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1

Synthesis and surface measurements of surfactants derived from dehydroabietic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydroabietates with poly(ethylene oxide) chains of average m=12, 17, and 45 units [DeHab(E)\\u000a m\\u000a ] were synthesized. The adsorption at the liquid-vapor interface was measured, and the adsorbed amount and critical micelle\\u000a concentrations (CMC) were determined. The foamability, the foam stability, wetting properties, and cloud points, with and\\u000a without salt content, were studied. The results were compared with common linear

Peter S. Piispanen; U. R. Mikael Kjellin; Björn Hedman; Torbjörn Norin

2003-01-01

2

Synthetic Transformations of Resin Acids. IX. Certain Derivatives of 12-Br-Dehydroabietic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors attempted to produce anologs of gibberellins - potential plant growth regulators - from 12-Br-dehydroabietic acid. As a result of the synthetic transformation of 12-Br-dehydroabietic acid, 12-Br-6,7-diketomethyl dehydroabietate, 6 Br-1,2,3,4,1...

M. I. Goryaev F. S. Sharipova L. K. Tikhonova L. A. Elchibekova E. B. Popova

1972-01-01

3

Synthesis of Dehydroabietic Acid (2-Acryloyloxy) Ethyl Ester in Ionic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple ionic liquid methodology for the synthesis of a novel derivative of dehydroabietic acid is described. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim]BF4, a typical ionic liquid, was used as an efficient and environmentally benign solvent in the synthesis of dehydroabietic acid (2-acryloloxy) ethyl ester by O-acylation reaction of dehydroabietic acid chloride with 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. This new method showed the advantages of mild

Xuetang Xu; Wengui Duan; Qinghua Peng; Liumei Qin; Guanghua Li; Xiongmin Liu

2009-01-01

4

Contact allergy to dehydroabietic acid derivatives isolated from Portuguese colophony.  

PubMed

7-oxodehydroabietic acid and 15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid were isolated as their methyl esters from Portuguese colophony of the gum rosin type and identified as contact allergens. Another oxidation product of dehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietic acid, was synthesized and identified as a component of Portuguese gum rosin. 7-oxodehydroabietic acid was found to a be a grade III allergen according to the GPMT method. Guinea pigs induced with gum rosin showed only a low response to the isolated compounds, while patients with a known allergy to gum rosin reacted to a greater extent. The results imply that the content of oxidized dehydroabietic acids in gum rosin is too low to give a marked sensitization in the animals. However, the patients might have come in contact with the allergens in technically modified rosins. The compounds showed a pattern of cross-reactivity in the animal experiments as well as among the patch tested patients. PMID:3191677

Karlberg, A T; Boman, A; Hacksell, U; Jacobsson, S; Nilsson, J L

1988-09-01

5

Differential patterns of dehydroabietic acid biotransformation by Nicotiana tabacum and Catharanthus roseus cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use whole cell catalysts as tools for modification of selected resin acids in order to obtain value-added functional derivatives. The enzymatic bioconversion capacities of two plant species were tested towards dehydroabietic acid. Dehydroabietic acid (DHA) is an abundant resin acid in conifers, representing a natural wood protectant. It is also one of the constituents found in by-products of the kraft chemical pulping industry. DHA was fed to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plant cell and tissue cultures and bioconversion product formation was monitored using NMR analysis. Both plant species took up DHA from culture medium, and various types of typical detoxification processes occurred in both cultures. In addition, diverse responses to DHA treatment were observed, including differences in uptake kinetics, chemical modification of added substrate and changes in overall metabolism of the cells. Interestingly, Catharanthus roseus, a host species for pharmaceutically valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids, exhibited a very different bioconversion pattern for exogenously applied DHA than tobacco, which does not possess a terpenoid indole pathway. In tobacco, DHA is readily glycosylated in the carbonyl group, whereas in periwinkle it is proposed that a cytochrome P450-catalyzed enzymatic detoxification reaction takes place before the formation of glycosylated product. PMID:22178236

Häkkinen, Suvi T; Lackman, Petri; Nygrén, Heli; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Maaheimo, Hannu; Rischer, Heiko

2011-11-22

6

Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of novel 1H-dibenzo[a,c]carbazoles from dehydroabietic acid.  

PubMed

A series of novel 1H-dibenzo[a,c]carbazole derivatives were synthesized in good yield through reaction of methyl 7-oxo-dehydroabietate with a variety of substituted phenylhydrazines. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR, MS spectral studies and elemental analysis. All compounds were investigated for their activity against four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and three fungi (Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). Among the compound tested, 6d, 6e, 6f and 6m exhibited pronounced antibacterial activities and 6e and 6m also showed moderate antifungal activities. Particularly, 6d exhibited stronger antibacterial activity against B. subtilis comparable to positive control. PMID:20702006

Gu, Wen; Wang, Shifa

2010-07-24

7

Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

2012-02-01

8

Utilisation of postnatal care in Bangladesh: evidence from a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Utilisation of health services is a complex behavioural phenomenon. Empirical studies of preventive and curative services in Bangladesh have often showed that the use of health services is related to the availability, quality and cost of services, as well as to social structure, health beliefs and personal characteristics of the users. The present paper attempts to examine factors associated with the utilisation of healthcare services during the postnatal period in Bangladesh by using prospective data from a survey on maternal morbidity in Bangladesh, conducted by the Bangladesh Institute of Research for Promotion of Essential and Reproductive Health and Technologies (BIRPERT). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses of the data confirmed that the mother's age at marriage had a significant and positive impact on the utilisation of quality healthcare services. The husband's occupation also showed a strong impact on healthcare utilisation, indicating higher use of quality care for postpartum morbidity by wives of business and service workers. The bivariate analysis showed that the number of pregnancies prior to the index pregnancy and desired pregnancies are significantly associated with the utilisation of postpartum healthcare. However, the results of this study were inconclusive on the influence of other predisposing and enabling factors, such as maternal education, the number of previous pregnancies, the occupation of the husband, antenatal care visits during pregnancy and access to health facilities. Multivariate logistic regression estimates did not show any significant impact of these factors on the use of maternal healthcare. PMID:12485137

Chakraborty, Nitai; Islam, M Ataharul; Chowdhury, Rafiqul Islam; Bari, Wasimul

2002-11-01

9

Ice core records of biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and dehydroabietic, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids) and total organic carbon for past 300 years in the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We successfully detected biomass burning tracers including levoglucosan and vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic and dehydroabietic acids in an ice core (153 m long, ca. 300 years old) taken from Ushkovsky ice cap (altitude, 3903 m), the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northeast Asia. Concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) were also determined in the ice core. Levoglucosan, which is produced by pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose and thus is a general tracer of biomass burning, showed sporadic peaks in the years of 1705, 1759, 1883, 1915, 1949 and 1972, with the largest peak in 1949. However, its concentrations did not show a systematic increase in the last century although the concentration peaks seemingly corresponded to the higher ambient temperatures in the northern high latitudes. In contrast, dehydroabietic acid, a specific tracer of the pyrolysis of conifer resin, showed a gradual increase from the early 1900s to 1990s with a significant peak in 1970. Contributions of dehydroabietic acid to TOC also showed an increasing trend for the 20th century. Similarly, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids presented higher concentrations in the last half-century with sporadic peaks in 1705, 1759 and 1949. This study showed that general biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan have been sporadically transported over the glacier of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In contrast, the ice core record of dehydroabietic acid indicated that fires of boreal conifer forest have more frequently and increasingly occurred in Far East and Siberia during the last century and transported to the Northwestern Pacific. The present study demonstrates that organic tracers of biomass burning preserved in ice core could provide historical records of biomass burning and boreal forest fires.

Kawamura, Kimitaka; Izawa, Yusuke; Mochida, Michihiro; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

2012-12-01

10

Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide,

Hylton B Menz; Tiffany K Gill; Anne W Taylor; Catherine L Hill

2008-01-01

11

Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of these services. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers

Annette AM Gerritsen; Inge Bramsen; Walter Devillé; Loes HM van Willigen; Johannes E Hovens; Henk M van der Ploeg

2004-01-01

12

Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented to improve communication on all levels and reduce systemic barriers operating within the health system.

2013-01-01

13

Impact of headache on sickness absence and utilisation of medical services: a Danish population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study the extent and type of health service utilisation, medication habits, and sickness absence due to the primary headaches. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional epidemiological survey of headache disorders in a general population. Headache was diagnosed according to a structured interview and a neurological examination using the criteria of the International Headache Society. SETTING--A random

B K Rasmussen; R Jensen; J Olesen

1992-01-01

14

Socioeconomic determinants of psychotropic drug utilisation among elderly: a national population-based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Psychotropic drugs are commonly utilised among the elderly. This study aimed to analyse whether two socioeconomic determinants - income and marital status - are associated with differences in utilisation of psychotropic drugs and potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs among elderly in Sweden. Methods All individuals aged 75 years and older who had purchased a psychotropic drug in Sweden during 2006 were included (68.7% women, n = 384712). Data was collected from national individual-based registers. Outcome measures were utilisation of three or more psychotropic drugs and utilisation of potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs, as classified by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Results Individuals with low income were more likely to utilise three or more psychotropic drugs compared to those with high income; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.14). The non-married had a higher probability for utilising three or more psychotropic drugs compared to the married (aOR 1.22; CI 1.20-1.25). The highest probability was observed among the divorced and the never married. Potentially inappropriate psychotropic drugs were more common among individuals with low compared to high income (aOR 1.14; CI 1.13-1.16). Compared to the married, potentially inappropriate psychotropic drug utilisation occurred more commonly among the non-married (aOR 1.08; CI 1.06-1.10). The never married and the divorced had the highest probability. Conclusions There was an association between socioeconomic determinants and psychotropic drug utilisation. The probability for utilising potentially inappropriate psychotropics was higher among individuals with low income and among the non-married.

2010-01-01

15

Bioavailability of benzo(a)pyrene and dehydroabietic acid from a few lake waters containing varying dissolved organic carbon concentrations to Daphnia magna  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters consists of a great variety of organic molecules. Some of these molecules have been identified but most of them cannot be identified. This unidentified group of heterogeneous organic macromolecules is considered as humic substances. The role of humic substances in water chemistry and in aquatic toxicology is receiving increasing attention. The effects of DOC on the bioavailability of organic pollutants have been demonstrated in several studies. A decreased bioavailability has been demonstrated in most cases. Both the quantity and the quality of DOC are suggested determinants of this apparent ecotoxicological buffer of inland waters worldwide. In this study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) in Daphnia magna using a wide range of naturally occurring DOC levels. Another objective was to associate the reduced bioavailability with the chemical characteristics of water and DOC.

Oikari, A.; Kukkonen, J. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland))

1990-07-01

16

Biotransformation of Dehydroabietic, Abietic, and Isopimaric Acids by Mortierella isabellina Immobilized in Polyurethane Foam.  

PubMed

Polyurethane foam supports immobilization of Mortierella isabellina ATCC 38063, a zygomycete that hydroxylates and thereby detoxifies resin acids found in certain pulp mill effluents. The fungus becomes entrapped as it threads growing mycelia through the open foam matrix. The tenacity of binding and the amount of biomass bound depend on initial spore numbers and nutrient concentration. Optimal dehydroabietic acid transformation occurs with early-stationary-phase foam-bound mycelia suspended in buffer at pH 6.5 to 8.5 with aeration >0.1 liter liter min and near a temperature maximum of 33 degrees C. Neither a greater number of similarly loaded foam cubes nor a greater surface area for similar amounts of biomass increased transformation rates. Compared to free mycelial cultures, foam presence retards growth and decreases the rate of precursor transformation but does not alter the nature of the metabolites formed from dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid, or isopimaric acid. Diffusional barriers or binding of substrates in an inaccessible manner may cause the observed inhibitions. Overall, foam immobilization stabilizes enzymic activity and is a facile laboratory process with scaleup potential. PMID:16347596

Kutney, J P; Berset, J D; Hewitt, G M; Singh, M

1988-04-01

17

Disparities in Healthcare Utilisation Rates for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Albertan Residents, 1997-2006: A Population Database Study  

PubMed Central

Background It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. Methods Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology) in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. Results Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n?=?97,080), 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n?=?1,720,041) and 1.37% (Welfare, n?=?52,514), p?=?<0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%?65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. Discussion The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period. Addressing the causes of these discrepancies is essential for reducing marked health disparities, and so improving the health of Aboriginal people.

Chung, Helen; Ye, Ming; Hanson, Chris; Oladokun, Oluwaseun; Campbell, Michael J.; Kramer, Gordon; Lehmann, Ordan J.

2012-01-01

18

In their own words: qualitative study of high-utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background High utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) often frustrate their primary care providers. Studies that elucidate the attitudes of these patients may help to increase understanding and improve confidence of clinicians who care for them. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze perceptions and lived experiences of high utilising primary care patients with MUS. Methods A purposive sample of 19 high utilising primary care patients for whom at least 50% (69.6% in this sample) of visits for two years could not be explained medically, were encouraged to talk spontaneously about themselves and answer semi-structured questions. Verbatim transcripts of interviews were analyzed using an iterative consensus building process. Results Patients with MUS almost universally described current and/or past family dysfunction and were subjected to excessive testing and ineffective empirical treatments. Three distinct groups emerged from the data. 1) Some patients, who had achieved a significant degree of psychological insight and had success in life, primarily sought explanations for their symptoms. 2) Patients who had less psychological insight were more disabled by their symptoms and felt strongly entitled to be excused from normal social obligations. Typically, these patients primarily sought symptom relief, legitimization, and support. 3) Patients who expressed worry about missed diagnoses demanded excessive care and complained when their demands were resisted. Conclusion High utilising primary care patients are a heterogeneous group with similar experiences and different perceptions, behaviours and needs. Recognizing these differences may be critical to effective treatment and reduction in utilisation.

Dwamena, Francesca C; Lyles, Judith S; Frankel, Richard M; Smith, Robert C

2009-01-01

19

Dehydroabietic acid, a major effluent component of paper and pulp industry, decreases erythrocyte pH in lamprey ( Lampetra fluviatilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin acids, forming a major component of wood industry, cause numerous toxic effects on liver and red blood cells of fish. Effect of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) on erythrocyte pH of river lamprey was investigated using [14C]DMO distribution to determine pHi. Exposure of the cells to more than 200 ?M DHAA caused hemolysis within 10 min of incubation. Treatment with 50–200

Anna Yu. Bogdanova; Mikko Nikinmaa

1998-01-01

20

Studies on the utilisation of carbohydrates and krebs cycle intermediates by Rhizobia, using an agar plate method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agar plate method for the testing of substrate utilisation is described, and is applied to 108 strains of bacteria belonging to the generaRhizobium andAgrobacterium. With this method, utilisation can be observed without misleading results due to the utilisation of amino acids and other substances present in the medium. Major differences in the utilisation of carbohydrates by the tested species

P. H. Graham

1964-01-01

21

Analytical and experimental studies on composite slabs utilising palm oil clinker concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilisation of waste materials in the construction industry is an effective way to sanitise the environment and reduces the cost of construction. In this research, palm oil clinker (POC) aggregates was used to fully replace normal aggregates to produce structural lightweight concrete. This concrete was used in the construction of composite slabs with profiled steel sheet. A total of

Bashar S. Mohammed; Mohammed A. Al-Ganad; M. Abdullahi

2011-01-01

22

A prospective study of health care resource utilisation and selected costs of schizophrenia in France  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is among the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. To estimate the cost of schizophrenia in France, a longitudinal study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. The main objective of this study was to describe and update the cost of schizophrenia in a longitudinal, representative sample of French patients. The second objective was to identify cost drivers in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods Based on a cohort of 288 French schizophrenic patients during 2?years of prospective follow-up, this study collected clinical, patient reported outcomes, quality of life, functioning, patient management, care giver involvement and resource utilisation data every 6?months. For each service, information was collected on the type of service, the frequency of attendance and type of intervention provided to the patient. Unit costs were based on available French databases. Mean service use and costs over the five time points were estimated using between-effects regression models. Results In the total sample of 288 patients aged 18-64?years, the mean total cost (€ 3 534) was mainly accounted for by the cost of inpatient treatment (€ 1 390) and day care (€ 1 331). The estimate of the annual cost for direct medical health care for all French schizophrenic patients was € 1 581 million, including € 621 million for inpatient treatment and € 595 million for day care (77%). The costs for medication accounted for 16.1% of total annual costs. The remaining costs (6.9%) included visits to psychiatrists, general practitioners, other physicians and psychologists. The direct resource allocation showed inpatient treatment as the main direct cost. Unemployment was identified as a major indirect cost of schizophrenia treatment. Positive and depressive schizophrenia symptoms at baseline and relapse occurrence during the follow-up period were associated with a higher cost of treatment. Health satisfaction or negative symptoms of schizophrenia at baseline were associated with lower costs. Conclusion Several cost drivers were identified. Based on the results obtained in France, we suggest further analysis of mechanisms that influence the service-specific costs for schizophrenia in other areas of the world.

2012-01-01

23

Synthesis of Methyl 13-Acetylpodocarpa-8,11,13-trien-18-oate via Direct Friedel-Crafts Acetylation-Deisopropylation of Methyl Dehydroabietate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct acetylation-deisopropylation of methyl dehydroabietate 1 (R=CH3) occurs under Friedel-Crafts reaction conditions to give in 84% yield a 1:1 mixture of methyl 13-acetyl-podocarpa-8,11,13-trien-18-oate 2 and methyl 13-acetyl-10?-podocarpa-8,1,13-trien-18-oate 3.

Kirk M. Torr; Diane Steward; Robert A. Franich

1998-01-01

24

Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources.

2010-01-01

25

Acceptance and utilisation of the Incident Command System in first response and allied disciplines: an Ohio study.  

PubMed

In response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, an effort was made to establish a common and uniform command structure for use by the nation's first responder organisations, as well as those disciplines generally expected to assist first responders during a major incident or disaster. The result was the issuance of the National Incident Management System1 or NIMS by the US Department of Homeland Security in 2004. Included in the NIMS document was an embracing of the Incident Command System or ICS, long utilised in the fire service for the effective management of emergency response. The NIMS doctrine also identified certain allied disciplines that needed to adopt this new system for responding to major events. Some of these disciplines included specialised first response units, such as, bomb squads and hazardous materials teams. Other partner disciplines not usually associated with emergency response to include public health and public works were also included. This study will attempt to look at a single component of NIMS, specifically the Incident Command System, and measure its acceptance and utilisation by first responder organisations and selected allied disciplines in the state of Ohio. This is particularly important at this time since the US government is being forced to reduce budgets significantly and determine which laudable policies and programmes will be cut. PMID:22130340

Decker, Russell J

2011-10-01

26

Low birthweight infants and total parenteral nutrition immediately after birth. III. Randomised study of energy substrate utilisation, nitrogen balance, and carbon dioxide production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate energy substrate utilisation and nitrogen balance in low birthweight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition during the first days of life, and in particular, to determine the effect of two different glucose intakes on carbon dioxide production. Twenty infants (mean (SE) birthweight 1314 (65) g, mean (SE) gestation 30.9 (0.4) weeks) were recruited to the study.

J. S. Forsyth; N. Murdock; A. Crighton

1995-01-01

27

Estimation of drought and flood recurrence interval from historical discharge data: a case study utilising the power law distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of which statistical distribution to fit to historical discharge data is critical when attempting to predict the most extreme flows. It has been shown that depending upon the distribution selected, the calculated return periods can vary dramatically. Cunnane (1985) discussed the factors affecting the choice of distribution for river flow series data, and was able to show that small differences in the Extreme Value Type 1 (Gumbel), Type 2, and Type 3 can lead to large differences in the predicted return period. Indeed this divergence increases as the return period becomes larger: a finding which has obvious implications for fluvial management. Despite this, in many studies which fit a frequency-magnitude distribution to fluvial discharge data, the choice of distribution appears driven by regional convention, or even by some other apparently arbitrary factor. Benson (1968) analysed data for ten US stations, and compared the fit using the log-normal, gamma, Gumbel, log-Gumbel, Hazen and log-Pearson type 3 distributions. On the basis of this study alone, the standard approach to flow frequency estimation in the USA became the fitting of a log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) distribution (US Water Resources Council, 1982). While several other countries have adopted a similar approach, usage of the LP3 distribution is not geographically universal. Hydrologists in the United Kingdom conventionally utilise a fitted generalised logistic distribution for flow frequency estimation (Robson and Reed, 1999) while Chinese hydrologists utilise the log-normal distribution (Singh, 2002). Choice of fitted distribution is obviously crucial, since selecting one distribution rather than another will change the estimated probabilities of future droughts and floods, particularly the largest and rarest events. Malamud et al. (1996) showed that a flood of equivalent size to that experienced on the Mississippi in 1993 has a recurrence interval on the order of 100 years when a power-law distribution is fitted, but a much longer recurrence interval — on the order of 1000 years — using the USA's standard LP3 method. In addition Pandey et al. (1998) found that fitting a power-law distribution, compared with fitting a Generalized Extreme Value distribution, can lead to a large decrease in the predicted return period for a given flood event. Both these findings have obvious implications for river management design. Power-law distributions have been fitted to fluvial discharge data by many authors (most notably by Malamud et al., 1996 and Pandey et al., 1998), who then use these fitted distributions to estimate flow probabilities. These authors found that the power-law performed as well or better than many of the distributions currently used around the world, despite utilising fewer parameters. The power-law has not, however, been officially adopted by any country for fitting to fluvial discharge data. This paper demonstrates a statistically robust method, based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation, for fitting a power-law distribution to mean daily streamflows. The fitted distribution is then used to calculate return periods, which are compared to the return periods obtained by other, more commonly used, distributions. The implications for river management, extremes of flow in particular, are then explored.

Eadie, Chris; Favis-Mortlock, David

2010-05-01

28

Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002) were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days) and chronic conditions (past 12 months). And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months), a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months), hospitalisation (past 12 months) and use of medication (past 14 days). Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In addition, in some ethnic groups, and for some types of health care services, the use by women is higher compared to that by men. More research is needed to explain these differences.

Gerritsen, Annette AM; Deville, Walter L

2009-01-01

29

Growth, induction, and substrate specificity of dehydroabietic acid-degrading bacteria isolated from a kraft mill effluent enrichment.  

PubMed Central

We investigated resin acid degradation in five bacteria isolated from a bleach kraft mill effluent enrichment. All of the bacteria grew on dehydroabietic acid (DHA), a resin acid routinely detected in pulping effluents, or glycerol as the sole carbon source. None of the strains grew on acetate or methanol. Glycerol-grown, high-density, resting-cell suspensions were found to undergo a lag for 2 to 4 h before DHA degradation commenced, suggesting that this activity was inducible. This was further investigated by spiking similar cultures with tetracycline, a protein synthesis inhibitor, at various times during the DHA disappearance curve. Cultures to which the antibiotic was added prior to the lag did not degrade DHA. Those that were spiked with the antibiotic after the lag phase (4 h) degraded DHA at the same rate as did controls with no added tetracycline. Therefore, de novo protein synthesis was required for DHA biodegradation, confirming that this activity is inducible. The five strains were also evaluated for their ability to degrade other resin acids. All strains behaved in a similar fashion. Unchlorinated abietane-type resin acids (abietic acid, DHA, and 7-oxo-DHA) were completely degraded within 7 days, whereas pimarane resin acids (sandaracopimaric acid, isopimaric acid, and pimaric acid) were poorly degraded (25% or less). Chlorination of DHA affected biodegradation, with both 12,14-dichloro-DHA and 14-chloro-DHA showing resistance to degradation. However, 50 to 60% of the 12-chloro-DHA was consumed within the same period.

Bicho, P A; Martin, V; Saddler, J N

1995-01-01

30

Biotransformation of dehydroabietic acid with resting cell suspensions and calcium alginate-immobilized cells of Mortierella isabellina.  

PubMed Central

Mortierella isabellina ATCC 38063 is a zygomycete capable of hydroxylating fish-toxic resin acids which occur in certain pulp mill effluents to nontoxic metabolites. Addition of dehydroabietic acid (1) (80 mg/liter) to a freshly inoculated culture of M. isabellina in dextrose-yeast extract broth resulted in precursor disappearance in 28 to 30 h. During growth phase, hydroxylation occurred at C-2, whereas hydroxylation at C-15 and C-16 commenced with onset of stationary phase. Alternatively, 1 added to stationary-phase culture (40 mg/liter) disappeared within 2 h and hydroxylation occurred concurrently at C-2, C-15, and C-16. Enzymatic activity of stationary-phase culture was totally cell associated and was present despite the absence of 1 during the preparatory growth phase. Resuspension of mature fungi as free mycelia or immobilized in calcium alginate beads did not diminish the effectiveness of the biotransformation, although two new metabolites, 15-hydroxy-8,9,11,12-tetradehydro-7,8-dihydroabietic acid (5) and 16-hydroxy-8,9,11,12-tetradehydro-7,8-dihydroabietic acid (7) were formed. Immobilized mycelia retained hydroxylase activity for greater than 110 days whether or not they were challenged with fresh 1 on a regular basis. In this respect they are more long-lived than resuspended free mycelia are.

Kutney, J P; Choi, L S; Hewitt, G M; Salisbury, P J; Singh, M

1985-01-01

31

Substrate utilisation during exercise and shivering  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that exercise and shivering are analogous processes with regard to substrate utilisation and that, as a consequence, exercise can be used as a model for shivering. In the present study, substrate utilisation during exercise and shivering at the same oxygen consumption (V£O2) were compared. Following an overnight fast, eight male subjects undertook a 2-h immersion in

M. J. Tipton; G. M. Franks; G. S. Meneilly; I. B. Mekjavic

1997-01-01

32

Utilising a Virtual World to Teach Performance Appraisal: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The aim of this paper is to give a critical assessment of a study designed to investigate the potential of a new method for teaching HRD students about performance appraisal. It is argued that this approach is in the vanguard of developments in IT and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the form of an explorative study

Morse, Shona

2010-01-01

33

The association of smoking status with healthcare utilisation, productivity loss and resulting costs: results from the population-based KORA F4 study  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is seen as the most important single risk to health today, and is responsible for a high financial burden on healthcare systems and society. This population-based cross-sectional study compares healthcare utilisation, direct medical costs, and costs of productivity losses for different smoking groups: current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers. Methods Using a bottom-up approach, data were taken from the German KORA F4 study (2006/2008) on self-reported healthcare utilisation and work absence due to illness for 3,071 adults aged 32-81 years. Unit costs from a societal perspective were applied to utilisation. Utilisation and resulting costs were compared across different smoking groups using generalised linear models to adjust for age, sex, education, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Results Average annual total costs per survey participant were estimated as €3,844 [95% confidence interval: 3,447-4,233], and differed considerably between smoking groups with never smokers showing €3,237 [2,802-3,735] and former smokers causing €4,398 [3,796-5,058]. There was a positive effect of current and former smoking on the utilisation of healthcare services and on direct and indirect costs. Total annual costs were more than 20% higher (p<0.05) for current smokers and 35% higher (p<0.01) for former smokers compared with never smokers, which corresponds to annual excess costs of €743 and €1,108 per current and former smoker, respectively. Conclusions Results indicate that excess costs for current and former smokers impose a large burden on society, and that previous top-down cost approaches produced lower estimates for the costs of care for smoking-related diseases. Efforts must be focused on prevention of smoking to achieve sustainable containment on behalf of the public interest.

2013-01-01

34

Office Rent Determinants Utilising Factor Analysis—A Case Study for ?stanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent studies, a wide range of variables has been suggested for modelling the variation in office rent. However, only\\u000a a few of them are found to influence the explanatory power of the model significantly. Moreover, the significance of these\\u000a variables varies from model to model, depending on the characteristics of the region or\\/and the model. It is well established

V. Atilla Öven; Dilek Pekdemir

2006-01-01

35

Stroke service in the Netherlands: an exploratory study on effectiveness, patient satisfaction and utilisation of healthcare  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess whether shared care for stroke patients results in better patient outcome, higher patient satisfaction and different use of healthcare services. Design Prospective, comparative cohort study. Setting Two regions in the Netherlands with different healthcare models for stroke patients: a shared care model (stroke service) and a usual care setting. Patients Stroke patients with a survival rate of more than six months, who initially were admitted to the Stroke Service of the University Hospital Maastricht (experimental group) in the second half of 1997 and to a middle sized hospital in the western part of the Netherlands between March 1997 and March 1999 (control group). Main outcome measures Functional health status according to the SIP-68, EuroQol, Barthel Index and Rankin Scale, patient satisfaction and use of healthcare services. Results In total 103 patients were included in this study: 58 in the experimental group and 45 in the control group. Six months after stroke, 64% of the surviving patients in the experimental group had returned home, compared to 42% in the control group (p<0.05). This difference could not be explained by differences in health status, which was comparable at that time. Patients in the shared care model scored higher on patient satisfaction, whereas patients in the usual care group received a higher volume of home care. Conclusions The Stroke Service Maastricht resulted in a higher number of patients who returned home after stroke, but not in a better health status. Since patients in the usual care group received a higher volume of healthcare in the period of rehabilitation, the Stroke Service Maastricht might be more efficient.

Rosendal, H.; Wolters, C.A.M.; Beusmans, G.H.M.I.; de Witte, L.P.; Boiten, J.; Crebolder, H.F.J.M.

2002-01-01

36

The experience of palliative patients and their families of a family meeting utilised as an instrument for spiritual and psychosocial care: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study explores the experience of palliative patients and their family members of a family meeting model, utilised as\\u000a an instrument for the provision of spiritual and psychosocial care. In doing so the study embraces a broad understanding of\\u000a spirituality which may or may not include formal religious practice and a concept of psychosocial care that includes: social\\u000a and emotional

Heather M Tan; Anne Wilson; Ian Olver; Christopher Barton

2011-01-01

37

Influenza-like illness in residential care homes: a study of the incidence, aetiological agents, natural history and health resource utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Influenza-like illness (ILI) among elderly people living in residential care homes (RCHEs) is a common cause for hospitalisation. A study was undertaken to examine the incidence, underlying aetiology, natural history and associated healthcare resource utilisation related to ILI in the RCHE population.Methods:A prospective study of ILI in four RCHEs in Shatin, Hong Kong was conducted from April 2006 to March

D S Hui; J Woo; E Hui; A Foo; M Ip; K-W To; E S C Cheuk; W-Y Lam; A Sham; P K S Chan

2008-01-01

38

Comorbidity and health care utilisation five years prior to diagnosis for depression. A register-based study in a Swedish population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Depressive disorders have been associated with a number of co-morbidities, and we hypothesized that patients with a depression\\u000a diagnosis would be heavy users of health care services, not only when first evaluated for depression, but also for preceding\\u000a years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased health care utilisation and co-morbidity could be seen during\\u000a five years

David Andersson; Henrik Magnusson; John Carstensen; Lars Borgquist

2011-01-01

39

Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. METHODS: Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002) were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey

Annette AM Gerritsen; Walter L Devillé

2009-01-01

40

Substrate utilisation during exercise and shivering  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that exercise and shivering are analogous processes with regard to substrate utilisation and that,\\u000a as a consequence, exercise can be used as a model for shivering. In the present study, substrate utilisation during exercise\\u000a and shivering at the same oxygen consumption (V?O2) were compared. Following an overnight fast, eight male subjects undertook a 2-h immersion in

M. J. Tipton; G. M. Franks; G. S. Meneilly; I. B. Mekjavic

1997-01-01

41

How are caseload and service utilisation of psychiatric services influenced by distance? A geographical approach to the study of community-based mental health services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The aim of this study was to assess how the caseload and the utilisation of community-based mental health services is influenced\\u000a by distance and to socioeconomic characteristics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Spatial and statistical analyses were conducted with a sample of 12,347 patients, with ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis, who had\\u000a at least one contact with psychiatric services in Verona, Italy, between 2000 and 2006. Three

Grazia Zulian; Valeria Donisi; Giacomo Secco; Riccardo Pertile; Michele Tansella; Francesco Amaddeo

42

Day care for dementia patients from a family caregiver's point of view: A questionnaire study on expected quality and predictors of utilisation - Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The investigation of the predictive variables for utilisation of day care and the views of family caregivers of dementia patients\\u000a about quality of day care are the goals of this work.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The cross-sectional study was carried out as an anonymous written survey of family caregivers of dementia patients in Germany.\\u000a Participants were 404 family caregivers of dementia patients, of these

Carolin Donath; Angelika Winkler; Elmar Graessel; Katharina Luttenberger

2011-01-01

43

Health care utilisation under the 30-Baht Scheme among the urban poor in Mitrapap slum, Khon Kaen, Thailand: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2001, the Government of Thailand introduced a universal coverage scheme with the aim of ensuring equitable health care access for even the poorest citizens. For a flat user fee of 30 Baht per consultation, or for free for those falling into exemption categories, every scheme participant may access registered health services. The exemption categories include children under 12 years of age, senior citizens aged 60 years and over, the very poor, and volunteer health workers. The functioning of these exemption mechanisms and the effect of the scheme on health service utilisation among the poor is controversial. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of 30-Baht Scheme registration and subsequent self-reported health service utilisation among an urban poor population in the Teparuk community within the Mitrapap slum in Khon Kaen city, northeastern Thailand. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the exemption mechanisms in reaching the very poor and the elderly was examined. Factors for users' choice of health facilities were identified. Results Overall, the proportion of the Teparuk community enrolled with the 30-Baht Scheme was high at 86%, with over one quarter of these exempted from paying the consultation fee. User fee exemption was significantly more frequent among households with an above-poverty-line income (64.7%) compared to those below the poverty line (35.3%), ?2 (df) = 5.251 (1); p-value = 0.018. In addition, one third of respondents over 60 years of age were found to be still paying user fees. Self-reported use of registered medical facilities in case of illness was stated to be predominantly due to the service being available through the scheme, with service quality not a chief consideration. Overall consumer satisfaction was high, especially among those not required to pay the 30 Baht user fee. Conclusion Whilst the 30-Baht Scheme seems to cover most of the poor population of Mitrapap slum in Khon Kaen, the user fee exemption mechanism only works partially with regard to reaching the poorest and exempting senior citizens. Service utilisation and satisfaction are highest amongst those who are fee-exempt. Service quality was not an important factor influencing choice of health facility. Ways should be sought to improve the effectiveness of the current exemption mechanisms.

Coronini-Cronberg, Sophie; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Gericke, Christian A

2007-01-01

44

Co-morbidity and health care utilisation five years prior to diagnosis for depression. A register-based study in a Swedish population  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders have been associated with a number of co-morbidities, and we hypothesized that patients with a depression diagnosis would be heavy users of health care services, not only when first evaluated for depression, but also for preceding years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased health care utilisation and co-morbidity could be seen during five years prior to an initial diagnosis of depression. Methods We used a longitudinal register-based study design. The setting comprised the general population in the county of Östergötland, south-east Sweden. All 2470 patients who were 20 years or older in 2006 and who received a new diagnosis of depression (F32 according to ICD-10) in 2006, were selected and followed back to the year 2001, five years before their depression diagnosis. A control group was randomly selected among those who were aged 20 years or over in 2006 and who had received no depression diagnosis during the period 2001-2006. Results Predictors of a depression diagnosis were a high number of physician visits, female gender, age below 60, age above 80 and a low socioeconomic status. Patients who received a diagnosis of depression used twice the amount of health care (e.g. physician visits and hospital days) during the five year period prior to diagnosis compared to the control group. A particularly strong increase in health care utilisation was seen the last year before diagnosis. These findings were supported with a high level of co-morbidity as for example musculoskeletal disorders during the whole five-year period for patients with a depression diagnosis. Conclusions Predictors of a depression diagnosis were a high number of physician visits, female gender, age below 60, age above 80 and a low socioeconomic status. To find early signs of depression in the clinical setting and to use a preventive strategy to handle these patients is important.

2011-01-01

45

Utilisation of postnatal care among rural women in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postnatal care is uncommon in Nepal, and where it is available the quality is often poor. Adequate utilisation of postnatal care can help reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and their babies. Therefore, our study assessed the utilisation of postnatal care at a rural community level. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in two neighbouring villages in

Sulochana Dhakal; Glyn N Chapman; Padam P Simkhada; Edwin R van Teijlingen; Jane Stephens; Amalraj E Raja

2007-01-01

46

The experience of palliative patients and their families of a family meeting utilised as an instrument for spiritual and psychosocial care: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background This study explores the experience of palliative patients and their family members of a family meeting model, utilised as an instrument for the provision of spiritual and psychosocial care. In doing so the study embraces a broad understanding of spirituality which may or may not include formal religious practice and a concept of psychosocial care that includes: social and emotional well-being, communication, self esteem, mental health and adaptation to illness. The meeting of spiritual and psychosocial needs is considered to be an important aspect of palliative care. Methods This qualitative study, philosophically underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology, investigates the participatory experience of palliative care patients and their significant family members of such a family meeting. People registered with two large metropolitan palliative care services, who met selection criteria, were referred by medical staff. Twelve of the 66 referred took part in family meetings which also included significant others invited by the patient. A total of 36 family members participated. The number of participants of individual family meetings ranged from two to eleven. After the family meeting every participant was invited to take part in an individual in-depth interview about their experience of the meeting. Forty seven interviews were conducted. These were audio recorded and transcribed. Results Data analysis, utilising Ricoeur's theory of interpretation, revealed seven main themes: personal experience of the meeting, personal outcomes, observation of others' experience, observation of experience and outcomes for the family unit, meeting facilitation, how it could have been different and general applicability of the family meeting. Throughout these themes were numerous references to aspects of the web of relationships which describe the concept of spirituality as it is defined for the purpose of this study. Conclusions The findings indicate the potential of the type of family meeting reported for use in the spiritual and psychosocial care of people receiving palliative care and their families. However further research is needed to explore its application to more culturally diverse groups and its longer term impact on family members.

2011-01-01

47

Utilising a Collaborative Macro-Script to Enhance Student Engagement: A Mixed Method Study in a 3D Virtual Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the effect of using an online 3D virtual environment in teaching Mathematics in Primary Education. In particular, it explores the extent to which student engagement--behavioral, affective and cognitive--is fostered by such tools in order to enhance collaborative learning. For the study we used a purpose-created 3D virtual…

Bouta, Hara; Retalis, Symeon; Paraskeva, Fotini

2012-01-01

48

Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies

Tatiana Dubikaytis; Meri Larivaara; Olga Kuznetsova; Elina Hemminki

2010-01-01

49

Population-Based Study on Incidence, Risk Factors, Clinical Complications and Drug Utilisation Associated with Influenza in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This large population-based study using the UK-based General Practice Research Database was conducted to quantify influenza-related\\u000a physician visits, clinical complications of and risk factors for influenza, and related drug use in all age groups from 1991\\u000a to 1996. A total of 141,293 subjects who had one or more diagnoses of influenza or influenza-like illness during the study\\u000a period as well

C. R. Meier; P. N. Napalkov; Y. Wegmüller; T. Jefferson; H. Jick

2000-01-01

50

An increased utilisation rate and better compliance to guidelines for primary radiotherapy for breast cancer from 1997 till 2008: a population-based study in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Only scarce data are available on the utilisation rate of primary radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer. In this study, we compared the use of primary RT for patients with stages I-III breast cancer in 4 of the 9 Dutch Comprehensive Cancer Centres, focussing specifically on time trends as well as age effects. From the population-based cancer registries, we selected all females diagnosed with breast cancer between 1997 and 2008 (N=65,966, about 50% of all Dutch breast cancer patients in this period). We observed an overall increase in the use of primary RT for breast cancer patients ranging from 55-61% in 1997 to 58-68% in 2008. This can be explained by a higher rate of breast-conserving surgery (BCS), which was followed by RT in 87-99% of cases, and a reduced rate of total mastectomy (TM) which was followed by RT in 26-47% of cases. Increasing age was associated with a reduced use of RT, especially for those above 75. Finally, we observed a decrease in time of observed regional variances in the use of RT after BCS as well as after TM (for stage III disease). These findings can be attributed to the development and implementation of the Dutch nationwide guidelines for treatment of breast cancer. PMID:21640419

Struikmans, Henk; Aarts, Mieke J; Jobsen, Jan J; Koning, Caro C E; Merkus, Jos W S; Lybeert, Marnix L; Immerzeel, Jos; Poortmans, Philip M; Veerbeek, Laetitia; Louwman, Marieke W; Coebergh, Jan Willem W

2011-06-02

51

Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association

Mats Målqvist; Nazmul Sohel; Tran T Do; Leif Eriksson; Lars-Åke Persson

2010-01-01

52

New chemodosimetric probe for the specific detection of Hg(2+) in physiological condition and its utilisation for cell imaging studies.  

PubMed

A dithiane derivative of BODIPY is synthesized. This new reagent could be used for the specific and instantaneous detection of Hg(2+) in physiological condition. This dithiane reagent reacts specifically with Hg(2+) to regenerate the parent BODIPY-aldehyde with consequential change in visually detectable optical responses and this provides the possibility of using this reagent as a colorimetric probe or as a fluorescent biomarker/imaging reagent. Further, non-covalent interactions could be utilized for formation of an inclusion complex with biologically benign ?-cyclodextrin for enhancing its solubility in aqueous environment and this included adduct could be used as a fluorescent marker and imaging reagent for Hg(2+). Uptake of Hg(2+) ions in live HeLa cells, exposed to a solution having Hg(2+) ion concentration as low as 2 ppb, could also be detected by confocal laser microscopic studies. PMID:23999844

Saha, Sukdeb; Agarwalla, Hridesh; Gupta, Hariom; Baidya, Mithu; Suresh, E; Ghosh, Sudip K; Das, Amitava

2013-09-03

53

Crew time utilisation and Habitat interface investigations for future planetary habitat definition studies: field tests at MDRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prepare future Lunar and Martian planetary exploration definition studies, the European Space Agency (ESA) has interests in gathering data on human aspects during long term space and planetary exploration missions, namely limited resources, limited social interactions, long term living and working in confined and isolated areas. To assess their impact on long term space missions and to attempt a general quantification, the environmental and technical condi-tions to which astronauts may be confronted need to be reproduced as closely as possible. Used since 2001 to conduct various types of simulation campaigns of planetary exploration missions, The Mars Society's `Mars Desert Research Station' (MDRS) in the Desert of Utah is one of the analogue facilities suited for this kind of human aspect investigations. In this frame, the ESA's Directorate of Human Space Flight was associated to the EuroGeoMars campaign conducted in February 2009 by the MDRS Crews 76 and 77. The EuroGeoMars campaign lasted five weeks and encompassed two groups of experiments, on human crew related aspects and field experiments in geology, biology and astronomy/astrophysics. The human crew related aspects covered evaluations of (a) the different functions and interfaces of a planetary habitat, (b) the crew time organization, (c) man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment. The paper recalls the objectives of the human crew related experiments of the EuroGeoMars cam-paign and presents the results of these field investigations. Some recommendations and lessons learnt are presented and used as first inputs for future planetary habitat definition studies.

Pletser, Vladimir

54

Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternity care provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background There is little known about women’s concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners. Methods A sub-study of pregnant women (n=2445) was undertaken from the nationally-representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Women’s consultations with conventional practitioners (obstetricians, GPs and midwives) and CAM practitioners for pregnancy-related health conditions were analysed. The analysis included Pearson chi-square tests to compare categorical variables. Results The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate = 79.2%). A substantial number (49.4%) of respondents consulted with a CAM practitioner for pregnancy-related health conditions. Many participants consulted only with a CAM practitioner for assistance with certain conditions such as neck pain (74.6%) and sciatica (40.4%). Meanwhile, women consulted both CAM practitioners and conventional maternity health professionals (obstetricians, midwives and GPs) for back pain (61.8%) and gestational diabetes (22.2%). Women visiting a general practitioner (GP) 3–4 times for pregnancy care were more likely to consult with acupuncturists compared with those consulting a GP less often (p=<0.001, x2=20.5). Women who had more frequent visits to a midwife were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist (p=<0.001, x2=18.9) or a doula (p=<0.001, x2=23.2) than those visiting midwives less frequently for their pregnancy care. Conclusions The results emphasise the necessity for a considered and collaborative approach to interactions between pregnant women, conventional maternity health providers and CAM practitioners to accommodate appropriate information transferral and co-ordinated maternity care. The absence of sufficient clinical evidence regarding many commonly used CAM practices during pregnancy also requires urgent attention.

2012-01-01

55

Estimation of the real population and its impact on the utilisation of healthcare services in Mediterranean resort regions: an ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background The demographic structure has a significant influence on the use of healthcare services, as does the size of the population denominators. Very few studies have been published on methods for estimating the real population such as tourist resorts. The lack of information about these problems means there is a corresponding lack of information about the behaviour of populational denominators (the floating population or tourist load) and the effect of this on the use of healthcare services. The objectives of the study were: a) To determine the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ratio, per person per day, among populations of known size; b) to estimate, by means of this ratio, the real population in an area where tourist numbers are very significant; and c) to determine the impact on the utilisation of hospital emergency healthcare services of the registered population, in comparison to the non-resident population, in two areas where tourist numbers are very significant. Methods An ecological study design was employed. We analysed the Healthcare Districts of the Costa del Sol and the island of Menorca. Both are Spanish territories in the Mediterranean region. Results In the two areas analysed, the correlation coefficient between the MSW ratio and admissions to hospital emergency departments exceeded 0.9, with p < 0.001. On the basis of MSW generation ratios, obtained for a control zone and also measured in neighbouring countries, we estimated the real population. For the summer months, when tourist activity is greatest and demand for emergency healthcare at hospitals is highest, this value was found to be double that of the registered population. Conclusion The MSW indicator, which is both ecological and indirect, can be used to estimate the real population in areas where population levels vary significantly during the year. This parameter is of interest in planning and dimensioning the provision of healthcare services.

Perea-Milla, Emilio; Pons, Sergi Mari; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Gallofre, Anna; Jurado, Enrique Navarro; Ales, Marco A Navarro; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto; Fernandez-Nieto, Fidel; Cerda, Joan C March; Carrasco, Manuel; Martin, Lydia; Cano, Damian Lopez; Gutierrez, Gonzalo E; Macias, Rafael Cortes; Garcia-Ruiz, Jose A

2007-01-01

56

Sago starch and its utilisation.  

PubMed

The importance and development of industrial biotechnology processing has led to the utilisation of microbial enzymes in various applications. One of the important enzymes is amylase, which hydrolyses starch to glucose. In Malaysia, the use of sago starch has been increasing, and it is presently being used for the production of glucose. Sago starch represents an alternative cheap carbon source for fermentation processes that is attractive out of both economic and geographical considerations. Production of fermentable sugars from the hydrolysis of starches is normally carried out by an enzymatic processes that involves two reaction steps, liquefaction and saccharification, each of which has different temperature and pH optima with respect to the maximum reaction rate. This method of starch hydrolysis requires the use of an expensive temperature control system and a complex mixing device. Our laboratory has investigated the possibility of using amylolytic enzyme-producing microorganisms in the continuous single-step biological hydrolysis of sago flour for the production of a generic fermentation medium. The ability of a novel DNA-recombinated yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YKU 107 (expressing alpha-amylase production) to hydrolyse gelatinised sago starch production has been studied with the aim of further utilizing sago starch to obtain value-added products. PMID:16233345

Abd-Aziz, Suraini

2002-01-01

57

Utilisation of rheumatology care services in Germany: the case of physical therapy and self-help groups  

PubMed Central

Physical Therapy (PT) and self-help groups (SHG) are important components of health care in rheumatic diseases. The utilisation of PT and SHG by patients with rheumatic diseases may be influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence on PT and SHG utilisation of patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. We systematically searched the MEDLINE-database for studies that evaluated the utilisation and factors that possibly influence the utilisation of PT and SHG. Eight studies were found for PT-utilisation and one for SHG-utilisation. Between 25 and 59 percent of patients with rheumatic diseases received PT services. Several individual and contextual factors that may influence the utilisation could be identified. In conclusion, evidence exists for wide variations in the utilisation of PT services and an underuse of such services among patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. By contrast, little evidence exists on the utilisation of SHG.

Thieme, Holm; Borgetto, Bernhard

2012-01-01

58

Utilisation of the African Elephant  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have just read some remarks in NATURE (vol. xix. p. 54) on the utilisation of the African elephant, which I think are worth considering. Judging from the specimens in the Regent's Park Gardens, which I suppose have not been selected in any way, and are therefore only average samples of the African species, I should say that the African

H. L. Jenkins

1878-01-01

59

The impact of sociodemographic factors on the utilisation of support services for family caregivers of elderly dependents - results from the German sample of the EUROFAMCARE study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: As in nearly all European countries, demographic developments in Germany have led to both a relative and an absolute increase in the country’s elderly population. The care and support needed by these people is primarily provided by relatives or friends and close acquaintances within the home environment. The major challenges for society are to sustain, promote and support these informal resources. In order to achieve this, it is crucial that family caregivers are provided with situation-specific services that support them and relieve their burden of care. The major challenges for society are therefore to sustain, promote and support informal resources and to provide the opportunity for the use of services aimed at assisting and relieving the burden of family caregivers. Methods: In the context of the EUROFAMCARE study, 1,003 family caregivers from Germany were interviewed at home about their experiences using a standardized questionnaire. Included in the study were primary caregivers providing at least four hours of personal care or support per week to a relative aged 65 years or older. Subjects solely providing financial support were excluded. In this paper, a linear regression analysis has been conducted to analyse impact of sociodemographic factors on the utilisation of support services. Results: The family caregivers were 54 years on average (SD=13.4), 76% of them were female. The dependent elderly were 80 years on average (SD=8.3), and 69% of them were women. 60% of them were receiving long-term care insurance benefits. Use of support services aimed directly at family caregivers is very low. After including certain services aimed primarily at those in need of care but also often serving as a source of relief for family caregivers, the percentage of caregivers using support services increased slightly. Among sociodemographic characteristics, caregivers’ gender and education level have the greatest influence on services use. Other influential factors are caregivers’ perception of their caregiving burden and their assessment of the dependent family member’s need for assistance and support.

Ludecke, Daniel; Mnich, Eva; Kofahl, Christopher

2012-01-01

60

Race, resource utilisation, and perceived need among urban community development workers from faith-based organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisations providing social services in communities of high crime and violence must address staff well-being. The current study surveyed 284 urban community development workers from faith-based organisations in five US cities. The study explored the effects of race and ethnicity on service utilisation and perceived need using binomial logistic regression. Race and ethnicity significantly predicted medical service utilisation, indicating that

Hana J. Shin; Cynthia B. Eriksson; Sherry M. Walling; Hanna Lee; Katharine M. Putman

2011-01-01

61

Social Networks and Mental Health Service Utilisation - a Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networks have been shown to be smaller in individuals with severe mental illness than in the general population. Patients' social networks and social support may impact on their utilisation of psychiatric services. This literature review focuses on social networks, social support and mental health service use in patients with mental illness. Most studies suggest that smaller social networks or

Maya Albert; Thomas Becker; Paul Mccrone; Graham Thornicroft

1998-01-01

62

Ethnic Variation in Service Utilisation among Children with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…

Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

2009-01-01

63

Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of

Andrea Buron; Francesc Cots; Oscar Garcia; Oriol Vall; Xavier Castells

2008-01-01

64

Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.  

PubMed

Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties. PMID:22968411

Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Hervonen, L; Meurman, J H

2012-09-01

65

Development of onshore wind energy utilisation in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onshore wind energy utilisation in Germany has developed very dynamically in the last decade. This has mainly been driven\\u000a by the renewable energy laws that systematically support the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector. In 2009\\u000a a revised law with increased feed-in tariffs for wind energy has come into force. Existing studies already predict a wide\\u000a range of

Ronald Meisel; René Pforte; Wolf Fichtner

2009-01-01

66

Utilisation of postnatal care among rural women in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Postnatal care is uncommon in Nepal, and where it is available the quality is often poor. Adequate utilisation of postnatal care can help reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and their babies. Therefore, our study assessed the utilisation of postnatal care at a rural community level. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in two neighbouring villages in early 2006. A total of 150 women who had delivered in the previous 24 months were asked to participate in the study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results The proportion of women who had received postnatal care after delivery was low (34%). Less than one in five women (19%) received care within 48 hours of giving birth. Women in one village had less access to postnatal care than women in the neighbouring one. Lack of awareness was the main barrier to the utilisation of postnatal care. The woman's own occupation and ethnicity, the number of pregnancies and children and the husband's socio-economic status, occupation and education were significantly associated with the utilisation of postnatal care. Multivariate analysis showed that wealth as reflected in occupation and having attended antenatal are important factors associated with the uptake of postnatal care. In addition, women experiencing health problems appear strongly motivated to seek postnatal care. Conclusion The postnatal care has a low uptake and is often regarded as inadequate in Nepal. This is an important message to both service providers and health-policy makers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to assess the actual quality of postnatal care provided. Also there appears to be a need for awareness-raising programmes highlighting the availability of current postnatal care where this is of sufficient quality.

Dhakal, Sulochana; Chapman, Glyn N; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Stephens, Jane; Raja, Amalraj E

2007-01-01

67

Bipolar disorder in the general population in The Netherlands (prevalence, consequences and care utilisation): results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known about the prevalence of bipolar disorder in the general population, what proportion is receiving care and what factors motivate people to seek help. Method: Data were derived from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), a psychiatric epidemiological study in the general population in The Netherlands. DSM-III-R diagnoses were based on the Composite International

Margreet ten Have; Wilma Vollebergh; Rob Bijl; Willem A. Nolen

2002-01-01

68

Where do the elderly die? The impact of nursing home utilisation on the place of death. Observations from a mortality cohort study in Flanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most of the research concerning place of death focuses on terminally ill patients (cancer patients) while the determinants of place of death of the elderly of the general population are not intensively studied. Studies showed the influence of gender, age, social-economical status and living arrangements on the place of death, but a facet not taken into account so far

Gilberte Van Rensbergen; Tim S Nawrot; Ettiene Van Hecke; Benoit Nemery

2006-01-01

69

Ethnic-specific predictors of prenatal care utilisation in Hawaii.  

PubMed

The state of Hawaii has had near-universal health insurance coverage for the last 20 years. Its highly diverse population offers the opportunity for a unique, natural experiment in the United States on the examination of social differences in health care utilisation when financial barriers are removed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine predictors of prenatal care utilisation patterns in the four major ethnic groups in Hawaii. The data used in this study are the 1979-92 Hawaii livebirth vital record files. A total of 165,301 singleton livebirths to Hawaii-resident mothers of Caucasian, native Hawaiian, Japanese or Filipino ancestry were selected. Despite near-universal health care coverage in Hawaii, a surprising number of women did not adequately utilise prenatal care, with large differences between groups. Multivariate analyses indicated that similar maternal socio-demographic factors were associated with prenatal care use in each ethnic group. Social variation continues to exist among all ethnic groups even in the presence of universal access to care. These data emphasise the need to address the distinct cultural needs of populations for providing health services, and further challenge the assumption that removal of financial barriers will ensure a high level of prenatal care use. PMID:9620565

Kogan, M D; Alexander, G R; Mor, J M; Kieffer, E C

1998-04-01

70

Study of a Dual-Fed Asynchronous Motor with Field-Oriented Controls for the Utilisation of Electricity Gained from Wind Energy Up to 20 KW.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The studies, which are discussed in detail, were carried out with the aim of demonstrating that wind power systems under 20 kW can still be used to work in partially wind-driven operations, providing the regulation system is appropriate. An asynchronous m...

J. Suchaneck

1986-01-01

71

Type of pain, pain-associated complications, quality of life, disability and resource utilisation in chronic pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) with constant pain patterns to patients with CP with intermittent pain patterns.MethodsThis was a prospective cohort study conducted at 20 tertiary medical centers in the USA comprising 540 subjects with CP. Patients with CP were asked to identify their pain from five pain patterns (A–E) defined by the temporal nature (intermittent or constant)

Daniel K Mullady; Dhiraj Yadav; Stephen T Amann; Michael R OConnell; Michael M Barmada; Grace H Elta; James M Scheiman; Erik-Jan Wamsteker; William D Chey; Meredith L Korneffel; Beth M Weinman; Adam Slivka; Stuart Sherman; Robert H Hawes; Randall E Brand; Frank R Burton; Michele D Lewis; Timothy B Gardner; Andres Gelrud; James DiSario; John Baillie; Peter A Banks; David C Whitcomb; Michelle A Anderson

2011-01-01

72

Methods for Studying the Use of Public Spaces in Libraries \\/ Les méthodes d'étude de l'utilisation des espaces publics dans les bibliothèques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines selected methods for studying the use of public spaces in libraries, including mental mapping, observation, questionnaires, and interviews. Although use-of-space research often features more than one method of inquiry, observation (in its various forms) is a key method. Information gathered from use-of-space research can be used for a variety of purposes, from feeding into design and renovation

Francine May

2011-01-01

73

How reimbursement databases can be used to support drug utilisation studies: example using the main French national health insurance system database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Reimbursement databases are potentially invaluable tools to develop and conduct pharmacoepidemiological studies on drug use.\\u000a However, two types of factors that may influence the performance of a database can be distinguished: firstly, factors related\\u000a to the constitution of the database, and secondly, factors related to the data. For the latter, we think that two are important:\\u000a the presence of the

Philippe Latry; Mathieu Molimard; Bernard Bégaud; Karin Martin-Latry

2010-01-01

74

The response to the first dose of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in uncomplicated hypertension--a placebo controlled study utilising ambulatory blood pressure recording.  

PubMed Central

1. The importance of total dose to the initial hypotensive response with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (quinapril) was assessed using a suggested 'maintenance' dose (20 mg) or matched placebo in a randomised double-blind study in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. 2. Thirty-two patients were recruited who were not on therapy or had not received diuretic therapy in their existing drug treatment in the preceding 4 weeks. Secondary causes of hypertension had previously been excluded and sustained clinic blood pressures of SBP greater than 160 mmHg and/or DBP greater than 90 mmHg were taken as indications for a trial of adjuvant or monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor. 3. After uneventful supervised therapy with quinapril in an open pilot study (n = 5) 27 patients entered a double-blind, randomised, crossover study of quinapril or placebo using ambulatory monitoring to assess BP response. 4. All patients remained asymptomatic and both therapy and monitoring were well tolerated. A smooth onset of antihypertensive effect was noted with an overall 24 h placebo corrected fall in systolic BP of 9.9 mmHg (7.2-12.6 95% CI) and diastolic BP of 6.4 mmHg (4.2-8.8) with no significant effect on heart rate. Individual placebo corrected maximal responses during the first 8 h following quinapril showed a wide range for both systolic (+1.56 to 44.0 mmHg) and diastolic (+2.3 to -35.6 mmHg) pressure. Larger falls tended to be associated with higher baseline pretreatment pressures but in no case did absolute systolic pressure fall below 100 mmHg during the first 8 h following administration of placebo or quinapril.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MacFadyen, R J; Bainbridge, A D; Lees, K R; Reid, J L

1991-01-01

75

Help seeking and barriers to utilisation of medical and health social work services among ageing immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.  

PubMed

The study aimed to examine utilisation of medical and health social work services among ageing recent and long-term immigrants, to identify barriers to service utilisation, and to examine factors related to utilisation. Participants (n = 402) recruited from a random community sample of immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel, aged 55 and over, residing in urban areas throughout the country were interviewed by telephone. Using an expanded framework of Andersen's behavioural model, the independent variables included predisposing, enabling and need variables, and additional variables--barriers to utilisation or difficulties encountered during utilisation of services. For multivariate analyses of the dependent variables, a linear multiple regression model was employed for utilisation of medical services and a logistic regression model for utilisation of social work services. The main findings show that utilisation rates were high for medical services, but low for social work services. Recent immigrants had similar utilisation rates of medical services but utilised more social work services than long-term immigrants. There were few barriers but numerous difficulties in utilisation of medical services, while there were barriers but negligible difficulties in utilisation of social work services. Predisposing and need variables explained utilisation of medical services, whereas a combination of predisposing, enabling and need variables explained utilisation of social work services. The findings suggest that different factors are associated with the use of non-discretionary versus discretionary (social work) services. There is a need to reduce difficulties in utilisation of medical services and to enhance awareness about health social work services among the immigrants. PMID:16324189

Soskolne, Varda; Auslander, Gail K; Ben-Shahar, Ilana

2006-01-01

76

University Counselling Service Utilisation by Local and International Students and User Characteristics: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research on students’ usage of university counselling services across countries and their demographic and\\u000a psychological characteristics. In doing so, emphasis is given to reported distinctions between local and international university\\u000a students. Utilisation rates, encouraging factors and barriers to utilisation, presenting problems, and methodological problems\\u000a with existing studies are each examined. The findings suggest that only a minority

Adam Raunic; Sophia Xenos

2008-01-01

77

Milk utilisation patterns in the low-input production systems in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the utilisation patterns of milk assists in designing appropriate dairy development schemes in rural communities.\\u000a The objective of the study was to determine milk utilisation patterns in different smallholder farming systems in the Eastern\\u000a Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected through the administration of recording sheets to 130 randomly selected\\u000a households in Alice, Fort Beaufort and Queenstown

Monde Mapekula; Michael Chimonyo; Cletos Mapiye; Kennedy Dzama

2010-01-01

78

Respiratory morbidity, healthcare utilisation and cost of care at school age related to home oxygen status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine whether respiratory morbidity, lung function, healthcare utilisation and cost of care\\u000a at school age in prematurely born children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were influenced by use of supplementary\\u000a oxygen at home after neonatal intensive care unit discharge. Healthcare utilisation and cost of care in years 5 to 7 and respiratory\\u000a morbidity (parent-completed

Anne Greenough; John Alexander; Jill Boorman; Philip A. J. Chetcuti; Ian Cliff; Warren Lenney; Colin Morgan; Nigel J. Shaw; Karl P. Sylvester; Jackie Turner

79

Drug utilisation 90% (DU90%) profiles of antibiotics in five Chinese children's hospitals (2002–2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study surveyed the pattern of inpatient antibiotic use in five Chinese children's hospitals between 2002 and 2006, focusing on the antibiotics accounting for 90% of the volume utilised as well as the level of adherence to guidelines. The Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical Classification\\/Defined Daily Doses (ATC\\/DDD) and the drug utilisation 90% (DU90%) methodologies were used. In October 2004, national antibiotic

Wenshuang Zhang; Xuzhuang Shen; Ulf Bergman; Yi Wang; Yuan Chen; Min Huang; Qiyi Zeng; Jinghai Wei; Quan Lu; Gang Wang; Li Deng; Xiaohong Wang; Kaihu Yao; Sangjie Yu; Yonghong Yang

2008-01-01

80

Utilisation of laboratory services by health workers in a district hospital in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:To identify priorities for improving effective use of laboratory services in a district hospital in Malawi.Methods:A prospective observational study of clinician–patient interactions to analyse laboratory test requesting practices and utilisation of laboratory results. The proportion of tests that was appropriately ordered, processed and ultimately influenced clinical management was used to assess effectiveness of utilisation.Results:420 clinical consultations between health professionals and

S O Mepham; S Bertel Squire; L Chisuwo; J Kandulu; I Bates

2009-01-01

81

Utilising behavioural family therapy (BFT) to help support the system around a person with intellectual disability and complex mental health needs: a case study.  

PubMed

There is a higher incidence of mental health problems amongst people with intellectual disabilities. Family members and support staff who provide support to people with intellectual disabilities with mental health difficulties are more likely to experience increased stress. In the mainstream mental health literature it has been demonstrated that psycho-educational family interventions have a positive impact on the person with mental health difficulties and on the family members who support them. This article uses a case study to illustrate the implementation of a family intervention with the support system around someone with intellectual disabilities, autism and chronic mental health difficulties. Following intervention the family member reported a marked decrease in levels of strain. Both the family and team members reported improvement in functioning within the support system. PMID:22496309

Marshall, Keith; Ferris, Jan

2012-04-10

82

The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment  

PubMed Central

The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies.

Hanney, Stephen R; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A; Buxton, Martin J; Kogan, Maurice

2003-01-01

83

Factor utilisation and productivity estimates for the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper series are derived for capital utilisation, labour effort and total factor productivity (TFP) from a general equilibrium model with variable factor utilisation and labour adjustment costs. Impulse responses from the model show that firms initially respond to unanticipated shocks by altering factor utilisation rates. In subsequent periods, firms adjust observable inputs such as physical capital and employment.

Jens D. J. Larsen; Katharine S. Neiss; Fergal Shortall

2002-01-01

84

Inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner and specialist services in 9 European countries  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequalities in utilisation of general practitioner (GP) and specialist services in 9 European countries. In addition to West European countries, we have included 3 Eastern European countries: Hungary, Estonia and Latvia. To cover the gap in knowledge we pay a special attention to the magnitude of inequalities among patients with chronic conditions. Methods Data on the use of GP and specialist services were derived from national health surveys of Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands and Norway. For each country and education level we calculated the absolute prevalence and relative inequalities in utilisation of GP and specialist services. In order to account for the need for care, the results were adjusted by the measure of self-assessed health. Results People with lower education used GP services equally often in most countries (except Belgium and Germany) compared with those with a higher level of education. At the same time people with a higher education used specialist care services significantly more often in all countries, except in the Netherlands. The general pattern of educational inequalities in utilisation of specialist care was similar for both men and women. Inequalities in utilisation of specialist care were equally large in Eastern European and in Western European countries, except for Latvia where the inequalities were somewhat larger. Similarly, large inequalities were found in the utilisation of specialist care among patients with chronic diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Conclusions We found large inequalities in the utilisation of specialist care. These inequalities were not compensated by utilisation of GP services. Of particular concern is the presence of inequalities among patients with a high need for specialist care, such as those with chronic diseases.

2011-01-01

85

Gender as risk factor for 30 days post-discharge hospital utilisation: a secondary data analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective In the 30?days after hospital discharge, hospital utilisation is common and costly. This study evaluated the association between gender and hospital utilisation within 30?days of discharge. Design Secondary data analysis using Poisson regression stratified by gender. Participants 737 English-speaking hospitalised adults from general medical service in urban, academic safety-net medical centre who participated in the Project Re-Engineered clinical trial (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00252057). Main outcome measure The primary end point was hospital utilisation, defined as total emergency department visits and hospital readmissions within 30?days after index discharge. Results Female subjects had a rate of 29 events for every 100 people and male subjects had a rate of 47 events for every 100 people (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.62, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.06). Among men, risk factors included hospital utilisation in the 6?months prior to the index hospitalisation (IRR 3.55, 95% CI 2.38 to 5.29), being unmarried (IRR 1.72, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.64), having a positive depression screen (IRR 1.53, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.13) and no primary care physician (PCP) visit within 30?days (IRR 1.64, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.50). Among women, the only risk factor was hospital utilisation in the 6?months prior to the index hospitalisation (IRR 3.08, 95% CI 1.86 to 5.10). Conclusions In our data, male subjects had a higher rate of hospital utilisation within 30?days of discharge than female subjects. For men—but not for women—risk factors were being retired, unmarried, having depressive symptoms and having no PCP visit within 30?days. Interventions addressing these factors might lower hospital utilisation rates observed among men.

Woz, Shaula; Hesko, Caroline; Paasche-Orlow, Michael; Greenwald, Jeffrey; Chetty, V K; O'Donnell, Julie; Jack, Brian

2012-01-01

86

Disturbance of cellular iron uptake and utilisation by aluminium.  

PubMed

Aluminium (Al) affects erythropoiesis but the real mechanism of action is still unknown. Transferrin receptors (TfR) in K562 cells are able to bind Tf, when carrying either iron (Fe) or Al, with similar affinity. Then, the aim of this work was to determine whether Al could interfere with the cellular Fe uptake and utilisation. K562 cells were induced to erythroid differentiation by either haemin (H) or sodium butyrate (B) and cultured with and without Al. The effect of Al on cellular Fe uptake, Fe incorporation to haem and cell differentiation was studied. H- and B-stimulated cells grown in the presence of 10 microM Al showed a reduction in the number of haemoglobinised cells (by 18% and 56%, respectively) and high amounts of Al content. Al(2)Tf inhibited both the (59)Fe cellular uptake and its utilisation for haem synthesis. The removal of Al during the (59)Fe pulse, after a previous incubation with the metal, allowed the cells to acquire Fe quantities in the normal range or even exceeding the amounts incorporated by the respective control cells. However, the Fe incorporated to haem could not reach control values in B-stimulated cells despite enough Fe acquisition was observed after removing Al. Present results suggest that Al might exert either reversible or irreversible effects on the haemoglobin synthesis depending on cellular conditions. PMID:11709209

Pérez, G; Garbossa, G; Di Risio, C; Vittori, D; Nesse, A

2001-11-01

87

An Integrated Marine Propulsion System Utilising TRIGA{sup TM} Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the reactor physics, shielding, thermal hydraulics, reactor dynamics and safety studies conducted to develop a proposed Integrated Marine Propulsion System (IMPS) utilising TRIGA{sup TM} type uranium zirconium hydride fuel. The study has demonstrated that the IMPS plant is feasible and meets the design safety principles and safety criteria imposed on the study. (authors)

Manach, G.; Monnez, J-P. [Ecole des Applications Militaires de l'Energie Atomique, Cherbourg (France); Freeman, M.J.; Newell, A.; Brushwood, J.M.; Thompson, A.; Collins, C.; Scholes, N.; Hamilton, P.J.; Beeley, P.A. [Nuclear Department/ Flagship Training Ltd, HMS Sultan, Military Road, Gosport, PO12 3BY (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

88

Patient charges and the utilisation of NHS prescription medicines: some estimates using a cointegration procedure.  

PubMed

Since the inception of the NHS, user charges have been present for prescription medication. However since 1968 there has been a steady increase in this charge, particularly notable during the 1980s. The main justification for user charges is their revenue raising potential, and a recent government report has backed the use of user charges for prescription drugs. Whilst there is extensive evidence of the impact of user charges on utilisation of health care in the US, few studies exist in the UK. An accurate estimation of the price elasticity of utilisation is necessary if the full consequences of user charges are to be examined. This paper uses a cointegration estimation technique to estimate the price elasticity for prescription drug utilisation in the UK. PMID:7550771

Hughes, D; McGuire, A

89

Renewable hydrogen utilisation for the production of methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrolytic hydrogen production is an efficient way of storing renewable energy generated electricity and securing the contribution of renewables in the future electricity supply. The use of this hydrogen for the production of methanol results in a liquid fuel that can be utilised directly with minor changes in the existing infrastructure. To utilise the renewable generated hydrogen for production of

P. Galindo Cifre; O. Badr

2007-01-01

90

Utilising statistical residual life estimates of bearings to quantify the influence of preventive maintenance actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is illustrated how statistical residual life estimates of bearings can be used to justify maintenance practices. Residual life estimates are based on Proportional Intensity Models for non-repairable systems utilising historic failure data and corresponding diagnostic measurements. A case study is presented where failure and diagnostic data obtained from roller bearings operating in the dryer section of

Pieter-Jan Vlok; Maciej Wnek; Maciej Zygmunt

2004-01-01

91

Resource Utilisation and Cost Analysis of Memantine in Patients with Moderate to Severe Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating illness that causes enormous emotional stress to affected families and is associated with substantial medical and nonmedical costs. Objective: To determine the effects of 28 weeks of memantine treatment for patients with AD on resource utilisation and costs. Study design and methods: Multicentre, prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed in the US.

Anders Wimo; Bengt Winblad; Albrecht Stoffler; Yvonne Wirth; Hansjorg Mobius

2003-01-01

92

Barriers to utilisation of maternal health services in a semi-urban community in northern Nigeria: The clients' perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: Low level of utilisation of maternal health services is a major factor responsible for high maternal mortality in northwestern region of Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the barriers to utilisation of maternal health services from the perspective of mothers in northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 150 mothers, selected through multistage technique, was conducted. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS statistics 17.0. Results: Only 2.7% utilised preconception service, 98.7% antenatal care service (ANC), 24.0% delivery, 35.3% postnatal care and 14.0% utilised family planning service. Major reasons for non-utilisation of delivery service were not having a delivery complication in the past (57% (CI = 47.4-66.1)) and negative provider attitude (23.7% (CI = 16.4-32.7)). For non-utilisation of postnatal care, the major reasons were also not having a postnatal complication in the past (60.8% (CI = 50.4-70.4)) and negative provider attitude (27.8% (CI = 19.4-38.0)). As for non-utilisation of family planning service, the major reason was desire to have more children (32.6% (CI = 24.7-41.4)). Reasons for non-use of preconception care and ANC were not computed because respondents to these questions were not enough; only 6 (4.0%) were aware of preconception care in the first place and only 2 (1.3%) were not using ANC. Conclusion: Despite living near a health facility, most of the mothers were not using maternal health services. It is recommended that while there is the need to raise awareness on the utilisation of maternal health services, bring it closer to the mothers and make it more affordable, there is a more pressing need to improve its quality, especially through the alleviation of negative attitude of health care providers.

Idris, Suleman Hadejia; Sambo, Mohammed Nasir; Ibrahim, Muhammed Sani

2013-01-01

93

Microbial utilisation of biochar-derived carbon.  

PubMed

Whilst largely considered an inert material, biochar has been documented to contain a small yet significant fraction of microbially available labile organic carbon (C). Biochar addition to soil has also been reported to alter soil microbial community structure, and to both stimulate and retard the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM). We conducted a short-term incubation experiment using two (13)C-labelled biochars produced from wheat or eucalypt shoots, which were incorporated in an aridic arenosol to examine the fate of the labile fraction of biochar-C through the microbial community. This was achieved using compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). A proportion of the biologically-available fraction of both biochars was rapidly (within three days) utilised by gram positive bacteria. There was a sharp peak in CO2 evolution shortly after biochar addition, resulting from rapid turnover of labile C components in biochars and through positive priming of native SOM. Our results demonstrate that this CO2 evolution was at least partially microbially mediated, and that biochar application to soil can cause significant and rapid changes in the soil microbial community; likely due to addition of labile C and increases in soil pH. PMID:23623696

Farrell, Mark; Kuhn, Thomas K; Macdonald, Lynne M; Maddern, Todd M; Murphy, Daniel V; Hall, Phillip A; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Baumann, Karen; Krull, Evelyn S; Baldock, Jeff A

2013-04-24

94

The impact of reducing financial barriers on utilisation of a primary health care facility in Rwanda  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the impact of subsidising community-based health insurance (mutuelle) enrolment, removing point-of-service co-payments, and improving service delivery on health facility utilisation rates in Mayange, a sector of rural Rwanda of approximately 25,000 people divided among five ‘imidugudu’ or small villages. While comprehensive service upgrades were introduced in the Mayange Health Centre between April 2006 and February 2007, utilisation rates remained similar to comparison sites. Between February 2007 and April 2007, subsidies for mutuelle enrolment established virtually 100% coverage. Immediately after co-payments were eliminated in February 2007, patient visits levelled at a rate triple the previous value. Regression analyses using data from Mayange and two comparison sites indicate that removing financial barriers resulted in about 0.6 additional annual visits for curative care per capita. Although based on a single local pilot, these findings suggest that in order to achieve improved health outcomes, key short-term objectives include improved service delivery and reduced financial barriers. Based on this pilot, higher utilisation rates may be affected if broader swaths of the population are enrolled in mutuelle and co-payments are eliminated. Health leaders in Rwanda should consider further studies to determine if the impact of eliminating co-payments and increasing subsidies for mutuelle enrolment as seen in Mayange holds at greater levels of scale. Broader studies to better elucidate the impact of enrolment subsidies and co-payment subsidies on utilisation, health outcomes, and costs would also provide policy insights.

Dhillon, Ranu S.; Bonds, Matthew H.; Fraden, Max; Ndahiro, Donald; Ruxin, Josh

2011-01-01

95

Efficiency of utilisations of food energy by female growing minks.  

PubMed

The efficiency of utilisation of food energy by female growing minks, from weaning to adult age, was studied. The food given, pelleted according to an original technology, has the following chemical composition on a DM basis: 87.0% organic matter, 37.1% crude protein, 11.7% crude fat, 2.6% crude fiber, 35.6% nitrogen-free extractives and 13.0 per cent ash. Young minks had a feed intake, in relation to body weight, warying from 11.6 g to 58.6 g DM/d. Maximum feed intake related to kg0.75 was recorded at 700 g body weight (approximately 98 g DM/kg0.65). Digestibility of the given food expressed in DE, averaged 87.7 +/- 1.2%, while metabolizability, 82.3 +/- 1.1%. Total heat production related to the intaked gross energy, was 48.0 +/- 3.0%, and the retained energy, 34.3 +/- 4.0 per cent. The net efficiency of the metabolizable energy used for maintenance and production could not be accurately determined. However, taking to account the calculated values required for maintenance, of 649 kJ/kg0.75 in 300 to 600 g young minks, and of 607 kJ/kg0.75 in 600 to 1100 g young minks and also the maintenance efficiency, Km = 0.75, the coefficient for ME utilisation in protein and fat synthesis, of 0.50 and 0.75, respectively, it was able to determine the average ME efficiency used as net energy for maintenance and production: 70%. The highest values of nictemeral metabolism were recorded in the evening, and the lowest ones, at noon; the difference between the maximal and the minimal value did not exceed 6 per cent. PMID:6517695

Burlacu, G; Rus, V; Aldea, C; Nicolae, M; Cosmescu, L

1984-10-01

96

Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India  

SciTech Connect

In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

1984-02-01

97

Association between subjective memory complaints and health care utilisation: a three-year follow up  

PubMed Central

Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common among elderly patients and little is know about the association between SMC and health care utilisation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate health care utilisation during a three-year follow-up among elderly patients consulting their general practitioner and reporting subjective memory complaints (SMC). Methods This study was conducted as a prospective cohort survey in general practice with three-year follow-up. Selected health care utilisation or costs relative to SMC adjusted for potential confounders were analyzed in a two-part model where the incidence of use of a selected health care service were analyzed separately from the quantity of use for those that use the service. The former analyzed in a Poisson regression approach, the latter in a generalized linear regression model. Results A total 758 non-nursing home residents aged 65 years and older consulted their GP in October and November 2002 and participated in the present study. The adjusted probability of nursing home placement was significantly increased in subjects with SMC relative to subjects without SMC (RR = 2.3). More generally, SMC was associated with an increase in the cost of selected health care utilisation of 60% over three years (p = 0.003). Conclusion The data of this study indicated that in an elderly primary care population the presence of SMC increased the cost of health care utilisation by 60% over three years. Thus, inquiry into SMC may contribute to a risk profile assessment of elderly patients and may identify patients with an increased use of health care services.

Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Waldemar, Gunhild

2009-01-01

98

Validity of self reported utilisation of primary health care services in an urban population in Spain  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the validity and factors related with the validity of self reported numbers of visits to a primary health care centre, in comparison with the recorded number.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study.?SETTING—The urban area served by the Zaidín-Sur Primary Health Care Centre (Granada, Spain).?PARTICIPANTS—Two population samples (236 high users and 420 normal users) who were seen at the centre from 1985 to 1991 were interviewed in 1993.?MAIN RESULTS—A net tendency to overreport the actual number of visits was observed. Absolute concordance between self reported and recorded utilisation decreased as time interval lengthened, although this mainly reflected the increase in maximum variability both with time interval length and with the number of recorded visits. Corrected Spearman ? coefficients obtained between the number of self reported and recorded visits ranged from 0.602 for the two weeks before the interview to 0.678 for the year before. Regression slopes of self reported utilisation upon recorded utilisation did not change between periods. In multiple regression analyses the actual number of visits was the main factor associated with both underreporting and overreporting. Older age was also significantly associated with underreporting. Poor health status and high satisfaction with health care were significantly associated with overreporting.?CONCLUSIONS—There was a substantial degree of inaccuracy in self reported utilisation, with a net tendency to overreport the number of visits. In relative terms, however, accuracy of self reports did not seem to decrease appreciably as the recall time lengthened. To compare the accuracy of different measures, it is important to take into account the maximum variability of each one. Otherwise, contradictory results may be obtained.???Keywords: self reported utilisation; primary health care; validity

Bellon, J. A.; Lardelli, P.; Luna, J. d.; Delgado, A.

2000-01-01

99

Jarosite characteristics and its utilisation potentials.  

PubMed

During metallic zinc extraction from zinc sulphide or sulphide ore, huge quantity of jarosite is being released universally as solid residues. The jarosite mainly contains iron, sulphur, zinc, calcium, lead, cadmium and aluminium. Jarosite released from such industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Apart from water contamination, jarosite already accumulated and its increasing annual production is a major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life and hence its disposal leads to major concern because of the stringent environmental protection regulations. An attempt was made to evaluate the characteristics of Indian jarosite with an objectives to understand its potentials for recycling and utilising as raw materials for developing value added products. Sand and Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) was used as an admixture to attain good workability and detoxify the toxic substance in the jarosite. Result revealed that jarosite is silty clay loam in texture having 63.48% silt sized and 32.35% clay sized particles. The particle size of jarosite (D90=16.21+/-0.20 microm) is finer than the CCRs (D90=19.72+/-0.18 microm). The jarosite is nonuniform in structure and shape as compared to the CCRs having spherical, hollow shaped and some of them are cenosphere in nature. The major mineral phase of jarosite is Potassium Iron Sulphate Hydroxide {KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6}and Iron Sulphate Hydrate {2 Fe2O3SO3 x 5 H2O}. In CCRs the dominant phases are quartz {SiO2}, mullite {3 Al2O3 x 2 SiO2} and hematite {Fe2O3}. The high electrical conductivity of jarosite (13.26+/-0.437 dS/m) indicates that the presence of cations and anions are predominant over CCRs (0.498+/-0.007 dS/m). The major portion of jarosite consists of iron (23.66+/-0.18%), sulphur (12.23+/-0.2%) and zinc (8.243+/-0.075%). But CCRs main constituents are silicon (27.41+/-0.74%), aluminium (15.167+/-0.376%) and iron (4.447+/-0.69%). The other constituents such as calcium, aluminium, silicon, lead, and manganese are also present in the range of 0.5 to 5%. Heavy metals such as copper, chromium, and cadmium are found higher in jarosite as compared to the CCRs. The statistically designed experimental trials revealed that the density, water absorption capacity and compressive strength of fired jarosite bricks are 1.51 gm/cm3, 17.46% and 43.4 kg/cm2 respectively with jarosite sand mixture in the ratio of 3:1 indicating the potentials in developing building materials. PMID:15978656

Pappu, Asokan; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R

2005-06-22

100

How are policy makers using evidence? Models of research utilisation and local NHS policy making  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—This paper is based on a qualitative study that aimed to identify factors that facilitate or impede evidence-based policy making at a local level in the UK National Health Service (NHS). It considers how models of research utilisation drawn from the social sciences map onto empirical evidence from this study.?DESIGN—A literature review and case studies of social research projects that were initiated by NHS health authority managers or GP fundholders in one region of the NHS. In depth interviews and document analysis were used.?SETTING—One NHS region in England.?PARTICIPANTS—Policy makers, GPs and researchers working on each of the social research projects selected as case studies.?MAIN RESULTS—The direct influence of research evidence on decision making was tempered by factors such as financial constraints, shifting timescales and decision makers' own experiential knowledge. Research was more likely to impact on policy in indirect ways, including shaping policy debate and mediating dialogue between service providers and users.?CONCLUSIONS—The study highlights the role of sustained dialogue between researchers and the users of research in improving the utilisation of research-based evidence in the policy process.???Keywords: evidence-based policy making; research/policy interface; research utilisation

Elliott, H.; Popay, J.

2000-01-01

101

Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007  

PubMed Central

Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM) and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM) in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9%) for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6%) and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

2013-01-01

102

Regulation of methanol utilisation pathway genes in yeasts.  

PubMed

Methylotrophic yeasts such as Candida boidinii, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia methanolica and Pichia pastoris are an emerging group of eukaryotic hosts for recombinant protein production with an ever increasing number of applications during the last 30 years. Their applications are linked to the use of strong methanol-inducible promoters derived from genes of the methanol utilisation pathway. These promoters are tightly regulated, highly repressed in presence of non-limiting concentrations of glucose in the medium and strongly induced if methanol is used as carbon source. Several factors involved in this tight control and their regulatory effects have been described so far. This review summarises available data about the regulation of promoters from methanol utilisation pathway genes. Furthermore, the role of cis and trans acting factors (e.g. transcription factors, glucose processing enzymes) in the expression of methanol utilisation pathway genes is reviewed both in the context of the native cell environment as well as in heterologous hosts. PMID:17169150

Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

2006-12-14

103

Mechanical ventilation in critically ill cancer patients: outcome and utilisation of resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive care is increasingly being used in the management of cancer patients. It is important that a disproportionate share\\u000a of special care resources is not expended on futile care of terminally ill patients. A requirement for mechanical ventilation\\u000a has been stated to affect survival in cancer patients. The objectives of this study were to determine our hospital utilisation\\u000a of ICU

Ulf E. Kongsgaard; Nina K. Meidell

1999-01-01

104

Effect of probiotic supplementation on growth, nitrogen utilisation and serum cholesterol in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on the growth, nitrogen utilisation and serum cholesterol content of broiler chickens was studied in 2 trials.2. In experiment 1, the birds receiving the 0, 75, 100, 125 mg probiotic\\/kg diets had weight gains of 1204.0, 1272.0, 1268.3 and 1210.5 g, respectively at the end of 8 weeks of feeding. The group of

B. Mohan; R. Kadirvel; A. Natarajan; M. Bhaskaran

1996-01-01

105

How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA) and the online resource UpToDate. METHODS: This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. RESULTS: Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8%)

Jason Phua; Tow Keang Lim

2008-01-01

106

A Policy Framework for Sustainable Utilisation of Farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study crafts a policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South\\u000a Africa. The district, being predominantly agricultural and rural, faces contention in terms of land allocation for traditional\\u000a agricultural land uses versus contemporary uses such as golf courses, game ranching and holiday accommodation\\/lodges. The\\u000a situation was exacerbated by the fact that these challenges

Charles Nhemachena; James Chakwizira; Sipho Dube

107

Psychosocial and Psychodynamic Factors Influencing Health Care Utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to elucidate some dysfunctional aspects of health care utilisation by combining concepts from modern systems theory and from psychoanalysis. Contemporary health care in industrialised countries can be conceived as a social system in terms of modern systems theory. According to this theory, social systems are operating on the basis of a ‘guiding difference,’ which in the case

Thomas Maier

2006-01-01

108

Utilisation of medical technology assessment in health policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the contribution of medical technology assessment (MTA) to health policy decision making, the question has to be answered whether MTA is actually being used in decision-making processes and what factors are related to its utilisation. Design: We investigated recent Dutch policy decision making concerning four cases, i.e., breast cancer screening, serum alphaprotein (AFP) screening, in vitro fertilisation

Roelof Wieringh; Lisette P. M. van den Heuvel

1997-01-01

109

IGCC power plant for biomass utilisation, värnamo, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sydkraft AB has built the world's first complete IGCC Power Plant which utilises wood as fuel. The plant is located in Värnamo, Sweden, and the technology used in the power plant is based on gasification in a pressurised circulating fluidised bed gasifier. The gasification technology is developed in co-operation between Sydkraft AB and Foster Wheeler Energy International Inc., who also

Krister Ståhl; Magnus Neergaard

1998-01-01

110

Grid Architecture Storage - Utilising Grid Computing for Dynamic Data Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid architecture storage (GAS) is based on the concept that the grid computing architecture can be manipulated in order to facilitate data storage on the grid. This paper describes the software that has been developed to prove this concept. The software utilises volatile resources on distributed grid nodes - primarily random access memory - to store data dynamically by shifting

P. Koszek; K. Sandrasegaran

2005-01-01

111

Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being…

Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

2007-01-01

112

Capacity Utilisation and Excess Capacity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models capacity utilisation as a cyclical variable that reflects both the value of precautionary capacity and the desire to hold strategic excess capacity. Business unit data from the Profit Impact on Marketing Strategy (PIMS) database of large, predominantly US, companies are used. Separate estimation is carried out for a number of SIC industry groups. Panel data estimation in

Ciaran Driver

2000-01-01

113

Technical\\/economic\\/environmental analysis of biogas utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas may be utilised for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production or for transport fuel production (CH4-enriched biogas). When used to produce transport fuel either electricity is imported to power the plant or some of the biogas is used in a small CHP unit to meet electricity demand on site. The potential revenue from CH4-enriched biogas when replacing petrol is

J. D. Murphy; E. McKeogh; G. Kiely

2004-01-01

114

Sucrose utilisation in bacteria: genetic organisation and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose is the most abundant disaccharide in the environment because of its origin in higher plant tissues, and many Eubacteria possess catalytic enzymes, such as the sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolases and sucrose phosphorylases, that enable them to metabolise this carbohydrate in a regulated manner. This review describes the range of gene architecture, uptake systems, catabolic activity and regulation of the sucrose-utilisation regulons

Sharon J. Reid; Valerie R. Abratt

2005-01-01

115

Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder

Bassam Mrayyan

2004-01-01

116

Explaining income-related inequalities in doctor utilisation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new international comparative evidence on the factors driving inequalities in the use of GP and specialist services in 12 EU member states. The data are taken from the 1996 wave of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). We examine two types of utilisation (the probability of a visit and the conditional number of positive visits) for two

Eddy van Doorslaer; Xander Koolman; Andrew M. Jones

2004-01-01

117

Respiratory morbidity, healthcare utilisation and cost of care at school age related to home oxygen status.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine whether respiratory morbidity, lung function, healthcare utilisation and cost of care at school age in prematurely born children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were influenced by use of supplementary oxygen at home after neonatal intensive care unit discharge. Healthcare utilisation and cost of care in years 5 to 7 and respiratory morbidity (parent-completed respiratory questionnaire) and lung function measurements at least at age 8 years were assessed in 160 children. Their median gestational age was 27 (range 22-31)?weeks and 65 of them had received supplementary oxygen when discharged home (home oxygen group). The home oxygen group had more outpatient attendances (p?=?0.0168) and respiratory-related outpatient attendances (p?=?0.0032) with greater related cost of care (p?=?0.0186 and p?=?0.0030, respectively), their cost of care for prescriptions (p?=?0.0409) and total respiratory related cost of care (p?=?0.0354) were significantly greater. There were, however, no significant differences in cough, wheeze or lung function results between the two groups. Conclusion: Prematurely born children who had BPD and supplementary oxygen at home after discharge had increased healthcare utilisation at school age. Whether such children require greater follow, in the absence of excess respiratory morbidity, merits investigation. PMID:21225284

Greenough, Anne; Alexander, John; Boorman, Jill; Chetcuti, Philip A J; Cliff, Ian; Lenney, Warren; Morgan, Colin; Shaw, Nigel J; Sylvester, Karl P; Turner, Jackie

2011-01-12

118

Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room Walls PDM/CAD Tele-operations Product Control room External World

Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

2004-08-01

119

Changes in the pattern of service utilisation and health problems of women, men and various age groups following a destructive disaster: a matched cohort study with a pre-disaster assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Female gender and young age are known risk factors for psychological morbidity after a disaster, but this conclusion is based on studies without a pre-disaster assessment. The aim of this study in family practice was to investigate if these supposed risk factors would still occur in a study design with a pre-disaster measurement. METHODS: A matched cohort study with

Rik JH Soeteman; C Joris Yzermans; Peter Spreeuwenberg; Toine ALM Lagro-Janssen; Wil JHM van den Bosch; Jouke van der Zee

2008-01-01

120

Re-thinking the relationship between long-term condition self-management education and the utilisation of health services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encouraging self-management has been viewed as one means of reducing health service utilisation and contributing to improved demand management. However, the processes and imputed relationship between self-management education skills and health service contact are poorly understood. This paper reports on data from an embedded qualitative study which ran alongside a randomised controlled trial in England designed to test the clinical

Claire Gately; Anne Rogers; Caroline Sanders

2007-01-01

121

Medical Social Services in Accident and Emergency Departments of Hospitals in Hong Kong: Their Utilisation Patterns, Functions, and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical social service units of six acute hospitals participated in this study to examine the utilisation patterns, functions, and outcomes of medical social services provided to patients visiting Accident and Emergency Departments (AEDs) in Hong Kong. The results showed that, contrary to the conventional view, patients most frequently referred included both those who were involved in crises and urgent cases,

Daniel F. K. Wong; Cecilia L. W. Chan; C. K. Law

2002-01-01

122

Predictors of treatment utilisation at cognitive remediation groups for schizophrenia: The roles of neuropsychological, psychological and clinical variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study highlights the importance of carefully assessing neuropsychological functioning at the outset of cognitive remediation (CR) treatment. The effects of neuropsychological, psychological, and clinical variables on treatment utilisation (TU) in CR groups for individuals with schizophrenia were examined. Data included neuropsychological and psychosocial assessments conducted with 39 adult clients enrolled in CR as part of their ongoing outpatient

Amanda L. Gooding; Alice Saperstein; Monica Rivera Mindt; Alice Medalia

2012-01-01

123

Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.  

PubMed

Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed. PMID:23163241

Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

2012-11-19

124

Convective dispersion modelling utilising acoustic sounder information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently developed air pollution dispersion models for convective conditions are briefly reviewed in terms both of their potential for incorporating the information from current acoustic sounder technology and of their success in comparison with laboratory and field studies. The routine production of vertical velocity histograms and estimates of eddy dissipation rates by a turbulence sounder allows a first order incorporation of site-specific information into relatively simple descriptions of chimney plume behaviour. Experimental results from two sites are presented and compared with the predictions of a preferred dispersion model. Acoustic sounder and ground-level sulphur dioxide measurements have enabled a preliminary assessment to be made of the capacity to predict ground-level concentrations around Gladstone, a sub-tropical coastal power station. Sounder profiles suggest that the vertical turbulence in a seabreeze is proportionally less near the coast than further inland. The model can successfully include this finding. A site further inland at Stanwell, known for its topographically induced net downdraft, provided a further test of such a method. Satisfactory agreement with tracer gas studies carried out on the site has given some confidence in the estimates of maximum shortterm ground-level concentrations and of the frequency of occurrence of concentrations anywhere in the neighbourhood of the proposed power station. Methods of incorporating inversion penetration, wind shear and tower data into the preferred model are presented.

Best, P. R.; Kanowski, M.; Stùmer, L.; Green, D.

125

Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate. The microbial studies of biodegradation process revealed following peculiarities: gradual quantitative increasing of Lactobacillus sp. (from 10 3 to 10 5 colony forming units (CFU) per ml), activation of Clostridia sp. (from 10 2 to 10 4 CFU/ml) and elimination of aerobic conventional pathogens ( Enterobacteriaceae sp., Protea sp., staphylococci). The obtained results allow to evaluate effectiveness of proposed technology and to determine the leading role of lactobacilli and clostridia in process of natural wastes biodegradation. Our further investigations shall further be concentrated on creation of artificial inoculi for launching of food wastes biodegradation. These inoculi will include active and adapted strains of clostridia and lactobacilli.

Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

2004-03-01

126

Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour des essais hydrauliques et hydrogeologiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  L'étude de la nappe aquifère et de ses mouvements est un point important lors du choix de l'emplacement d'un ouvrage, tant\\u000a pour les fondations de l'ouvrage elles-mêmes, que pour son impact sur les ressources en eau. Il est donc nécessaire de disposer\\u000a de méthodes d'étude rapides et faciles à mettre en oeuvre telles que l'utilisation de traceurs radioactifs, à condition

Cl. Gauthier; R. J. Rousselin

1982-01-01

127

Utilisation of biomass for the supply of energy carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because biomass is a widely available, renewable resource, its utilisation for the production of energy has great potential\\u000a for reducing CO2 emissions and thereby preventing global warming. In this mini-review the `state of the art' of several fermentation processes\\u000a is discussed, starting with the most advanced process of ethanol production. This is followed by methane production, an established\\u000a process for

P. A. M. Claassen; J. B. van Lier; A. M. Lopez Contreras; E. W. J. van Niel; L. Sijtsma; A. J. M. Stams; S. S. de Vries; R. A. Weusthuis

1999-01-01

128

Lower limb prosthesis utilisation by elderly amputees.  

PubMed

The goal of prosthetic rehabilitation is to compensate for the loss of a limb by amputation by, in the case of a lower limb, encouraging walking, and to achieve the same level of autonomy as prior to the amputation. However, because of difficulties walking, elderly amputees may use their prosthesis to a greater or lesser degree or simply stop using it during the rehabilitation period. The objective of this research was to study factors such as physical and mental health, rehabilitation, physical independence and satisfaction with the prosthesis to understand why amputees use their prosthesis or not. The sample was composed of 65 unilateral vascular amputees 60 years old or over living at home. The information was collected from medical records, by telephone interview and by mail questionnaire. Prosthesis use was measured by a questionnaire on amputee activities developed by Day (1981). Eighty-one per cent (81%) of the subjects wore their prosthesis every day and 89% of this group wore it 6 hours or more per day. Less use of the prosthesis was significantly related to age, female gender, possession of a wheelchair, level of physical disability, cognitive impairment, poorer self-perceived health and the amputee's dissatisfaction. A multiple regression analysis showed that satisfaction, not possessing a wheelchair and cognitive integrity explained 46% of the variance in prosthesis use. PMID:11061199

Bilodeau, S; Hébert, R; Desrosiers, J

2000-08-01

129

Appropriateness of hospital utilisation in Italy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of inappropriate hospital admission and inappropriate days of stay and the effect of variables on such inappropriateness on an adult population in Italy. A review was made of medical records of patients admitted to any one of the following specialities: medicine, surgery, gynaecology or traumatology/orthopaedics at one of five hospitals located respectively in Siena, Frosinone, Rome and Catanzaro, and who were in-patients during one of four pre-selected index days. To determine the appropriateness of hospital admission and length of hospitalisation, a retrospective application was made using the Italian version of Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP). A total of 1299 patient days were reviewed. 14.2% of the hospital admissions and 37.3% of the number of hospitalisation days were judged to be inappropriate. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that inappropriate admission was significantly increased with relation to: greater distance from hospital to patient's home; admission to a medical ward; planned admissions; and admission over a weekend. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the inappropriate number of days of hospitalisation was significantly higher for medicine and for patients who were inappropriately admitted. The main reason for categorising an admission as inappropriate was that the patient's problems could be treated on an out-patient basis, and, for inappropriate days of care, the physician was overtly cautious in the management of a patient. Changing the physicians' behaviour and the organisation of hospital activities may be effective in improving the quality and efficiency of hospital care. PMID:10787019

Angelillo, I F; Ricciardi, G; Nante, N; Boccia, A; Bianco, A; La Torre, G; Vinci, V; De Giusti, M

2000-01-01

130

An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure that post-treatment needs and recommendations for care are met.

2012-01-01

131

Benefits of utilising real-time ultrasound imaging in the rehabilitation of the lumbar spine stabilising muscles following low back injury in the elite athlete—a single case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This single case study follows the assessment and rehabilitation of the lumbar spine stabilising muscles, transversus abdominis (TrA) and lumbar multifidus, of an elite soccer player following an exacerbation of a chronic low back injury. The subject had already completed a stabilising muscle retraining exercise program involving supervised Clinical Pilates sessions as well as specific retraining exercises for the lumbar

Felicity Kermode

2004-01-01

132

Centrifugal Blower Noise Studies Literature Survey and Noise Measurements (Etudes des Bruits Associees a l'Utilisation des Souffleurs Centrifuges Etude de la Litterature Specialisee et Mesures des Bruits).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the existing literature on the subject of centrifugal fan and blower noise studies is presented in this report to establish further areas of research needed to aid in the development of a quiet blower. Noise measurements on a wide variety of b...

G. Krishnappa

1976-01-01

133

Expenditure and resource utilisation for cervical screening in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that women aged 18–69 years are screened with conventional cytology every 2 years. Publicly funded HPV vaccination was introduced in 2007, and partly as a consequence, a renewal of the screening program that includes a review of screening recommendations has recently been announced. This study aimed to provide a baseline for such a review by quantifying screening program resource utilisation and costs in 2010. Methods A detailed model of current cervical screening practice in Australia was constructed and we used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry to model age-specific compliance with screening and follow-up. We applied model-derived rate estimates to the 2010 Australian female population to calculate costs and numbers of colposcopies, biopsies, treatments for precancer and cervical cancers in that year, assuming that the numbers of these procedures were not yet substantially impacted by vaccination. Results The total cost of the screening program in 2010 (excluding administrative program overheads) was estimated to be A$194.8M. We estimated that a total of 1.7 million primary screening smears costing $96.7M were conducted, a further 188,900 smears costing $10.9M were conducted to follow-up low grade abnormalities, 70,900 colposcopy and 34,100 histological evaluations together costing $21.2M were conducted, and about 18,900 treatments for precancerous lesions were performed (including retreatments), associated with a cost of $45.5M for treatment and post-treatment follow-up. We also estimated that $20.5M was spent on work-up and treatment for approximately 761 women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. Overall, an estimated $23 was spent in 2010 for each adult woman in Australia on cervical screening program-related activities. Conclusions Approximately half of the total cost of the screening program is spent on delivery of primary screening tests; but the introduction of HPV vaccination, new technologies, increasing the interval and changing the age range of screening is expected to have a substantial impact on this expenditure, as well as having some impact on follow-up and management costs. These estimates provide a benchmark for future assessment of the impact of changes to screening program recommendations to the costs of cervical screening in Australia.

2012-01-01

134

Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing\\u000a Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective\\u000a of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data pertaining to the

Hylton B Menz

2009-01-01

135

Counting the costs: Comparing depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone oenanthate utilisation patterns in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa, where health care resources are limited, it is important to ensure that drugs provision and use is rational. The Essential Drug List includes depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-EN) as injectable progestagen-only contraceptives (IPCs), and both products are extensively used. Objectives and Methods Utilisation patterns of the injectable contraceptive products DMPA and NET-EN are compared in the context of current knowledge of the safety and efficacy of these agents. Utilisation patterns were analysed by means of a Pareto (ABC) analysis of IPCs issued from 4 South African provincial pharmaceutical depots over 3 financial years. A case study from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is used to examine utilisation patterns and self-reported side effects experienced by 187 women using IPCs. Results IPCs accounted for a substantial share of total state expenditure on drugs. While more DMPA than NET-EN was issued, NET-EN distribution from 2 depots increased over the 3-year period. Since DMPA was cheaper, if all NET-EN clients in the 1999/2000 financial year (annualised) had used DMPA, the 4 depots could have saved 4.95 million South African Rands on product acquisition costs alone. The KZN case study showed slightly more NET-EN (54%) than DMPA (46%) use; no significant differences in self-reported side effects; and that younger women were more likely to use NET-EN than DMPA (p = 0.0001). Conclusions Providing IPCs on the basis of age is not appropriate or cost effective. Rational use of these products should include consideration of the cost of prescribing one over another.

Smit, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew; McFadyen, Lynn; Zuma, Khangelani

2001-01-01

136

Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents.  

PubMed

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid phase in a biphasic solvent system. This paper describes a previously unreported use of MIPs as solvent extraction reagents, their successful application to aqueous sample media and the opportunities for utilisation of this unique system in novel biosensing and separation procedures. This study demonstrates the development of a novel biphasic solvent system utilising MIP in the extracting phase to enhance both efficiency and selectivity of a simple two phase liquid extraction. Monodisperse propranolol imprinted polymer microspheres [p(divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid)] were prepared by precipitation polymerisation. Initially, the affinity of the polymers for (R,S)-propranolol was assessed by established techniques whereby the MIP demonstrated greater affinity for the template than did the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP). Importantly, MIP performance was also assessed using the novel dual solvent system. The depletion of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase into the polymer containing organic phase was determined. When compared to control extractions containing no polymer the presence of MIP in the extracting solvent phase resulted in an increased extraction of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase. Importantly, this extraction was significantly greater in the presence of MIP when compared to NIP. This unique principle generates opportunities for MIP based extractions and chemical enrichments in industrial applications, offering commercial, ecological and practical advantages to traditional solvent extraction techniques. The technique is readily transferable to analytical microsystems utilising MIP recognition elements generating promising opportunities for MIP based sensing of aqueous sample media. PMID:16938448

Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

2006-08-30

137

Manchester triage system version II and resource utilisation in emergency department.  

PubMed

Emergency department (ED) triage systems aim to direct the best clinical assistance to those who are in the greatest urgency and guarantee that resources are efficiently applied.The study's purpose was to determine whether the Manchester Triage System (MTS) second version is a useful instrument for determining the risk of hospital admission, intrahospital death and resource utilisation in ED and to compare it with the MTS first version.This was a prospective study of patients that attended the ED at a large hospital. It comprised a total of 25 218 cases that were triaged between 11 July and 13 October 2011. The MTS codes were grouped into two clusters: red and orange into a 'high acuity/priority' (HP) cluster, and yellow, green and blue into a 'low acuity/priority' cluster.The risk of hospital admission in the HP cluster was 4.86 times that of the LP cluster for both admission route and ages. The percentage of patient hospital admission between medical and surgical specialties, in high and low priority clusters, was similar. We found the risk of death in the HP cluster to be 5.58 times that of the risk of the low acuity/priority cluster. The MTS had an inconsistent association relative to the utilisation of x-ray, while it seemed to portray a consistent association between ECG and laboratory utilisation and MTS cluster.There were no differences between medical and surgical specialities risk of admission. This suggests that improvements were made in the second version of MTS, particularly in the discriminators of patients triaged to surgical specialties, because this was not true for the first version of MTS. PMID:23345313

Santos, André Peralta; Freitas, Paulo; Martins, Henrique Manuel Gil

2013-01-23

138

Indirect measures of substrate utilisation following exercise-induced muscle damage.  

PubMed

Abstract This study investigated whether exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) resulted in changes to whole-body substrate utilisation during exercise performed during the subsequent 48 hours. Eight males (31±6 years) performed 30 minutes of bench-stepping exercise. One leg performed eccentric contractions (Ecc) by lowering the body whilst the control leg performed concentric contractions (Con) by raising the body. On the two days following bench-stepping exercise participants performed measures of muscle function on an isokinetic dynamometer and undertook a bout of one leg cycling exercise, at two differing workloads, with the first workload (WL1) at 1.5±0.25 W/kg and the second workload (WL2) at 1.8±0.25 W/kg with each leg. Expired respiratory gases were collected during cycling to estimate whole body substrate utilisation. There were significant decrements in measures of muscular performance (isometric force, concentric and eccentric torque) and increased perception of soreness in Ecc compared with Con (P < 0.05). The effect of the Ecc treatment on substrate utilisation during one-legged cycling revealed a significant trial×time interaction with higher rates of CHO oxidation in the Ecc condition compared with Con that were further increased 48 hours later (P = 0.02). A significant treatment×time×effort interaction (P < 0.01) indicated the effect of the treatment altered as workload increased with higher rates of CHO oxidation occurring in WL2. This is consistent with greater reliance upon muscle glycogen. Suggesting that in EIMD, reductions in strength and increased feelings of soreness can be associated with greater reliance upon intramuscular CHO oxidation, than lipid, during subsequent concentric work. PMID:24050468

Hughes, Jonathan; Chapman, Phillip; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, Nathan; Stannard, Stephen

2013-01-11

139

Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.  

PubMed

The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity. Consequently, there is a need to incorporate this diversity into understandings of habitat function, conservation and management. PMID:23152857

Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

2012-11-09

140

Fish Utilisation of Wetland Nurseries with Complex Hydrological Connectivity  

PubMed Central

The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting ‘facultative wetland resident’ group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the ’interrupted persistence’ group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the ‘facultative wetland resident’ and ‘delayed recruitment group’, and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the ‘delayed recruitment’ group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity. Consequently, there is a need to incorporate this diversity into understandings of habitat function, conservation and management.

Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

2012-01-01

141

Why carers of people with dementia do not utilise out-of-home respite services.  

PubMed

While many people with dementia require institutional care, having a co-resident carer improves the likelihood that people can live at home. Although caregiving can have positive aspects, carers still report a high need for respite. Despite this need, the use of respite services for carers of people with dementia is often low. This article investigates carer beliefs regarding out-of-home respite services and why some carers do not utilise them. A total of 152/294 (51.7%) carers of community-dwelling people with dementia (NSW, Australia) who were sent a survey completed it (November 2009-January 2010). Despite reporting unmet need for both services, 44.2% of those surveyed were not utilising day respite and 60.2% were not utilising residential respite programmes. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with non-use using the Theory of Planned Behaviour within an expanded Andersen Behavioural Model on a final sample of 113 (due to missing data). The model explained 66.9% of the variation for day centres, and 42% for residential respite services. Beliefs that service use would result in negative outcomes for the care recipient were strongly associated with non-use of both day care [OR 13.11; 95% CI (3.75, 45.89)] and residential respite care [OR 6.13; 95% CI (2.02, 18.70)] and were more strongly associated with service non-use than other predisposing, impeding and need variables. For some carers who used services despite negative outcome beliefs, the benefits of respite service use may also be diminished. To improve use of out-of-home respite services in this vulnerable group, service beliefs should be addressed through service development and promotion that emphasises benefits for both carer and care recipients. Future research utilising behavioural service models may also be improved via the inclusion of service beliefs in the study of health and social service use. PMID:23496258

Phillipson, Lyn; Magee, Christopher; Jones, Sandra C

2013-03-18

142

Socio-economic inequalities in health care utilisation in Norway: a population based cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Norway provides universal health care coverage to all residents, but socio-economic inequalities in health are among the largest in Europe. Evidence on inequalities in health care utilisation is sparse, and the aim of this population based study was to investigate socio-economic inequalities in the utilisation of health care services in Tromsø, Norway. Methods We used questionnaire data from the cross-sectional Tromsø Study, conducted in 2007–8. All together 12,982 persons aged 30–87 years participated with the response rate of 65.7%. This is slightly more than one third of the total population (33.8%) in the mentioned age group in Tromsø municipality. By logistic regression analyses we studied associations between household income, education and self-rated occupational status and the utilisation of general practitioner, somatic and psychiatric specialist outpatient services. The outcome variables were probability and frequency of use during the previous 12 months. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, marital status, and self-rated health. Results Self-rated health was the dominant predictor of health care utilisation. Women’s probability of visiting a general practitioner did not vary by socio-economic status, but high income was associated with less frequent use (odds ratio [OR] for trend 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.98). In men, high income predicted lower probability and frequency of general practitioner utilisation (OR for trend 0.85, CI 0.76-0.94, and 0.86, 0.78-0.95, respectively). Women’s probability of visiting a somatic specialist increased with higher income (OR for trend 1.11, CI 1.01-1.21) and higher education (OR for trend 1.27, CI 1.16-1.39). We found the same trends for men, though significant only for education (OR for trend 1.14, CI 1.05-1.25). The likelihood of visiting psychiatric specialist services increased with higher education and decreased with higher income in women (OR for trend 1.57, CI 1.24-1.98, and 0.69, 0.56-0.86, respectively), but did not vary significantly by socio-economic variables in men. Higher income predicted more frequent use of psychiatric specialist services in men (OR for trend 2.02, CI 1.12-3.63). Conclusions This study revealed important inequalities in the utilisation of health care services in Norway, inequalities which may contribute to sustaining inequalities in health outcomes.

2012-01-01

143

Proposal for selective differentiating of nerve agent G and V type with utilisation of modified Ellman’s method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied issues of organophosphorus agents’ analysis. Immobilised enzyme–inhibitors complexes (e.g. acetylcholinesterase-organophosphate\\u000a nerve agent) were studied with modified Ellman’s biochemical method utilised for assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity.\\u000a Biochemical reactions are widespread and they are the most frequent used analytical methods for determination of nerve agents.\\u000a This modified method is based on the nucleophilic reactions of mono- and bispyridinium aldoximes of

Monika Hoskovcová; Emil Halámek; Zbyn?k Kobliha; Irena Kasalová

2009-01-01

144

New Zealand resident Tongan peoples' health and illness beliefs and utilisation of the health care system.  

PubMed

This study investigated the perceptions of health and illness, and the utilisation of the health care system, over the last five years, of Tongan people who reside in New Zealand. A descriptive qualitative approach was used, with the study being implemented by networking with representatives of the Tongan community and health care workers. Twenty adult Tongan people volunteered and were given the interview questions in advance. The individual face to face semi-structured interviews took approximately 30 to 45 minutes. Participants verified the transcription of their interviews. Answers were analysed by identifying themes in response to each interview question. Most participants considered health to be a state of physical, mental, social and spiritual well being. Illness beliefs were predominantly either a biological malfunction of the body, or a breakdown of the holistic state of well being. All participants had used the western orthodox medical system, with the general practitioner being consulted more than other services. A high level of satisfaction was expressed with this service. Traditional Tongan healing was utilised by about half the participants, and most were happy with its outcomes. A lesser number of participants had used alternative health care, but the levels of satisfaction with it were mixed. PMID:12737416

Bassett, Sandra F; Holt, Elizabeth A L

2002-03-01

145

Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, J C

2013-07-29

146

Ecological analysis of health care utilisation for China's rural population: association with a rural county's socioeconomic characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The problem of accessibility and affordability of health care is reported to be a major social concern in modern China. It is pronounced in rural households which represent 60% of China's population. There are a few large scale studies which have been conducted into socioeconomic inequalities in health care utilisation for rural populations. Those studies that exist are mainly bivariate analyses. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics and health service utilisation among rural counties, using aggregated data from a nationally representative dataset, within a multivariate regression analysis framework. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted on China's National Health Services Survey (NHSS) 2003. Aggregated data on health care utilisation, socioeconomic position, demographic characteristics and health status were used. The samples included 67 rural counties. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. Results The results of the ecological multivariate analyses showed a positive relationship between private insurance coverage and the use of outpatient care (p-value < 0.05, standardised coefficient = 0.22). Annual income was positively correlated with annual medical expenditure (p-value < 0.01, standardised coefficient = 0.56). A rural county's area socioeconomic stratum, a composite measure frequently used in bivariate studies including the NHSS analysis report, could not explain any association with the use of health care. Conclusions This study highlights that richer rural households with a greater ability to pay are more able to use health services in China. The findings suggest that the scope of medical insurance might be restrictive, or the protection provided might be limited, and the health care costs might still be too high. Additional efforts are required to ensure that poorer Chinese rural households are able to utilise health care according to their needs, regardless of their income levels or private insurance coverage. This would require targeted strategies to assist low income families and a broad spectrum of interventions to address the social determinants of health.

2010-01-01

147

Phytase effects on the efficiency of utilisation and blood concentrations of phosphorus and calcium in Pekin ducks.  

PubMed

1. The objective was to study the effects of a supplementation of a 6-phytase derived from the Peniophora lycii gene in the White Pekin duck. 2. In two balance studies, low-phosphorus (P) diets consisting mainly of maize, solvent extracted soybean meal and solvent extracted sunflower meal were supplemented with phytase up to concentrations of 1500 U/kg (Study 1) or 2000 U/kg (Study 2). Each diet (phytase level) was fed to 8 to 10 individually penned ducks. The intake and excretion of each animal was measured for 5 consecutive days when ducks were in their third week of life. Responses were described by nonlinear regression. 3. Although the basal diets from the two studies were similar in ingredient composition, efficiencies of P utilisation (P accretion/P intake x 100) for the unsupplemented basal diets were 39% in Study 1 and 30% in Study 2. Phytase supplementation significantly improved P utilisation up to levels of about 55% in both studies. A plateau in P utilisation with an increase in phytase supplementation was achieved in Study 2, but not in Study 1. The enzyme was more efficient in Study 2 than in Study 1 at low rates of supplementation. Utilisation of calcium (Ca) was significantly improved by phytase supplementation. Accretions of P and Ca increased at a constant ratio. 4. In a 5-week growth study, diets with an intentionally marginal P level were used. Diets were fed either unsupplemented or supplemented with 1000 or 10,000 U/kg of phytase. Eight pens of 10 sex-separated ducks each (4 pens per sex) were allocated to each dietary treatment. 5. Phytase significantly improved the growth of ducks of both sexes between d 1 and 21, but not between d 22 and 35. Feed conversion rate was not affected by treatment. Blood serum phosphate concentrations, but not calcium, were significantly increased by phytase supplementation. Blood concentrations of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase remained unaffected while alanine aminotransferase was significantly reduced by phytase supplementation. 6. It was concluded that the efficacy of a microbial phytase varies even under similar experimental conditions. Differences in intrinsic phytase activity of maize/soybean meal-based diets may be responsible for this. The 6-phytase used has the potential to improve the utilisation of plant P in duck feeding. A plateau in response was reached above 1500 U/kg. PMID:16787855

Rodehutscord, M; Hempel, R; Wendt, P

2006-06-01

148

Social support and sexually transmitted disease related healthcare utilisation in sexually experienced African-American adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether adolescents' perceived social support predicts future utilisation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) related health care. Methods: A longitudinal study of African-American adolescents ages 12–18 recruited from a random sample of households in the San Francisco Bay area in which baseline data were collected by telephone and follow up data were collected by telephone or in-home audio computer assisted self interview. At baseline, participants were asked about their sexual behaviours, STD history, and social support. At follow up 14–18 months later, participants were asked whether they, while asymptomatic, had sought STD related medical care within the past year. Results: Asymptomatic sexually experienced adolescents who talked to their closest friend almost every day were more likely to have had STD related health care in the past year (odds ratio (OR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.76). Closeness to female and male parents/guardians and participation in extracurricular activities were not associated with utilisation of STD related health care within the past year. After controlling for age and sex, sexually experienced adolescents who talked to or saw their closest friend almost every day were more likely to have had STD related health care within the past year (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.70). Conclusions: These findings suggest that friends have an impact on the seeking of confidential healthcare services, such as care for STDs.

Lowery, L; Chung, S; Ellen, J

2005-01-01

149

Efficiency of utilisation of different diets with contrasting forages and concentrate when fed to sheep in a discontinuous feeding pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of feeding different levels of forages and concentrate, in a discontinuous feeding pattern, on the efficiency of feed utilisation and rumen function were studied using rumen fistulated sheep. Experiment 1 was a 4×4 latin square design to determine the whole tract digestibility and rumen characteristics of diets comprising 15% (C15), 25% (C25), 35% (C35) and 45% (C45) concentrate

R. Kaur; K. S. Nandra; S. C. Garcia; W. J. Fulkerson; A. Horadagoda

2008-01-01

150

Effects of mannanoligosaccharide in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, energy utilisation, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS, Bio-MOS, Alltech Inc.) on the growth performance, energy utilisation, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora of birds given a sorghum–wheat based diet. Two MOS levels (1 and 2 g\\/kg) were included in the diet.2.?Inclusion of MOS at both levels in the diet improved the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) values of

Y. Yang; P. A. Iji; A. Kocher; E. Thomson; L. L. Mikkelsen; M. Choct

2008-01-01

151

Effect of audit and feedback on the availability, utilisation and quality of emergency obstetric care in three districts in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Facility-based maternal death reviews and criterion-based clinical audit, were introduced in three districts in Malawi in 2006. Research question: Can audit and feedback improve the availability, utilisation and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC)? Participants and methods: Observational study in which emergency obstetric care offered to women who gave birth in 73 health facilities (13 hospitals and 60

E. J. Kongnyuy; B. Leigh; N. van den Broek

2008-01-01

152

RSV hospitalisation and healthcare utilisation in moderately prematurely born infants.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with chronic respiratory morbidity in infants born very prematurely. Our aims were to determine if infants born moderately prematurely (32--35 weeks of gestation) who had had an RSV hospitalisation, compared to those who had not, had greater healthcare utilisation and related cost of care in the first 2 years. Two thousand and sixty-six eligible infants' records were examined to identify three groups: 20 infants admitted for an RSV lower respiratory tract infection (RSV), 30 admitted for another respiratory problem (other respiratory) and 108 admitted for a nonrespiratory problem/never admitted (non-respiratory).Healthcare utilisation was assessed by examining hospital and general practitioner records and cost of care calculated using the National Scheme of Reference costs and the British National Formulary prices. The mean cost of care in the RSV group (£12,505) was greater than the non-respiratory(£1,178) (95% CI for difference £5,015 to £17,639, p=00.002) and the other respiratory (£3,356) groups (95% CI for difference £2,963 to £15,606, p<0.001). The adjusted mean differences in the cost of care were £11,186 between the RSV and non-respiratory groups (95% CI £4,763 to £17,609) and £9,076 (95% CI £2,515 to £15,637) between the RSV and the other respiratory groups. Forty-two of 2,066 eligible infants had an RSV hospitalisation (2%);thus, assuming prophylaxis would reduce the hospitalisation rate by 50%, the number needed to treat was 98. In conclusion,RSV hospitalisation in moderately prematurely born infants is associated with increased health-related cost of care. Nevertheless, if RSV prophylaxis is to be cost effective,a high risk group of moderately prematurely born infants needs to be identified. PMID:22302458

Shefali-Patel, Deena; Paris, Mireia Alcazar; Watson, Fran; Peacock, Janet L; Campbell, Morag; Greenough, Anne

2012-07-01

153

Effectiveness of a five-level Paediatric Triage System: an analysis of resource utilisation in the emergency department in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the effectiveness of a five-level Paediatric Triage and Acuity System (Ped-TTAS) by comparing the reliability of patient prioritisation and resource utilisation with the four-level Paediatric Taiwan Triage System (Ped-TTS) among non-trauma paediatric patients in the emergency department (ED). Methods The study design used was a retrospective longitudinal analysis based on medical chart review and a computer database. Except for a shorter list of complaints and some abnormal vital sign criteria modifications, the structure and triage process for applying Ped-TTAS was similar to that of the Paediatric Canadian Emergency Triage and Acuity Scale. Non-trauma paediatric patients presenting to the ED were triaged by well-trained triage nurses using the four-level Ped-TTS in 2008 and five-level Ped-TTAS in 2010. Hospitalisation rates and medical resource utilisation were analysed by acuity levels between the contrasting study groups. Results There was a significant difference in patient prioritisation between the four-level Ped-TTS and five-level Ped-TTAS. Improved differentiation was observed with the five-level Ped-TTAS in predicting hospitalisation rates and medical costs. Conclusions The five-level Ped-TTAS is better able to discriminate paediatric patients by triage acuity in the ED and is also more precise in predicting resource utilisation. The introduction of a more accurate acuity and triage system for use in paediatric emergency care should provide greater patient safety and more timely utilisation of appropriate ED resources.

Chang, Yu-Che; Ng, Chip-Jin; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chen, Li-Chin; Chen, Jih-Chang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung

2013-01-01

154

Material and social deprivation and health and social services utilisation in Québec: a local-scale evaluation system.  

PubMed

Very few studies have employed local-scale analyses to evaluate how well primary health care and social services reach the most socially and economically deprived individuals. This paper describes a project, conducted in close partnership with decision-makers and practitioners at selected local community service centres (in French, CLSCs) in Quebec, Canada, that developed a system for assessing primary care and social services utilisation by applying deprivation levels defined at the local scale (i.e., according to the distribution of deprivation in individual CLSC service areas). More than 25 years ago, Québec started setting up a province-wide network of publicly financed CLSCs whose mission was to offer first-line health and social services at the local level. Now approximately one Quebecer in four receives at least one service a year from a CLSC. The evaluation system presented in this article is built on deprivation profiles for each CLSC service area and comprises maps, relative indices of service utilisation, and an interpretation framework that facilitates the integration of new data into the decision-making and services planning processes. Study results show that deprivation levels, when defined using local perspectives, correspond more closely to decision-makers' perceptions, that relative indices are sensitive to key determinants of services provision and utilisation, and that the interpretation framework is useful for reassessing intervention strategies. PMID:17287059

Philibert, M D; Pampalon, R; Hamel, D; Thouez, J-P; Loiselle, C G

2007-02-06

155

Drug utilisation among older inpatients in a teaching hospital in Western Nepal Shankar P R, Upadhyay D K, Subish P, Bhandari R B, Das B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The proportion of the elderly population in Nepal, though low, is steadily increasing. Studies on drug utilisation among geriatric patients in Western Nepal, a region with the highest proportion of the elderly in all of Nepal, are lacking. The present study was carried out at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, a 700-bed teaching hospital in Pokhara, Western Nepal. Methods: The

Shankar PR; Upadhyay DK

2010-01-01

156

Utilisation options of renewable resources: a life cycle assessment of selected products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable resources have increasingly drawn the attention of agriculture, industry and politics. Their utilisation is considered to lead to ecological advantages compared to fossil resources and products. They, however, also come with ecological disadvantages, particularly due to intensive land use.In this paper, the environmental impacts of some utilisation options of Miscanthus and corn to produce energy and products are determined

Andreas Uihlein; Simone Ehrenberger; Liselotte Schebek

2008-01-01

157

Measure for measure: towards a measurement and evaluation framework for skills utilisation policy in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy makers throughout the developed world have long insisted that skills are central to economic and social success. However, there is a growing recognition that if skills are to deliver on this agenda, they have to be utilised in the workplace. In the UK, skills utilisation is gaining prominence as an issue, particularly in Scotland. If such policies are to

Jonathan Payne

2011-01-01

158

Modeling abiotic production of apparent oxygen utilisation in the oligotrophic subtropical North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent oxygen utilisation is potentially biased by abiotic, physical processes. Using a coupled 3-D circulation-oxygen model, this potential is quantitatively estimated for a region in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic, called the Beta Triangle, where an inconsistency exists between observational estimates of high carbon export from the euphotic zone, based on oxygen utilisation rates in the thermocline (Jenkins 1982), and

Heiner Dietze; Andreas Oschlies

2005-01-01

159

Facilitating research utilisation : A cross-sector review of research evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many management researchers, it is important that the knowledge they create is utilised and has some impact on managerial practice. Sustainable competitive advantage depends less on who has the information and increasingly on those able to make the best use of that information. This paper focuses on two key questions: what are the barriers to research utilisation and what

Jane Hemsley-Brown

2004-01-01

160

Predictors of treatment utilisation at cognitive remediation groups for schizophrenia: the roles of neuropsychological, psychological and clinical variables.  

PubMed

The present study highlights the importance of carefully assessing neuropsychological functioning at the outset of cognitive remediation (CR) treatment. The effects of neuropsychological, psychological, and clinical variables on treatment utilisation (TU) in CR groups for individuals with schizophrenia were examined. Data included neuropsychological and psychosocial assessments conducted with 39 adult clients enrolled in CR as part of their ongoing outpatient therapy. TU was calculated using the percentage of sessions attended over a three-month period. Better global neuropsychological functioning (r = .46, p = .007), attention/working memory (r = .39, p = .03), and processing speed (r = .44, p = .01) were each associated with greater TU. Trend-level associations with TU were observed with executive functioning (r = .33, p = .06) and verbal learning (r = .23; p = .07). Higher rates of self-reported cognitive complaints were associated with lower TU (r = -.45, p = .01). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that both objective and subjective indicators of neuropsychological functioning independently contributed to the prediction of TU. This information can serve to help providers develop empirically informed strategies to support their clients' CR treatment utilisation. The implications from these findings can be used as a way to provide ongoing guidance for service provision and can aid in improving CR treatment utilisation, and thus treatment effectiveness, in clinical settings. PMID:22390152

Gooding, Amanda L; Saperstein, Alice; Rivera Mindt, Monica; Medalia, Alice

2012-03-05

161

Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8%) reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25%) of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%), private clinics (50%), hospital (27%) and health centres (13%). Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

2011-01-01

162

Influence of spices on protein utilisation of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and horsegram (Dolichos biflorus).  

PubMed

The influence of a mixture of eleven spices commonly consumed in India on the utilisation of protein from boiled winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and horsegram (Dolichos biflorus) was studied at 10 and 20 percent level of protein intake in experimental rats. Spices used in the mixture include red chillies (Capsicum annum), black pepper (Piper nigrum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), garlic (Allium sativum), ajowan (Carum copticum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), caraway seeds (Carum carui) and fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare). Addition of this spice mixture at 1.5% level of the diet decreased the TD of both legumes, significantly only in the case of horsegram. A significant increase was observed in the BV of both the legumes at both levels of protein tested. PMID:7855088

Pradeep, K U; Geervani, P

1994-10-01

163

Dekkera and Brettanomyces growth and utilisation of hydroxycinnamic acids in synthetic media.  

PubMed

Dekkera and Brettanomyces yeast are important spoilage organisms in a number of food and beverage products. Isolates of both genera were cultured in a defined medium and supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids and vinylphenols to investigate their influence on growth and the formation of ethyl phenol derivatives. The growth rate of Brettanomyces species in the presence of acids was reduced, and no significant conversion to vinyl or ethyl derivatives was observed. The growth rate and substrate utilisation rates of Dekkera anomala and Dekkera bruxellensis yeast differed depending on strain and the acid precursor present. Growth of D. bruxellensis was slowed by the presence of ferulic acid with the addition of 1 mM ferulic acid completely inhibiting growth. This study provides an insight into the spoilage potential of these organisms and possible control strategies involving hydroxycinnamic acids. PMID:18322682

Harris, Victoria; Ford, Christopher M; Jiranek, Vladimir; Grbin, Paul R

2008-03-06

164

The effect of protein supplement source or supply pattern on the intake, digestibility, rumen kinetics, nitrogen utilisation and growth of Ethiopian Menz sheep fed teff straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of trials were conducted to study the effect of either nitrogen source or supply pattern on the growth, rumen fermentation pattern and utilisation of straw by Ethiopian Menz sheep. All experimental sheep were given teff straw basal diet (CON). Irrespective of the trial, treatment sheep were offered either cottonseed cake (CSC), leucaena (LEU) and sesbania (SESM) in the

M. L. K. Bonsi; A. K. Tuah; P. O. Osuji; V. I. Nsahlai; N. N. Umunna

1996-01-01

165

Comparison of a spatial approach with the multilevel approach for investigating place effects on health: the example of healthcare utilisation in France  

PubMed Central

Study objective: Most studies of place effects on health have followed the multilevel analytical approach that investigates geographical variations of health phenomena by fragmenting space into arbitrary areas. This study examined whether analysing geographical variations across continuous space with spatial modelling techniques and contextual indicators that capture space as a continuous dimension surrounding individual residences provided more relevant information on the spatial distribution of outcomes. Healthcare utilisation in France was taken as an illustrative example in comparing the spatial approach with the multilevel approach. Design: Multilevel and spatial analyses of cross sectional data. Participants: 10 955 beneficiaries of the three principal national health insurance funds, surveyed in 1998 and 2000 on continental France. Main results: Multilevel models showed significant geographical variations in healthcare utilisation. However, the Moran's I statistic showed spatial autocorrelation unaccounted for by multilevel models. Modelling the correlation between people as a decreasing function of the spatial distance between them, spatial mixed models gave information not only on the magnitude, but also on the scale of spatial variations, and provided more accurate standard errors for risk factors effects. The socioeconomic level of the residential context and the supply of physicians were independently associated with healthcare utilisation. Place indicators better explained spatial variations in healthcare utilisation when measured across continuous space, rather than within administrative areas. Conclusions: The kind of conceptualisation of space during analysis influences the understanding of place effects on health. In many contextual studies, viewing space as a continuum may yield more relevant information on the spatial distribution of outcomes.

Chaix, B.; Merlo, J.; Chauvin, P.

2005-01-01

166

Availability of essential amino acids, nutrient utilisation and growth in juvenile black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, following fishmeal replacement by plant protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials with juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were undertaken to study the effects of replacing fishmeal by different levels of plant proteins on growth performances and nutrient utilisation of shrimp in semi-intensive conditions (Expt. 1) and on the availability of dietary nitrogen (N) and amino acids (Expt. 2). Five isoproteic diets (on crude protein basis) were formulated to

Lenaïg Richard; Anne Surget; Vincent Rigolet; Sadasivam J. Kaushik; Inge Geurden

167

New perspectives on nutritional interventions to augment lipid utilisation during exercise.  

PubMed

The enhancement of fat oxidation during exercise is an aim for both recreational exercising individuals and endurance athletes. Nutritional status may explain a large part of the variation in maximal rates of fat oxidation during exercise. This review reveals novel insights into nutritional manipulation of substrate selection during exercise, explaining putative mechanisms of action and evaluating the current evidence. Lowering the glycaemic index of the pre-exercise meal can enhance lipid utilisation by up to 100 % through reduced insulin concentrations, although its application may be restricted to specific training sessions rather than competition. Chronic effects of dietary glycaemic index are less clear and warrant future study before firm recommendations can be made. A flurry of recent advances has overthrown the conventional view of l-carnitine supplementation, with skeletal muscle uptake possible under certain dietary conditions and providing a strategy to influence energy metabolism in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. Use of non-carbohydrate nutrients to stimulate muscle l-carnitine uptake may prove more beneficial for optimising lipid utilisation, but this requires more research. Studies investigating fish oil supplementation on fat oxidation during exercise are conflicting. In spite of some strong putative mechanisms, the only crossover trial showed no significant effect on lipid use during exercise. Ca may increase NEFA availability although it is not clear whether these effects occur. Ca and caffeine can increase NEFA availability under certain circumstances which could theoretically enhance fat oxidation, yet strong experimental evidence for this effect during exercise is lacking. Co-administration of nutrients to maximise their effectiveness needs further investigation. PMID:22136984

Gonzalez, Javier T; Stevenson, Emma J

2011-12-05

168

Rhinovirus infection and healthcare utilisation in prematurely born infants.  

PubMed

Our aim was to determine whether rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in prematurely born infants increase health-related cost of care during infancy. 153 infants born at <36 weeks of gestation were prospectively followed to 1 year. Cost of care was calculated from the National Health Service reference costing scheme and healthcare utilisation determined by examining hospital/general practitioner records. 20 infants developed RV LRTIs (RV group), 17 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) LRTIs (RSV group), 12 both RV and RSV LRTIs (RV/RSV group) and 74 had no LRTI (no LRTI group). Compared with the no LRTI group, the RV/RSV LRTI group had the greatest increase in adjusted mean cost (difference GBP 5769), followed by the RV LRTI group (difference GBP 278) and, finally, the RSV LRTI group (difference GBP 172) (p=0.045). The RV group had more outpatient (p<0.05) and respiratory-related general practitioner (p<0.05) attendances, more wheezed at follow-up (p<0.001) than the no LRTI group and more had respiratory-related outpatient attendances than the RSV LRTI group (p<0.05). We conclude that RV LRTIs were associated with increased health-related cost of care during infancy; our results suggest that the RV group compared with the RSV group suffered greater chronic respiratory morbidity. PMID:23563263

Drysdale, Simon B; Alcazar-Paris, Mireia; Wilson, Theresa; Smith, Melvyn; Zuckerman, Mark; Broughton, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Peacock, Janet L; Johnston, Sebastian L; Greenough, Anne

2013-04-05

169

Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam  

PubMed Central

Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.

2012-01-01

170

Health care utilisation amongst Shenzhen migrant workers: does being insured make a difference?  

PubMed Central

Background As one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the Pearl River Delta of South China, Shenzhen attracts millions of migrant workers annually. The objectives of this study were to compare health needs, self-reported health and healthcare utilisation of insured and uninsured migrant workers in Shenzhen, China, where a new health insurance scheme targeting at migrant workers was initiated. Methods A cross-sectional survey using multi-staged sampling was conducted to collect data from migrant factory workers. Statistical tests included logistic regression analysis were used. Results Among 4634 subjects (96.54%) who responded to the survey, 55.11% were uninsured. Disease patterns were similar irrespective of insurance status. The uninsured were more likely to be female, single, younger and less educated unskilled labourers with a lower monthly income compared with the insured. Out of 1136 who reported illness in the previous two weeks, 62.15% did not visit a doctor. Of the 296 who were referred for inpatient care, 48.65% did not attend because of inability to pay. Amongst those who reported sickness, 548 were insured and 588 were uninsured. Those that were insured, and had easier access to care were more likely to make doctor visits than those who were uninsured. Conclusion Health care utilisation patterns differ between insured and uninsured workers and insurance status appears to be a significant factor. The health insurance system is inequitably distributed amongst migrant workers. Younger less educated women who are paid less are more likely to be uninsured and therefore to pay out of pocket for their care. For greater equity this group need to be included in the insurance schemes as they develop.

2009-01-01

171

Effect of molassed sugar beet pulp on nutrient utilisation and metabolic parameters during exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of partly replacing oats with molassed sugar beet pulp in a traditional hay/oat diet on nutrient utilisation and metabolic parameters in exercising horses. In a change-over experiment, 4 Standardbred geldings were fed a hay and oat-based diet (Oat diet) and a hay and oat-based diet where oats was partially replaced with molassed sugar beet pulp (MSBP diet). Each experimental period was 21 days during which total collection of faeces and urine was made and an exercise test (ET) performed. The crude fat digestibility was lower on the MSBP diet (P<0.05), while there were no differences in digestibility of other nutrients and energy and in the urinary excretion of nitrogen and energy. At rest plasma insulin were lower (P<0.05) 60 and 90 min postprandially on the MSBP diet, while no differences were found in plasma glucose and insulin between the diets during the ET. The peak plasma and muscle lactate values were lower (P<0.05) on the MSBP diet and the content of muscle glycogen was higher (P<0.05) after the ET on the MSBP diet. In conclusion, the metabolic response differed between diets giving a lower lactate response and a higher glycogen content in muscle after exercise on the MSBP diet. This suggests that the dietary carbohydrate composition may influence the rate of glycogenolysis with lactate production and support the hypothesis that MSBP can replace oats in a hay based diet without impairing nutrient utilisation and metabolic response in exercising horses. PMID:12405658

Palmgren Karlsson, C; Jansson, A; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindberg, J E

2002-09-01

172

Synthesis and antitumor activities of novel ?-aminophosphonates dehydroabietic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

A series of novel ?-aminophosphonate derivatives containing DHA structure were designed and synthesized as antitumor agents. In vitro antitumor activities of these compounds against the NCI-H460 (human lung cancer cell), A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma cell), HepG2 (human liver cancer cell) and SKOV3 (human ovarian cancer cell) human cancer cell lines were evaluated and compared with commercial anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), employing standard MTT assay. The pharmacological screening results revealed that many compounds exhibited moderate to high levels of antitumor activities against the tested cancer cell lines and that most demonstrated more potent inhibitory activities compared with the commercial anticancer drug 5-FU. The action mechanism of representative compound 7c was preliminarily investigated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining and flow cytometry, which indicated that the compound can induce cell apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that compound 7c mainly arrested NCI-H460 cells in G1 stage. PMID:23988357

Huang, Xiao-Chao; Wang, Meng; Pan, Ying-Ming; Tian, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Heng-Shan; Zhang, Ye

2013-08-09

173

Genetic Resources (Including Wild and Cultivated Solanum Species) and Progress in their Utilisation in Potato Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic resources available for the improvement of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are reviewed along with progress in their utilisation. The conclusions are as follows. The wild and cultivated species of\\u000a potato have been utilised in potato breeding to good effect, but only a very small sample of the available biodiversity has\\u000a been exploited. New knowledge and technology will

J. E. Bradshaw; G. J. Bryan; G. Ramsay

2006-01-01

174

Impact of technology on the utilisation of positron emission tomography in lymphoma: current and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) has now gained a place in the management of patients with cancer, including those with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Restaging studies and those addressing the monitoring of response to treatment are especially in focus. Most of the knowledge gained has been achieved with dedicated BGO-based PET technology, but there are a number of developments that will impact on the use of this metabolic imaging technique in the investigation of patients with lymphoma. The challenges ahead are determined by the need for high-quality whole-body imaging associated with increased patient throughput and the need to investigate the role of new labelled ligands. The latter are likely to yield new insights into tumour cell characterisation, tumour behaviour and tumour outcome assessment. The study of new radiolabelled ligands will impose further demands for rapid dynamic data acquisition and accurate tracer quantification. Current and future developments in PET technology range from the use of new detector materials to different detector geometries and data acquisition modes. The search for alternatives to BGO scintillation materials for PET has led to the development of PET instruments utilising new crystals such as LSO and GSO. The use of these new detectors and the increased sensitivity achieved with 3D data acquisitions represent the most significant current developments in the field. With the increasing demands imposed on the clinical utilisation of PET, issues such as study cost and patient throughput will emerge as significant future factors. As a consequence, low-cost units are being offered by the manufacturers through the utilisation of gamma camera-based SPET systems for PET coincidence imaging. Unfortunately, clinical studies in lymphoma and other cancers have already demonstrated the limitations of this technology, with 20% of lesions <15 mm in size escaping detection. On the other hand, the recent development of combined PET/CT devices attempts to address the lack of anatomical information inherent with PET images, taking advantage of further improvement in patient throughput and hence cost-effectiveness. Preliminary studies using this multimodality imaging approach have already demonstrated the potential of the technique. Although the potential exists, certain technical issues with PET/CT require refinement of the methodology. Such issues include organ movement (such as respiratory motion), which strongly influences the image fusion of a rapidly acquired CT scan with the slower acquisition of a PET dataset, and the derivation of CT-based attenuation coefficients in the presence of contrast agents or metallic implants. The application of the technology for radiotherapy planning also poses a number of associated challenges. Finally, the development of dedicated PET systems based on planar detector arrangements with new detector components has the potential to improve clinical throughput by over 100%, but clinical trials using such systems have still to be carried out in order to establish the associated whole-body image quality. PMID:12748830

Visvikis, D; Ell, P J

2003-05-13

175

Needs-oriented discharge planning and monitoring for high utilisers of psychiatric services (NODPAM): Design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Attempts to reduce high utilisation of psychiatric inpatient care by targeting the critical time of hospital discharge have been rare. Methods This paper presents design and methods of the study "Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Needs-Oriented Discharge Planning and Monitoring for High Utilisers of Psychiatric Services" (NODPAM), a multicentre RCT conducted in five psychiatric hospitals in Germany. Inclusion criteria are receipt of inpatient psychiatric care, adult age, diagnosis of schizophrenia or affective disorder, defined high utilisation of psychiatric care during two years prior to the current admission, and given informed consent. Consecutive recruitment started in April 2006. Since then, during a period of 18 months, comprehensive outcome data of 490 participants is being collected at baseline and during three follow-up measurement points. The manualised intervention applies principles of needs-led care and focuses on the inpatient-outpatient transition. A trained intervention worker provides two intervention sessions: (a) Discharge planning: Just before discharge with the patient and responsible clinician at the inpatient service; (b) Monitoring: Three months after discharge with the patient and outpatient clinician. A written treatment plan is signed by all participants after each session. Primary endpoints are whether participants in the intervention group will show fewer hospital days and readmissions to hospital. Secondary endpoints are better compliance with aftercare, better clinical outcome and quality of life, as well as cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. Discussion If a needs-oriented discharge planning and monitoring proves to be successful in this RCT, a tool will be at hand to improve patient outcome and reduce costs via harmonising fragmented mental health service provision. Trial Registration ISRCTN59603527

Puschner, Bernd; Steffen, Sabine; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Freyberger, Harald; Klein, Helmfried E; Steinert, Tilman; Muche, Rainer; Becker, Thomas

2008-01-01

176

Comparisons of pastoralists perceptions about rangeland resource utilisation in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Pastoralism is the most dominant land use form in the arid rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa, but this rangeland-based lifestyle is under threat. As a consequence a study was conducted in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the main objectives of assessing and comparing the broad perceptions of two pastoral groups (the Oromo ethnic group living in Kereyu-Fantale and the Afar ethnic group living in Awash-Fantale) on the usage of the existing rangeland resources, and their views on constraints and possible solutions. Data were collected from 90 Oromo and 55 Afar households. Despite the difference in ethnicity both of these groups share common problems. They derive their main income from the sale of animals and animal products, but with the difference that milk products rank first in the case of the Afar and last in the case of the Oromo. Both pastoral groups depend heavily on native grasses for animal feed and to a lesser extent on woody plants as a source of browse. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that the condition of the rangelands is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, droughts and increases in the human population. Availability of water is also regarded as a problem, mainly by the Oromo. Migration is the first measure taken to solve shortages of livestock feed, but many of the pastoralists replied that migration is an undesirable practise which is mostly done out of necessity. Because of the limited resources most respondents of both groups still prefer communal land tenure where resources are shared. It is concluded that the problems facing the pastoralists in the Middle Awash Valley have been created over many years and the solutions will also require time. With the current approach of the communal grazing systems, sustainable utilisation of the rangeland ecosystem is not possible. Solutions to the poor condition of the existing rangelands will require a definite commitment and full participation not only of the pastoralists, but also of government and non-governmental organisations that are directly or indirectly involved in rangeland resources utilisation, management, conservation and other related activities. PMID:15748801

Abule, E; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

2005-04-01

177

Factors influencing the utilisation of e-learning in post-registration nursing students.  

PubMed

The learning environment extends beyond the classroom and establishing an e-learning culture is seen as essential to the future of nurse education and the facilitation of life long learning. This paper reports on a study that sought to identify the factors that may influence the utilisation of e-learning by nursing, midwifery and health visiting students undertaking post-registration studies. The findings presented draw on quantitative and qualitative data drawn from analysis of a questionnaire exploring experience and perceptions of e-learning. This research finds the perception of e-learning is positively influenced by its flexibility in time management, pace of learning, self direction and widening access to information. Potential barriers relate to the functional capability of students, perceived levels of computer literacy, perceptions of e-learning as time consuming, competing home life elements and the lack of work based support. Student expectations in relation to reasons for choosing this mode of learning and the probability that they may be inadequately supported to make the best use e-learning were inherent in the findings. This raised questions of the potential for inequity in educational delivery with increasing use of e-learning. The implications from this research highlight the challenge for nurse educators in understanding, developing awareness of and identifying strategies to manage these factors. PMID:18774625

McVeigh, Helen

2008-09-06

178

An alternative n-3 fatty acid elongation pathway utilising 18:3n-3 in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).  

PubMed

Desaturase and elongase are two key enzyme categories in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) pathway that convert dietary ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The ?6 desaturase is considered as rate limiting in the conversion. In a previous study in barramundi we demonstrated that the desaturase had a low ?6 activity but noted that the enzyme also possessed ?8 ability that utilised 20-carbon fatty acids. This observation suggests that an alternative pathway may exist in the barramundi via elongases to form 20-carbon metabolites from 18:3n-3 to 20:3n-3 and then ?6/8 desaturase to 20:4n-3. Cloning of the barramundi elongation of very long-chain fatty acid gene (ELOVL) and heterologous expression of the corresponding elongase were performed to examine activity with regard to time course, substrate concentration and substrate preference. Results revealed that the barramundi elongase showed a broad range of substrate specificity including 18-carbon PUFA (including 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6), 20- and 22-carbon LCPUFA, with greater activity towards omega-3 (n-3) than n-6 fatty acids. The findings from this study provide molecular evidence for an alternative n-3 fatty acid elongation pathway utilising 18:3n-3 in barramundi. PMID:22640739

Tu, Wei-Chun; Mühlhäusler, Beverly S; James, Michael J; Stone, David A J; Gibson, Robert A

2012-05-26

179

Utilisation of Cu(hfac)tmvs precursor gas in LCVD integrated circuit repair system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various techniques have been developed to carry out integrated circuit repairs during IC prototyping. Focused ion beam (FIB) etching and deposition is, for the time being, the most powerful and versatile tool for multilevel IC modification and failure analysis but a long distance conductor line deposition with an acceptable electrical resistance is time consuming. Laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) does not have such a high accuracy but the bulk resistivity metal deposition over large areas and long distances is carried out in seconds. In this work LCVD, of copper from Cu(hcfac)tmvs is shown to be applicable for actual integrated circuit repair work in special cases. During Cu deposition the precursor container was heated to a temperature of 39°C resulting in 0.33 mbar partial pressure in the chamber. A typical flow rate of hydrogen carrier gas and Cu(hfac)tmvs precursor was set to 2.0 sccm and the total pressure in the chamber was adjusted between 5 to 10 mbar. An Ar + laser, employing mainly the peaks at 488 nm and 515 nm, was utilised with a scan speed of 24 ?m/s. The resistivity of the deposited lines was found to be 2.7 ?? cm. Examples including long distance signal rewires, probing and bonding pad copper deposition are presented in this paper. The deposition morphology and chemical contents of the deposited lines are studied by AFM and LIMA measurements.

Leppävuori, Seppo; Remes, Janne; Moilanen, Hannu

1999-01-01

180

Learning preferences of first year nursing and midwifery students: utilising VARK.  

PubMed

The diversity of first year students is increasing with new schemes promoting access to higher education courses. It is important to assess the learning styles of students in order to cater for their differing learning needs. The aim of this study was to profile first year nursing/midwifery students at two campuses of Australian Catholic University, to investigate their learning preferences and the effect demographic background has on these preferences. We designed a survey to collect demographic data and incorporated the VARK (visual, aural, read-write and kinaesthetic) questionnaire to investigate the students' preferred learning modes. The kinaesthetic score of our students was the highest (7.34 ± 2.67), significantly differing from the other three modes (p<0.001). Demographic factors such as gender and age group did not influence mean scores of each sensory modality. The predominant preference was quadmodal utilising all four learning styles. The distribution of students preferring to learn by unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and quadmodal styles varied between demographic groupings. The rural students had significantly higher visual and kinaesthetic scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Students attending the rural campus had higher visual and read-write scores. Visual and aural scores were significantly lower for students from non-English speaking backgrounds. These findings have significant teaching and research implications. PMID:20826044

James, Santhamma; D'Amore, Angelo; Thomas, Theda

2010-09-09

181

An immunoenzymatic assay for the diagnosis of hepatitis A utilising immunoglobulin Y.  

PubMed

The detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody levels by diagnostic kits in the convalescent period of disease generally use immunoglobulin G (IgG), which is expensive. An alternative to IgG is immunoglobulin Y (IgY), an immunoglobulin antibody encountered in birds and reptiles. The aim of this study was to develop a competitive immunoenzymatic assay to measure total anti-HAV antibody levels using anti-HAV IgY as the capture and conjugated immunoglobulins. For this purpose, anti-HAV IgY was conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the optimal dilution of HRP-conjugated antibodies was evaluated to establish the competitive immuneenzymatic assay. The results obtained from our "in-house" assay were plotted on a receiver operator curve, which showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98.8%, demonstrating that a competitive anti-HAV IgY immunoenzymatic assay developed "in house" could be used as an alternative to commercial assays that utilise IgG. PMID:23147158

Silva, Alexandre dos Santos da; Vasconcelos, Gentil Arthur Lins Bentes Mendonça de; Kappel, Livia Abud; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

2012-11-01

182

Computerised 3-D anatomical modelling using plastinates: an example utilising the human heart.  

PubMed

Computerised modelling methods have become highly useful for generating electronic representations of anatomical structures. These methods rely on crosssectional tissue slices in databases such as the Visible Human Male and Female, the Visible Korean Human, and the Visible Chinese Human. However, these databases are time consuming to generate and require labour-intensive manual digitisation while the number of specimens is very limited. Plastinated anatomical material could provide a possible alternative to data collection, requiring less time to prepare and enabling the use of virtually any anatomical or pathological structure routinely obtained in a gross anatomy laboratory. The purpose of this study was to establish an approach utilising plastinated anatomical material, specifically human hearts, for the purpose computerised 3-D modelling. Human hearts were collected following gross anatomical dissection and subjected to routine plastination procedures including dehydration (-25(o)C), defatting, forced impregnation, and curing at room temperature. A graphics pipeline was established comprising data collection with a hand-held scanner, 3-D modelling, model polishing, file conversion, and final rendering. Representative models were viewed and qualitatively assessed for accuracy and detail. The results showed that the heart model provided detailed surface information necessary for gross anatomical instructional purposes. Rendering tools facilitated optional model manipulation for further structural clarification if selected by the user. The use of plastinated material for generating 3-D computerised models has distinct advantages compared to cross-sectional tissue images. PMID:21866531

Tunali, S; Kawamoto, K; Farrell, M L; Labrash, S; Tamura, K; Lozanoff, S

2011-08-01

183

[TANDEM (TAsk force oN long Duration unemployment of Elderly People and Mental health) Implementation of a Cross-Institutional Pilot Project for Elderly Long-Term Unemployed Persons - Presentation of the Project Procedure and the Utilisation].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to implement and examine the feasibility of a cross-institutional mental health intervention to comprehend and advance mental health of elderly long-term unemployed persons.Report on the procedure and on the observational study utilisation in a 14-month period.The structure and processes chosen could be implemented into practice successfully. Utilisation was high but 30% dropped out during the procedure. Of the unemployed persons surveyed, 96% received a psychiatric diagnosis. 85% were not having psychiatric treatment.The method chosen is feasible and was accepted by the target group. Project structure and processes proved to be applicable for the implementation of the project aims. The method chosen reaches an up to now "psychiatry-inexperienced" target group characterised by frequent incidence of mental disorders and low utilisation of psychiatric care. Thus, vocational reintegration programmes should be supported by psychiatric services. PMID:23299576

Steil, C; Meiler, B; Wiesten, I; Wiltfang, J; Kis, B

2013-01-08

184

Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilisation in patients with cerebral tumours using 15 O and positron emission tomography: Analytical techniques and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilisation have been studied in 8 patients with brain tumours using continuous inhalation of C15O2 and 15O2 and positron emission tomography. The methods used to analyse the regional cerebral pathophysiology are presented. A relative uncoupling between oxygen consumption and blood flow was observed in all tumours as indicated by a decreased regional fractional extraction

M. Ito; A. A. Lammertsma; R. J. S. Wise; Silvia Bernardi; R. S. J. Frackowiak; J. D. Heather; C. G. McKenzie; D. G. T. Thomas; T. Jones

1982-01-01

185

The co-occurrence of AIDS and homelessness: results from the integration of administrative databases for AIDS surveillance and public shelter utilisation in Philadelphia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective—Administrative data- bases from the City of Philadelphia that track public shelter utilisation (n=44 337) and AIDS case reporting (n=7749) were merged to identify rates and risk factors for co-occurring homelessness and AIDS. Design—Multiple decrement life tables analyses were conducted, and logistic regression analyses used to identify risk factors associated with AIDS among the homeless, and homelessness among peo-

D P Culhane; E Gollub; R Kuhn; M Shpaner

2008-01-01

186

The co-occurrence of AIDS and homelessness: results from the integration of administrative databases for AIDS surveillance and public shelter utilisation in Philadelphia  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVEAdministrative databases from the City of Philadelphia that track public shelter utilisation (n=44 337) and AIDS case reporting (n=7749) were merged to identify rates and risk factors for co-occurring homelessness and AIDS.DESIGNMultiple decrement life tables analyses were conducted, and logistic regression analyses used to identify risk factors associated with AIDS among the homeless, and homelessness among people with AIDS.SETTINGCity

D P Culhane; E Gollub; R Kuhn; M Shpaner

2001-01-01

187

The impact of intensive health promotion to a targeted refugee population on utilisation of a new refugee paediatric clinic at the children's hospital at Westmead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the impact of intensive promotion of a new health service to a targeted refugee population, recently resettled in Sydney, and the role of early social connection and membership of social group in promoting health service utilisation of refugees.Design. Descriptive epidemiological study and survey.Settings. A paediatric refugee clinic at a children's hospital in Sydney.Participants. Newly resettled refugee parents

Mohamud Sheikh; C. Raina MacIntyre

2009-01-01

188

Determinants of utilisation of health services by women in rural and urban areas in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the factors that influence the utilisation of health services by women in the rural and urban areas in Ghana. The systematic sampling procedure was used to draw the sample from women aged 18 and above with diverse backgrounds from Ahafo-Ano South district, representing the rural districts and Kumasi metropolis, representing the urban districts. The research instruments used

Daniel Buor

2005-01-01

189

The effect of differential eligibility for free GP services on GP utilisation in Ireland.  

PubMed

Internationally, there is extensive empirical evidence that a strong primary care-led health system is associated with improved health outcomes, increased quality of care, decreased health inequalities and lower overall health-care costs. Within primary care, factors influencing access to, and utilisation of, general practitioner (GP) services have been widely examined and this paper focuses on the role of user financial incentives. In particular, user charges for health care have been observed to deter health-care utilisation. Relative to other countries, the Irish health-care system is unusual in that the majority of the population are required to pay out-of-pocket for GP care. However, in 2005 the Irish government extended eligibility for free GP care to a further small subset of the population. Using micro-data from a nationally representative survey of the population in 2007, this paper analyses the impact of differential coverage of free GP services on GP utilisation in Ireland. Results from multivariate regression analysis indicate that GP utilisation is significantly more likely in the context of free GP care, controlling for a range of demographic, socio-economic and health factors. Interpretation of the results for the new category of coverage is complicated by possible pent-up demand and selection effects. PMID:22459189

Nolan, Anne; Smith, Samantha

2012-03-14

190

A review and measurement of capacity utilisation in the Nigerian economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of capacity utilisation (CU) in the Nigerian economy over the last 12 years (1991-2003) with the view to determining if there has been significant improvement in CU despite changes in government policies initiated to boost the productive capacity level. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology is basically descriptive and analytical.

L. Raimi; I. Adeleke

2009-01-01

191

Standardisation vs. Personalisation: An Alternative View of the Problem of Under-utilised Corporate Intranets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although intranets are well-established organisational information environments, employees often complain that their intranets do not help them in their daily activities, and, as a consequent, the technology is left under-utilised. The reason typically assumed, by managers and scholars alike, is that the intranets are too wild and ill structured, and the medicine prescribed is thus tighter management control. In this

Dick Stenmark

192

A review of ground vehicle dynamic state estimations utilising GPS\\/INS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an extensive overview of existing vehicle dynamic state estimators that utilise the in-car Inertial Navigation Sensors and Global Positioning System. The different approaches are categorised, the techniques are summarised and the limitations and advantages of each approach are provided. Recommendations for future research are also given. The review is intended to be fairly comprehensive, but with an

King Tin Leung; James F. Whidborne; David Purdy; Alain Dunoyer

2011-01-01

193

Isolation of palm oil-utilising, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing bacteria by an enrichment technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early attempts to isolate palm oil-utilising bacteria from palm oil mill effluent (POME), diluted liquid samples of POME were spread on agar containing POME as primary nutrient. 45 purified colonies were screened for intracellular lipids by staining with Sudan Black B. Of these, 10 isolates were positively stained. The latter were grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium with palm olein

Zazali Alias; Irene K. P. Tan

2005-01-01

194

Modification of myocardial substrate utilisation: a new therapeutic paradigm in cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapies that aim to modify cardiac substrate utilisation are designed to increase metabolic efficiency. Although the main energy supply for the heart is generally provided by the oxidation of fatty acids, the heart is a metabolic omnivore and able to consume glucose as well as lactate and amino acids in varying proportions. A shift from fatty acid oxidation to glucose

Roger M Beadle; Michael Frenneaux

2010-01-01

195

Strengthening of an artificially degraded steel beam utilising a carbon\\/glass composite system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To rehabilitate damaged or sub-standard steel structures, techniques utilising the lightweight, high strength and corrosion resistance of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been proposed. The flexural load carrying capacity of a steel girder can be increased significantly by adhesively bonding carbon fibre polymer (CFRP) composites to its tension flange. This paper discusses the experimental results to investigate the effectiveness

N. K. Photiou; L. C. Hollaway; M. K. Chryssanthopoulos

2006-01-01

196

Measures for increasing the loading space utilisation of intermodal line train systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this conceptual article is to identify, characterise and qualitatively evaluate measures for increasing the utilisation of loading space in intermodal road-rail freight line trains. These trains oper- ate like intercity passenger trains with short transhipment stops along rail corridors aiming at com- paratively small and short flows. The measures include adapting the train capacity, the departure tim-

Johan Woxenius; Jan A. Persson; Paul Davidsson

2007-01-01

197

Two-layer optimisation policy for improvement of application performance and resource utilisation in grid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main contribution of this article is to propose a two-layer optimisation policy for improvement of application performance and resource utilisation in grid environments. We exploit the coupling of application layer and fabric layer of grid architecture for resource scheduling in grid computing environment. The objectives of the individual grid applications at the application layer, and individual grid resources at

Chunlin Li; Layuan Li

2009-01-01

198

Energy conservation and resource utilisation in waste-water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of waste-water treatment plants is to a large extent energy-dependent. This paper examines the energy requirements of these plants and explores ways of conserving energy through electrical and thermal load management and resource recovery and utilisation. The gas produced during the process of anaerobic digestion can be used to drive packaged CHP systems for local heat and power

S. A. Tassou

1988-01-01

199

Expenditure on the NHS during and after the Thatcher years: its growth and utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Has government expenditure on the National Health and Personal Social Services increased significantly in real terms over the past decade? If so, where has this growth in expenditure been utilised? This paper investigates claims of real increases in expenditure by examining trends in total expenditure on the NHS between 1979 and 1992, and disaggregating these trends to concentrate on different

Karen Bloor; Alan Maynard

1993-01-01

200

Operator derepressed mutations in the proline utilisation gene cluster of Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proline utilisation gene cluster of Aspergillus nidulans can be repressed efficiently only when both repressing nitrogen and repressing carbon sources are present. We show that two cis-acting mutations in this cluster permit the efficient transcription of the prnB gene under repressing conditions, resulting in direct or indirect derepression of two other transcripts of the pathway. These mutations are transitions

Vicky Sophianopoulou; Teresa Suárez; George Diallinas; Claudio Scazzocchio

1993-01-01

201

ROBUST: Reliable overlay based utilisation of services and topology for emergency MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency services and networks are an emerging area of scientific research. During an emergency scenario such as forest fires, earthquakes, tsunamis and terrorist attacks rescuers need to establish communication to coordinate their actions by using smart and lightweight mobile devices. To this end, autonomous networks should be utilised to support the afore communications. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are a characteristic

Grant P. Millar; Emmanouil A. Panaousis; Christos Politis

2010-01-01

202

The provision and utilisation of casemix and demographic data by nursing managers in seven hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the nursing manager has evolved from clinician and bed manager to one with greater accountability for evidence based practice, benchmarking and more recently, budget liability. Casemix data are widely believed to be a means of providing essential information for effective decision making and financial management but have not been widely utilised by nursing managers (Diers & Bozzo,

Nicole Blay; Judith Donoghue

2003-01-01

203

Protein utilisation, lysine bioavailability and nutrient digestibility of shrimp meal in growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein utilisation, lysine bioavailability and total tract apparent digestibility of shrimp meal (SM) were investigated using 12 crossbred castrated male pigs with an average initial body weight of 35kg. The experimental set-up was an incomplete block design with four diets and two periods of 14 days each. In each period, 7 days were for adaptation to diets and 7 days

A. O. Fanimo; A. Susenbeth; K.-H. Südekum

2006-01-01

204

Utilisation of wireless versus wired access technologies in the South African food-related manufacturing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this research paper is to assess the degree to which wired and wireless technologies are being utilised within the South African food-related manufacturing industry. Literature suggests that companies in industry are faced with the great challenge of selecting an appropriate access technology that is tailored to their specific requirements. As a result, often the incorrect selection

Manfred Rauch

2011-01-01

205

Hand hygiene audits utilising medical student observers and measuring product consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand hygiene is critical in controlling hospital-acquired infection. Traditional methods of surveillance are resource-intensive. They are often influenced by the awareness of being observed (the Hawthorne effect) and so observers must be unobtrusive. In Singapore, medical students are not part of the ward team and are potentially excellent auditors. Utilising students may have additional benefits such as infection control training

Toon Mae Ng; Paul A. Tambyah; Corinna Scharmer

2008-01-01

206

Utilising Year Three NAPLAN Results to Improve Queensland Teachers' Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…

van Klinken, Eduarda

2010-01-01

207

Homeopathic use of modern medicines: utilisation of the curative rebound effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeopathy is a therapeutic method based on the application of the similitude principle, utilising medicinal substances that produce effects that are similar to the symptoms being treated. In this process, the organism is stimulated to react against its own disturbances through a vital (paradoxical, secondary or homeostatic) reaction, oriented by the primary effect of the used drug. This effect should

Marcus Zulian Teixeira

2003-01-01

208

Analysis of regulation of pentose utilisation in Aspergillus niger reveals evolutionary adaptations in Eurotiales  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli are commonly found in soil and on decaying plant material. D-xylose and L-arabinose are highly abundant components of plant biomass. They are released from polysaccharides by fungi using a set of extracellular enzymes and subsequently converted intracellularly through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP). In this study, the L-arabinose responsive transcriptional activator (AraR) is identified in Aspergillus niger and was shown to control the L-arabinose catabolic pathway as well as expression of genes encoding extracellular L-arabinose releasing enzymes. AraR interacts with the D-xylose-responsive transcriptional activator XlnR in the regulation of the pentose catabolic pathway, but not with respect to release of L-arabinose and D-xylose. AraR was only identified in the Eurotiales, more specifically in the family Trichocomaceae and appears to have originated from a gene duplication event (from XlnR) after this order or family split from the other filamentous ascomycetes. XlnR is present in all filamentous ascomycetes with the exception of members of the Onygenales. Since the Onygenales and Eurotiales are both part of the subclass Eurotiomycetidae, this indicates that strong adaptation of the regulation of pentose utilisation has occurred at this evolutionary node. In Eurotiales a unique two-component regulatory system for pentose release and metabolism has evolved, while the regulatory system was lost in the Onygenales. The observed evolutionary changes (in Eurotiomycetidae) mainly affect the regulatory system as in contrast, homologues for most genes of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway are present in all the filamentous fungi, irrespective of the presence of XlnR and/or AraR.

Battaglia, E.; Visser, L.; Nijssen, A.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wosten, H.A.B.; de Vries, R.P.

2011-01-01

209

Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.  

PubMed

During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

2013-02-01

210

Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation  

PubMed Central

During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovacs, Kristof; Thurner, Andrea

2013-01-01

211

Climate Impact of Energy Utilisation Scenarios of Forestry Drained Peatlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study the climate impact of energy utilization scenarios of forestry drained peatlands from a lifecycle perspective has been calculated. In the calculations the peat is utilized for energy and thereafter the cutaway peatland is used for biofuel pr...

K. Holmgren

2006-01-01

212

Characterisation of the Cartilage/Bone Interface Utilising Reflectance Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optical reflection spectra of the cartilage/bone interface from hip joints of cows were studied. When comparing to ultrasonic measurement, it was found that cartilage thickness could be extracted using optical reflectance spectroscopy. For thicker cartila...

P. A. Oberg T. Sundqvist A. Johansson M. Sundberg

2001-01-01

213

Utilisation of municipal solid wastes for mortar production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the thermal co-processing of municipal solid waste (MSW) and other raw materials needed for the production of clinker, and consequently of mortar, without causing environmental problems. The technique is related to a method of manufacturing mortar by firing at high temperature a mixture of mineral raw materials (limestone, clayey materials, silicates and iron oxides) together

C. A. Sikalidis; A. A Zabaniotou; S. P. Famellos

2002-01-01

214

Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

Robertson, Carmen

2012-01-01

215

Optimised production and utilisation of exopolysaccharide from Agrobacterium radiobacter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural conditions for bacterial exopolysaccharide production by Agrobacterium radiobacter were optimised by response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the viscosity of the broth and the yield of the polysaccharide. A study of complex interactions among sucrose concentration (0.5–5.5 g%), inoculum concentration (1–15%, v\\/v) and pH (4–8) was carried out using central composite design of experiments. The exopolysaccharide contained glucose,

R Triveni; T. R Shamala; N. K Rastogi

2001-01-01

216

Improving prediction accuracy of drug activities by utilising unlabelled instances with feature selection.  

PubMed

Molecular activities can be predicted by Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR). Because of the high cost of experiments, the number of drug molecules with known activity is much less than that of unknown, to predict molecular activities utilising unlabelled instances will be an interesting issue. Here, Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) is introduced and a SSL method, Co-Training is investigated on predicting drug activities utilising unlabelled instances. At the same time, a novel algorithm called FESCOT is proposed, which applies feature selection to remove redundant and irrelevant features for Co-Training. Numerical experimental results show that Co-Training and feature selection helps to improve the prediction ability of Co-Training. PMID:20054997

Li, Guo-Zheng; Yang, Jack Y; Lu, Wen-Cong; Li, Dan; Yang, Mary Qu

2008-01-01

217

Abundance, residency, and habitat utilisation of Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theodolite tracking and boat?based photo?identification surveys were carried out in the austral summers of 1995\\/96 and 1996\\/97 to assess abundance, residency, and habitat utilisation of Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori van Beneden 1881) in Porpoise Bay, on the south?east corner of the South Island of New Zealand. Data are consistent with the model of a small resident population that is visited

Lars Bejder; Steve Dawson

2001-01-01

218

Enhancement of maltose utilisation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in medium containing fermentable hexoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae   are unable to maintain high rates of fermentation during transition from catabolism of hexoses to maltose. This phenomenon,\\u000a termed ‘maltose lag’, presents problems for the baking, brewing and distilling industries, which rely on yeast catabolism\\u000a of mixtures of hexoses and maltose. Maltose utilisation requires the presence of maltose permease and ?-glucosidase (maltase),\\u000a encoded by MAL genes. Synthesis of

B W Hazell; P V Attfield

1999-01-01

219

Possibilities of rainwater utilisation in densely populated areas including precipitation runoffs from traffic surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, rainwater utilisation in households became widespread since the 1980s. Today, about 50,000 professional rainwater plants are being installed every year mostly in new one-family houses. These plants collect exclusively water from the roof which is filtered, stored and primarily used for toilet flushing, garden watering and household laundry. A novel approach in

Erwin Nolde

2007-01-01

220

Plasma Technologies for Reducing CO2 Emissions From Combustion Exhaust with Toxic Admixtures to Utilisable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method reported here provides a contribution to CO2 and combustion exhaust utilisation. A multifunctional system for gas removal was tested on various sources of exhaust (internal\\u000a combustion engine, brown coal boiler, bituminous pulverised coal boiler, gas boiler, glass oven, VOC sources) in full-scale\\u000a or by-pass gas flow volumes.\\u000a \\u000a A spontaneously-pulsing, direct-current electric discharge operating in a corona geometry was

M. Morvová; F. Hanic; I. Morva

2000-01-01

221

Differences in light energy utilisation and dissipation between dipterocarp rain forest tree seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light environment within tropical rain forests varies considerably both spatially and temporally, and photon flux density\\u000a (PFD) is considered to be an important factor determining the growth and survival of rain forest tree seedlings. In this paper\\u000a we examine the ability of four ecologically contrasting dipterocarps (Dryobalanops lanceolata, Shorea leprosula, Hopea nervosa and Vatica oblongifolia) to utilise and dissipate

J. D. Scholes; S. W. Zipperlen

1996-01-01

222

Sex-Based Differences in Cardiac Arrhythmias, ICD Utilisation and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important differences in the presentation and clinical course of cardiac arrhythmias are present between men and women\\u000a that should be accounted for in clinical practice. In this paper, we review published data on gender differences in cardiac\\u000a excitable properties, supraventricular tachycardias, ventricular tachycardias, sudden cardiac death, and the utilisation of\\u000a implantable defibrillators and cardiac resynchronisation therapy. Women have a

A. Ghani; A. H. E. M. Maas; P. P. H. M. Delnoy; A. R. Ramdat Misier; J. P. Ottervanger; A. Elvan

2011-01-01

223

An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems, even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.

Carter, L.D.

2012-11-01

224

Arab community and religious leaders' views about utilisation of mental health services amongst Arabic-speaking people in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, utilisation of mental health services by Arabic-speaking communities in Australia has been low. Interviews were conducted with 35 key informants from Arabic-speaking backgrounds, exploring their perceptions of mental illness in the Arab community, together with their views about preferred forms of support and treatment. Transcript analysis of audio-taped interviews identified barriers to professional mental health help-seeking and utilisation of

Jacqueline Youssef

2007-01-01

225

Layer specific geostatistical coregionalisation of soil organic carbon utilising terrain attributes and spatial patterns of soil redistribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution soil organic carbon (SOC) maps are a major prerequisite for many environmental studies dealing with carbon stocks and fluxes as well as for biogeochemical modelling. Hence, the development of time and cost effective mapping methods is an important issue. In most cases these maps are interpolated based on measured point SOC data with different horizontal resolution, whereas additional secondary (terrain) information is often utilised. In this study the potential of external drift kriging (EDK) to improve the soil layer specific (I: 0-0.25 m, II: 0.25-0.5 m and III: 0.5-0.9 m) interpolation of SOC concentrations in a hilly 4.2 ha agriculturally used catchment was tested using three different input data densities (6, 16.9, and 37.9 soil samples/ha). A number of covariables were used in EDK with a special focus on those representing processes of soil moisture distribution and soil redistribution. The later was, among others, represented by the results of a relatively simple and robust water and tillage erosion model (WaTEM/SEDEM). With the EDK method a significant improvement of the precision of SOC maps derived from different input data densities was observed particularly for deeper soil layers. While in the plough layer only slight improvements could be found, covariables representing soil moisture distribution and especially soil redistribution substantially improved predictions in the two subsoil layers. A maximum relative improvement of 15.5% was found for soil layer III (16.9 soil samples/ha; Root Mean Square Error 0.153% kg kg-1). Comparing EDK results of medium and low resolution SOC input data (16.9 and 6 samples/ha) with OK results of high resolution inputs (37.9 samples/ha) shows a similar or even improved precision for soil layers I and III, while the reduction of input data density could not be fully compensated utilising covariables in soil layer II. In general, the results indicate the potential of EDK to improve SOC maps and to reduce sampling density without substantial precision loss, especially when using more complex process-oriented covariables such as spatial patterns of soil redistribution. Especially, patterns of tillage erosion show a significant influence upon the spatial distribution of SOC and hence show some potential to improve SOC maps of agriculturally used land also on larger scales. However, it has to be recognised that the optimal covariables vary between different soil layers indicating different processes responsible for the soil layer specific SOC distribution. Hence, no general covariable is successfully applicable for bulk samples.

Dlugoß, V.; Fiener, P.; Schneider, K.

2009-04-01

226

Genome-wide associations for feed utilisation complex in primiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from experimental research herds in four European countries.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies for difficult-to-measure traits are generally limited by the sample size with accurate phenotypic data. The objective of this study was to utilise data on primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows from experimental farms in Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Sweden to identify genomic regions associated with the feed utilisation complex: fat and protein corrected milk yield (FPCM), dry matter intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS) and live-weight (LW). Phenotypic data and 37 590 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available on up to 1629 animals. Genetic parameters of the traits were estimated using a linear animal model with pedigree information, and univariate genome-wide association analyses were undertaken using Bayesian stochastic search variable selection performed using Gibbs sampling. The variation in the phenotypes explained by the SNPs on each chromosome was related to the size of the chromosome and was relatively consistent for each trait with the possible exceptions of BTA4 for BCS, BTA7, BTA13, BTA14, BTA18 for LW and BTA27 for DMI. For LW, BCS, DMI and FPCM, 266, 178, 206 and 254 SNPs had a Bayes factor .3, respectively. Olfactory genes and genes involved in the sensory smell process were overrepresented in a 500 kbp window around the significant SNPs. Potential candidate genes were involved with functions linked to insulin, epidermal growth factor and tryptophan. PMID:23031337

Veerkamp, R F; Coffey, M P; Berry, D P; de Haas, Y; Strandberg, E; Bovenhuis, H; Calus, M P L; Wall, E

2012-11-01

227

Reflective topical autobiography: an under utilised interpretive research method in nursing.  

PubMed

Reflective topical autobiography (an autobiographical method) belongs to the genre of testimonial research and is located within the postpositivist interpretive research paradigm. Despite the (reflective) topical autobiographical method enjoying a 'rebirth' in recent years and being utilised by a range of researchers in the human and literary disciplines, it remains largely unknown and under utilised in nursing research domains. In this article it is proposed that reflective topical autobiography is an important research method in its own right, and one which promises to make a substantive contribution to the overall project of advancing nursing inquiry and knowledge. This is particularly so where nursing research shares in the affirming projects of interpretive research generally and the relatively new sociology of the emotions in particular apropos: (i) increasing understanding of subjectivity and making subjective experiences more visible and intelligible, (ii) the search for meaning and increasing understanding of the commonality of existential human experience, and (iii) decentring the detached observer and his/her privileging the objectivist illusion in the hierarchy of research discourses, paving the way for the admission of multiple realities and interpretations of lived experience. In this article, a coherent reflective topical autobiographical research method is advanced for use in nursing education and research contexts. PMID:10401283

Johnstone, M J

1999-01-01

228

Minimisation and utilisation of waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production.  

PubMed

Various approaches to waste minimisation, waste treatment and recycling or safe disposal of the waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production are presented and critically discussed. Some most promising actions for waste (or its harmful potential) reduction on the production level are identified. These include: a) use of better raw materials (richer boron ore), b) improvement of the ore leaching process, and c) intensification of sludge washing and dewatering. These source reduction measures have already resulted in 50% reduction of boron content in the sludge. Utilisation of the raw or treated (e.g. dried, compacted) waste sludge could be found in agriculture, civil engineering and construction material production. Agricultural use (as a lime substitute) is based on favourable content of calcium-magnesium minerals and alkali pH value of the sludge, and simultaneous absence of heavy metals. Application in civil engineering (as an aggregate) is possible after calcination, which is costly, or as a cement kiln additive. Stabilisation of sludge before disposal, when no utilisation is available, is possible by small addition of commercial binders (e.g. Portland cement) or larger amounts of pozzolanic wastes (e.g. coal fly ash). PMID:12498478

Grilc, Viktor; Jersan, Rok

2002-10-01

229

Comprehension and utilisation of pointing gestures and gazing in dog-human communication in relatively complex situations.  

PubMed

The aim of the present investigation was to study the visual communication between humans and dogs in relatively complex situations. In the present research, we have modelled more lifelike situations in contrast to previous studies which often relied on using only two potential hiding locations and direct association between the communicative signal and the signalled object. In Study 1, we have provided the dogs with four potential hiding locations, two on each side of the experimenter to see whether dogs are able to choose the correct location based on the pointing gesture. In Study 2, dogs had to rely on a sequence of pointing gestures displayed by two different experimenters. We have investigated whether dogs are able to recognise an 'indirect signal', that is, a pointing toward a pointer. In Study 3, we have examined whether dogs can understand indirect information about a hidden object and direct the owner to the particular location. Study 1 has revealed that dogs are unlikely to rely on extrapolating precise linear vectors along the pointing arm when relying on human pointing gestures. Instead, they rely on a simple rule of following the side of the human gesturing. If there were more targets on the same side of the human, they showed a preference for the targets closer to the human. Study 2 has shown that dogs are able to rely on indirect pointing gestures but the individual performances suggest that this skill may be restricted to a certain level of complexity. In Study 3, we have found that dogs are able to localise the hidden object by utilising indirect human signals, and they are able to convey this information to their owner. PMID:21927851

Lakatos, Gabriella; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Miklósi, Adám

2011-09-17

230

Regulation of pentose utilisation by AraR, but not XlnR, differs in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are important producers of plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes that are used in many industrial applications. These enzymes are produced by the fungus to liberate monomeric sugars that are used as carbon source. Two of the main components of plant polysaccharides are L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are metabolized through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP) in these fungi. In Aspergillus niger, the regulation of pentose release from polysaccharides and the PCP involves the transcriptional activators AraR and XlnR, which are also present in other Aspergilli such as Aspergillus nidulans. The comparative analysis revealed that the regulation of the PCP by AraR differs in A. nidulans and A. niger, whereas the regulation of the PCP by XlnR was similar in both species. This was demonstrated by the growth differences on L-arabinose between disruptant strains for araR and xlnR in A. nidulans and A. niger. In addition, the expression profiles of genes encoding L-arabinose reductase (larA), L-arabitol dehydrogenase (ladA) and xylitol dehydrogenase (xdhA) differed in these strains. This data suggests evolutionary changes in these two species that affect pentose utilisation. This study also implies that manipulating regulatory systems to improve the production of polysaccharide degrading enzymes, may give different results in different industrial fungi. PMID:21484208

Battaglia, Evy; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Leendertse, Anne; Madrid, Susan; Mulder, Harm; Nikolaev, Igor; de Vries, Ronald P

2011-04-12

231

Health care utilisation and attitudes towards health care in subjects reporting environmental annoyance from electricity and chemicals.  

PubMed

Environmentally intolerant persons report decreased self-rated health and daily functioning. However, it remains unclear whether this condition also results in increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to describe the health care consumption and attitudes towards health care in subjects presenting subjective environmental annoyance in relation to the general population, as well as to a group with a well-known disorder as treated hypertension (HT). Methods. Postal questionnaire (n = 13 604) and record linkage with population-based register on health care costs. Results. Despite significantly lower subjective well being and health than both the general population and HT group, the environmentally annoyed subjects had lower health care costs than the hypertension group. In contrast to the hypertension group, the environmentally annoyed subjects expressed more negative attitudes toward the health care than the general population. Conclusions. Despite their impaired subjective health and functional capacity, health care utilisation costs were not much increased for the environmentally annoyed group. This may partly depend on negative attitudes towards the health care in this group. PMID:19936124

Eek, Frida; Merlo, Juan; Gerdtham, Ulf; Lithman, Thor

2009-04-14

232

Numerical system utilising a Monte Carlo calculation method for accurate dose assessment in radiation accidents.  

PubMed

A system utilising radiation transport codes has been developed to derive accurate dose distributions in a human body for radiological accidents. A suitable model is quite essential for a numerical analysis. Therefore, two tools were developed to setup a 'problem-dependent' input file, defining a radiation source and an exposed person to simulate the radiation transport in an accident with the Monte Carlo calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. Necessary resources are defined by a dialogue method with a generally used personal computer for both the tools. The tools prepare human body and source models described in the input file format of the employed Monte Carlo codes. The tools were validated for dose assessment in comparison with a past criticality accident and a hypothesized exposure. PMID:17510203

Takahashi, F; Endo, A

2007-05-17

233

Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.  

PubMed

This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR. PMID:16115724

Mbaiwa, Joseph E

2005-10-01

234

Utilisation of chemical signals by inquiline wasps in entering their host figs.  

PubMed

The fig tree, Ficus curtipes, hosts an obligate pollinating wasp, an undescribed Eupristina sp., but can also be pollinated by two inquiline (living in the burrow, nest, gall, or other habitation of another animal) wasps, Diaziella yangi and an undescribed Lipothymus sp. The two inquilines are unable to independently induce galls and depend on the galls induced by the obligate pollinator for reproduction and, therefore, normally enter receptive F. curtipes figs colonised by the obligate pollinators. However, sometimes the inquilines also enter figs that are not colonised by the pollinators, despite consequent reproductive failure. It is still unknown which signal(s) the inquilines use in entering the colonised and non-colonised figs. We conducted behavioural experiments to investigate several possible signals utilised by the inquilines in entering their host receptive figs. Our investigation showed that both inquiline species enter the receptive F. curtipes figs in response to the body odours of the obligate wasps and one of the main compounds emitted by the figs, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. The compound was not found in the pollinator body odours, suggesting that the two inquiline wasps can utilise two signals to enter their host figs, which is significant for the evolution of the fig-fig wasp system. These inquilines could evolve to become mutualists of the figs if they evolve the ability to independently gall fig flowers; there is, however, another possibility that a monoecious Ficus species hosting such inquilines may evolve into a dioecious one if these inquilines cannot evolve the above-mentioned ability. Additionally, this finding provides evidence for the evolution of chemical communication between plants and insects. PMID:23973817

Gu, Ding; Yang, Da-Rong

2013-08-22

235

Barriers and strategies affecting the utilisation of primary preventive services for people with physical disabilities: a qualitative inquiry.  

PubMed

Individuals with physical disabilities are less likely to utilise primary preventive healthcare services than the general population. At the same time they are at greater risk for secondary conditions and as likely as the general population to engage in health risk behaviours. This qualitative exploratory study had two principal objectives: (1) to investigate access barriers to obtaining preventive healthcare services for adults with physical disabilities and (2) to identify strategies to increase access to these services. We conducted five focus group interviews with adults (median age: 46) with various physically disabling conditions. Most participants were male Caucasians residing in Virginia, USA. Study participants reported a variety of barriers that prevented them from receiving the primary preventive services commonly recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. We used a health services framework to distinguish structural-environmental (to include inaccessible facilities and examination equipment) or process barriers (to include a lack of disability-related provider knowledge, respect, and skilled assistance during office visits). Participants suggested a range of strategies to address these barriers including disability-specific continuing education for providers, the development of accessible prevention-focused information portals for people with physical disabilities, and consumer self-education, and assertiveness in requesting recommended services. Study findings point to the need for a more responsive healthcare system to effectively meet the primary prevention needs of people with physical disabilities. The authors propose the development of a consumer- and provider-focused resource and information kit that reflects the strategies that were suggested by study participants. PMID:16787479

Kroll, Thilo; Jones, Gwyn C; Kehn, Matthew; Neri, Melinda T

2006-07-01

236

Counsellors contact dementia caregivers - predictors of utilisation in a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Counselling of family members is an established procedure in the support of dementia patients' relatives. In absence of widespread specialised dementia care services in most countries, however, counselling services are often not taken up or only very late in the course of the disease. OBJECT: In order to promote acceptance of this service, a new counselling concept was implemented

Maria Grossfeld-Schmitz; Carolin Donath; Rolf Holle; Joerg Lauterberg; Stephan Ruckdaeschel; Hilmar Mehlig; Peter Marx; Sonja Wunder; Elmar Gräßel

2010-01-01

237

Aggression in the workplace : A study of horizontal violence utilising Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem of bullying within nursing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A Heideggerian methodology was used to illuminate the phenomenon of bullying and answer the question, “How does it feel to be bullied?. Two nurses were interviewed in a “judgemental” sample. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed thematically. Results were then integrated into

Barbara Corney

2008-01-01

238

Feasibility study of a non-destructive fruit maturity testing system on banana utilising capacitive properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit maturity classification is hard to determine. This is certainly true, for some fruits whose color have no direct correlation with its level of maturity or ripeness. The levels of maturity can be determined by human expert, however for larger quantity inspection, this method is beyond practical. Therefore, accurate automatic classification for fruit maturity may be advantageous for the agriculture

Zulhusin; A. H. A. Aziz; R. B. Ahmad

2008-01-01

239

Utilising Six Sigma for Improving Pass Percentage of Students: A Technical Institute Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Service sector accounts for a substantial share in Indian economy and among the service industries, education sector is emerging as a major commercial activity in the nation. Globalization, growing competition among institutions, emergence of new technologies, changing socio-economic profiles of nations and knowledge driven economies have created…

Kaushik, Prabhakar; Khanduja, Dinesh

2010-01-01

240

Mathematical model of water quality rehabilitation with rainwater utilisation: a case study at Haigang  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mathematical model of water quality rehabilitation by utilizing rainwater, which is separated into initial polluted rainwater and later unpolluted rainwater. The planned Haigang city, belonging to Shanghai metropolis in China, is taken as a case example. An analysis is made on how to utilize rainwater and appraise its function in a water quality rehabilitation scheme. It

C. L. Wu; K. W. Chau

2006-01-01

241

International perspectives and the results of carbon dioxide capture disposal and utilisation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the increase in the global concentrations of greenhouse gases, the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme is carrying out an assessment of greenhouse gas abatement technologies with particular reference to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel power generation systems. The work is supported internationally by 13 OECD countries as well as the Commission of European Communities and two sponsors

Pierce W. F. Riemer; William G. Ormerod

1995-01-01

242

Ethnic Factors in Mental Health Service Utilisation among People with Intellectual Disability in High-Income Countries: Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. Aims: To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income…

Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

2012-01-01

243

The effect of COPD health forecasting on hospitalisation and health care utilisation in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exacerbations are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as having a large impact on health care utilisation (HCU). They are more frequent during periods of cold weather with a corresponding increase in hospital admissions. It has been hypothesised that COPD exacerbations and admissions can be reduced by predicting periods

N. D. Bakerly; June A Roberts; Anna R Thomson; Matthew Dyer

2011-01-01

244

Effects of feeding raw or reconstituted high tannin red sorghum on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters of broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A feeding trial was conducted on 360 1-d-old chicks from 0 to 6 weeks of age to assess the effect of processed high tannin red sorghum in the diet of broiler chickens on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters.2. Each of 9 dietary treatments was allotted to 4 groups (replicates) of chicks in a completely randomised design. The treatments

V. Kumar; A. V. Elangovan; A. B. Mandal; P. K. Tyagi; S. K. Bhanja; B. B. Dash

2007-01-01

245

The effects of ration pelleting and level of fat on the efficiency of nutrient utilisation by the chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding rations in the form of mash, pellets or ground pellets on the performance of the broiler chicken when the ration contained varying levels of fat.When a low?fat ration was fed, chicks consuming pellets or ground pellets gained more body weight, consumed more food and utilised food more efficiently than chicks

J. L. Sell; O. J. Thompson

1965-01-01

246

Impact of health centre availability on utilisation of maternity care and pregnancy outcome in a rural area of Haryana.  

PubMed

Six hundred married women of 15-45 years age group were interviewed in 4 villages of the district Ambala in Haryana. Impact of health centre (HC) availability on the knowledge, opinion and practices related to maternity care and pregnancy outcome was assessed after adjusting the effect of socio-economic status. Except 17 women (2.8%), everyone knew at least one correct purpose of antenatal care (ANC) and 98.2% women had contacted health staff for ANC. However, knowledge of the respondents about the components of ANC was found to be poor in study villages. Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) conducted delivery in 76.1% cases in sub-centre (SC), 75.6% in villages without a HC compared to 49.8% in primary health centre (PHC) village. However, preference for TBAs in PHC village was 14.9%, in SC village 33.5%, and in villages without HC 36.3% (p < 0.001). Among respondents having better awareness about ANC components, preference and utilisation of modern delivery attendants was found to be higher. For maternity illnesses, consultation rate of government functionaries was 67.9% in PHC village, 52.2% in SC village and 55.8% in villages without a HC. Perinatal mortality rate of 76.0/1000 births in villages without HC was not significantly different from the rate of 87.4/1000 in SC village but rate of 38.9/1000 in the PHC village was significantly lower (p < 0.01). Awareness and availability of modern maternity services were found to have significant influence on the health seeking behaviour and pregnancy outcome. PMID:9492451

Kumar, R; Singh, M M; Kaur, M

1997-08-01

247

How equitable is bed net ownership and utilisation in Tanzania? A practical application of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity  

PubMed Central

Background Studies show that the burden of malaria remains huge particularly in low-income settings. Although effective malaria control measures such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been promoted, relatively little is known about their equity dimension. Understanding variations in their use in low-income settings is important for scaling up malaria control programmes particularly ITNs. The objective of this paper is to measure the extent and causes of inequalities in the ownership and utilisation of bed nets across socioeconomic groups (SEGs) and age groups in Tanga District, north-eastern Tanzania. Methods A questionnaire was administered to heads of 1,603 households from rural and urban areas. Households were categorized into SEGs using both an asset-based wealth index and education level of the household head. Concentration indices and regression-based measures of inequality were computed to analyse both vertical and horizontal inequalities in ownership and utilisation of bed nets. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were used to explore community perspectives on the causes of inequalities. Results Use of ITNs remained appallingly low compared to the RBM target of 80% coverage. Inequalities in ownership of ITNs and all nets combined were significantly pro-rich and were much more pronounced in rural areas. FGDs revealed that lack of money was the key factor for not using ITNs followed by negative perceptions about the effect of insecticides on the health of users. Household SES, living within the urban areas and being under-five were positively associated with bed net ownership and/or utilisation. Conclusion The results highlight the need for mass distribution of ITN; a community-wide programme to treat all untreated nets and to promote the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal nets (LLINs) or longer-lasting treatment of nets. The rural population and under-fives should be targeted through highly subsidised schemes and mass distribution of free nets. Public campaigns are also needed to encourage people to use treated nets and mitigate negative perceptions about insecticides.

Matovu, Fred; Goodman, Catherine; Wiseman, Virginia; Mwengee, William

2009-01-01

248

How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Significant Contribution of Methyl/Methanol-Utilising Methanogenic Pathway in a Subsurface Biogas Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanogenesis is considered the main terminal process of subsurface anaerobic organic-matter degradation. Previous geochemical studies have reported CO2-reducing and acetoclastic methanogenesis as the predominant subsurface methanogenic pathways for primary and secondary biogenic gas generation (i.e. in oil biodegradation or coalbed methane settings). In lab-scale experiments and microbiology literature, however, methanogens have been shown to be able to utilise a wider variety of substrates, typically containing methyl groups, i.e. dimethyl sulphide (DMS), methyl amines (e.g. TMA), formate, and methanol. Additional methanogenic substrates include CO and other primary alcohols and secondary alcohols (Whitman et al., 2006; Fig. 25.1). Here, we describe a volumetrically important natural biogenic gas field in which these methylotrophic pathways have contributed significantly to biomethane formation.

Str?po?, Dariusz; Ashby, Matt; Wood, Ladonna; Levinson, Rick; Huizinga, Bradley

249

Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials  

PubMed Central

Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46?mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

2012-01-01

250

In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8?MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods. PMID:22497540

Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

2012-04-12

251

Impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of neck and upper extremities on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe the presence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities among industrial workers with low back pain, and to examine whether it has an impact on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 505 industrial workers (response 86%). Results: The 12 month prevalence of low back pain was 50%. Among subjects with low back pain the 12 month prevalence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities was 68%. Among workers with low back pain, subjects with high pain intensity or disabling low back pain were more likely to have musculoskeletal co-morbidity. In comparison to the subjects who report back pain only, subjects with co-morbidity showed worse general health and health related quality of life. No impact of upper extremity co-morbidity was found on healthcare utilisation, and sickness absence due to low back pain. Conclusions: This study provides no evidence that musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities influences the choice to seek care or take sick leave due to low back pain among industrial manual workers. For occupational health practitioners the finding of a high co-morbidity is important to consider when implementing workplace interventions aimed at the reduction of specific musculoskeletal complaints, since the controls for one musculoskeletal complaint may impact adversely on another musculoskeletal complaint. Researchers who perform low back pain intervention studies using generic health measures, should take into account the impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity on these measures.

IJzelenberg, W; Burdorf, A

2004-01-01

252

Perception and utilisation of malaria prophylaxis among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Knowledge, perception and utilisation of malaria prophylaxis were assessed among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Of the 301 women interviewed, 71.1% reported having used chloroquine prophylaxis while 28.9% did not. Women with high knowledge of malaria were more likely to use malaria prophylaxis than those with low knowledge. However, there was no significant association between knowledge of malaria and perceived effectiveness of the various methods of malaria control. Chloroquine side effects and perceived lack of protective effect against malaria were mentioned as causes of failure to use chloroquine prophylaxis. Fear of chloroquine-induced pruritus accounted for the largest proportion (49.4%) of women who reported having failed to use chloroquine prophylaxis. Occurrence of malaria episodes was reported to be similar among users and non-users of malaria prophylaxis probably due to inconsistent use of malaria prophylaxis and reduced chloroquine sensitivity of malaria parasites. It is suggested that, in addition to chemoprophylaxis, pregnant women should be encouraged to use bednets in combination with mosquito repellents throughout the course of pregnancy. PMID:7498025

Mnyika, K S; Kabalimu, T K; Lugoe, W L

1995-07-01

253

Enhancement of maltose utilisation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in medium containing fermentable hexoses.  

PubMed

Some industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are unable to maintain high rates of fermentation during transition from catabolism of hexoses to maltose. This phenomenon, termed 'maltose lag', presents problems for the baking, brewing and distilling industries, which rely on yeast catabolism of mixtures of hexoses and maltose. Maltose utilisation requires the presence of maltose permease and alpha-glucosidase (maltase), encoded by MAL genes. Synthesis of these is induced by maltose and repressed by glucose. One strain of baker's yeast used in this work exhibited a marked maltose lag, whereas a second strain exhibited a shorter lag during conversion from hexose to maltose metabolism. The extent of the lag was linked to the levels of maltose permease and maltase in cells at the time of inoculation into mixed sugar medium. This view is supported by results showing that pulsing yeast with maltose to induce expression of MAL genes prior to inoculation into mixed sugar medium, enhanced sugar fermentation. Maltose pulsing of yeasts could therefore be useful for enhancing some fermentations relevant to baking and other yeast industries. PMID:10455490

Hazell; Attfield

1999-06-01

254

Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. PMID:21550223

Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

2011-05-06

255

Improving the utilisation of demographic and health surveys as a source of health information.  

PubMed

In many countries, existing health data sources are underutilised to inform health decision-making. Improving the capacity of public health officials to assess, analyse and interpret existing data is a primary means for overcoming this issue. One data source with much potential to inform health policy is the Demographic and Health Survey (OHS). The OHS, which has been conducted in over 90 countries, collects data in a standardised fashion that can produce a range of key indicators for health policy, including health outcomes, health service utilisation, environmental factors, and demographic and socio-economic factors. The OHS also allows for comparison of indicators over time within a country, as well as comparison of indicators between countries. This article details the type of data available in the OHS and details a range of indicators that can be produced from these data. A major advantage of the OHS is that the datasets are freely available for analysis. The OHS therefore provides much potential for harnessing existing skills of public health officials and researchers to assess, analyse and interpret its wealth of data. This article presents tools, for use in Stata software, to compute these indicators and analyse them according to geographic, socio-economic and other factors. Such tools can be adjusted to suit the type of information the analyst wishes to derive from the data. Improving the use of OHS data in settings where health data from other sources is lacking will strengthen the evidence-base for health policy. PMID:23240343

Adair, Tim

2012-04-01

256

Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9?±?0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P?utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs. PMID:20661642

Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

2010-07-28

257

Investigation of pulse oximeter failure rates during artificial hypoperfusion utilising a custom made multimode pulse oximetery sensor.  

PubMed

Pulse oximetry utilises the technique of photoplethysmography (PPG) to estimate arterial oxygen saturation values (SpO2). In poorly perfused tissues, SpO2 readings may be compromised due to the poor quality of the PPG signals. In order to investigate further the threshold where pulse oximetry fails to produce accurate SpO2 values, we have developed a custom made multimode finger pulse oximetry probe that operates in conventional, reflectance and transmittance mode independently and also in a combined mode called transreflectance. Experiments on twenty healthy volunteers undergoing induced artificial hypoperfusion utilising a brachial blood pressure cuff were performed in order to investigate the possible threshold of failure to accurately estimate SpO2 values from all pulse oximetry modes. The results suggest that the transreflectance pulse oximeter endures more in estimating accurately SpO2 values when compared with the other two custom made pulse oximeters and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. PMID:22255303

Shafique, M; Kyriacou, P A; Pal, S K

2011-01-01

258

Environment-friendly utilisation of waste energies for the production of electric energy in disperse power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a special system that makes it possible to generate electric and heat energy by utilising alternative, renewable and waste energies, in most cases, applying the principle of co-generation. The solution is based on a system that consists of a high-speed turbine, coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous generator, an AC\\/AC converter and a supervisory control unit.

R. K. Jardan; I. Nagy; T. Nitta; H. Ohaski

2002-01-01

259

Transition rate kinetics from ethanol oxidation to glucose utilisation within a structured model of baker’s yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition rate kinetics from ethanol oxidation to glucose utilisation, within a structured model of baker’s yeast, described\\u000a previously, were experimentally identified. The shift in metabolism has been assessed through glucose pulses during batch\\u000a growth on ethanol. The influence of glucose concentration (between 0.25 g l?1 and 0.90 g l?1) and initial biomass concentration (between 0.61 g l?1 and 1.44

P. Dantigny; M. Gruber

1996-01-01

260

Investigation of pulse oximeter failure rates during artificial hypoperfusion utilising a custom made multimode pulse oximetery sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulse oximetry utilises the technique of photople-thysmography (PPG) to estimate arterial oxygen saturation values (SpO2). In poorly perfused tissues, SpO2 readings may be compromised due to the poor quality of the PPG signals. In order to investigate further the threshold where pulse oximetry fails to produce accurate SpO2 values, we have developed a custom made multimode finger pulse oximetry probe

M. Shafique; P. A. Kyriacou; S K Pal

2011-01-01

261

The utilisation of fatty-acid substrates in triacylglycerol biosynthesis by tissue-slices of developing safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) cotyledons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) readily utilised exogenously supplied 14C-labelled fatty-acid substrates for the synthesis of triacylglycerols. The other major radioactive lipids were phosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol. In safflower cotyledons, [14C]oleate was rapidly transferred to position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine and concomitant with this was the appearance of radioactive linoleate. The linoleate was further utilised

Gareth Griffiths; Sten Stymne; A. Keith Stobart

1988-01-01

262

Effects of reduced dietary calcium and phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus utilisation in broilers with modified mineral status.  

PubMed

1. The impact of modified mineral status and dietary Ca:P ratio on Ca and P utilisation was measured in chicks with or without phytase supplementation. 2. In a preliminary study, 4 diets were given to chicks from 3 to 15 d of age: D1 (6.5 g P/kg and Ca:P = 1.5) and D2, D3 and D4 (6.0, 5.4 and 5.0 g P/kg, respectively, and Ca:P = 1.2). Growth performance was similar across diets. Tibia ash was similar in chicks given D1 and D2, but was gradually depressed from D2 to D4 (-22%). 3. In the depletion period, two groups of chicks, with similar performance, but with different mineral status were achieved by feeding them, from 5 to 15 d of age, diets with a similar Ca:P ratio of 1.2, but containing 6.3 or 5.2 g P/kg. 4. During the subsequent 11 d of the repletion period, chicks from each of the two previous groups were given one of the 4 diets containing 5.7 g P/kg, but differing in their Ca (8.3 and 5.3 g Ca/kg) and microbial phytase (0 or 1000 FTU, Natuphos levels in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. 5. At the end of the repletion period, the initially depleted chicks could not be differentiated from the non-depleted chicks, indicating the capacity of chicks to compensate for their initial depleted mineral status. 6. Interaction between dietary Ca and phytase levels was not significant. Phytase improved growth performance and bone characteristics. Reduced dietary Ca enhanced feed intake and growth rate, but depressed bone dry matter and ash weight. 7. At the end, diets supplemented with phytase maximised bone ash weight when chicks were fed with a Ca:P ratio of 1.5 but elicited the highest growth rate when chicks were fed with a Ca:P ratio of 0.9. PMID:19093243

Letourneau-Montminy, M P; Lescoat, P; Narcy, A; Sauvant, D; Bernier, J F; Magnin, M; Pomar, C; Nys, Y; Jondreville, C

2008-11-01

263

Factors associated with awareness and utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives Examine factors associated with awareness and active utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention (CMI) to address HIV risk in female sex workers (FSWs) in a context characterised by multiple forms of sex work. Design Data came from two rounds, conducted in Spring 2006 and Spring 2007, of a serial cross-sectional survey of FSWs (n=812 in round 1, n=673 in round 2) recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Descriptive statistics compared characteristics of programme aware and unaware FSWs and from among the aware, to characterise active program users. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with programme exposure. Results Between Rounds 1 and 2, programme awareness increased from 41.8% to 69.6% of respondents, and active utilisation (among those who were aware) increased from 49.2% to 61.0%. Street-based FSWs were under-represented and brothel-based FSWs overrepresented in both groups and rounds. Geographic proximity and literacy were associated with programme awareness but not utilisation. The most important factor associated with both forms of intervention exposure across rounds was willingness to be identified in public as a FSWs (OR 2.2–4.8). Conclusion Public visibility is a critical component of CMIs. Such interventions should develop strategies for involving FSWs that allow them to remain invisible, while also working to reduce the threat associated with public visibility. In contexts where sex work occurs in multiple venues, it is important to develop CMIs that include and address the needs of FSWs working in them all.

Burroway, Rebekah; Reed, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

264

Les minéraux techniques naturels : connaissance, typologie et propriétés d'usageNatural technical minerals: investigation, typology and utilisation properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By nature minerals are heterogeneous materials for many of their properties. These properties also vary according to composition and structure fluctuations, compared to definitions. Technical minerals are used in applications where their performances depend on intrinsic properties and processing conditions. It is possible to base rankings on simple criteria, allowing estimating the abilities of minerals for each utilisation. The research of the corresponding mechanisms concerns the molecular level. These questions are discussed for kaolins, raw materials for baked clays, talqueous materials and montmorillonites. To cite this article: J. Yvon et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 717-730.

Yvon, Jacques; Cases, Jean-Maurice; Villiéras, Frédéric; Michot, Laurent; Thomas, Fabien

265

A Mechanical Principle for Acquisition of useful Power on a Celestial Body Through Utilisation of its Planetary Precession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In consequence of the phenomenon of planetary precession there emerges a possibility for acquisition of power through utilisation of the rotary motions in the universe. The idea is to acquire useful power on the working shaft of a properly designed machine installed on a celestial body (planet), at the expense of the motional energy of the latter. Strange as it may appear, this is possible if only the regulation of the machine be brought in line with the parameters of the precession. The principle of action of such a planetary engine, including an energy balance, is put forward in the present paper.

Vulkov, K.

266

The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility and increase C stocks of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines, abandoned industrial zones, degraded natural areas and exhausted landfill sites. Such land management options may serve as a precondition for landscaping and reclamation of degraded areas, reforestation or agriculture. In fact, previous results have shown that compost application to the capping layer of a landfill covering soil significantly enhanced the fertility, evidenced by an improvement in soil structure, porosity and water holding capacity, an increase in the relative proportion of recalcitrant C pools and an increase in soil nutrient content, microbial activity and soil microbial biomass. Proper management of MWC requires a capacity to understand and predict their impacts on C dynamics in the field subsequent to application. Although numerous works deal with the effects of compost application in agricultural systems, little is known on how land rehabilitation practices effect C dynamics in such relatively young soil systems. The estimation of SOC pools and their potential turnover rates in land reclamation activities is fundamental to our understanding of terrestrial C dynamics. In the framework of a long-term field experiment, the objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal and spatial dynamics of compost-derived organic matter with respect to the major processes involved in organic matter cycling in an anthropogenic landfill covering soil originally amended with a single dose of MWC. We investigated long-term organic C dynamics in such systems by collecting samples at different depths over a 10 year chronosequence subsequent to compost application to the top layer of the landfill covering soil. Variations in the stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of the soil samples show that even after 10 years, amended topsoils were significantly enriched in compost-derived organic matter, confirming that the utilisation of such organic inputs in land reclamation activities has the potential to enhance the C stocks of degraded areas. The addition of compost to the superficial layer also resulted in a significant input of soluble organic compounds subject to leaching along the soil profile. Sorption isotherms for compost-derived water-extractable organic matter onto mineral materials used for landfill covering suggest that sorptive preservation was primarily responsible for the increase in C content and the shift in the C isotopic signature to values similar to that of the applied compost, in the deeper soil horizons over the 10 year experimental period. This was also confirmed by the accumulation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, analysis for non-cellulosic carbohydrates in soils samples and their respective water-extractable fractions suggest that a proportion of compost-derived, labile organic matter fraction is leached through the soil profile and potentially lost from the soil system, particularly in the years immediately after compost application.

Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

2009-04-01

267

An electro-active system of immuno-assay (EASI assay) utilising self assembled monolayer modified electrodes.  

PubMed

Most immunoassays currently rely on optical methods for signal generation e.g. in ELISA and rapid assay formats. It has become apparent as in the Glucose sensor market that there is a need for simple direct electrical immuno-sensors. We have investigated the novel use of organic conducting monolayers used as a direct electrochemical detection support for an immuno-reaction. It was found that antibodies raised to a carbazole dimer monolayer could increase the charge movement across that monolayer surface. Antibody fragments were taken from a specific anti-carbazole antibody fragment library and combined with an antibody fragment directed to the hormone estrone 3 glucuronide (E3G), the target antigen to form a bispecific antibody fragment. The device utilised these specific antibody fragments and incorporated them on the top plate of a capillary fill format as the immuno-assay components. The immuno-reaction utilised a competition assay. Free E3G analyte in the sample displaced the bispecific antibody fragment from the immuno-surface leaving it free to bind the carbazole monolayer surface. There the binding was detected using amperometric or coulometric methods. By combining all there element it was possible to develop a sensitive immuno-assay that could detect E3G in a reproducible calibrated fashion down to 10 ng/ml. PMID:11679266

Porter, R; van der Logt, P; Howell, S; Kyröläinen-Reay, M; Badley, A

2001-12-01

268

Diffusion des rayonnements X et visibles ; microscopie en champ proche : utilisation comparée pour la caractérisation des surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trois méthodes ont été utilisées pour caractériser la rugosité de quelques échantillons. Deux de ces méthodes sont basées sur la mesure du rayonnement diffusé (visible et X). La troisième utilise la microscopie en champ proche (MCP). Dans un premier temps, une comparaison des deux premières techniques a été menée en utilisant une même théorie vectorielle de la diffusion. Bien adaptée au domaine du visible, cette théorie peut aussi être utilisée dans le cas du rayonnement X. Les densités spectrales de puissance (dsp) de la rugosité, déterminées expérimentalement pour deux échantillons d'Alacrite XSH (alliage quaternaire à base de cobalt utilisé en métrologie des masses), montrent des allures identiques dans le cas du visible et du rayonnement X à des incidences très rasantes. Dans un deuxième temps, la hauteur quadratique moyenne ? , caractéristique de la rugosité de ces deux échantillons, a été déterminée de façon "directe" par microscopie en champ proche, et à partir des dsp pour les deux autres techniques. La restriction à une bande commune des fréquences spatiales accessibles à ces techniques, conduit à des valeurs de ? comparables aux incertitudes près. Une validation des mesures X ainsi faite, un accent est mis sur leur apport complémentaire par rapport au visible.

Tollens, E.; Menecier, S.; Haidar, Y.; Zerrouki, C.; Chassevent, M.; de Fornel, F.; Bonnet, J. J.

2004-11-01

269

Co-expression of a cellobiose phosphorylase and lactose permease enables intracellular cellobiose utilisation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The cellobiose phosphorylase (cepA) gene from Clostridium stercorarium was cloned and successfully expressed under transcriptional control of the phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294. The recombinant CepA enzyme showed optimal activity at 60 °C and pH 5 and displayed a K(m) value of 92.85 mM and 1.69 mM on cellobiose and pNPG, respectively. A codon-optimised synthetic cepA gene was also expressed; however, it did not enhance cellobiose utilisation. Transport of cellobiose was subsequently facilitated through the heterologous expression of the lac12 of Kluyveromyces lactis. Strains co-producing the heterologous CepA and Lac12 were able to grow on cellobiose as sole carbon source. This is the first report of successful intracellular utilisation of cellobiose by S. cerevisiae producing a cellobiose phosphorylase and of cellobiose transport into S. cerevisiae via the K. lactis lac12 encoded permease. PMID:21336923

Sadie, Christa J; Rose, Shaunita H; den Haan, Riaan; van Zyl, Willem H

2011-02-20

270

75,77Br- and 123I-analogues of D-glucose as potential tracers for glucose utilisation in heart and brain.  

PubMed

A number of D-glucose analogues labelled with either the positron emitter 75Br (T 1/2 = 1.6 h) or the single photon emitter 123I (T 1/2 = 13.3 h) were studied as potential tracers for glucose utilisation in heart and brain. Of these, 3-deoxy-3-bromo-D-glucose, 3-deoxy-3-iodo-D-glucose, methyl 2-deoxy-2-bromo-beta-D-glucoside and methyl 2-deoxy-2-iodo-beta-D-glucoside showed little uptake of radioactivity into brain and an unfavourable ratio of heart-to-blood and heart-to-lung concentrations. In contrast, methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-iodo-beta-D-glucoside (MTIG) and methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-bromo-beta-D-glucoside (MTBG) showed promising brain uptake (160% MBC for MTBG) with a good brain-to-blood concentration ratio of 0.8. MTBG is not metabolically altered in the brain. Thus, this compound may be a promising tracer for measuring glucose transport if it proves to be a substrate for the hexose carrier at the blood-brain-barrier. PMID:6873102

Kloster, G; Laufer, P; Wutz, W; Stöcklin, G

1983-01-01

271

Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.  

PubMed

Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46?mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements. PMID:22619599

Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

2012-04-24

272

Progrès récents dans l'utilisation de la Chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse pour la détermination des propriétés acide-base des surfaces solides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) is a method well suited for the study of divided solids, but also of fibres. In this paper, the principles of IGC, its advantages such as ease and rapidity of measurement, but also limitations due essentially to the energetic heterogeneity of the solid surfaces are discussed. Finally, a new procedure allowing to estimate the acidity and basicity of the surface involving topology concepts of the molecules used to probe the surface is presented. Experimental results of the Laboratory, but also results extracted from the literature concerning silica, titanium dioxide, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ethylene) fibers, are taken to verify the proposed method. La chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse (CGI) s'avère comme une méthode de choix pour l'étude des solides divisés, mais aussi de fibres. Après avoir rappelé quelques principes de base de la CGI, les avantages de la méthode comme la facilité de mise en oeuvre, sa rapidité..., nous soulignerons ses limites qui sont essentiellement à attribuer à l'hétérogénéité énergétique des surfaces solides. Finalement, nous décrirons une nouvelle approche de l'acidité et de la basicité de surface grâce à l'utilisation des concepts de topologie des molécules employées pour sonder la surface. Des résultats expérimentaux obtenus au Laboratoire, mais aussi tirés de la littérature et concernant la silice, l'oxyde de titane, la poly(méthacrylate de méthyle) et les fibres de poly(éthylène), permettent d'illustrer la pertinence de la méthode proposée.

Papirer, E.; Brendlé, E.

1998-01-01

273

Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.  

PubMed

Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p < 0.01) for the biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers. PMID:23305236

Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

2013-01-11

274

'If you feel that nobody wants you you'll withdraw into your own': Gypsies/Travellers, networks and healthcare utilisation.  

PubMed

Gypsies and Travellers are the unhealthiest group in British society, suffering from higher levels of physical and mental illness, lower life expectancy and with low levels of healthcare utilisation. They also continue to experience the highest level of prejudice and discrimination in society. While studies indicate that social networks play an important role in shaping health beliefs and the response to symptoms, evidence on the influence of networks on health is unclear and contradictory. This article draws on social network theory and research into the relation between discrimination and health to critically examine how networks mediate between collective experiences of racism and health-related behavior. Qualitative interviews with 39 adult Gypsies and Travellers were conducted in the South-East of England to explore the wider structural and institutional context and the influence those contexts play in shaping health beliefs and decisions whether to access formal health services. The findings indicate that the influence networks play in shaping health behaviour is dependent on the particular social context of the group and its status in relation to wider social structures, making generalization problematic. PMID:23574153

Smith, David; Ruston, Annmarie

2013-04-10

275

Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.  

PubMed

A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field. PMID:19181661

Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

2009-01-29

276

New ways for energy systems in sustainable buildings - increased energy efficiency and indoor comfort through the utilisation of low exergy systems for the heating and cooling of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity for a further increase in the efficiency of energy utilisation in buildings is obvious and indisputable. This is especially true regarding the great potential for the use of those measures in the building stock. An optimisation of the energy flows in building, similar to other thermodynamic systems, such as power stations, can help in identifying the potential of

Dietrich Schmidt

277

Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.2. The experimental design was a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and

A. M. Amerah; A. Péron; F. Zaefarian; V. Ravindran

2011-01-01

278

Mission to the Moon: Europe's Priorities for the Scientific Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefit...

B. Battrick C. Barron

1992-01-01

279

Effects of long-term administration of saturated and n-3 fatty acid-rich diets on lipid utilisation and oxidative stress in rat liver and muscle tissues.  

PubMed

The incidence of metabolic syndrome components including obesity, lipid deregulation, insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing rapidly in wealthy societies. The present study was designed to determine the effect of different nutritional lipid patterns (quantity and quality) on lipid utilisation and oxidative stress in the liver and muscle of rats in an integrated fashion. A total of forty-eight Wistar male rats were fed for 12 weeks with a mixed, lard or fish-oil diet, containing either 50 or 300 g lipid/kg. Rats developed liver steatosis associated with moderate liver injury when fed the 30 % lipid diets, in spite of the absence of overt obesity or IR, except when fed the lard 30 % lipid diet. The intake of the 30 % lipid diets decreased hepatic lipogenesis and mitochondriogenesis and increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Surprisingly, muscle lipid content was not modified whatever the administered diet. The intake of the 30 % lipid diets increased the muscle protein expression of fatty acid (FA) translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), PPAR? co-activator 1? (PGC-1?) and muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (m-CPT1), reflecting increased FA transport in the muscle associated with increased oxidative metabolism. The lard 30 % lipid diet led to IR without modifying the muscle lipid content. The fish-oil 30 % lipid diet failed to prevent the development of hepatic steatosis and made the tissues more prone to oxidation. Overall, the present study suggests that the FA composition of muscle is more important than lipid accumulation itself in the modulation of insulin sensitivity, and indicates that precaution should be taken when advising an unphysiologically high (pharmacological) supplementation with long-chain n-3 PUFA. PMID:23656726

Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Aoun, Manar; Fouret, Gilles; Bonafos, Béatrice; Ramos, Jeanne; Casas, François; Cristol, Jean Paul; Coudray, Charles

2013-05-01

280

Mission to the Moon: Europe's priorities for the scientific exploration and utilisation of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefitting from a lunar base (Moon studies, astronomy, fusion, life sciences, etc.). Scientific issues were divided into three main areas: science of the Moon, including

Bruce Battrick; C. Barron

1992-01-01

281

RELEASE FROM RECYCLED CEMENT BASED MATERIALS UTILISING THE DATA HANDLING AND MODELLING TOOL LEACH-XS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study leaching properties were studied from a geochemical modelling point of view in order to explain mechanisms such as sorption to iron and aluminium (hydr)oxide surfaces, complexation to organic matter, precipitation and dissolution of mineral phases. Release experiments were conducted for laboratory prepared concrete samples as well as aged samples using a standardized pH dependent leaching method. Characteristic

Christian J. Engelsen; Hans A. van der Sloot; Erik Stoltenberg-Hansson; Gordana Petkovic

282

HOW TO MANAGE PERFORMANCE BY UTILISING THE FACTORS BEHIND SUCCESSFUL OPERATIVE LEVEL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: A FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on performance measurement at the operative level of an organisation. The impacts of performance measurement and factors that facilitate and improve performance and operative level performance measurement are examined. The empirical evidence of the study is based on three separate sets of data. A framework for successful operative level performance measurement is presented. The framework has been

J. Ukko

283

Infant care practices in rural China and their relation to prenatal care utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies describing postpartum childcare practices and the influence of prenatal care on infant care outcomes in rural China are scarce. This study looked at data for 1479 women who had given birth during the preceding 2 years (median age of the child was 8 months). Data were available from a Knowledge, Attitude and Perception cross-sectional survey collected from 2001 to

B. I. Nwaru; Z. Wu; E. Hemminki

2011-01-01

284

Determination of body composition in conscious adult female Wistar utilising total body electrical conductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a noninvasive method for estimating fat free mass (FFM) in live animals. In this study, we have evaluated the use of the Em-Scan SA-3000, which is claimed by the manufacturers to perform better than earlier analysers. Previous studies in rats using these earlier versions of the TOBEC analyser have always used anaesthesia to minimise

Keith Dickinson; Tracey J. North; Gary Telford; Susan Smith; Richard Brammer; Robert B. Jones; David J. Heal

2001-01-01

285

Reassessing the HAROLD model: is the hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults a special case of compensatory-related utilisation of neural circuits?  

PubMed

The HAROLD (hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults) model, proposed by Cabeza in 2002, suggests that age-related neurofunctional changes are characterised by a significant reduction in the functional hemispheric lateralisation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The supporting evidence, however, has been derived from qualitative explorations of the data rather than from explicit statistical assessments of functional lateralisation. In contrast, the CRUNCH (compensation-related utilisation of neural circuits hypothesis) model posits that elderly subjects recruit additional brain regions that do not necessarily belong to the contralateral hemisphere as much as they rely on additional strategies to solve cognitive problems. To better assess the validity and generalisability of the HAROLD model, we analysed the fMRI patterns of twenty-four young subjects (age range: 18-30 years) and twenty-four healthy elderly subjects (age range: 50-80 years) collected during the performance of two linguistic/semantic tasks (a picture-naming task and a sentence judgment task) and two episodic long-term memory (eLTM) recognition tasks for the same materials. The functional hemispheric lateralisation in each group and the ensuing between-group differences were quantitatively assessed using statistical lateralisation maps (SLMs). The number of clusters showing a genuine HAROLD effect was proportional to the level of task demand. In addition, when quantitatively significant, these effects were not restricted to the PFC. We conclude that, in its original version, the HAROLD model captures only some of the age-related brain patterns observed in graceful ageing. The results observed in our study are compatible with the more general CRUNCH model, suggesting that the former patterns can be considered a special manifestation of age-related compensatory processes. PMID:23178904

Berlingeri, Manuela; Danelli, Laura; Bottini, Gabriella; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo

2012-11-18

286

Next generation planar waveguide detection of microcystins in freshwater and cyanobacterial extracts, utilising a novel lysis method for portable sample preparation and analysis.  

PubMed

The study details the development of a fully validated, rapid and portable sensor based method for the on-site analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples. The process employs a novel lysis method for the mechanical lysis of cyanobacterial cells, with glass beads and a handheld frother in only 10 min. The assay utilises an innovative planar waveguide device that, via an evanescent wave excites fluorescent probes, for amplification of signal in a competitive immunoassay, using an anti-microcystin monoclonal with cross-reactivity against the most common, and toxic variants. Validation of the assay showed the limit of detection (LOD) to be 0.78 ng mL(-1) and the CC? to be 1 ng mL(-1). Robustness of the assay was demonstrated by intra- and inter-assay testing. Intra-assay analysis had % C.V.s between 8 and 26% and recoveries between 73 and 101%, with inter-assay analysis demonstrating % C.V.s between 5 and 14% and recoveries between 78 and 91%. Comparison with LC-MS/MS showed a high correlation (R(2)=0.9954) between the calculated concentrations of 5 different Microcystis aeruginosa cultures for total microcystin content. Total microcystin content was ascertained by the individual measurement of free and cell-bound microcystins. Free microcystins can be measured to 1 ng mL(-1), and with a 10-fold concentration step in the intracellular microcystin protocol (which brings the sample within the range of the calibration curve), intracellular pools may be determined to 0.1 ng mL(-1). This allows the determination of microcystins at and below the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of 1 ?g L(-1). This sensor represents a major advancement in portable analysis capabilities and has the potential for numerous other applications. PMID:23498128

Devlin, Shauna; Meneely, Julie P; Greer, Brett; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T

2013-01-24

287

Effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient utilisation and serum biochemical parameters in dromedary camels.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient digestibility, nutritive value, nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters was studied using nine male dromedary camels of Bikaneri breeds (637.5 kg average body weight; 8-9 years of age). Groundnut haulms (GNH) and cluster bean straw (CBS) were fed in one of three ratios, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 in treatments T(1), T(2) and T(3), respectively. In all treatments, concentrate mixture was fed as per requirement of the camels. The groundnut haulms were more nutritive as compared to the cluster bean straw. The nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), crude fibre and acid detergent fibre was better in T(1) than T(2) and T(3). Likewise, the CP, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient contents were significantly higher in T(1) followed by T(2) and T(3). There was non-significant affect on average daily gain of camels. However, dry matter intake, digestible crude protein intake and total digestible nutrients were better in T(1) as compared to T(2) and T(3). The total water intake per kilogram of dry matter intake (litres) was 2.98, 2.89 and 2.68, respectively, in T(1), T(2) and T(3). The camels in all the treatments were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance. The treatments had a significant effect on serum biochemical parameters like glucose, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase and creatinine. The results may conclude that feeding of higher proportion of groundnut haulms as compared to cluster bean straw has pronounced improvement in nutritional utilisation by the camels. PMID:22476733

Gupta, Lokesh; Kumar, Roy Ashwani; Ghanshyam, Tiwari; Rajesh, Dhuria; Garg, Rajeev

2012-04-03

288

A new-generation dilute Russell's viper venom time assay system for lupus anticoagulants: evaluation of detection utilising frozen reagents and controls.  

PubMed

The dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT) is one of the most widely used assays to detect lupus anticoagulants (LAs). Variation in diagnostic performance exists between DRVVT reagents from various manufacturers due to a variety of factors such as antibody heterogeneity, reagent phospholipid composition, venom heterogeneity, assay methodology and analytical technique. Recently, a new-generation DRVVT assay system has become available that utilises frozen reagents and controls that offer potential benefits to the diagnostic laboratory in terms of reagent quality and convenience of use. This study evaluates the diagnostic and analytical performance of these CryoCheck reagents and controls on a commonly employed automated coagulation analyser, the Sysmex CA 1500. Sensitivity is assessed by analysis of 60 samples shown to contain LAs by combinations of an alternative DRVVT, LA-sensitive dilute activated partial thromboplastin time and activated seven lupus anticoagulant assay. Specificity is assessed using 30 samples negative for LA, eight plasmas from non-LA orally anticoagulated patients and also immunodepleted factor-deficient plasmas. The CryoCheck reagents generated comparable diagnostic performance data to that previously reported for other reagents. There was a marked improvement in sensitivity when the BCSH recommended percent correction of ratio calculation for assessment of phospholipid dependence was employed in place of the manufacturer suggested test/confirm ratio. Slightly better diagnostic performance was achieved when using a frozen pooled normal control in place of a lyophilised normal control to generate sample/control ratios, giving sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of 88.2%, 86.8%, 90% and 85.2%, respectively. The combination of CryoCheck reagents and the Sysmex CA 1500 analyser provides a sensitive and specific LA detection technique comparable to those currently available. PMID:16196459

Moore, G W; Tugnait, S; Savidge, G F

2005-01-01

289

Stability and consensus analysis on the Delphi study for the utilisation of renewable energy sources in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non renewable nature and the accelerated demand of conventional energy has forced planners and policy makers to look for alternative sources. Renewable energy sources can contribute significantly in meeting the increasing energy demand of the country. It is one area which is expanding rapidly and a number of innovations are taking place. But the qualitative functions such as awareness

S. Iniyan; L. Suganthi; A. A. Samuel

1998-01-01

290

Utilisation of angiotensin receptor blockers in Sweden: combining survey and register data to study adherence to prescribing guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) offer a new treatment alternative for patients with hypertension and heart failure. Due\\u000a to comparatively high prices, most guidelines suggest ARBs be restricted to patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting\\u000a enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). We analysed the prescribing patterns of ARBs in Sweden by combining prescription register data with\\u000a patient self-reported data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Survey data from 517 patients dispensed ARBs

Pia Frisk; Tor-Olov Mellgren; Niklas Hedberg; Anita Berlin; Fredrik Granath; Björn Wettermark

2008-01-01

291

Alternative scenarios of the utilisation of renewable energy sources in small prefectures: a case study in Lasithi Prefecture, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sector of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is growing very fast, with many innovations and applications becoming a reality. The continuous reduction of natural resources has forced all policymakers to turn to alternative energy sources. The total energy (oil and electricity consumption) consumed in the prefecture of Lasithi during the years 1997?2002 in correlation with the RES exploitation potential in

G. Xydis; C. Koroneos

2009-01-01

292

Increasing biomass utilisation in energy systems: A comparative study of CO 2 reduction and cost for different bioenergy processing options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, need to be greatly reduced to avoid the risk of a harmful climate change. One powerful way to mitigate emissions is to switch fuels from fossil fuels to renewable energy, such as biomass. In this paper, we systematically investigate several bioenergy processing options, quantify the reduction rate and calculate the specific cost of

Bertil Wahlund; Jinyue Yan; Mats Westermark

2004-01-01

293

A pilot study utilising cross-age peer tutoring as a method of intervention for anxious adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychopathology experienced by young people, with up to 18% of adolescents developing one. The consequences of these symptoms, if left untreated, include impaired peer relationships, school absenteeism and self-concept problems. In addition, excessive anxiety may play a causal role in the development of depression in young people, precede eating disorders and predispose adolescents to

Marilyn Campbell

2008-01-01

294

Estimation of drought and flood recurrence interval from historical discharge data: a case study utilising the power law distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of which statistical distribution to fit to historical discharge data is critical when attempting to predict the most extreme flows. It has been shown that depending upon the distribution selected, the calculated return periods can vary dramatically. Cunnane (1985) discussed the factors affecting the choice of distribution for river flow series data, and was able to show that

Chris Eadie; David Favis-Mortlock

2010-01-01

295

Modelling and Optimisation of Eurycoma longifolia Extraction Utilising a Recirculating Flow Extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Tongkat Ali was extracted with a newly designed recirculating flow extractor with temperature and flow rate as the operating parameters. The optimum duration and ratio for extraction were found to be 90 min and 40:1 w\\/w, respectively. The determination of optimal operating parameter value for this extractor was based on maximum percentage extract yield and solid diffusivity,

Mohd Ajib Mohtar; Sivakumar Kumaresan; Mohd Roji Sarmidi; Ramlan Abdul Aziz

2007-01-01

296

Postprandial substrate utilisation in overweight subjects with the metabolic syndrome following isomaltulose (PalatinoseTM) ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary interventions with a low glycemic index (GI) have shown to be successful for both prevention and therapy of the metabolic syndrome. In the present study we investigated the postprandial metabolic response at rest and during physical activity following the intake of the low glycemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose™) compared to a conventional carbohydrate (glucose sirup\\/sucrose [glc\\/suc]) with a higher glycemic

Daniel König; Stephan Theis; Gunhild Kozianowski; Aloys Berg

297

Etude des systemes photosensibles utilises comme memoires optiques: Approches photochimique et holographique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, fulgides A540 and A670 doped polymer films have been studied by means of photochemical and holographic approaches. Polymer host matrices used are polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and copolymer poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole/polystyrene (PEPC/PS). Two exposure processes characterize Photochromism in fulgides. Upon UV irradiation or colouring process, a photocyclization E ? C occurs, leading to the formation of the closed form C. Besides, such irradiation implies the formation of the non-photochromic open isomer Z by E ? Z isomerization. Then, the open form is regenerated by visible exposure: the bleaching process. Photochemically, isomerization reaction is favoured upon short UV wavelength exposure, which implies a poor photostationary state in closed form. Contrary to the colouration, the bleaching process is strongly accelerated in A670 doped films. In holographic study, influence of reading wavelength has been studied on the diffraction gratings. For each fulgide, diffraction efficiency and refractive index variation are stronger in PEPC/PS matrix. The fatigue resistance study gives similar photochemical and holographic results.

Lafond, Christophe

298

Impact of technology on the utilisation of positron emission tomography in lymphoma: current and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron emission tomography (PET) has now gained a place in the management of patients with cancer, including those with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Restaging studies and those addressing the monitoring of response to treatment are especially in focus. Most of the knowledge gained has been achieved with dedicated BGO-based PET technology, but there are a number of developments that

D. Visvikis; P. J. Ell

2003-01-01

299

Utilising "Low Tech" Analytical Frameworks to Analyse Dyslexic Caribbean Students' Classroom Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The cognitions of Caribbean students with dyslexia are explored as part of an embedded multiple case study approach to teaching and learning at two secondary schools on the island of Barbados. This exploration employed "low tech" approaches to analyse what pupils had said in interviews using a Miles and Huberman (1994) framework. Findings from…

Blackman, Stacey

2007-01-01

300

Utilising Facebook: immersing Generation-Y students into first year university  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study explores the use of the online social networking site, Facebook, in helping immerse first year students into university culture, by furthering the development of academic and social relationships between peers. Facebook was chosen as the host site on account of the uniform strength of its features as compared to other popular social networking sites such as MySpace

Joshua McCarthy

301

Behavioural Medicine Group Intervention for High-Utilising Somatising Patients: Evaluation Across 7 Unrelated Healthcare Organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the clinical effectiveness of a standardised behavioural medicine group intervention when implemented by different group leaders in 7 geographically diverse healthcare organisations (HCOs). Design: This study used longitudinal data collected for quality assurance purposes. Patients were asked to complete questionnaires measuring presenting problems (Initial Health Status questionnaire), health and functional status [Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36)], and

Steven E. Locke; Pauline P. Chan; Debra S. Morley; Caroline C. McLeod; Matthew A. Budd; Marcia Orlowski

1999-01-01

302

Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Gene Expression Is Not Affected by Dichloroacetate-Mediated Modulation of Substrate Utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study investigated whether changing fuel use, by increasing pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) flux, independently of plasma substrate availability and insulin signalling, would alter metabolic gene expression. Methods: The PDC activator, dichloroacetate (DCA), was administered as an intravenous infusion in healthy male subjects at a rate of 50 mg kg–1 min–1, for 90 min. Saline was infused as a

Paul B. Tisdale; Andrew J. Bennett; Nandini Seevaratnam; Ian A. Macdonald; Kostas Tsintzas

2011-01-01

303

Carbohydrate utilisation by microbial symbionts in the marine herbivorous fishes Odax cyanomelas and Crinodus lophodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate uptake and catabolism by the gut microbiota of two species of temperate marine herbivorous fish were investigated using enzyme extracts prepared from microbial pellets. The fish studied were the herring cale Odax cyanomelas (Family Odacidae), which feeds on Ecklonia radiata, and the sea carp Crinodus lophodon (Family Aplodactylidae), which feeds primarily on red and green algae. Constitutive phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase

G. S. Seeto; P. C. Veivers; K. D. Clements; M. Slaytor

1996-01-01

304

Utilisation of spent brewer's yeast for yeast extract production by autolysis: The effect of temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, autolysis was induced by incubating cell suspensions of spent brewer's yeast at elevated temperatures of 45, 50, 55 and 60°C with a reaction time ranging from 8 to 72h. Contents and yields of solid, ?-amino nitrogen, protein and carbohydrate were determined. It can be said that optimum temperature and time for the production of yeast extract was

Hasan Tanguler; Huseyin Erten

2008-01-01

305

Utilisation of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) through Community Pharmacies in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by consumers who obtained these drugs from community pharmacies. Factors that influenced community pharmacists in their choice of NSAIDs were also determined. Personal interviews were conducted on consumers who visited the 25 participating community pharmacies throughout Malaysia. Of the 389 respondents, 49% requested for an NSAID by

S. S. Chua; T. Paraidathathu

2005-01-01

306

Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid

Oliver K. Castell; Christopher J. Allender; David A. Barrow

2006-01-01

307

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE UTILISATION OF SAVANNA PRODUCTS IN BOTSWANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Botswana's population use a wide range of savanna products for food, fodder, medicine, fuel, building, utensils and income. The poorest households in both rural and urban areas, are most reliant on their consumption and trade. This study sought an holistic insight into practices and policies jeopardizing the sustainable utilization of these products. A comparative review of literature

H. K. WATSON; T. B. DLAMINI

2003-01-01

308

Female sex workers as health educators with men who buy sex: Utilising narratives of rationalisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on findings from an ethnographic study of female sex workers who work in the indoor sex markets in a British city. An unexpected finding was the collective narratives that sex workers construct to rationalise their involvement in the sex industry. Fifty-five respondents who took part in in-depth interviews maintained that prostitution is a useful occupation and function

Teela Sanders

2006-01-01

309

The specificity of energy utilisation by trained and untrained adolescent boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between estimates of alactacid anaerobic power, lactacid anaerobic power and aerobic power in a sample of trained swimmers (age 14.4 yr., n = 8) and a sample of untrained boys (age 13.7 yr., n = 13). The anaerobic power outputs were estimated using a modification of the Wingate Anaerobic Test and aerobic power was estimated

N. Armstrong; B. Davies; M. Heal

1983-01-01

310

Comparison of methodologies for the in vivo assessment of 18 FLT utilisation in colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-18 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ( 18FLT) is a tissue proliferation marker which has been suggested as a new tumour-specific imaging tracer in positron emission tomography (PET). The objectives of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 18FLT in patients with colorectal cancer, defining methodologies for the quantitative analysis of the in vivo 18FLT uptake and subsequently assessing the accuracy of semi-quantitative

D. Visvikis; D. Francis; R. Mulligan; D. C. Costa; I. Croasdale; S. K. Luthra; I. Taylor; P. J. Ell

2004-01-01

311

Etude des systemes photosensibles utilises comme memoires optiques: Approches photochimique et holographique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, fulgides A540 and A670 doped polymer films have been studied by means of photochemical and holographic approaches. Polymer host matrices used are polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and copolymer poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole\\/polystyrene (PEPC\\/PS). Two exposure processes characterize Photochromism in fulgides. Upon UV irradiation or colouring process, a photocyclization E --> C occurs, leading to the formation of the closed form

Christophe Lafond

2002-01-01

312

Impact of crop protection on nitrogen utilisation and losses in winter wheat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-year (2002–2004) field experiment investigated the effects of disease and insect attack on nitrogen dynamics and losses during cultivation of winter wheat. Three treatments providing different degrees of crop protection were studied on a silty clay soil in south-western Sweden, in three consecutive wheat crops that were continually inspected for pests and diseases. A field with a history of

S. Delin; A. Nyberg; B. Lindén; M. Ferm; G. Torstensson; C. Lerenius; I. Gruvaeus

2008-01-01

313

Utilising the internet to test for sexually transmitted infections: results of a survey and accuracy testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSearching the internet for information about sexually transmitted infections (STI) is common. The goal of the study was to discover which internet sites offer STI tests and obtain information about the services and their validity.MethodsUsing internet web-based search engines, information was collected from the sites about STI testing services, costs and types of tests offered, and tests were evaluated for

Sherria L Owens; Nick Arora; Nicole Quinn; Rosanna W Peeling; King K Holmes; Charlotte A Gaydos

2009-01-01

314

Fate of organic matter in Arctic intertidal sediments: Is utilisation by meiofauna important?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents (1) a study of the fate of high-quality detritus in Arctic sandy beaches, in particular its use by the sandy beach meiobenthos, and (2) a comparison of organic matter mineralisation rates with those in other climatic regions. We performed a tracer experiment in which lyophilised 13C-labelled cyanobacteria were added to sediments of two intertidal beaches (Tyskehytte and

Barbara Urban-Malinga; Tom Moens

2006-01-01

315

Utilisation of Agriculture Weed for the Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solution.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from Cassia tora by sulphuric acid treatment for the removal of Chromium(VI) from aqueous solution. The effects of pH, initial concentration, contact time, and carbon concentration were studied for the sorption of Cr(VI) in batch mode. The optimum pH value for Cr(VI) adsorption was determined as 2.0. The experimental results were fitted with the Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich Peterson equations to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The Langmuir and Redlich - Peterson isotherm models were found better to describe the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was 72.4 mg/g. The kinetic data were then fitted with the Lagergren-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle models. Further, adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to confirm pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation and intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Activated carbon developed from Cassia tora can be a potential alternative for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. PMID:24061818

Natarajan, Balasubramanian; Nagarajan, Sulochana

2010-09-01

316

Survey on blood ordering and utilisation patterns in elective urological surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Blood transfusion is an important part of the medical care service. As there has not been a regional study about blood requests for operations, this study was done to assess blood ordering for various types of elective urological surgery. Materials and methods In a descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study, blood requests for all patients undergoing elective urological surgery in Razi Hospital (Rasht, Iran) during the first 6 months of 2010 were studied. The patients’ data (age, sex, weight, type of surgery, haemoglobin level before and after surgery, number of units of blood cross-matched and number of units transfused in the operating theatre and in the 3 days after surgery) were collected from their clinical records. Patients with a history of coagulopathy or anticoagulant drug use were excluded. The cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio), transfusion index (TI) and transfusion probability (T%) were calculated. The level of statistical significance was set at P =0.05. Results Of the 435 patients studied, 327 (75.1%) were male and 108 (24.9%) were female. The mean age of patients was 51.74±19.33 years. The mean number of units of blood requested for each operation was 2.8±1.2, whereas the mean number transfused was 0.59±0.24; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The relationships between pre-operative haemoglobin concentration and both blood requested and blood used were also statistically significant (P =0.038 and P <0.001, respectively). Calculated for all the operations, the C/T ratio was 14.16, the TI was 0.11 and the T% was 8.85%. Overall, only 8.5% of the patients (n=37) need blood transfusion in the operating theatre and only 10.8% (n=47) required transfusion within the 72 hours after surgery. Discussion The amount of blood requested and cross-matched for elective urological surgery is much greater than the real level of consumption. An appropriate, standard blood order guideline would reduce costs and staff workload.

Khoshrang, Hossein; Madani, Ali Hamidi; Roshan, Zahra Atarkar; Ramezanzadeh, Maryam Soltani

2013-01-01

317

Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.  

PubMed

The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the socio-cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection" 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of the Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. PMID:21710911

Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

2011-04-01

318

Cerebral glucose utilisation in hepatitis C virus infection-associated encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently show neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study aims to help clarify the neurochemical mechanisms behind these symptoms and to add further proof to the hypothesis that HCV may affect brain function. Therefore, 15 patients who reported increasing chronic fatigue, mood alterations, and/or cognitive decline since their HCV infection underwent neurologic and neuropsychological examination, magnetic resonance imaging, 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography of the brain, and single photon emission tomography of striatal dopamine and midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) availability. None of the patients had liver cirrhosis. Patients' data were compared with data of age-matched controls. In addition, regression analysis was performed between cognitive deficits, and mood and fatigue scores as dependent variables, and cerebral glucose metabolism, dopamine, or SERT availability as predictors. Patients showed significant cognitive deficits, significantly decreased striatal dopamine and midbrain SERT availability, and significantly reduced glucose metabolism in the limbic association cortex, and in the frontal, parietal, and superior temporal cortices, all of which correlated with dopamine transporter availability and psychometric results. Thus, the study provides further evidence of central nervous system affection in HCV-afflicted patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Data indicate alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission as a possible mechanism of cognitive decline.

Heeren, Meike; Weissenborn, Karin; Arvanitis, Dimitrios; Bokemeyer, Martin; Goldbecker, Annemarie; Tountopoulou, Argyro; Peschel, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Hecker, Hartmut; Buchert, Ralph; Berding, Georg

2011-01-01

319

Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana  

PubMed Central

The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the rural areas and in some of the regions. The government and other service providers (NGOs, religious institutions and private providers) may endeavor to improve on the distribution of health facilities, human resources, good roads and necessary infrastructure among other things in order to facilitate easy access to health care providers especially for the rural dwellers.

2012-01-01

320

User charges and utilisation of obstetric services in the National Capital District, Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study examined user charges on the utilization of obstetric services in the 4 urban clinics and antenatal and postnatal wards of the Port Moresby General Hospital (PMGH) in the National Capital District, Papua New Guinea. Analysis of previous records showed attendance to antenatal clinics on first visits declined by 30% soon after the introduction of use charges. However, the frequency of attendances increased and stabilized 12 months after the introduction of the user fees. The mean age for the 482 mothers interviewed was 25 years (range = 15-46 years, SD = 5.3). Over 50% of mothers were between 15-24 years of age and 47% over 24 years. 98.6% were married and a small proportion were single and divorcees (1.4%). Over 85% of mothers had some formal education while 15% without. The frequency of hospital deliveries did not change despite increased in user charges in the PMGH delivery and postnatal care services. Twenty four percent of mothers interviewed indicated they were unable to pay user fees. Mothers unable to pay the user charges were those without income or whose spouses were without regular income. In 23.2% of mothers with some income, majority indicated ability to pay the user fees. There was a minority group of mothers without income but relied heavily on their spouses income to meet the user fees. Mothers living in households with some income were twice more likely (OR = 2.18, 95% CI 1.24-3.83, p = 0.002) to have the ability to pay user fees than those without. Two other significant indicators associated with mother's ability to pay user fees were employment and knowledge of existence of the user charges. Over 79% of mothers indicated willingness to pay user charge fees. Mothers with income were nearly three times more likely (OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.36-5.78, p = 0.002) willing to pay user charge fees than those without income. Other indicators that showed significant association with willingness to pay user charge fees were employment, income and knowledge of user charges. Although small proportion of mothers were unable to meet the user charges, results in this study showed majority of mothers were able and willing to pay user charges if they had prior information to the charges and supported by some form of income. The results of the study suggests the typical support practised by the society where the spouse and relatives assist with health care especially with maternal health is encouraging. However, the scope of this study cannot be used to generalise the trend in PNG because the scenerio in the rural areas will vary from urban. PMID:12017833

Benjamin, A L; Sapak, P; Purai, J K

2001-03-01

321

Ethical and professional concerns in research utilisation: Intentional rounding in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Intentional rounding, a process involving the performance of regular checks on all patients following a standardised protocol, is being introduced widely in the United Kingdom. The process has been promoted by the Prime Minister and publicised by the Chief Nursing Officer at the Department of Health as well as by influential think tanks and individual National Health Service organisations. An evidence base is offered in justification. This article subjects the evidence base to critical scrutiny concluding that it consists of poor quality studies and serial misreporting of findings and a failure to consider wider concerns, including transference of evidence to differing health-care systems, and the conflation of perception and quality of care. Political promotion and wide implementation of intentional rounding despite the flimsy and questionable evidence base raise questions about the use of evidence in ethical nursing practice and the status of nursing as an autonomous profession. PMID:23533211

Snelling, Paul C

2013-03-26

322

Body weight changes and outpatient medical care utilisation: Results of the MONICA/KORA cohorts S3/F3 and S4/F4  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To test the effects of body weight maintenance, gain, and loss on health care utilisation in terms of outpatient visits to different kinds of physicians in the general adult population. Methods: Self-reported utilisation data were collected within two population-based cohorts (baseline surveys: MONICA-S3 1994/95 and KORA-S4 1999/2001; follow-ups: KORA-F3 2004/05 and KORA-F4 2006/08) in the region of Augsburg, Germany, and were pooled for present purposes. N=5,147 adults (complete cases) aged 25 to 64 years at baseline participated. Number of visits to general practitioners (GPs), internists, and other specialists as well as the total number of physician visits at follow-up were compared across 10 groups defined by body mass index (BMI) category maintenance or change. Body weight and height were measured anthropometrically. Hierarchical generalized linear regression analyses with negative binomial distribution adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), survey, and the need factors incident diabetes and first cancer between baseline and follow-up were conducted. Results: In fully adjusted models, compared to the group of participants that maintained normal weight from baseline to follow-up, the following groups had significantly higher GP utilisation rates: weight gain from normal weight (+36%), weight loss from preobesity (+39%), maintained preobesity (+34%), weight gain after preobesity (+43%), maintained moderate obesity (+48%), weight gain from moderate obesity (+107%), weight loss from severe obesity (+114%), and maintained severe obesity (+83%). Regarding internists, those maintaining moderate obesity reported +107% more visits; those with weight gain from moderate obesity reported +91%. The latter group also had +41% more consultations with other physicians. Across all physicians, mean number of visits were estimated at 7.8 per year for maintained normal weight, 9 for maintained preobesity, 11 for maintained moderate obesity, and 12 for maintained severe obesity. Among those with weight loss, the mean number of visits were 8.7, 10.6 and 10.8 for baseline preobesity, moderate obesity, and severe obesity, respectively. Finally, those with weight gain from normal weight and preobesity reported 9.4 and 9.3 visits, respectively, and those with baseline moderate and follow-up severe obesity reported 13.1 visits (the most overall). Women reported higher GP and other physician utilisation. While all utilisation rates increased with age, GP utilisation was lower in middle to high SES groups. Conclusion: Compared to maintained normal weight over a 7- to 10-year period, maintained overweight, weight gain and weight loss are associated with higher outpatient physician utilisation in adults, especially after baseline obesity. These effects only partly became insignificant after inclusion of incident diabetes or first cancer into the model. Future research should further elucidate the associations between weight development and health care utilisation by BMI status and the mechanisms underlying these associations.

Wolfenstetter, Silke B.; Menn, Petra; Holle, Rolf; Mielck, Andreas; Meisinger, Christa; von Lengerke, Thomas

2012-01-01

323

Utilisation de l’huile essentielle d’hélichryse italienne et de l’huile végétale de rose musquée après intervention de chirurgie plastique réparatrice et esthétique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  L’objet de cette étude est de montrer l’intérêt, l’efficacité et la tolérance des huiles essentielles dans la période postopératoire\\u000a immédiate et retardée en chirurgie esthétique et plastique. Les auteurs rapportent leur expérience et les premiers résultats\\u000a de l’utilisation de l’aromathérapie à propos de deux séries de patients de chirurgie de la face et du cou et du thorax. Après\\u000a avoir

V. Voinchet; A.-M. Giraud-Robert

2007-01-01

324

Influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets was examined up to 21?d of age. The experimental design was a 2?×?3 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two grain types (maize and wheat) and three conditioning temperatures (60°C, 75°C and 90°C). Broiler starter diets, each based

M. R. Abdollahi; V. Ravindran; T. J. Wester; G. Ravindran; D. V. Thomas

2010-01-01

325

Functional interactions of manno-oligosaccharides with dietary threonine in chicken gastrointestinal tract. II. Mucosal development, mucin dynamics and nutrient utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A 3?×?2 factorial experimental design was used to investigate the interaction between threonine concentration (0·7, 1·0 and 1·3 of National Research Council (NRC), 1994, recommendations) and manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) supplemented at 0 and 2?g\\/kg on growth performance in relation to intestinal flow of crude mucins, mucosal development and nutrient utilisation.2. There was no interaction between MOS and dietary threonine in

S. H. Chee; P. A. Iji; M. Choct; L. L. Mikkelsen; A. Kocher

2010-01-01

326

A new caffeine biosynthetic pathway in tea leaves: utilisation of adenosine released from the S-adenosyl- L-methionine cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four-step caffeine biosynthetic pathway includes three methylation steps that utilise S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. In the process SAM is converted to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) which in turn is hydrolysed to L-homocysteine and adenosine. Significant amounts of radioactivity from [methyl-14C]methionine and [methyl-14C]SAM were incorporated into theobromine and caffeine in young tea leaf segments, and very high SAH hydrolase activity

Chie Koshiishi; Ayako Kato; Sachiko Yama; Alan Crozier; Hiroshi Ashihara

2001-01-01

327

Quality of core collections for effective utilisation of genetic resources review, discussion and interpretation.  

PubMed

Definition of clear criteria for evaluation of the quality of core collections is a prerequisite for selecting high-quality cores. However, a critical examination of the different methods used in literature, for evaluating the quality of core collections, shows that there are no clear guidelines on the choices of quality evaluation criteria and as a result, inappropriate analyses are sometimes made leading to false conclusions being drawn regarding the quality of core collections and the methods to select such core collections. The choice of criteria for evaluating core collections appears to be based mainly on the fact that those criteria have been used in earlier publications rather than on the actual objectives of the core collection. In this study, we provide insight into different criteria used for evaluating core collections. We also discussed different types of core collections and related each type of core collection to their respective evaluation criteria. Two new criteria based on genetic distance are introduced. The consequences of the different evaluation criteria are illustrated using simulated and experimental data. We strongly recommend the use of the distance-based criteria since they not only allow the simultaneous evaluation of all variables describing the accessions, but they also provide intuitive and interpretable criteria, as compared with the univariate criteria generally used for the evaluation of core collections. Our findings will provide genebank curators and researchers with possibilities to make informed choices when creating, comparing and using core collections. PMID:22983567

Odong, T L; Jansen, J; van Eeuwijk, F A; van Hintum, T J L

2012-09-15

328

Differential host utilisation by different life history stages of the fish ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura).  

PubMed

In this study we examine differences in the occurrence of life history stages of the destructive fish ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) on eight fish species (stickleback, rudd, roach, gudgeon, bream, tench, crucian carp and common carp) sampled from a mixed-species recreational fishing lake on nine occasions during late spring and summer. Total numbers ofA. foliaceus, as well as the number of larval, juvenile and adult parasite stages, from each fish were recorded along with the fish species. Lice generally exhibited an aggregated distribution approximating a negative binomial distribution. Significant differences in the prevalence, intensity and intensity frequency distribution were observed between life history stages and between host species. In general, all life history stages of A. foliaceus exhibited an over-dispersed distribution. However, larval lice did show some degree of aggregation particularly within the stickleback samples. Infection data for parasite larval stages suggested that sticklebacks are more likely to be infected than other host species. For adult lice, however, carp appeared to be the main host. We propose that A. foliaceus infection characteristics are predominantly determined by the level of host exposure to the parasite and its life history stages (larval, juvenile and adult) rather than by an innate difference in host susceptibility related to individual host factors such as immune responses. We conclude that host exposure is determined by the parasite-host behavioural interplay related to species-specific ecology and behavioural traits such as microhabitat preference and normal swimming speed. PMID:18666418

Walker, Peter D; Harris, Jack E; van der Velde, Gerard; Bonga, Sjoerd E Wendelaar

2008-06-01

329

New concepts for the avoidance or utilisation of methane in life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to high resupply costs, especially for long-duration stays in space habitats beyond low earth orbit, future manned space missions will require life support systems (LSS) with a high degree of regenerativity. Possible ways to overcome the waste of resources and to save on resupply mass are therefore of major interest for the development of next generation environmental control and life support systems.The advanced closed-loop system (ACLS) for air revitalization, which is currently being developed by the European Space Agency, will be able to recover the oxygen from exhaled carbon dioxide by use of a Sabatier reactor (see ). However, the employed process generates methane as a side product. Current plans envisage it to be vented over board, but the resulting loss would necessitate the resupply of hydrogen.In order to prevent this waste of methane, there are three options: The LSS could be altered to not produce any methane at all, the methane could be cracked into its constituents and reused, or methane itself could be put to use as a resource.Different approaches were examined, and ideas for a Bosch-Boudouard reactor (no methane production) as well as the design study of a pyrolysis thruster (methane cracking and partial use for propulsion) are presented in this paper.

Kenn, Franz

2011-08-01

330

Cost and Utilisation of Hospital Based Delivery Care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) States of India.  

PubMed

Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India. PMID:23054455

Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

2013-10-01

331

Physiotherapy in degenerative cerebellar ataxias: utilisation, patient satisfaction, and professional expertise.  

PubMed

Physiotherapy plays an important role in the management of patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxias. However, our insight in the quantity and quality of physiotherapy prescription in this group of patients is incomplete. The purposes of this study were to investigate the utilization of physiotherapy and patient satisfaction in patients with degenerative ataxias in The Netherlands and to examine the level of expertise and needs of physiotherapists treating ataxia patients. Questionnaires were sent to members of the Dutch association for patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxias (n?=?532). In addition, 181 questionnaires were sent to the physiotherapists who had recently treated the patients who responded. Eventually, 317 questionnaires from patients (60 %) and 114 questionnaires from physiotherapists (63 %) could be used for further analysis. Sixty-four percent of the patients were currently treated by a physiotherapist. Their median treatment duration was 5 years. Nineteen percent of the patients had never been referred, often despite the presence of limitations in daily activities. On the other hand, some participants without reported limitations had received physiotherapy. In general, participants were satisfied with their physiotherapist. The most reported treatment goals were improvement or maintenance of balance, general physical condition, and mobility. Physiotherapists reported lack of ataxia-specific expertise and expressed the need for education and evidence-based guidelines. Referral to and use of physiotherapy in patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia in The Netherlands are currently inconsistent and not in agreement with the little scientific evidence available. Referral rates are high, but referrals and actual necessity are discrepant; treatment duration is long; and ataxia-specific expertise among physiotherapists is insufficient. Evidence-based recommendations and specific training of physiotherapists are needed. PMID:23733611

Fonteyn, Ella M R; Keus, Samyra H J; Verstappen, Carla C P; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C

2013-12-01

332

Identification, utilisation and mapping of novel transcriptome-based markers from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum)  

PubMed Central

Background Deep-level second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies are now being applied to non-model species as a viable and favourable alternative to Sanger sequencing. Large-scale SNP discovery was undertaken in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) using transcriptome-based 2GS 454 sequencing on the parental genotypes of a reference mapping population, to generate large numbers of novel markers for the construction of a high-density linkage map. Results Over 700,000 reads were produced, from which a total of 7,000 SNPs were found. A subset of polymorphic SNPs was selected to develop a 384-SNP OPA assay using the Illumina BeadXpress platform. Additionally, the data enabled identification of 3,000 novel EST-SSRs. The selected SNPs and SSRs were validated across diverse Ribes germplasm, including mapping populations and other selected Ribes species. SNP-based maps were developed from two blackcurrant mapping populations, incorporating 48% and 27% of assayed SNPs respectively. A relatively high proportion of visually monomorphic SNPs were investigated further by quantitative trait mapping of theta score outputs from BeadStudio analysis, and this enabled additional SNPs to be placed on the two maps. Conclusions The use of 2GS technology for the development of markers is superior to previously described methods, in both numbers of markers and biological informativeness of those markers. Whilst the numbers of reads and assembled contigs were comparable to similar sized studies of other non-model species, here a high proportion of novel genes were discovered across a wide range of putative function and localisation. The potential utility of markers developed using the 2GS approach in downstream breeding applications is discussed.

2011-01-01

333

Production of Phytophthora infestans-resistant potato (Solanum tuberosum) utilising Ensifer adhaerens OV14.  

PubMed

Based on the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation commodity crop improvement through genetic engineering is the fastest adopted crop technology in the world (James 2010). However, the complexity of the Agrobacterium patent landscape remains a challenge for non-patent holders who wish to generate novel varieties for a commercial purpose. The potential of non-Agrobacterium strains (Transbacter(™)) to modify a plant genome has previously been described. However, they are unlikely to be widely used without significant adjustments in transformation protocols in order to improve their gene transfer efficiencies. In this study we set out to identify alternative bacteria species that could (a) utilize vir genes for genetic transformation and (b) substitute for A. tumefaciens in existing transformation protocols, without a prerequisite for protocol modifications. To this end we isolated a collection (n=751) of plant-associated bacteria from the rhizosphere of commercially grown crops. Based on various screens, including plant transformation with the open-source vector pCAMBIA5105, we identified a strain of the bacterium Ensifer adhaerens with the capacity to transform both Arabidopsis thaliana (0.12%) and potato (mean transformation frequency 35.1%). Thereafter, Ensifer adhaerens was used to generate blight- (causative organism Phytophthora infestans) resistant potato using the Solanum bulbocastanum 'resistance to blight' (RB) gene. Resistant genotypes were confirmed by associated molecular analysis and resistant phenotypes demonstrated by the development of hypersensitive lesions on inoculated leaf tissue post-pathogen inoculation. These data confirm the potential of Ensifer-mediated transformation (EMT) as a novel platform for the high frequency generation of transgenic potato. PMID:21912851

Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

2011-09-13

334

Utilisation of a cryptic non-canonical donor splice site of the gene encoding PARAFIBROMIN is associated with familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

More than 99% of all splice sites conform to consensus sequences that usually include the invariant dinucleotides gt and ag at the 5' and 3' ends of the introns, respectively. We report on the utilisation of a non-consensus (non-canonical) donor splice site within exon 1 of the HRPT2 gene in familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). HRPT2 mutations are more frequently associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT). Patients with FIHP were identified to have a donor splice site mutation, IVS1+1 g?a, and the consequences of this for RNA processing were investigated. The mutant mRNA lacked 30 bp and DNA sequence analysis revealed this to result from utilisation of an alternative cryptic non-canonical donor splice site (gaatgt) in exon 1 together with the normally occurring acceptor splice site in intron 1. Translation of this mutant mRNA predicted the in-frame loss of 10 amino acids in the encoded protein, termed PARAFIBROMIN. Thus, these FIHP patients are utilising a ga-ag splice site pair, which until recently was considered to be incompatible with splicing but is now known to occur as a rare (<0.02%) normal splicing variant.

Bradley, K; Cavaco, B; Bowl, M; Harding, B; Young, A; Thakker, R

2005-01-01

335

Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8?months of age, 152?±?12.6?kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n?=?5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180?days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180?days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p?

Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

2012-01-31

336

Venous thromboembolism: annualised United States models for total, hospital-acquired and preventable costs utilising long-term attack rates.  

PubMed

Healthcare reform is upon the United States (US) healthcare system. Prioritisation of preventative efforts will guide necessary transitions within the US healthcare system. While annual deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) costs have recently been defined at the US national level, annual pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) costs have not yet been defined. A decision tree and cost model were developed to estimate US health care costs for total PE, total hospital-acquired PE, and total hospital-acquired "preventable" PE. The previously published DVT cost model was modified, updated and combined with the PE cost model to elucidate the same three categories of costs for VTE. Direct and indirect costs were also delineated. For VTE in the base model, annual cost ranges in 2011 US dollars for total, hospital- acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" costs and were $13.5-$27.2, $9.0-$18.2, and $4.5-$14.2 billion, respectively. The first sensitivity analysis, with higher incidence rates and costs, demonstrated annual US total, hospital-acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" VTE costs ranging from $32.1-$69.3, $23.7-$51.5, and $11.9-$39.3 billion, respectively. The second sensitivity analysis with long-term attack rates (LTAR) for recurrent events and post-thrombotic syndrome and chronic pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension demonstrated annual US total, hospital-acquired, and hospital-acquired "preventable" VTE costs ranging from $15.4-$34.4, $10.3-$25.4, and $5.1-$19.1 billion, respectively. PE costs comprised a majority of the VTE costs. Prioritisation of effective VTE preventative strategies will reduce significant costs, morbidity and mortality within the US healthcare system. The cost models may be utilised to estimate other countries' costs or VTE-specific disease states. PMID:22739656

Mahan, Charles E; Borrego, Matthew E; Woersching, Alex L; Federici, Robert; Downey, Ross; Tiongson, Jay; Bieniarz, Mark C; Cavanaugh, Brendan J; Spyropoulos, Alex C

2012-06-28

337

Utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l'implantation de cabinets automatis?s d?centralis?s en ?tablissement de sant?  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Il existe peu de données sur les conséquences de l’utilisation des cabinets automatisés décentralisés (CAD) en établissements de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive de la conformité des pratiques par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées dans le cadre de l’implantation de CAD. L’objectif principal de l’étude est d’évaluer la conformité globale et celle de chaque processus du circuit du médicament. L’étude se déroule au sein du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère–enfant de 500 lits. À partir des lignes directrices portant sur l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD de l’Institute for Safe Medication Practice (aux États-Unis) (2008) et de son outil d’autoévaluation (2009), nous avons évalué la conformité de la pratique à 30 jours et à 120 jours après l’implantation. Résultats : Nous avons procédé de novembre 2009 à avril 2010 à l’implantation de sept stations de CAD au sein du CHU Sainte-Justine. Le profil de conformité est passé de 66 % à 74 % de janvier à avril 2010. Pour chaque processus relatif à l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD, nous présentons une brève description des critères ainsi que les éléments de non-conformité liés à la technologie ou aux aspects organisationnels. Pour chaque élément de non-conformité, nous avons déterminé les actions requises auprès du fabricant afin de modifier l’équipement (c. à .d. aspects technologiques) et auprès de l’établissement afin de modifier les modalités d’utilisation (aspects organisationnels) en précisant le ou les processus impliqués. Conclusion : Cette étude décrit la conformité des pratiques au CHU Sainte-Justine par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées par l’Institute for Safe Medication Practices. L’utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement peut aider à guider les actions tant sur le plan technologique qu’organisationnel.

Brisseau, Lionel; Bussieres, Jean-Francois; Lebel, Denis; Atkinson, Suzanne; Robinette, Louise; Fortin, Sylvie; Lemay, Michel

2011-01-01

338

Toxines botuliques : utilisation pratique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botulinum toxins (A and B) are neurotoxins derived from Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium are anaerobic bacteria. C. botulinum produces exotoxins (A to G) with distinct antigenicities. The neurotoxins inhibit the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from the axon terminals of motor neurons. Botulinum toxin is officially used in clinic for the treatment of muscular hyperactivity (strabismus, blepharospam, cervical dystonia). Botulinum toxins

A Durand; G Serment

2003-01-01

339

WEB-BASED DDL: AN INSTANCE OF HOW AJAX TECHNOLOGIES CAN IMPROVE LANGUAGE LEARNING WEB APPLICATIONS DDL EN RÉSEAU: UN EXEMPLE D'UTILISATION DES TECHNOLOGIES AJAX POUR AMÉLIORER LES OUTILS INTERNET D'APPRENTISSAGE DES LANGUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé: La contribution présentera un module pour la plateforme Moodle qui permet d'analyser des corpus textuels directement en ligne. La possibilité de réaliser cette activité en ligne offre différents avantages, aussi bien en ce qui concerne les aspects pratiques de l'utilisation des corpus pour l'enseignement des langues (disponibilité des appareils, coûts de réalisation), qu'en ce qui concerne l'utilisation des données

Simone Torsani

340

Availability and utilisation of physician-based pre-hospital critical care support to the NHS ambulance service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background Every day throughout the UK, ambulance services seek medical assistance in providing critically ill or injured patients with pre-hospital care. Objective To identify the current availability and utilisation of physician-based pre-hospital critical care capability across England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Design A postal and telephone survey was undertaken between April and December 2009 of all 13 regional NHS ambulance services, 17 air ambulance charities, 34 organisations affiliated to the British Association for Immediate Care and 215 type 1 emergency departments in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The survey focused on the availability and use of physician-based pre-hospital critical care support. Results The response rate was 100%. Although nine NHS ambulance services recorded physician attendance at 6155 incidents, few could quantify doctor availability and utilisation. All but one of the British Association for Immediate Care organisations deployed ‘only when available’ and only 45% of active doctors could provide critical care support. Eleven air ambulance services (65%) operated with a doctor but only 5 (29%) operated 7?days a week. Fifty-nine EDs (27%) had a pre-hospital team but only 5 (2%) had 24?h deployable critical care capability and none were used regularly. Conclusion There is wide geographical and diurnal variability in availability and utilisation of physician-based pre-hospital critical care support. Only London ambulance service has access to NHS-commissioned 24?h physician-based pre-hospital critical care support. Throughout the rest of the UK, extensive use is made of volunteer doctors and charity sector providers of varying availability and capability.

Mackenzie, Rod; Ng, Gail; Reid, Cliff; Pearson, Gale

2011-01-01

341

100 mW of blue light at 405 nm from intracavity doubling of CW Ti:sapphire laser utilising BiBO-crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

100 mW of coherent blue light with a wavelength of 405 nm was generated utilising a BiB3O6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal to frequency double a Ti:Sapphire laser. Phase match curves as well as sensitivity to angular misalignment was calculated. The BiBO crystal was found to be excellent for this application. Temperature dependance was uncritical for this crystal, while power stability was good. The pump-to-blue optical conversion efficiency was approximately 2%. Unfortunately catastrophic coating damage was observed.

Thorhauge, Morten; Mortensen, Jesper L.; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Buchhave, Preben; Rasmussen, Jesper R.

2006-05-01

342

Toxic effects of some conifer resin acids and tea tree oil on human epithelial and fibroblast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to assess and compare the in vitro cytotoxic effects of three resin acid analogues: dehydroabietic acid, podocarpic acid, O-methylpodocarpic acid; an essential oil from Australia (tea tree oil); and tapped oleoresin from Thailand, on human epithelial and fibroblast cells, using a quantitative neutral red spectrophotometric assay. All of the investigated compounds except for tea tree

Thor A. Söderberg; Anders Johansson; Rolf Gref

1996-01-01

343

The use of primary hepatocytes from brown trout ( Salmo trutta lacustris) and the fish cell lines RTH-149 and ZF-L for in vitro screening of (anti)estrogenic activity of wood extractives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood extractives are constituents of wood present in pulp and paper mill effluents, which may cause reproductive disturbances in fish. In the present study, we examined three cellular in vitro bioassays in order to assess (anti)estrogenic potencies of the wood extractives dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), isopimaric acid (IPA), betulinol (BET), hydroxymatairesinol (HMR), a phytosterol preparation (ULT), an oxidized phytosterol preparation (OX)

I. Christianson-Heiska; B. Isomaa

2008-01-01

344

Retene and resin acid concentrations in sediment profiles of a lake recovering from exposure to pulp mill effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stratigraphy of resin acids (pimaric, isopimaric, sandaracopimaric, dehydroabietic and abietic acids) and base neutral compounds (retene, tetrahydroretene, dehydroabietin and fichtelite) in sediments of a lake recovering after the mill closure from exposure to effluents from sulphite pulp mill was studied. The highest concentrations of these compounds were detected 1.5 km downstream from the effluent pipe in sediment depth of

Harri Leppänen; Aimo Oikari

2001-01-01

345

Study-MATE: Using Text Messaging to Support Student Transition to University Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are most likely to drop out of university when first attending. This article analyses the use of technology in supporting the transition process of "first time" university students enrolled in a second-year accounting course. Study-MATE, a study skills program utilising the university's learning management system (LMS)--Blackboard,…

Cahir, Jayde; Huber, Elaine; Handal, Boris; Dutch, Justin; Nixon, Mark

2012-01-01

346

Aerobic capacity and fractional utilisation of aerobic capacity in elite and non-elite male and female marathon runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The physiology of marathon running has been extensively studied both in the laboratory and in the field, but these investigations\\u000a have been confined to elite competitors. In the present study 28 competitors who took part in a marathon race (42.2 km) have\\u000a been studied; 18 male subjects recorded times from 2 h 19 min 58 s to 4 h 53

R. J. Maughan; J. B. Leiper

1983-01-01

347

The occurrence and removal of selected pharmaceutical compounds in a sewage treatment works utilising activated sludge treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical substances have been detected in sewage effluents as well as receiving waters in many parts of the world. In this study, the occurrence and removal of a number of drug compounds were studied within a large sewage treatment plant in the south of England. Samples were processed using solid phase extraction and analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The

O. A. H. Jones; N. Voulvoulis; J. N. Lester

2007-01-01

348

Utilisation d'une base de recueil des incidents anesthésiques : épidémiologie de l'hypotension artérielle peropératoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. – In order to evaluate the benefits arising from regular recording of intraoperative adverse events, we extracted from our database all episodes of intraoperative hypotension and studied the risk factors of this event.Study design. – Retrospective analysis of a large database from two university teaching hospitals evaluating the incidence and the risk factors of intraoperative hypotension by logistic regression.Patients

V. Luce; Y. Auroy; S. Ausset; P. Luci; H. Velay; D. Benhamou

2004-01-01

349

Health behaviour modelling for prenatal diagnosis in Australia: a geodemographic framework for health service utilisation and policy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the wide availability of prenatal screening and diagnosis, a number of studies have reported no decrease in the rate of babies born with Down syndrome. The objective of this study was to investigate the geodemographic characteristics of women who have prenatal diagnosis in Victoria, Australia, by applying a novel consumer behaviour modelling technique in the analysis of health

Evelyne E Muggli; David McCloskey; Jane L Halliday

2006-01-01

350

Utilisation de la position assise pour les interventions neurochirurgicales en France (résultats d’une enquête nationale)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. – It remains a French and international controversy about the use of the sitting position in neurosurgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of sitting position use, perioperative monitoring and procedures for air embolism detection and treatment.Study design. – National postal surveyPatients and methods. – The survey was sent in may 2000 to the anaesthesiologists

D Liutkus; J. P Gouraud; Y Blanloeil

2003-01-01

351

Meta-analysis of phosphorus utilisation by broilers receiving corn-soyabean meal diets: influence of dietary calcium and microbial phytase.  

PubMed

Pollution relative to phosphorus excretion in poultry manure as well as the soaring prices of phosphate, a non-renewable resource, remain of major importance. Thus, a good understanding of bird response regarding dietary phosphorus (P) is a prerequisite to optimise the utilisation of this essential element in broiler diets. A database built from 15 experiments with 203 treatments was used to predict the response of 21-day-old broilers to dietary non-phytate P (NPP), taking into account the main factors of variation, calcium (Ca) and microbial phytase derived from Aspergillus niger, in terms of average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed (G:F) and tibia ash concentration. All criteria evolve linearly (P < 0.001) and quadratically (P < 0.001) with dietary NPP concentration. Dietary Ca affected the intercept and linear component for ADG (P < 0.01), G:F (P < 0.05) and tibia ash concentration (P < 0.001), whereas for ADFI, it affected only the intercept (P < 0.01). Microbial phytase addition impacted on the intercept, the linear and the quadratic coefficient for ADFI (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.001) and G:F (P < 0.05), and on the intercept and the linear component (P < 0.001) for tibia ash concentration. An evaluation of these models was then performed on a database built from 28 experiments and 255 treatments that were not used to perform the models. Results showed that ADFI, ADG and Tibia ash concentration were predicted fairly well (slope and intercept did not deviate from 0 to 1, respectively), whereas this was not the case for G:F. The increase in dietary Ca concentration aggravated P deficiency for all criteria while phytase addition had a positive effect. The more P deficiency was marked, the more the bird response to ADFI, ADG, G:F and tibia ash concentration was exacerbated. It must also be considered that even if the decrease in dietary Ca may improve P utilisation, it could in turn become limiting for bone mineralisation. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides ways to reduce dietary P in broiler diets without impairing performance, taking into account dietary Ca and microbial phytase. PMID:22445145

Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Lescoat, P; Bernier, J F; Magnin, M; Pomar, C; Nys, Y; Sauvant, D; Jondreville, C

2010-11-01

352

Ostéomyélites aiguës de l’enfant drépanocytaire en zone tropicale : intérêt de l’utilisation des fluoroquinolones par voie orale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. – This study was designed to assess the efficacy and the safety of fluoroquinolones in their compassionate use for acute osteomyelitis in children with sickle cell disease in a tropical country.Patients and methods. – This study was non comparative, including twelve children (eight SS, three SC and one SE°thalassemia) treated for acute osteomyelitis with oral ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin because of the following reasons : financial

A. D Gbadoé; A Dogba; A. Y Dagnra; Y Atakouma; H Tékou; J. K Assimadi

2001-01-01

353

Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Utilisation of Energy and Protein in Broiler Chicken Fed Different Dietary Fat Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of a supplementation of 80mg L-carnitine perkg diet were studied in broiler chicken at two dietary levels of fat (4 and 8 %) and different feeding levels (ad libitum in a growth trial, 95 and 85 % of ad libitum in a balance trial). A low-carnitine basal diet adequate in amino acid concentration was used. In the growth trial,

M. Rodehutscord; R. Timmler; Anke Dieckmann

2002-01-01

354

The Effect of an Education Program Utilising PRECEDE Model on the Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…

Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.

2012-01-01

355

The Effect of an Education Program Utilising PRECEDE Model on the Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background and objective: The problems caused by diabetes have direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life of diabetic patients. An increase of these problems means a decrease in a patient's quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the educational programme based on the precede model in promoting quality of life of…

Taghdisi, M. H.; Borhani, M.; Solhi, M.; Afkari, M. E.; Hosseini, F.

2012-01-01

356

The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

2003-01-01

357

Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of

A Acosta; I Iglesias; M Aineto; M Romero; J. Ma Rincón

2002-01-01

358

Effect of whole and demucilaged linseed in broiler chicken diets on digesta viscosity, nutrient utilisation and intestinal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of linseed or demucilaged linseed in the diet on the performance, fat and fatty acid digestibilities, metabolisability of gross energy and intestinal microflora. 2. The dietary inclusions were 80 and 160 g\\/kg for linseed and 160 g\\/kg for demucilaged linseed. Diets were given to chickens from 1 to

C. Alzueta; M. L. RodrÍguez; M. T. Cutuli; A. RebolÉ; L. T. Ortiz; C. Centeno; J. TreviÑo

2003-01-01

359

Impact de l'utilisation des eaux usées sur le bovin dans la commune des Mzamza, PROVINCE DE SETTAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to determine contamination levels of cattle from two villages (Boukallou and Dladla) of Settat areas and their milk production after the use of wastewater. A herd of sixteen head of cattle was randomly selected in each douar and monthly in the morning faecal samples were collected directly from natural defecation over a period

Chriyaa A

2009-01-01

360

Value Creation through IT-supported Knowledge Management? The Utilisation of a Knowledge Management System in a Global Consulting Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many consulting companies have introduced IT-supported knowledge-management systems, and proponents of the literature continue to advocate knowledge management as a key to competitive advantage in consultancies, many knowledge management systems have fallen short of expectation in companies that have adopted them. However, empirical studies regarding the performance implications of these systems are missing. This paper reports such an empirical,

Karlheinz Kautz; Volker Mahnke

361

Enhancing the Quality of Engineering Education by Utilising Student Feedback: Quality and the Engineering Student Experience--An Institutional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the role of the current student experience questionnaire in gaining student views on their educational experiences while studying at a research-intensive university in Australia. In particular, the paper focuses on the experiences of engineering students. The paper goes on to examine the areas of best practice and those…

Nair, Chenicheri Sid; Patil, Arun; Mertova, Patricie

2011-01-01

362

Layer specific geostatistical coregionalisation of soil organic carbon utilising terrain attributes and spatial patterns of soil redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution soil organic carbon (SOC) maps are a major prerequisite for many environmental studies dealing with carbon stocks and fluxes as well as for biogeochemical modelling. Hence, the development of time and cost effective mapping methods is an important issue. In most cases these maps are interpolated based on measured point SOC data with different horizontal resolution, whereas additional secondary

V. Dlugoß; P. Fiener; K. Schneider

2009-01-01

363

Co-utilisation of CO2 and Calcium Silicate-rich Slags for Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Production (Part II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of commercial calcium carbonate from calcium silicate- rich slag is an attractive concept for reducing CO2 emissions. In order for this calcium carbonate to be marketable it has to be very pure, requiring separation of calcium from the slag prior to carbonation. In this study, a process concept that produces relatively pure calcium carbonate from slag is presented. It

Sanni Eloneva; Sebastian Teir; Jaakko Savolahti; Carl-Johan Fogelholm; Ron Zevenhoven

364

Evaluation of multiplex Polymerase chain reaction utilising multiple targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test negative but culture positive cases: A potential method for enhancing the diagnosis of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Purpose: To evaluate multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPCR) utilising multiple targets (IS6110, Protein b [Pab] and MPB64 genes) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) negative but culture positive cases and comparison of MPCR with Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: MPCR was carried out on 28 culture positive sputum samples. Out of 28 culture positive samples, 17 were originally reported, as MTD test negative and 11 were MTD test positive, respectively. The results of MPCR were compared with RT-PCR. To check the specificity of the tests, MPCR and RT-PCR were also evaluated with 16 non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) isolates. Results: Out of 28 culture positive sputum samples, MPCR was positive in all 28/28 samples, whereas RT-PCR was positive in 27/28 samples and MTD test was originally tested positive in six sputum samples and on repeating MTD testing, five more sputum samples were positive and thus total number of MTD positive were 11/28 sputum samples, respectively. All the tests were negative on evaluation with all the 16 NTMs, thus giving specificity of 100% to all the tests; sensitivity of MPCR, RT-PCR and MTD tests were 100%, 96.42% and 39.28%, respectively, in these specifically selected samples. Conclusions: MPCR may be an important tool in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis especially in disease endemic, resource limited countries. PMID:24064644

Sharma, K; Ashkin, D; Fiorella, P; Willis, D; Dean, S; Sharma, A; Singh, K K; Lee, Y; Pedrosa, M; Singh, G; Sharma, M; Laal, S

365

High dose-rate brachytherapy of prostate cancer utilising Iridium-192 after-loading technique: technical and methodological aspects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to focus on certain characteristic problems associated with Iridium-192 high dose-rate brachytherapy (Ir-192 HDR-BT) in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in the treatment of patients with localised prostate cancer. Over a period of 16 years, >2,000 patients with prostate cancer have been treated in Sweden with a combination of two fractions of 10 Gy Ir-192 HDR-BT and 50 Gy of fractionated EBRT. Although this treatment is usually well tolerated, there are biological and technical factors to be considered before and during the treatment of the patient to avoid side effects or under-treatment of the target volume. Some of the problems facing the doctors are transducer stability, needle deviation, target definition, target motion, pubic arch interference, concomitant diseases and tolerance doses for different organs at risk. These problems are discussed and possible solutions are presented in this study. PMID:17088991

Edgren, M; Ekelund, A M; Albertsson, P; Lundberg, L M; Ullen, A; Levitt, S; Nilsson, S; Lennernäs, B

2006-12-01

366

Effects of cereals and\\/or protein supplement extrusion on diet utilisation and performance of intensively reared cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of extruding the cereal and\\/or the protein supplement of a compound feed on its nutritive value and on the performance of intensively reared male calves was studied. The compound feed was formulated with 0.65 of a cereal blend (60:40 maize:barley), 0.25 of a protein blend (1\\/3:1\\/3:1\\/3 raw soybeans:peas:lupins), and 0.08 of urea to contain 0.17 of crude protein.

E. Solanas; C. Castrillo; M. Fondevila; Q. O. Ruiz Narváez; J. A Guada

2008-01-01

367

Correlation of drug utilisation and morbidity at the municipality level. High use of antibiotics associated with low use of antihypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between Swedish drug sales data per municipality and morbidity per municipality. The morbidity was expressed as “sickness numbers” which are assumed to function as proxy for morbidity.Methods  Sickness numbers per municipality were correlated to volumes of drug sales per municipality in 2003. In addition, the sales volumes of antibiotics were correlated

J. Lars G. Nilsson; Gunnar Lindberg; Hans Johansson; Arne Melander

2006-01-01

368

A Proposed Framework for the Identification of Habitat Utilisation Patterns of Macrophytes in River Po Catchment Basin Lakes (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study, which is based on cover-abundance values of 20 species of floating-leaved and submersed macrophytes collected in 18 lakes located within the River Po catchment basin (Italy), is to investigate the relationships between lake-scale environmental features (including morphology, hydrology, trophic state and water quality variables) and the changes in species composition and species richness in

Alessandro Ludovisi; Piera Pandolfi; M. Illuminata Taticchi

2004-01-01

369

Joie, tristesse ou colère ? Quelles stratégies utilisent les enfants porteurs du syndrome de Williams pour reconnaître des expressions émotionnelles faciales ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with Williams syndrome (WS) show an uneven cognitive profile with relatively spared face-processing skills contrasting with impaired visuospatial cognition. More precisely, deficits to process spatial relationships between elements of a visual pattern (that is, configural processing) have been found in children with WS. The present study aimed at determining whether this configural-processing deficit affects facial-emotion recognition. To this aim,

Christine Deruelle; Andreia Santos

2009-01-01

370

Work-Related Road Safety Risk Assessment: Utilisation of Self-Report Surveys to Predict Organisational Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work-related driving safety is an emerging concern for Australian and overseas organisations. Research has shown that road crashes are the most common cause of work-related fatalities, injuries and absences from work. This study's objectives were to identify driver characteristics which pose potential risks to work-related driving safety within the organisation, as well as determining the value of such self-reported data

B. Rowland; J. Davey; J. Freeman

371

Improvement in mechanical properties of jute fibres through mild alkali treatment as demonstrated by utilisation of the Weibull distribution model.  

PubMed

Chemically modified jute fibres are potentially useful as natural reinforcement in composite materials. Jute fibres were treated with 0.25%-1.0% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 0.5-48 h. The hydrophilicity, surface morphology, crystallinity index, thermal and mechanical characteristics of untreated and alkali treated fibres were studied.The two-parameter Weibull distribution model was applied to deal with the variation in mechanical properties of the natural fibres. Alkali treatment enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break by 82% and 45%, respectively but decreased the hydrophilicity by 50.5% and the diameter of the fibres by 37%. PMID:22209134

Roy, Aparna; Chakraborty, Sumit; Kundu, Sarada Prasad; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Majumder, Subhasish Basu; Adhikari, Basudam

2011-11-30

372

Effect of feeding some plant foods as source of dietary fibre on biological utilisation of diet in rats.  

PubMed

Isoproteinous diets containing 1% cholesterol and 10% fibre derived from plant foods namely, peepalbanti (Ficus religiosa), barbanti (Ficus bengalensis), gullar (Ficus glomerata), teent (Capparis decidua) and khejri beans (Prsopsis cineria) or pure cellulose, were fed to rats for 40 days. Effect of incorporation of these whole plant parts on feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), dry matter digestibility (DMD) and true protein digestibility (TPD) in weanling rats was studied. Their inclusion did not affect the weight gain significantly whereas all other parameters were influenced to a varying extent. Foods rich in lignin had relatively lower FER, DMD and TPD whereas cellulose and pectin rich foods had higher DMD and TPD. PMID:2548174

Agarwal, V; Chauhan, B M

1989-06-01

373

Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing.  

PubMed

The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of these kind of bricks from mixes of waste from ores of construction clays and to significant fraction of different ratios and clay granulometries mixed with IGCC slag. The results of this experimentation suggests that not only can IGCC slag be applied to a ceramic process, but also its use gives several advantages, as water and energy savings, as well as improvements on the final properties of products. PMID:12423050

Acosta, A; Iglesias, I; Aineto, M; Romero, M; Rincón, J Ma

2002-01-01

374

Utilising caging techniques to investigate metal assimilation in Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas at three Irish coastal locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution by metals has been of increasing concern for a number of decades but at present, the mechanism of metal accumulation in sentinel species is not fully understood and further studies are required for environmental risk assessment of metals in aquatic environments. The use of caging techniques has proven to be useful for assessment of water quality in coastal and estuarine environments. This study investigates the application of caging techniques for monitoring uptake of 20 elements [Li, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Cd and Zn] in three marine species namely Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Stable isotopes were used to determine predatory effects and also used for modelling metal uptake in test species and to track nutrient assimilation. Metal levels were monitored at three different coastal locations, namely Dublin Bay, Dunmore East and Omey Island over 18 weeks. Significant differences in concentrations of Mn, Co and Zn between mussels and oysters were found. Correlations between cadmium levels in N. lapillus and ?13C and ?15N suggest dietary influences in Cd uptake. Levels of Zn were highest in C. gigas compared to the other two species and levels of Zn were most elevated at the Dunmore East site. Copper levels were more elevated in all test species at both Dublin Bay and Dunmore East. Mercury was raised in all species at Dunmore East compared to the other two sites. Biotic accumulation of metals in the test species demonstrates that caging techniques can provide a valid tool for biomonitoring in metal impacted areas.

Giltrap, Michelle; Macken, Ailbhe; Davoren, Maria; McGovern, Evin; Foley, Barry; Larsen, Martin; White, Jonathan; McHugh, Brendan

2013-11-01

375

Combined Utilisation of Rapid Assessment Procedures for Loiasis (RAPLOA) and Onchocerciasis (REA) in Rain forest Villages of Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with high microfilarial loads of Loa loa are at increased risk of neurologic serious adverse (SAE) events following ivermectin treatment against onchocerciasis. RAPLOA (Rapid Assessment Procedure for loiasis), a newly developed rapid assessment procedure for loiasis that relates the prevalence of key clinical manifestation of loiasis (history of eye worm) to the level of endemicity of the infection (prevalence of high intensity), is a very useful tool to identify areas at potential risk of L. loa post ivermectin treatment encephalopathy. In a perspective of treatment decision making in areas of co-endemicity of loiasis/onchocerciasis, it would be advantageous (both in time and cost savings) for national onchocerciasis control programmes to use RAPLOA and the Rapid epidemiologic assessment for onchocerciasis (REA), in combination in given surveys. Since each of the two rapid assessment tools have their own specificities, the workability of combining the two methods needed to be tested. Methods We worked in 10 communities of a forest area presumed co-endemic for loiasis and onchocerciasis in the North-West Province of Cameroon where the mass-treatment with ivermectin had not been carried out. A four-step approach was used and comprised: (i) generating data on the prevalence and intensity of loiasis and onchocerciasis in an area where such information is scarce; (ii) testing the relationship between the L. loa microfilaraemia prevalence and the RAPLOA prevalence, (iii) testing the relationship between the O. volvulus microfiladermia prevalence and the REA prevalence, (iv) testing the workability of combining RAPLOA/REA by study teams in which a single individual can perform the interview for RAPLOA and the nodule palpation for REA. Results The microfilaraemia prevalence of loiasis in communities ranged from 3.6% to 14.3%. 6 (0.61%) individuals had L. loa microfilarial loads above 8000 mf/ml but none of them attained 30,000 mf/ml, the threshold value above which the risk of developing neurologic SAE after ivermectin treatment is very high. None of the communities surveyed had RAPLOA prevalence above 40%. All the communities had microfiladermia prevalence above 60%. The microfiladermia results could be confirmed by the rapid epidemiologic method (nodule palpation), with all the 10 communities having REA prevalence above 20%. For the first time, this study has demonstrated that the two rapid assessment procedures for loiasis and onchocerciasis can be carried out simultaneously by a survey team, in which a single individual can administer the questionnaire for RAPLOA and perform the nodule palpation for REA. Conclusion This study has: (i) Revealed that the Momo valley of the North West province of Cameroon is hyperendemic for onchocerciasis, but is of lower level of endemicity for L. loa. (ii) Confirmed the previous relationships established between RAPLOA and the L. loa microfilaraemia prevalence in one hand and between the REA and the O. volvulus microfiladermia prevalence in another hand (iii) Shown that RAPLOA and REA could be used simultaneously for the evaluation of loiasis and onchocerciasis endemicity in areas targeted by the African Programme for onchocerciasis Control for community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI).

Wanji, Samuel; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Esum, Mathias; Yundze, Siker SJ; Taylor, Mark J; Enyong, Peter

2005-01-01

376

Realisation et etude de substrats adaptatifs d'indium phosphide utilisant une couche de nanocavites creee par implantation ionique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the study of a new method of fabricating indium phosphide (InP) compliant substrates by creation of a layer of nanocavities. We study nanocavities created by helium implantation in indium phosphide followed by high temperature thermal annealing. The samples are characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and by transmission electron microscopy. The critical helium dose (?He) and critical annealing temperature (Ta) are found to be 1 x 1016 cm-2 < ?He < 2 x 10 16 cm-2 and 600°C < Ta < 620°C, respectively. The increase of annealing temperature and annealing time (ta) gives larger nanocavities and the increase of ?He gives a larger number of nanocavities. The nanocavities are metastable as they disappear for ta > 25 min at Ta = 640°C and ta > 10 min at Ta = 750°C. The results we obtained for InP are compared to results found in the literature for nanocavities in silicon. In this material, (1) nanocavities are formed at higher temperature and (2) the disappearance of nanocavities at high temperature and long annealing time is not observed. These differences are explained in terms of defect diffusivity and surface energy. We then introduce a new type of compliant substrate based on the creation of a layer of nanocavities. The role of this layer of nanocavities is to mechanically decouple a thin layer on top of the substrate from the lower part. Heterostructures are grown simultaneously on compliant and on conventional substrates and are characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, by transmission electron microscopy, by photoluminescence and by optical absorption. Their relaxation are compared. We find that relaxation is higher with compliant substrates, in conformity with the Kastner-Gosele model for the critical thickness of such substrates. In addition, threading dislocations, which degrade the performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices, are partly threading to the nanocavity layer instead of through the epitaxial layer. Despite this advantage, the quality of the epitaxial layers grown on compliant substrates is slightly inferior to layers grown on conventional substrates, as seen by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and optical absorption. This difference could be related to the defects introduced by ion implantation. Future attempts to improve the quality of layers grown on this kind of compliant substrates might thus aim at the reduction of implantation defects.

Chicoine, Martin

377

Adolescents attending an adult emergency department: their utilisation characteristics and self-reported opinions of care provided.  

PubMed

We aimed to examine the case mix of adolescents presenting to an adult Emergency Department (ED) and to survey a representative sample regarding their perceived care. Of the 323 visits reviewed, 215 (66.6%) were males. Presentations increased at the weekend (151/323, 46.7%). Most visits were non-urgent, 34 (10.5%) were admitted. Acute injuries accounted for 156/215 (72.6%) of male presentations. 12/17 (70.5%) of those with a psychosocial presenting problem registered between 9 p.m. and 9 a.m. 33 adolescents presented during the prospective study period. 6 were excluded, 3 were lost to follow-up. 10/24 (41.7%) described the time they were waiting to be seen by a doctor as unacceptable, 9 (37.5%) wanted more privacy and 11 (45.9%) reported a delay in receiving treatment. Adolescents represent a minority in the ED, but have specific needs. We recommend the availability of age specific health promotion information and training of staff in adolescent healthcare issues. PMID:17886525

Fry, R; Ryan, J; Salter, N; Murrin, C; Kelleher, C C

378

A novel technique for post-mastectomy breast irradiation utilising non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate if non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the post-mastectomy setting can reduce the dose to normal structures and improve target coverage. We compared this IMRT technique with a standard partial wide tangential (PWT) plan and a five-field (5F) photon-electron plan. 10 patients who underwent left-sided mastectomy were planned to 50.4 Gy using either (1) PWT to cover the internal mammary (IM) nodes and supraclavicular fields, (2) 5F comprising standard tangents, supraclavicular fields and an electron field for the IM nodes or (3) IMRT. The planning target volume (PTV) included the left chest wall, supraclavicular, axillary and IM lymph nodes. No beams were directed at the right lung, right breast or heart. Mean dose–volume histograms were constructed by combining the dose–volume histogram data from all 10 patients. The mean PTV to receive 95% of the dose (V95%) was improved with the IMRT plan to 94.2% from 91.4% (p = 0.04) with the PWT plan and from 87.7% (p = 0.012) with the 5F plan. The mean V110% of the PTV was improved to 3.6% for the IMRT plan from 16.8% (p = 0.038) for the PWT plan and from 51.8% (p = 0.001) for the 5F plan. The mean fraction volume receiving 30 Gy (v30Gy) of the heart was improved with the IMRT plan to 2.3% from 7.5% (p = 0.01) for the PWT plan and 4.9% (p = 0.02) for the 5F plan. In conclusion, non-coplanar IMRT results in improved coverage of the PTV and a lower heart dose when compared with a 5F or PWT plan.

Koshy, M; Zhang, B; Naqvi, S; Liu, B; Mohiuddin, M M

2010-01-01

379

Quality of care provided to people with dementia: utilisation and quality of the annual dementia review in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Primary care services are often the main healthcare service for people with dementia; as such, good-quality care at this level is important. Aim To measure the quality of care provided to people with dementia in general practice using routinely collected data, and to explore associated patient and practice factors. Design and setting Observational, cross-sectional review of medical records from general practices (n = 52) in five primary care trusts. Method A total of 994 people with dementia were identified from dementia registers. An unweighted quality-of-care score was constructed using information collected in the annual dementia review, together with pharmacological management of cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms. Multilevel modelling was carried out to identify factors associated with quality-of-care scores. Results In total, 599 out of 745 (80%) patients with dementia had received an annual dementia review; however, a social care review or discussion with carers was evident in just 305 (51%) and 367 (61%) of those 599 cases, respectively. Despite high prevalence of vascular disease, over a quarter (n = 259, 26%) of all patients with dementia were prescribed antipsychotics; only 57% (n = 148) of these had undergone medication review in the previous 6 months. Those with vascular dementia who were registered with single-handed practices received poorer quality of care than those registered with practices that had more than one GP. Conclusion Although the number of people with dementia with a record of an annual dementia review is high, the quality of these reviews is suboptimal. The quality score developed in this study could be used as one source of data to identify weaknesses in practice activity that need to be corrected, and so would be of value to commissioners and regulators, as well as practices themselves.

Connolly, Amanda; Iliffe, Steve; Gaehl, Ella; Campbell, Stephen; Drake, Richard; Morris, Julie; Martin, Helen; Purandare, Nitin

2012-01-01

380

Home Range Utilisation and Long-Range Movement of Estuarine Crocodiles during the Breeding and Nesting Season  

PubMed Central

The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92±0.013 metres total length (TL), mean ± S.E., n?=?4) occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49±0.9 km d?1; n?=?8) during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17±0.14 m TL) exhibited a ‘site-fidelic’ strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81±0.08 m TL) exhibited ‘nomadic’ behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the ‘site-fidelic’ males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the ‘nomadic’ males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions.

Campbell, Hamish A.; Dwyer, Ross G.; Irwin, Terri R.; Franklin, Craig E.

2013-01-01

381

Differences in utilisation of asthma drugs between two neighbouring Swedish provinces: relation to prevalence of obstructive airway disease.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Considerable variation exists in the use of antiasthmatic drugs in different counties in Sweden. The reasons for this variation are unknown. A study was performed to determine if there is an association between sales of antiasthmatic drugs and the prevalence of obstructive airway diseases in two adjoining Swedish counties. METHOD--The prevalence of asthma-associated symptoms in the county of Jämtland where there is high drug use, and the county of Gävleborg where it is lower, was assessed in 1990 by a postal questionnaire answered by 11,300 subjects. Three age groups were included: all 16 year olds, 13% of those aged 30-39 years, and 13% of 60-69 year olds. A total of 2100 subjects reporting airway symptoms in a questionnaire and 450 asymptomatic controls were further investigated at an interview with lung function tests and, in 500 cases, with a methacholine challenge. Asthma was diagnosed in subjects reporting a typical history or repeated episodes of dyspnoea and wheezing, or dry cough combined with reversibility in FEV1, variability in peak expiratory flow, or a PC20 value of < or = 4 mg/ml. RESULTS--The prevalence of current asthma was close to 8% in all age groups in Jämtland and significantly lower (close to 6%) in all age groups in the warmer, more industrialised and more densely populated county of Gävleborg. A gender difference with a higher prevalence in women was found in Gävleborg but not in Jämtland. There was no significant difference in the use of inhaled beta 2 stimulants among subjects with asthma in the two counties. Inhaled steroids were used more often in Jämtland. However, they were used regularly by fewer than 10% of asthmatic subjects in the two younger age groups. CONCLUSION--The differences in the use of antiasthmatic drugs in these two counties reflect a difference in the prevalence of obstructive airway disease. Images

Larsson, L; Boethius, G; Uddenfeldt, M

1994-01-01

382

A quantitative approach to perceived health status: a validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current recognition of the importance of perceived health status as a predictor of need for, and utilisation of, health services has led to attempts to produce indicators which assess subjective rather than objective health problems. The development of the Nottingham Health Profile is described, together with a study which tested the validity of the instrument on four groups of

S M Hunt; S P McKenna; J McEwen; E M Backett; J Williams; E Papp

1980-01-01

383

Personality disorder, depression and functioning: results from the ODIN study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is little information of the prevalence of personality disorder (PD) in those with depressive disorder in community samples; neither is there any data on the impact of PD on service utilisation or outcome in this setting. Methods: A two stage screening study to identify cases of depressive disorder using SCAN in five European countries. Personality assessed 6 months

Patricia Casey; Gail Birbeck; Catherine McDonagh; Ann Horgan; Chris Dowrick; Odd Dalgard; Ville Lethinen; Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos; Graham Dunn; Helen Page; Claire Wilkinson; Greg Wilkinson; Jose Luis Vazquez-Barquero

2004-01-01

384

A Computational Study of External Shear Forces in Biofilm Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct a computational study of biofilm exposure to external detachment forces, utilising techniques from computational fluid dynamics and statistics. The results obtained for irregular arrangements of biofilm colonies are compared with those of evenly distributed colonies. This requires a multitude of flow field simulations in irregular domains. Our findings suggest that the biofilm community as an entity is protected

Jiaying Xu; Rangarajan Sudarsan; Gerarda A. Darlington; Hermann J. Eberl

2008-01-01

385

Effect of dietary monensin inclusion on performance, nutrient utilisation, rumen volatile fatty acid concentration and blood status of West African dwarf bucks fed with basal diets of forages.  

PubMed

This experiment investigated the effect of dietary monensin on performance, nutrient utilisation, rumen volatile fatty acid and blood status in West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed with basal diets of forages. Four concentrate supplements were formulated to include 0 (MO), 15 (M15), 30 (M30) and 45 (M45) mg monensin/kg dry matter. Twenty-four WAD bucks (7.3 ± 1.20 kg initial body weight, aged 9-12 months) were randomly allotted to four experimental diets in a completely randomised design for 90 days, six animals per diet. Results indicated that animals fed M15, M30 and M45 diets had lower (P < 0.01) dry matter and water intake than those fed M0 diet. Crude protein and neutral detergent fibre intakes by the bucks followed similar trend. Animals on M15, M30 and M45 had better (P < 0.001) feed and protein efficiency ratio than those fed M0 diet. Rumen pH and total volatile fatty acid concentration were maintained (P > 0.05) while monensin decreased (P < 0.001) acetate/propionate ratio. Blood glucose increased (P < 0.001) from 59.1 mg/dl in animals on M0 diet to 67.8, 66.0 and 66.3 mg/dl in animals on M15, M30 and M45 diets. Overall, there were no variations among animals on M15, M30 and M45 diets. It is concluded that feeding monensin at 15 to 45 mg/kg DM of supplemental concentrate diets to West African dwarf bucks could be effective in improving feed and protein efficiency, manipulating the rumen for increased propionate production and increasing blood glucose levels. PMID:22201011

Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Oduguwa, Oluseyi Olutosin; Aina, Ayobami Bukola Joseph

2011-12-27

386

Intraurban variations of PM 10 air pollution in Christchurch, New Zealand: Implications for epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies relating air pollution to health effects often utilise one or few central monitoring sites for estimating wider population exposures to outdoor particulate air pollution. These studies often assume that highly correlated particulate concentrations between intraurban sites equate to a uniform concentration field. Several recent studies have questioned the universal validity of this assumption, noting that in some cities,

J. Gaines Wilson; Simon Kingham; Andrew P. Sturman

2006-01-01

387

Utilising Discursive Positioning in Counselling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Foucault's concern with the production of subjectivity has led to the development of positioning theory, as it has been called by Bronwyn Davies, Rom Harr and Luk van Langenhve. The concept of discursive positioning has particular value for counselling because it shows how people are positioned in discourse in particular moments by their own and…

Winslade, John M.

2005-01-01

388

OCEAN ENERGIES: RESOURCES AND UTILISATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14-day cycle, resulting from the superposition of the gravitational fields of the moon and sun. At new moon and full moon, the sun's gravitational field reinforces that of the moon, resulting in maximum tides or spring tides. At quarter phases of the moon, the sun's attraction partially cancels that of the moon, resulting in minimum or neap tides. The

M. TERESA PONTES; ANTÓNIO FALCÃO

389

Innovation in process energy utilisation  

SciTech Connect

A conference was held on energy utilization. Research programs under the following topics were presented: drying and evaporation, energy control systems, thermodynamics, process heating and waste heat recovery, and energy from wastes. The funding of innovative projects in the UK and Europe was also discussed. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

Not Available

1988-01-01

390

Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l'utilisation s?curitaire et efficace des opio?des pour la douleur chronique non canc?reuse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices canadiennes offrent des conseils dont les médecins avaient grand besoin pour les aider à en arriver à un juste équilibre entre le contrôle optimal de la douleur et la sécurité.

Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

2011-01-01

391

Adaptations of hepatic amino acid uptake and net utilisation contributes to nitrogen economy or waste in lambs fed nitrogen- or energy-deficient diets.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of relative changes in dietary nitrogen (N) and energy supply and the subsequent variations in net portal appearance (NPA) of nitrogenous and energy nutrients on the net amino acid (AA) uptake by the liver and net N supply to the peripheral tissues. Six lambs were catheterised across the splanchnic tissues and received, in a replicated Latin square, one of three dietary treatments. The diets were formulated to either match the requirements of N and energy (C), or supply only 0.8 of the N requirement (LN) or 0.8 of the energy requirement (LE). Net fluxes of AA and urea-N were measured across the portal-drained viscera, and estimation of arterial hepatic flow allowed the estimation of hepatic fluxes. Catheters were implanted into the portal and hepatic veins as well as in the abdominal aorta for the measurement of AA fluxes. Animals fed the LN diet showed more efficient N retention (0.59 of digested N) than did the C and LE diet (0.50 and 0.33, respectively; P < 0.001). The NPA of total AA-N for the LN diet was only 0.60 of the value measured for the control (C) diet (P < 0.01). Despite this, the total estimated AA-N net splanchnic fluxes were not significantly different across the three diets (3.3, 1.9 and 2.6 g total AA-N/day for C, LN and LE, respectively, P = 0.52). Thus, different metabolic regulations must have taken place across the liver between the three experimental diets. A combination of decreased net uptake of total AA-N by the liver of animals in the LN diet (0.61 of the C diet; P = 0.002) and reduced urinary urea-N production (0.52 of the C diet; P = 0.001) spared AA from catabolism in the LN diet relative to the other two diets. For the LE diet, the urinary urea-N output was 1.3 times the value of the C diet (P = 0.01). This may relate to an increased catabolism of AA by the muscle and/or, to a lesser extent, to an increased utilisation of AA for gluconeogenesis in the liver. These effects may explain the reduced whole body protein retention observed with the LE diet. PMID:22439991

Kraft, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Durand, D; Rémond, D; Jardé, T; Bequette, B; Savary-Auzeloux, I

2011-04-01

392

Effects of microbial phytase, produced by solid-state fermentation, on the performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers fed maize- and wheat-based diets.  

PubMed

1. The influence of a microbial phytase on the performance, toe ash contents and nutrient utilisation of male broilers fed diets based on maize and wheat was investigated. The experiment was conducted as 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within the factorial, two diet types (maize-soy or wheat-soy) containing two levels of non-phytate phosphorus (3.0 or 4.5 g/kg) were evaluated and each level of non-phytate phosphorus was supplemented with 0 or 500 PU phytase/kg diet. Each of the 8 dietary treatments were fed to 6 pens of 8 birds from d 1 to 21 post-hatching. 2. Main effects of diet type and phytase were observed for all parameters. Main effect of non-phytate phosphorus was significant only for feed/gain and toe ash contents. Phytase addition improved weight gains irrespective of diet type or non-phytate phosphorus level, but the magnitude of improvement in the phosphorus-deficient wheat-soy diet was greater, resulting in a diet type x non-phytate phosphorus interaction. Responses in toe ash contents were noted only in phosphorus-deficient diets, as indicated by a non-phytate phosphorus x phytase interaction. 3. Phytase addition improved apparent metabolisable energy values of wheat-based diets, but had little effect on the apparent metabolisable energy of maize-based diets as shown by a diet type x phytase interaction. The apparent metabolisable energy was not influenced by dietary non-phytate P. 4. Phytase improved ileal nitrogen digestibility in both diet types, but the responses to added phytase tended to be higher in wheat-based diets, as shown by a diet type x phytase interaction. 5. Increasing the dietary non-phytate phosphorus level reduced phosphorus digestibility and increased excreta phosphorus content. Addition of phytase improved phosphorus digestibility, but the increments were higher in low phosphorus diets resulting in a non-phytate phosphorus x phytase interaction. Phytase addition tended to lower the excreta phosphorus content, but the effects were greater in birds fed low phosphorus diets, as shown by a non-phytate phosphorus x phytase interaction. PMID:14965091

Wu, Y B; Ravindran, V; Hendriks, W H

2003-12-01

393

Lesson Study: An Effective School-Based Teacher Professional Learning Model for Teachers of Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on ongoing research in a cluster of schools in the outer south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne which is utilising Lesson Study as a peer observation model for mathematics teaching. The findings from nine initial Lesson Study sessions undertaken by cluster teachers to develop a Fractions Teaching Program are presented. The results indicate the success of the fractions tasks

Peter Sanders

394

A study of children's acts and interactions during play with different play materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of this study first and foremost was to test the fruitfulness of a very detailed characterisation of the individual acts, including speech acts, performed during play episodes (settings) by children aged 4, 6 and 8 years. The theoretical basis is Austin's speech act theory which, in previous studies, has been utilised as the point of departure for analyses

Hans Vejleskov

1995-01-01

395

The relationship between EUV dimming and coronal mass ejections. I. Statistical study and probability model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:There have been many studies of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) dimming in association with coronal mass ejection (CME) onsets. However, there has never been a thorough statistical study of this association, covering appropriate temperature ranges. Thus, we make use of a large campaign database utilising the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and the Large Angle and Spectrometric COronagraph (LASCO) both on the SOlar

D. Bewsher; R. A. Harrison; D. S. Brown

2008-01-01

396

The Applicability of Social Network Analysis to the Study of Networked Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studying networked learning (NL) by applying social network analysis (SNA) has gained popularity in recent years. However, it appears that in the context of NL the choice of SNA indices is very often dictated by using easily achievable SNA tools. Most studies in this field only involve a single group of students and utilise simple indices, such…

Toikkanen, Tarmo; Lipponen, Lasse

2011-01-01

397

Design Cognition: Results From Protocol And Other Empirical Studies Of Design Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews protocol and other empirical studies of design activity, and summarises results relevant to understanding the nature of design cognition from an interdisciplinary, domain-independent overview. Results are presented in three major aspects of design cognition - the formulation of problems, the generation of solutions, and the utilisation of design process strategies. Parallels and comparisons between results are drawn,

Nigel Cross

2001-01-01

398

Does long contact with the soil improve the efficiency of rock phosphate? Results of isotopic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of incubation on the fate of phosphorus in four phosphatic fertilizers (diammonium phosphate and three rock phosphates) applied to four weakly acid to acid soils was studied. Percent utilisation of fertilizer P by the crop was measured by isotopic labelling and the level and quality of available soil P following addition of fertilizer was measured by the isotopic

Jean-Claude Fardeau; Christian Morel; Michel Jahiel

1988-01-01

399

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENTIATION ON PRISON POPULATION: A SIMULATION STUDY OF THE SWEDISH PRISON SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the case of a simulation study of the Swedish Prison and Probation system regarded as a queuing system. The situation in Swedish prisons today is not acceptable with a utilisation over 100 per cent. The short-term solution of the problem has been to overcrowd the prisons. The purpose of this work is to describe the relations between

Fredrik Persson; Anna Palmerius; Joakim Barkman

400

Energy system feasibility study of an Otto cycle\\/Stirling cycle hybrid automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilising a Stirling cycle engine as an exhaust gas waste heat recovery device for an Otto cycle internal combustion engine (ICE) in the context of an automotive power plant. The hybrid arrangement would produce increased brake power output for a given fuel consumption rate when compared to an ICE

Barry Cullen; Jim McGovern

2010-01-01

401

An exploratory study of auditors’ responsibility for fraud detection in Barbados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recently, fraud has been brought to the forefront with the scandals of Enron and Worldcom. Fraudulent financial reporting and misappropriation of assets served to undermine investors’ confidence in audited financial statements. This study investigates how auditors and users perceive the auditors’ responsibility for uncovering fraud, the nature and extent of fraud in Barbados, and audit procedures utilised in

Philmore Alleyne; Michael Howard

2005-01-01

402

Positron emission tomography in venous ulceration and liposclerosis: study of regional tissue function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen-15 administered by continuous inhalation and emission computed tomography were used to study regional tissue oxygen utilisation and blood flow in the limbs of 11 patients with venous ulceration and five patients with liposclerosis due to venous insufficiency. The results showed increased blood flow and appreciably reduced fractional oxygen extraction in the diseased tissues. These findings indicated a local, functional

N F Hopkins; T J Spinks; C G Rhodes; A S Ranicar; C W Jamieson

1983-01-01

403

A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHANGE IN THE ENGLISH NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal comparative case study of three National Health Service (NHS) hospital Trusts in England, investigating the perceptions of clinical, managerial and accounting professionals towards changing cost accounting and performance measurement practices. It incorporates both qualitative and quantitative data analysis, and is based on a contextualist understanding of change management, utilising the content?process?context approach

Lynne Conrad

2011-01-01

404

A numerical heat transfer study of slot jet impinging on an inclined plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to conduct a numerical study to investigate heat transfer in turbulent, unconfined, submerged, and inclined impinging jet discharged from a slot nozzle, utilising finite volume code FLUENT. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two re-normalisation group k-? and the basic Reynolds stress models by using enhanced wall treatment for near wall turbulent modelling were applied and the local Nusselt

Ahad Ramezanpour; Iraj Mirzaee; David Firth; Hassan Shirvani

2007-01-01

405

Do controlling maternal behaviours increase state anxiety in children's responses to a social threat? A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has demonstrated a link between controlling parenting and child anxiety. However, the causal nature of this association has not yet been established since most previous studies have utilised cross-sectional designs. The aim of the current study was to implement an experimental design to examine the impact of maternal control on children's state anxiety when faced with a social

Alice de Wilde; Ronald M. Rapee

2008-01-01

406

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

407

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

408

A short synthesis of phenanthro[2,3- d]imidazoles from dehydroabietic acid. Application of the methodology as a convenient route to benzimidazoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl cis-deisopropyldehydroabietate was selectively nitrated at the 12-position by reaction with ‘claycop’, a montmorillonite clay impregnated with copper(II) nitrate. The 12-nitro compound was reduced to the corresponding amine and this was subjected to a combined acylation and ortho nitration. The compounds so produced were further converted into octahydro-1H-phenanthro[2,3-d]imidazoles by reductive cyclization. The same acylation-ortho nitration methodology was shown to provide

Tatiana Fonseca; Bárbara Gigante; Thomas L Gilchrist

2001-01-01

409

Structural MRI studies of language function in the undamaged brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the demonstration that structural changes can occur in the human brain beyond those associated with development,\\u000a ageing and neuropathology has revealed a new approach to studying the neural basis of behaviour. In this review paper, we\\u000a focus on structural imaging studies of language that have utilised behavioural measures in order to investigate the neural\\u000a correlates of language

Fiona M. Richardson; Cathy J. Price

2009-01-01

410

Parent–child interactions and anxiety disorders: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has indicated a potential link between anxiety and parenting styles that are characterised by control and rejection. However, few studies have utilised observational methods to support these findings. In the current study, mother–child interactions were observed while the child completed two difficult cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of clinically anxious children (n=43), oppositional defiant children (n=20) and non-clinical

Jennifer L Hudson; Ronald M Rapee

2001-01-01

411

Les recommandations th?rapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associ?s ? l'utilisation d'antipsychotiques de deuxi?me g?n?ration chez les enfants et les adolescents  

PubMed Central

HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il faudrait évaluer ces recommandations d’après les avis d’experts plutôt que d’après les données probantes. CONCLUSION : Les cliniciens doivent savoir que les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération ont le potentiel d’induire des effets secondaires neurologiques et devraient faire preuve d’une extrême vigilance lorsqu’ils en prescrivent.

Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

2012-01-01

412

AND THE WINNERS ARE STUDENTS, ACADEMIC STAFF AND LIBRARIANS. INFORMATION LITERACY FOR NURSES: A CASE STUDY AT LA TROBE UNIVERSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is a case study of the experience from a library perspective introducing a new Information Literacy subject into the Bachelor of Nursing at La Trobe University in 2003. Lecturers in Nursing and Librarians from three campuses make up the teaching team with a variety of course delivery methods utilised. Subject delivery includes lectures, directed activities and an online

Jeanette Dazkiw; Beverley Forsyth

413

Measuring maintenance culture and maintenance core task with CULTURE-questionnaire––a case study in the power industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisational culture has become a focus of much attention in industry in general and the nuclear industry in particular. In maintenance work, the research has addressed mainly human error issues or strategic decision making and optimisation. The present study utilises the CULTURE-questionnaire that is designed to measure the different cultural aspects of complex organisations. Functioning of the questionnaire and the

T. Reiman; P. Oedewald

2004-01-01

414

A parabolic solar collector heat-pipe heat exchanger reactor assembly for cyclohexane's dehydrogenation: A simuation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is an optimum large scale fuel for the future, although there remain some problems in transport and long-term storage. One has to develop the use of alternative fuels that are easily transformed into hydrogen and that can be stored in liquid form, and, thus, more safely and economically. A simulation study on the possibility of the utilisation of cyclohexane

M. Charia; A. Bernatchou

1998-01-01

415

The Contribution of Drinking Water towards Dental Fluorosis: A case study of Njoro Division, Nakuru District, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to measure the fluoride levels of water consumed in the Njoro division of Nakuru district, Kenya. The sources of drinking water, methods of water storage and utilisation, as well as the perceptions of the local community towards dental fluorosis and the percentage of children with moderate to severe dental fluorosis were also determined. Rainwater had

WILKISTER K. NYAORA MOTURI; Mwakio P. Tole; Theo C. Davies

2002-01-01

416

Multilingual Literacies in Transnational Digitally Mediated Contexts: An Exploratory Study of Immigrant Teens in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships…

Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Rosario-Ramos, Enid

2009-01-01

417

Using BBN for Integrating Human and Organisational Factors in Risk Analysis. A Case Study for the Marine Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach for integrating human and organisational factors into risk analysis. This approach has been developed and applied to a case study in the marine industry, but it can be utilised in other industrial sectors. The approach consists of a BBN model of the maritime transport system that has been developed by taking into account the

Mauro Pedrali; Paolo Trucco; Enrico Cagno; Fabrizio Ruggeri

418

40,000 memories in young teenagers: Psychometric properties of the Autobiographical Memory Test in a UK cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is widely used its psychometric properties have rarely been investigated. This paper utilises data gathered from a 10-item written version of the AMT, completed by 5792 adolescents participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, to examine the psychometric properties of the measure. The results show that the scale derived from responses

Jon Heron; Catherine Crane; David Gunnell; Glyn Lewis; Jonathan Evans; J. Mark G. Williams

2012-01-01

419

Multilingual literacies in transnational digitally mediated contexts: an exploratory study of immigrant teens in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships with friends and families, and engage with news and media

Wan Shun Eva Lam; Enid Rosario-Ramos

2009-01-01

420

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

2010-01-01

421

A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

2010-01-01

422

A longitudinal study of domestic water conservation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1988 study of a school-linked sample in a metropolitan and a regional urban area established baseline data for knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behavior with regard to water management and conservation (Murphy, Watson, & Moore, 1991). This paper reports on a 1991 follow-up, utilising both longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of students, teachers and parents, which aimed at identifying changes within

Susan Moore; Margot Murphy; Ray Watson

1994-01-01

423

Training emotional intelligence: Presenting the results of an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation outlines the results of an eighteen month study examining the effect of an emotions focused training intervention on the emotional intelligence of employees from a large public sector organisation. Utilising an experimental methodology, 280 staff attended a two-day program focused on training emotional intelligence skills and abilities. These interventions were created around Mayer and Salovey’s four-branch model of

Jane P Murray; Peter J Jordan; Neal M Ashkanasy

2006-01-01

424

ICD-10 mortality coding and the NCIS: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The collection and utilisation of mortality data are often hindered by limited access to contextual details of the circumstances surrounding fatal incidents. The National Coroners Information System (NCIS) can provide researchers with access to such information. The NCIS search capabilities have been enhanced by the inclusion of data supplied by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), specifically the ICD-10 Cause of Death code set. A comparative study was conducted to identify consistencies and differences between ABS ICD-10 codes and those that could be generated by utilising the full NCIS record. Discrepancies between the two sets of codes were detected in over 50% of cases, which highlighted the importance of access to complete and timely documentation in the assignment of accurate and detailed cause of death codes. PMID:18195402

Daking, Leanne; Dodds, Leonie

2007-01-01

425

Unipolar depression across cultures: A Delphi analysis of the methodological and conceptual issues confronting the cross-cultural study of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research is to investigate the epistemological and methodological discrepancies involved in the cross-cultural study of unipolar depression. These discrepancies include the methodological design and measurement of depression and culture, and the epistemological variation in researchers as to whether depression is a universal or socially constructed phenomenon. A Delphi procedure was utilised which enabled a group of

Melinda Redmond; Rosanna Rooney; Brian Bishop

2006-01-01

426

Preparing for Portfolio Assessment in Art and Design: A Study of the Opinions and Experiences of Exiting Secondary School Students in Canada, England and The Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study utilises survey questionnaires to compare 107 Canadian, English and Dutch students' opinions and experiences of portfolio preparation for final assessment in the terminal year of secondary school. The aim is to reveal what students value about portfolio assessment and if they see portfolio assessment as a valid preparation for their…

Blaikie, Fiona; Schnau, Diederik; Steers, John

2004-01-01

427

Social class and risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Federal Republic of Germany. Results of the baseline survey of the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study (GCP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between social class and seven important risk factors for coronary heart disease has been evaluated utilising data from the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study baseline survey. Of German residents aged 25 to 69 years, 16,430 were randomly selected from both the six intervention regions and the Federal Republic of Germany to undergo the screening procedures between 1984 and 1986.

U Helmert; B Herman; K H Joeckel; E Greiser; J Madans

1989-01-01

428

Use of acute hospital beds does not increase as the population ages: results from a seven year cohort study in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: (1) To compare the number of hospital days used by survivors with those by persons in their last, second last, and third last year of life in relation to age; (2) to analyse lifelong hospital utilisation in relation to life expectancy.Design: Cohort study using a 10% sample (stratified by age and sex) of persons insured by one sickness fund.Setting:

R Busse; C Krauth; F W Schwartz

2002-01-01

429

The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 ?g m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 ?g m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/dehydroabietic acid and retene were not found in the samples suggesting there is a difference in the long-distance transport samples of an Asian forest fire and the controlled experiments reported in the literature. Similar to the biomass burning in Amazonia (Abas et al., 1995), the present study also showed an absence of conifer tracers in the smoke aerosols indicating tropical wood sources. Abundant friedelin, a specific biomarker for smoke from oak wood fires (Standley and Simoneit, 1990), was present in the late September samples when the fire was more intense. The results were compared to literature values from an earlier study of the haze episode on 29 September 1991 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Abas and Simoneit, 1996).

Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

430

POTENTIALITIES AND LIMITS OF THE GOES8 VISIBLE IMAGERY TO STUDY THE EFFECTIVE MAGNITUDE OF DEFORESTATION IN MATO-GROSSO, BRAZIL. A COMPARISON WITH NOAA-AVHRR MULTISPECTRAL DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of testing the potentialities and limits of the GOES-8 visible imagery to study the deforestation in Mato -Grosso, Brazil. The method has utilised data from the GOES-8 (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) geostationary satellite and multispectral data from the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) on the NOAA polar orbiters. The objectives of this study are

VINCENT DUBREUIL; MORGAN LAGRÉE; VINCENT NÉDÉLEC; CLEUSA ZAMPARONI

431

Translating research into maternal health care policy: a qualitative case study of the use of evidence in policies for the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few empirical studies of research utilisation have been conducted in low and middle income countries. This paper explores how research information, in particular findings from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, informed policy making and clinical guideline development for the use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative case-study approach

Karen Daniels; Simon Lewin

2008-01-01

432

THE EFFECT OF PRE-EXERCISE DIETARY MANIP- ULATION ON ATP UTILISATION AND METABOLISM DURING SIMULATED DUATHLON TIME TRIAL PER FORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Duathlon is a multi-sport event that has re- ceived little attention in terms of dietary intervention studies but presents an ideal form of exercise in which the devel- opment of appropriate nutritional strategies might benefit performance. This study investigated the effect of high car- bohydrate and high fat meals on the metabolic responses to simulated duathlon time trials. Methods:

Sparks Andy; Bridge Nina; Cable Tim

433

Campagne de Propagation en Milieu Maritime, Utilisant UN Systeme Numerique a 36 Ghz (Propagation Campaign in a Marine Environment Utilizing a Digital System at 36 Ghz).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A propagation study in a maritime environment that took place at the end of 1984 on the French Atlantic coast is discussed. An 8.448 Mbit/s system working at 36 GHz was used. This experiment studied the attenuation at 36 GHZ caused by rain behavior as wel...

Y. Hurtaud A. Junchat

1987-01-01

434

A comparison of the health status and health care utilisation patterns between foreigners and the national population in Spain: new evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of inequalities in health and in the access to health services is one of the main objectives in any health care system. Various studies have analysed the existence of inequalities in health and in the use of health care for the Spanish population. However, the empirical evidence for the immigrant collective on this issue is as yet insufficient.

C Hernández Quevedo; Dolores Jiménez Rubio

2008-01-01