gain, tibia Ca and P content and increased plasma total Ca, Ca consumption

T. M. Shafey; M. W. McDonald; R. A. E. Pym

1990-01-01

375

Etude ab initio des proprietes electroniques et optiques d'un systeme donneur-accepteur organique utilise dans les cellules photovoltaiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for new sources of clean and renewable energy has recently been encouraged by the growing energy demand caused by the industrialization of developing countries and by population growth. In this context, the generation of electricity through the exploitation of solar energy with photovoltaic cells is particularly interesting, since this energy source is largely unused compared to its full potential. Nevertheless, large scale electricity generation with the current design of photovoltaic cells based on silicon is hindered by the large manufacturing cost of these devices. A new generation of photovoltaic cells, which includes organic photovoltaic cells that use semiconducting polymers, is under intense development in order to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs. The replacement of conventional materials with conjugated polymers in photovoltaic cells opens the possibility of using large scale manufacturing processes to produce large-area devices at low cost. However, the power conversion efficiency and the lifetime of organic photovoltaic cells are currently too low for these devices to be cost effective. A better understanding of the organic photovoltaic process is therefore necessary to improve the power conversion efficiency of these devices. The operating principle of photovoltaic cells requires the charge transfer between a polymer acting as an electron donor and a molecule acting as an electron acceptor to enable the dissociation of photogenerated excitons into free charge carriers. Furthermore, to ensure that the majority of the photogenerated excitons dissociates, the active region of an organic photovoltaic cell is typically formed by a bulk heterojunction between the donor and the acceptor. Many experimental studies have shown that the power conversion efficiency of these devices, which is proportional to the product of their short-circuit current Isc with their open circuit potential Voc, is strongly governed by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction defined as the local order of the two phases and the organization of the donor-acceptor interfaces. Even though these studies have helped to increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells, the relations linking the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction to their electronic and optical properties are still to be established. The objective of the research project is to computationally study the electronic and optical properties of organic bulk heterojunctions composed of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT) and C60, two materials typically used in organic photovoltaic cells. In this study, the microstructure of the donor-acceptor systems can be directly controlled, which facilitates the systematic study of the influence of this parameter on the electronic and optical properties of the organic bulk heterojunctions. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the ground state geometric and electronic properties of multiple bulk heterojunction systems, while the time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is used to study the optical properties of these systems. The SIESTA software package is used to study periodic systems representing perfectly crystalline materials. The results obtained in this research project show that the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells is strongly modulated by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunctions. Indeed, the size of the rrP3HT crystalline domains must be optimized to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic devices, since Voc and Isc have opposite behaviors with respect to ?-stacking of the rrP3HT chains. In addition, the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells could be improved by imposing geometrical constraints in the bulk heterojunctions through manufacturing methods in order to increase the value of Voc without altering the value of Isc. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Maillard, Arnaud

376

Biogas production from crop residues on a farm-scale level in Sweden: scale, choice of substrate and utilisation rate most important parameters for financial feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion would enable the energy potential of agricultural crop residues such as ley crops and sugar beet tops to be harnessed in Sweden. In the present study, the financial prospects of single-stage fed-batch high-solids digestion on three different scales, 51, 67, and 201 kW, were calculated on the basis of experimental results and observations. In addition to scale, the effects

L. M. Svensson; K. Christensson; L. Björnsson

2006-01-01

377

Neonatal intensive care outcomes and resource utilisation of infants born <26 weeks in the former Trent region: 2001–2003 compared with 1991–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo provide survival data and rates of severe disability at 2 years of corrected age in infants born prior to 26 weeks' gestation in 2001–2003 and to compare these outcomes with an earlier cohort from 1991 to 1993.DesignPopulation-based prospective cohort study.SettingFormer Trent region of UK covering a population of approximately five million and around 55 000 births per annum.ParticipantsThe authors

R R Rattihalli; C R Lamming; J Dorling; B N Manktelow; S Bohin; D J Field; E S Draper

2011-01-01

378

Fracture behaviour of implant–implant- and implant–tooth-supported all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses utilising zirconium dioxide implant abutments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in vitro study investigated the fracture behaviour of implant–implant-supported and implant–tooth-supported all-ceramic\\u000a fixed dental prostheses (FDP) using zirconium dioxide implant abutments (FRIADENT® CERCON® abutments, DENTSPLY Friadent).\\u000a Six different test groups (n?=?8) were prepared. Groups 1, 2, 4, and 5 represented an implant–implant-supported FDP condition, whereas groups 3 and 6\\u000a simulated an implant–tooth-supported FDP condition. The second right premolar of

Frank Philipp Nothdurft; Sabine Merker; Peter Reinhard Pospiech

2011-01-01

379

An evaluation of the utilisation of reproductive and child health services provided by government to the rural community of Anand District, Gujrat.  

PubMed

A multi-indicator thirty cluster survey was conducted during February- March 2008 in the rural areas of Anand district of Gujrat state to assess the utilization of the reproductive and child health services provided through government sector. In each selected village minimum 40 households were visited till total eight children in age group 12-23 months, at least two antenatal mothers in last trimester and five mothers who delivered in last year were studied. A total of 555 children of age less than three years & 1481 women in reproductive age group were included in the study. 74.8% of the children had institutional delivery. Birth registration was almost 100%. Immunization coverage was 84.5%. Registration of children and pregnant mothers under Mamta Abhiyan(MA) were 91% and 84 % respectively. Only 53% children were brought to Mamta Diwas Kendra regularly. Vitamin A coverage to children was 76.9%. Tetanus toxoid coverage of pregnant women was 85.1%, while Iron tablets were provided to 48.3% women. 43% of the postnatal mothers had no post-partum visit. Utilization of government schemes among postnatal women was 9% to 20%. PMID:20469768

Bhanderi, D J; Mukherjee, S M; Gohel, Manisha K; Christian, D S

2009-01-01

380

Utilisation of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) data for assessment of soil erosion process of a watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region was investigated utilizing space data from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite towards spatial and temporal soil erosion process study. Geomorphologically, this plateau region is an undulating pediplain. The watershed namely Potpoto river watershed covering an area of 8160 hectares is situated in the vicinity of Ranchi, capital city of newly created Jharkahnd state. As per the national watershed atlas, Potpoto river is a tributary of Subarnarekha river system within the Upper Subarnarekha river basin under watershed no. 4H3C8. This rural to semi-urban watershed is important towards various services to Ranchi city as well as experiencing direct or indirect pressures of development. Drivers of land use changes at ground level are responsible for change in soil erosion rates in any watershed in coupled human-environment systems. This may adversely affect the soil cover of such watersheds depicted through changed rates of erosion. In a rural to semi-urban watershed like this, there are general tendencies of land use and thereby land cover changes from forests to agricultural lands, within agricultural land in terms of cropping pattern changes to cash-crops, orchards, commercial plantations and conversions to other land use categories as well towards infrastructure expansions. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used as a basis to observe the intensity of erosion using remote sensing, rainfall data, soil data and land use/land cover map. IRS1C LISSIII and IRSP6 LISSIII data were used to identify land use status for the years 1996 and 2004 respectively. LISSIII sensor provides data in the visible to near infrared (Bands 2, 3, 4) as well as short wave infrared (Band 5) range of electromagnetic spectrum. In this study, bands 2 (0.52-0.59 microns), 3 (0.62-0.68 microns) and 4 (0.77-0.86 microns) were used with spatial resolution of 23.5 meters at nadir. Digital image processing was carried out using ERDAS Imagine software. Based on maximum likelihood classifier, the study area was classified into suitable land use/land cover classes. Digital elevation model (DEM) was created through contour heights from topographic maps. Watershed based erosion estimation was carried out including assessment of soil erosion due to land use land cover changes. This provides predictive assessment capability in soil erosion studies particularly with methods such as USLE. Soil erosion problem varies largely depending upon climate, topography, soil and land use etc. Multi-factor computations on rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topographic, cover and management, and conservation practice were carried out. Quantified details on soil erosion rates were generated in terms of land use land cover classes of the watershed for the years 1996 and 2004. Annual average soil loss for the watershed was calculated and erosion intensity maps were generated. Thus, space data utilized from the satellites IRS1C LISSIII and IRSP6 LISSIII greatly helped in important research assessment of an important land surface process like soil erosion spatially as well as temporally for a watershed under pressures of development, land use changes and land cover fragmentations.

Pramod Krishna, Akhouri

381

Clinical utilisation of a rapid low-pass whole genome sequencing technique for the diagnosis of aneuploidy in human embryos prior to implantation  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of human embryos created using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques are aneuploid. Comprehensive chromosome screening methods, applicable to single cells biopsied from preimplantation embryos, allow reliable identification and transfer of euploid embryos. Recently, randomised trials using such methods have indicated that aneuploidy screening improves IVF success rates. However, the high cost of testing has restricted the availability of this potentially beneficial strategy. This study aimed to harness next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with the intention of lowering the costs of preimplantation aneuploidy screening. Methods Embryo biopsy, whole genome amplification and semiconductor sequencing. Results A rapid (<15?h) NGS protocol was developed, with consumable cost only two-thirds that of the most widely used method for embryo aneuploidy detection. Validation involved blinded analysis of 54 cells from cell lines or biopsies from human embryos. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The method was applied clinically, assisting in the selection of euploid embryos in two IVF cycles, producing healthy children in both cases. The NGS approach was also able to reveal specified mutations in the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes in parallel with chromosome assessment. Interestingly, elevated mitochondrial DNA content was associated with aneuploidy (p<0.05), a finding suggestive of a link between mitochondria and chromosomal malsegregation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that NGS provides highly accurate, low-cost diagnosis of aneuploidy in cells from human preimplantation embryos and is rapid enough to allow testing without embryo cryopreservation. The method described also has the potential to shed light on other aspects of embryo genetics of relevance to health and viability.

Wells, Dagan; Kaur, Kulvinder; Grifo, Jamie; Glassner, Michael; Taylor, Jenny C; Fragouli, Elpida; Munne, Santiago

2014-01-01

382

No difference in between-country variability in use of newly approved orphan and non- orphan medicinal products - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Regulators and payers have to strike a balance between the needs of the patient and the optimal allocation of resources. Drugs indicated for rare diseases (orphan medicines) are a special group in this context because of their often high per unit costs. Our objective in this pilot study was to determine, for drugs used in an outpatient setting, how utilisation of centrally authorised drugs varies between countries across a selection of EU member states. Methods We randomly selected five orphan medicines and nine other drugs that were centrally authorised in the European Union between January 2000 and November 2006. We compared utilisation of these drugs in six European Union member states: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Portugal, The Netherlands, and Sweden. Utilisation data were expressed as Defined Daily Doses per 1000 persons per year. Variability in use across countries was determined by calculating the relative standard deviation for the utilisation rates of individual drugs across countries. Results No association between orphan medicine status and variability in use across countries was found (P = 0.52). Drugs with an orphan medicine status were more expensive and had a higher innovation score than drugs without an orphan medicine status. Conclusions The results show that the variability in use of orphan medicines in the different health care systems of the European Union appears to be comparable to the other newly authorised drugs that were included in the analysis. This means that, although strong heterogeneity in access may exist, this heterogeneity is not specific for drugs with an orphan status.

2009-01-01

383

An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk.

2010-01-01

384

Assimilable nitrogen utilisation and production of volatile and non-volatile compounds in chemically defined medium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts.  

PubMed

Surveys conducted worldwide have shown that a significant proportion of grape musts are suboptimal for yeast nutrients, especially assimilable nitrogen. Nitrogen deficiencies are linked to slow and stuck fermentations and sulphidic off-flavour formation. Nitrogen supplementation of grape musts has become common practice; however, almost no information is available on the effects of nitrogen supplementation on wine flavour. In this study, the effect of ammonium supplementation of a synthetic medium over a wide range of nitrogen values on the production of volatile and non-volatile compounds by two high-nitrogen-demand wine fermentation strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined. To facilitate this investigation, a simplified chemically defined medium that resembles the nutrient composition of grape juice was used. Analysis of variance revealed that ammonium supplementation had significant effects on the concentration of residual sugar, L-malic acid, acetic acid and glycerol but not the ethanol concentration. While choice of yeast strain significantly affected half of the aroma compounds measured, nitrogen concentrations affected 23 compounds, including medium-chain alcohols and fatty acids and their esters. Principal component analysis showed that branched-chain fatty acids and their esters were associated with low nitrogen concentrations, whereas medium-chain fatty esters and acetic acid were associated with high nitrogen concentrations. PMID:17846763

Vilanova, M; Ugliano, M; Varela, C; Siebert, T; Pretorius, I S; Henschke, P A

2007-11-01

385

Screening of dioxin-like compounds by complementary evaluation strategy utilising ELISA, micro-EROD, and HRGC-HRMS in soil and sediments from Montevideo, Uruguay.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) are persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in the environment. Due to their high analytical costs, these compounds are hardly regulated and mostly not monitored in the Third World. To overcome this, bioassays have been proposed as low-cost alternative methods. Two of the most established bioanalytical tools, the dioxin antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and the micro-EROD bioassay are evaluated and compared to high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analytical methodology. The methods were tested using thirteen soils and sediment samples selected from diverse sites in Montevideo, Uruguay. The WHO2005 total toxic equivalent (WHO2005-TEQ) of soils ranged from 2.4 to 2212 (ng WHO2005-TEQ/kg dry sample) and from 0.14 to 9.4 (ng WHO2005-TEQ/kg dry sample) in sediments. This study shows significant contamination related to dioxin-like compounds, particularly in sites where uncontrolled burnings were carried out. ELISA and micro-EROD bioassay correlated well with HRGC/HRMS, R Spearman 0.773 and 0.913, respectively and were highly correlated to each other, R Spearman 0.879. Preliminary threshold values of bioassay toxic equivalents of 330 (ng/kg dry sample) for the micro-EROD bioassay and 220 (ng/kg dry sample) for ELISA are proposed. PMID:24794256

Levy, W; Brena, B M; Henkelmann, B; Bernhöft, S; Pirez, M; González-Sapienza, G; Schramm, K-W

2014-08-01

386

Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation  

PubMed Central

Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 ?M and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments.

Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

2013-01-01

387

Culturally and linguistically diverse peoples' knowledge of accessibility and utilisation of health services: exploring the need for improvement in health service delivery.  

PubMed

With 28% of Australia's population having a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) background, the health system faces an increasing challenge to provide accessible and culturally competent health care. The view that all CALD communities are homogenous and solutions can be developed for the entire nation is detrimental. Despite available health services, CALD communities are reluctant to use them due to cultural differences, perceived racism and misunderstandings leading to the existing health disparities. Therefore, gathering data from four prominent CALD communities, such as the Sudanese, Afghani, Pacific Islander and Burmese communities in Logan, Queensland, about how they perceive and use health services can provide insightful information towards development of a service model that will better suit these CALD communities. The objective of the study was to examine the extent to which four prominent CALD communities (Sudanese, Afghani, Pacific Islander and Burmese) access and use health services in Logan, Queensland. Six focus group interviews using interpreters were conducted in English with Sudanese, Afghani, Pacific Islander and Burmese people. The results indicated that even long-standing CALD communities, such as the Pacific Islander people, were unfamiliar with health services and experienced difficulties accessing appropriate health care. Most wanted doctors to use traditional healing methods alongside orthodox medicine, but did not feel respected for their beliefs. Language difficulties impeded communication with health professionals who were hindered by ineffective use of interpreters. In conclusion, a clear role for bilingual community-based navigators was identified by CALD participants to address concerns about the health system, and to improve accessibility and health service usage. PMID:21645477

Henderson, Saras; Kendall, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

388

Overexpression of phyA and appA Genes Improves Soil Organic Phosphorus Utilisation and Seed Phytase Activity in Brassica napus  

PubMed Central

Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P) in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT) controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg–1 seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals.

Wang, Yi; Ye, Xiangsheng; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Fangsen

2013-01-01

389

Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH), a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years). We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice), diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded), medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system), and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days). Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4). For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

2013-01-01

390

Detection automatique des changements du bati en milieu urbain sur des images a tres haute resolution spatiale (Ikonos et QuickBird) en utilisant des donnees cartographiques numeriques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The updating of cartographic databases in urban environments is a difficult and expensive task. It can be facilitated by an automatic change detection method. Several methods have been developed for medium and low spatial resolution images. These methods are not adapted for the very high spatial resolution images (VHSR) and are not applicable in urban environment. This study proposes a new method for change detection of buildings in urban environments from VHSR images and using existing digital cartographic data. The proposed methodology is composed of several stages. The existing knowledge on the buildings and the other urban objects are first modelled and saved in a knowledge base. All change detection rules are defined at this stage. Then, the image is segmented. The parameters of segmentation are computed thanks to the integration between the image and the geographical database (GDB). Thereafter, the segmented image is analyzed using the knowledge base to localize the segments where the change of building is likely to occur. The change detection rules are then applied on these segments to identify the segments that represent the changes of buildings. These changes represent the updates of buildings to add to the geographical database. Finally, the map representing changes is assessed before being integrated in the geographical database. The data used in this research concern the city of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) and the city of Rabat (Morocco). For Sherbrooke, we used an Ikonos image acquired in October 2004, an Ikonos image acquired in July 2006 and a GDB at the scale of 1:20,000. For Rabat, a QuickBird image acquired in August 2004 has been used with a GDB at the scale of 1:10,000. The results of tests on several zones are encouraging. Indeed, the rate of good detection is of 90%. Concerning the geometric precision of detection, the mean error is 3 m for Ikonos and 2 m for QuickBird. The proposed method presents some limitations on the detection of the exact contours of the buildings. It could be improved by including a shape post-analysis of detected buildings. The proposed method can be integrated in a cartographic update process or as a method for the quality assessment of a topographic database.

Bouziani, Mourad

391

Fracture behaviour of implant-implant- and implant-tooth-supported all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses utilising zirconium dioxide implant abutments.  

PubMed

This in vitro study investigated the fracture behaviour of implant-implant-supported and implant-tooth-supported all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDP) using zirconium dioxide implant abutments (FRIADENT® CERCON® abutments, DENTSPLY Friadent). Six different test groups (n?=?8) were prepared. Groups 1, 2, 4, and 5 represented an implant-implant-supported FDP condition, whereas groups 3 and 6 simulated an implant-tooth-supported FDP condition. The second right premolar of the mandible was replaced with a pontic tooth. In groups 2 and 5, implant abutments were individualised by circumferential preparation. XiVe® S plus screw implants (DENTSPLY Friadent) that were 4.5 mm (first molar) and 3.8 mm (first premolar) in diameter and 11 mm in length and metal tooth analogues with simulated periodontal mobility, representing the first right premolar, were mounted in a polymethyl methacrylate block. The FDPs were cemented with KetacCem (3 M Espe GmbH, Germany). Groups 4, 5, and 6 were thermomechanically loaded (thermal and mechanical cycling (TCML)?=?1.2?×?10?; 10,000?×?5°/55°) and subjected to static loading until failure. Statistical analysis of data obtained for the force at fracture was performed using non-parametric tests. All samples tested survived TCML. In the implant-implant-supported groups, circumferential abutment preparation resulted in a tendency to lower fracture forces compared to groups with unprepared abutments (group 1, 472.75?±?24.71 N; group 2, 423.75?±?48.48 N; group 4, 647.13?±?39.10 N; group 5, 555.86?±?30.34 N). The implant-tooth-supported restorations exhibited higher fracture loads (group 3, 736.25?±?82.23 N; group 6, 720.75?±?48.99 N) than the implant-implant-supported restorations which did not possess circumferentially individualised abutments. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the non-artificially aged groups. Implant-tooth-supported FDP restorations did exhibit an increased fracture load compared to implant-implant-supported FDP restorations. PMID:20049497

Nothdurft, Frank Philipp; Merker, Sabine; Pospiech, Peter Reinhard

2011-02-01

392

The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 ?g m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 ?g m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/dehydroabietic acid and retene were not found in the samples suggesting there is a difference in the long-distance transport samples of an Asian forest fire and the controlled experiments reported in the literature. Similar to the biomass burning in Amazonia (Abas et al., 1995), the present study also showed an absence of conifer tracers in the smoke aerosols indicating tropical wood sources. Abundant friedelin, a specific biomarker for smoke from oak wood fires (Standley and Simoneit, 1990), was present in the late September samples when the fire was more intense. The results were compared to literature values from an earlier study of the haze episode on 29 September 1991 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Abas and Simoneit, 1996).

Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

393

Recuperated gas turbine aeroengines, part II: engine design studies following early development testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To advance the design of heat exchanged gas turbine propulsion aeroengines utilising experience gained from early development testing, and based on technologies prevailing in the 1970-2000 time frame. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – With emphasis on recuperated helicopter turboshaft engines, particularly in the 1,000 hp (746 kW) class, detailed performance analyses, parametric trade-off studies, and overall power plant layouts, based on

Colin F. McDonald; Aristide F. Massardo; Colin Rodgers; Aubrey Stone

2008-01-01

394

Evaluation of iron status in European adolescents through biochemical iron indicators: the HELENA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:To assess the iron status among European adolescents through selected biochemical parameters in a cross-sectional study performed in 10 European cities.Subjects\\/Methods:Iron status was defined utilising biochemical indicators. Iron depletion was defined as low serum ferritin (SF8.5 mg\\/l) plus iron depletion. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined as ID with haemoglobin (Hb) below the WHO cutoff for age and sex: 12.0

M Ferrari; L Mistura; E Patterson; M Sjöström; L E Díaz; P Stehle; M Gonzalez-Gross; M Kersting; K Widhalm; D Molnár; F Gottrand; S De Henauw; Y Manios; A Kafatos; L A Moreno; C Leclercq

2011-01-01

395

A Study of Sulphate Minerals using a Novel X-Ray Diffraction Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present an analysis of sulphate minerals from the Triassic coastline of the South West UK, utilising an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction (EDXRD) instrument in a novel back-reflection geometry which enables analysis of unprepared rock samples. Sulphate minerals are of particular interest in planetary science as they are a product of an aqueous altered environment. This study highlights the potential of a lightweight, compact instrument that could be deployed on the robotic arm of a Mars rover.

Turner, S. M. R.; Hansford, G. M.; Bridges, J. C.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Vernon, D.

2013-09-01

396

Application of rate and buffer occupancy measurements in congestion detection and management: a simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

When two heterogeneous networks operating at different speeds are interconnected, congestion could arise. This is especially true in the case of high-speed networks, where window-based flow control is no longer suitable. If not properly managed, congestion could lead to poor bandwidth utilisation, excessive packet loss or large queueing delays. Based on traffic simulation studies at an FDDI\\/B-ISDN gateway, this paper

K. L. Cheah; T. H. Cheng; S. H. Oh

1993-01-01

397

Asynchronous Distance Education Forum - Brainstorming vs. Snowballing: A Case Study for Teaching in Programming Didactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asynchronous discussion fora all the more become part of the educational process of distance education. The goal of this research\\u000a is the study of the educational techniques of Brainstorming and Snowballing to their utilisation in the frame of a distance\\u000a education forum, both as far as participation and creation of learning environment and also educational effectiveness are\\u000a concerned. This research

Kiriakos Patriarcheas; Michalis Nik Xenos

2009-01-01

398

Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour l'évaluation du recrutement des leucocytes et des échanges vasculaires au niveau d'organes in~vivo. Description d'une méthode et discussion des problèmes d'interprétation sur quelques exemples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental method using simultaneously different ? emiter tracers was developed to evaluate inflammation in vivo. Experiments were performed on the anaesthetized guinea-pig to test pulmonary effects of inflammatory agents. Red blood cells, albumin and inflammatory cells (platelets or leucocytes) radiolabelled with 99m technetium, 131 iodine and 111 indium respectively were injected i.v. Their radioactivities were measured on a pulmonary region by external detection and on blood samples in a well type counter. From these measurements variations of the lung contents in red blood cells, extravascular albumin and non circulating leucocytes during inflammatory stimulation were evaluated. These parameters axe indexes of blood perfusion, vascular exchanges and leucocyte sequestration respectively. Fiability of the method and meaning of the parameters evaluated are discussed. Une méthode expérimentale utilisant simultanément différents traceurs ? a été développée pour évaluer l'inflammation in vivo. Des expériences ont été réalisées chez le cobaye anesthésié pour tester l'effet pulmonaire d'agents inflammatoires. Des globules rouges, de l'albumine et des cellules inflammatoires (plaquettes ou leucocytes) radiomarqués respectivement au technetium 99m, à l'iode 131 et à l'indium 111 sont injectés i.v. Leurs radioactivités sont mesurées sur une région pulmonaire par détection externe et sur des échantillons sanguins au compteur puit. À partir de ces mesures sont évaluées les variations des contenus pulmonaires en globules rouges, en albumine extravasculaire et en leucocytes non circulants lors d'une stimulation inflammatoire. Ces paramètres sont corrélés aux modifications de la perfusion, des échanges vasculaires et de la séquestration leucocytaire. La fiabilité de la méthode et la signification des paramètres évalués sont discutées.

Bureau, M. F.

1997-03-01

399

How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps  

PubMed Central

There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (?150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ?14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

2014-01-01

400

Utilisation of chitinous materials in pigment adsorption.  

PubMed

The effect of adding the cells of four lactobacilli to a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium on prodigiosin (PG) production by Serratia marcescens TKU011 is examined. The best increase in PG productivity was shown by strain TKU012. Among the samples of strain TKU012 and the chitinous materials of cicada casting powder (CCP), shrimp shell powder (SSP), squid pen powder (SPP), ?-chitin, and ?-chitin, TKU012 cells displayed the best adsorption rate (84%) for PG, followed by CCP, SSP, SPP, ?-chitin, and ?-chitin. As for the water-soluble food colourants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4), SPP and SSP had better adsorptive powers than pure chitin preparations, strain TKU012, and CCP. Treatment with organic solvents, hot alkali, or proteases (papain, bromelain) diminished the adsorption rates of the biosorbents. PMID:22953835

Wang, San-Lang; Chen, Yan-Cheng; Yen, Yue-Horng; Liang, Tzu-Wen

2012-12-01

401

Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

Duncton, P. J.; And Others

402

Fracture sealing utilising microbially induced carbonate precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting and controlling spatial and temporal variations in fracture flow properties is of considerable importance to the nuclear waste disposal, carbon capture and storage, and hydrocarbon industries. Fractures and faults provide pathways which may allow the migration of contaminants from depth to the surface. The hydraulic properties of fractures are governed by the interactions between the evolving stress field and the continuous precipitation and dissolution of minerals transported via subsurface fluids. Fractures may be subject to multiple mineralisation episodes, between which they may seal completely before being subject to further shear failure or they may remain open pathways for fluid flow and contaminant transport. We investigate experimentally the spatial and temporal evolution of carbonate precipitation in fractures. We use mi