Sample records for study cell morphology

  1. Morphology Study of Bulk Heterojuction Solar Cells Based on PCDTBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin-Wei; Russell, Thomas; Emrick, Todd

    2012-02-01

    To achieve high efficiency, the processing of conditions bulk heterojunction photovoltaic are important so that the desired morphology favoring efficient charge separation, electron and hole transportation can be generated. Solar cells based on poly[N-9"-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt- 5,5-(4',7'-di- 2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) as the donor system have been made. The effect of solvent, additives and annealing temperature have been systematically investigated. Grazing incidence small angle scattering (GI-SAXS), wide angle scattering (GI-WAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were utilized to study the morphology.

  2. Live-cell imaging study of mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells irradiated

    PubMed Central

    Kanari, Yukiko; Noguchi, Miho; Kaminaga, Kiichi; Sakamoto, Yuka; Yokoya, Akinari

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that extranuclear targets in cytoplasm may have a role in mediating radiation effects in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation. We have focused mitochondria as a target of ionizing radiation, particularly heavy ions, because mitochondria are a kind of organelles existing widely in cytoplasm. They play a vitally important role of ATP formation through the operation of electron transport chain located in the membranes, and generate reactive oxygen species as a by-product in the process of ATP production. As mitochondria are fusing or dividing depended on cell cycle, their morphology is continuously changing [ 1]. Defects of these processes contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. Effects of high LET irradiation, such as heavy ion bombardment, on mitochondrial morphology, however, remain to be fully elucidated. The object of this study is to reveal effects of high LET radiation on mitochondria. We have performed preliminary test experiments using X-rays. We used NMuMG (Normal murine mammary gland)-FUCCI2 cell line [ 2]. Using the FUCCI2-expressing cells, we can distinguish G1 or S/G2/M phase cells as observed red or green fluorescence in their nucleus. We also labeled mitochondria by another fluorescence probe, Mitotracker Red. Kinetics of mitochondrial morphology was analyzed by the live-cell imaging technique using a fluorescence microscope. Mitochondrial images were captured at certain hours after irradiation, and classified them into three categories, namely tubes, intermediates and fragments (Fig. 1). We found that X-ray irradiation of cells caused mitochondrial fragmentation, and cell population with fragmented mitochondria increased with increasing dose, and also with time after irradiation (Fig. 1). Although the cells became confluent around 48 h after irradiation as indicated by the cell-nucleus color, the mitochondrial morphology was still changing. Particularly, the population of the cells with fragments showed a maximum at 96 h after irradiation when they were exposed to 8 Gy X-rays. Based on the present study, we further investigate morphological changes of mitochondria by high LET particle irradiation in future. Fig. 1.Relative fraction of cells showing each morphology for non-irradiated (control) and charectors of mitochondrial morphology. Irradiated with (1) 0Gy, (2) 6 Gy and (2) 8 Gy. The cell cycles are also shown by solid lines. (a) Mostly mitochondria look tubular. (b) Both tubular and fragment forms are observed with the same rate in a cell. (c) Mitochondria are visible as dots, and straggle in whole cytoplasm.

  3. EARLY EFFECTS OF TRIMETHYLTIN ON THE DENTATE GYRUS BASKET CELLS: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrophysiological evidence for reduction of recurrent inhibition in the dentate gyrus in animals exposed to trimethyltin (TMT) suggested alterations in the inhibitory neurons (basket cells) by TMT. The present study was designed to investigate the morphology of basket cells af...

  4. Viral infection in placenta relevant cells--a morphological and immunohistochemical cell culture study.

    PubMed

    Turowski, Gitta; Rollag, Halvor; Roald, Borghild

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections in pregnancy are known to cause fetal malformation, growth restriction, and even fetal death. Macroscopic placental examination usually shows slight and unspecific changes. Histology may show secondary, non-specific tissue reaction, i.e. villitis with lymphocytic invasion. Primary specific morphology characteristics are known for some virus, like cytomegalovirus, parvovirus, and herpes simplex, however many viral infections show non-specific changes. Placenta relevant cells as human first trimester trophoblasts HTR8/SVneo, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and primary human embryonic fibroblasts were examined following infection with commonly occurring virus like adenovirus and enterovirus. Morphology in routine stained sections and virus-specific immunostains were studied 4, 8, 24, 48, 72 h after infection. Nuclear enlargement was seen in the infected cells. A specific diagnosis of adenovirus or enterovirus infection, however, was not possible without specific immunostains. PMID:25244625

  5. Effect of Cold Plasma on Glial Cell Morphology Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Recek, Nina; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Keidar, Michael; Cvelbar, Uros; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran; Sherman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is broadly used to study the morphology of cells. The morphological characteristics and differences of the cell membrane between normal human astrocytes and glial tumor cells are not well explored. Following treatment with cold atmospheric plasma, evaluation of the selective effect of plasma on cell viability of tumor cells is poorly understood and requires further evaluation. Using AFM we imaged morphology of glial cells before and after cold atmospheric plasma treatment. To look more closely at the effect of plasma on cell membrane, high resolution imaging was used. We report the differences between normal human astrocytes and human glioblastoma cells by considering the membrane surface details. Our data, obtained for the first time on these cells using atomic force microscopy, argue for an architectural feature on the cell membrane, i.e. brush layers, different in normal human astrocytes as compared to glioblastoma cells. The brush layer disappears from the cell membrane surface of normal E6/E7 cells and is maintained in the glioblastoma U87 cells after plasma treatment. PMID:25803024

  6. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity study on uncoated magnetic nanoparticles: effects on cell viability, cell morphology, and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Mak, K Y; Shi, J; Koon, H K; Leung, C H; Wong, C M; Leung, C W; Mak, C S K; Chan, N M M; Zhong, W; Lin, K W; Wu, E X; Pong, P W T

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs) must be biocompatible, and a thorough knowledge on their potential cytotoxicity is crucial for their biomedical applications. However, the detailed study about the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on cell viability, cell morphology, and cellular uptake of different mammalian cells is still insufficient. In this paper, comparative cytotoxicity study of uncoated magnetite nanoparticles at different concentrations was performed on human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and immortalized normal human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (RPE). The size, structure, and magnetic behavior of the MIONPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) respectively. After 24-hour incubation with the MIONPs, the cell viability was determined by live/dead assay, the cell morphology at high magnification was observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the cellular uptake of MIONPs was measured under TEM and verified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Our results indicate that the uncoated MIONPs at a high concentration (0.40 mg/ml) were toxic to both HeLa and RPE cells. However, the cytotoxicity of uncoated MIONPs at low concentrations was cell-type specific, and RPE cells were more susceptible to these MIONPs than HeLa cells. The effects of the MIONPs on cell morphology and the nanoparticles uptake also showed different features between these two cell lines. Hence cell type should be taken into consideration in the in vitro cytotoxicity study of uncoated MIONPs. Additionally, it should be noticed that the cell morphological changes and the uptake of nanoparticles can take place even though no toxic effect of these MIONPs at low concentrations was reflected in the traditional cell viability assay. PMID:23447952

  7. Bullous keratopathy: a study of endothelial cell morphology in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A K; Cheng, H

    1988-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative endothelial cell morphology was examined in three types of patients participating in a randomised, controlled trial of cataract surgery. The first sustained modest endothelial cell loss and served as controls, the second and third sustained high cell loss, but only the latter progressed to bullous keratopathy. The technique of examining endothelial cell morphology is described and its validity assessed. Measures of cell area, number of sides, side length, and variation in cell size and cell shape were utilised. No significant differences were found between the three groups by any of the preoperative morphological measures. Furthermore, postoperative values of variation in cell shape and cell size did not differ significantly between the groups. No evidence was found in our patients to support the hypothesis that eyes at particular risk of developing bullous keratopathy may be differentiated on the basis of their preoperative or early postoperative endothelial cell morphology. PMID:3390413

  8. Morphology study on ternary blend polymer solar cell to achieve improved device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jihua; Russell, Thomas P.

    2013-10-01

    Ternary blend solar cells are considered presents one route to construct the devices with a broad absorption of the solar spectrum. However, the morphological studies on such mixtures have been limited. Here, the morphology of P3HT/PCPDTBT/PC61BM ternary blend thin films were studied. By adjusting the blending ratio of two polymers, P3HT molecular weight, thermal annealing time and spin-coating solvents, the crystallinity of both polymers and phase separation among each component were controlled. It was found that a high crystallinity of the polymers is important for good device performance. Due to the crystallization of the polymers and the immiscibility between P3HT and PCPDTBT, a hierarchical morphology was generated that mimicked a tandem cell connected in parallel and extended the absorption. In addition, the amorphous PCPDTBT was found to guide the orientation of P3HT nanocrystals before they merged into fibrils, and it also served as a photosensitizer to form a cascade energy level alignment. Therefore, the two polymers worked synergistically to achieve the improved device performance relative to the binary reference.

  9. Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain. PMID:24665354

  10. Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain. PMID:24665354

  11. Studying subcellular detail in fixed astrocytes: dissociation of morphologically intact glial cells (DIMIGs)

    PubMed Central

    Haseleu, Julia; Anlauf, Enrico; Blaess, Sandra; Endl, Elmar; Derouiche, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Studying the distribution of astrocytic antigens is particularly hard when they are localized in their fine, peripheral astrocyte processes (PAPs), since these processes often have a diameter comparable to vesicles and small organelles. The most appropriate technique is immunoelectron microscopy, which is, however, a time-consuming procedure. Even in high resolution light microscopy, antigen localization is difficult to detect due to the small dimensions of these processes, and overlay from antigen in surrounding non-glial cells. Yet, PAPs frequently display antigens related to motility and glia-synaptic interaction. Here, we describe the dissociation of morphologically intact glial cells (DIMIGs), permitting unambiguous antigen localization using epifluorescence microscopy. Astrocytes are dissociated from juvenile (p13–15) mouse cortex by applying papain treatment and cytospin centrifugation to attach the cells to a slide. The cells and their complete processes including the PAPs is thus projected in 2D. The entire procedure takes 2.5–3 h. We show by morphometry that the diameter of DIMIGs, including the PAPs is similar to that of astrocytes in situ. In contrast to cell culture, results derived from this procedure allow for direct conclusions relating to (1) the presence of an antigen in cortical astrocytes, (2) subcellular antigen distribution, in particular when localized in the PAPs. The detailed resolution is shown in an exemplary study of the organization of the astrocytic cytoskeleton components actin, ezrin, tubulin, and GFAP. The distribution of connexin 43 in relation to a single astrocyte's process tree is also investigated. PMID:23653590

  12. Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis

    PubMed Central

    NAKADA, Kojin; FUJISAWA, Kuniyasu; HORIUCHI, Hiroyuki; FURUSAWA, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of chromatin in thrombocytes are different from those of lymphocytes or neutrophils, but some small neutrophils have similar chromatin. Therefore, it is necessary to perform peroxidase staining to distinguish small neutrophils from thrombocytes. Basophils have large basophilic granules in cytoplasm. Based on density fractionation of blood cells, thrombocytes in the low-density area were separated from other blood cells. Identification of peripheral blood cells from ayu was possible with these staining methods. Monocytes/macrophages from spleen are specifically positive for esterase staining by ?-naphthyl butyrate. As a result, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils and monocytes/macrophages were identified in smears from peripheral blood or spleen tissue. In this paper, we confirmed that the peripheral blood corpuscles of ayu are able to be identified using the present staining methods. PMID:24476851

  13. Idiopathic prolactin cell hyperplasia of the pituitary mimicking prolactin cell adenoma: a morphological study including immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and in situ hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Jay; K. Kovacs; E. Horvath; R. V. Lloyd; H. S. Smyth

    1991-01-01

    Prolactin cell adenoma is the most frequently found lesion in surgically removed pituitaries of patients with hyperprolactinemia. However, in several instances, instead of prolactin cell adenoma, other lesions are encountered by morphological investigation. We report here the morphological findings in a patient with hyperprolactinemia who underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for suspected prolactin cell adenoma. A morphological diagnosis of tumor could

  14. Growth, morphology and chemosensitivity studies on postconfluent cells cultured in 'V'-bottomed microtiter plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PE Pizao; DM Lyaruu; GJ Peters; J van Ark-Otte; B Winograd; G Giaccone; HM Pinedo

    1992-01-01

    This study assessed the growth pattern, cellular organisation and chemosensitivity of established human tumour cell lines growing as postconfluent cultures in 'V'-bottomed, 96-well microtiter plates. Cross-sections of the colon (HT29, SW620, SW1116), ovarian (A2780) and head and neck (UM-SCC-22B) carcinoma microcultures allowed in situ evaluation of the cellular organisation in the wells. After 5 days of growth, every cell line

  15. LYMPHOCYTE-LIKE CELLS OF THE TUNICATE, PYURA STOLONIFERA: BINDING OF LECTINS, MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory W Warr; Janet M Decker; Thomas E Mandel; Dominick DeLuca; Richard Hudson; John J Marchalonis

    1977-01-01

    In vitro investigations were carried out to determine whether lymphocyte-like (small round) cells of the tunicate Pyura stolonifera react to allogeneic cells and mitogens in a manner comparable to that of vertebrate immunocytes. The lymphocyte-like cells possessed receptors for concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin and soybean lectin as shown by binding of radioiodinated lectins in scintillation counting and autoradiographic assays.

  16. Isolation of Mesophyll Cells and Bundle Sheath Cells from Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Leaves and a Scanning Microscopy Study of the Internal Leaf Cell Morphology.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G E; Black, C C

    1971-01-01

    A technique is described for the separation of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells from Digitaria sanguinalis leaves and evidence for separation is given with light and scanning electron micrographs. Gentle grinding of fully differentiated leaves in a mortar releases mesophyll cells which are isolated on nylon nets by filtration. More extensive grinding of the remaining tissue yields bundle sheath strands which are isolated by filtration with stainless steel sieves and nylon nets. Further grinding of bundle sheath strands in a tissue homogenizer releases bundle sheath cells which are collected on nylon nets. Percentage of purity derived from cell counts and yield data on a chlorophyll basis are given.The internal leaf cell morphology is presented in scanning electron micrographs and compared with light micrographs of fully-differentiated D. sanguinalis leaves. In leaves of plants which possess the C(4)-dicarboxylic acid cycle of photosynthesis, the relationship of leaf morphology to photosynthesis in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells is considered, and the hypothesis is presented that as atmospheric CO(2) enters a leaf about 85% is fixed by the C(4)-dicarboxylic acid cycle in the mesophyll cells and 10 to 15% is fixed by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle in the bundle sheath cells.A technique also is given for the isolation of mesophyll cells from spinach leaves. PMID:16657571

  17. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shengyong; Zhao, Mingzhu; Wu, Guang; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed. PMID:22272215

  18. A simulation study on the effects of dendritic morphology on layer V prefrontal pyramidal cell firing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Psarrou, Maria; Stefanou, Stefanos S.; Papoutsi, Athanasia; Tzilivaki, Alexandra; Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal cells, the most abundant neurons in neocortex, exhibit significant structural variability across different brain areas and layers in different species. Moreover, in response to a somatic step current, these cells display a range of firing behaviors, the most common being (1) repetitive action potentials (Regular Spiking—RS), and (2) an initial cluster of 2–5 action potentials with short interspike interval (ISIs) followed by single spikes (Intrinsic Bursting—IB). A correlation between firing behavior and dendritic morphology has recently been reported. In this work we use computational modeling to investigate quantitatively the effects of the basal dendritic tree morphology on the firing behavior of 112 three-dimensional reconstructions of layer V PFC rat pyramidal cells. Particularly, we focus on how different morphological (diameter, total length, volume, and branch number) and passive [Mean Electrotonic Path length (MEP)] features of basal dendritic trees shape somatic firing when the spatial distribution of ionic mechanisms in the basal dendritic trees is uniform or non-uniform. Our results suggest that total length, volume and branch number are the best morphological parameters to discriminate the cells as RS or IB, regardless of the distribution of ionic mechanisms in basal trees. The discriminatory power of total length, volume, and branch number remains high in the presence of different apical dendrites. These results suggest that morphological variations in the basal dendritic trees of layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC influence their firing patterns in a predictive manner and may in turn influence the information processing capabilities of these neurons. PMID:25278837

  19. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: A two-dimensional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.

  20. Different effects of sonoporation on cell morphology and viability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Zhen; Saggar, Jasdeep K.; Zhou, Zhao-Li; Bing-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate changes in cell morphology and viability after sonoporation. Sonoportion was achieved by ultrasound (21 kHz) exposure on adherent human prostate cancer DU145 cells in the cell culture dishes with the presence of microbubble contrast agents and calcein (a cell impermeant dye). We investigated changes in cell morphology immediately after sonoporation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and changes in cell viability immediately and 6 h after sonoporation under fluorescence microscope. It was shown that various levels of intracellular calcein uptake and changes in cell morphology can be caused immediately after sonoporation: smooth cell surface, pores in the membrane and irregular cell surface. Immediately after sonoporation, both groups of cells with high levels of calcein uptake and low levels of calcein uptake were viable; 6 h after sonoporation, group of cells with low levels of calcein uptake still remained viable, while group of cells with high levels of calcein uptake died. Sonoporation induces different effects on cell morphology, intracellular calcein uptake and cell viability PMID:22642588

  1. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  2. Rapidly recurring folliculostellate cell tumor of the adenohypophysis with the morphology of a spindle cell oncocytoma: case report with electron microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Coiré, C I; Horvath, E; Smyth, H S; Kovacs, K

    2009-01-01

    We report a rapidly recurring folliculostellate cell tumor of the adenohypophysis in a 63-year-old woman. Morphologically the tumor had the typical appearance of a spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis. It recurred within 5 months of selective transsphenoidal resection, requiring a second transsphenoidal operation followed by radiation therapy. The spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) of the adenohypophysis is a relatively recently described entity and a new addition to the fourth edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System. In our case, the ultrastructural features were significantly different from those so far described in SCO, in that tumor cells formed a network of structures indistinguishable from pituitary follicles. In addition, a minority of tumor cells exhibited endocrine differentiation. PMID:19642510

  3. On-line study of fungal morphology during submerged growth in a small flow-through cell.

    PubMed

    Spohr, A; Dam-Mikkelsen, C; Carlsen, M; Nielsen, J; Villadsen, J

    1998-06-01

    A flow-through cell is designed to measure the growth kinetics of hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae grown submerged in a well controlled environment. The different stages of the growth process are characterized, from the spore to the fully developed hyphal element with up to 60 branches and a total length lt up to 10,000 micrometer. Spore swelling is found to occur without change in the form of the spore (circularity index constant at about 1.06) and the spore volume probably increases exponentially. The germ tube appears after about 4 h. The branching frequency and the rate of germ tube extension is determined. After about 10 h growth at a glucose concentration of 250 mg L-1, 6-7 branches have been set, and both the total hyphal length lt and the number of tips increase exponentially with time. The specific growth rate of the hyphae is 0. 33 h-1 while the average rate of the extension of the growing tips approaches 55 micrometer h-1. The growth kinetics for all the branches on the main hypha have also been found. The main hypha and all the branches grow at a rate which can be modeled by saturation kinetics with respect to the branch length and with nearly equal final tip speeds (160 micrometer h-1). Branches set near the apical tip of the main hypha attain their final tip speed in the shortest time, i.e., the value of the saturation parameter is small. Finally, the influence of substrate (glucose) concentration cs on the values of the morphological parameters has been determined. It is found that saturation type kinetics can be used to describe the influence of cs on the growth. Experiments with recirculation of effluent from the cell back to the inlet strongly suggest that the fungus secretes an inducer for growth and branching. PMID:10099291

  4. A novel mechanotactic 3D modeling of cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Doweidar, Mohamed Hamdy

    2014-08-01

    Cell morphology plays a critical role in many biological processes, such as cell migration, tissue development, wound healing and tumor growth. Recent investigations demonstrate that, among other stimuli, cells adapt their shapes according to their substrate stiffness. Until now, the development of this process has not been clear. Therefore, in this work, a new three-dimensional (3D) computational model for cell morphology has been developed. This model is based on a previous cell migration model presented by the same authors. The new model considers that during cell-substrate interaction, cell shape is governed by internal cell deformation, which leads to an accurate prediction of the cell shape according to the mechanical characteristic of its surrounding micro-environment. To study this phenomenon, the model has been applied to different numerical cases. The obtained results, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental works, indicate that cell morphology not only depends on substrate stiffness but also on the substrate boundary conditions. A cell located within an unconstrained soft substrate (several kPa) with uniform stiffness is unable to adhere to its substrate or to send out pseudopodia. When the substrate stiffness increases to tens of kPa (intermediate and rigid substrates), the cell can adequately adhere to its substrate. Subsequently, as the traction forces exerted by the cell increase, the cell elongates and its shape changes. Within very stiff (hard) substrates, the cell cannot penetrate into its substrate or send out pseudopodia. On the other hand, a cell is found to be more elongated within substrates with a constrained surface. However, this elongation decreases when the cell approaches it. It can be concluded that the higher the net traction force, the greater the cell elongation, the larger the cell membrane area, and the less random the cell alignment. PMID:25051183

  5. A novel mechanotactic 3D modeling of cell morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaleddin Mousavi, Seyed; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    Cell morphology plays a critical role in many biological processes, such as cell migration, tissue development, wound healing and tumor growth. Recent investigations demonstrate that, among other stimuli, cells adapt their shapes according to their substrate stiffness. Until now, the development of this process has not been clear. Therefore, in this work, a new three-dimensional (3D) computational model for cell morphology has been developed. This model is based on a previous cell migration model presented by the same authors. The new model considers that during cell-substrate interaction, cell shape is governed by internal cell deformation, which leads to an accurate prediction of the cell shape according to the mechanical characteristic of its surrounding micro-environment. To study this phenomenon, the model has been applied to different numerical cases. The obtained results, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental works, indicate that cell morphology not only depends on substrate stiffness but also on the substrate boundary conditions. A cell located within an unconstrained soft substrate (several kPa) with uniform stiffness is unable to adhere to its substrate or to send out pseudopodia. When the substrate stiffness increases to tens of kPa (intermediate and rigid substrates), the cell can adequately adhere to its substrate. Subsequently, as the traction forces exerted by the cell increase, the cell elongates and its shape changes. Within very stiff (hard) substrates, the cell cannot penetrate into its substrate or send out pseudopodia. On the other hand, a cell is found to be more elongated within substrates with a constrained surface. However, this elongation decreases when the cell approaches it. It can be concluded that the higher the net traction force, the greater the cell elongation, the larger the cell membrane area, and the less random the cell alignment.

  6. Morphology characterization of organic solar cell materials and blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehling, John Daniel

    The organization of polymers and fullerenes, both in their pure states and mixed together, have a large impact on their macroscopic properties. For mixtures used in organic solar cells, the morphology of the mixture has a very large impact upon the mixture's ability to efficiently convert sunlight into useful electrical energy. Understanding how the morphology can change under certain processing conditions and in turn, affect the characteristics of the solar cell is therefore important to improving the function of organic solar cells. Conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells have served as a staple system to study organic solar cell function for nearly a decade. Much of the understanding of how to make these "poorly"conductive organic materials efficiently convert sunlight into electricity has come from the study of P3HT:PCBM. It has long been understood that in order for a polymer:fullerene (electron donor and acceptor, respectively) mixture to function well as a solar cell, two major criteria for the morphology must be met; first, the interface between the two materials must be large to efficiently create charges, and secondly, there must be continous pathways through the "pure" materials for charges to be efficiently collected at the electrodes. This makes it advantageous for OPV materials to phase-separate into interconnected domains with very small domain sizes, a structure that P3HT:PCBM seems to naturally self-assemble. Despite P3HT:PCBM's ability to reach an optimal morphology, a complete understanding of exactly how the morphology affects device performance has not been realized. Completely different morphological models can end up predicting the same device performance characteristics. Much of the problem comes from the assumed morphology within a particular model, which can often be incorrect. The problem lies in the fact that obtaining real, accurate morphological information is difficult. An often neglected morphological feature is the existence of a third mixed phase, which is often unaccounted for because much about its composition and location are poorly understood. Obtaining this information and measuring the full morphology of OPV layers would therefore enable further understanding of device function. It is the aim of this thesis to demonstrate a technique which can measure the morphology of OPV layers accurately, accounting for the third phase and its composition. By using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) in conjunction with electron tomography (ET) and an easily resolved fullerene component, the morphology of P3HT:fullerene layers are herein investigated. The combination of materials and techniques are demonstrated to accurately measure the morphology, illustrated by results which corroborate previous studies in the literature. It will be shown that not only can the position of each of the three phases present be measured, but their compositions can also be determined. Through this technique, morphologies formed under different processing conditions are quantitatively compared. The technique reveals differences between conventional processing methods that are not obvious through other measurements. Differences in the materials distribution throughout the thickness of the layer are also demonstrated and shown to give implications toward device function. Additionally, the precise changes in morphology which occur from different processing conditions are determined and shown to have a significant impact upon the properties of an OPV layer as a solar energy harvester. Not only does the morphology of the mixed materials affect the solar cell properties, but the local structure of the component materials themselves can strongly influence the macroscopic properties. By removing the fullerene component and forming pure domains of P3HT, the effects of internal structure on the properties of P3HT and how the structure is formed is also herein investigated. Through these techniques, the morphology and structure of diffe

  7. Multiple myeloma cells and cells of the human osteoclast lineage share morphological and cell surface markers.

    PubMed

    Faust, J; Hunt, P; Scully, S; Shalhoub, V

    1998-12-15

    This study demonstrates that the multiple myeloma cell (MMC) in its plasma cell form is morphologically indistinguishable from human osteoclast-like cells that form in culture when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are plated at high density in serum containing medium. MM has been described as a disease of B-cell lineage, monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) producing cells with unique properties: MM precursor cells lodge in bone, where they proliferate and differentiate into plasma cell tumors. Then, by some mechanism, presumably involving cytokines, these cells mediate an increase in neighboring osteoclast numbers and activity, leading to excessive bone erosion and hypercalcemia. Three days after plating PBMCs, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase- (TRAP-) blasts as well as TRAP+ cells, each with an eccentric nucleus, appear in culture. By day 10, TRAP+, vitronectin+ (VR+) cells, appear to be morphologically indistinguishable from multiple myeloma plasma cells (MMPCs) on cytocentrifuge preparations. These cells are CD19- and CD38++, as are MMCs reported by others. Other surface markers are also shared. Furthermore, Ig mRNA is demonstrated in the cytoplasm of cells at 8 days by in situ hybridization with the IgG FcA3 sequence. This novel finding is not unusual, in light of reports, demonstrating non-B-lineage Ig-producing cells. Thus, this study raises some serious questions about the true nature of MMCs. PMID:9827701

  8. Systematic investigation of structural and morphological studies on doped TiO2 nanoparticles for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugadoss, G.; Jayavel, R.; Rajesh Kumar, M.

    2014-12-01

    Optical, structural and thermal properties of the doped with different ions (transition metals, other metals or post transition metals, non-metals, alkali metals and lanthanides) in TiO2 nanocrystals were investigated. The doped nanoparticles were synthesized by modified chemical method. Ethanol-deionised water mixer (20:1) was used as solvent for synthesize of the undoped and doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Systematic studies on structural and morphological changes by thermal treatment on TiO2 were examined. It has been observed that with Eu and Al doping TiO2, the phase transition temperature for anatase to rutile phase increased. Blue and red shifting absorptions were observed for doped TiO2 in visible region. Among the dopant, significant blue shift was obtained for Cu, Cd, Ag, Y, Ce and In doped TiO2 and red shift was obtained for Zr, Sm, Al, Na, S, Fe, Ni, Eu and Gd doped TiO2 nanoparticles.

  9. Morphologic changes in basal cells during repair of tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Z.; Evans, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Burke, A. S.; Zhu, Q.; Herndon, D. N.; Barrow, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Basal cells are differentiated with respect to junctional adhesion mechanisms and play a role in attachment of columnar epithelium to the basal lamina. Although much is known about nonciliated and ciliated cell differentiation during the repair process after injury, little is known about the basal cell. We studied the morphology of basal cells and quantitated junctional adhesion structures during repair of tracheal epithelium exposed to toxic cotton smoke. Ten adult ewes were given a smoke injury to a portion of the upper cervical trachea and were killed at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 days after injury for morphometric studies. At 4 days, there was a stratified reparative epithelium over the basal lamina, which was two to four cells in depth. The basal cells were identified by their hemidesmosome (HD) attachment to the basal lamina. Basal cells were about 69% larger than controls and flattened rather than columnar. The amount of HD attachment was 192% greater than controls. In contrast, volume density of cytokeratin filaments had decreased about 47%. Basal cells had returned to normal numbers and size and a columnar shape by day 18. The amount of desmosome (D) and HD attachment and volume density of cytokeratins had also reached control levels by day 18. These data indicate that morphology of basal cells changes during the initial stages of reparative regeneration but returns to normal by 18 days. Morphologic changes appear to reflect changes in size of the cell associated with cell division rather than differentiation of recently divided basal cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1381564

  10. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  11. Organochlorines and metals induce changes in the mitochondria-rich cells of fish gills: an integrative field study involving chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M N; Paulino, M G; Sakuragui, M M; Ramos, C A; Pereira, C D S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H

    2013-01-15

    Through integrating chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on the gill mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in two fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, collected from five sites (FU10, FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50) in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and zinc as well as organochlorine (aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and metolachlor) contamination at all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Copper, chrome, iron and zinc were detected in the gills of both species, and aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide were detected in the gills of fish from all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Fish collected at FU20, FU30 and FU50 exhibited numerous alterations in the surface architecture of their pavement cells and MRCs. The surface MRC density and MRC fractional area were lower in fish from FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50 than in those from the reference site (FU10) in the winter, and some variability between the sites was observed in the summer. The organochlorine contamination at FU20 and FU50 was associated with variable changes in the MRCs and inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, especially in P. maculatus. At FU30, the alterations in the MRCs were associated with the contaminants present, especially metals. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a positive association between the biological responses of both species and environmental contamination, indicating that under realistic conditions, a mixture of organochlorines and metals affected the MRCs by inhibiting NKA activity and inducing morphological changes, which may cause an ionic imbalance. PMID:23220410

  12. Morphological and electrophysiological characterization of layer III cells of the medial entorhinal cortex of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Gloveli; D Schmitz; R. M Empson; T Dugladze; U Heinemann

    1997-01-01

    Entorhinal cortex layer III cells send their axons into hippocampal area CA1, forming the less well studied branch of the perforant path. Using electrophysiological and morphological techniques within a slice preparation, we can classify medial entorhinal cortex layer III cells into four different types. Type 1 and 2 cells were projection cells. Type 1 cells fired regularly and possessed high

  13. Heme-oxygenase-1 implications in cell morphology and the adhesive behavior of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gueron, Geraldine; Giudice, Jimena; Valacco, Pia; Paez, Alejandra; Elguero, Belen; Toscani, Martin; Jaworski, Felipe; Leskow, Federico Coluccio; Cotignola, Javier; Marti, Marcelo; Binaghi, Maria; Navone, Nora; Vazquez, Elba

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Although previous studies in PCa have focused on cell adherens junctions (AJs), key players in metastasis, they have left the molecular mechanisms unexplored. Inflammation and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical in the regulation of cell adhesion and the integrity of the epithelium. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) counteracts oxidative and inflammatory damage. Here, we investigated whether HO-1 is implicated in the adhesive and morphological properties of tumor cells. Genes differentially regulated by HO-1 were enriched for cell motility and adhesion biological processes. HO-1 induction, increased E-cadherin and ?-catenin levels. Immunofluorescence analyses showed a striking remodeling of E-cadherin/?-catenin based AJs under HO-1 modulation. Interestingly, the enhanced levels of E-cadherin and ?-catenin coincided with a markedly change in cell morphology. To further our analysis we sought to identify HO-1 binding proteins that might participate in the regulation of cell morphology. A proteomics approach identified Muskelin, as a novel HO-1 partner, strongly implicated in cell morphology regulation. These results define a novel role for HO-1 in modulating the architecture of cell-cell interactions, favoring a less aggressive phenotype and further supporting its anti-tumoral function in PCa. PMID:24961479

  14. Morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of polar fox kidney.

    PubMed

    Laszczy?ska, Maria; O?go, Ma?gorzata; Szymeczko, Roman; Wylot, Marcin; S?uczanowska-G??bowska, Sylwia; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Skrzypczak, Wies?aw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphology and intermediate filaments cytokeratin, desmin and vimentin expression in the kidneys of the polar fox (Alopex lagopus). Routine morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques of examinations of the kidneys of adult male and female polar foxes were used. We found different localizations and different levels of immunoexpression of cytokeratin in epithelia of calyxes, distal tubules and Henle's loops, and also in endothelial cells. We also noted immunolocalization and immunoexpression of vimentin in mesangial cells, interstitial tissue and distal tubules. Desmin reactivity was revealed for muscle cells of arteries and mesangial cells. Our study is the first attempt to localize cytoskeletal intermediate filaments performed on polar fox kidneys. It is worth noting that our observations concerning the distribution of vimentin in the polar fox kidney may suggest that protein as being useful as a marker of distal tubules in the polar fox kidney. PMID:22532141

  15. Morphological characteristics of cultured olfactory bulb cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Fracek; L. Guo; R. Schafer

    1994-01-01

    Cultured olfactory bulb cells from embryonic mice had ultrastructural characteristics similar to those of many cell types in the intact adult mouse olfactory bulb. Identified cultured cells included mitral\\/tufted cells, granule cells, short-axon cells, and fibrous and protoplasmic astrocytes. Cultured neurons were found as individual cells, clusters or aggregates. Clusters consisted of a loose array of neurons that appeared to

  16. Freezing behavior of adherent neuron-like cells and morphological change and viability of post-thaw cells.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of nerve cells forming a neuronal network has largely been neglected, despite the fact that the cryopreservation of nerve cells benefits the study of cells in the areas of medicine and poison screening. Freezing of nerve cells is also attractive for studying cell morphology because of the characteristic long, thread-like neurites extending from the cell body. In the present study, freezing of neuron-like cells adhering to the substrate (differentiated PC12 cells), in physiological saline, was investigated in order to understand the fundamental freezing and thawing characteristics of nerve cells with neurites. The microscopic freezing behavior of cells under different cooling rates was observed. Next, the post-thaw morphological changes in the cells, including the cytoskeleton, were investigated and post-thaw cell viability was evaluated by dye exclusion using propidium iodide. Two categories of morphological changes, beading and shortening of the neurites, were found and quantified. Also, the morphological changes of neurites due to osmotic stress from sodium chloride were studied to gain a better understanding of causation. The results showed that morphological changes and cell death were promoted with a decrease in end temperature during freezing. PMID:25645578

  17. Morphological Purkinje cell changes in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Hashizume, Y; Yoshida, M; Wang, Y; Goto, Y; Mitsuma, N; Ishikawa, K; Mizusawa, H

    2000-10-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) was recently identified as a form of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia associated with a small CAG repeat expansion of the gene encoding an alpha 1 A-voltage-dependent calcium channel gene subunit on chromosome 19p13. In this study 50-microm-thick sections of cerebellar tissue from one patient with SCA6 were subjected to free-floating immunohistochemical staining with calbindin-D and parvalbumin antibodies. Severe loss of Purkinje cells was found, particularly in the vermis, and various morphological changes in Purkinje cells and their dendritic arborizations were demonstrated. Many of the remaining Purkinje cells were found to have heterotopic, irregularly shaped nuclei, an unclear cytoplasmic membrane outline, and somatic sprouts. Increased numbers of spine-like protrusions from swelling dendritic arborizations were found in the molecular layer. The axonal arrangement was disordered, and many torpedos were found in the granular layer and white matters. These morphological changes are completely different from those observed in paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) and are considered to be related to the genetic abnormality that causes abnormal development of Purkinje cells. PMID:10985694

  18. A LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED IN RAT LIVER CELLS BY THE AZO DYE 2-ME-DAB

    PubMed Central

    Lafontaine, J. G.; Allard, C.

    1964-01-01

    The cytological changes induced in rat liver cells by the aminoazo dye 2-Me-DAB have been examined by light and electron microscopy. It is observed that this non-carcinogenic compound duplicates most of the morphological alterations produced by other hepatotoxins, some of which, such as the closely related aminoazo dye 3'-Me-DAB, are potent carcinogens. These non-specific effects involve both the granular and agranular forms of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as the glycogen content of hepatic cells. The arrays of cisternal profiles of the granular reticulum in normal hepatic cells become disorganized and the dispersed cisternae often appear fragmented and irregular. Large cytoplasmic inclusions, consisting of loosely organized tubules and vesicles, are also observed which result from a hypertrophy of the agranular reticulum. The glycogen in the cells progressively decreases in amount. The most specific effect of 2-Me-DAB is to induce an increase in the number of mitochondria per cell. Many of these organelles are characterized by the presence of a median double membrane continuous with the inner limiting membrane of the mitochondrial envelope. Evidence is presented in favor of the view that this partition is directly related to the phenomenon of mitochondrial division. It was noted also in the course of the experiment that an increasing number of cells appear which stain quite intensely with methylene blue and appear denser than normal under electron microscopy. The significance of these cells is not known. PMID:14195607

  19. Morphology of bulk heterojunction materials in polymer based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wanli

    Solar cell technology based on conjugated polymer/fullerene composites continues to be of interest as a potential source of renewable energy. By applying rigorous fabrication conditions and postproduction annealing at 150°C, polymer solar cells with 5% power conversion efficiency are demonstrated. These devices exhibit remarkable thermal stability. We attribute the improved performance to morphology changes in the bulk heterojunction material induced by thermal annealing. Poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, as a semiconducting polymer with relatively high hole mobility, has been widely used in organic polymer photovoltaic (PV) cells. After investigation of the morphology and performance of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/PCBM solar cell using P3HT with different molecular weight, we conclude that the optimum annealing temperature for solar cell devices is related to the MW of P3HT; the best performance can be obtained by using mixed P3HT with optimum ratio between high MW and low MW polymers. The corresponding "ideal morphology" would be comprised of highly ordered crystalline regions formed by low MW P3HT embedded and interconnected by a high MW P3HT matrix. Extensive studies of the morphology revealed that polymer solar cell performance depends strongly on the nanoscale phase separation network of the P3HT and fullerene components. Spatial Fourier transforms and power spectral density were used to analyze digital images (obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM) of such network in bulk heterojunction material. The power spectral density obtained from the spatial Fourier transform of the TEM images provides a detailed and quantitative description of the bulk heterojunction material and the kinetics of the phase separation. We also calculated the fractal dimension, the chemical distance, the fractal dimension of a random walk, and finally the effect of an applied electric field on the transport within the interpenetrating network of P3HT/fullerene bulk heterojunction materials. According to the simulations, charge carriers travel along a pathway ˜4 times longer than the regular Euclidean distance. In an applied electric field, the drift speed of charged carriers is reduced (lower by a factor 10˜20 than in a pure single component film) because of field-induced trapping on the tortuous network.

  20. In vitro study of the cytotoxicity of isolated oxidized lipid low-density lipoproteins fractions in human endothelial cells: relationship with the glutathione status and cell morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice Therond; Annie Abella; Denis Laurent; Martine Couturier; Jacqueline Chalas; Alain Legrand; Albert Lindenbaum

    2000-01-01

    Toxic effects of oxidized lipid compounds contained in oxidized LDL to endothelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in the redox status of the cell and in the protective effect against oxidant injuries. However, little is known about the respective effect of these different oxidized lipid compounds toward cytotoxicity and GSH status

  1. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney with prominent papillary component, a non-classic morphologic variant. A histologic, immunohistochemical, electron microscopic and fluorescence in situ hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Burke, Allen P; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Richards, Stephanie M; Zou, Ying S

    2014-07-01

    Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) is a rare type of kidney tumor with relatively indolent behavior. Non-classic morphological variants have not been well studied and rarely been reported. We report a challenging case MTSCC with a peculiar morphology in a 42-year-old man, arising in a background of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Predominant areas with extensive papillary architecture, psammoma bodies and stromal macrophageal aggregates, reminiscent of a papillary renal cell carcinoma (papillary RCC), were intermixed with foci that transitioned into a MTSCC-like morphology exhibiting elongated tubules and a low grade spindle cell component in a background of mucinous stroma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated diffuse positivity for P504s/AMACR and vimentin in tumor cells. Focal positivity for RCC, CD10 and CK7 was also noted. Kidney-specific cadherin, cytokeratin 34betaE12 and TFE3 stains were negative in the tumor. The major differential diagnostic considerations were papillary RCC, clear cell papillary RCC, and Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma. Negative FISH studies for trisomy 7 and 17 in both papillary and spindled components supported the diagnosis of MTSCC. The ultrastructural profile was not entirely indicative of the cellular origin of the tumor. Cytogenetic analysis should be performed in atypical cases of MTSCC for precise diagnosis. PMID:24702883

  2. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in normal Iranian eyes

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Mohammad Nasser; Moghimi, Sasan; Fard, Masood Aghsaie; Fallah, Mohammad Reza; Mansouri, Mohammad Reza

    2006-01-01

    Background We describe corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in normal Iranian eyes and compare endothelial cell characteristics in the Iranian population with data available in the literature for American and Indian populations. Methods Specular microscopy was performed in 525 eyes of normal Iranian people aged 20 to 85 years old. The studied parameters including mean endothelial cell density (MCD), mean cell area (MCA) and coefficient of variation (CV) in cell area were analyzed in all of the 525 eyes. Results MCD was 1961 ± 457 cell/mm2 and MCA was 537.0 ± 137.4 ?m2. There was no statistically significant difference in MCD, MCA and CV between genders (Student t-test, P = 0.85, P = 0.97 and P = 0.15 respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD with age (P < 0.001, r = -0.64). The rate of cell loss was 0.6% per year. There was also a statistically significant increase in MCA (P < 0.001,r = 0.56) and CV (P < 0.001, r = 0.30) from 20 to 85 years of age. Conclusion The first normative data for the endothelium of Iranian eyes seems to confirm that there are no differences in MCD, MCA and CV between genders. Nevertheless, the values obtained in Iranian eyes seem to be different to those reported by the literature in Indian and American populations. PMID:16519812

  3. Morphological characteristics of cultured olfactory bulb cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Fracek; L. Guo; R. Schafer

    1994-01-01

    Cultured olfactory bulb cells from embryonic mice had ultrastructural characteristics similar to those of many cell types\\u000a in the intact adult mouse olfactory bulb. Identified cultured cells included mitral\\/tufted cells, granule cells, short-axon\\u000a cells, and fibrous and protoplasmic astrocytes. Cultured neurons were found as individual cells, clusters or aggregates. Clusters\\u000a consisted of a loose array of neurons that appeared to

  4. Influence of manganese on morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger during citric acid fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Kisser; C. P. Kubicek; M. Röhr

    1980-01-01

    Morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger were studied under conditions of manganese sufficient or deficient cultivation in an otherwise citric acid producing medium. Omission of Mn2+ (less than 10-7 M) from the nutrient medium of Aspergillus niger results in abnormal morphological development which is characterized by increased spore swelling, and squat, bulbeous hyphae. Fractionation and analysis of manganese

  5. Morphology and vasoactive hormone profiles from endothelial cells derived from stem cells of different sources.

    PubMed

    Reed, Daniel M; Foldes, Gabor; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Ahmetaj-Shala, Blerina; Mataragka, Stefania; Mohamed, Nura A; Francis, Catherine; Gara, Edit; Harding, Sian E; Mitchell, Jane A

    2014-12-12

    Endothelial cells form a highly specialised lining of all blood vessels where they provide an anti-thrombotic surface on the luminal side and protect the underlying vascular smooth muscle on the abluminal side. Specialised functions of endothelial cells include their unique ability to release vasoactive hormones and to morphologically adapt to complex shear stress. Stem cell derived-endothelial cells have a growing number of applications and will be critical in any organ regeneration programme. Generally endothelial cells are identified in stem cell studies by well-recognised markers such as CD31. However, the ability of stem cell-derived endothelial cells to release vasoactive hormones and align with shear stress has not been studied extensively. With this in mind, we have compared directly the ability of endothelial cells derived from a range of stem cell sources, including embryonic stem cells (hESC-EC) and adult progenitors in blood (blood out growth endothelial cells, BOEC) with those cultured from mature vessels, to release the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin (ET)-1, the cardioprotective hormone prostacyclin, and to respond morphologically to conditions of complex shear stress. All endothelial cell types, except hESC-EC, released high and comparable levels of ET-1 and prostacyclin. Under static culture conditions all endothelial cell types, except for hESC-EC, had the typical cobblestone morphology whilst hESC-EC had an elongated phenotype. When cells were grown under shear stress endothelial cells from vessels (human aorta) or BOEC elongated and aligned in the direction of shear. By contrast hESC-EC did not align in the direction of shear stress. These observations show key differences in endothelial cells derived from embryonic stem cells versus those from blood progenitor cells, and that BOEC are more similar than hESC-EC to endothelial cells from vessels. This may be advantageous in some settings particularly where an in vitro test bed is required. However, for other applications, because of low ET-1 release hESC-EC may prove to be protected from vascular inflammation. PMID:25449267

  6. The morphology and intrinsic excitability of developing mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Juan; Myhr, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have diverse morphology and physiology. Although some studies show that correlations between morphological properties and physiological properties exist in cat RGCs, these properties are much less distinct and their correlations are unknown in mouse RGCs. In this study, using three-dimensional digital neuron reconstruction, we systematically analyzed twelve morphological parameters of mouse RGCs as they developed in the first four postnatal weeks. The development of these parameters fell into three different patterns and suggested that contact from bipolar cells and eye opening might play important roles in RGC morphological development. Although there has been a general impression that the morphological parameters are not independent, such as RGCs with larger dendritic fields usually have longer but sparser dendrites, there was not systematic study and statistical analysis proving it. We used Pearson's correlation coefficients to determine the relationship among these morphological parameters and demonstrated that many morphological parameters showed high statistical correlation. In the same cells we also measured seven physiological parameters using whole-cell patch-clamp recording, focusing on intrinsic excitability. We previously reported the increase in intrinsic excitability in mouse RGCs during early postnatal development. Here we showed that strong correlations also existed among many physiological parameters that measure the intrinsic excitability. However, Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed very limited correlation across morphological and physiological parameters. In addition, principle component analysis failed to separate RGCs into clusters using combined morphological and physiological parameters. Therefore, despite strong correlations within the morphological parameters and within the physiological parameters, postnatal mouse RGCs had only limited correlation between morphology and physiology. This may be due to developmental immaturity, or to selection of parameters. PMID:21765913

  7. A Study of the Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Morphology of Nafion Ionomer Dispersion for Use in the Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng; Zou, Zhiqing; Khatun, Sufia; Akins, Daniel; Adam, Yara; Suarez, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation in heat-treated Nafion ionomer dispersion and 117 membrane are investigated by 1H and 19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra, spin-lattice relaxation time, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. Results demonstrate that heat-treatment affects the average Nafion particle size in aqueous dispersions. Measurements on heat-treated Nafion 117 membrane show changes in the 1H isotropic chemical shift and no significant changes in ionic conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of prepared cathode catalyst layer containing the heat-treated dispersions reveals that the surface of the electrode with the catalyst ink that has been pretreated at ca. 80 °C exhibits a compact and uniform morphology. The decrease of Nafion ionomer’s size results in better contact between catalyst particles and electrolyte, higher electrochemically active surface area, as well as significant improvement in the DMFC’s performance, as verified by electrochemical analysis and single cell evaluation. PMID:24958431

  8. Neuronize: a tool for building realistic neuronal cell morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Juan P.; Mata, Susana; Bayona, Sofia; Pastor, Luis; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a tool, Neuronize, for building realistic three-dimensional models of neuronal cells from the morphological information extracted through computer-aided tracing applications. Neuronize consists of a set of methods designed to build 3D neural meshes that approximate the cell membrane at different resolution levels, allowing a balance to be reached between the complexity and the quality of the final model. The main contribution of the present study is the proposal of a novel approach to build a realistic and accurate 3D shape of the soma from the incomplete information stored in the digitally traced neuron, which usually consists of a 2D cell body contour. This technique is based on the deformation of an initial shape driven by the position and thickness of the first order dendrites. The addition of a set of spines along the dendrites completes the model, building a final 3D neuronal cell suitable for its visualization in a wide range of 3D environments. PMID:23761740

  9. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-Holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2014-09-10

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species. PMID:25205560

  10. Co-Culture of ? TC-6 Cells and ? TC-1 Cells: Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Man; Lee, Eun Ju; Jung, Hye Sook; Han, Na; Kim, You Jeong; Kim, Tae Kyoon; Kim, Tae Nyun; Kwon, Min Jeong; Lee, Soon Hee; Park, Jeong Hyun; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2015-01-01

    Background In vitro experiments using only ?-cell lines instead of islets are limited because pancreatic islets are composed of four different types of endocrine cells. Several recent studies have focused on cellular interactions among these cell types, especially ?- and ?-cells. Because islet isolation needs time and experience, we tested a simple co-culture system with ?- and ?-cells. Their morphology and function were assessed by comparison to each single cell culture and pancreatic islets. Methods ? TC-6 cells and ? TC-1 cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Minimal Essential Medium containing 5 mM glucose and 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells were mixed at a 1:1 ratio (5×105) in 6-well plates and cultured for 24, 48, and 72 hours. After culture, cells were used for insulin and glucagon immunoassays and tested for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Results ? TC-6 and ? TC-1 cells became condensed by 24 hours and were more strongly compacted after 48 hours. ? TC-1 cells showed both ?-? and ?-? cell contacts. GSIS increased with increasing glucose concentration in co-cultured cells, which showed lower secreted insulin levels than ? TC-1 cells alone. The increase in the secreted insulin/insulin content ratio was significantly lower for co-cultured cells than for ?-cells alone (P=0.04). Compared to islets, the ?-/?-cell co-culture showed a higher ratio of GSIS to insulin content, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.09). Conclusion ? TC-6 and ? TC-1 cells in the co-culture system showed cell-to-cell contacts and a similar stimulated insulin secretion pattern to islets. The co-culture system may be used to better mimic pancreatic islets in in vitro assessments. PMID:25325280

  11. The effects of morphology, confluency, and phenotype on whole-cell mechanical behavior.

    PubMed

    Jaasma, Michael J; Jackson, Wesley M; Keaveny, Tony M

    2006-05-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that cellular mechanical behavior can be altered by disease, drug treatment, and mechanical loading. To effectively investigate how disease and mechanical or biochemical treatments influence cellular mechanical behavior, it is imperative to determine the source of large inter-cell differences in whole-cell mechanical behavior within a single cell line. In this study, we used the atomic force microscope to investigate the effects of cell morphological parameters and confluency on whole-cell mechanical behavior for osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. For nonconfluent cells, projected nucleus area, cell area, and cell aspect ratio were not correlated with mechanical behavior (p>or=0.46), as characterized by a parallel-spring recruitment model. However, measured force-deformation responses were statistically different between osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells (p<0.001) and between confluent and nonconfluent cells (p<0.001). Osteoblastic cells were 2.3-2.8 times stiffer than fibroblastic cells, and confluent cells were 1.5-1.8 times stiffer than nonconfluent cells. The results indicate that structural differences related to phenotype and confluency affect whole-cell mechanical behavior, while structural differences related to global morphology do not. This suggests that cytoskeleton structural parameters, such as filament density, filament crosslinking, and cell-cell and cell-matrix attachments, dominate inter-cell variability in whole-cell mechanical behavior. PMID:16604293

  12. Physical explanation of coupled cell-cell rotational behavior and interfacial morphology: a particle dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Leong, Fong Yew

    2013-11-19

    Previous studies have reported persistent rotational behavior between adherent cell-cell pairs cultured on micropatterned substrates, and this rotation is often accompanied by a sigmoidal deflection of the cell-cell interface. Interestingly, the cell-cell rotation runs in the opposite reference frame from what could be expected of single cell locomotion. Specifically, the rotation of the cell pair consists of each individual cell protruding from the inwardly regressive arm of the cell-cell interface, and retracting from the other outwardly protrusive arm. To this author's knowledge, the cause of this elusive behavior has not yet been clarified. Here, we propose a physical model based on particle dynamics, accounting for actomyosin forcing, viscous dissipation, and cortical tension. The results show that a correlation in actomyosin force vectors leads to both persistent rotational behavior and interfacial deflection in a simulated cell cluster. Significantly, the model, without any artificial cues, spontaneously and consistently reproduces the same rotational reference frame as experimentally observed. Further analyses show that the interfacial deflection depends predominantly on cortical tension, whereas the cluster rotation depends predominantly on actomyosin forcing. Together, these results corroborate the hypothesis that both rotational and morphological phenomena are, in fact, physically coupled by an intracellular torque of a common origin. PMID:24268142

  13. Physical Explanation of Coupled Cell-Cell Rotational Behavior and Interfacial Morphology: A Particle Dynamics Model

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Fong Yew

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported persistent rotational behavior between adherent cell-cell pairs cultured on micropatterned substrates, and this rotation is often accompanied by a sigmoidal deflection of the cell-cell interface. Interestingly, the cell-cell rotation runs in the opposite reference frame from what could be expected of single cell locomotion. Specifically, the rotation of the cell pair consists of each individual cell protruding from the inwardly regressive arm of the cell-cell interface, and retracting from the other outwardly protrusive arm. To this author’s knowledge, the cause of this elusive behavior has not yet been clarified. Here, we propose a physical model based on particle dynamics, accounting for actomyosin forcing, viscous dissipation, and cortical tension. The results show that a correlation in actomyosin force vectors leads to both persistent rotational behavior and interfacial deflection in a simulated cell cluster. Significantly, the model, without any artificial cues, spontaneously and consistently reproduces the same rotational reference frame as experimentally observed. Further analyses show that the interfacial deflection depends predominantly on cortical tension, whereas the cluster rotation depends predominantly on actomyosin forcing. Together, these results corroborate the hypothesis that both rotational and morphological phenomena are, in fact, physically coupled by an intracellular torque of a common origin. PMID:24268142

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIAL AND LEYDIG CELLS OF THE TURKEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike mammals, there is little fundamental information about spermatogenesis in birds. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphology, histochemistry, and lectin affinity of the seminiferous epithelial cells and Leydig cells in the pre-pubertal (8- to I5-wk old) and adult (40-to 44-wk old) do...

  15. Morphologic, Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-jian Zhang; Li-ya Ye; Lian-qiu Wu; Yu-ling Xin; Feng Gu; Ji-xiao Niu; Zhi-hua Yang; Guang-jin Zhu; Georges E. Grau; Jin-ning Lou

    2006-01-01

    Backgrounds\\/Aims: The pathogenesis of cavernous hemangiomas is largely unknown, and it is speculated that abnormal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis may be involved. In this study, the characteristics of cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells (CHECs) derived from the human liver were analyzed in terms of morphology, phenotype and function and compared with human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). Methods and Results: By transmission

  16. Morphological and Functional Platelet Abnormalities in Berkeley Sickle Cell Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shet, Arun S.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A.; Stevens, Jacqueline R.M.; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A.; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as an animal model of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37 ± 3.2 vs. 27 ± 1.4, mean ± SD; p <0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505 ± 49 × 103/?l vs. 1151 ± 162 × 103/?l; p <0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and “pocked” erythrocytes (p <0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5 ± 1 % vs. 1 ± 1%; p <0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease. PMID:18374611

  17. Effects of Poloxamer 188 on Phospholipid Monolayer Morphology: An Atomic Force Microscopy Study

    E-print Network

    Lee, Ka Yee C.

    Effects of Poloxamer 188 on Phospholipid Monolayer Morphology: An Atomic Force Microscopy Study,includingskeletalmuscletissuesafterheatshockandintense irradiation,12,13 red blood cells from sickle cell disease,14 and neuronal cells after necrosis studies. A Langmuir lipid monolayer at the air-water interface serves as an effective model for the outer

  18. Morphological and functional studies on microencapsulated human fetal pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Wu, Z G

    1989-10-01

    Fifty human fetal pancreases of 4-6 months gestation obtained from legal abortions were microencapsulated with alginate, poly-lysine after culture for 4-7 days. The microcapsules were studied morphologically and functionally. Immunocytochemical staining for insulin indicated B-cells were morphologically intact at 48 days. Insulin and C-peptide of the culture medium measured with radioimmuno-assay (RIA) showed that the microcapsules still retained the function of insulin secretion after culture for 25 days. There was no statistical difference when compared with noncapsulated tissues. No exocrine function was detected as evidenced by the amylase determination. We conclude that microencapsulated human fetal pancreatic tissues retain viability in culture for more than 25 days and can be used as transplants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:2483542

  19. Morphological Analyses of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Electrodes with

    E-print Network

    Litster, Shawn

    Morphological Analyses of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Electrodes with Nano-Scale Computed, the electrode architecture, and the transport phe- nomena. This is particularly true for polymer electrolyte bound by polymer electrolyte (e.g. Nafion) [4]. Dispersed Pt or Pt-alloy catalyst nanoparticles are sup

  20. Influence of nanoscale morphology in small molecule organic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vogel; J. Strotmann; B. Johnev; M. Ch. Lux-Steiner; K. Fostiropoulos

    2006-01-01

    Organic Solar Cells were fabricated by co-evaporation of C60:Cu-Phthalocyanine blend films in vacuum on poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) coated indium–tin oxide substrates. At 80 nm blend film thickness external quantum efficiencies of up to 58% were recorded. Two different methods were applied to manipulate the morphology of the active film: Current treatment of solar cells improved the power conversion

  1. Endothelial cell modulation of smooth muscle cell morphology and organizational growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Powell, R J; Cronenwett, J L; Fillinger, M F; Wagner, R J; Sampson, L N

    1996-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is characterized by smooth muscle cell (SMC) dedifferentiation from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype prior to migration and proliferation. Regulatory mechanisms controlling SMC phenotype are not well known. This study examined the effect of endothelial cells (ECs) on SMC morphology in coculture. Subcultured bovine ECs and SMCs were plated on opposite sides of a 13 microns thick, semipermeable membrane (0.45 micron pores, Cyclopore) to allow potential humoral and cellular cross-membrane communication. SMCs were studied (5 wells/group) in coculture opposite confluent ECs (EC/SMC) and alone (SMC controls). After 4 days of culture in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/2.5% calf serum, SMCs were harvested. The ratio of protein/DNA was measured as an index of SMC hypertrophy (synthetic SMC phenotype). SMCs were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate cell surface area, cellular morphology, and macroscopic growth characteristics. Flow cytometry was used to determine the cellular RNA/DNA ratio. SMC control cultures had a significantly greater protein-to-DNA content than SMCs cocultured with ECs (175 +/- 9 vs. 115 +/- 7 micrograms protein/micrograms DNA; p < 0.001). SMC control cultures also had 6.5 times greater cell surface area (5.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(3) microns2) than cocultured SMCs (0.9 +/- 0.1; p < 0.001). In SMC control cultures, SMC hypertrophy and rapid "hill and valley" formation were observed. In contrast, SMCs from the EC/SMC group exhibited a more spindle-shaped, contractile-appearing phenotype with more uniform, evenly distributed cells and no hill and valley formation. SMC control cultures also had a higher RNA/DNA ratio. Thus the presence of confluent ECs substantially altered the morphology and growth characteristic normally observed for SMCs in vitro. This coculture system provides a model to further study EC-SMC interaction, which could have important in vivo consequences. PMID:8688295

  2. Probing red blood cell morphology using high-frequency photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Eric M; Berndl, Elizabeth S L; Kolios, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5-10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology. PMID:23823224

  3. Probing Red Blood Cell Morphology Using High-Frequency Photoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    Strohm, Eric M.; Berndl, Elizabeth S.L.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5–10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology. PMID:23823224

  4. Morphological Differences between Circulating Tumor Cells from Prostate Cancer Patients and Cultured Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunyoung; Ang, Richard R.; Duffy, Simon P.; Bazov, Jenny; Chi, Kim N.; Black, Peter C.; Ma, Hongshen

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration promises to be an important predictor of clinical outcome for a range of cancers. Established CTC enumeration methods primarily rely on affinity capture of cell surface antigens, and have been criticized for underestimation of CTC numbers due to antigenic bias. Emerging CTC capture strategies typically distinguish these cells based on their assumed biomechanical characteristics, which are often validated using cultured cancer cells. In this study, we developed a software tool to investigate the morphological properties of CTCs from patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer and cultured prostate cancer cells in order to establish whether the latter is an appropriate model for the former. We isolated both CTCs and cultured cancer cells from whole blood using the CellSearch® system and examined various cytomorphological characteristics. In contrast with cultured cancer cells, CTCs enriched by CellSearch® system were found to have significantly smaller size, larger nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, and more elongated shape. These CTCs were also found to exhibit significantly more variability than cultured cancer cells in nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and shape profile. PMID:24416373

  5. Tendon cell outgrowth rates and morphology associated with kevlar-49.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Gordon, K E

    1988-12-01

    A rat tendon cell model was used to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of kevlar-49. The cell response to kevlar was compared to carbon AS-4 and nylon sutures. Three trials were run and cell growth rates were statistically similar for all the materials tested. A separate experiment was conducted in which the same fiber materials were placed in the same Petri dish. Again, the rates were similar for each material. Finally, the cells were observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the three classic cell morphologies associated with this tendon cell model were observed. Also, cellular attachment to the fiber and cellular encapsulation of the fiber were identical for the three materials tested. Kevlar-49 proved to be comparable to carbon AS4 and nylon sutures in terms of cellular response and cell outgrowth rates. PMID:3235468

  6. 3D morphology of cell cultures: a quantitative approach using micrometer synchrotron light tomography.

    PubMed

    Thurner, P; Müller, R; Raeber, G; Sennhauser, U; Hubbell, J A

    2005-04-15

    Current issues in both tissue engineering and cell biology deal with cell behavior extensively in 3D. Here, we explore synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography as a tool for morphological characterization of such 3D cellular constructs, providing micrometer resolution in soft and hard tissues. Novel image processing techniques allowed quantification of local and global cell distributions, cell density, adhesive cell culture surface, and scaffold geometry. For proof of concept, we applied this technique to characterize the morphology of two cell cultures of different phenotypes, namely human dermal fibroblasts and mouse calvarial osteoblast-like cells, both seeded on a polymer multifilament yarn. From 3D visualizations in these case studies, we saw that the fibroblasts spanned between the yarn filaments and in this way encapsulated the yarn, whereas the osteoblast-like cells lined the filament surfaces and did not span between them. Differences found in cell distribution as a function of distance to the median yarn axis and the closest filament surface, respectively, quantified these qualitative impressions gained from 3D visualizations. Moreover, the volume-normalized adhesive surface differed by one order of magnitude between the two phenotypes. Our approach allows quantitative correlation of local scaffold geometry and cell morphology. It can be used to investigate the influence of cell phenotype as well as various biochemical agents on tissue engineering constructs and the behavior of cells in culture. PMID:16003782

  7. Similar morphological and molecular signatures shared by female and male germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenhai; Wang, Hu; Wu, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The existence of mammalian female germline stem cells (FGSCs) indicates that mammalian ovaries possess germline stem cells analogous to testis, and continue to produce gametes postnatally, which provides new insights into female fertility. In this study, we compared the morphological and molecular characteristics between FGSCs and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) by analysis of morphology, immunofluorescence, alkaline phosphatase activity assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and microarray hybridization. The results demonstrated that the morphology and growth patterns of FGSCs are similar to those of SSCs. Microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles of FGSCs and SSCs showed similar signatures in the transcriptome level. A list of 853 co-highly expressed genes (CEG) in female and male germline stem cells may be responsible for the morphological and molecular similarity. We constructed a continuous network of the CEG based on I2D protein-protein interaction database by breadth first search. From the network, we could observe the interactions of the CEG may be responsible for maintaining the properties of germline stem cells. This study was the first attempt to compare morphological and molecular characteristics between FGSCs and SSCs. These findings would provide some clues for further research on mammalian FGSCs. PMID:24993338

  8. Primary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Kidney: Morphological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Cytogenetic Study of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano La Rosa; Barbara Bernasconi; Donata Micello; Giovanna Finzi; Carlo Capella

    2009-01-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNECs) of the kidney are extremely rare high-grade cancers accounting for\\u000a only 42 cases reported in the literature. In this paper, we describe the morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural,\\u000a and for the first time, cytogenetic features of a renal PDNEC. In addition, we have reviewed the literature and compared the\\u000a published clinicopathological data with our morphological and genetic

  9. Morphology and morphometrics of hematological cells from eastern sarus crane, Grus antigone sharpii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N.-A. Narkkong; Worapol Aengwanich; A. Tanomthong

    2011-01-01

    The population of the eastern sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii) has been greatly reduced both in distribution and number, and documents presenting the blood cell characteristics and morphometric\\u000a data of blood cells in this kind of bird are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the morphometric and morphological\\u000a aspects of the blood cells of the eastern sarus

  10. Morphological and migratory alterations in retinal Müller cells during early stages of hypoxia and oxidative stress?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Feng, Zhaohui; Li, Chunhua; Zheng, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, retinal Müller cells were cultured in vitro and treated with hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stressor) and cobalt chloride (hypoxic injury). Following 24 hours of culture, compensatory hypertrophy was observed and cellular apoptosis increased. Hypoxia enhanced the migration ability of retinal Müller cells and induced the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin. Oxidative stress altered the morphology of Müller cells when compared with hypoxia treatment.

  11. Mitral cells in the olfactory bulb of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): morphology and distribution.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Cynthia L; Yettaw, Holly K; Byrd, Christine A

    2006-11-10

    The mitral cell is the primary output neuron and central relay in the olfactory bulb of vertebrates. The morphology of these cells has been studied extensively in mammalian systems and to a lesser degree in teleosts. This study uses retrograde tract tracing and other techniques to characterize the morphology and distribution of mitral cells in the olfactory bulb of adult zebrafish, Danio rerio. These output neurons, located primarily in the glomerular layer and superficial internal cell layer, had variable-shaped somata that ranged in size from 4-18 microm in diameter and 31-96 microm2 in cross-sectional area. The mitral cells exhibited two main types of morphologies with regard to their dendrites: the unidendritic morphology was a single primary dendrite with one or more tufts, but multidendritic cells with several dendritic projections also were seen. The axons of these cells projected to either the medial or the lateral olfactory tract and, in general, the location of the cell on the medial or lateral side of the bulb was indicative of the tract to which it would project. Further, this study shows that the majority of zebrafish mitral cells likely innervate a single glomerulus rather than multiple glomeruli. This information is contrary to the multiple innervation pattern suggested for all teleost mitral cells. Our findings suggest that mitral cells in zebrafish may be more similar to mammalian mitral cells than previously believed, despite variation in size and structure. This information provides a revised anatomical framework for olfactory processing studies in this key model system. PMID:16977629

  12. Comparison of the Cell-Wall Composition of Morphologically Distinct Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuro

    1965-01-01

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuro (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan). Comparison of the cell-wall composition of morphologically distinct actinomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 89:444–453. 1965.—Cell-wall composition of various morphologically distinct actinomycetes was studied to determine the relationship, if any, between cell-wall composition and morphological criteria in actinomycete taxonomy. The methods used were similar to those of Cummins and Harris. At least five types of cell-wall composition were obtained; however, these were not always correlated with groupings by the conventional classification system. For instance, the sporangium-forming actinomycetes, Actinoplanaceae, had three types of cell-wall composition; the composition of cell walls of Promicromonospora, Micromonospora, and Microbispora was the same as, or similar to, that of Actinomyces, Actinoplanes, and Streptosporangium, respectively; Chainia, Actinopycnidium, Actinosporangium, and Microellobosporia had the same cell-wall composition as Streptomyces, whereas that of Streptoverticillium was slightly different. Possible implications of cell-wall composition and morphological differentiation of hyphae for the taxonomy and phylogeny of actinomycetes are also discussed. PMID:14255713

  13. Cell Sorting Enriches Escherichia coli Mutants That Rely on Peptidoglycan Endopeptidases To Suppress Highly Aberrant Morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Laubacher, Mary E.; Melquist, Amy L.; Chandramohan, Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial morphology imparts physiological advantages to cells in different environments and, judging by the fidelity with which shape is passed to daughter cells, is a tightly regulated characteristic. Surprisingly, only in the past 10 to 15 years has significant headway been made in identifying the mechanisms by which cells create and maintain particular shapes. One reason for this is that the relevant discoveries have relied heavily on the arduous, somewhat subjective process of manual microscopy. Here, we show that flow cytometry, coupled with the sorting capability of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), can detect, quantify, and enrich bacteria with morphological alterations. The light scattering properties of several highly aberrant morphological mutants of Escherichia coli were characterized by flow cytometry. Cells from a region that overlapped the distribution of normal rod-shaped cells were collected by FACS and reincubated. After 4 to 15 iterations of this enrichment process, suppressor mutants were isolated that returned almost all the population to a near-normal shape. Suppressors were successfully isolated from strains lacking three or four penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) but not from a mutant lacking a total of seven PBPs. The peptidoglycan endopeptidase, AmpH, was identified as being important for the suppression process, as was a related endopeptidase, MepA. The results validate the use of cell sorting as a means for studying bacterial morphology and identify at least one new class of enzymes required for the suppression of cell shape defects. PMID:23243305

  14. Three-Dimensional Numerical Model of Cell Morphology during Migration in Multi-Signaling Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Cell Migration associated with cell shape changes are of central importance in many biological processes ranging from morphogenesis to metastatic cancer cells. Cell movement is a result of cyclic changes of cell morphology due to effective forces on cell body, leading to periodic fluctuations of the cell length and cell membrane area. It is well-known that the cell can be guided by different effective stimuli such as mechanotaxis, thermotaxis, chemotaxis and/or electrotaxis. Regulation of intracellular mechanics and cell’s physical interaction with its substrate rely on control of cell shape during cell migration. In this notion, it is essential to understand how each natural or external stimulus may affect the cell behavior. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) computational model is here developed to analyze a free mode of cell shape changes during migration in a multi-signaling micro-environment. This model is based on previous models that are presented by the same authors to study cell migration with a constant spherical cell shape in a multi-signaling substrates and mechanotaxis effect on cell morphology. Using the finite element discrete methodology, the cell is represented by a group of finite elements. The cell motion is modeled by equilibrium of effective forces on cell body such as traction, protrusion, electrostatic and drag forces, where the cell traction force is a function of the cell internal deformations. To study cell behavior in the presence of different stimuli, the model has been employed in different numerical cases. Our findings, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental observations, indicate that adding a new stimulus to the cell substrate pushes the cell to migrate more directionally in more elongated form towards the more effective stimuli. For instance, the presence of thermotaxis, chemotaxis and electrotaxis can further move the cell centroid towards the corresponding stimulus, respectively, diminishing the mechanotaxis effect. Besides, the stronger stimulus imposes a greater cell elongation and more cell membrane area. The present model not only provides new insights into cell morphology in a multi-signaling micro-environment but also enables us to investigate in more precise way the cell migration in the presence of different stimuli. PMID:25822332

  15. Original article Morphological analysis of tumor cell/ endothelial cell interactions under shear flow

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Morphological analysis of tumor cell/ endothelial cell interactions under shear of haematogenous cancer metastasis, tumor cells (TCs) must shed into the blood stream, survive in the blood. However, the precise mechanisms by which TCs penetrate the endothelial cell (EC) junctions remain one

  16. Morphological studies of the vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstroem, B.

    1973-01-01

    The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve, and caliber spectra of the myelinated fibers in the vestibular nerve branches were studied in individuals of varying ages. It was found that the peripheral endings of the vestibular nerve form a complicated pattern inside the vestibular sensory epithelia. A detailed description of the sensory cells and their surface organelles is included.

  17. Expression of VHL Causes Three-Dimensional Morphological Changes in Renal Cells Indicative of Proximal Tubule Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chiatar, Shivannah S; Eze, Ogechukwu P; Schoenfeld, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene are responsible for the VHL hereditary cancer syndrome, and are associated with the majority of clear cell renal cell carcinomas. In this study, scanning electron microscopy of VHL-negative renal carcinoma cells was utilized to examine the effects of VHL re-expression on the morphology of these cells. Significant differences were observed between the morphology of VHL-negative control cells and those with reintroduced VHL, with VHL expression mediating an apical surface that mounded upward, as opposed to the flat surfaces seen with VHL-negative cells. In long term cultures, rounded VHL-expressing cells grew in clusters on top the monolayer, and microvilli were observed on the apical face of these cells, in a manner suggestive of proximal tubule differentiation. In contrast, VHL-negative cells remained flat and did not develop microvilli in long-term cultures. Since VHL is a key member of an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex whose best known target is hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-?), we looked at the effects of HIF-? expression on cell morphology. Knockdown of HIF-2? in cells that only express this isoform had no effect on the morphology of the cells. These results indicate that VHL expression directs three dimensional morphological changes in renal cells indicative of differentiation, and while dysregulation of HIF-? may be necessary for tumorigenesis following VHL loss, it is not the major determinant of these VHL-mediated morphological changes. PMID:24308012

  18. Quantitative methods to characterize morphological properties of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Elliott, John T; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Tona, Alessandro; Spurlin, Tighe A; Middlebrooks, Bobby L; Baatz, John E; Warr, Gregory W; Plant, Anne L

    2012-07-01

    Descriptive terms are often used to characterize cells in culture, but the use of nonquantitative and poorly defined terms can lead to ambiguities when comparing data from different laboratories. Although recently there has been a good deal of interest in unambiguous identification of cell lines via their genetic markers, it is also critical to have definitive, quantitative metrics to describe cell phenotypic characteristics. Quantitative metrics of cell phenotype will aid the comparison of data from experiments performed at different times and in different laboratories where influences such as the age of the population and differences in culture conditions or protocols can potentially affect cellular metabolic state and gene expression in the absence of changes in the genetic profile. Here, we present examples of robust methodologies for quantitatively assessing characteristics of cell morphology and cell-cell interactions, and of growth rates of cells within the population. We performed these analyses with endothelial cell lines derived from dolphin, bovine and human, and with a mouse fibroblast cell line. These metrics quantify some characteristics of these cells lines that clearly distinguish them from one another, and provide quantitative information on phenotypic changes in one of the cell lines over large number of passages. PMID:22619183

  19. Three-Dimensional Numerical Model of Cell Morphology during Migration in Multi-Signaling Substrates.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Cell Migration associated with cell shape changes are of central importance in many biological processes ranging from morphogenesis to metastatic cancer cells. Cell movement is a result of cyclic changes of cell morphology due to effective forces on cell body, leading to periodic fluctuations of the cell length and cell membrane area. It is well-known that the cell can be guided by different effective stimuli such as mechanotaxis, thermotaxis, chemotaxis and/or electrotaxis. Regulation of intracellular mechanics and cell's physical interaction with its substrate rely on control of cell shape during cell migration. In this notion, it is essential to understand how each natural or external stimulus may affect the cell behavior. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) computational model is here developed to analyze a free mode of cell shape changes during migration in a multi-signaling micro-environment. This model is based on previous models that are presented by the same authors to study cell migration with a constant spherical cell shape in a multi-signaling substrates and mechanotaxis effect on cell morphology. Using the finite element discrete methodology, the cell is represented by a group of finite elements. The cell motion is modeled by equilibrium of effective forces on cell body such as traction, protrusion, electrostatic and drag forces, where the cell traction force is a function of the cell internal deformations. To study cell behavior in the presence of different stimuli, the model has been employed in different numerical cases. Our findings, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental observations, indicate that adding a new stimulus to the cell substrate pushes the cell to migrate more directionally in more elongated form towards the more effective stimuli. For instance, the presence of thermotaxis, chemotaxis and electrotaxis can further move the cell centroid towards the corresponding stimulus, respectively, diminishing the mechanotaxis effect. Besides, the stronger stimulus imposes a greater cell elongation and more cell membrane area. The present model not only provides new insights into cell morphology in a multi-signaling micro-environment but also enables us to investigate in more precise way the cell migration in the presence of different stimuli. PMID:25822332

  20. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  1. Controlling Active Layer Morphology in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moungthai, Suchanun; Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Stein, Gila

    2012-02-01

    The active layer in most polymer solar cells is based on the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) design. BHJs are prepared by arresting the phase separation of a polymer/fullerene blend to produce a nanoscale, interpenetrating network. Such non-equilibrium structures are very difficult to control and reproduce, posing a significant challenge for fundamental structure-property investigations. We demonstrate a new approach to control the active layer morphology with a simple two-step process: First, a thin film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is cross-linked into stable nanostructures or microstructures with electron-beam lithography [1]. Second, a soluble fullerene is spun-cast on top of the patterned polymer to complete the heterojunction. Significantly, irradiated P3HT films retain good optoelectronic properties and bilayer P3HT/fullerene heterojunctions yield power-conversion efficiencies near 0.5%. We have performed preliminary studies with model nanostructured devices and we find that efficiency increases with interfacial area [2]. These model devices are very valuable for fundamental studies because the interfacial area is accurately measured with small-angle X-ray scattering, and the active layer can be ``deconstructed'' for imaging with atomic force microscopy. [4pt] [1] S. Holdcroft, Adv. Mater. 2001, 13, 1753-1765.[0pt] [2] He et al., Adv Funct. Mater. 2011, 21, 139-146.

  2. Inhibition of Protein Kinases in Rat Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells Promotes Morphological Differentiation and Down-Regulates Ion Channel Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Reuter; A. Bouron; R. Neuhaus; C. Becker; B. F. X. Reber

    1992-01-01

    We have studied morphological differentiation and ion channel expression in PC12 cells under different culture conditions. Differentiation mediated by nerve growth factor (NGF) was compared with that induced by depletion and inhibition of protein kinases (phorbol ester beta -PMA plus staurosporine). Morphological differentiation was similar under both conditions. However, ion channel densities, studied by means of the patch-clamp technique, were

  3. Dasatinib inhibits primary melanoma cell proliferation through morphology-dependent disruption of Src-ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    WU, JIANGHONG; LIAO, XIN; YU, BO; SU, BING

    2013-01-01

    New strategies for the treatment of advanced melanoma are urgently required. The RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway and c-Src are deregulated in the majority of malignant melanomas, suggesting that they may interact functionally and are involved in the development and progression of the malignancy. Preclinical studies have demonstrated variable inhibition of melanoma cell growth by dasatinib in vitro. Src may act through different downstream signaling pathways. In the present study, we demonstrate that dasatinib induces changes in cell morphology, characterized by an arborized and contracted appearance, and accompanied by a reduction in cell proliferation in primary melanoma cells. This morphological change is demonstrated to be associated with the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated ERK1/2. Together, these results indicate that Src may promote cell proliferation through the activation of the ERK signaling pathway in melanoma oncogenesis. PMID:23420605

  4. Investigation of cell morphology by the TRUImagE digital holographic microscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Oi Choo; Qu, Weijuan; Chai, Kim Kheong; Asundi, Anand

    2012-06-01

    We report the development of the Three-dimensional Real-time Uninvasive Imaging and Evaluation (TRUImagE) system based on digital holographic microscopy to study the morphological changes in cells undergoing photodynamic therapyinduced cell death. The optical system, based on the Michelson interferometer and configured in transmission mode, and the sample holder incorporating a stage incubator have been developed for monitoring various tumorigenic cell samples without the use of markers. Off-axis digital holograms were recorded with a CCD sensor and numerically reconstructed to provide quantitative phase imaging and 3D morphology of the cells in real time. The system was used to continuously monitor and study, at different time points, the changes in cells after incubation with the photosensitizer followed by activation by the appropriate light dose. Results obtained from the TRUImagE system and biochemical assays will be given.

  5. Morphological studies of bone and tendon.

    PubMed

    Doty, S B; Morey-Holton, E R; Durnova, G N; Kaplansky, A S

    1992-08-01

    The Soviet biosatellite COSMOS 2044 carried adult rats on a spaceflight that lasted 13.8 days and was intended to repeat animal studies carried out on COSMOS 1887. Skeletal tissue and tendon from animals flown on COSMOS 2044 were studied by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and morphometric techniques. Studies were confined to the bone cells and vasculature from the weight-bearing tibias. Results indicated that vascular changes at the periosteal and subperiosteal region of the tibia were not apparent by light microscopy or histochemistry. However, electron microscopy indicated that vascular inclusions were present in bone samples from the flight animals. A unique combination of microscopy and histochemical techniques indicated that the endosteal osteoblasts from this same mid-diaphyseal region demonstrated a slight (but not statistically significant) reduction in bone cell activity. Electron-microscopic studies of the tendons from metatarsal bones showed a collagen fibril disorganization as a result of spaceflight. Thus changes described for COSMOS 1887 were present in COSMOS 2044, but the changes ascribed to spaceflight were not as evident. PMID:1526935

  6. Parallel implementation of morphological processing on Cell\\/BE with OpenCV interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Sugano; Ryusuke Miyamoto

    2008-01-01

    One of the most frequently used operations in image recognition is morphological processing. In this paper, we propose a parallel implementation of morphological processing optimized for cell broadband engine (cell), which is one of the latest high performance embedded processors. By utilizing the computational power of cell suitable for image recognition, we achieve high-speed morphological processing. Moreover, we construct a

  7. Studying Cell Motility and Cell Mechanics with ``Designer Cells"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2009-03-01

    Micro/nanopatterning allows for the creation of cells of identical morphologies and with ``designed'' organization of the cytoskeleton. Analysis of such ``Designer Cells'' via high-resolution microscopy allows for studying the intracellular processes related to cytoskeletal dynamics and cancer invasiveness in quantitative detail. In addition, three-dimensional imaging can be used to reconstruct cell shapes and describe these shapes by mathematical functions - it is found that cells are constant-curvature surfaces corresponding to the minima of relatively simple energy functionals describing cell micromechanics. These and other results have implications for physical assays with which to diagnose the metastatic form of cancer.

  8. Apocrine carcinoma of the breast. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Eusebi, V.; Millis, R. R.; Cattani, M. G.; Bussolati, G.; Azzopardi, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The mode of recognition and hence the frequency of apocrine differentiation in breast carcinomas, assessed on purely morphologic grounds, remains uncertain. One hundred consecutive cases of breast carcinoma were studied in order to establish the incidence of this type of tumor. With the use of an immunocytochemical method for the detection of GCDFP-15, a protein present in apocrine epithelium and in the fluid of tension cyst of the breast, the presence of apocrine differentiation was confirmed in 4 cases initially diagnosed as apocrine carcinomas on histologic grounds. Eight additional cases contained immunoreactive cells: 1 contained 10% of positive cells scattered throughout the tumor, and the other 7 cases were only focally positive. In 4 of these latter cases positive staining was confined to the in situ component. The ultrastructural findings in 2 cases of apocrine carcinoma are discussed in order to link the morphologic features for recognizing this tumor type and the presence of the antigenic apocrine marker. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:3717305

  9. Morphological, pharmacokinetic, and hematological studies of lead-exposed pigeons

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, E. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Dietz, D.D.; Bagnell, C.R. Jr.; Gaynor, J.; Krigman, M.R.; Ross, D.W.; Leander, J.D.; Mushak, P.

    1982-08-01

    Adult white Carneaux pigeons were orally dosed with inorganic lead (6.25 mg Pb/kg/day, gastric intubation) for up to 64 weeks and the following studies were carried out: (1) the subcellular distribution of lead in erythrocytes; (2) the changes in tissue lead levels with time; (3) morphological assessment of tissue responses to lead; and (4) hematological effects of lead, the major systemic evidence of toxicity. In the early stage of exposure, there is some lead accumulation in the erythrocyte nucleus relative to its proportion of total cell volume, but such accumulation disappears with time. The kinetic behavior of lead in seven tissues--blood, brain, kidney, liver, femur, sciatic nerve, and crop--was seen to conform to two mathematical methods of lead distribution; brain, kidney, and femur lead increased with dosing time and reached or appeared to approach an upper plateau; lead in blood, liver, sciatic nerve, and crop increased to a maximum, followed by a decline to a lower plateau level. Morphologically, renal tubule cells showed the presence of lead-containing inclusion bodies while CNS mitochondria appeared to have accumulated lead. No evidence of segmental demyelination was seen. Lead exposure induced a marked and rapid hypochromic normocytic anemia in these birds, as well as an elevation in erythrocyte porphyrin. No disturbance in mechanical fragility or osmotic resistance was noted.

  10. Image processing and classification algorithm for yeast cell morphology in a microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang Yu, Bo; Elbuken, Caglar; Ren, Carolyn L.; Huissoon, Jan P.

    2011-06-01

    The study of yeast cell morphology requires consistent identification of cell cycle phases based on cell bud size. A computer-based image processing algorithm is designed to automatically classify microscopic images of yeast cells in a microfluidic channel environment. The images were enhanced to reduce background noise, and a robust segmentation algorithm is developed to extract geometrical features including compactness, axis ratio, and bud size. The features are then used for classification, and the accuracy of various machine-learning classifiers is compared. The linear support vector machine, distance-based classification, and k-nearest-neighbor algorithm were the classifiers used in this experiment. The performance of the system under various illumination and focusing conditions were also tested. The results suggest it is possible to automatically classify yeast cells based on their morphological characteristics with noisy and low-contrast images.

  11. A screening approach reveals the influence of mineral coating morphology on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Siyoung; Murphy, William L.

    2013-01-01

    “Biomimetic” inorganic coating on biomaterials has been an active area of research with the intention of providing bioactive surfaces that can regulate cell behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) behavior is differentially regulated by physical and chemical properties of inorganic mineral coatings, indicating that modulation of mineral properties has potential importance in regulating hMSC behavior. However, the lack of an efficient experimental context in which to study stem cell behavior on inorganic substrates has made it difficult to systematically study the effects of specific mineral coating parameters on hMSC behavior. In this study, we developed an efficient experimental platform to screen for the effects of mineral coating morphology on hMSC expansion and differentiation. hMSC expansion on mineral coatings was regulated by micro-scale morphology of mineral coatings, with greater expansion on small granule-like coatings when compared to plate-like or net-like coatings. In contrast, hMSC osteogenic differentiation was inversely correlated with cell expansion on mineral coating, indicating that mineral coating morphology was a key parameter regulating hMSC differentiation. The effect of mineral coating morphology on hMSC behavior suggests the utility of this inorganic screening platform to identify optimal coatings for medical devices and bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:23420758

  12. Semantic processing during morphological priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Iakimova, Galina; Ziegler, Johannes C; Colé, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the onset of semantic processing during morphological priming. The present study was designed to further explore the time-course of morphological processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). We conducted a primed lexical decision study comparing a morphological (LAVAGE - laver [washing - wash]), a semantic (LINGE - laver [laundry - wash]), an orthographic (LAVANDE - laver [lavender - wash]), and an unrelated control condition (HOSPICE - laver [nursing home - wash]), using the same targets across the four priming conditions. The behavioral data showed significant effects of morphological and semantic priming, with the magnitude of morphological priming being significantly larger than the magnitude of semantic priming. The ERP data revealed significant morphological but no semantic priming at 100-250 ms. Furthermore, a reduction of the N400 amplitude in the morphological condition compared to the semantic and orthographic condition demonstrates that the morphological priming effect was not entirely due to the semantic or orthographic overlap between the prime and the target. The present data reflect an early process of semantically blind morphological decomposition, and a later process of morpho-semantic decomposition, which we discuss in the context of recent morphological processing theories. PMID:25020124

  13. Morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of neoplastic cells in a case of mast cell sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chott, Andreas; Guenther, Philipp; Huebner, Angela; Selzer, Edgar; Parwaresch, Reza M; Horny, Hans-Peter; Valent, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Mast cell sarcoma is an extremely rare and aggressive type of mast cell disease. Only a few cases have been described so far, and little is known about the biology and phenotype of afflicted cells. We describe morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of neoplastic mast cells in a case of an intracranial mast cell sarcoma. In Wright-Giemsa-stained cytospin preparations, the morphology of dispersed cells appeared to be highly atypical with a considerable percentage of metachromatic blasts and mast cells with bilobed or multilobed nuclei. Combined toluidine blue/immunofluorescence staining revealed expression of CD13, CD45, CD88, CD116, and CD117 (c-KIT) on neoplastic mast cells. As assessed by immunohistochemistry, mast cells were immunoreactive for tryptase and CD68R, In contrast, the CD2 antigen that is expressed in mast cells in patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis was not detectable. Mast cells also failed to display the c-KIT mutation Asp-816-Val, which is typically found in systemic mast cell disorders. Together, neoplastic mast cells in a case of mast cell sarcoma were found to exhibit unique morphologic, phenotypical, and molecular features when compared with mast cells in indolent mastocytosis or normal tissue mast cells. PMID:12826896

  14. SELENIUM DEFICIENCY ALTERS EPITHELIAL CELL MORPHOLOGY AND RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, I.; Zhang, W.; Brighton, L.E.; Carson, J.L.; Styblo, M.; Beck, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    It is unknown whether nutritional deficiencies affect the morphology and function of structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and modify the susceptibility to viral infections. We developed an in vitro system of differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) grown either under selenium adequate (Se+) or selenium deficient (Se-) conditions, to determine whether selenium deficiency impairs host defense responses at the level of the epithelium. Se- BECs had normal SOD activity, but decreased activity of the selenium-dependent enzyme GPX1. Interestingly, catalase activity was also decreased in Se- BECs. Both Se- and Se+ BECs differentiated into a mucociliary epithelium; however, Se- BEC demonstrated increased mucus production and increased Muc5AC mRNA levels. This effect was also seen in Se+ BEC treated with 3-aminotriazole, and inhibitor of catalase activity, suggesting an association between catalase activity and mucus production. Both Se- and Se+ were infected with influenza A/Bangkok/1/79 and examined 24 hours post-infection. Influenza-induced IL-6 production was greater while influenza-induced IP-10 production was lower in Se- BECs. In addition, influenza-induced apoptosis was greater in Se- BEC as compared to the Se+ BECs. These data demonstrate that selenium deficiency has a significant impact on the morphology and influenza-induced host defense responses in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:17512462

  15. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  16. Variable cell morphology approach for individual-based modeling of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Storck, Tomas; Picioreanu, Cristian; Virdis, Bernardino; Batstone, Damien J

    2014-05-01

    An individual-based, mass-spring modeling framework has been developed to investigate the effect of cell properties on the structure of biofilms and microbial aggregates through Lagrangian modeling. Key features that distinguish this model are variable cell morphology described by a collection of particles connected by springs and a mechanical representation of deformable intracellular, intercellular, and cell-substratum links. A first case study describes the colony formation of a rod-shaped species on a planar substratum. This case shows the importance of mechanical interactions in a community of growing and dividing rod-shaped cells (i.e., bacilli). Cell-substratum links promote formation of mounds as opposed to single-layer biofilms, whereas filial links affect the roundness of the biofilm. A second case study describes the formation of flocs and development of external filaments in a mixed-culture activated sludge community. It is shown by modeling that distinct cell-cell links, microbial morphology, and growth kinetics can lead to excessive filamentous proliferation and interfloc bridging, possible causes for detrimental sludge bulking. This methodology has been extended to more advanced microbial morphologies such as filament branching and proves to be a very powerful tool in determining how fundamental controlling mechanisms determine diverse microbial colony architectures. PMID:24806936

  17. A morphological study of delayed muscle soreness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fridén; M. Sjöström; B. Ekblom

    1981-01-01

    Summary Biopsies, taken up to 1 week postexercise, from the soleus muscles of 5 healthy males (20–34 years old) suffering from pronounced exercise-induced delayed muscle soreness were analyzed morphologically. There was no evidence for ischemic tissue injury or mechanical fibre disruption. However, at the subcellular level frequent myofibrillar disturbances, especially with regard to the Z-bands, were noted. Thus, the contractile

  18. Experimental Study of the Morphology and Dynamics of Gas-Laden Layers Under the Anodes in an Air-Water Model of Aluminum Reduction Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vékony, Klára; Kiss, László I.

    2012-10-01

    The bubble layer formed under an anode and the bubble-induced flow play a significant role in the aluminum electrolysis process. The bubbles covering the anode bottom reduce the efficient surface that can carry current. In our experiments, we filmed and studied the bubble layer under the anode in a real-size air-water electrolysis cell model. Three different flow regimes were found depending on the gas generation rate. The covering factor was found to be proportional to the gas generation rate and inversely proportional to the angle of inclination. A correlation between the average height of the entire bubble layer and the position under the anode was determined. From this correlation and the measured contact sizes, the volume of the accumulated gas was calculated. The sweeping effect of large bubbles was observed. Moreover, the small bubbles under the inner edge of the anode were observed to move backward as a result of the escape of huge gas pockets, which means large momentum transport occurs in the bath.

  19. Morphology of the Epidermis of the Neotropical Catfish Pimelodella lateristriga (Lichtenstein, 1823) with Emphasis in Club Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Eduardo Medeiros; Monteiro, Juliana Castro; Duboc, Luiz Fernando; Dolder, Heidi; Mancini, Karina

    2012-01-01

    The epidermis of Ostariophysi fish is composed of 4 main cell types: epidermal cells (or filament containing cells), mucous cells, granular cells and club cells. The morphological analysis of the epidermis of the catfish Pimelodella lateristriga revealed the presence of only two types of cells: epidermal and club cells. The latter were evident in the middle layer of the epidermis, being the largest cells within the epithelium. Few organelles were located in the perinuclear region, while the rest of the cytoplasm was filled with a non-vesicular fibrillar substance. Club cells contained two irregular nuclei with evident nucleoli and high compacted peripheral chromatin. Histochemical analysis detected prevalence of protein within the cytoplasm other than carbohydrates, which were absent. These characteristics are similar to those described to most Ostariophysi studied so far. On the other hand, the epidermal cells differ from what is found in the literature. The present study described three distinct types, as follows: superficial, abundant and dense cells. Differences among them were restricted to their cytoplasm and nucleus morphology. Mucous cells were found in all Ostariophysi studied so far, although they were absent in P. lateristriga, along with granular cells, also typical of other catfish epidermis. The preset study corroborates the observations on club cells' morphology in Siluriformes specimens, and shows important differences in epidermis composition and cell structure of P. lateristriga regarding the literature data. PMID:23226253

  20. Influence of curvature on the morphology of brain microvascular endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Mao; Yang, Zhen; Wong, Andrew; Searson, Peter

    2013-03-01

    There are hundreds or thousands of endothelial cells around the perimeter of a single artery or vein, and hence an individual cell experiences little curvature. In contrast, a single endothelial cell may wrap around itself to form the lumen of a brain capillary. Curvature plays a key role in many biological, chemical and physical processes, however, its role in dictating the morphology and polarization of brain capillary endothelial cells has not been investigated. We hypothesize that curvature and shear flow play a key role in determining the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have developed the ``rod'' assay to study the influence of curvature on the morphology of confluent monolayers of endothelial cells. In this assay cells are plated onto glass rods pulled down to the desired diameter in the range from 5 -- 500 ?m and coated with collagen. We show that curvature has a significant influence on the morphology of endothelial cells and may have an important role in blood-brain barrier function.

  1. Changes in cell morphology due to plasma membrane wounding by acoustic cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Schlicher, Robyn K.; Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Radhakrishna, Harish; Apkarian, Robert P.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation-mediated wounding (i.e., sonoporation) has great potential to improve medical and laboratory applications requiring intracellular uptake of exogenous molecules; however, the field lacks detailed understanding of cavitation-induced morphological changes in cells and their relative importance. Here, we present an in-depth study of the effects of acoustic cavitation on cells using electron and confocal microscopy coupled with quantitative flow cytometry. High resolution images of treated cells show that morphologically different types of blebs can occur after wounding conditions caused by ultrasound exposure as well as by mechanical shear and strong laser ablation. In addition, these treatments caused wound-induced non-lytic necrotic death resulting in cell bodies we call wound-derived perikarya (WD-P). However, only cells exposed to acoustic cavitation experienced ejection of intact nuclei and nearly instant lytic necrosis. Quantitative analysis by flow cytometry indicates that wound-derived perikarya are the dominant morphology of nonviable cells, except at the strongest wounding conditions, where nuclear ejection accounts for a significant portion of cell death after ultrasound exposure. PMID:20350691

  2. Molecular Cell Distinct Single-Cell Morphological Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Kishony, Roy

    about the formation dynamics and stability of these bulges. To capture processes of different timescales by the transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding pro- teins (PBPs). Beta-lactam antibiotics covalently bind to PBPs leads to cell lysis (Chung et al., 2009). The physical process of PG defect formation and subsequent

  3. Nuclear and Cell Morphological Changes during the Cell Cycle and Growth of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.

    PubMed

    Dapena, Carlos; Bravo, Isabel; Cuadrado, Angeles; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel

    2015-02-01

    Elucidation of the cell cycle of dinoflagellates is essential to understand the processes leading to their massive proliferations, known as harmful algal blooms. In this study, we used imaging flow cytometry (IFC) to monitor the changes in DNA content and nuclear and cell morphology that occur during clonal growth of the toxic species Alexandrium minutum Halim. Our results indicate that the population was in S phase (C?2C DNA content) during the light period, whereas haploid cells with a C DNA content peaked only during a short interval of the dark period. The timing of the phases, identified based on the nuclear morphology and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear (CNR) ratio of the cells, suggests that the length of the G2/M phase is regulated by nutrient levels whereas the beginning of S phase is clock controlled. In addition we found that up to 7% of individual cells achieved a DNA content higher than 2C, indicative of either zygote formation and replication (homothallism), or of double-haploid cells able to divide (polyploid forms). Cells belonging to different cell cycle phases (G1-S-G2/M) could be readily discriminated based on nuclear size. Our study provides evidence of cell-cycle plasticity during clonal growth and unambiguously characterizes the cell-cycle phases of this dinoflagellate species. PMID:25681688

  4. Relationship of Treponema denticola periplasmic flagella to irregular cell morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, J D; Li, H; Kuramitsu, H; Norris, S J; Goldstein, S F; Buttle, K F; Charon, N W

    1997-01-01

    Treponema denticola is an anaerobic, motile, oral spirochete associated with periodontal disease. We found that the periplasmic flagella (PFs), which are located between the outer membrane sheath and cell cylinder, influence its morphology in a unique manner. In addition, the protein composition of the PFs was found to be quite complex and similar to those of other spirochetes. Dark-field microscopy revealed that most wild-type cells had an irregular twisted morphology, with both planar and helical regions, and a minority of cells had a regular right-handed helical shape. High-voltage electron microscopy indicated that the PFs, especially in those regions of the cell which were planar, wrapped around the cell body axis in a right-handed sense. In those regions of the cell which were helical or irregular, the PFs tended to lie along the cell axis. The PFs caused the cell to form the irregular shape, as two nonmotile, PF-deficient mutants (JR1 and HL51) were no longer irregular but were right-handed helices. JR1 was isolated as a spontaneously occurring nonmotile mutant, and HL51 was isolated as a site-directed mutant in the flagellar hook gene flgE. Consistent with these results is the finding that wild-type cells with their outer membrane sheath removed were also right-handed helices similar in shape to JR1 and HL51. Purified PFs were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and several protein species were identified. Western blot analysis using antisera to Treponema pallidum PF proteins along with N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis indicated T. denticola PFs are composed of one class A sheath protein of 38 kDa (FlaA) and three class B proteins of 35 kDa (FlaB1 and FlaB2) and one of 34 kDa (FlaB3). The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the FlaA and FlaB proteins of T. denticola were most similar to those of T. pallidum and Treponema phagedenis. Because these proteins were present in markedly reduced amounts or were absent in HL51, PF synthesis is likely to be regulated in a hierarchy similar to that found for flagellar. synthesis in other bacteria. PMID:9045823

  5. Culture of Human Endothelial Cells Derived from Umbilical Veins. IDENTIFICATION BY MORPHOLOGIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC CRITERIA

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Eric A.; Nachman, Ralph L.; Becker, Carl G.; Minick, C. Richard

    1973-01-01

    Endothelial cells were isolated from freshly obtained human umbilical cords by collagenase digestion of the interior of the umbilical vein. The cells were grown in tissue culture as a homogeneous population for periods up to 5 mo and some lines were subcultured for 10 serial passages. During the logarithmic phase of cell growth, cell-doubling time was 92 h. Light, phase contrast, and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that cultured human endothelial cells grew as monolayers of closely opposed, polygonal large cells whereas both cultured human fibroblasts and human smooth muscle cells grew as overlapping layers of parallel arrays of slender, spindle-shaped cells. By transmission electron microscopy, cultured endothelial cells were seen to contain cytoplasmic inclusions (Weibel-Palade bodies) characteristic of in situ endothelial cells. These inclusions were also found in endothelial cells lining umbilical veins but were not seen in smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts in culture or in situ. Cultured endothelial cells contained abundant quantities of smooth muscle actomyosin. Cultured endothelial cells also contained ABH antigens appropriate to the tissue donor's blood type; these antigens were not detectable on cultured smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts. These studies demonstrate that it is possible to culture morphologically and immunologically identifiable human endothelial cells for periods up to 5 mo. Images PMID:4355998

  6. Nuclear nano-morphology markers of histologically normal cells detect the "field effect" of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bista, Rajan K; Wang, Pin; Bhargava, Rohit; Uttam, Shikhar; Hartman, Douglas J; Brand, Randall E; Liu, Yang

    2012-08-01

    Accurate detection of breast malignancy from histologically normal cells ("field effect") has significant clinical implications in a broad base of breast cancer management, such as high-risk lesion management, personalized risk assessment, breast tumor recurrence, and tumor margin management. More accurate and clinically applicable tools to detect markers characteristic of breast cancer "field effect" that are able to guide the clinical management are urgently needed. We have recently developed a novel optical microscope, spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy, which extracts the nanoscale structural characteristics of cell nuclei (i.e., nuclear nano-morphology markers), using standard histology slides. In this proof-of-concept study, we present the use of these highly sensitive nuclear nano-morphology markers to identify breast malignancy from histologically normal cells. We investigated the nano-morphology markers from 154 patients with a broad spectrum of breast pathology entities, including normal breast tissue, non-proliferative benign lesions, proliferative lesions (without and with atypia), "malignant-adjacent" normal tissue, and invasive carcinoma. Our results show that the nuclear nano-morphology markers of "malignant-adjacent" normal tissue can detect the presence of invasive breast carcinoma with high accuracy and do not reflect normal aging. Further, we found that a progressive change in nuclear nano-morphology markers that parallel breast cancer risk, suggesting its potential use for risk stratification. These novel nano-morphology markers that detect breast cancerous changes from nanoscale structural characteristics of histologically normal cells could potentially benefit the diagnosis, risk assessment, prognosis, prevention, and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:22706633

  7. Computational study of actin morphology and rheology

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taeyoon, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    The cytoskeletal network consisting mainly of actin and actin binding proteins is highly dynamic, provides structural integrity to cells, and plays a central role in a wide range of mechanical and biological functions such ...

  8. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays. PMID:25717323

  9. Studying femtosecond-laser hyperdoping by controlling surface morphology

    E-print Network

    Winkler, Mark T.

    We study the fundamental properties of femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) hyperdoping by developing techniques to control the surface morphology following laser irradiation. By decoupling the formation of surface roughness from ...

  10. Morphologic changes in alveolar macrophages in response to UVEC-activated pulmonary Type II epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Farberman, M M; Demello, D E; Hoffmann, J W; Ryerse, J S

    2005-06-01

    We hypothesize that Type II epithelial cells, which line the distal airspaces of the lung, are early responders to invading pathogens and release a signal, which activates and alters the phenotype and phagocytosis properties of alveolar macrophages even at a distance. The T(7) cell line is a conditionally immortalized murine Type II epithelial cell line developed in our laboratory. Using an in vitro transwell model we have previously shown that UV-irradiated Escherichia coli (UVEC)-stimulated T(7) cells cultured in the lower transwell chamber, release a diffusible signal which activates MH-S cells (immortalized murine alveolar macrophages) cultured in the upper transwell chamber, to produce nitric oxide. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that MH-S cells activated in this manner exhibit increased cell surface ruffling, numerous long filopodia, increased lamellipodia and cell flattening. DynaBead uptake studies show that these morphologic changes are accompanied by increased phagocytosis. These findings indicate that a diffusible signal released at a distance by UVEC-stimulated Type II epithelial cells initiates changes in morphology and phagocytosis reflective of macrophage activation concomitant with the functional activation we previously reported. PMID:15885728

  11. Identification of morphological differences between avian influenza A viruses grown in chicken and duck cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Mubarak, Firas; Daly, Janet; Christie, Denise; Fountain, Donna; Dunham, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Although wild ducks are considered to be the major reservoirs for most influenza A virus subtypes, they are typically resistant to the effects of the infection. In contrast, certain influenza viruses may be highly pathogenic in other avian hosts such as chickens and turkeys, causing severe illness and death. Following in vitro infection of chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts (CEF and DEF) with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses, duck cells die more rapidly and produce fewer infectious virions than chicken cells. In the current study, the morphology of viruses produced from CEF and DEF cells infected with low pathogenic avian H2N3 was examined. Transmission electron microscopy showed that viruses budding from duck cells were elongated, while chicken cells produced mostly spherical virions; similar differences were observed in viral supernatants. Sequencing of the influenza genome of chicken- and duck-derived H2N3 LPAI revealed no differences, implicating host cell determinants as responsible for differences in virus morphology. Both DEF and CEF cells produced filamentous virions of equine H3N8 (where virus morphology is determined by the matrix gene). DEF cells produced filamentous or short filament virions of equine H3N8 and avian H2N3, respectively, even after actin disruption with cytochalasin D. These findings suggest that cellular factors other than actin are responsible for the formation of filamentous virions in DEF cells. The formation of elongated virions in duck cells may account for the reduced number of infectious virions produced and could have implications for virus transmission or maintenance in the reservoir host. PMID:25613009

  12. Circulating Tumor Cells Count and Morphological Features in Breast, Colorectal and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Sjoerd T.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Bidard, Francois-Clement; Simkens, Lieke H. J.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; de Groot, Marco R.; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann S.; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer is indicative for poor prognosis. An automated CTC (aCTC) algorithm developed previously to eliminate the variability in manual counting of CTC (mCTC) was used to extract morphological features. Here we validated the aCTC algorithm on CTC images from prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients and investigated the role of quantitative morphological parameters. Methodology Stored images of samples from patients with prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, healthy controls, benign breast and colorectal tumors were obtained using the CellSearch system. Images were analyzed for the presence of aCTC and their morphological parameters measured and correlated with survival. Results Overall survival hazard ratio was not significantly different for aCTC and mCTC. The number of CTC correlated strongest with survival, whereas CTC size, roundness and apoptosis features reached significance in univariate analysis, but not in multivariate analysis. One aCTC/7.5 ml of blood was found in 7 of 204 healthy controls and 9 of 694 benign tumors. In one patient with benign tumor 2 and another 9 aCTC were detected. Significance of the study CTC can be identified and morphological features extracted by an algorithm on images stored by the CellSearch system and strongly correlate with clinical outcome in metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. PMID:23826219

  13. Alternariol induces abnormal nuclear morphology and cell cycle arrest in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Alternariol induces abnormal nuclear morphology and cell cycle arrest in murine RAW 264: AOH induces abnormal nuclear morphology and cell cycle arrest. inserm-00871659,version1-11Apr2014, is known to induce DNA damage with subsequent cell cycle arrest. Here we elucidated the effects of AOH

  14. Some remarks on the morphology and histochemistry of the so-called Opalski cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Mossakowski

    1965-01-01

    The morphology of Opalski cells and histochemical properties of substances filling their cytoplasm are discussed. In the morphological picture of Opalski cells special attention has been paid to the presence of residual cell processes which are visible both in the routin cellular stainings and in gold-sublimate Cajal impregnation. Their presence and positive metalic impregnation in the author's opinion, are conclusive

  15. Gut associated lymphoid tissue: a morphological and immunocytochemical study of the human appendix.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, J; Finn, T; Isaacson, P G

    1985-01-01

    Gut associated lymphoid tissue in 15 normal appendices has been characterised in tissue sections using both morphological criteria and immunocytochemical techniques. A panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was used including antibodies to B-cells, T-cells, macrophages, HLA DR and immunoglobulins. The lymphoid tissue in the appendix was shown to bear a strong resemblance to that in lymph nodes with the exception of the region where the appendix follicles associate with the dome epithelium, which has no lymph node equivalent. This zone of cells between the lymphoid follicles and the dome epithelium termed the 'mixed cell zone' has been shown to contain an abundance of HLA DR-bearing cells, some of which have irregular nuclear morphology and resemble follicle centre cells. These cells were seen to extend into the epithelium of the dome but not the crypts. Using a monoclonal anti-B-cell antibody a population of B-cells was detected in the equivalent areas of mixed cell zone and epithelium and quantitative studies showed that these intraepithelial B-cells comprised approximately 4-5% of the cells in the epithelium. The mixed cell zone was also seen to contain T-cells, S-100 protein-containing macrophages and occasional lysozyme-containing macrophages. Plasma cells were rarely seen in this area. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3874811

  16. Role of alpha-synuclein protein levels in mitochondrial morphology and cell survival in cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Li, Wenwei; Lu, Chuanzhen

    2012-01-01

    ?-Synuclein is highly associated with some neurodegeneration and malignancies. Overexpressing wild-type or mutant ?-synuclein promotes neuronal death by mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying mechanisms of which remain poorly defined. It was recently reported that ?-synuclein expression could directly lead to mitochondrial fragmentation in vitro and in vivo, which may be due to ?-synuclein localization on mitochondria. Here, we applied a double staining method to demonstrate mitochondrial morphogenetic changes in cells overexpressed with ?-synuclein. We show that mitochondrial localization of ?-synuclein was increased following its overexpression in three distinct cell lines, including HeLa, SH-SY5Y, and PC12 cells, but no alteration in mitochondrial morphology was detected. However, ?-synuclein knockdown prevents MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells. These data suggest that ?-synuclein protein levels hardly affect mitochondrial morphology in normal cell lines, but may have some influence on that under certain environmental conditions. PMID:22558453

  17. [Functional morphology of parathyroid cells in disorders of calcium metabolism].

    PubMed

    Zufarov, K A; Gontmakher, V M; Razikov, A A

    1992-01-01

    Cell composition of the parathyroid gland was studied under normal conditions, after the hypo- or hyperloading with calcium gluconate and at hyperfunction. Three types of parathyrocytes were established that probably reflect different stages of their life cycle: the first--poorly differentiated cell, the second--mature differentiated cell and the third--degenerated cell. The majority of cells were represented by the parathyrocytes of the 2nd type the varieties of which reflect a non-active (A-subtype) and active (B-subtype) phases of secretion. The number of A-cells is increased under the condition of the hyposecretion and the relative number of B-cells under the condition of experimental hypersecretion. PMID:1482304

  18. Performance of the CellaVision® DM96 system for detecting red blood cell morphologic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Christopher L.; Mansoor, Adnan; Wood, Brenda; Nelson, Heather; Higa, Diane; Lee, Lik Hang; Naugler, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Red blood cell (RBC) analysis is a key feature in the evaluation of hematological disorders. The gold standard light microscopy technique has high sensitivity, but is a relativity time-consuming and labor intensive procedure. This study tested the sensitivity and specificity of gold standard light microscopy manual differential to the CellaVision® DM96 (CCS; CellaVision, Lund, Sweden) automated image analysis system, which takes digital images of samples at high magnification and compares these images with an artificial neural network based on a database of cells and preclassified according to RBC morphology. Methods: In this study, 212 abnormal peripheral blood smears within the Calgary Laboratory Services network of hospital laboratories were selected and assessed for 15 different RBC morphologic abnormalities by manual microscopy. The same samples were reassessed as a manual addition from the instrument screen using the CellaVision® DM96 system with 8 microscope high power fields (×100 objective and a 22 mm ocular). The results of the investigation were then used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the CellaVision® DM96 system in reference to light microscopy. Results: The sensitivity ranged from a low of 33% (RBC agglutination) to a high of 100% (sickle cells, stomatocytes). The remainder of the RBC abnormalities tested somewhere between these two extremes. The specificity ranged from 84% (schistocytes) to 99.5% (sickle cells, stomatocytes). Conclusions: Our results showed generally high specificities but variable sensitivities for RBC morphologic abnormalities. PMID:25774322

  19. Renal oncocytosis: a morphologic study of fourteen cases.

    PubMed

    Tickoo, S K; Reuter, V E; Amin, M B; Srigley, J R; Epstein, J I; Min, K W; Rubin, M A; Ro, J Y

    1999-09-01

    Diffuse renal involvement by numerous oncocytic nodules has rarely been described. We report 14 cases (19 specimens) with innumerable oncocytic nodules in the kidney. Invariably, these kidneys showed additional associated findings. We suggest the term renal oncocytosis for this entire morphologic spectrum. Six (43%) cases had histologically or radiologically proven bilateral involvement. Each specimen had at least one dominant tumor (2.0-10.5 cm) in addition to numerous other microscopic to macroscopic oncocytic nodules. Additional features observed were: interstitial pattern, with the oncocytic tubules and acini diffusely intermingling with and infiltrating between non-neoplastic parenchyma (one case); diffuse oncocytic change in the nonneoplastic tubules, cytologically difficult to separate from the oncocytic nodules (seven cases); and benign oncocytic cortical cysts (four cases). The dominant mass in 13 specimens was a renal oncocytoma and in two, a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. In four specimens, the largest tumor was considered a hybrid tumor because of the presence of mixed histologic features of both tumor types. Most smaller nodules had the morphologic features of renal oncocytoma, but a few had the appearance of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma or nodules with hybrid features. We conclude that the presence of numerous oncocytic nodules may be associated with a wide spectrum of oncocytic changes in the kidney. The association of numerous renal oncocytoma-like nodules with lesions having a mixed morphology or a morphology of pure chromophobe renal cell carcinoma suggests that they may constitute a morphologic spectrum of oncocytic tumors and that renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma may arise from a common progenitor lesion. PMID:10478670

  20. Genetically-Directed, Cell Type-Specific Sparse Labeling for the Analysis of Neuronal Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Rotolo; Philip M. Smallwood; John Williams; Jeremy Nathans; Eshel Ben-Jacob

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundIn mammals, genetically-directed cell labeling technologies have not yet been applied to the morphologic analysis of neurons with very large and complex arbors, an application that requires extremely sparse labeling and that is only rendered practical by limiting the labeled population to one or a few predetermined neuronal subtypes.Methods and FindingsIn the present study we have addressed this application by

  1. Morphological and electron transport studies in ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Azimah; Abdullah, Huda; Ambar Yarmo, Mohd; Shaari, Sahbudin; Raihan Taha, Mohd

    2013-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) incorporating zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated using a chemical bath deposition method. The nanoflake structures captured by a field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis traced the appearance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the photoanode thin film. The photovoltaic performance of the photoanode was quantified by means of an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit with GAMRY-Physical Electrochemistry. The ZnO-SWCNT-based DSSC exhibited good photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiency (?), photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) of 1.31%, 15.31 mA cm-2, 0.224 V and 0.36, respectively. The EIS unit was also employed to quantify the charge transport resistance (Rct), transport resistance (Rt) and effective electron lifetime (?eff) of the DSSC. The impedance analysis of the ZnO-SWCNT-based DSSC also determined greater highly efficient electron transport due to long effective electron diffusion length than the film thickness of the photoanode.

  2. [Effect of Pinch-3 gene interference of glomerular podocytes on cell morphology and cell traction force].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Niu, Qingyuan; Ji, Zhenling; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Jianting; Ma, Deshun

    2013-06-01

    Pinch-3 protein is an important constituent of cell membranes, which directly affects the cell morphology and mechanical properties. We observed and compared the change of morphology and cell traction force of glomerular podocytes before and after Pinch-3 gene inhibition by gene interference technology in this experiment. We found that a number of pores appeared on the cell surface, and the cell projected area were increased at the same time, with an approximate average about an increase of 40% after Pinch-3 gene inhibition. The results showed that the cell traction force of glomerular podocytes was significantly reduced, with an approximate average decrease of 40%, the maximum value of the cell traction force was reduced and the distribution of cell traction force became dispersive. All this suggested that after Pinch-3 gene inhibition, some pores created on the cell surface influenced the physical properties of glomerular podocytes and then affected the cell projected area and influenced the formation and distribution of cell traction force of the glomerular podocytes as well. PMID:23865313

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF RAT KIDNEY CORTEX SLICES UNDERGOING ISOSMOTIC SWELLING AND ITS REVERSAL: A POSSIBLE MECHANISM FOR OUABAIN-RESISTANT CONTROL OF CELL VOLUME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slices of rat kidney cortex were induced to swell by preincubation at 1C in an isotonic Ringer's solution, and their capacity to reverse swelling, by net extrusion of cellular water, was studied during subsequent incubation at 25C. The recovery from swelling was prevented by the ...

  4. SEQUENCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EPITHELIAL CELL CULTURES INFECTED WITH POLIOVIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Magdalena; Howes, David W.; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1956-01-01

    A sequential study is reported of the cytological changes induced in cultures of monkey kidney epithelial cells by poliovirus. The pattern of cytological changes was followed through a single cycle of virus multiplication. Morphological alterations were correlated with the appearance of new infective virus within the cells and in the culture fluid. Alteration of the chromatin pattern of the nucleus, and Type B acidophilic intranuclear inclusions, were seen as early as 4 hours after virus inoculation. Later wrinkling and shrivelling of the nucleus occurred, and eosinophilic cytoplasmic masses appeared. The rounded, pycnotic cell, customarily used as an index of the cytopathic response, was found only during the last stages of the infective process. On the basis of these changes, infected cells could be classified into six different types. Differential cell counts were made on the stained cultures, and the stage of cytopathic degeneration was correlated with the appearance of virus in the cells and in the culture fluid. Newly formed virus could be detected within the infected cells at about the same time that the first nuclear alterations and intranuclear inclusions were seen. The virus-induced morphological changes exhibited a specificity distinct from the classical pycnosis of autolytic degeneration. PMID:13357686

  5. Morphological studies of the cardiac lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Morita, T; Oya, M; Kitamura, H

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and structure of the mammalian cardiac lymphatic system have been investigated by puncture injection, intra-arterial injection of silver nitrate, hydrogen peroxide immersion, and light and electron microscopy. The cardiac lymphatic system consists of drainage vessels and lymphatic capillaries. The drainage vessels contain many valves and are mainly situated subepicardially following branches of the coronary artery. The lymphatic capillaries are composed of a thin layer of endothelial cells, and form relatively dense networks in a fishnet arrangement. These lymphatic networks are richer in the ventricles than in the atria, being present in the subepicardial myocardial and subendocardial regions. In addition, networks are found in all cusps of the atrioventricular valves, and in the sinuatrial node and atrioventricular system. The lymphatic system maintains cardiac homeostasis by receiving proteins, electrolytes and excess fluid from the interstitial tissue and returning them to the venous system. PMID:2252624

  6. Rheumatoid lymphadenopathy: a morphological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Kondratowicz, G M; Symmons, D P; Bacon, P A; Mageed, R A; Jones, E L

    1990-01-01

    Sixteen lymph nodes from 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were examined immunohistochemically and morphometrically and compared with 10 control nodes showing follicular hyperplasia from patients without rheumatoid disease. Frozen material was available from nine patients and all controls. The nodes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis seemed to share characteristic features. The most striking of these was follicular hyperplasia in which the germinal centres, in spite of being quite large, showed relatively sparse proliferative activity. The nodes often showed infiltration of germinal centres by CD8 positive T lymphocytes and contained fewer IL2R positive cells in the paracortex than controls. These and other features may have some correlation with disease activity. Lymphadenopathy in rheumatoid arthritis may not just be a manifestation of joint inflammation but an active component of this multisystem disease and may reflect a widespread immunological abnormality. Images PMID:2318986

  7. [cAMP mediates the morphological change of cultured olfactory ensheathing cells induced by serum].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Zhi-Hui

    2011-02-25

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique type of glia with common properties of astrocyte and Schwann cells. Cultured OECs have two morphological phenotypes, astrocyte-like OECs and Schwann cell-like OECs. Reversible changes have been found between these two morphological phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of these reversible changes is still unknown. The aim of this paper is to establish a method for the morphology plasticity of cultured OECs, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Using the primary culture of OECs and immunocytochemistry, the morphology of OECs was observed under serum, serum free media or dB-cAMP drug treatment. Statistical analysis was performed to test differences among the percentages of OEC subtypes under these conditions. The results showed that under serum free media, (95.2±3.7)% of OECs showed Schwann cell-like morphology, and (4.8±3.7)% of OECs showed astrocyte-like morphology; however, under 10% serum media, (42.5±10.4)% of OECs exhibited Schwann cell-like morphology, and (57.5±10.4)% of OECs exhibited astrocyte-like morphology. When media was changed back to serum free media for 24 h, (94.8±5.0)% of OECs showed Schwann cell-like morphology, and (5.2±5.0)% of OECs showed astrocyte-like morphology. Furthermore, culture condition with or without serum did not affect the expression of OEC cell marker, p-75 and S-100. Finally, dB-cAMP, an analog of cAMP, through inhibiting the formation of F-actin stress fibers and focal adhesion, induced the morphology switch from astrocyte-like to Schwann cell-like morphology under serum condition, promoted the branches and the growth of processes. These results suggest that serum induces the morphology plasticity of cultured OECs, which is mediated by cytoplasmic cAMP level through regulating the formation of F-actin stress fibers and focal adhesion. PMID:21340432

  8. Morphological Study of the Reticular Erythematous Mucinosis Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vanuytrecht-Henderickx; C. Dewolf-Peeters; H. Degreef

    1984-01-01

    Histopathological studies were conducted on skin biopsies of 4 patients with the reticular erythematous mucinosis (REM) syndrome. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the clinical picture in 3 of the cases and from histological characteristics in the 4th. These morphological studies were done parallel with a study of skin biopsies with quite a similar histological picture but in

  9. Unraveling the nanoscale morphologies of mesoporous perovskite solar cells and their correlation to device performance.

    PubMed

    Nanova, Diana; Kast, Anne Katrin; Pfannmöller, Martin; Müller, Christian; Veith, Lisa; Wacker, Irene; Agari, Michaela; Hermes, Wilfried; Erk, Peter; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Schröder, Rasmus R; Lovrin?i?, Robert

    2014-05-14

    Hybrid solar cells based on organometal halide perovskite absorbers have recently emerged as promising class for cost- and energy-efficient photovoltaics. So far, unraveling the morphology of the different materials within the nanostructured absorber layer has not been accomplished. Here, we present the first visualization of the mesoporous absorber layer in a perovskite solar cell from analytical transmission electron microscopy studies. Material contrast is achieved by electron spectroscopic imaging. We found that infiltration of the hole transport material into the scaffold is low and inhomogeneous. Furthermore, our data suggest that the device performance is strongly affected by the morphology of the TiO2 scaffold with a fine grained structure being disadvantageous. PMID:24702643

  10. A Comparison between Growth Morphology of "Eutectic" Cells/Dendrites and Single-Phase Cells/Dendrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2003-01-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) intermetallic and ceramic-based eutectic alloys with an in-situ composite microstructure containing finely distributed, long aspect ratio, fiber, or plate reinforcements are being seriously examined for several advanced aero-propulsion applications. In designing these alloys, additional solutes need to be added to the base eutectic composition in order to improve heir high-temperature strength, and provide for adequate toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. Solute addition, however, promotes instability at the planar liquid-solid interface resulting in the formation of two-phase eutectic "colonies." Because morphology of eutectic colonies is very similar to the single-phase cells and dendrites, the stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka has been extended to describe their formation. Onset of their formation shows a good agreement with this approach; however, unlike the single-phase cells and dendrites, there is limited examination of their growth speed dependence of spacing, morphology, and spatial distribution. The purpose of this study is to compare the growth speed dependence of the morphology, spacing, and spatial distribution of eutectic cells and dendrites with that for the single-phase cells and dendrites.

  11. Cell adhesion, multicellular morphology, and magnetosome distribution in the multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Fernanda; Silva, Karen Tavares; Leão, Pedro; Guedes, Iame Alves; Keim, Carolina Neumann; Farina, Marcos; Lins, Ulysses

    2013-06-01

    Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis is an uncultured magnetotactic multicellular prokaryote composed of 17-40 Gram-negative cells that are capable of synthesizing organelles known as magnetosomes. The magnetosomes of Ca. M. multicellularis are composed of greigite and are organized in chains that are responsible for the microorganism's orientation along magnetic field lines. The characteristics of the microorganism, including its multicellular life cycle, magnetic field orientation, and swimming behavior, and the lack of viability of individual cells detached from the whole assembly, are considered strong evidence for the existence of a unique multicellular life cycle among prokaryotes. It has been proposed that the position of each cell within the aggregate is fundamental for the maintenance of its distinctive morphology and magnetic field orientation. However, the cellular organization of the whole organism has never been studied in detail. Here, we investigated the magnetosome organization within a cell, its distribution within the microorganism, and the intercellular relationships that might be responsible for maintaining the cells in the proper position within the microorganism, which is essential for determining the magnetic properties of Ca. M. multicellularis during its life cycle. The results indicate that cellular interactions are essential for the determination of individual cell shape and the magnetic properties of the organism and are likely directly associated with the morphological changes that occur during the multicellular life cycle of this species. PMID:23551897

  12. Unilateral cryptorchidism induces morphological changes of testes and hyperplasia of Sertoli cells in a dog.

    PubMed

    Moon, Joon Ho; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Jung, Hyo Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Jang, Goo

    2014-12-01

    Cryptorchidism is one of the most common genital defects in dogs. This study investigated the effects of abdominal cryptorchidism on morphology, cell proliferation, and Sertoli cell condition in a dog with spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the abdominal right testis and the scrotal left testis. Significant reductions in numbers of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the cryptorchid testis. The size of the epididymal duct was smaller than that of the control testis. Based on Ki67 immunohistochemistry, the proliferative activity of spermatogonia and spermatocytes was significantly decreased in the cryptorchid testis. However, proliferative activity was increased in the epididymal duct. Based on GATA-4 immunohistochemistry, Sertoli cells were relatively resistant to cryptorchidism, and the proliferative activity of Sertoli cells was markedly increased in the cryptorchid testis than in the control testis. These results suggest that spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism causes morphological defects in spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the testis and changes the size of the efferent ductule of the epididymis. In addition, spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism increases proliferative activity of Sertoli cells, which may be a predisposing factor for Sertoli cell cancer in cryptorchid testes. PMID:25628730

  13. Unilateral cryptorchidism induces morphological changes of testes and hyperplasia of Sertoli cells in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Joon Ho; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Jung, Hyo Young; Choi, Jung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is one of the most common genital defects in dogs. This study investigated the effects of abdominal cryptorchidism on morphology, cell proliferation, and Sertoli cell condition in a dog with spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the abdominal right testis and the scrotal left testis. Significant reductions in numbers of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the cryptorchid testis. The size of the epididymal duct was smaller than that of the control testis. Based on Ki67 immunohistochemistry, the proliferative activity of spermatogonia and spermatocytes was significantly decreased in the cryptorchid testis. However, proliferative activity was increased in the epididymal duct. Based on GATA-4 immunohistochemistry, Sertoli cells were relatively resistant to cryptorchidism, and the proliferative activity of Sertoli cells was markedly increased in the cryptorchid testis than in the control testis. These results suggest that spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism causes morphological defects in spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the testis and changes the size of the efferent ductule of the epididymis. In addition, spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism increases proliferative activity of Sertoli cells, which may be a predisposing factor for Sertoli cell cancer in cryptorchid testes. PMID:25628730

  14. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pinto, Angélica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mário J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences. PMID:24143045

  15. Discontinuities in Rap1 activity determine epithelial cell morphology within the developing wing of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, David D.; Gonzalez-Niño, Eduardo; Edgar, Bruce A.; Curtiss, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms that govern cell-fate specification within developing epithelia have been intensely investigated, with many of the critical intercellular signaling pathways identified, and well characterized. Much less is known, however, about downstream events that drive the morphological differentiation of these cells, once their fate has been determined. In the Drosophila wing-blade epithelium, two cell types predominate: vein and intervein. After cell proliferation is complete and adhesive cell-cell contacts have been refined, the vast majority of intervein cells adopt a hexagonal morphology. Within vein territories, however, cell-shape refinement results in trapezoids. Signaling events that differentiate between vein and intervein cell fates are well understood, but the genetic pathways underlying vein/intervein cyto-architectural differences remain largely undescribed. We show here that the Rap1 GTPase plays a critical role in determining cell-type-specific morphologies within the developing wing epithelium. Rap1, together with its effector Canoe, promotes symmetric distribution of the adhesion molecule DE-cadherin about the apicolateral circumference of epithelial cells. We provide evidence that in presumptive vein tissue Rap1/Canoe activity is down-regulated, resulting in adhesive asymmetries and non-hexagonal cell morphologies. In particular Canoe levels are reduced in vein cells as they morphologically differentiate. We also demonstrate that over-expression of Rap1 disrupts vein formation both in the developing epithelium and the adult wing blade. Therefore, vein/intervein morphological differences result, at least in part, from the patterned regulation of Rap1 activity. PMID:22776378

  16. Lithium intercalation studies of petroleum cokes of different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. D.; Derwin, D. J.; Zaleski, P.; Song, X.; Kinoshita, K.

    Petroleum cokes with different morphologies are studied in lithium intercalation experiments. Several types of calcined petroleum cokes with varying microstructures and surface morphologies are heat treated at temperatures approaching 2800°C. The physical and structural properties are studied by multi-point N 2 gas adsorption analysis, particle size measurements, electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Changes in the properties of materials during heat treatment are significant. The effects of the coke structures and heat treatment conditions on their electrochemical lithium intercalation behavior will be discussed.

  17. Morphology and chirality control self-assembly of sickle hemoglobin inside red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuejin; Lei, Huan; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle cells exhibit abnormal morphology and membrane mechanics in the deoxygenated state due to the polymerization of the interior sickle hemoglobin (HbS). In this study, the dynamics of self-assembly behavior of HbS in solution and corresponding induced cell morphologies have been investigated by dissipative particle dynamics approach. A coarse-grained HbS model, which contains hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles, is constructed to match the structural properties and physical description (including crowding effects) of HbS. The hydrophobic interactions are shown to be necessary with chirality being the main driver for the formation of HbS fibers. In the absence of chain chirality, only the self-assembled small aggregates are observed whereas self-assembled elongated step-like bundle microstructures appear when we consider the chain chirality. Several typical cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes), induced by the growth of HbS fibers, are revealed and their deviations from the biconcave shape are quantified by the asphericity and elliptical shape factors.

  18. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection. PMID:25234289

  19. ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3HIOT1/2 CL8 CELLS. Studies of defined mixtures of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have identified three major categories of interacti...

  20. Non-cell autonomous influence of MeCP2-deficient glia on neuronal dendritic morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ballas, Nurit; Lioy, Daniel T.; Grunseich, Christopher; Mandel, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental disorder Rett Syndrome (RTT) is caused by sporadic mutations in the transcriptional factor methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Although it is thought that the primary cause of RTT is cell autonomous due to lack of functional MeCP2 in neurons, whether non-cell autonomous factors contribute to the disease, is unknown. Here, we show that loss of MeCP2 occurs not only in neurons but also in glial cells of RTT brain. Using an in vitro co-culture system, we find that mutant astrocytes from a RTT mouse model, and their conditioned medium, fail to support normal dendritic morphology of either wild-type or mutant hippocampal neurons. Our studies suggest that in RTT brain, astrocytes carrying MeCP2 mutations have a non-cell autonomous effect on neuronal properties, likely due to aberrant secretion of soluble factor(s). PMID:19234456

  1. Mitohormesis in muscle cells: a morphological, molecular, and proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elena; Sestili, Piero; Vallorani, Luciana; Guescini, Michele; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Gioacchini, Anna Maria; Annibalini, Giosuè; Lucertini, Francesco; Piccoli, Giovanni; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary Low-level oxidative stress induces an adaptive response commonly defined as hormesis; this type of stress is often related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis). The accumulation of transient low doses of ROS either through chronic physical activity or caloric restriction influences signaling from the mitochondrial compartment to the cell, reduces glucose metabolism, induces mitochondrial metabolism, increases stress resistance and ultimately, increases lifespan. Mitochondrial formation of presumably harmful levels (chronic and/or excessive) of ROS within skeletal muscle has been observed in insulin resistance of obese subjects, type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in impaired muscle function associated with normal aging. Advances in mitochondrial bioimaging combined with mitochondrial biochemistry and proteome research have broadened our knowledge of specific cellular signaling and other related functions of the mitochondrial behavior. In this review, we describe mitochondrial remodeling in response to different degrees of oxidative insults induced in vitro in myocytes and in vivo in skeletal muscle, focusing on the potential application of a combined morphological and biochemical approach. The use of such technologies could yield benefits for our overall understanding of physiology for biotechnological research related to drug design, physical activity prescription and significant lifestyle changes. PMID:24596688

  2. Growth, cell cycle progression, and morphology of 3T3 cells following fibroin microsphere ingestion.

    PubMed

    Go, Nam Kyung; Lee, Jin Sil; Lee, Joon Ho; Hur, Won

    2015-04-01

    Cellular uptake of microspheres may cause physiological stress and toxicity. In this report, we investigated the effect of cellular uptake of fibroin microspheres on the growth, cell cycle progression, and morphology of 3T3 cells. The microspheres were prepared by physical cross-linking of fibroin molecules without any chemical modification. Fluorescent microspheres are comprised of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran core and fibroin shell. More than 90% of cells were determined to be fluorescence-positive following 24-h incubation with fluorescent microspheres (0.17 mg/mL). Microsphere localization in the cytoplasm was demonstrated using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Cellular uptake of microspheres did not influence cellular viability, but microsphere concentrations above 0.1 mg/mL resulted in decreased cell proliferation. The proliferation inhibition was attributed to G2 /M phase delay in cell cycle progression and S-phase delay at higher microsphere concentrations (0.33 mg/mL). Although flow cytometry light-scattering data raised the possibility of morphological changes, Coulter counter analysis confirmed no significant size differences between cells incubated with and without microspheres. Accordingly, fibroin microspheres can be a potential vehicle for intracytoplasmic delivery of cargos, without affecting cell viability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1325-1331, 2015. PMID:25044553

  3. Inhibition of protein kinases in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells promotes morphological differentiation and down-regulates ion channel expression.

    PubMed

    Reuter, H; Bouron, A; Neuhaus, R; Becker, C; Reber, B F

    1992-08-22

    We have studied morphological differentiation and ion channel expression in PC12 cells under different culture conditions. Differentiation mediated by nerve growth factor (NGF) was compared with that induced by depletion and inhibition of protein kinases (phorbol ester beta-PMA plus staurosporine). Morphological differentiation was similar under both conditions. However, ion channel densities, studied by means of the patch-clamp technique, were enhanced by NGF and reduced by beta-PMA+staurosporine. Similar changes were also observed for omega-conotoxin-sensitive Ca2+ channels by measuring radioligand binding. The decrease in Ca2+ channel density, after treatment of the cells with beta-PMA+staurosporine, resulted in a reduced increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration during K+ depolarization. We conclude that morphological differentiation, but not ion channel expression, can occur during depression of protein kinase activities in PC12 cells. PMID:1280837

  4. A Chandra Study of Nearby Hybrid Morphology Radio Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Dharam

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that the unusual morphology of `hybrid morphology radio sources', or HyMors, strongly constrains the theoretical mechanisms proposed for the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) morphological dichotomy. Here, we propose a Chandra study of a nearby HyMors, MRC0131-367, and request 36 ks Chandra time to test the hypothesis that external environmental factors influence the jet structure by carrying out a systematic investigation of its hot-gas environment. Our observations will help to answer the questions (i) `what causes the differences between FR-I and FR-II radio structures?', and (ii) `what role does the environment play in the relationship between these two?'

  5. Morphological Priming by Itself: A Study of Portuguese Conjugations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verissimo, Joao; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Does the language processing system make use of abstract grammatical categories and representations that are not directly visible from the surface form of a linguistic expression? This study examines stem-formation processes and conjugation classes, a case of "pure" morphology that provides insight into the role of grammatical structure in…

  6. Nonperturbative Imaging of Nucleoid Morphology in Live Bacterial Cells during an Antimicrobial Peptide Attack

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Somenath; Choi, Heejun; Rangarajan, Nambirajan; Barns, Kenneth J.; Bratton, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of time-dependent drug and environmental effects on single, live bacterial cells would benefit significantly from a permeable, nonperturbative, long-lived fluorescent stain specific to the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA). The ideal stain would not affect cell growth rate or nucleoid morphology and dynamics, even during laser illumination for hundreds of camera frames. In this study, time-dependent, single-cell fluorescence imaging with laser excitation and a sensitive electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) camera critically tested the utility of “dead-cell stains” (SYTOX orange and SYTOX green) and “live-cell stains” (DRAQ5 and SYTO 61) and also 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Surprisingly, the dead-cell stains were nearly ideal for imaging live Escherichia coli, while the live-cell stains and DAPI caused nucleoid expansion and, in some cases, cell permeabilization and the halting of growth. SYTOX orange performed well for both the Gram-negative E. coli and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. In an initial application, we used two-color fluorescence imaging to show that the antimicrobial peptide cecropin A destroyed nucleoid-ribosome segregation over 20 min after permeabilization of the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane, reminiscent of the long-term effects of the drug rifampin. In contrast, the human cathelicidin LL-37, while similar to cecropin A in structure, length, charge, and the ability to permeabilize bacterial membranes, had no observable effect on nucleoid-ribosome segregation. Possible underlying causes are suggested. PMID:24907320

  7. Chemical Effects in Solution on the Formation of Film Morphology in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuk Koh, Jong; Choi, Won Tae; Char, Kookheon

    2013-03-01

    A novel method to control the active layer morphology of bulk heterojunction(BHJ) organic solar cells will be presented in this study. The effect of solvent quality, chemical effect in solution, on the morphology of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) active layer has been investigated. The solubility of solvent can be controlled by mixing other types of additional solvents (additives) to the P3HT:PCBM blend solution, which could adjust the association and/or solvation characteristics for both P3HT and PCBM solutes in mixed solvents. As a result, the control over the solubility has a definitive effect on the film morphology. We report a new additive, 2-chlorophenol, which could drive P3HT to have more association character and, PCBM to have more solvation character in the mixed solvent. Higher P3HT crystallinity was achieved due to more association character in the presence of 2-chlorophenol. Also, the higher solvation character of PCBM leads to the reduced size of PCBM agglomerates, as confirmed by SANS measurements. Based on these results, P3HT:PCBM BHJ solar cell devices were fabricated, with maximum power conversion efficiency of 3.24%, which is 43% enhancement when compared with the reference.

  8. Morphological forms and viability of Campylobacter species studied by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    NG, L K; Sherburne, R; Taylor, D E; Stiles, M E

    1985-10-01

    Electron microscopic studies of Campylobacter revealed that different morphological forms predominate at different parts of a colony. At the periphery, cells were almost all spirals, while in the center of the colony cells were mainly coccus shaped. Unusual ring-shaped cells, "donuts", were observed in the raised, peripheral region of the colony. Donut or ring forms have not previously been reported for Campylobacter organisms. Our data indicate that young or actively growing cells are mainly spiral shaped. Older cells undergo a degenerative change to coccoid forms. The donut shape appears to be an intermediate stage between spirals and cocci. Comparisons of plate counts of actively growing and inactive cells confirmed that coccoid cells are probably nonviable. PMID:4044525

  9. Toward bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with thermally stable active layer morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinaletti, Ilaria; Kesters, Jurgen; Bertho, Sabine; Conings, Bert; Piersimoni, Fortunato; D'Haen, Jan; Lutsen, Laurence; Nesladek, Milos; Van Mele, Bruno; Van Assche, Guy; Vandewal, Koen; Salleo, Alberto; Vanderzande, Dirk; Maes, Wouter; Manca, Jean V.

    2014-01-01

    When state-of-the-art bulk heterojunction organic solar cells with ideal morphology are exposed to prolonged storage or operation at elevated temperatures, a thermally induced disruption of the active layer blend can occur, in the form of a separation of donor and acceptor domains, leading to diminished photovoltaic performance. Toward the long-term use of organic solar cells in real-life conditions, an important challenge is, therefore, the development of devices with a thermally stable active layer morphology. Several routes are being explored, ranging from the use of high glass transition temperature, cross-linkable and/or side-chain functionalized donor and acceptor materials, to light-induced dimerization of the fullerene acceptor. A better fundamental understanding of the nature and underlying mechanisms of the phase separation and stabilization effects has been obtained through a variety of analytical, thermal analysis, and electro-optical techniques. Accelerated aging systems have been used to study the degradation kinetics of bulk heterojunction solar cells in situ at various temperatures to obtain aging models predicting solar cell lifetime. The following contribution gives an overview of the current insights regarding the intrinsic thermally induced aging effects and the proposed solutions, illustrated by examples of our own research groups.

  10. Mapping the Complex Morphology of Cell Interactions with Nanowire Substrates Using FIB-SEM

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mikkel R. B.; ?opaci?ska, Joanna; Schmidt, Michael S.; Skolimowski, Maciej; Abeille, Fabien; Qvortrup, Klaus; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Using high resolution focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we study the details of cell-nanostructure interactions using serial block face imaging. 3T3 Fibroblast cellular monolayers are cultured on flat glass as a control surface and on two types of nanostructured scaffold substrates made from silicon black (Nanograss) with low- and high nanowire density. After culturing for 72 hours the cells were fixed, heavy metal stained, embedded in resin, and processed with FIB-SEM block face imaging without removing the substrate. The sample preparation procedure, image acquisition and image post-processing were specifically optimised for cellular monolayers cultured on nanostructured substrates. Cells display a wide range of interactions with the nanostructures depending on the surface morphology, but also greatly varying from one cell to another on the same substrate, illustrating a wide phenotypic variability. Depending on the substrate and cell, we observe that cells could for instance: break the nanowires and engulf them, flatten the nanowires or simply reside on top of them. Given the complexity of interactions, we have categorised our observations and created an overview map. The results demonstrate that detailed nanoscale resolution images are required to begin understanding the wide variety of individual cells’ interactions with a structured substrate. The map will provide a framework for light microscopy studies of such interactions indicating what modes of interactions must be considered. PMID:23326412

  11. Development of morphological and functional polarity in primary cultures of immature rat uterine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The present study describes a culture environment in which luminal epithelial cells isolated from immature rat uteri and cultured on a matrix-coated permeable surface, with separate apical and basal secretory compartments, proliferate to confluence. Subsequently the cells undergo a process of differentiation accompanied by progressive development of functional polarity. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical evidence verifies the ability of these primary cultures to regain polar organization, separate membrane domains, and form functional tight junctions as demonstrated by the development of transepithelial resistance. The appearance of uvomorulin is restricted to the lateral cell surface. Coordinated indices of functional polarity that develop progressively in post-confluent cultures include the preferential uptake of [35S]methionine from the basal surface and a rise in uterine epithelial cell secretory activity characterized by a progressive preference for apical secretion. The time dependent development of polarity was characterized by differences in the protein profiles of the apical and basolateral secretory compartments. The maintenance of hormone responsiveness by the cultured cells was validated by the secretion of two proteins identified as secretory markers of estrogen response in the intact uterus. The technique of culturing the cells on a matrix-coated permeable surface with separate secretory compartments produces a uterine epithelial cell that morphologically and functionally resembles its in situ equivalent. The culture method and analytical approach used in this present study may be applied to primary cultures of a variety of natural epithelia, which have hitherto proven resistant to more conventional culture methodologies. PMID:3143736

  12. Are morphological criteria sufficient for the identification of circulating tumor cells in renal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Single circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or circulating tumor microemboli (CTMs) are potential biomarkers of renal cell cancer (RCC), however studies of CTCs/CTMs in RCC are limited. In this pilot study we aimed to evaluate a novel blood filtration technique suited for cytomorphological classification, immunocytochemical and molecular characterization of filtered, so called circulating non-hematologic cells (CNHCs) - putative CTCs/CTMs - in patients with RCC. Methods Blood of 40 patients with renal tumors was subjected to ScreenCell® filtration. CNHCs were classified according to cytomorphological criteria. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed with antibodies against CD45, CD31 and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX, a RCC marker). DNA of selected CNHCs and respective primary tumors was analysed by array-CGH. Results CNHC-clusters with malignant or uncertain malignant cytomorphological features - putative CTMs - were negative for CD45, positive for CD31, while only 6% were CAIX positive. Array-CGH revealed that 83% of malignant and uncertain malignant cells did represent with a balanced genome whereas 17% presented genomic DNA imbalances which did not match the aberrations of the primary tumors. Putative single CTCs were negative for CD45, 33% were positive for CD31 and 56% were positive for CAIX. Conclusions The majority of CNHC-clusters, putative CTMs, retrieved by ScreenCell® filtration may be of endothelial origin. Morphological criteria seem to be insufficient to distinguish malignant from non-malignant cells in renal cancer. PMID:24044779

  13. Morphological study of the accommodative apparatus in the monkey eye.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Mari; Inoue, Kenichi; Senoo, Haruki; Takada, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    For more than a century there has been debate concerning the mechanism of accommodation-whether the lens capsule or lens material itself determines the functional relationship between ciliary muscle contractility and lens deformation during refractive adaptation. This morphological study in monkey eyes investigates the composition and distribution of several connective tissue components in the accommodative apparatus relaying muscle force to lens organization. Elastin distributes on the marginal surface of the ciliary process. A zonule is composed of fibrillin produced by epithelial cells of the process. In the progress of extension over the posterior chamber, fibrils unite into strands and possess longitudinal plasticity. By induction of the elastin network, strands extend in a concentric direction covering the equatorial region of the capsule. Upon tethering to the lens, the strand ramifies into fibrils, penetrating deeply close to the epithelial layer of the lens and binding with the collagen of the intercellular spaces. Tight linkage of the zonule with the capsule transmits precise contractility. Inside the lens, the cortical layer's elastic connective tissue network forms widely spaced lamellae of crystalline fibers. In contrast, the central nuclear lamellae are tightly opposed. The accumulation of lamellae is greater in the anterior cortex than in the posterior, yielding a more variable anterior chamber depth in the visual axis. The plasticity of the zonule and connective tissue distribution inside the lens produces an adjustable configuration. Thus, tight linkage between the dynamism of the capsule with interaction of the lenticular flexibility provides a novel understanding of accommodation. Anat Rec, 298:630-636, 2015. © 2014 The Authors The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25403484

  14. Morphological Study of the Accommodative Apparatus in the Monkey Eye

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Mari; Inoue, Kenichi; Senoo, Haruki; Takada, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    For more than a century there has been debate concerning the mechanism of accommodation—whether the lens capsule or lens material itself determines the functional relationship between ciliary muscle contractility and lens deformation during refractive adaptation. This morphological study in monkey eyes investigates the composition and distribution of several connective tissue components in the accommodative apparatus relaying muscle force to lens organization. Elastin distributes on the marginal surface of the ciliary process. A zonule is composed of fibrillin produced by epithelial cells of the process. In the progress of extension over the posterior chamber, fibrils unite into strands and possess longitudinal plasticity. By induction of the elastin network, strands extend in a concentric direction covering the equatorial region of the capsule. Upon tethering to the lens, the strand ramifies into fibrils, penetrating deeply close to the epithelial layer of the lens and binding with the collagen of the intercellular spaces. Tight linkage of the zonule with the capsule transmits precise contractility. Inside the lens, the cortical layer's elastic connective tissue network forms widely spaced lamellae of crystalline fibers. In contrast, the central nuclear lamellae are tightly opposed. The accumulation of lamellae is greater in the anterior cortex than in the posterior, yielding a more variable anterior chamber depth in the visual axis. The plasticity of the zonule and connective tissue distribution inside the lens produces an adjustable configuration. Thus, tight linkage between the dynamism of the capsule with interaction of the lenticular flexibility provides a novel understanding of accommodation. Anat Rec, 298:630–636, 2015. PMID:25403484

  15. A Screen for Morphological Complexity Identifies Regulators of Switch-like Transitions between Discrete Cell Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zheng; Sadok, Amine; Sailem, Heba; McCarthy, Afshan; Xia, Xiaofeng; Li, Fuhai; Garcia, Mar Arias; Evans, Louise; Barr, Alexis; Perrimon, Norbert; Marshall, Christopher J; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Bakal, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The way in which cells adopt different morphologies is not fully understood. Cell shape could be a continuous variable or restricted to a set of discrete forms. We developed quantitative methods to describe cell shape and show that Drosophila hemocytes in culture are a heterogeneous mixture of five discrete morphologies. In an RNAi screen of genes affecting the morphological complexity of heterogeneous populations, we found that most genes regulate the transition between discrete shapes rather than generating new morphologies. In particular, we identified a subset of genes, including the tumour suppressor PTEN, that decrease the heterogeneity of the population leading to populations enriched in rounded or elongated forms. We show that these genes have a highly conserved function as regulators of cell shape in both mouse and human metastatic melanoma cells. PMID:23748611

  16. Using wavelet denoising and mathematical morphology in the segmentation technique applied to blood cells images.

    PubMed

    Boix, Macarena; Cantó, Begoña

    2013-04-01

    Accurate image segmentation is used in medical diagnosis since this technique is a noninvasive pre-processing step for biomedical treatment. In this work we present an efficient segmentation method for medical image analysis. In particular, with this method blood cells can be segmented. For that, we combine the wavelet transform with morphological operations. Moreover, the wavelet thresholding technique is used to eliminate the noise and prepare the image for suitable segmentation. In wavelet denoising we determine the best wavelet that shows a segmentation with the largest area in the cell. We study different wavelet families and we conclude that the wavelet db1 is the best and it can serve for posterior works on blood pathologies. The proposed method generates goods results when it is applied on several images. Finally, the proposed algorithm made in MatLab environment is verified for a selected blood cells. PMID:23458301

  17. Parallel implementation of morphological processing by arbitrary kernels on Cell\\/BE with OpenCV interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Sugano; Ryusuke Miyamoto

    2008-01-01

    One of the most frequently used operations in image recognition is morphological processing. In this paper, we propose a parallel implementation of morphological processing optimized for Cell Broadband Engine (Cell), which is one of the latest high performance embedded processors. By utilizing the computational power of Cell suitable for image recognition, we achieve high-speed morphological processing. Moreover, we construct a

  18. Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Lensink, Saskia E; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Schiller, Niels O

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual language control (BLC) is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an event-related potential (ERP) study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch) and L2 (English). Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block. PMID:25566022

  19. Folliculocentric B-cell-rich follicular dendritic cells sarcoma: a hitherto unreported morphological variant mimicking lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Luisa; Lonardi, Silvia; Petrilli, Giulia; Tanda, Francesco; Bella, Michelangelo; Laurino, Licia; Rossi, Giuseppe; Facchetti, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    We report three cases of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) showing a hitherto undescribed histological pattern consisting of nodular tumor growth associated with small B lymphocytes. FDCS tumor cells consistently showed large epithelioid features and were intermingled with small lymphocytes in the nodules in two cases, whereas they formed cohesive aggregates surrounded by lymphocyte mantle in the other. These features were easily confused with lymphomatous proliferations and, in particular, subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma, high-grade follicular lymphoma, and germinotropic large B-cell lymphomas. The diagnosis was established by the use of a broad panel of antibodies that showed a variable expression of the FDC markers CD21, CD23, CD35, clusterin, podoplanin, claudin 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CXCL13. The associated B lymphocytes revealed a mantle zone B phenotype, with expression of CD20 and PAX5, together with TCL1 and IgD. Of notice, in all cases, morphological features suggesting hyaline-vascular Castleman disease were recognized in the interfollicular areas, containing scattered epithelioid cells similar to those found in the nodules, thus providing a useful clue for FDCS diagnosis. Of the 3 cases, 1 presented multiple recurrences unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and finally died of disease 14 years after diagnosis. This study further emphasizes the extreme variability of morphological presentation of FDCS and expands the spectrum of lesions showing a nodular growth pattern occurring in human lymph nodes. PMID:21835430

  20. DIFFERENCES IN MORPHOLOGICAL AND CELL WALL TRAITS OF ALFALFA PLANTS SELECTED FOR DIVERGENT STEM IN VITRO FIBER DIGESTIBILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared alfalfa clones identified as either low or high rapid (16 h), or low or high potential (96 h) stem in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD) for stem fiber, cell wall, and morphology traits. Five clones of each selection group were grown in replicated field plots at...

  1. Single-cell PCR on protargol-impregnated euplotid ciliates: a combined approach of morphological and molecular taxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Se-Joo Kim; Joong Ki Choi; Seongho Ryu; Gi-Sik Min

    2011-01-01

    Ciliates are considered one of the most diverse protozoa and play significant roles in ecology. For successful taxonomic study of these microscopic eukaryotes, a staining procedure is necessary, due mainly to intrinsic difficulties in recognizing characteristics from living cells. Although molecular taxonomy has been used to resolve the ambiguities associated with traditional morphology-based taxonomy, extraction of genomic DNA from stained

  2. Chronological and morphological study of heart development in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marcela, Salazar García; Cristina, Revilla Monsalve María; Angel, Palomino Garibay Miguel; Manuel, Arteaga Martínez; Sofía, Díaz-Cintra; Patricia, De La Rosa-Santander; Bladimir, Roque-Ramírez; Concepción, Sánchez Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Adult and embryonic laboratory rats have been used as a mammalian model organism in biomedical research, descriptive and experimental cardiac embryology, and experimental teratology. There have been, however, considerable variations and discrepancies concerning the developmental staging of the rat embryo in the reported literature, which have resulted in several controversies and inconsistencies. Therefore, we carried out a careful anatomical and histological study of rat cardiac morphogenesis from the premorphogenetic period to the mature heart in a newborn pup. A correlation between the chronology and morphological features of the heart and embryo or newborn was made. We provide a simple and comprehensive guide relating the developmental timing and fate of the embryonic components of the heart and their morphological changes in the rat based on in vivo labeling studies in the chick. We also compare the timing of heart development in rats, humans, and mice. PMID:22715162

  3. Morphological and electrical studies of organic semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorba, Serkan

    The morphology of an organic semiconductor (OSC) material used as the active layer in an organic device has dramatic effect in the final performance of the device. However, understanding the growth dynamics that governs OSC thin-film morphology is far from complete. The growth theories have been applied to the inorganic semiconductor thin films successfully to reveal their growth dynamics. It would therefore be natural to extend such analyses to OSC thin-film growth. After all, understanding the mechanisms behind the growth of these materials will ultimately afford one with the ability to control their morphology favorably. However, there have so far been few systematic works on OSC materials. A significant portion of my dissertation work here deals with the study of the growth morphology of small-molecule OSCs such as pentacene and perylene, as two model OSCs due to their auspicious charge-carrier mobilities, on various substrates using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). For the former, Monte Carlo computer simulations and kinetic roughening theory were employed to reveal the growth mechanisms behind its peculiar morphology. For the latter, island size distribution and the kinetic roughening analyses were performed. Especially, deliberate emphasis has been placed on the growth of pentacene on SiO 2, due to pentacene's relatively high charge-carrier mobility and SiO 2's technological relevance. Such a study has not been done before. My analysis of the growth of pentacene on SiO2 shows that the initial monolayer growth exhibits a novel growth morphology that involves not only fractal growth but also mound growth. The terraces of the growing mounds have a fractal dimension of 1.6, indicating a lateral DLA shape. The power spectrum analysis shows a ring structure in momentum space, which corresponds to a length selection in real space, indicating the existence of mounds. What starts out to be diffusion-driven growth, ends up, with more coverage, incorporating also the Schwoebel barrier effect. The latter disrupts the highly desired layer-by-layer quasi-epitaxial growth and forms instead the now often-encountered, but not fully understood, pyramidal pentacene mounds. The critical exponents, the roughness exponent alpha = 0.57 +/- 0.03, the growth exponent beta = 0.27 +/- 0.03 of the real surface compare well with the simulation results, alpha = 0.48 +/- 0.07, beta = 0.29 +/- 0.01. Such a morphology wedding fractal growth with mound growth was not observed before in any other system. In addition to the morphological studies, my thesis also includes the results from the electrical measurements I have done on some of the OSC molecular solids using conducting-probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM), and the fabrication and study of feasibility of organic static induction transistor (OSIT) with promising OSCs such as pentacene, perylene, tris(quinoline-8-hydroxylate)aluminum (Alq), and N,N'-di(4-methylphenyl)-N,N' -diphenylbenzidine (TPD). The former two failed to produce viable SITs due to their poor film quality, while the latter two gave rise to functioning SITs. Morphology has thus been shown to have crucial effect in the operation of static induction transistors. The charge transport through SIT was Ohmic at low voltages, and space-charge-limited at higher voltages.

  4. Cytostasis and morphological changes induced by mifepristone in human metastatic cancer cells involve cytoskeletal filamentous actin reorganization and impairment of cell adhesion dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Changes in cell shape and plasticity in cytoskeletal dynamics are critically involved in cell adhesion, migration, invasion and the overall process of metastasis. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that the synthetic steroid mifepristone inhibited the growth of highly metastatic cancer cells, while simultaneously causing striking changes in cellular morphology. Here we assessed whether such morphological alterations developed in response to cytostatic concentrations of mifepristone are reversible or permanent, involve rearrangement of cytoskeletal proteins, and/or affect the adhesive capacity of the cells. Methods Cancer cell lines of the ovary (SKOV-3), breast (MDA-MB-231), prostate (LNCaP), and nervous system (U87MG) were exposed to cytostatic concentrations of mifepristone and studied by phase-contrast microscopy. The transient or permanent nature of the cytostasis and morphological changes caused by mifepristone was assessed, as well as the rearrangement of cytoskeletal proteins. De-adhesion and adhesion assays were utilized to determine if mifepristone-arrested and morphologically dysregulated cells had abnormal de-adhesion/adhesion dynamics when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Results Mifepristone-treated cells displayed a long, thin, spindle-like shape with boundaries resembling those of loosely adhered cells. Growth arrest and morphology changes caused by mifepristone were reversible in SKOV-3, MDA-MB-231 and U87MG, but not in LNCaP cells that instead became senescent. All cancer cell types exposed to mifepristone displayed greatly increased actin ruffling in association with accelerated de-adhesion from the culture plate, and delayed adhesion capacity to various extracellular matrix components. Conclusions Cytostatic concentrations of mifepristone induced alterations in the cellular structure of a panel of aggressive, highly metastatic cancer cells of different tissues of origin. Such changes were associated with re-distribution of actin fibers that mainly form non-adhesive membrane ruffles, leading to dysregulated cellular adhesion capacity. PMID:23351358

  5. Morphology Evolution of Molecular Weight Dependent P3HT: PCBM Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Dian; Briseno, Alejandro; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Effective strategies to maximize the performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic devices have to be developed and understood to realize their full potential. In BHJ solar cells, the morphology of the active layer is a critical issue to improve device efficiency. In this work, we choose poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) system to study the morphology evolution. Different molecular weight P3HTs were synthesized by using Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) method. In device optimization, polymer with a molecular weight between 20k-30k shows the highest efficiency. It was observed that the as-spun P3HT: PCBM (1:1) blends do not have high order by GISAXS. Within a few seconds of thermal annealing at 150 ^o the crystallinity of P3HT increaased substantially and the polymer chains adopted an edge-on orientation. An-bicontinous morphology was also developed within this short thermal treatment. The in situ GISAXS experiment showed that P3HT of high molecular weight was more easily crystallized from a slowly evaporated chlorobenzene solution and their edge-on orientation is much more obvious than for the lower molecular weight P3HTs. DSC was used to study the thermal properties of P3HTs and P3HT: PCBM blend. The ? of P3HT-PCBM was also calculated by using melting point depression method.

  6. Early diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma: clues from routine blood smear morphologic findings.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sagar S; Aasen, Garth A; Dolan, Michelle M; Linden, Michael A; McKenna, Robert W; Rudrapatna, Venkatesh K; Trottier, Bryan J; Drawz, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a mature B-cell neoplasm characterized by malignant lymphoid cells within the lumina of blood vessels and capillaries. Given its varied and nonspecific clinical manifestation, this aggressive disease is often not diagnosed until an advanced clinical stage or even at autopsy. This case highlights a patient presenting with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and fevers. Atypical circulating cells on a screening peripheral smear lead to flow cytometric studies highlighting an increase in large, light chain restricted CD20 positive cells. A diagnostic bone marrow biopsy was performed and trephine cores demonstrated predominantly intrasinusoidal lymphoma cells. In conjunction with additional immunophenotypic data, these studies strongly supported a diagnosis of IVLBCL. Judicious use of flow cytometry and morphology resulted in an early-stage diagnosis and likely contributed to the patient's current complete remission status following anti-CD20 therapy. Differential diagnoses for this presentation are discussed in light of serologic, immunophenotypic, histologic, and cytogenetic findings. PMID:25051078

  7. Morphological and functional differentiation in BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells by treatment with Trans-retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Immortalized neuronal cell lines can be induced to differentiate into more mature neurons by adding specific compounds or growth factors to the culture medium. This property makes neuronal cell lines attractive as in vitro cell models to study neuronal functions and neurotoxicity. The clonal human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cell line is known to differentiate into a more prominent neuronal cell type by treatment with trans-retinoic acid. However, there is a lack of information on the morphological and functional aspects of these differentiated cells. Results We studied the effects of trans-retinoic acid treatment on (a) some differentiation marker proteins, (b) types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels and (c) Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter ([3H] glycine) release in cultured BE(2)-M17 cells. Cells treated with 10 ?M trans-retinoic acid (RA) for 72 hrs exhibited marked changes in morphology to include neurite extensions; presence of P/Q, N and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; and expression of neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?7 (nAChR-?7) and other neuronal markers. Moreover, retinoic acid treated cells had a significant increase in evoked Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release capacity. In toxicity studies of the toxic gas, phosgene (CG), that differentiation of M17 cells with RA was required to see the changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations following exposure to CG. Conclusion Taken together, retinoic acid treated cells had improved morphological features as well as neuronal characteristics and functions; thus, these retinoic acid differentiated BE(2)-M17 cells may serve as a better neuronal model to study neurobiology and/or neurotoxicity. PMID:23597229

  8. Morphological Study of Auditory Ossicles in the Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Mohammadpour

    2010-01-01

    Mohammadpour, A.A. 2010. Morphological study of auditory ossicles in the mouse. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 37: 269–271.Anatomical descriptions of the temporal bone and auditory ossicles have been performed based on dissection often mousse (Twenty temporal bones). The auditory ossicles were three bones: the malleus (2.39 mm), the incus (0.7 mm) and the stapes (0.56 mm). The lenticular bone was a

  9. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Chen, Hai-Xiao, E-mail: Hxchen-1@163.net [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China)] [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Yu, Hai-Qiang [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Lian, Qing-Quan [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)] [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); Deng, Hai-Teng, E-mail: dengh@mail.rockefeller.edu [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)] [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Ge, Ren-Shan, E-mail: rge@popcbr.rockefeller.edu [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  10. Effects of Morphology vs. Cell–Cell Interactions on Endothelial Cell Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Stroka; Helim Aranda-Espinoza

    2011-01-01

    Biological processes such as atherogenesis, wound healing, cancer cell metastasis, and immune cell transmigration rely on\\u000a a delicate balance between cell–cell and cell–substrate adhesion. Cell mechanics have been shown to depend on substrate factors\\u000a such as stiffness and ligand presentation, while the effects of cell–cell interactions on the mechanical properties of cells\\u000a has received little attention. Here, we use atomic

  11. Morphological and biomolecular characterization of the neonatal olfactory bulb ensheathing cell line.

    PubMed

    Audisio, Chiara; Raimondo, Stefania; Nicolino, Silvia; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Di Scipio, Federica; Macrì, Loredana; Montarolo, Francesca; Giacobini-Robecchi, Maria Giuseppina; Porporato, Paolo; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Graziani, Andrea; Geuna, Stefano; Perroteau, Isabelle

    2009-12-15

    Cell transplantation therapy has raised a great interest in the perspective of its employment for nerve tissue repair. Among the various cell populations proposed, olfactory ensheathing glial cells have raised great interest over recent years, especially in the perspective of their employment for neural repair because of their homing capacity in both central and peripheral nervous system. This paper is aimed to provide an in vitro characterization of the NOBEC (neonatal olfactory bulb ensheathing cell) line that was obtained from primary cells dissociated from rat neonatal olfactory bulb (OB) and immortalized by retroviral transduction of SV40 large T antigen. Light and electron microscopy investigation showed that NOBECs are a homogeneous cell population both at structural and ultrastructural level. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry showed that NOBECs express the glial markers S100, GFAP (Glial Fibrillar Acid Protein) and p75NGFR as well as NRG1 (neuregulin-1) and ErbB1-2-3 receptors; while they are negative for ErbB4. Yet, NOBECs exhibit a high proliferation and migration basal activity and can be transducted with vectors carrying GFP (green fluorescent protein) and NRG1 cDNA. Functional stimulation by means of NRG1-III-beta3 overexpression through viral transduction induced a significant increase in cell proliferation rate while it had no effect on cell migration. Altogether, these results show that NOBEC cell line retain glial features both morphologically and functionally, responding to the NRG1/ErbB-mediated gliotrophic stimulus, and represents thus a good tool for in vitro assays of glial cell manipulation and for in vivo experimental studies of glial cell transplantation in the central and peripheral nervous system. PMID:19786050

  12. Low-level phenolic estrogen pollutants impair islet morphology and ?-cell function in isolated rat islets.

    PubMed

    Song, Liqiong; Xia, Wei; Zhou, Zhao; Li, Yuanyuan; Lin, Yi; Wei, Jie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Xu, Bing; Shen, Jie; Li, Weiyong; Xu, Shunqing

    2012-11-01

    Phenolic estrogen pollutants, a class of typical endocrine-disrupting chemicals, have attracted public attention due to their estrogenic activities of imitating steroid hormone 17?-estradiol (E(2)) effects. Exposure to these pollutants may disrupt insulin secretion and be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of phenolic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) on rat pancreatic islets in vitro, whose estrogenic activities were DES>NP>OP>BPA. Isolated ?-cells were exposed to E(2), DES, OP, NP, or BPA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 25, and 250??g/l) for 24?h. Parameters of insulin secretion, content, and morphology of ?-cells were measured. In the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test, E(2) and DES increased insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner in a 16.7?mM glucose condition. However, for BPA, NP, or OP with lower estrogenic activity, the relationship between the doses and insulin secretion was an inverted U-shape. Moreover, OP, NP, or BPA (25??g/l) impaired mitochondrial function in ?-cells and induced remarkable swelling of mitochondria with loss of distinct cristae structure within the membrane, which was accompanied by disruption of mRNA expression of genes playing a key role in ?-cell function (Glut2 (Slc2a2), Gck, Pdx1, Hnf1?, Rab27a, and Snap25), and mitochondrial function (Ucp2 and Ogdh). Therefore, these phenolic estrogens can disrupt islet morphology and ?-cell function, and mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to play an important role in the impairment of ?-cell function. PMID:22946080

  13. Morphology, Growth, and Size Limit of Bacterial Cells Hongyuan Jiang1

    E-print Network

    Sun, Sean

    Morphology, Growth, and Size Limit of Bacterial Cells Hongyuan Jiang1 and Sean X. Sun1,2 1 a general mechanochemical model of the growing bacterial cell wall, which shows explicitly how growth and shape are coupled together to determine the growth velocity and the bacteria size. The bacterial cell

  14. EFFECTS OF VISUAL DEPRIVATION ON MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS IN THE CAT'S

    E-print Network

    Hubel, David

    . The reduction in intensity of a light beam passing through the eyelid, measured with a photoelectric cellEFFECTS OF VISUAL DEPRIVATION ON MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS IN THE CAT'S LATERAL GENICULATE, but such experiments require some knowledge of normal function. During the last 10 years single-cell responses have

  15. Morphological studies of metastatic mammary rat tumors after laser immunotherapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordquist, Robert E.; Nordquist, John A.; Agee, James C.; Blomquist, Chad M.; Chen, Wei R.

    1998-05-01

    Laser immunotherapy, using a combination of 805 nm diode laser, photosensitizer indocyanine green and immunoadjuvant glycated chitosan, has shown an induced anti-tumor immune response in treatment of metastatic rat tumors. In additional to an apparent systemic, long-term humoral immunological reaction, there could also be laser induced local cellular immune responses. A morphological study was performed to study the immune cells and their infiltration to tumor tissue after this laser immunotherapy treatment. Tumor-bearing rats were terminated at designated times after the treatment; both the tumor and the surrounding normal tissue were collected. The tissue samples were observed under electron microscope. The number and types of infiltrating cells at the tumor site were studied after treatment to determine the contribution of these cells in the elimination of tumors. The tumor cell structural changes resulted from laser-tissue photothermal interaction was investigated. The morphology of tumor development and activities of immune cells including both lymphocytes and plasma cells could shed light on the mode of action of laser treatment of tumors.

  16. Effects of Environmental Cl Levels on Cl Uptake and Mitochondria-rich Cell Morphology in Gills of the Stenohaline Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Il-Chi Chang; Tsung-Han Lee; Hong-Chih Wu; Pung-Pung Hwang

    2002-01-01

    Il-Chi Chang, Tsung-Han Lee, Hong-Chih Wu and Pung-Pung Hwang (2002) Effects of environmental Cl- levels on Cl- uptake and mitochondria-rich cell morphology in gills of the stenohaline goldfish, Carassius aura- tus. Zoological Studies 41(3): 236-243. The objective of the present study was to examine the correlation between morphological changes in gill MR cells and modulations in Cl- uptake in a

  17. Morphological study of the reticular erythematous mucinosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanuytrecht-Henderickx, D; Dewolf-Peeters, C; Degreef, H

    1984-01-01

    Histopathological studies were conducted on skin biopsies of 4 patients with the reticular erythematous mucinosis (REM) syndrome. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the clinical picture in 3 of the cases and from histological characteristics in the 4th. These morphological studies were done parallel with a study of skin biopsies with quite a similar histological picture but in which the clinical picture clearly indicated differing entities. The nosologic place of REM syndrome is questioned and the impression arises that there is a clear-cut histogenetical connection with several inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:6202567

  18. Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P. E.; Camacho-Díaz, B. H.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

  19. Morphology of human embryonic kidney cells in culture after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Kunze, M. E.; Williams, K.; Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.; Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of human embyronic kidney cells to differentiate into small epithelioid, large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated morphological cell types following space flight is examined. Kidney cells exposed to 1 day at 1 g, then 1 day in orbit, and a 12 minute passage through the electrophoretic separator are compared with control cultures. The data reveal that 70 percent of small epithelioid, 16 percent of large epithelioid, 9 percent of dome-forming, and 5 percent of fenestrated cells formed in the space exposed cells; the distributions correlate well with control data. The formation of domed cells from cells cultured from low electrophoretic mobility fractions and small epithelioid cells from high mobility fractions is unaffected by space flight conditions. It is concluded that storage under microgravity conditions does not influence the morphological differentiation of human embryonic kidney cells in low-passage culture.

  20. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Many of the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system during space flight may originate from the dysfunction of basic biological mechanisms caused by microgravity. The weightlessness affects the system when blood and other fluids move to the upper body causing the heart to enlarge to handle the increased blood flow to the upper extremities and decrease circulating volume. Increase arterial pressure triggers baroreceptors which signal the brain to adjust heart rate. Hemodynarnic studies indicate that the microgravity-induced headward fluid redistribution results in various cardiovascular changes such as; alteration of vascular permeability resulting in lipid accumulation in the lumen of the vasculature and degeneration of the the vascular wall, capillary alteration with extensive endothelial invagination. Achieving a true microgravity environment in ground based studies for prolonged periods is virtually impossible. The application of vector-averaged gravity to mammalian cells using horizontal clinostat produces alterations of cellular behavior similar to those observed in microgravity. Similarly, the low shear, horizontally rotating bioreactor (originally designed by NASA) also duplicates several properties of microgravity. Additionally, increasing gravity, i.e., hypcrgravity is easily achieved. Hypergravity has been found to increase the proliferation of several different cell lines (e.g., chick embryo fibroblasts) while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. The effect of altered gravity on cells maybe similar to those of other physical forces, i.e. shear stress. Previous studies examining laminar flow and shear stress on endothelial cells found that the cells elongate, orient with the direction of flow, and reorganize their F-actin structure, with concomitant increase in cell stiffness. These studies suggest that alterations in the gravity environment will change the behavior of most cells, including vascular cells. However, few studies have been directed at assessing the effect of altered gravitational field on vascular cell fiction and metabolism, Using image analysis we examined how bovine aortic endothelial cells altered their morphological characteristics and their response to a denudation injury when cells were subjected to simulated microgravity and hypergravity.

  1. Genetically-Directed, Cell Type-Specific Sparse Labeling for the Analysis of Neuronal Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rotolo, Thomas; Smallwood, Philip M.; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Background In mammals, genetically-directed cell labeling technologies have not yet been applied to the morphologic analysis of neurons with very large and complex arbors, an application that requires extremely sparse labeling and that is only rendered practical by limiting the labeled population to one or a few predetermined neuronal subtypes. Methods and Findings In the present study we have addressed this application by using CreER technology to non-invasively label very small numbers of neurons so that their morphologies can be fully visualized. Four lines of IRES-CreER knock-in mice were constructed to permit labeling selectively in cholinergic or catecholaminergic neurons [choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IRES-CreER or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IRES-CreER], predominantly in projection neurons [neurofilament light chain (NFL)-IRES-CreER], or broadly in neurons and some glia [vesicle-associated membrane protein2 (VAMP2)-IRES-CreER]. When crossed to the Z/AP reporter and exposed to 4-hydroxytamoxifen in the early postnatal period, the number of neurons expressing the human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter can be reproducibly lowered to fewer than 50 per brain. Sparse Cre-mediated recombination in ChAT-IRES-CreER;Z/AP mice shows the full axonal and dendritic arbors of individual forebrain cholinergic neurons, the first time that the complete morphologies of these very large neurons have been revealed in any species. Conclusions Sparse genetically-directed, cell type-specific neuronal labeling with IRES-creER lines should prove useful for studying a wide variety of questions in neuronal development and disease. PMID:19116659

  2. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-09-09

    In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

  3. Cell surface protein partially restores morphology, adhesiveness, and contact inhibition of movement to transformed fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, K M; Yamada, S S; Pastan, I

    1976-01-01

    We have isolated the major cell surface glycoprotein of chick embryo fibroblasts, CSP, and added it to a variety of transformed cells in vitro. The transformed cells become more elongated, often more flattened, and show increased adhesion to the substratum. Several transformed cell lines also align in striking parallel arrays. This alignment is characterized by a decrease in the amount of nuclear overlapping, probably indicating restoration of contact inhibition of movement. The morphological changes are antagonized by antibody to CSP. These effects of CSP are not associated with an elevation of cellular 3':5'-cyclic AMP. Moreover, the morphological reversion is not accompanied by an alteration in growth properties. Our results are consistent with a role for CSP in cell adhesion and morphology but not in growth control. Images PMID:177979

  4. The use of optical coherence tomography for morphological study of scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Veksler, B A; Kuz'min, V L; Kobzev, E D; Meglinski, I V

    2012-05-31

    Aimed at possible widening of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) field of application, an attempt is made to use OCT in tissue engineering and cell transplantology as a tool for morphological studies of substrate materials by the example of scaffolds. By means of the traditional fibreoptical OCT scheme the images of inner structure of scaffolds are obtained, and simultaneously the spatial distribution of the intralipid flow velocity is reconstructed using the Doppler OCT. It is shown that combined use of traditional OCT and Doppler OCT schemes allows revealing the regions of the scaffold demonstrating optimal effect of shear stress, which is a key factor of cell growth.

  5. Imaging Flow Cytometry for Morphologic and Phenotypic Characterization of Rare Circulating Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Samsel, Leigh; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Raghavachari, Nalini; Seamon, Catherine; Kato, Gregory J.; McCoy, J Philip

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells in the peripheral circulation are rare events that require technically rigorous approaches for detection by flow cytometry. Visualization of these cells has been even more demanding, as this has historically required extensive enrichment and processing prior to attempting imaging. As a result, few, if any, examples exist of images of peripheral blood CECs that include verification of the cell lineage both phenotypically and genomically. In the present study, we have devised a method whereby CECs can be directly visualized after lysis of red blood cells and staining, without pre-enrichment or additional processing. Peripheral blood is stained with CD45, CD146, CD3, Hoechst, and dapi to permit identification of CD146 positive, non-leukocyte, nucleated and live cells that fit the description of CECs. These cells are imaged using the Amnis ImagestreamX, an imaging flow cytometer. Genomic verification of the endothelial nature of these cells is accomplished by using an aliquot of the same stained samples for sorting CECs using similar gating strategies. This proof of principle of direct imaging of CECs by imaging flow cytometry (IFC) will permit studies to be conducted heretofore not possible, as the ImagestreamX has the capability of detecting additional fluorochromes other than those used to identify the CECs. Such potential investigations include antigen colocalization or capping, autophagy and apoptosis, morphologic changes in response to therapy, as well as many others. Thus, this method will enable a broad range of novel studies to be conducted using CECs as surrogates of the endothelium. PMID:23554273

  6. Single-cell morphological data reveals signaling network architecture

    E-print Network

    Nir, Oaz

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis, the migration of cancer cells from the primary site of tumorigenesis and the subsequent invasion of secondary tissues, causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. To spread, metastatic cells dramatically rearrange ...

  7. Control of cell morphology of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus for enhanced cell stability during industrial processing.

    PubMed

    Senz, Martin; van Lengerich, Bernhard; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The viability of bacteria during industrial processing is an essential quality criterion for bacterial preparations, such as probiotics and starter cultures. Therefore, producing stable microbial cultures during proliferation is of great interest. A strong correlation between the culture medium and cellular morphology was observed for the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which is commonly used in the dairy industry as a probiotic supplement and as a starter culture. The cell shapes ranged from single short rods to long filamentous rods. The culture medium composition could control this phenomenon of pleomorphism, especially the use of peptone in combination with an adequate heating of the medium during preparation. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the cell size and stability of the microorganisms during industrial processing steps, such as freeze-drying, extrusion encapsulation and storage following dried preparations. The results revealed that short cells are more stable than long cells during each of the industrially relevant processing steps. As demonstrated for L. acidophilus NCFM, the adaptation of the medium composition and optimized medium preparation offer the possibility to increase the concentration of viable cells during up- and survival rate during down-stream processing. PMID:25305442

  8. Differential Effects of Tissue Culture Coating Substrates on Prostate Cancer Cell Adherence, Morphology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liberio, Michelle S.; Sadowski, Martin C.; Soekmadji, Carolina; Davis, Rohan A.; Nelson, Colleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Weak cell-surface adhesion of cell lines to tissue culture surfaces is a common problem and presents technical limitations to the design of experiments. To overcome this problem, various surface coating protocols have been developed. However, a comparative and precise real-time measurement of their impact on cell behavior has not been conducted. The prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, derived from a patient lymph node metastasis, is a commonly used model system in prostate cancer research. However, the cells’ characteristically weak attachment to the surface of tissue culture vessels and cover slips has impeded their manipulation and analysis and use in high throughput screening. To improve the adherence of LNCaP cells to the culture surface, we compared different coating reagents (poly-l-lysine, poly-l-ornithine, collagen type IV, fibronectin, and laminin) and culturing conditions and analyzed their impact on cell proliferation, adhesion, morphology, mobility and gene expression using real-time technologies. The results showed that fibronectin, poly-l-lysine and poly-l-ornithine improved LNCaP cells adherence and provoked cell morphology alterations, such as increase of nuclear and cellular area. These coating reagents also induced a higher expression of F-actin and reduced cell mobility. In contrast, laminin and collagen type IV did not improve adherence but promoted cell aggregation and affected cell morphology. Cells cultured in the presence of laminin displayed higher mobility than control cells. All the coating conditions significantly affected cell viability; however, they did not affect the expression of androgen receptor-regulated genes. Our comparative findings provide important insight for the selection of the ideal coating reagent and culture conditions for the cancer cell lines with respect to their effect on proliferation rate, attachment, morphology, migration, transcriptional response and cellular cytoskeleton arrangement. PMID:25375165

  9. Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of the winter flounder mauthner cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Zottoli

    1981-01-01

    Flatfish (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) have Mauthner cells (M-cells) which are small as compared to certain other teleosts and behaviorally these fish display a suppression of a M-cell initiated startle response while on the substrate. They may depend on camouflage and, therefore, immobility in protection from predation. This ability to suppress the startle response could then be expressed in membrane properties of

  10. Prediction of neural differentiation fate of rat mesenchymal stem cells by quantitative morphological analyses using image processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Kazemimoghadam, Mahdieh; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Fouani, Mohamad Hassan; Abbasi, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into neural cells has received significant attention in recent years. However, there is still no practical method to evaluate differentiation process non-invasively and practically. The cellular quality evaluation method is still limited to conventional techniques, which are based on extracting genes or proteins from the cells. These techniques are invasive, costly, time consuming, and should be performed by relevant experts in equipped laboratories. Moreover, they cannot anticipate the future status of cells. Recently, cell morphology has been introduced as a feasible way of monitoring cell behavior because of its relationship with cell proliferation, functions and differentiation. In this study, rat BMSCs were induced to differentiate into neurons. Subsequently, phase contrast images of cells taken at certain intervals were subjected to a series of image processing steps and cell morphology features were calculated. In order to validate the viability of applying image-based approaches for estimating the quality of differentiation process, neural-specific markers were measured experimentally throughout the induction. The strong correlation between quantitative imaging metrics and experimental outcomes revealed the capability of the proposed approach as an auxiliary method of assessing cell behavior during differentiation. PMID:25324434

  11. Identification and characterization of a set of conserved and new regulators of cytoskeletal organization, cell morphology and migration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cell migration is essential during development and in human disease progression including cancer. Most cell migration studies concentrate on known or predicted components of migration pathways. Results Here we use data from a genome-wide RNAi morphology screen in Drosophila melanogaster cells together with bioinformatics to identify 26 new regulators of morphology and cytoskeletal organization in human cells. These include genes previously implicated in a wide range of functions, from mental retardation, Down syndrome and Huntington's disease to RNA and DNA-binding genes. We classify these genes into seven groups according to phenotype and identify those that affect cell migration. We further characterize a subset of seven genes, FAM40A, FAM40B, ARC, FMNL3, FNBP3/FBP11, LIMD1 and ZRANB1, each of which has a different effect on cell shape, actin filament distribution and cell migration. Interestingly, in several instances closely related isoforms with a single Drosophila homologue have distinct phenotypes. For example, FAM40B depletion induces cell elongation and tail retraction defects, whereas FAM40A depletion reduces cell spreading. Conclusions Our results identify multiple regulators of cell migration and cytoskeletal signalling that are highly conserved between Drosophila and humans, and show that closely related paralogues can have very different functions in these processes. PMID:21834987

  12. Morphological and ultrastructural study of extrusion texturized defatted soy flour

    E-print Network

    Kazemzadeh, Massoud

    1980-01-01

    ; Dr. Vincent E. Sweat In order to gain some understanding of. the morpholo- gical and ultrastructural characteristics of an extruded product during the extrusion process, defatted soy flour at three distinct pH levels of 4. 5, 6. 5, and 9. 0... was extruded at temperatures ranging from 82-87 C (no added 0 heat) to 154 C. Extruded samples at each pH level and 0 temperature were collected and studied with scanning elec- tron and transmission light microscopes. Morphological and ultrastructural...

  13. Isolation and characterization of epithelial and myogenic cells by "fishing" for the morphologically distinct cell types in rat primary periodontal ligament cultures.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Noriko; Nakahara, Taka; Nasu, Masanori; Satoh, Tazuko

    2013-02-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) contains various cell populations and plays a central role in the maintenance, repair, and regeneration of the periodontium, i.e., tooth-supporting structures. Because primary cells isolated from PDL tissue are heterogeneous, the establishment of an effective isolation method for cells of interest is desired. In the present study, two morphologically distinct cell types were identified in confluent primary cultures derived from rat PDL. To isolate these cell populations, a small piece of filter paper soaked with trypsin-EDTA was placed directly onto the target cell population, enabling the cells to detach from the culture dish. The filter papers were then transferred into fresh culture dishes to establish outgrowth cultures; these two steps constitute the "cell fishing" method. The "fished" cell types were propagated and subcultured for further analyses. In morphological evaluation, immunocytochemical analyses, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the isolated cells exhibited a polygonal appearance or a mono- or multinucleated appearance, with a high cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio, leading to their being characterized as epithelial or myogenic cell populations, respectively. Surprisingly, a notable proportion of the multinuclear cells in the primary and subsequent isolated cultures demonstrated dramatic, spontaneous contractions, a feature typical of skeletal muscle cells. Finally, the isolated cell populations maintained a normal karyotype with a diploid chromosomal number. These results demonstrated that physiological epithelial and skeletal muscle cells can be obtained from primary PDL cultures without artificial induction using growth factors or chemicals, and can be propagated as individual lineage-committed cell populations; the populations consisted of differentiated and progenitor cells that maintained chromosomal stability. This simple, classical culture procedure provides new insights into the biological properties of PDL cells, which are potentially important for the differentiation of tissue or somatic stem cells and for the development of future cell-based therapies for dental and muscular diseases. PMID:23649106

  14. Morphological Measurement of Living Cells in Methanol with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunxin; Yang, Yishu; Wang, Dayong; Ouyang, Liting; Zhang, Yizhuo; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Xinlong

    2013-01-01

    Cell morphology is the research foundation in many applications related to the estimation of cell status, drug response, and toxicity screening. In biomedical field, the quantitative phase detection is an inevitable trend for living cells. In this paper, the morphological change of HeLa cells treated with methanol of different concentrations is detected using digital holographic microscopy. The compact image-plane digital holographic system is designed based on fiber elements. The quantitative phase image of living cells is obtained in combination with numerical analysis. The statistical analysis shows that the area and average optical thickness of HeLa cells treated with 12.5% or 25% methanol reduce significantly, which indicates that the methanol with lower concentration could cause cellular shrinkage. The area of HeLa cells treated with 50% methanol is similar to that of normal cells (P > 0.05), which reveals the fixative effect of methanol with higher concentration. The maximum optical thickness of the cells treated with 12.5%, 25%, and 50% methanol is greater than that of untreated cells, which implies the pyknosis of HeLa cells under the effect of methanol. All of the results demonstrate that digital holographic microscopy has supplied a noninvasive imaging alternative to measure the morphological change of label-free living cells. PMID:23424605

  15. Morphological restriction of human coronary artery endothelial cells substantially impacts global gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Jessica M; Pham, Robert; Rowntree, Rebecca K; Amaya, Clarissa; Battiste, James; Boucheron, Laura E; Mitchell, Dianne C; Bryan, Brad A

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in cell shape have been shown to modulate chromatin condensation and cell lineage specification; however, the mechanisms controlling these processes are largely unknown. Because endothelial cells experience cyclic mechanical changes from blood flow during normal physiological processes and disrupted mechanical changes as a result of abnormal blood flow, cell shape deformation and loss of polarization during coronary artery disease, we aimed to determine how morphological restriction affects global gene expression patterns. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were cultured on spatially defined adhesive micropatterns, forcing them to conform to unique cellular morphologies differing in cellular polarization and angularity. We utilized pattern recognition algorithms and statistical analysis to validate the cytoskeletal pattern reproducibility and uniqueness of each micropattern, and performed microarray analysis on normal-shaped and micropatterned HCAECs to determine how constrained cellular morphology affects gene expression patterns. Analysis of the data revealed that forcing HCAECs to conform to geometrically-defined shapes significantly affects their global transcription patterns compared to nonrestricted shapes. Interestingly, gene expression patterns were altered in response to morphological restriction in general, although they were consistent regardless of the particular shape the cells conformed to. These data suggest that the ability of HCAECs to spread, although not necessarily their particular morphology, dictates their genomics patterns. PMID:23802622

  16. Bioeffective Ultrasound at Very Low Doses: Reversible Manipulation of Neuronal Cell Morphology and Function in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; LaManna, Justine; Szulman, Erin; Kalisz, M. S. Andrew; Lamprecht, Michael; Simon, M. S. Melissa; Yu, M. S. Zhe; Xu, Nina; Morrison, Barclay

    2009-04-01

    Direct and safe manipulation of neurons by external means is an increasingly studied therapeutic modality with the potential to treat many neurological diseases. Anticipating such future applications, we investigated reversible bioeffects of very low dose focused ultrasound on neuronal cell morphology and function in vitro. To test morphological changes, undifferentiated PC12 cells were serum-cultured. The culture plates were placed on an inverted optical microscope. An f/1.1 ultrasound transducer with a water-filled coupling cone was focused on the culture and excited with 30-ms 4.67-MHz 100-kPa pulses. To test functional changes, rat hippocampal slices were cultured and individually transferred to the well of a 60-channel multi electrode array. An f/2.1 ultrasound transducer with a water-filled coupling cone was focused on a culture and excited with 100-?s 4.04-MHz 77-kPa pulses. The culture was stimulated before and after the ultrasonic stimulus with a 100-?s 100-?A biphasic electrical stimulus. Optical microscopy of PC12 cultures under insonification revealed that cells that were clustered near the ultrasound focal region elongated by approximately 2 ?m during insonification and returned to approximately their original shapes following insonification. We conclude that the acoustic radiation force is capable of reversibly deforming cultured cells. In the rat hippocampal cultures, the ultrasonically and electrically evoked responses exhibited similar biphasic waveforms. In addition, robust electrically evoked responses following insonification indicated that the insonified cultures remained viable. We conclude that low-dose ultrasound can stimulate neurons; the mechanism is currently under investigation.

  17. Morphological characteristics and identification of islet-like cells derived from rat adipose-derived stem cells cocultured with pancreas adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hefei, Wang; Yu, Ren; Haiqing, Wu; Xiao, Wang; Jingyuan, Wang; Dongjun, Liu

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes is a significant public health problem that can be treated with insulin therapy; however, therapies designed to cure diabetes are limited. The goal of the current study was to assess the potential for curative treatment of diabetes using adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). To achieve this goal, the differentiation of rat ADSCs into pancreatic islet-like cells induced by coculture with pancreatic adult stem cells (PASCs) was characterized. Differentiation of ADSCs into islet-like cells induced by coculturing was determined morphologically, as well as by the assessment of islet cell markers using dithizone staining, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, qPCR, and western blotting. The results showed that ADSCs formed islet-like round cell masses after coculture with PASCs. These differentiated cells were shown to be positive for islet cell markers, including dithizone incorporation; PDX1, CK19 and Nestin by immunohistochemistry, and insulin, PDX1 and glucagon expression by RT-PCR. Differentiated ADSCs induced by coculturing also expressed insulin at the mRNA and protein level, with the level of insulin mRNA expression in cocultured ADSCs being 0.05 times greater than that of PASCs (P?cells by coculture with PASCs; thus these cells can be used for transplantation, providing a theoretical foundation for the treatment of diabetes using this approach. PMID:25262665

  18. Familial Follicular Cell Tumors: Classification and Morphological Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vânia Nosé

    2010-01-01

    Familial follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancer, papillary (PTC), and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC),\\u000a accounts for 95% of thyroid malignancies. The majority of are sporadic, and at least 5% of these patients will have familial\\u000a disease. Familial thyroid syndromes are classified into familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC), derived from calcitonin-producing\\u000a C cells, and familial follicular cell tumors or non-medullary thyroid carcinoma

  19. Relating morphological characteristics to the open-circuit voltage of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Teng; Birgersson, Erik; Luther, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    A closed-form expression for the open-circuit voltage of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells is derived as a function of the donor/acceptor morphology based on a spatially smoothed modelling framework. It is found that the open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells is in leading order determined by a single morphological feature: the ratio between the donor volume fraction and the specific interfacial area. Other morphological characteristics of the donor/acceptor blend, such as the connectivity of percolation pathways, do not have significant impact on the open-circuit voltage. Our findings are verified with detailed charge carrier transport simulations utilizing randomly generated donor/acceptor morphologies.

  20. Cell motility, morphology, viability and proliferation in response to nanotopography on silicon black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?opaci?ska, Joanna M.; Gr?dinaru, Cristian; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Købler, Carsten; Schmidt, Michael S.; Madsen, Martin T.; Skolimowski, Maciej; Dufva, Martin; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Mølhave, Kristian

    2012-05-01

    Knowledge of cells' interactions with nanostructured materials is fundamental for bio-nanotechnology. We present results for how individual mouse fibroblasts from cell line NIH3T3 respond to highly spiked surfaces of silicon black that were fabricated by maskless reactive ion etching (RIE). We did standard measurements of cell viability, proliferation, and morphology on various surfaces. We also analyzed the motility of cells on the same surfaces, as recorded in time lapse movies of sparsely populated cell cultures. We find that motility and morphology vary strongly with nano-patterns, while viability and proliferation show little dependence on substrate type. We conclude that motility analysis can show a wide range of cell responses e.g. over a factor of two in cell speed to different nano-topographies, where standard assays, such as viability or proliferation, in the tested cases show much less variation of the order 10-20%.Knowledge of cells' interactions with nanostructured materials is fundamental for bio-nanotechnology. We present results for how individual mouse fibroblasts from cell line NIH3T3 respond to highly spiked surfaces of silicon black that were fabricated by maskless reactive ion etching (RIE). We did standard measurements of cell viability, proliferation, and morphology on various surfaces. We also analyzed the motility of cells on the same surfaces, as recorded in time lapse movies of sparsely populated cell cultures. We find that motility and morphology vary strongly with nano-patterns, while viability and proliferation show little dependence on substrate type. We conclude that motility analysis can show a wide range of cell responses e.g. over a factor of two in cell speed to different nano-topographies, where standard assays, such as viability or proliferation, in the tested cases show much less variation of the order 10-20%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11455k

  1. Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Laminar Cells in the Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Mark N.; Shackleton, Trevor M.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) is organized into a series of fibro-dendritic laminae, orthogonal to the tonotopic progression. Many neurons have their dendrites confined to one lamina while others have dendrites that cross over a number of laminae. Here, we have used juxtacellular labeling in urethane anesthetized guinea pigs to visualize the cells with biocytin and have analyzed their response properties, in order to try and link their structure and function. Out of a sample of 38 filled cells, 15 had dendrites confined within the fibro-dendritic laminae and in 13 we were also able to reconstruct their local axonal tree. Based on dendritic morphology they were subdivided into flat or less flat; small, medium, or large; elongated or disk-shaped cells. Two of the elongated cells had many dendritic spines while the other cells had few or none. Twelve of the cells had their local axonal tree restricted to the same lamina as their dendrites while one cell had its dendrites in a separate lamina from the axon. The axonal plexus was more extensive (width 0.7–1.4?mm) within the lamina than the dendrites (width generally 0.07–0.53?mm). The intrinsic axons were largely confined to a single lamina within the central nucleus, but at least half the cells also had output axons with two heading for the commissure and five heading into the brachium. We were able to identify similarities in the physiological response profiles of small groups of our filled cells but none appeared to represent a homogeneous morphological cell type. The only common feature of our sample was one of exclusion in that the onset response, a response commonly recorded from IC cells, was never seen in laminar cells, but was in cells with a stellate morphology. Thus cells with laminar dendrites have a wide variety of physiological responses and morphological subtypes, but over 90% have an extensive local axonal tree within their local lamina. PMID:22933991

  2. Differences in regulation of tight junctions and cell morphology between VHL mutations from disease subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene cause clear cell renal carcinomas, hemangioblastomas, and pheochromocytomas. The VHL gene product is part of an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-?) is a key substrate, although additional VHL functions have been described. A genotype-phenotype relationship exists in VHL disease such that specific VHL mutations elicit certain subsets of these tumors. Here, we examine VHL genotype-phenotype correlations at the cellular level, focusing on the regulation of tight junctions and cell morphology. Methods Wild-type and various mutant VHL proteins representing VHL disease subtypes were stably expressed in 3 VHL-negative renal carcinoma cell lines. Using these cell lines, the roles of various VHL-associated cellular functions in regulation of cell morphology were investigated. Results As a whole, type 1 mutants varied greatly from type 2 mutants, demonstrating high levels of HIF-2?, cyclin D1 and ?5 integrin, lower p27 levels, and a spindly, fibroblastic cellular appearance. Type 2 mutations demonstrated an epithelial morphology similar to wild-type VHL in the majority of the renal cell lines used. Knockdown of p27 in cells with wild-type VHL led to perturbations of both epithelial morphology and ZO-1 localization to tight junctions. ZO-1 localization correlated well with VHL disease subtypes, with greater mislocalization observed for genotypes associated with a higher risk of renal carcinoma. HIF-2? knockdown in 786-O partially restored ZO-1 localization, but did not restore an epithelial morphology. Conclusion VHL has both HIF-? dependent and HIF-? independent functions in regulating tight junctions and cell morphology that likely impact the clinical phenotypes seen in VHL disease. PMID:19602254

  3. Morphologic categorization of cell death induced by mild hyperthermia and comparison with death induced by ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, D.J.; Harmon, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the morphological categorization of cell death, results of two in vivo studies on the cell death induced by mild hyperthermia in rat small intestine and mouse mastocytoma, and a comparison of the cell death induced by hyperthermia, radiation and cytotoxic drugs. Two distinct forms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis, can be recognized on morphologic grounds. Apoptosis appears to be a process of active cellular self-destruction to which a biologically meaningful role can usually be attributed, whereas necrosis is a passive degenerative phenomenon that results from irreversible cellular injury. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies showed that lower body hyperthermia (43 degrees C for 30 min) induced only apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, and of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. In the mastocytoma, hyperthermia (43 degrees C for 15 min) produced widespread tumor necrosis and also enhanced apoptosis of tumor cells. Ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs are also known to induce apoptosis in a variety of tissues. It is attractive to speculate that DNA damage by each agent is the common event which triggers the same process of active cellular self-destruction that characteristically effects selective cell deletion in normal tissue homeostasis.

  4. Morphological studies on Meckel's diverticulum in geese (Anser anser domesticus).

    PubMed

    Besoluk, K; Eken, E; Boydak, M; Tipirdamaz, S

    2002-10-01

    This study was carried out to reveal the morphological features of Meckel's diverticulum (MD) in geese. For this purpose, a total of 36 adult healthy geese of both sexes, 50-52 weeks of age, were used. The mean weight of MD in male was found to be significantly larger than that of female. It was located a little distal to the midpoint of the small intestine in both sexes. It had a lot of lymphoid tissues, the simple columnar epithelium and a small number of crypts, and was a lack of villi, and its muscularis mucosae was very thin. Results from this study are thought to throw light on future studies on MD and proper diagnosis of pathological disorders related to it, and to contribute considerably to the present anatomical knowledge on MD in geese. PMID:12484422

  5. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts. Methods Thirty Achilles tendinopathy patients were randomized to an expression-study (n = 16) or a structural-study (n = 14). Biopsies from two areas in the Achilles tendon were taken and structural parameters: fibril density, fibril size, volume fraction of cells and the nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of cells were determined. Further gene expressions of various genes were analyzed. Results Significantly smaller collagen fibrils and a higher volume fraction of cells were observed in the tendinopathic region of the tendon. Markers for collagen and its synthesis collagen 1, collagen 3, fibronectin, tenascin-c, transforming growth factor-? fibromodulin, and markers of collagen breakdown matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and metallopeptidase inhibitor-2 were significantly increased in the tendinopathic region. No altered expressions of markers for fibrillogenesis, inflammation or wound healing were observed. Conclusion The present study indicates that an increased expression of factors stimulating the turnover of connective tissue is present in the diseased part of tendinopathic tendons, associated with an increased number of cells in the injured area as well as an increased number of smaller and thinner fibrils in the diseased tendon region. As no fibrillogenesis, inflammation or wound healing could be detected, the present data supports the notion that tendinopathy is an ongoing degenerative process. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN20896880 PMID:22480275

  6. Morphological instability of interface, cell and dendrite during directional solidification under strong magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi Li; Yves Fautrelle; Zhongming Ren; Annie Gagnoud; Yudong Zhang; Claude Esling

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a strong magnetic field on the interface shape and the cellular and dendritic morphology were investigated in the directionally solidified Al–Cu, Zn–Cu and Al–Ni alloys experimentally. The results show that morphological instability of the interface, cell and dendrite has occurred during the directional solidification under the strong magnetic field. Indeed, the magnetic field caused the breakdown of

  7. DCLK1 Marks a Morphologically Distinct Subpopulation of Cells with Stem Cell Properties in Pre-invasive Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jennifer M.; Alsina, Janivette; Rasheed, Zeshaan A.; McAllister, Florencia M.; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Plentz, Ruben; Zhang, Hao; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Matsui, William; Maitra, Anirban; Leach, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims As in other tumor types, progression of pancreatic cancer may require a functionally unique population of cancer stem cells. Although such cells have been identified in many invasive cancers, is not clear whether they emerge during early or late stages of tumorigenesis. Using mouse models and human pancreatic cancer cell lines, we investigated whether pre-invasive pancreatic neoplasia contains a subpopulation of cells with distinct morphologies and cancer stem cell-like properties. Methods Pancreatic tissue samples were collected from the KCPdx1, KPCPdx1, and KCiMist1 mouse models of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and analyzed by confocal and electron microscopy, lineage tracing, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Subpopulations of human PDAC cells were similarly analyzed and also used in cDNA microarray analyses. Results The microtubule regulator DCLK1 marked a morphologically distinct and functionally unique population of pancreatic cancer-initiating cells. These cells displayed morphologic and molecular features of gastrointestinal tuft cells. Cells that expressed DCLK1 also expressed high levels of ATAT1, HES1, HEY1, IGF1R, and ABL1, and manipulation of these pathways in PDAC cell lines inhibited their clonogenic potential. Pharmacologic inhibition of ?–secretase activity reduced the abundance of these cells in murine PanIN, in a manner that correlated with inhibition of PanIN progression. Conclusions Human PDAC cells and pancreatic neoplasms in mice contain morphologically and functionally distinct subpopulations that have cancer stem cell-like properties. These populations can be identified at the earliest stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis, and provide new cellular and molecular targets for pancreatic cancer treatment and/or chemoprevention. PMID:24096005

  8. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition-the roles of cell morphology, labile adhesion and junctional coupling.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Tariq; Luna-Zurita, Luis; de la Pompa, José Luis; Schleich, Jean-Marc; Summers, Ron

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process during development and disease, including development of the heart valves and tumour metastases. An extended cellular Potts model was implemented to represent the behaviour emerging from autonomous cell morphology, labile adhesion, junctional coupling and cell motility. Computer simulations normally focus on these functional changes independently whereas this model facilitates exploration of the interplay between cell shape changes, adhesion and migration. The simulation model is fitted to an in vitro model of endocardial EMT, and agrees with the finding that Notch signalling increases cell-matrix adhesion in addition to modulating cell-cell adhesion. PMID:23787029

  9. Fibrocartilage Tissue Engineering: The Role of the Stress Environment on Cell Morphology and Matrix Expression

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rosalina; Birman, Victor; Smith, Lester; Ku, Katherine; Elson, Elliott L.; Pryse, Kenneth M.; Marquez, Juan Pablo; Genin, Guy M.

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the effects of uniaxial mechanical loading on fibrocartilage development, the stress fields to which fibrocartilaginous regions are subjected to during development are mutiaxial. That fibrocartilage develops at tendon-to-bone attachments and in compressive regions of tendons is well established. However, the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the stresses needed for the development of fibrocartilage is not known. Here, we developed and applied an in vitro system to determine whether fibrocartilage can develop under a state of periodic hydrostatic tension in which only a single principal component of stress is compressive. This question is vital to efforts to mechanically guide morphogenesis and matrix expression in engineered tissue replacements. Mesenchymal stromal cells in a 3D culture were exposed to compressive and tensile stresses as a result of an external tensile hydrostatic stress field. The stress field was characterized through mechanical modeling. Tensile cyclic stresses promoted spindle-shaped cells, upregulation of scleraxis and type one collagen, and cell alignment with the direction of tension. Cells experiencing a single compressive stress component exhibited rounded cell morphology and random cell orientation. No difference in mRNA expression of the genes Sox9 and aggrecan was observed when comparing tensile and compressive regions unless the medium was supplemented with the chondrogenic factor transforming growth factor beta3. In that case, Sox9 was upregulated under static loading conditions and aggrecan was upregulated under cyclic loading conditions. In conclusion, the fibrous component of fibrocartilage could be generated using only mechanical cues, but generation of the cartilaginous component of fibrocartilage required biologic factors in addition to mechanical cues. These studies support the hypothesis that the 3D stress environment influences cell activity and gene expression in fibrocartilage development. PMID:21091338

  10. Controlling Morphology and Molecular Packing of Alkane Substituted Phthalocyanine Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jurow, Matthew J.; Hageman, Brian A.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pabon, Cesar; Black, Charles T.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic changes in the exocyclic substiution of core phthalocyanine platform tune the absorption properties to yield commercially viable dyes that function as the primary light absorbers in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Blends of these complementary phthalocyanines absorb a broader portion of the solar spectrum compared to a single dye, thereby increasing solar cell performance. We correlate grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering structural data with solar cell performance to elucidate the role of nanomorphology of active layers composed of blends of phthalocyanines and a fullerene derivative. A highly reproducible device architecture is used to assure accuracy and is relevant to films for solar windows in urban settings. We demonstrate that the number and structure of the exocyclic motifs dictate phase formation, hierarchical organization, and nanostructure, thus can be employed to tailor active layer morphology to enhance exciton dissociation and charge collection efficiencies in the photovoltaic devices. These studies reveal that disordered films make better solar cells, short alkanes increase the optical density of the active layer, and branched alkanes inhibit unproductive homogeneous molecular alignment. PMID:23589766

  11. Morphological and biochemical characterization of Erwinia amylovora-induced hypersensitive cell death in apple leaves.

    PubMed

    Iakimova, Elena T; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Michalczuk, Lech; W?grzynowicz-Lesiak, El?bieta; Mikici?ski, Artur; Woltering, Ernst J

    2013-02-01

    In attached apple leaves, spot-inoculated with Erwinia amylovora, the phenotypic appearance of the hypersensitive response (HR) and the participation of ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) (a plant caspase-1-like protease) were analysed. The HR in both the resistant and susceptible genotypes expressed a similar pattern of distinguishable micro HR lesions that progressed into confined macro HR lesions. The HR symptoms in apple were compared to those in non-host tobacco. The morphology of dead cells (protoplast shrinkage and retraction from cell wall) in apple leaves resembled necrotic programmed cell death (PCD). Lesion formation in both cv. Free Redstar (resistant) and cv. Idared (highly susceptible) was preceded by ROS accumulation and elevation of ethylene levels. Treatment of infected leaves with an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis led to a decrease of ethylene emission and suppression of lesion development in both cultivars. In the resistant but not in the susceptible apple cultivar an early and late increase in VPE gene expression was detected. This suggests that VPE might be an underlying component of the response to E. amylovora in resistant apple cultivars. The findings show that in the studied pathosystem the cell death during the HR proceeds through a signal transduction cascade in which ROS, ethylene and VPE pathways play a role. PMID:23321023

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, G A [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  13. Investigation of cell morphology for disease diagnostics via high content screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatau, Shyam

    2013-03-01

    Ninety percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by metastatic disease, i.e. the spreading of a subset of cells from a primary tumor in an organ to distal sites in other organs. Understanding this progression from localized to metastatic disease is essential for further developing effective therapeutic and treatment strategies. However, despite research efforts, no distinct genetic, epigenetic, or proteomic signature of cancer metastasis has been identified so far. Metastasis is a physical event: through invasion and migration through the dense, tortuous stromal matrix, intravasation, shear forces of blood flow, successful re-attachment to blood vessel walls, migration, the colonization of a distal site, and, finally, reactivation following dormancy, metastatic cells may share precise physical properties. Cell morphology is the most direct physical property that can be measured. In this work, we develop a high throughput cell phenotyping process and investigate the morphological signature of primary tumor cells and liver metastatic pancreatic cancer cells.

  14. Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    El-Schich, Zahra; Mölder, Anna; Tassidis, Helena; Härkönen, Pirkko; Falck Miniotis, Maria; Gjörloff Wingren, Anette

    2015-03-01

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds. PMID:25637284

  15. Auxin regulates SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphology restricting cell size.

    PubMed

    Löfke, Christian; Dünser, Kai; Scheuring, David; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The control of cellular growth is central to multicellular patterning. In plants, the encapsulating cell wall literally binds neighbouring cells to each other and limits cellular sliding/migration. In contrast to its developmental importance, growth regulation is poorly understood in plants. Here, we reveal that the phytohormone auxin impacts on the shape of the biggest plant organelle, the vacuole. TIR1/AFBs-dependent auxin signalling posttranslationally controls the protein abundance of vacuolar SNARE components. Genetic and pharmacological interference with the auxin effect on vacuolar SNAREs interrelates with auxin-resistant vacuolar morphogenesis and cell size regulation. Vacuolar SNARE VTI11 is strictly required for auxin-reliant vacuolar morphogenesis and loss of function renders cells largely insensitive to auxin-dependent growth inhibition. Our data suggests that the adaptation of SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphogenesis allows auxin to limit cellular expansion, contributing to root organ growth rates. PMID:25742605

  16. Role of laminin and basement membrane in the morphological differentiation of human endothelial cells into capillary-like structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Kubota; Hynda K. Kleinman; George R. Martin; Thomas J. Lawley

    1988-01-01

    We have defined a signal responsible for the morphological differentiation of human umbilical vein and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. We find that human umbilical vein endothelial cells deprived of growth factors undergo morphologi- cal differentiation with tube formation after 6-12 wk, and that human dermal microvascular endothelial cells differentiate after 1 wk of growth factor deprivation. Here,

  17. VMP1-deficient Chlamydomonas exhibits severely aberrant cell morphology and disrupted cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The versatile Vacuole Membrane Protein 1 (VMP1) has been previously investigated in six species. It has been shown to be essential in macroautophagy, where it takes part in autophagy initiation. In addition, VMP1 has been implicated in organellar biogenesis; endo-, exo- and phagocytosis, and protein secretion; apoptosis; and cell adhesion. These roles underly its proven involvement in pancreatitis, diabetes and cancer in humans. Results In this study we analyzed a VMP1 homologue from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. CrVMP1 knockdown lines showed severe phenotypes, mainly affecting cell division as well as the morphology of cells and organelles. We also provide several pieces of evidence for its involvement in macroautophagy. Conclusion Our study adds a novel role to VMP1's repertoire, namely the regulation of cytokinesis. Though the directness of the observed effects and the mechanisms underlying them remain to be defined, the protein's involvement in macroautophagy in Chlamydomonas, as found by us, suggests that CrVMP1 shares molecular characteristics with its animal and protist counterparts. PMID:24885763

  18. Fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein, is required for normal nuclear morphology and cellular growth in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mohammed Abdullahel [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Matsunaga, Sachihiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Ma, Nan [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Takata, Hideaki [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Yokoyama, Masami [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Uchiyama, Susumu [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Kiichi [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan)]. E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-24

    Fibrillarin is a key small nucleolar protein in eukaryotes, which has an important role in pre-rRNA processing during ribosomal biogenesis. Though several functions of fibrillarin are known, its function during the cell cycle is still unknown. In this study, we confirmed the dynamic localization of fibrillarin during the cell cycle of HeLa cells and also performed functional studies by using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNAi technique. We observed that depletion of fibrillarin has almost no effect on the nucleolar structure. However, fibrillarin-depleted cells showed abnormal nuclear morphology. Moreover, fibrillarin depletion resulted in the reduction of the cellular growth and modest accumulation of cells with 4n DNA content. Our data suggest that fibrillarin would play a critical role in the maintenance of nuclear shape and cellular growth.

  19. Influence of Levamisole and Other Angiogenesis Inhibitors on Angiogenesis and Endothelial Cell Morphology in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Friis, Tina; Engel, Anne-Marie; Bendiksen, Christine D.; Larsen, Line S.; Houen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels is required for many physiological processes and for growth of solid tumors. Initiated by hypoxia, angiogenesis involves binding of angiogenic factors to endothelial cell (EC) receptors and activation of cellular signaling, differentiation, migration, proliferation, interconnection and canalization of ECs, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and stabilization of newly formed vessels. Experimentally, these processes can be studied by several in vitro and in vivo assays focusing on different steps in the process. In vitro, ECs form networks of capillary-like tubes when propagated for three days in coculture with fibroblasts. The tube formation is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and omission of VEGF from the culture medium results in the formation of clusters of undifferentiated ECs. Addition of angiogenesis inhibitors to the coculture system disrupts endothelial network formation and influences EC morphology in two distinct ways. Treatment with antibodies to VEGF, soluble VEGF receptor, the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5614, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor (PTPI) IV or levamisole results in the formation of EC clusters of variable size. This cluster morphology is a result of inhibited EC differentiation and levamisole can be inferred to influence and block VEGF signaling. Treatment with platelet factor 4, thrombospondin, rapamycin, suramin, TNP-470, salubrinal, PTPI I, PTPI II, clodronate, NSC87877 or non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) results in the formation of short cords of ECs, which suggests that these inhibitors have an influence on later steps in the angiogenic process, such as EC proliferation and migration. A humanized antibody to VEGF is one of a few angiogenesis inhibitors used clinically for treatment of cancer. Levamisole is approved for clinical treatment of cancer and is interesting with respect to anti-angiogenic activity in vivo since it inhibits ECs in vitro with a morphology resembling that obtained with antibodies to VEGF. PMID:24202320

  20. Influence of levamisole and other angiogenesis inhibitors on angiogenesis and endothelial cell morphology in vitro.

    PubMed

    Friis, Tina; Engel, Anne-Marie; Bendiksen, Christine D; Larsen, Line S; Houen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels is required for many physiological processes and for growth of solid tumors. Initiated by hypoxia, angiogenesis involves binding of angiogenic factors to endothelial cell (EC) receptors and activation of cellular signaling, differentiation, migration, proliferation, interconnection and canalization of ECs, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and stabilization of newly formed vessels. Experimentally, these processes can be studied by several in vitro and in vivo assays focusing on different steps in the process. In vitro, ECs form networks of capillary-like tubes when propagated for three days in coculture with fibroblasts. The tube formation is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and omission of VEGF from the culture medium results in the formation of clusters of undifferentiated ECs. Addition of angiogenesis inhibitors to the coculture system disrupts endothelial network formation and influences EC morphology in two distinct ways. Treatment with antibodies to VEGF, soluble VEGF receptor, the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5614, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor (PTPI) IV or levamisole results in the formation of EC clusters of variable size. This cluster morphology is a result of inhibited EC differentiation and levamisole can be inferred to influence and block VEGF signaling. Treatment with platelet factor 4, thrombospondin, rapamycin, suramin, TNP-470, salubrinal, PTPI I, PTPI II, clodronate, NSC87877 or non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) results in the formation of short cords of ECs, which suggests that these inhibitors have an influence on later steps in the angiogenic process, such as EC proliferation and migration. A humanized antibody to VEGF is one of a few angiogenesis inhibitors used clinically for treatment of cancer. Levamisole is approved for clinical treatment of cancer and is interesting with respect to anti-angiogenic activity in vivo since it inhibits ECs in vitro with a morphology resembling that obtained with antibodies to VEGF. PMID:24202320

  1. A study of interobserver reproducibility of morphologic lesions of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Shane M; Chang, Anthony; Gibson, Ian W; Kim, Lisa; Kambham, Neeraja; Laszik, Zoltan

    2013-02-01

    The morphology of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) includes collapsing, cellular, and sclerosing forms. The Columbia Working Classification of FSGS divides these into collapsing (COLL), cellular (CELL), tip lesion (TIP), perihilar (PH), and not otherwise specified (NOS) morphologic forms. This study examined the ability of renal pathologists to classify FSGS using single light microscopic images of glomeruli as a uniform data set. Sixty-one digital images of individual glomeruli with FSGS, stained by periodic acid-Schiff or Jones methenamine silver methods, were classified independently by six specialist renal pathologists. Diagnostic consistency was quantified using the kappa statistic for nominal categories. Agreement for 366 diagnoses by six observers was 75.2 % with a kappa value of 0.676. Six of six observers agreed in 31 of 61 cases (50.8 %) and four or more in 53 cases (86.9 %). Respective kappa values ranged from moderate to good: COLL 0.77, CELL 0.53, TIP 0.76, PH 0.84, and NOS 0.60. Capillary retraction with lobular expansion, hypercellularity, and sclerosis in the same glomerular segments, and the location of segmental lesions were sources of diagnostic inconsistency. The morphologic forms of FSGS defined by the Columbia system are reproducible between observers and have a low probability of confusion between forms. Individual glomeruli may have overlapping features of more than one form of FSGS. PMID:23262784

  2. Morphological characterization of cells in concentrated suspensions using multispectral diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Hajihashemi, Mohammad Reza; Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei

    2012-10-01

    Based on a non-spherical model of particle scattering, we investigate the capabilities and limitations of a T-matrix based inverse algorithm to morphologically characterize cells in concentrated suspensions. Here the cells are modeled as randomly orientated spheroidal particles with homogenous dielectric properties and suspended in turbid media. The inverse algorithm retrieves the geometrical parameters and the concentration of cells simultaneously by inverting the reduced scattering coefficient spectra obtained from multispectral diffuse optical tomography (MS-DOT). Both round and spheroidal cells are tested and the role of multiple and higher order scattering of particles on the performance of the algorithm is evaluated using different concentrations of cells. PMID:23372258

  3. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina, E-mail: s.schlie@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Ngezahayo, Anaclet, E-mail: ngezahayo@biophysik.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Biophysics, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, Hannover 30419 (Germany); Chichkov, Boris N., E-mail: b.chichkov@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-06-10

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions—which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. -- Highlights: • We analyse the impact of ECM components on cell behaviour in vitro. • We compare five different cell types, using the same culture conditions. • The ECM significantly guides all cell responses. • Cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand-priority ranking. • This gives insight in tissue formation and is essential for biomedical applications.

  4. Study cell invasion by optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Hoban, Paul R.; Sule-Suso, Joseph; Holley, Sarah; El Haj, Alicia J.; Bahrami, Fariba; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2006-02-01

    Cancer is a world-wide health problem associated with an increasing death rate. The mechanisms of how normal cells transform into cancer cells are not fully understood. Intensive investigations have been undertaken to identify genes whose unregulated expression are involved in this process. In this study, we have grown, on collagen gel, adherent mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) knocked out for Cyl-1 (MEF Cyl1-/-) which have been transfected with the human proto-oncogene cyclin D1 (CCND1) under the control of an inducible expression system. CCND1 expression can be regulated in the fibroblasts via the presence of an inducer, isopropyl ?-D-Thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). In the absence of IPTG, CCND1 expression is silenced. The migration ability of the resultant cells on the collagen gel has been monitored by complementary optical techniques: the conventional light microscopy; optical coherence tomography and Fourier Transform Infrared Microspcopic Spectroscopy (FTIR) using Synchrotron beam source. It is found that the cells expressing CCND1 exhibited cell invasion morphology and had different matrix compositions near the cell layer in comparison to the cells not expressing CCND1. The results from this study are consistent with published findings that expression of CCND1 has oncogenic potential and is involved in cell invasion in vitro. Application of complementary optical techniques proves to be an efficient way obtaining morphological and composition information of cell invasion.

  5. Morphological Development of Thick-Tufted Layer V Pyramidal Cells in the Rat Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Romand, Sandrine; Wang, Yun; Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Markram, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer V pyramidal (TTL5) neuron is a key neuron providing output from the neocortex. Although it has been extensively studied, principles governing its dendritic and axonal arborization during development are still not fully quantified. Using 3-D model neurons reconstructed from biocytin-labeled cells in the rat somatosensory cortex, this study provides a detailed morphological analysis of TTL5 cells at postnatal day (P) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 60. Three developmental periods were revealed, which were characterized by distinct growing rates and properties of alterations in different compartments. From P7 to P14, almost all compartments grew fast, and filopodia-like segments along apical dendrite disappeared; From P14 to P21, the growth was localized on specified segments of each compartment, and the densities of spines and boutons were significantly increased; From P21 to P60, the number of basal dendritic segments was significantly increased at specified branch orders, and some basal and oblique dendritic segments were lengthened or thickened. Development changes were therefore seen in two modes: the fast overall growth during the first period and the slow localized growth (thickening mainly on intermediates or lengthening mainly on terminals) at the subsequent stages. The lengthening may be accompanied by the retraction on different segments. These results reveal a differential regulation in the arborization of neuronal compartments during development, supporting the notion of functional compartmental development. This quantification provides new insight into the potential value of the TTL5 morphology for information processing, and for other purposes as well. PMID:21369363

  6. Morphological modifications of apoptosis in HL60 cells: effects of homocysteine and cytochalasins on apoptosis initiated by 3-deazaadenosine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Endresen; J. Aarbakke; J. Fandrem; T. J. Eide

    1995-01-01

    Using electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and measurements of intact DNA we have studied the morphology and DNA degradation of human leukaemia HL-60 cells undergoing drug initiated apoptosis. Apoptosis was initiated by 100 µM 3-deazaadenosine (c3Ado), 25 µM c3Ado plus 1 mM homocysteine thiolactone (Hcy) and 100 µM c3Ado plus 5 µg\\/ml cytochalasin B (CB). Two different phenotypes of

  7. A viscometric study of tuning micellar morphology by organic additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziya Ahmad Khan; Sanjeev Kumar; Tanweer Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    The micellar morphology in aqueous 0.2 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions has been studied in the simultaneous presence\\u000a of organic salts (anilinium hydrochloride, AHC; ortho-toluidine hydrochloride, oTHC; para-toluidine hydrochloride, pTHC) and aliphatic alcohols (n-butanol, C4OH; n-pentanol, C5OH; n-hexanol, C6OH; n-heptanol, C7OH), aliphatic amines (n-butylamine, C4NH2; n-pentylamine, C5NH2; n-hexylamine, C6NH2; n-heptylamine, C7NH2), or hydrocarbons (n-hexane, C6H; n-heptane, C7H) by viscosity measurements

  8. [Morphological manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis found in fundus (experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Budzinskaia, M V; Fedorov, A A; Pliukhova, A A; Voevodina, T M; Balatskaia, N V

    2013-01-01

    Results of angiography and morphology of 32 eyes (16 chinchilla rabbits) with experimental atherosclerosis are presented. N.N. Anichkov and S.S. Khalatova experimental hypercholesterolemia model (1912) was used. The animals were divided into the following groups: initial and advanced atherosclerosis, control group, follow-up 3 and 6 months. After 3 months progressive reduction of perfused retinal vessels and early degenerative changes of neurons and photoreceptors were found. In 6 months these changes became more significant and generalized. Due to ongoing small vessel reduction blood flow went to the major vessels and changed its distribution followed by ischemia of adjacent retina. No changes in choriocapillary layer and retinal pigment epithelium were found in any of groups studied. PMID:23808172

  9. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla.

  10. An asymptomatic ovarian steroid cell tumor with complete cystic morphology: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoon Jung; Choi, Hyun Jung; Lee, Han Na; Cho, Sook

    2013-01-01

    Steroid cell tumors of the ovary are extremely rare, accounting for only 0.1% of all ovarian tumors. Of these, steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified (NOS) constitute about 56% of all steroid cell tumors. Most steroid cell tumors secrete steroid hormones, and only about 10% to 15% of patients are asymptomatic. The morphology of steroid cell tumors, NOS is predominantly reported to be solid, and a review of case reports from 1979 until now revealed only 5 cases that were mainly cystic tumors. The present case, in a patient who had undergone a previous hysterectomy and surgery for a peritoneal inclusion cyst, is reported due to its rarity and its unusual presentation, together with a brief review of the literature. The tumor showed no clinical signs and symptoms typical of a steroid hormone secreting tumor and had an atypical morphology, being primarily multi-septate cystic with a minor solid portion. PMID:24327981

  11. Auxin regulates SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphology restricting cell size

    PubMed Central

    Löfke, Christian; Dünser, Kai; Scheuring, David; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The control of cellular growth is central to multicellular patterning. In plants, the encapsulating cell wall literally binds neighbouring cells to each other and limits cellular sliding/migration. In contrast to its developmental importance, growth regulation is poorly understood in plants. Here, we reveal that the phytohormone auxin impacts on the shape of the biggest plant organelle, the vacuole. TIR1/AFBs-dependent auxin signalling posttranslationally controls the protein abundance of vacuolar SNARE components. Genetic and pharmacological interference with the auxin effect on vacuolar SNAREs interrelates with auxin-resistant vacuolar morphogenesis and cell size regulation. Vacuolar SNARE VTI11 is strictly required for auxin-reliant vacuolar morphogenesis and loss of function renders cells largely insensitive to auxin-dependent growth inhibition. Our data suggests that the adaptation of SNARE-dependent vacuolar morphogenesis allows auxin to limit cellular expansion, contributing to root organ growth rates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05868.001 PMID:25742605

  12. Carbon Availability Affects Diurnally Controlled Processes and Cell Morphology of Cyanothece 51142

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Jana; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142. PMID:23457634

  13. Morphological and genetic studies of waterlogged Prunus species from the Roman vicus Tasgetium (Eschenz, Switzerland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Britta Pollmann; Stefanie Jacomet; Angela Schlumbaum

    2005-01-01

    Morphological and genetic studies were performed on waterlogged Prunus fruit stones from the Roman vicus Tasgetium (Eschenz, Switzerland). Some fruit stones could be identified to species level based on morphological and metric criteria. Other fruit stones found were not identifiable to species level. Of the latter, the morphological group Prunus insititia\\/spinosa represents either native sloe, cultivated primitive plum (damson) or

  14. Cerebral and cerebellar gangliocytomas: a morphological study of nine cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Felix; J. M. Bilbao; S. L. Asa; F. Tyndel; K. Kovacs; L. E. Becker

    1994-01-01

    Hypothalamic gangliocytomas have been shown to contain immunoreactivity for hypophysiotropic peptides and some have been associated with endocrine dysfunction. Extrahypothalamic gangliocytomas are usually not associated with endocrine abnormalities. We studied nine cerebral or cerebellar gangliocytomas from six men and three women; none of the patients had detectable alterations of endocrine homeostasis. On histological examination, the tumor cells resembled hypothalamic neurons.

  15. Meiotic chromosome and pollen morphological studies of polyploid Cucumis species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fenny Dane; T. Tsuchiya

    1979-01-01

    Meiotic chromosome studies of polyploid Cucumis species revealed the presence of bivalent chromosome configurations in the tetraploid C. aculeatus and C. zeyheri and hexaploid C. figarei, while a maximum of ten quadrivalents were observed in pollen mother cells of a tetraploid species, C. heptadactylus.

  16. Sublethal Concentrations of Carbapenems Alter Cell Morphology and Genomic Expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Van Laar, Tricia A; Chen, Tsute; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P

    2015-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is normally associated with pneumonia in patients with weakened immune systems. However, it is also a prevalent nosocomial infectious agent that can be found in infected surgical sites and combat wounds. Many of these clinical strains display multidrug resistance. We have worked with a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae that was initially isolated from a wound of an injured soldier. This strain demonstrated resistance to many commonly used antibiotics but sensitivity to carbapenems. This isolate was capable of forming biofilms in vitro, contributing to its increased antibiotic resistance and impaired clearance. We were interested in determining how sublethal concentrations of carbapenem treatment specifically affect K. pneumoniae biofilms both in morphology and in genomic expression. Scanning electron microscopy showed striking morphological differences between untreated and treated biofilms, including rounding, blebbing, and dimpling of treated cells. Comparative transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology identified a large number of open reading frames (ORFs) differentially regulated in response to carbapenem treatment at 2 and 24 h. ORFs upregulated with carbapenem treatment included genes involved in resistance, as well as those coding for antiporters and autoinducers. ORFs downregulated included those coding for metal transporters, membrane biosynthesis proteins, and motility proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR validated the general trend of some of these differentially regulated ORFs. Treatment of K. pneumoniae biofilms with sublethal concentrations of carbapenems induced a wide range of phenotypic and gene expression changes. This study reveals some of the mechanisms underlying how sublethal amounts of carbapenems could affect the overall fitness and pathogenic potential of K. pneumoniae biofilm cells. PMID:25583711

  17. Effects of Vitamin D on Airway Epithelial Cell Morphology and Rhinovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Brockman-Schneider, Rebecca A.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Gern, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D has been linked to reduced risk of viral respiratory illness. We hypothesized that vitamin D could directly reduce rhinovirus (RV) replication in airway epithelium. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC) were treated with vitamin D, and RV replication and gene expression were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Cytokine/chemokine secretion was measured by ELISA, and transepithelial resistance (TER) was determined using a voltohmmeter. Morphology was examined using immunohistochemistry. Vitamin D supplementation had no significant effects on RV replication, but potentiated secretion of CXCL8 and CXCL10 from infected or uninfected cells. Treatment with vitamin D in the form of 1,25(OH)2D caused significant changes in cell morphology, including thickening of the cell layers (median of 46.5 µm [35.0–69.0] vs. 30 µm [24.5–34.2], p<0.01) and proliferation of cytokeratin-5-expressing cells, as demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. Similar effects were seen for 25(OH)D. In addition to altering morphology, higher concentrations of vitamin D significantly upregulated small proline-rich protein (SPRR1?) expression (6.3 fold-induction, p<0.01), suggestive of squamous metaplasia. Vitamin D treatment of hBECs did not alter repair of mechanically induced wounds. Collectively, these findings indicate that vitamin D does not directly affect RV replication in airway epithelial cells, but can influence chemokine synthesis and alters the growth and differentiation of airway epithelial cells. PMID:24475177

  18. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiri, Azadeh, E-mail: z_kabiri@resident.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandiari, Ebrahim, E-mail: esfandiari@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemibeni, Batool, E-mail: hashemibeni@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Mohammad, E-mail: m_kazemi@med.mui.ac.i [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mardani, Mohammad, E-mail: mardani@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: abesmaeili@yahoo.com [Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  19. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  20. Calibration of a flow cytometer against a microphotometer for morphologic cell identification.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D M; Dyson, J E

    1988-06-01

    The calibration of a flow cytometer against a microphotometer, to allow the correlation of cell morphology with fluorescence intensity, is described. Using three human lymphoblastoid cell lines, the photomultiplier amplification of the microphotometer and the flow cytometer that gave optimum linearity between fluorescence intensity and DNA content for the two instruments was established. Thereafter, at these settings, there was satisfactory linear agreement between the fluorescence intensity profiles, as measured by the flow cytometer and the microphotometer, of stained cell populations. Day-to-day variation was also minimal, and it was demonstrated that the application of this procedure can provide an alternative to the employment of the sorting facility of a flow cytometer for the morphologic identification of cell subpopulations during flow cytometric analysis. PMID:3165638

  1. Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atay, Safinur [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Gercel-Taylor, Cicek [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Kesimer, Mehmet [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, Douglas D., E-mail: ddtaylor@louisville.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

  2. Morphologic Changes in the Pineal Parenchyma Cells of Rats Exposed to Continuous Light or Darkness

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    Morphologic Changes in the Pineal Parenchyma Cells of Rats Exposed to Continuous Light or Darkness,Belmont, Massachusetts ONSIDERABLE evidence exists which suggests an antigonadotrophic function for the mammalian pineal, adrenal and pituitary, whereas chronic administration of an aqueous pineal extract counteracts

  3. Cellular Differentiation in Moss Protonemata: A Morphological and Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Pressel, Silvia; Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies of protonemal morphogenesis in mosses have focused on the cytoskeletal basis of tip growth and the production of asexual propagules. This study provides the first comprehensive description of the differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids, which share the same cytology, and the roles of the cytoskeleton in organelle shaping and spatial arrangement. Methods Light and electron microscope observations were carried out on in vitro cultured and wild protonemata from over 200 moss species. Oryzalin and cytochalasin D were used to investigate the role of the cytoskeleton in the cytological organization of fully differentiated protonemal cells; time-lapse photography was employed to monitor organelle positions. Key Results The onset of differentiation in initially highly vacuolate subapical cells is marked by the appearance of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles with crystalline inclusions, closely followed by an increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The tonoplast disintegrates and the original vacuole is replaced by a population of vesicles and small vacuoles originating de novo from RER. The cytoplasm then becomes distributed throughout the cell lumen, an event closely followed by the appearance of endoplasmic microtubules (MTs) in association with sheets of ER, stacks of vesicles that subsequently disperse, elongate mitochondria and chloroplasts and long tubular extensions at both poles of the nucleus. The production of large vesicles by previously inactive dictysomes coincides with the deposition of additional cell wall layers. At maturity, the numbers of endoplasmic microtubules decline, dictyosomes become inactive and the ER is predominantly smooth. Fully developed cells remain largely unaffected by cytochalasin; oryzalin elicits profound cytological changes. Both inhibitors elicit the formation of giant plastids. The plastids and other organelles in fully developed cells are largely stationary. Conclusions Differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids involves a remarkable series of cytological changes, some of which closely recall major events in sieve element ontogeny in tracheophytes. The cytology of fully differentiated cells is remarkably similar to that of moss food-conducting cells and, in both, is dependent on an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. The disappearance of the major vacuolar apparatus is probably related to the function of caulonema and rhizoids in solute transport. Failure of fully differentiated caulonema and rhizoid cells to regenerate is attributed to a combination of endo-reduplication and irreversible tonoplast fragmentation. The formation of giant plastids, most likely by fusion, following both oryzalin and cytochalasin treatments, suggests key roles for both microtubules and microfilaments in the spatial arrangement and replication of plastids. PMID:18508779

  4. HUCB Cell Therapy Blocks the Morphological Change and Recruitment of CD11b-Expressing, Isolectin-Binding Proinflammatory Cells after MCAO

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo, Christopher C.; Hall, Aaron A.; Collier, Lisa A.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Willing, Alison E.; Pennypacker, Keith R.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary neurodegeneration resulting from stroke is mediated by delayed proinflammatory signaling and immune cell activation. Although it remains unknown which cell surface markers signify a proinflammatory phenotype, increased isolectin binding occurs on CD11b-expressing immune cells within injured brain tissue. Several reports have confirmed the efficacy of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cell therapy in reducing ischemic injury in rat after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and these effects were attributed in part to dampened neuroinflammation. The present study examined the time course of lectin binding to cells of microglia/macrophage lineage within 96 hrs after MCAO, and whether delayed HUCB cell treatment alters the migration and/or morphological characteristics of these cells throughout the period of infarct expansion. Isolectin binding was upregulated in response to injury, was maximal at 96 hrs, and colocalized with cells that expressed the putative proinflammatory markers MMP-9 and nitric oxide. Isolectin-tagged fluorescence was also significantly increased at 72 hrs and localized to greater numbers of amoeboid, CD11b-expressing cells relative to 51 hrs. Treatment with 1×106 HUCB cells significantly reduced total lectin binding at 72 hrs, as well as the total area occupied by lectin-tagged fluorescence at both 51 and 72 hrs, relative to vehicle-treated controls. This effect was accompanied by a shift in the morphology of CD11b-positive cells from amoeboid to ramified shape. These data indicate that HUCB cell therapy suppressed the recruitment of proinflammatory, isolectin-binding cells during the period of infarct expansion, thus offering a potential mechanism for the protective effects of HUCB cell therapy. PMID:19998484

  5. Resolving Tumor Heterogeneity: Genes Involved in Chordoma Cell Development Identified by Low-Template Analysis of Morphologically Distinct Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karin; Meditz, Katharina; Kolb, Dagmar; Feichtinger, Julia; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Quehenberger, Franz; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Rinner, Beate

    2014-01-01

    The classical sacrococcygeal chordoma tumor presents with a typical morphology of lobulated myxoid tumor tissue with cords, strands and nests of tumor cells. The population of cells consists of small non-vacuolated cells, intermediate cells with a wide range of vacuolization and large heavily vacuolated (physaliferous) cells. To date analysis was only performed on bulk tumor mass because of its rare incidence, lack of suited model systems and technical limitations thereby neglecting its heterogeneous composition. We intended to clarify whether the observed cell types are derived from genetically distinct clones or represent different phenotypes. Furthermore, we aimed at elucidating the differences between small non-vacuolated and large physaliferous cells on the genomic and transcriptomic level. Phenotype-specific analyses of small non-vacuolated and large physaliferous cells in two independent chordoma cell lines yielded four candidate genes involved in chordoma cell development. UCHL3, coding for an ubiquitin hydrolase, was found to be over-expressed in the large physaliferous cell phenotype of MUG-Chor1 (18.7-fold) and U-CH1 (3.7-fold) cells. The mannosyltransferase ALG11 (695-fold) and the phosphatase subunit PPP2CB (18.6-fold) were found to be up-regulated in large physaliferous MUG-Chor1 cells showing a similar trend in U-CH1 cells. TMEM144, an orphan 10-transmembrane family receptor, yielded contradictory data as cDNA microarray analysis showed up- but RT-qPCR data down-regulation in large physaliferous MUG-Chor1 cells. Isolation of few but morphologically identical cells allowed us to overcome the limitations of bulk analysis in chordoma research. We identified the different chordoma cell phenotypes to be part of a developmental process and discovered new genes linked to chordoma cell development representing potential targets for further research in chordoma tumor biology. PMID:24503940

  6. Biophysical and morphological effects of nanodiamond/nanoplatinum solution (DPV576) on metastatic murine breast cancer cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneum, Alia; Zhu, Huanqi; Woo, JungReem; Zabinyakov, Nikita; Sharma, Shivani; Gimzewski, James K.

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles have recently gained increased attention as drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer due to their minute size and unique chemical properties. However, very few studies have tested the biophysical changes associated with nanoparticles on metastatic cancer cells at the cellular and sub-cellular scales. Here, we investigated the mechanical and morphological properties of cancer cells by measuring the changes in cell Young’s Modulus using AFM, filopodial retraction (FR) by time lapse optical light microscopy imaging and filopodial disorganization by high resolution AFM imaging of cells upon treatment with nanoparticles. In the current study, nanomechanical changes in live murine metastatic breast cancer cells (4T1) post exposure to a nanodiamond/nanoplatinum mixture dispersed in aqueous solution (DPV576), were monitored. Results showed a decrease in Young’s modulus at two hours post treatment with DPV576 in a dose dependent manner. Partial FR at 20 min and complete FR at 40 min were observed. Moreover, analysis of the retraction distance (in microns) measured over time (minutes), showed that a DPV576 concentration of 15%v/v yielded the highest FR rate. In addition, DPV576 treated cells showed early signs of filopodial disorganization and disintegration. This study demonstrates the changes in cell stiffness and tracks early structural alterations of metastatic breast cancer cells post treatment with DPV576, which may have important implications in the role of nanodiamond/nanoplatinum based cancer cell therapy and sensitization to chemotherapy drugs.

  7. Hybrid morphology dependence of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A nanocrystal thin-film solar cell operating on an exciton splitting pattern requires a highly efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and transportation of separated charges. A hybrid bulk-heterojunction (HBH) nanostructure providing a large contact area and interpenetrated charge channels is favorable to an inorganic nanocrystal solar cell with high performance. For this freshly appeared structure, here in this work, we have firstly explored the influence of hybrid morphology on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells with variation in CdSe nanoparticle morphology. Quantum dot (QD) or nanotetrapod (NT)-shaped CdSe nanocrystals have been employed together with CdTe NTs to construct different hybrid structures. The solar cells with the two different hybrid active layers show obvious difference in photovoltaic performance. The hybrid structure with densely packed and continuously interpenetrated two phases generates superior morphological and electrical properties for more efficient inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which could be readily realized in the NTs:QDs hybrid. This proved strategy is applicable and promising in designing other highly efficient inorganic hybrid solar cells. PMID:25386107

  8. Morphological study of palatal rugae in a sudanese population.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Hamid, Awrad

    2015-01-01

    Palatal rugae patterns have unique characteristics and have been proposed as an alternative method to establish identity when other means, such as fingerprints and dental records, are not attainable. This study was conducted to determine the morphological characteristics of palatine rugae and to assess the existence of side asymmetry in them in Sudanese Arabs. It also assesses the possibility of determining sex using logistic regression. One hundred dental casts for 50 males and 50 females aged between 18 and 23 were studied for palatal rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, as well as sexual dimorphism and side symmetry. The most predominant rugae were primary, and the most prevalent shapes in both sexes were wavy, curved, and straight forms. The predominant orientation was forward. Side asymmetry existed more in the orientations than in the shapes, but no side asymmetry was recorded in the dimensions. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, except for forward-directed rugae (P < 0.037). A predictive value of 60% was obtained in assigning sex using dimensions and orientations and of 58% using shapes alone. Therefore, the palatal rugae are not recommended for assigning sex effectively among Sudanese Arabs unless it is the only means available. PMID:25737723

  9. Morphological Study of Palatal Rugae in a Sudanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Hamid, Awrad

    2015-01-01

    Palatal rugae patterns have unique characteristics and have been proposed as an alternative method to establish identity when other means, such as fingerprints and dental records, are not attainable. This study was conducted to determine the morphological characteristics of palatine rugae and to assess the existence of side asymmetry in them in Sudanese Arabs. It also assesses the possibility of determining sex using logistic regression. One hundred dental casts for 50 males and 50 females aged between 18 and 23 were studied for palatal rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, as well as sexual dimorphism and side symmetry. The most predominant rugae were primary, and the most prevalent shapes in both sexes were wavy, curved, and straight forms. The predominant orientation was forward. Side asymmetry existed more in the orientations than in the shapes, but no side asymmetry was recorded in the dimensions. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, except for forward-directed rugae (P < 0.037). A predictive value of 60% was obtained in assigning sex using dimensions and orientations and of 58% using shapes alone. Therefore, the palatal rugae are not recommended for assigning sex effectively among Sudanese Arabs unless it is the only means available. PMID:25737723

  10. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  11. Inhibition of Phenolic Acid Metabolism Results in Precocious Cell Death and Altered Cell Morphology in Leaves of Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lodovico Tamagnone; Angel Merida; Nicola Stacey; Kitty Plaskitt; Adrian Parr; Chi-Feng Chang; David Lynn; J. Maxwell Dow; Keith Roberts; Cathie Martin

    1998-01-01

    Several complex phenotypic changes are induced when the transcription factor AmMYB308 is overexpressed in trans- genic tobacco plants. We have previously shown that the primary effect of this transcription factor is to inhibit phenolic acid metabolism. In the plants that we produced, two morphological features were prominent: abnormal leaf palisade development and induction of premature cell death in mature leaves.

  12. Study on morphology of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) mats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunxue Zhang; Xiaoyan Yuan; Lili Wu; Yue Han; Jing Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Submicron poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber mats were prepared by electrospinning of aqueous PVA solutions in 6–8% concentration. Fiber morphology was observed under a scanning electron microscope and effects of instrument parameters including electric voltage, tip–target distance, flow rate and solution parameters such as concentration on the morphology of electrospun PVA fibers were evaluated. Results showed that, when PVA with higher

  13. CN MORPHOLOGY STUDIES OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G., E-mail: knight@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September, the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December, the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January, the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13 to 17, 17.2 hr from September 10 to 13, 18.2 hr from October 12 to 19, and 18.7 hr from October 31 to November 7. We conducted Monte Carlo jet modeling to constrain the pole orientation and locations of the active regions based on the observed morphology. Our preliminary, self-consistent pole solution has an obliquity of 10{sup 0} relative to the comet's orbital plane (i.e., it is centered near R.A. = 257{sup 0} and decl. = +67{sup 0} with an uncertainty around this position of about 15{sup 0}) and has two mid-latitude sources, one in each hemisphere.

  14. Corticosterone induced morphological changes of hippocampal and amygdaloid cell lines are dependent on 5-HT7 receptor related signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Zhang, C; Wang, R; Govindarajan, S S; Barish, P A; Vernon, M M; Fu, C; Acharya, A P; Chen, L; Boykin, E; Yu, J; Pan, J; O'Donnell, J M; Ogle, W O

    2011-05-19

    Stress is an unavoidable life experience. It induces mood, cognitive dysfunction and plasticity changes in chronically stressed individuals. Among the various brain regions that have been studied, the hippocampus and amygdala have been observed to have different roles in controlling the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (limbic-HPA axis). This study investigated how the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) affects neuronal cells. The first aim is to test whether administration of CORT to hippocampal and amygdaloid cell lines induces different changes in the 5-HT receptor subtypes. The second goal is to determine whether stress induced morphological changes in these two cell lines were involved in the 5-HT receptor subtypes expression. We now show that 5-HT(7) receptor mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in HT-22 cells, but downregulated in AR-5 cells by exposure to a physiologically relevant level of CORT (50 ?M) for 24 h, which was later confirmed by primary hippocampal and amygdaloid neuron cultures. Additionally, pretreatment of cells with 5-HT(7) antagonist SB-269970 or agonist LP-44 reversed CORT induced cell lesion in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, CORT induced different changes in neurite length, number of neurites and soma size in HT-22 and AR-5 cells were also reversed by pretreatment with either SB-269970 or LP-44. The different effects of 5-HT(7) receptors on cell lines were observed in two members of the Rho family small GTPase expression: the Cdc-42 and RhoA. These observed results support the hypothesis that 5-HT may differentially modulate neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and amygdala depending on the expression levels of the 5-HT receptor subtypes during stress hormone insults. PMID:21371532

  15. Imaging Morphological Changes in Live-cells at various time-scales using Heterodyne Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Shiju; Newport, David; Li, Yongli; Woulfe, Bernie

    2011-11-01

    Measurement of the dynamic behavior of the cell will provide new insights about the state of the live cells, since this response depends upon its structure and functional state. Studies have shown that all mammalian cells exhibit continuous regional motion and shape changes. This is controlled by the dynamic cytoskeleton of the cell. Existing measurement techniques are either limited to point observation or do not have required speed and accuracy. The optical arrangement consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer integrated to a microscope. Heterodyning is achieved using a pair of AOMs. Temporal phase shifting technique is used to extract the continuously varying phase information, which is caused by the changes in cell. Due to dynamic phase change, the continuous wave signal reaching the detector is a frequency modulated signal. To extract dynamic phase, at first the instantaneous frequency of the phase modulated signal is determined, which is then integrated with respect to time to obtain time-varying phase. Results obtained for in vitro live 3T3 Fibroblast cells and REH Leukocyte cell lines are presented. Phase imaging of live leukemic cells, can be used for studying morphological differences between various sub-types of the cancerous cells.

  16. Examination of gas transport through polysiloxane open cell foams: Effects of compression upon model flow, permeation parameters, and cell morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rosanne Anderson

    A study to test a model for gas flow through a polymer foam system was conducted. The goal was to quantitatively relate polymer foam compression and gas pressure drop across the specimen, to the gas flow through the foam. Foam cell morphology was studied to assess adequacy of the model to accommodate material characteristics. X-ray tomographic images were collected for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) foam material under various levels of compression. The intent was to implement a systematic analysis method of correlating some aspect of these images to the cell morphology in order to enhance understanding of the material characteristics. It was shown that x-ray tomography is a useful nondestructive method for understanding the compressive behavior of a mechanically loaded polymer foam. As a general trend, the experimentally obtained x-ray attenuation coefficient could be correlated with the effective density of the polymer foam, approaching values for the polymer resin as foam compression increased. Mechanical properties of the cellular polymer could also be elucidated. Experimental data was collected for several gas flow rates in the free molecular flow regime, for foam compressions ranging from 0 to 40%. For each experiment, data for temperature, incoming pressure (pin), and pressure drop (Deltap) were compiled and used to calculate foam permeability. Permeability demonstrated a linear dependence on the gas flow rate, but an exponential dependence upon the degree of compression. Logarithmic plots of steady-state pressure drop, Deltap, and time required to reach steady-state, tss, provided more information about gas flow through the foam. Regression analysis was used to predict flow behavior at higher compressions. A model correction must be included for the percolation behavior displayed by the foam material under study, since flow is occluded at a compression of 33% (0.22 porosity). This decrease in flow at a critical porosity is a disruption of the original model equations, which did not allow for the critical percolation threshold. Additionally, a term that characterizes permeation through the solid polymer can describe flow behavior at compressions where open cell flow paths are blocked.

  17. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  18. Morphological study of the newly designed cementless femoral stem.

    PubMed

    Baharuddin, Mohd Yusof; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Mohd Noor, Alias

    2014-01-01

    A morphology study was essential to the development of the cementless femoral stem because accurate dimensions for both the periosteal and endosteal canal ensure primary fixation stability for the stem, bone interface, and prevent stress shielding at the calcar region. This paper focused on a three-dimensional femoral model for Asian patients that applied preoperative planning and femoral stem design. We measured various femoral parameters such as the femoral head offset, collodiaphyseal angle, bowing angle, anteversion, and medullary canal diameters from the osteotomy level to 150?mm below the osteotomy level to determine the position of the isthmus. Other indices and ratios for the endosteal canal, metaphyseal, and flares were computed and examined. The results showed that Asian femurs are smaller than Western femurs, except in the metaphyseal region. The canal flare index (CFI) was poorly correlated (r < 0.50) to the metaphyseal canal flare index (MCFI), but correlated well (r = 0.66) with the corticomedullary index (CMI). The diversity of the femoral size, particularly in the metaphyseal region, allows for proper femoral stem design for Asian patients, improves osseointegration, and prolongs the life of the implant. PMID:25025068

  19. Morphological Studies on GaN Nanowire Growth Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zheng; An, Xiaohong; Kar, Swastik; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Panaitescu, Eugen; Menon, Latika

    2012-02-01

    We describe our results on growth of single crystal GaN nanowires in three different growth modes (straight, serrated and epitaxial) on catalyst-patterned substrates by means of chemical vapor deposition. The growth is carried out in a tube furnace wherein gallium oxide is used as reactor source and a mixture of ammonia and hydrogen gas is used as precursor. Growth of GaN nanowires are demonstrated on both Au and Ni-catalyst patterned substrates. We show that by controlling the deposition parameters, specifically the size of the catalyst and amount of gallium oxide, we can control the growth morphology. While straight GaN nanowires typically grow on substrates patterned with catalyst particles with dimensions of the order of 100nm, the epitaxial nanowires grow on substrates with much smaller dimensions of catalyst particles 50nm. The newly demonstrated GaN wire growth mode with periodic serrations, typically grow under conditions involving large catalyst size ˜300nm and excess gallium oxide. In this work, a detailed investigation is carried out on the structural properties of the three different growth modes by means of high resolution transmission microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies in order to obtain a better understanding of their growth mechanism.

  20. Morphological Study of the Newly Designed Cementless Femoral Stem

    PubMed Central

    Baharuddin, Mohd Yusof; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Mohd Noor, Alias

    2014-01-01

    A morphology study was essential to the development of the cementless femoral stem because accurate dimensions for both the periosteal and endosteal canal ensure primary fixation stability for the stem, bone interface, and prevent stress shielding at the calcar region. This paper focused on a three-dimensional femoral model for Asian patients that applied preoperative planning and femoral stem design. We measured various femoral parameters such as the femoral head offset, collodiaphyseal angle, bowing angle, anteversion, and medullary canal diameters from the osteotomy level to 150?mm below the osteotomy level to determine the position of the isthmus. Other indices and ratios for the endosteal canal, metaphyseal, and flares were computed and examined. The results showed that Asian femurs are smaller than Western femurs, except in the metaphyseal region. The canal flare index (CFI) was poorly correlated (r < 0.50) to the metaphyseal canal flare index (MCFI), but correlated well (r = 0.66) with the corticomedullary index (CMI). The diversity of the femoral size, particularly in the metaphyseal region, allows for proper femoral stem design for Asian patients, improves osseointegration, and prolongs the life of the implant. PMID:25025068

  1. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  2. Jaw Lever Analysis of Hawaiian Gobioid Stream Fishes: A Simulation Study of Morphological Diversity and

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    Jaw Lever Analysis of Hawaiian Gobioid Stream Fishes: A Simulation Study of Morphological Diversity- mance; simulation; muscle; adductor mandibulae; biomechanics; lever; Hawai'i INTRODUCTION Gobioid fishes

  3. Optimization of molecular organization and nanoscale morphology for high performance low bandgap polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ming; Wang, Mengye; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-04-21

    Rational design and synthesis of low bandgap (LBG) polymers with judiciously tailored HOMO and LUMO levels have emerged as a viable route to high performance polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 10%. In addition to engineering the energy-level of LBG polymers, the photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells also relies on the device architecture, in particular the fine morphology of the photoactive layer. The nanoscale interpenetrating networks composed of nanostructured donor and acceptor phases are the key to providing a large donor-acceptor interfacial area for maximizing the exciton dissociation and offering a continuous pathway for charge transport. In this Review Article, we summarize recent strategies for tuning the molecular organization and nanoscale morphology toward an enhanced photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells. PMID:24481029

  4. Optimization of molecular organization and nanoscale morphology for high performance low bandgap polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ming; Wang, Mengye; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-03-01

    Rational design and synthesis of low bandgap (LBG) polymers with judiciously tailored HOMO and LUMO levels have emerged as a viable route to high performance polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 10%. In addition to engineering the energy-level of LBG polymers, the photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells also relies on the device architecture, in particular the fine morphology of the photoactive layer. The nanoscale interpenetrating networks composed of nanostructured donor and acceptor phases are the key to providing a large donor-acceptor interfacial area for maximizing the exciton dissociation and offering a continuous pathway for charge transport. In this Review Article, we summarize recent strategies for tuning the molecular organization and nanoscale morphology toward an enhanced photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells.

  5. Chronic mast cell leukemia: a novel leukemia-variant with distinct morphological and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Valent, Peter; Sotlar, Karl; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Reiter, Andreas; Arock, Michel; Horny, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a rare form of systemic mastocytosis characterized by leukemic expansion of mostly immature mast cells, organ damage, drug-resistance, and a poor prognosis. Even when treated with chemotherapy, most patients have a life-expectancy of less than one year. However, there are rare patients with MCL in whom the condition is less aggressive and does not cause organ damage within a short time. In these patients, mast cells exhibit a more mature morphology when compared to acute MCL. A recently proposed classification suggests that these cases are referred to as chronic MCL. In the present article, we discuss clinical, histopathological and morphological aspects of acute and chronic MCL. PMID:25443885

  6. Morphologic and Gene Expression Criteria for Identifying Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Ogura, Fumitaka; Murakami, Toru; Niwa, Akira; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. While a great variety of colonies grow during induction, only a few of them develop into iPS cells. Researchers currently use visual observation to identify iPS cells and select colonies resembling embryonic stem (ES) cells, and there are no established objective criteria. Therefore, we exhaustively analyzed the morphology and gene expression of all the colonies generated from human fibroblasts after transfection with four retroviral vectors encoding individual factors (192 and 203 colonies in two experiments) and with a single polycistronic retroviral vector encoding all four factors (199 and 192 colonies in two experiments). Here we demonstrate that the morphologic features of emerged colonies can be categorized based on six parameters, and all generated colonies that could be passaged were classified into seven subtypes in colonies transfected with four retroviral vectors and six subtypes with a single polycistronic retroviral vector, both including iPS cell colonies. The essential qualifications for iPS cells were: cells with a single nucleolus; nucleus to nucleolus (N/Nls) ratio ?2.19: cell size ?43.5 µm2: a nucleus to cytoplasm (N/C) ratio ?0.87: cell density in a colony ?5900 cells/mm2: and number of cell layer single. Most importantly, gene expression analysis revealed for the first time that endogenous Sox2 and Cdx2 were expressed specifically in iPS cells, whereas Oct3/4 and Nanog, popularly used markers for identifying iPS cells, are expressed in colonies other than iPS cells, suggesting that Sox2 and Cdx2 are reliable markers for identifying iPS cells. Our findings indicate that morphologic parameters and the expression of endogenous Sox2 and Cdx2 can be used to accurately identify iPS cells. PMID:23272044

  7. A ROCK Inhibitor Blocks the Inhibitory Effect of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan on Morphological Changes of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells into Neuron-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Suk; Joe, Young Ae

    2013-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) inhibits neurite outgrowth of various neuronal cell types, and CSPG-associated inhibition of neurite outgrowth is mediated by the Rho/ROCK pathway. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into neuron-like cells under specific conditions and have been shown to differentiate into neuron-like cells by co-treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the hypoxia condition mimicking agent CoCl2. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that a ROCK inhibitor might be beneficial to regenerate neurons during stem cell therapy by preventing transplanted MSCs from inhibition by CSPG in damaged tissues. Indeed, dose-dependent inhibition by CSPG pretreatment was observed during morphological changes of Wharton’s jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) induced by Y27632 alone. The formation of neurite-like structures was significantly inhibited when WJ-MSCs were pre-treated with CSPG before induction under Y27632 plus CoCl2 conditions, and pretreatment with a protein kinase C inhibitor reversed such inhibition. However, CSPG treatment resulted in no significant inhibition of the WJ-MSC morphological changes into neuron-like cells after initiating induction by Y27632 plus CoCl2. No marked changes were detected in expression levels of neuronal markers induced by Y27632 plus CoCl2 upon CSPG treatment. CSPG also blocked the morphological changes of human bone marrow-derived MSCs into neuron-like cells under other neuronal induction condition without the ROCK inhibitor, and Y27632 pre-treatment blocked the inhibitory effect of CSPG. These results suggest that a ROCK inhibitor can be efficiently used in stem cell therapy for neuronal induction by avoiding hindrance from CSPG. PMID:24404335

  8. Understanding Polymer-Fullerene Morphology in Organic Solar Cells via Photoluminescence, Raman Scattering, and Spectroscopic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carach, Christopher Andrew

    Understanding and controlling carrier transport in conjugated polymer films and composites is critical to the development and application of plastic solar cells. Recent efforts have focused on "bulk heterojunction" structures where a conjugated polymer donor is mixed at the nanoscale with a fullerene acceptor to achieve large interfacial areas for exciton splitting. In these systems, fabrication protocols dramatically affect device efficiency and charge transport is intimately tied to film morphology through local order, domain formation, and compositional heterogeneity. We employ both far-field and confocal/near-field optical spectroscopy (absorbance, low-temperature photoluminescence, Raman) to study chain order (aggregation, pi-stacking), photo-oxidation, and local morphology in conjugated polymer (PPV and polythiophene) -- fullerene (PCBM) blends. Through quantitative analysis of exciton bandwidths, emission intensity, and vibronic lineshapes, we demonstrate that competition exists between the chemical "disordering" effect of photo-degradation and the physical "ordering" effect of aggregation, each of which dominate under different processing conditions. Large changes in photoluminescence and Raman show that PCBM begins to significantly hinder intra-chain planarization and inter-chain pi-overlap at a critical PCBM weight fraction. Furthermore, the critical weight fraction is a function of the polymer regiochemistry, occurring at lower PCBM weight fractions for a more regio-random polymer. Mild thermal annealing of blended films was seen to restore order, which results from PCBM phase segregation (lower dispersion) and growth of polymer aggregates. Spatially resolved spectral analysis of photoluminescence was also used to map fullerene diffusion and agglomeration as well as detect local changes in interfacial contact between donor and acceptor domains due to thermal annealing.

  9. Epigenetic reprogramming by tumor-derived EZH2 gain-of-function mutations promotes aggressive 3D cell morphologies and enhances melanoma tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Barsotti, Anthony M; Ryskin, Michael; Zhong, Wenyan; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Giannakou, Andreas; Loreth, Christine; Diesl, Veronica; Follettie, Maximillian; Golas, Jonathon; Lee, Michelle; Nichols, Timothy; Fan, Conglin; Li, Gang; Dann, Stephen; Fantin, Valeria R; Arndt, Kim; Verhelle, Dominique; Rollins, Robert A

    2015-02-20

    In addition to genetic alterations, cancer cells are characterized by myriad epigenetic changes. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that is over-expressed and mutated in cancer. The EZH2 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations first identified in lymphomas have recently been reported in melanoma (~2%) but remain uncharacterized. We expressed multiple EZH2 GOF mutations in the A375 metastatic skin melanoma cell line and observed both increased H3K27me3 and dramatic changes in 3D culture morphology. In these cells, prominent morphological changes were accompanied by a decrease in cell contractility and an increase in collective cell migration. At the molecular level, we observed significant alteration of the axonal guidance pathway, a pathway intricately involved in the regulation of cell shape and motility. Furthermore, the aggressive 3D morphology of EZH2 GOF-expressing melanoma cells (both endogenous and ectopic) was attenuated by EZH2 catalytic inhibition. Finally, A375 cells expressing exogenous EZH2 GOF mutants formed larger tumors than control cells in mouse xenograft studies. This study not only demonstrates the first functional characterization of EZH2 GOF mutants in non-hematopoietic cells, but also provides a rationale for EZH2 catalytic inhibition in melanoma. PMID:25671303

  10. Quantification of Dynamic Morphological Drug Responses in 3D Organotypic Cell Cultures by Automated Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Härmä, Ville; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Happonen, Antti; Ahonen, Ilmari; Virtanen, Johannes; Siitari, Harri; Åkerfelt, Malin; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nees, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Glandular epithelial cells differentiate into complex multicellular or acinar structures, when embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix. The spectrum of different multicellular morphologies formed in 3D is a sensitive indicator for the differentiation potential of normal, non-transformed cells compared to different stages of malignant progression. In addition, single cells or cell aggregates may actively invade the matrix, utilizing epithelial, mesenchymal or mixed modes of motility. Dynamic phenotypic changes involved in 3D tumor cell invasion are sensitive to specific small-molecule inhibitors that target the actin cytoskeleton. We have used a panel of inhibitors to demonstrate the power of automated image analysis as a phenotypic or morphometric readout in cell-based assays. We introduce a streamlined stand-alone software solution that supports large-scale high-content screens, based on complex and organotypic cultures. AMIDA (Automated Morphometric Image Data Analysis) allows quantitative measurements of large numbers of images and structures, with a multitude of different spheroid shapes, sizes, and textures. AMIDA supports an automated workflow, and can be combined with quality control and statistical tools for data interpretation and visualization. We have used a representative panel of 12 prostate and breast cancer lines that display a broad spectrum of different spheroid morphologies and modes of invasion, challenged by a library of 19 direct or indirect modulators of the actin cytoskeleton which induce systematic changes in spheroid morphology and differentiation versus invasion. These results were independently validated by 2D proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility assays. We identified three drugs that primarily attenuated the invasion and formation of invasive processes in 3D, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Two of these compounds block Rac signalling, one affects cellular cAMP/cGMP accumulation. Our approach supports the growing needs for user-friendly, straightforward solutions that facilitate large-scale, cell-based 3D assays in basic research, drug discovery, and target validation. PMID:24810913

  11. Human colonic epithelial cells, HT29/C1, treated with crude Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin dramatically alter their morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Weikel, C S; Grieco, F D; Reuben, J; Myers, L L; Sack, R B

    1992-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis has been associated with causation of diarrheal disease in livestock and humans. To date, conventional tissue culture and animal assays used to detect the biologic activity of bacterial enterotoxins have failed with enterotoxigenic B. fragilis. Although enterotoxigenic B. fragilis stimulates intestinal secretion in lamb and calf ligated intestinal loops, infant rabbits, and adult rabbits with ligated ceca, these animal systems are costly and complicated, which limits their usefulness for identification of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains. Using the cloned human colonic-epithelial-cell line HT29/C1, we have developed an in vitro assay that is 89% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting enterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains as defined by the lamb ligated-intestinal-loop assay. Subconfluent HT29/C1 cells treated with concentrated bacterium-free culture supernatants of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains develop specific and striking morphologic changes including loss of cell-to-cell attachments, rounding, swelling, and, in some cases, pyknosis. These morphologic changes are initially visible at 1 h after treatment and progress over at least the first 24 h. This tissue culture assay should prove useful in epidemiologic studies of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis and may facilitate basic studies to identify the B. fragilis toxin(s) and its mechanism of action. Images PMID:1730463

  12. Effect of uniaxial stretch on morphology and cytoskeleton of human mesenchymal stem cells: static vs. dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Goli-Malekabadi, Zahra; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2011-10-01

    Abstract Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into various cell lineages. Mechanical stimuli have been shown to regulate function of stem cells through alteration in morphology and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare effects of uniaxial static stretch and combined static-dynamic stretch on the orientation, regulation and cytoskeletal structure of hMSCs. Mean values of topological were calculated before and after loadings. Moreover, fractal dimension (FD) was employed to quantify alterations in shape complexity of the cells. Internal cytoskeletal structure of cells was observed by actin filament staining. Results demonstrated a statistically significant change in cell topology and FD due to 10% static-dynamic stretch after 24 h. Static stretch was not as influential as dynamic loading. Whereas for combined static-dynamic stretch systemic alignment of cells was detected, in the static test group local alignment of actin fibers was observed, although the entire cell network was not totally aligned in a specific direction. It was concluded that dynamic stretch leads to cytoskeletal alignment and repolarization of hMSCs, whereas static stretch does not. Under static stretch hMSCs proliferated more than under dynamic stretch. Results can be applied in tissue engineering when functionalization of stem cells is required. PMID:21988158

  13. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

  14. Morphologic study of the liver of lambari (Astyanax altiparanae) with emphasis on the distribution of cytokeratin.

    PubMed

    Chehade, Chayrra; Cassel, Mônica; Borella, Maria Inês; Costa, Fabiano Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Studies on the morphology of the liver of teleosts reflect some controversy in the interpretation of the data, but also provide confirmation of variations in the structure of the organ in several species. Thus, we intend to understand the specific structural organization of the liver of Astyanax altiparanae. Specimens were collected in the city of Andirá, Paraná, Brazil. The livers were processed according to histological routine for inclusion in Paraplast, and the sections were stained with HE and Mallory's trichrome or followed the protocol for fluorescence immunohistochemistry, anti-cytokeratin. The liver of A. altiparanae was covered by a capsule of connective tissue, without delimiting lobes. The hepatocytes had an arrangement in cords around sinusoids. Melanomacrophage centers were observed. The vascular components and intrahepatic pancreatic acini were distributed between hepatocytes. Presence of cytokeratin was detected in tissues that lined the liver and endothelial cells of sinusoids. The comparison of the liver of A. altiparanae to other characids corroborates with the fact that there is variation in the morphology of the liver even between closely related species. Moreover, it appears that in this species, endothelial cells of sinusoids can synthesize the cytokeratin filaments required for the regulation of blood flow in capillaries in adults. PMID:24061935

  15. THE K-REGION DIHYDRODIOL OF BENZO[A]PYRENE INDUCES DNA DAMAGE AND MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION IN C3H10T1/2CL8 MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS WITHOUT THE FORMATION OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The K -region dihydrodiol ofbenzo[ a ]pyrene induces DNA damage and morphological cell transformation in C3HlOTY2CL8 mouse embryo cells without the formation of detectable stable covalent DNA adducts Benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P) is the most thoroughly studied polycyclic aro...

  16. Morphologically controlled fuel cell transport layers enabled via electrospun carbon nonwovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Devin; Mérida, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and performance of carbon nanofibre substrates for PEM fuel cell transport layer applications. Electrospinning is used for fabrication; by manipulation of spinning properties, morphological control is demonstrated in the product. Our application of the technology and it's manipulability to PEMFC transport layers constitutes a novel approach to the manufacture of such layers. Ex-situ morphology, electrical resistance and water contact angles are reported in additional to in-situ hydrogen/air fuel cell performance. Electrospun transport layers are compared directly to established commercial products in a cathode PTL role. The electrospun transport layers demonstrate approximately 85% of the commercial limiting current density, swifter water transport characteristics, and markedly more stable operating points.

  17. Computational image analysis of colony and nuclear morphology to evaluate human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Kazuaki; Saitoh, Noriko; Goldberg, Ilya G; Sakamoto, Chiyomi; Yasuda, Yoko; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive evaluation of cell reprogramming by advanced image analysis is required to maintain the quality of cells intended for regenerative medicine. Here, we constructed living and unlabelled colony image libraries of various human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines for supervised machine learning pattern recognition to accurately distinguish bona fide iPSCs from improperly reprogrammed cells. Furthermore, we found that image features for efficient discrimination reside in cellular components. In fact, extensive analysis of nuclear morphologies revealed dynamic and characteristic signatures, including the linear form of the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML)-defined structure in iPSCs, which was reversed to a regular sphere upon differentiation. Our data revealed that iPSCs have a markedly different overall nuclear architecture that may contribute to highly accurate discrimination based on the cell reprogramming status. PMID:25385348

  18. Computational image analysis of colony and nuclear morphology to evaluate human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Kazuaki; Saitoh, Noriko; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Sakamoto, Chiyomi; Yasuda, Yoko; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive evaluation of cell reprogramming by advanced image analysis is required to maintain the quality of cells intended for regenerative medicine. Here, we constructed living and unlabelled colony image libraries of various human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines for supervised machine learning pattern recognition to accurately distinguish bona fide iPSCs from improperly reprogrammed cells. Furthermore, we found that image features for efficient discrimination reside in cellular components. In fact, extensive analysis of nuclear morphologies revealed dynamic and characteristic signatures, including the linear form of the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML)-defined structure in iPSCs, which was reversed to a regular sphere upon differentiation. Our data revealed that iPSCs have a markedly different overall nuclear architecture that may contribute to highly accurate discrimination based on the cell reprogramming status. PMID:25385348

  19. Morphological control of CuPc and its application in organic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Sheng Hsiao; Wha-Tzong Whang; Shich-Chang Suen; Jau-Ye Shiu; Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-01-01

    We have prepared organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells possessing an ideal bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure using the self-assembly of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as the donor material and fullerene (C60) as the acceptor. The variable self-assembly behavior of CuPc on a diverse range of substrates (surface energies) allowed us to control the morphology of the interface and the degree of carrier transportation

  20. A direct evidence of morphological degradation on a nanometer scale in polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Christoph J; Palumbiny, Claudia M; Niedermeier, Martin A; Jendrzejewski, Christian; Santoro, Gonzalo; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2013-12-10

    In situ measurement of a polymer solar cell using micro grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (?GISAXS) and current-voltage tracking is demonstrated. While measuring electric characteristics under illumination, morphological changes are probed by ?GISAXS. The X-ray beam (green) impinges on the photo active layer with a shallow angle and scatters on a 2d detector. Degradation is explained by the ongoing nanomorphological changes observed. PMID:24027092

  1. Abnormal Mitochondrial Morphology in Sporadic Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Disease Cybrid Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Trimmer; Russell H. Swerdlow; Janice K. Parks; Paula Keeney; James P. Bennett; Scott W. Miller; Robert E. Davis; W. Davis Parker

    2000-01-01

    Diseases linked to defective mitochondrial function are characterized by morphologically abnormal, swollen mitochondria with distorted cristae. Several lines of evidence now suggest that sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction arising from defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells that are deficient in mtDNA (Rho0) were repopulated with mitochondria from

  2. Apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells of cattle: morphological features and clearance by homologous phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Carou, María Clara; Cruzans, Paula Romina; Maruri, Alejandro; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Lombardo, Daniel Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is involved in many physiological processes of the ovary, such as recruitment of prenatal germ cells, follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteolysis. Based on the need for the involvement of phagocytic cells to achieve apoptosis clearance and that follicular atresia is triggered by weak apoptotic stimuli, we postulate that granulosa cells engullng apoptotic corpses (ACs) must carry out this macrophagic process. Since apoptosis was early defined in terms of morphological aspects, here we describe apoptosis induced by a GnRH analog (leuprolide acetate, LA) at histological level on bovine granulosa cells (primary culture, CPGB, and an established cell line, BGC-1). We observed two main types of apoptosis. In type A, the whole cell or most of it is compacted into a single large AC that is then engulfed by neighboring cells or simply detached. In type B, small portions of cells, either with or without nuclear material, become ACs that are also phagocytosed. Apoptosis and homologous phagocytosis were confirmed by TUNEL and immunocytochemistry for Bax and active caspase 3. Induction of apoptosis was significant in BGC-1 cells treated for 24 h with 100 nM LA. CPGB cells showed two types of response with different doses of LA. Fetal calf serum was necessary to find apoptosis induced by LA. PMID:25511683

  3. Mitotic position and morphology of committed precursor cells in the zebrafish retina adapt to architectural changes upon tissue maturation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Isabell P; Ramos, Ana P; Strzyz, Paulina J; Leung, Louis C; Young, Stephen; Norden, Caren

    2014-04-24

    The development of complex neuronal tissues like the vertebrate retina requires the tight orchestration of cell proliferation and differentiation. Although the complexity of transcription factors and signaling pathways involved in retinogenesis has been studied extensively, the influence of tissue maturation itself has not yet been systematically explored. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of mitotic events during zebrafish retinogenesis that reveals three types of committed neuronal precursors in addition to the previously known apical progenitors. The identified precursor types present at distinct developmental stages and exhibit different mitotic location (apical versus nonapical), cleavage plane orientation, and morphology. Interestingly, the emergence of nonapically dividing committed bipolar cell precursors can be linked to an increase in apical crowding caused by the developing photoreceptor cell layer. Furthermore, genetic interference with neuronal subset specification induces ectopic divisions of committed precursors, underlining the finding that progressing morphogenesis can effect precursor division position. PMID:24703843

  4. Gas7b (Growth Arrest Specific Protein 7b) Regulates Neuronal Cell Morphology by Enhancing Microtubule and Actin Filament Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Aina; Hidaka, Masafumi; Hirose, Keiko; Uchida, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Neurons undergo several morphological changes as a part of normal neuron maturation process. Alzheimer disease is associated with increased neuroproliferation and impaired neuronal maturation. In this study, we demonstrated that Gas7b (growth arrest specific protein 7b) expression in a neuronal cell line, Neuro 2A, induces cell maturation by facilitating formation of dendrite-like processes and/or filopodia projections and that Gas7b co-localizes with neurite microtubules. Molecular analysis was performed to evaluate whether Gas7b associates with actin filaments and microtubules, and the data revealed two novel roles of Gas7b in neurite outgrowth: we showed that Gas7b enhances bundling of several microtubule filaments and connects microtubules with actin filaments. These results suggest that Gas7b governs neural cell morphogenesis by enhancing the coordination between actin filaments and microtubules. We conclude that lower neuronal Gas7b levels may impact Alzheimer disease progression. PMID:24151073

  5. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  6. Microarray analysis of retinal endothelial tip cells identifies CXCR4 as a mediator of tip cell morphology and branching.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Geraldine A; Kaminker, Joshua S; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2010-06-17

    The development of the vertebrate vascular system is mediated by both genetic patterning of vessels and by angiogenic sprouting in response to hypoxia. Both of these processes depend on the detection of environmental guidance cues by endothelial cells. A specialized subtype of endothelial cell known as the tip cell is thought to be involved in the detection and response to these cues, but the molecular signaling pathways used by tip cells to mediate tissue vascularization remain largely uncharacterized. To identify genes critical to tip cell function, we have developed a method to isolate them using laser capture microdissection, permitting comparison of RNA extracted from endothelial tip cells with that of endothelial stalk cells using microarray analysis. Genes enriched in tip cells include ESM-1, angiopoietin-2, and SLP-76. CXCR4, a receptor for the chemokine stromal-cell derived factor-1, was also identified as a tip cell-enriched gene, and we provide evidence for a novel role for this receptor in mediating tip cell morphology and vascular patterning in the neonatal retina. PMID:20154215

  7. Comparative studies on mammalian Muller (retinal glial) cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I Chao; J Grosche; B Biedermann; M Francke; T Pannicke; W Reichelt; M Wulst; C Muhle; S Pritz-Hohmeier; H Kuhrt; F Faude; W Drommer; M Kasper; E Buse; A Reichenbach

    1997-01-01

    Muller cells from 22 mammalian species were subjected to morphological and electrophysiological studies. In the ‘mid-periphery’ of retinae immunocytochemically labeled for vimentin, estimates of Muller cell densities per unit retinal surface area, and of neuron-to-(Muller) glia indices were performed. Muller cell densities were strikingly similar among the species studied (around 8000–11000 mm-2) with the extremes of the horse (=5000 mm-2)

  8. Small molecule BHJ solar cells based on DPP(TBFu)2 and diphenylmethanofullerenes (DPM): linking morphology, transport, recombination and crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Daniel; Viterisi, Aurélien; RyanPresent Address: Department Of Chemistry, The University Of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0033, James William; Gispert-Guirado, Francesc; Vidal, Sara; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín, Nazario; Palomares, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The effect of alkyl chains in substituted diphenylmethano[70]fullerenes (C70-DPM) on the device characteristics of DPP(TBFu)2 small molecule-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell devices is investigated. By measuring charge carrier mobilities as well as the morphology and crystallinity of each device we have been able to understand and explain the differences found between solar cells made with the different C70-DPM fullerenes despite the general lack of simple relationships between the molecular structure, orbital level positioning and power conversion efficiency. Our study then concludes with some general rules for the future design of acceptors for DPP(TBFu)2 containing photoactive layers in the search for efficient organic solar cells.The effect of alkyl chains in substituted diphenylmethano[70]fullerenes (C70-DPM) on the device characteristics of DPP(TBFu)2 small molecule-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell devices is investigated. By measuring charge carrier mobilities as well as the morphology and crystallinity of each device we have been able to understand and explain the differences found between solar cells made with the different C70-DPM fullerenes despite the general lack of simple relationships between the molecular structure, orbital level positioning and power conversion efficiency. Our study then concludes with some general rules for the future design of acceptors for DPP(TBFu)2 containing photoactive layers in the search for efficient organic solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Device fabrication and characterisation, XRD measurement details, cyclic voltammograms, hole and electron mobility measurements, CE/TPV experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06801c

  9. Morphological alterations of T24 cells on flat and nanotubular TiO2 surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Roghayeh; Kabaso, Doron; Erdani Kreft, Mateja; Gongadze, Ekaterina; Peni?, Samo; Elerši?, Kristina; Kos, Andrej; Verani?, Peter; Zorec, Robert; Igli?, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate morphological alterations of malignant cancer cells (T24) of urothelial origin seeded on flat titanium (Ti) and nanotubular titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures. Methods Using anodization method, TiO2 surfaces composed of vertically aligned nanotubes of 50-100 nm diameters were produced. The flat Ti surface was used as a reference. The alteration in the morphology of cancer cells was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A computational model, based on the theory of membrane elasticity, was constructed to shed light on the biophysical mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in the contact area of adhesion. Results Large diameter TiO2 nanotubes exhibited a significantly smaller contact area of adhesion (P?cell spreading on the large diameter TiO2 nanotubular surface, thus explaining the small contact area. Conclusion The reduction in the cell contact area in the case of large diameter TiO2 nanotube surface, which does not enable formation of the large enough number of the focal adhesion points, prevents spreading of urothelial cells. PMID:23275323

  10. Morphology evolution by controlling solvent-solute interactions using a binary solvent in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Namchul; Yip, Hin-Lap; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2013-06-01

    Improved power conversion efficiency of poly(indacenodithiophene-co-phananthrene-quinoxaline) (PIDT-PhanQ)/[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) based bulk- heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells was achieved upon adding tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a co-solvent to 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB). This reasonably large enhancement is achieved due to THF changes the morphology in the active layer by reducing the solvent-solute interaction. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and cohesive energy densities for PIDT-PhanQ and PD71BM with different solvents were further studied to understand the underlying phase separation mechanism in BHJ films.

  11. Morphological and morphometric characterization of direct transdifferentiation of support cells into hair cells in ototoxin-exposed neonatal utricular explants.

    PubMed

    Werner, Mimmi; Van De Water, Thomas R; Hammarsten, Peter; Arnoldsson, Göran; Berggren, Diana

    2015-03-01

    We have studied aminoglycoside-induced vestibular hair-cell renewal using long-term culture of utricular macula explants from 4-day-old rats. Explanted utricles were exposed to 1 mM of gentamicin for 48 h, during 2nd and 3rd days in vitro (DIV), and then recovering in unsupplemented medium. Utricles were harvested at specified time points from the 2nd through the 28th DIV. The cellular events that occurred within hair cell epithelia during the culture period were documented from serial sectioned specimens. Vestibular hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs) were systematically counted using light microscopy (LM) with the assistance of morphometric software. Ultrastructural observations were made from selected specimens with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After 7 DIV, i.e. four days after gentamicin exposure, the density of HCs was 11% of the number of HCs observed in non-gentamicin-exposed control explants. At 28 DIV the HC density was 61% of the number of HCs observed in the control group explant specimens. Simultaneously with this increase in HCs there was a corresponding decline in the number of SCs within the epithelium. The proportion of HCs in relation to SCs increased significantly in the gentamicin-exposed explant group during the 5th to the 28th DIV period of culture. There were no significant differences in the volume estimations of the gentamicin-exposed and the control group explants during the observed period of culture. Morphological observations showed that gentamicin exposure induced extensive loss of HCs within the epithelial layer, which retained their intact apical and basal linings. At 7 to 14 DIV (i.e. 3-11 days after gentamicin exposure) a pseudostratified epithelium with multiple layers of disorganized cells was observed. At 21 DIV new HCs were observed that also possessed features resembling SCs. After 28 DIV a new luminal layer of HCs with several layers of SCs located more basally characterized the gentamicin-exposed epithelium. No mitoses were observed within the epithelial layer of any explants. Our conclusion is that direct transdifferentiation of SCs into HCs was the only process contributing to the renewal of HCs after gentamicin exposure in these explants of vestibular inner ear epithelia obtained from the labyrinths of 4-day-old rats. PMID:25576788

  12. Nasal field loss in kittens reared with convergent squint: neurophysiological and morphological studies of the lateral geniculate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hisako; Plant, G. T.; Tremain, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    1. Recordings of single cells were made in layers A and A1 of the lateral geniculate nucleus of kittens raised with convergent squint in one eye, and morphological studies of cells representing the different parts of the visual fields in these layers were also made from histological sections. 2. For the normal eye, cells receiving inputs from the nasal and temporal visual fields were evenly represented up to the periphery, whereas for the squinting eye, no cells which permitted quantitative studies of receptive field properties could be found in the periphery of the nasal field. 3. The loss of nasal field, represented by the loss of functional cells in the LGN layer A1 fed by the squinting eye, depended on the severity of the squint. The greater the angle of convergent squint, the greater the loss of nasal field represented by the loss of functional cells. 4. The cells fed by the squinting eye's temporal visual field retained their brisk function, although minor modifications in the receptive field organisation were apparent. 5. The mean perikaryal size was smaller and the cell-density higher for cells in layers fed by the squinting eye. As found for the functional loss of cells, the shrinkage of perikaryal size and the increase of cell-density was smallest in the zones fed by the temporal visual field, and greatest in the zones fed by the peripheral nasal visual field. 6. The functional and morphological changes in the cells in the LGN, which receive inputs from the nasal field of the squinting eye, are attributed to part of the temporal retina being hidden behind the bridge of the nose. It is proposed that this is a consequence of disuse atrophy, due to lack of stimulation during the sensitive period of development. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:903898

  13. From Single Cell to Simple Creature Morphology and Metabolism Sylvain Cussat-Blanc, Herve Luga and Yves Duthen

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    From Single Cell to Simple Creature Morphology and Metabolism Sylvain Cussat-Blanc, Herv´e Luga.duthen}@irit.fr Abstract In order to produce diversity in virtual creatures to populate virtual worlds, different a bridge between these two approaches : a model that will create creatures with a particular morphology

  14. Morphological control in polymer solar cells using low-boiling-point solvent additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.

    In the global search for clean, renewable energy sources, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have recently been given much attention. Popular modern-day OPVs are made from solution-processible, carbon-based polymers (e.g. the model poly(3-hexylthiophene) that are intimately blended with fullerene derivatives (e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) to form what is known as the dispersed bulk-heterojunction (BHJ). This BHJ architecture has produced some of the most efficient OPVs to date, with reports closing in on 10% power conversion efficiency. To push efficiencies further into double digits, many groups have identified the BHJ nanomorphology---that is, the phase separations and grain sizes within the polymer: fullerene composite---as a key aspect in need of control and improvement. As a result, many methods, including thermal annealing, slow-drying (solvent) annealing, vapor annealing, and solvent additives, have been developed and studied to promote BHJ self-organization. Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in BHJ OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated.

  15. Correlating li/o2 cell capacity and product morphology with discharge current.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Lucas D; Sleightholme, Alice E S; Mansfield, John F; Siegel, Donald J; Monroe, Charles W

    2015-04-15

    The discharge rate is critical to the performance of lithium/oxygen batteries: it impacts both cell capacity and discharge-phase morphology, and in so doing may also affect the efficiency of the oxygen-evolution reaction during recharging. First-discharge data from tens of Li/O2 cells discharged across four rates are analyzed statistically to inform these connections. In the practically significant superficial current-density range of 0.1 to 1 mA cm(-2), capacity is found to fall as a power law, with a Peukert's-law exponent of 1.6 ± 0.1. X-ray diffractometry confirms the dominant presence of crystalline Li2O2 in the discharged electrodes. A completely air-free sample-transfer technique was developed to implement scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the discharge product. SEM imaging of electrodes with near-average capacities provides statistically significant measures of the shape and size variation of electrodeposited Li2O2 particles with respect to discharge current. At lower rates, typical "toroidal" particles are observed that are well approximated as cylindrical structures, whose average radii remain relatively constant as discharge rate increases, whereas their average heights decrease. At the highest rate studied, air-free SEM shows that particles take needle-like shapes rather than forming the nanosheets or compact films described elsewhere. Average particle volumes decrease with current while particle surface-to-volume ratios increase dramatically, supporting the notion that Li2O2 grows by a locally mass-transfer-limited nucleation and growth mechanism. PMID:25775079

  16. Identification and quantitation of morphological cell types in electrophoretically separated human embryonic kidney cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, K. B.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Four major cell types were identified by phase microscopy in early passage human embryonic kidney cell cultures. They are small and large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated cells. Fibroblasts are also present in some explants. The percent of each cell type changes with passage number as any given culture grows. As a general rule, the fraction of small epithelioid cells increases, while the fraction of fenestrated cells, always small, decreases further. When fibroblasts are present, they always increase in percentage of the total cell population. Electrophoretic separation of early passage cells showed that the domed cells have the highest electrophoretic mobility, fibroblasts have an intermediate high mobility, small epithelioid cells have a low mobility, broadly distributed, and fenestrated cells have the lowest mobility. All cell types were broadly distributed among electrophoretic subfractions, which were never pure but only enriched with respect to a given cell type.

  17. [Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Alfonso Arturo; Sarmiento, Ladys; Caldas, María Leonor; Zapata, Cristina; Bello, Felio Jesús

    2008-06-01

    Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The first cellular line of Aedes aegypti was developed by Grace in 1966; afterwards, other cellular lines of this species have been generated. These have been used for the study of pathogenic organisms like viruses, bacteria and parasites, which demonstrates their importance in biomedical applications. This research describes, for the first time, some cytochemical characteristics of A. aegypti cell cultures, that were infected with (MHOM/CO/87CL412) strain of Leishmania panamensis. A morphological study of the cell culture was also carried out. Maintenance of the cell culture, parasites and infection in vitro were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology, Cell Biology and Genetics of the Universidad de La Salle. The cell cultures infected with the parasite were maintained in a mixture of mediums Grace/L15, supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) at pH 6.8 and a temperature of 26 degrees C, during 3, 6 and 9 post-infection days. After this, these cell cultures were processed through High Resolution Light Microscopy (HRLM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) based on standard protocols defined by the Group of Microscopy and Image Analyses of the Instituto Nacional de Salud. Semi-fine slices of 1 microm colored with toluidine blue were used for the morphological analysis of the culture, and ultra fine cuts of 60 to 90 nm stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate where used for the ultrastructural study. In addition, PAS and peroxidase staining was carried out in cells fixed with methanol. The morphometric study was analyzed with software ImageJ (NIH). In the semi-fine slices, small cells were observed showing fibroblastic appearance 10.84 +/- 2.54 microm in length and 5.31 +/- 1.26 microm wide; other cells had epithelial appearance with a great peripheral nucleus, voluminous and vacuolated cytoplasm, 23.04 +/- 4.00 microm in length and 13.96 3.70 microm wide. These last ones predominated over the ones with fibroblastic appearance. Regarding the PAS coloration, 7.08% of the cells presented abundant PAS positive cytoplasmatic granules which indicated polysaccharides presence. The peroxidase test gave a negative result. The greatest percentage of infection (18.90%) of one total of 101 cells, turned up by day 6. Some cells analyzed by TEM presented a vacuolated aspect cytoplasm; some contained parasites, other fibrillar material and others were empty. The results indicate that A. aegypti cell culture can support the internalization and transformation of the parasite, which demonstrates the capacity that these cell cultures have to be infected with L. panamensis and to maintain the infection for approximately one week. PMID:19256419

  18. A 37-year-old spinal cord-injured female patient, transplanted of multipotent stem cells from human UC blood, with improved sensory perception and mobility, both functionally and morphologically: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K-S Kang; SW Kim; YH Oh; JW Yu; K-Y Kim; C-H Song; H Han

    2005-01-01

    HLA-matched UC blood-derived multipotent stem cells were directly transplanted into the injured spinal cord site of a 37-year-old female patient suffering from spinal cord injury (SPI). In this case, human cord blood (UCB)-derived multipotent stem cells improved sensory perception and movement in the SPI patient's hips and thighs within 41 days of cell transplantation. CT and MRI results also showed

  19. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  20. Rapid morphological brain abnormalities during acute methamphetamine intoxication in the rat: An experimental study using light and electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hari S. Sharma; Eugene A. Kiyatkin

    2009-01-01

    This study describes morphological abnormalities of brain cells during acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication in the rat and demonstrates the role of hyperthermia, disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and edema in their development. Rats with chronically implanted brain, muscle and skin temperature probes and an intravenous (i.v.) catheter were exposed to METH (9mg\\/kg) at standard (23°C) and warm (29°C) ambient

  1. Morphological and ultrastructural studies of some acritarchs from the Lower Cambrian Lükati Formation, Estonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina M. Talyzina; Magorzata Moczydowska

    2000-01-01

    Six acritarch species from the Lükati Formation were studied using a combination of techniques, including transmitted light, scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. New details of wall ultrastructure, surface microsculpture and internal morphology of the vesicle and processes significantly add to the previously known morphological features and increase the understanding of the form-genera Archaeodiscina, Globosphaeridium, Comasphaeridium, Skiagia, Tasmanites

  2. Atomic force microscopy, a powerful tool to study blend morphologies based on polyester resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Serré; M. Vayer; R. Erre; N. Boyard; C. Ollive

    2001-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was an unusual but effective tool used to investigate the morphology of cured blends based on UP (unsaturated polyester). The pertinence of AFM was evaluated by studying four miscible UP\\/LPA (low profile additive)\\/ST (styrene) blend systems. The morphology of these cured blends before and after LPA solubilization was analogous in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and AFM.

  3. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  4. Parallel geometric classification of stem cells by their three-dimensional morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juba, Derek; Cardone, Antonio; Yiu Ip, Cheuk; Simon, Carl G., Jr.; Tison, Christopher K.; Kumar, Girish; Brady, Mary; Varshney, Amitabh

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for tools to classify cells based on their three-dimensional (3D) shape. Cells exist in vivo in 3D, cells are frequently cultured within 3D scaffolds in vitro and 3D scaffolds are used for cell delivery in tissue engineering therapies. Recent work indicates that the physical structure of a tissue engineering scaffold can direct stem cell function by driving stem cells into morphologies that induce their differentiation. Thus, we have developed a rapid method for classifying cells based on their 3D shape. First, random lines are intersected with 3D Z-stacks of confocal images of stem cells. The intersection lengths are stored in histograms, which are then used to train a support vector machine (SVM) learning algorithm to distinguish between stem cells cultured on differentiation-inducing 3D scaffolds and those cultured on non-differentiating flat substrates. The trained SVM is able to properly classify the ‘new’ query cells over 80% of the time. The algorithm is easily parallelizable and we demonstrate its implementation on a commodity graphics processing unit (GPU). Use of a GPU to run the algorithm increases throughput by over 100-fold as compared to use of a CPU. The algorithm is also progressive, providing an approximate answer quickly and refining the answer over time. This allows further increase in the throughput of the algorithm by allowing the SVM classification scheme to terminate early if it becomes confident enough of the class of the cell being analyzed. These results demonstrate a rapid method for classifying stem cells based on their 3D shape that can be used by tissue engineers for identifying 3D tissue scaffold structures that drive stem cells into shapes that correlate with differentiation.

  5. Developmental alterations of the C. elegans male anal depressor morphology and function require sex-specific cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; René García, L

    2015-02-01

    We studied the Caenorhabditis elegans anal depressor development in larval males and hermaphrodites to address how a differentiated cell sex-specifically changes its morphology prior to adulthood. In both sexes, the larval anal depressor muscle is used for defecation behavior. However in the adult males, the muscle's sarcomere is reorganized to facilitate copulation. To address when the changes occur in the anal depressor, we used YFP:actin to monitor, and mutant analysis, laser-ablation and transgenic feminization to perturb the cell's morphological dynamics. In L1 and L2 stage larva, the muscle of both sexes has similar sarcomere morphology, but the hermaphrodite sex-determination system promotes more growth. The male anal depressor begins to change in the L3 stage, first by retracting its muscle arm from the neurons of the defecation circuit. Then the muscle's ventral region develops a slit that demarcates an anterior and posterior domain. This demarcation is not dependent on the anal depressor's intrinsic genetic sex, but is influenced by extrinsic interactions with the developing male sex muscles. However, subsequent changes are dependent on the cell's sex. In the L4 stage, the anterior domain first disassembles the dorsal-ventral sarcomere region and develops filopodia that elongates anteriorly towards the spicule muscles. Later, the posterior domain dissembles the remnants of its sarcomere, but still retains a vestigial attachment to the ventral body wall. Finally, the anterior domain attaches to the sex muscles, and then reassembles an anterior-posteriorly oriented sarcomere. Our work identifies key steps in the dimorphic re-sculpting of the anal depressor that are regulated by genetic sex and by cell-cell signaling. PMID:25498482

  6. Influence of charge carrier mobility and morphology on solar cell parameters in devices of mono- and bis-fullerene adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muth, Mathis-Andreas; Mitchell, William; Tierney, Steven; Lada, Thomas A.; Xue, Xiang; Richter, Henning; Carrasco-Orozco, Miguel; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2013-12-01

    Herein, we analyze charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells and correlate them with device parameters. A low band gap donor-acceptor copolymer in combination with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or two bis-adduct fullerenes, bis-PCBM and bis-o-quino-dimethane C60 (bis-oQDMC), is investigated. We study the charge transport of polymer:fullerene blends in hole- and electron-only devices using the space-charge limited current method. Lower electron mobilities are observed in both bis-adduct fullerene blends. Hole mobility, however, is decreased only in the blend containing bis-oQDMC. Both bis-adduct fullerene blends show very high open circuit voltage in solar cell devices, but poor photocurrent compared to the standard PCBM blend for an active layer thickness of 200 nm. Therefore, a higher short circuit current is feasible for the polymer:bis-PCBM blend by reducing the active layer thickness in order to compensate for the low electron mobility, which results in a PCE of 4.3%. For the polymer:bis-oQDMC blend, no such improvement is achieved due to an unfavorable morphology in this particular blend system. The results are supported by external quantum efficiency measurements, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV/vis spectroscopy. Based on these results, the investigations presented herein give a more scientific basis for the optimization of solar cells.

  7. Aminergic neuron systems of lobsters: morphology and electrophysiology of octopamine-containing neurosecretory cells.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, R; Bräunig, P; Walter, I; Schneider, H; Kravitz, E A

    2000-01-01

    In the American lobster (Homarus americanus) the biogenic amines serotonin and octopamine appear to play important and opposite roles in the regulation of aggressive behavior, in the establishment and/or maintenance of dominant and subordinate behavioral states and in the modulation of the associated postural stances and escape responses. The octopamine-containing neurosecretory neurons in the thoracic regions of the lobster ventral nerve cord fall into two morphological subgroups, the root octopamine cells, a classical neurohemal group with release regions along second thoracic roots, and the claw octopamine cells, a group that selectively innervates the claws. Cells of both subgroups have additional sets of endings within neuropil regions of ganglia of the ventral nerve cord. Octopamine neurosecretory neurons generally are silent, but when spontaneously active or when activated, they show large overshooting action potentials with prominent after-hyperpolarizations. Autoinhibition after high-frequency firing, which is also seen in other crustacean neurosecretory cells, is readily apparent in these cells. The cells show no spontaneous synaptic activity, but appear to be excited by a unitary source. Stimulation of lateral or medial giant axons, which excite serotonergic cells yielded no response in octopaminergic neurosecretory cells and no evidence for direct interactions between pairs of octopamine neurons, or between the octopaminergic and the serotonergic sets of neurosecretory neurons was found. PMID:11016779

  8. Mitochondrial morphology, topology, and membrane interactions in skeletal muscle: a quantitative three-dimensional electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2013-01-15

    Dynamic remodeling of mitochondrial morphology through membrane dynamics are linked to changes in mitochondrial and cellular function. Although mitochondrial membrane fusion/fission events are frequent in cell culture models, whether mitochondrial membranes dynamically interact in postmitotic muscle fibers in vivo remains unclear. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of mitochondrial morphology in intact muscle is lacking. Here, using electron microscopy (EM), we provide evidence of interacting membranes from adjacent mitochondria in intact mouse skeletal muscle. Electron-dense mitochondrial contact sites consistent with events of outer mitochondrial membrane tethering are also described. These data suggest that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo among mitochondria, possibly to induce morphology transitions, for kiss-and-run behavior, or other processes involving contact between mitochondrial membranes. Furthermore, a combination of freeze-fracture scanning EM and transmission EM in orthogonal planes was used to characterize and quantify mitochondrial morphology. Two subpopulations of mitochondria were studied: subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF), which exhibited significant differences in morphological descriptors, including form factor (means ± SD for SS: 1.41 ± 0.45 vs. IMF: 2.89 ± 1.76, P < 0.01) and aspect ratio (1.97 ± 0.83 vs. 3.63 ± 2.13, P < 0.01) and circularity (0.75 ± 0.16 vs. 0.45 ± 0.22, P < 0.01) but not size (0.28 ± 0.31 vs. 0.27 ± 0.20 ?m(2)). Frequency distributions for mitochondrial size and morphological parameters were highly skewed, suggesting the presence of mechanisms to influence mitochondrial size and shape. In addition, physical continuities between SS and IMF mitochondria indicated mixing of both subpopulations. These data provide evidence that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle and that factors may be involved in regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial morphology. PMID:23104694

  9. Structural and surface morphological study of Ni doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawal, H. A.; Dole, B. N.

    2014-04-01

    Samples of Zn1-xNixS (x=0.00, 0.04, 0.08) nanoparticles were synthesized by using the co-precipitation method at room temperature. Structural parameters were investigated by X - ray diffraction (XRD), it reveals that all samples of Ni doped ZnS exhibit the cubic structure with no additional impurity phase. The average crystallite size of all samples is in the range of 2.70 to 2.90 nm. The lattice parameters, X - ray density, volume of unit cell and grain size were calculated using XRD data. It is found that the lattice parameter increases with increasing Ni concentration. Surface morphology of samples was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). From this study it is concluded that samples exhibit cubic morphology. Chemical compositions of Ni doped and pure ZnS samples were detected using EDAX spectra. It is confirmed from EDAX that Ni substitute into ZnS lattice.

  10. Structural and surface morphological study of Ni doped ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khawal, H. A., E-mail: drbndole.phy@gmail.com; Dole, B. N., E-mail: drbndole.phy@gmail.com [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad- 431 004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Samples of Zn{sub 1?x}Ni{sub x}S (x=0.00, 0.04, 0.08) nanoparticles were synthesized by using the co-precipitation method at room temperature. Structural parameters were investigated by X – ray diffraction (XRD), it reveals that all samples of Ni doped ZnS exhibit the cubic structure with no additional impurity phase. The average crystallite size of all samples is in the range of 2.70 to 2.90 nm. The lattice parameters, X – ray density, volume of unit cell and grain size were calculated using XRD data. It is found that the lattice parameter increases with increasing Ni concentration. Surface morphology of samples was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). From this study it is concluded that samples exhibit cubic morphology. Chemical compositions of Ni doped and pure ZnS samples were detected using EDAX spectra. It is confirmed from EDAX that Ni substitute into ZnS lattice.

  11. Morphological control of hybrid polymer-quantum dot solar cells with electron acceptor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Mathieu; Lamarre, Sébastien; Tessier, Jonathan; Lecavalier, Marie-Ève; Najari, Ahmed; Dufour-Beauséjour, Sophie; Brown Dussault, Evelyne; Collin, Pierre; Allen, Claudine N?.

    2012-01-01

    We integrate the electro-attractive conjugated molecule tetrafluoro-tetracyano-quinodimethane (F4TCNQ) in the active layer of polymer-CdSe colloidal quantum dot (cQD) solar cells. The addition of this molecule enhances cQD dispersion inside the polymer. In tuning its concentration, we can optimize the active layer morphology for charge separation and transport. A smoother morphology is likely the result of polymer chain adsorption on cQDs via F4TCNQ which increases the steric barrier between cQDs. Our most optimized device has a F4TCNQ:cQDs weight ratio of 0.5% improving the power conversion efficiency by a factor ˜2.3.

  12. Morphological Changes in the Parafollicular Cells of the Rat Thyroid Glands after Administration of Calcium shown by Electron Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Matsuzawa; K. Kurosumi

    1967-01-01

    THE parafollicular cells named by Nonidez1 are the second type of glandular cells which make up the mammalian thyroid glands. They occur along the basal (interstitial) surface of the follicular epithelium, and never face the colloid-containing follicular lumen. Electron microscopy has shown that this cell type differs completely in ultrastructure from the follicular cells2,3. Such a morphologically distinct cell type

  13. Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P.; Camacho-Díaz, B.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

  14. Reprogramming cells to study vacuolar development

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mistianne; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Kohalmi, Susanne E.; Cui, Yuhai; Menassa, Rima

    2013-01-01

    During vegetative and embryonic developmental transitions, plant cells are massively reorganized to support the activities that will take place during the subsequent developmental phase. Studying cellular and subcellular changes that occur during these short transitional periods can sometimes present challenges, especially when dealing with Arabidopsis thaliana embryo and seed tissues. As a complementary approach, cellular reprogramming can be used as a tool to study these cellular changes in another, more easily accessible, tissue type. To reprogram cells, genetic manipulation of particular regulatory factors that play critical roles in establishing or repressing the seed developmental program can be used to bring about a change of cell fate. During different developmental phases, vacuoles assume different functions and morphologies to respond to the changing needs of the cell. Lytic vacuoles (LVs) and protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) are the two main vacuole types found in flowering plants such as Arabidopsis. Although both are morphologically distinct and carry out unique functions, they also share some similar activities. As the co-existence of the two vacuole types is short-lived in plant cells, how they replace each other has been a long-standing curiosity. To study the LV to PSV transition, LEAFY COTYLEDON2, a key transcriptional regulator of seed development, was overexpressed in vegetative cells to activate the seed developmental program. At the cellular level, Arabidopsis leaf LVs were observed to convert to PSV-like organelles. This presents the opportunity for further research to elucidate the mechanism of LV to PSV transitions. Overall, this example demonstrates the potential usefulness of cellular reprogramming as a method to study cellular processes that occur during developmental transitions. PMID:24348496

  15. Extrapulmonary silicosis: a clinical, morphologic, and ultrastructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, R.E.; Swedo, J.L.; Brandes, D.; Gonzalez-Vitale, J.C.; Osornio-Vargas, A.

    1985-04-01

    A variety of silicotic lesions derived from thoracic silicosis via lymphohematogenous spread to the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and extrathoracic lymph nodes are described. The morphologic features of these lesions depend on the extent of macrophage aggregation, the occurrence of fibrogenesis, and the development of necrosis and degradative changes in macrophages and adjacent extracellular matrix, presumably caused by lysosomal enzymes released from macrophages. Ultrastructurally, the degenerative alterations of matrix material include longitudinal splitting and breakage of collagen fibrils into segments one and three quarters the length of the original fibrils and deposition of flocculent electron-dense material either focally or diffusely around collagen fibrils. The corresponding changes viewed light microscopically are those of fibrinoid necrosis. The sclerohyaline nodule, the characteristic lesion of silicosis, includes all of these features as it evolves through nodular histiocytic and subsequent fibrohistiocytic phases. Its ultimate morphology appears to be determined by the reassembly of the degraded matrix into non-native, fibrous long-spacing collagen via a spiny collagen intermediary. The sclerohyaline nodule occurs infrequently in the spleen and liver, although less typical lesions caused by silica alone or admixed with other dusts seem to occur more commonly in these organs. These lesions appeared as loose or nodular histiocytic or fibrohistiocytic aggregates.

  16. Preparation of nano-hydroxyapatite particles with different morphology and their response to highly malignant melanoma cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Guo, Bo; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effects of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) particles with different morphology on highly malignant melanoma cells, three kinds of HA particles with different morphology were synthesized and co-cultured with highly malignant melanoma cells using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as control. A precipitation method with or without citric acid addition as surfactant was used to produce rod-like hydroxyapatite (HA) particles with nano- and micron size, respectively, and a novel oil-in-water emulsion method was employed to prepare ellipse-like nano-HA particles. Particle morphology and size distribution of the as prepared HA powders were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering technique. The nano- and micron HA particles with different morphology were co-cultured with highly malignant melanoma cells. Immunofluorescence analysis and MTT assay were employed to evaluate morphological change of nucleolus and proliferation of tumour cells, respectively. To compare the effects of HA particles on cell response, the PBS without HA particles was used as control. The experiment results indicated that particle nanoscale effect rather than particle morphology of HA was more effective for the inhibition on highly malignant melanoma cells proliferation.

  17. A morphological study of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb in the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    PubMed

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Lee, Jae-Yuk; Lee, Sang; Yun, Youngmin; Lim, Yoon-Kyu; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the Korean roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) were studied histologically to evaluate their morphological characteristics. Grossly, the VNO, encased by cartilage, has a paired tubular structure with a caudal blind end and a rostral connection through incisive ducts on the hard palate. In the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) consists of galectin-3-positive supporting cells, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive receptor cells, and basal cells. The vomeronasal respiratory epithelium (VRE) consists of a pseudostratified epithelium. The AOB strata included a vomeronasal nerve layer (VNL), a glomerular layer (GL), a mitral/tufted cell layer, and a granular cell layer. All lectins used in this study, including Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), labeled the VSE with varying intensity. In the AOB, both the VNL and the GL reacted with BSI-B4, SBA, and WGA with varying intensity, but not with UEA-I. This is the first morphological study of the VNO and AOB of the Korean roe deer, which are similar to those of goats. PMID:24055195

  18. Trichostatin A induces morphological changes and gelsolin expression by inhibiting histone deacetylase in human carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, Y; Kwon, H J; Yoshida, M; Horinouchi, S; Beppu, T

    1994-09-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a Streptomyces metabolite which specifically inhibits mammalian histone deacetylase at a nanomolar concentration and causes accumulation of highly acetylated histone molecules in mammalian cells. The effects of TSA on the morphology and the cell cycle of the human carcinoma cell lines, T24 and HeLa, were investigated. The morphology of T24 and HeLa cells dramatically changed and actin stress fibers reappeared during the treatment with TSA. The morphological change was not observed with chemically synthesized (S)-TSA and trichostatic acids, which are inactive to inhibit histone deacetylase. Cell cycle progression of these cells was blocked by TSA at G1 phase (HeLa) or G1 and G2 phases (T24). An RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, and a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited the morphological changes by TSA, suggesting that TSA induces expression of a new gene(s) followed by de novo protein synthesis, which is required for the actin microfilament reorganization. An approximately 7-fold (T24) or 12-fold (HeLa) increase in the intracellular level of gelsolin, an actin regulatory protein, was found in the cells treated with TSA for 24 h. These results suggest that gelsolin is one of the putative proteins necessary for the morphological changes of human carcinoma cells induced by TSA. PMID:8082721

  19. Improved morphology control using a modified two-step method for efficient perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bi, Dongqin; El-Zohry, Ahmed M; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2014-11-12

    A two-step wet chemical synthesis method for methylammonium lead(II) triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite is further developed for the preparation of highly reproducible solar cells, with the following structure: fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2 (compact)/TiO2 (mesoporous)/CH3NH3PbI3/spiro-OMeTAD/Ag. The morphology of the perovskite layer could be controlled by careful variation of the processing conditions. Specifically, by modifying the drying process and inclusion of a dichloromethane treatment, more uniform films could be prepared, with longer emission lifetime in the perovskite material and longer electron lifetime in solar cell devices, as well as faster electron transport and enhanced charge collection at the selective contacts. Solar cell efficiencies up to 13.5% were obtained. PMID:25317666

  20. Metre-long cell-laden microfibres exhibit tissue morphologies and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoe, Hiroaki; Okitsu, Teru; Itou, Akane; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Gojo, Riho; Kiriya, Daisuke; Sato, Koji; Miura, Shigenori; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Matsunaga, Yukiko T.; Shimoyama, Yuto; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-06-01

    Artificial reconstruction of fibre-shaped cellular constructs could greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro. Here we show that, by using a microfluidic device with double-coaxial laminar flow, metre-long core-shell hydrogel microfibres encapsulating ECM proteins and differentiated cells or somatic stem cells can be fabricated, and that the microfibres reconstitute intrinsic morphologies and functions of living tissues. We also show that these functional fibres can be assembled, by weaving and reeling, into macroscopic cellular structures with various spatial patterns. Moreover, fibres encapsulating primary pancreatic islet cells and transplanted through a microcatheter into the subrenal capsular space of diabetic mice normalized blood glucose concentrations for about two weeks. These microfibres may find use as templates for the reconstruction of fibre-shaped functional tissues that mimic muscle fibres, blood vessels or nerve networks in vivo.

  1. Morphological and cell association characteristics of Rochalimaea quintana: comparison of the Vole and Fuller strains.

    PubMed Central

    Merrell, B R; Weiss, E; Dasch, G A

    1978-01-01

    The vole and Fuller strains of Rochalimaea quintana were grown on monolayers of mouse L cells irradiated 7 days previously and examined by light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Most of the bacteria of both strains were shown to adhere to the L cells but remained in an extracellular location. Cell division was frequently seen among the extracellular bacteria. The few intracellular bacteria seemed to be within vacuoles and did not multiply. Attachment to the eucaryotic cell did not seem to involve pili or other bacterial surface structures. The dimensions of the bacteria were approximately 0.45 micron in width by 1.0 to 1.7 micron in length. The cell envelope consisted of the usual trilaminar cell wall and plasma membranes separated by a layer of low electron density, as found in other gram-negative bacteria. No significant differences between the vole and Fuller strains either in morphology or relationship to eucaryotic cells were encountered. Images PMID:681283

  2. Functional genomics of cell morphology using RNA interference: pick your style, broad or deep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D Pollard

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Several new studies have used RNA interference to screen for protein functions affecting cell shape, mitosis and cytokinesis of Drosophila cells in culture. One broad survey of nearly 1,000 proteins and three studies focused on cytoskeletal and motor proteins have identified key proteins essential for these processes in animal cells.

  3. Statistical Dynamics of Flowing Red Blood Cells by Morphological Image Processing

    E-print Network

    Eddington, David T.

    to distinguish the flow of normal red blood cells and pathological sickled red blood cells and suggest and velocity gradients which then drive fluctuating particle movements [2­4]. Nearly all studies of whole blood

  4. X-ray study of mixed morphology SNR HB9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchettl, Katie

    2013-10-01

    We propose two 60 ks observations of the large mixed-morphology supernova remnant HB9. ROSAT observations detected a large, bright, clumpy region of X-ray emission towards the southeast of the remnant, with strong X-ray emission towards the center and faint emission reaching the edge of the radio shell. HB9 is thought to be interacting with a MC based on the detection of CO emission towards the northeast of the remnant. The clumpy nature and irregularity of the X-ray emission indicates an inhomogeneity of the pre-supernova medium and a density gradient from the north to the south of the remnant. These proposed observations will provide the first CCD-quality X-ray spectra from the remnant, allowing us to carry out a spatially resolved spectral analysis of the X-ray emitting plasma in HB9.

  5. [Experimental study on decoctum Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Gao, K; Zhou, L; Chen, J; Li, F; Zhang, L

    2000-09-01

    In this study, MTT assay, cell morphology and flow cytometry were used to explore Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb on HL-60 cells in vitro. The data suggested that Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb had the effects of growth inhibition in HL-60 cells. After treated with decoctum Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, cells underwent apoptosis with typical morphological feature. DNA histograms by flow cytometric analysis displayed distinct apoptotic peak. PMID:12575284

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity and morphological assessment of smoke from polymer combustion in human lung derived cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Lestari, F; Hayes, A J; Green, A R; Chattopadhyay, G

    2012-04-01

    The application of polymer and composites in building and modern transport interiors raises concerns of potential health hazards during combustion. Cytotoxicity and morphological assessment of smoke from polymer combustion in human lung derived cells (A549) has been investigated. A laboratory scale vertical tube furnace was used for the generation of combustion products. A range of materials used in the building and transport industry including high density-polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), fiberglass reinforced polymers (FRPs), and melamine faced plywood (MFP) were studied. The exposure of combustion toxicants to human lung cells (A549) at the air/liquid interface was acquired using a Harvard Navicyte Chamber. Cytotoxic effects on human cells were assessed based on cell viability using a selected in vitro cytotoxicity assays, including NRU (neutral red uptake) and ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Morphological assessment on the effects of combustion products in human lung cells from selected materials including PVC, FRP and MFP was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The volatile organic compounds from thermal decomposition products were identified using ATD-GCMS (Automatic Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry). NOAEC (No Observable Adverse Effect Concentration), IC(10) (10% inhibitory concentration), IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration), and TLC (Total Lethal Concentration) values (mg/l) were generated. The following toxicity ranking was observed from the most toxic material to the least toxic using the NRU assay: PVC>PP>HDPE>PC >FRP-10>MFP>FRP-16; and the ATP assay: PVC>HDPE>PP>FRP-10>FRP-16>MFP>PC. The method described here could potentially be an alternative to current fire toxicity standards. PMID:22227179

  7. Aggregation and morphology control enables multiple cases of high-efficiency polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhang; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Zhengke; Mu, Cheng; Ma, Wei; Hu, Huawei; Jiang, Kui; Lin, Haoran; Ade, Harald; Yan, He

    2014-01-01

    Although the field of polymer solar cell has seen much progress in device performance in the past few years, several limitations are holding back its further development. For instance, current high-efficiency (>9.0%) cells are restricted to material combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor. Here we report the achievement of high-performance (efficiencies up to 10.8%, fill factors up to 77%) thick-film polymer solar cells for multiple polymer:fullerene combinations via the formation of a near-ideal polymer:fullerene morphology that contains highly crystalline yet reasonably small polymer domains. This morphology is controlled by the temperature-dependent aggregation behaviour of the donor polymers and is insensitive to the choice of fullerenes. The uncovered aggregation and design rules yield three high-efficiency (>10%) donor polymers and will allow further synthetic advances and matching of both the polymer and fullerene materials, potentially leading to significantly improved performance and increased design flexibility. PMID:25382026

  8. Aggregation and morphology control enables multiple cases of high-efficiency polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuhang; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Zhengke; Mu, Cheng; Ma, Wei; Hu, Huawei; Jiang, Kui; Lin, Haoran; Ade, Harald; Yan, He

    2014-11-01

    Although the field of polymer solar cell has seen much progress in device performance in the past few years, several limitations are holding back its further development. For instance, current high-efficiency (>9.0%) cells are restricted to material combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor. Here we report the achievement of high-performance (efficiencies up to 10.8%, fill factors up to 77%) thick-film polymer solar cells for multiple polymer:fullerene combinations via the formation of a near-ideal polymer:fullerene morphology that contains highly crystalline yet reasonably small polymer domains. This morphology is controlled by the temperature-dependent aggregation behaviour of the donor polymers and is insensitive to the choice of fullerenes. The uncovered aggregation and design rules yield three high-efficiency (>10%) donor polymers and will allow further synthetic advances and matching of both the polymer and fullerene materials, potentially leading to significantly improved performance and increased design flexibility.

  9. A rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test based on single-cell morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Mincheol; Kim, Eun-Geun; Lee, Ji Soo; Lee, Seungok; Joo, Seik; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Eui-Chong; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Hee Chan; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2014-12-17

    A rapid antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) is desperately needed in clinical settings for fast and appropriate antibiotic administration. Traditional ASTs, which rely on cell culture, are not suitable for urgent cases of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance owing to their relatively long test times. We describe a novel AST called single-cell morphological analysis (SCMA) that can determine antimicrobial susceptibility by automatically analyzing and categorizing morphological changes in single bacterial cells under various antimicrobial conditions. The SCMA was tested with four Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standard bacterial strains and 189 clinical samples, including extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci from hospitals. The results were compared with the gold standard broth microdilution test. The SCMA results were obtained in less than 4 hours, with 91.5% categorical agreement and 6.51% minor, 2.56% major, and 1.49% very major discrepancies. Thus, SCMA provides rapid and accurate antimicrobial susceptibility data that satisfy the recommended performance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25520395

  10. Multiple mechanisms determine ER network morphology during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Songyu; Romano, Fabian B.; Field, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    In metazoans the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) changes during the cell cycle, with the nuclear envelope (NE) disassembling and reassembling during mitosis and the peripheral ER undergoing extensive remodeling. Here we address how ER morphology is generated during the cell cycle using crude and fractionated Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We show that in interphase the ER is concentrated at the microtubule (MT)-organizing center by dynein and is spread by outward extension of ER tubules through their association with plus ends of growing MTs. Fusion of membranes into an ER network is dependent on the guanosine triphosphatase atlastin (ATL). NE assembly requires fusion by both ATL and ER-soluble N-ethyl-maleimide–sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. In mitotic extracts, the ER converts into a network of sheets connected by ER tubules and loses most of its interactions with MTs. Together, these results indicate that fusion of ER membranes by ATL and interaction of ER with growing MT ends and dynein cooperate to generate distinct ER morphologies during the cell cycle. PMID:24297752

  11. Multiple mechanisms determine ER network morphology during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songyu; Romano, Fabian B; Field, Christine M; Mitchison, Tim J; Rapoport, Tom A

    2013-12-01

    In metazoans the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) changes during the cell cycle, with the nuclear envelope (NE) disassembling and reassembling during mitosis and the peripheral ER undergoing extensive remodeling. Here we address how ER morphology is generated during the cell cycle using crude and fractionated Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We show that in interphase the ER is concentrated at the microtubule (MT)-organizing center by dynein and is spread by outward extension of ER tubules through their association with plus ends of growing MTs. Fusion of membranes into an ER network is dependent on the guanosine triphosphatase atlastin (ATL). NE assembly requires fusion by both ATL and ER-soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. In mitotic extracts, the ER converts into a network of sheets connected by ER tubules and loses most of its interactions with MTs. Together, these results indicate that fusion of ER membranes by ATL and interaction of ER with growing MT ends and dynein cooperate to generate distinct ER morphologies during the cell cycle. PMID:24297752

  12. Aggregation and morphology control enables multiple cases of high-efficiency polymer solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhang; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Zhengke; Mu, Cheng; Hu, Huawei; Jiang, Kui; Lin, Haoran; Ade, Harald; Yan, He

    2014-01-01

    Although the field of polymer solar cell has seen much progress in device performance in the past few years, several limitations are holding back its further development. For instance, current high-efficiency (>9.0%) cells are restricted to material combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor. Here we report the achievement of high-performance (efficiencies up to 10.8%, fill factors up to 77%) thick-film polymer solar cells for multiple polymer:fullerene combinations via the formation of a near-ideal polymer:fullerene morphology that contains highly crystalline yet reasonably small polymer domains. This morphology is controlled by the temperature-dependent aggregation behaviour of the donor polymers and is insensitive to the choice of fullerenes. The uncovered aggregation and design rules yield three high-efficiency (>10%) donor polymers and will allow further synthetic advances and matching of both the polymer and fullerene materials, potentially leading to significantly improved performance and increased design flexibility. PMID:25382026

  13. Archival Study of Nuclear Morphology in Interactive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, Kirk

    1997-07-01

    Ground-based surveys of FR-I {Fanaroff-Riley type I} and FR-II host galaxies have shown that a majority of these galaxies are ellipticals that are strongly interacting with a close companion. This clearly suggests that there is a connection between the interactions and the nuclear radio activity. To search for physical evidence of this itinteraction-activity connection, we propose to use archival HST images to analyze the subarcsecond nuclear morphology in a wide variety of elliptical galaxies. This data set includes a sufficient number of most of the relevant objects to facilitate a strong statistical evaluation of the role and effects of interactions on nuclear activity. The following pairs of objects will be compared: FR-I versus FR-II radio galaxies, radio-loud versus radio-quiet ellipticals, and interacting versus non- interacting ellipticals. We are proposing a companion GO program to compensate for the lack of images of strongly interacting FR-I hosts in the HST archive. Our unique contribution to the analysis of these archived images is that, unlike the original investigators on those programs, we plan to investigate the interaction-activity connection - to quantify for the first time the parameters of the interaction and to tie these into the properties of the radio emission {luminosity, core versus total emission, morphology}. We hope to measure and to demonstrate conclusively the effects of strong gravitational interactions on the nuclear regions of the radio host galaxies and consequently to validate the interaction-activity connection.

  14. Developmental and morphological studies in Japanese medaka with ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gladys, Fanny Moses; Matsuda, Masaru; Lim, Yiheng; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Imai, Takuto; Otani, Yukitoshi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Cense, Barry

    2015-01-01

    We propose ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography to study the morphological development of internal organs in medaka fish in the post-embryonic stages at micrometer resolution. Different stages of Japanese medaka were imaged after hatching in vivo with an axial resolution of 2.8 µm in tissue. Various morphological structures and organs identified in the OCT images were then compared with the histology. Due to the medaka’s close resemblance to vertebrates, including humans, these morphological features play an important role in morphogenesis and can be used to study diseases that also occur in humans. PMID:25780725

  15. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling. PMID:25477855

  16. Effects of above-optimum growth temperature and cell morphology on thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes cells suspended in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Rowan, N J; Anderson, J G

    1998-06-01

    The thermotolerances of two different cell forms of Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 4b) grown at 37 and 42.8 degrees C in commercially pasteurized and laboratory-tyndallized whole milk (WM) were investigated. Test strains, after growth at 37 or 42.8 degreesC, were suspended in WM at concentrations of approximately 1.5 x 10(8) to 3.0 x 10(8) cells/ml and were then heated at 56, 60, and 63 degrees C for various exposure times. Survival was determined by enumeration on tryptone-soya-yeast extract agar and Listeria selective agar, and D values (decimal reduction times) and Z values (numbers of degrees Celsius required to cause a 10-fold change in the D value) were calculated. Higher average recovery and higher D values (i.e., seen as a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in thermotolerance) were obtained when cells were grown at 42.8 degrees C prior to heat treatment. A relationship was observed between thermotolerance and cell morphology of L. monocytogenes. Atypical Listeria cell types (consisting predominantly of long cell chains measuring up to 60 micron in length) associated with rough (R) culture variants were shown to be 1.2-fold more thermotolerant than the typical dispersed cell form associated with normal smooth (S) cultures (P cell forms contained a tail section in addition to the shoulder section characteristic of TDT curves of normal single to paired cells (i.e., S form). The factors shown to influence the thermoresistance of suspended Listeria cells (P cell morphology. Regression analysis of nonlinear data can underestimate survival of L. monocytogenes; the end point recovery method was shown to be a better method for determining thermotolerance because it takes both shoulders and tails into consideration. Despite their enhanced heat resistance, atypical R-cell forms of L. monocytogenes were unable to survive the low-temperature, long-time pasteurization process when freely suspended and heated in WM. PMID:9603815

  17. CHANGES IN SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS DURING THE CELL CYCLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEITH PORTER; DAVID PRESCOTT; JEARL FRYE

    1973-01-01

    Synchronized populations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in confluent culture have been examined by scanning electron microscopy and their surface changes noted as the cells progress through the cycle . During G, it is characteristic for cells to show large numbers of microvilli, blebs, and ruffles . Except for the ruffles, these tend to diminish in prominence during S

  18. Genetic transformation and cell morphology of Bacillus subtilis grown in Mg+(+)-limited chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Sevinc, M S; Bainbridge, B W; Bazin, M J

    1990-01-01

    The rate and frequency of genetic transformation of Bacillus subtilis grown in Mg+(+)-limited chemostat culture are dependent on the dilution rate (D) of the system and achieved maximum values at D = 0.23 h-1. Mg+(+)-limitation induced a morphological change in the cells from their normal rod shape to extended helices. Although this change in shape was a transient phenomenon, under some conditions it persisted for several days and resulted in an apparent increase in the transformation frequency. PMID:2110611

  19. Automated Cell-by-Cell Tissue Imaging and Single-Cell Analysis for Targeted Morphologies by Laser Ablation

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    for the mapping of molecular distributions in tissues. In most of the existing studies, imaging is performed. Delivering laser pulses by a sharpened optical fiber in laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass to sequentially position the cells under the optical fiber tip for laser ablation. This approach increases

  20. Morphological damages of a glyphosate-treated human keratinocyte cell line revealed by a micro- to nanoscale microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Elie-Caille, Celine; Heu, Celine; Guyon, Catherine; Nicod, Laurence

    2010-08-01

    Among the molecules to which the human skin is exposed, glyphosate is used as an herbicide. Glyphosate has been shown to induce in vitro cutaneous cytotoxic effects, concomitant with oxidative disorders. In this following study, we focused on dynamic events of the loss of HaCaT cell integrity appearing after a glyphosate treatment. In these conditions, we showed that glyphosate is able to disrupt HaCaT cells and to induce intracellular oxidative cascade. In this aim, we optimized the conditions of cell treatment playing on exposure time (from 24 h to 30 min), which directly modify the cell viability profile (glyphosate 50% inhibition concentration from 28 to 53 mM) and allow to track cells along the treatment as an "induction and visualization" process. The combination of atomic force and fluorescence microscopic approaches offered opportunities to lead in parallel an investigation of the membrane surface and of the intracellular disorders, through cytoskeleton, nuclear, and oxidative stress marker targeting. The originality of our approach relies on monitoring all events derived from oxidative stress in process and performed by simultaneous cytotoxic induction and nanoscale cell visualization. We revealed a transition from spread and globular to elongated cell morphology, with a drastic cell size reduction, after a dose- and time-dependent glyphosate treatment; a redistribution of cell surface protrusions was also pointed out. All these membrane damages, added to observations of disorganized cytoskeleton, condensed chromatin, and overproduction of oxidative reactive species, lead us to conclude that glyphosate acts in induction of apoptotic process. PMID:20043237

  1. Morphological studies of human arteriovenous malformations. Effects of isobutyl 2-cyanoacrylate embolization.

    PubMed

    Klara, P M; George, E D; McDonnell, D E; Pevsner, P H

    1985-09-01

    Ten patients with symptomatic arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) underwent embolization with isobutyl 2-cyanoacrylate (Bucrylate) delivered via a mini-balloon catheter according to the protocol of George and Pevsner. These patients underwent surgical removal of their embolized AVM, and surgical specimens were evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Ten other patients with AVM's underwent surgical resection without prior embolization, and these surgical specimens were evaluated in a similar manner. Results from this study indicate that Bucrylate incites an inflammatory response characterized by foreign-body giant cells. This reaction was present as early as 3 weeks after embolization and persisted in specimens resected almost 1 year after the last embolization. No such reaction was observed in unembolized AVM's. Both light and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a lattice structure of the Bucrylate embolus within the AVM vessels. These studies also demonstrated micro-channels within the Bucrylate embolus and the presence of what appears to be normal red blood cells within the latticework of the embolus. Vascular endothelium not in direct contact with the Bucrylate embolus retains a normal morphology as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:4020470

  2. Micrometer scale spacings between fibronectin nanodots regulate cell morphology and focal adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horzum, Utku; Ozdil, Berrin; Pesen-Okvur, Devrim

    2014-04-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix is an important process for both health and disease states. Surface protein patterns that are topographically flat, and do not introduce other chemical, topographical or rigidity related functionality and, more importantly, that mimic the organization of the in vivo extracellular matrix are desired. Previous work showed that vinculin and cytoskeletal organization are modulated by size and shape of surface nanopatterns. However, quantitative analysis on cell morphology and focal adhesions as a function of micrometer scale spacings of FN nanopatterns was absent. Here, electron beam lithography was used to pattern fibronectin nanodots with micrometer scale spacings on a K-casein background on indium tin oxide coated glass which, unlike silicon, is transparent and thus suitable for many light microscopy techniques. Exposure times were significantly reduced using the line exposure mode with micrometer scale step sizes. Micrometer scale spacings of 2, 4 and 8 ?m between fibronectin nanodots proved to modulate cell adhesion through modification of cell area, focal adhesion number, size and circularity. Overall, cell behavior was shown to shift at the apparent threshold of 4 ?m spacing. The findings presented here offer exciting new opportunities for cell biology research.

  3. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mass, and morphology are altered in cells of the degenerating human annulus.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Helen E; Watts, John A; Riley, Frank E; Fulkerson, Mary-Beth; Norton, H James; Hanley, Edward N

    2013-08-01

    Back pain and intervertebral disc degeneration have a growing socioeconomic healthcare impact. Information on mitochondrial function in human intervertebral disc cells, however, is surprisingly sparse. We assessed mitochondrial bioenergetics, mass, and ultrastructure in annulus cells cultured from human discs of varying degenerative stages. Citrate synthase activity (reflecting mitochondrial mass) declined significantly with increasing Thompson grade (p?cells revealed unusual features which included mitochondrial inclusion bodies, poorly defined cristae and dark staining. Findings reported here are novel and document biochemical, metabolic, and morphologic abnormalities in mitochondria in cells from more degenerated annulus cells. Data suggest that the disc degenerative, not age, is a major factor associated with mitochondrial impairment, and also implicate oxidative stress, driven by mitochondrial dysfunction, as a major component within the degenerating disc. Findings have relevance to advancements in cell-based therapies to treat disc degeneration. PMID:23575904

  4. External mouthpart morphology in the Tenuipalpidae (Tetranychoidea): Raoiella a case study.

    PubMed

    Beard, J J; Ochoa, R; Bauchan, G R; Welbourn, W C; Pooley, C; Dowling, A P G

    2012-08-01

    The use of low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) to study external mouthpart morphology in the Tenuipalpidae, in particular the genus Raoiella, has brought some aspects of the mechanics of feeding in this group into question. In addition, an LTSEM study on the specialized feeding behaviour of Raoiella indica Hirst (Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) revealed host plant use in this species could be affected by stomatal complex morphology. PMID:22415242

  5. Pigment epithelium-derived factor protects the morphological structure of retinal Müller cells in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Feng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate if pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has any protective effect on the retinal Müller cells of Sprague-Dawley rats suffering from diabetes mellitus. METHODS Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a negative control group, a group receiving 0.1 µg/µL PEDF, another group receiving 0.2 µg/µL PEDF, and a group receiving balanced salt solution (BSS). Rats in both the PEDF and BSS groups were treated intravitreally based on previously established diabetic models. After 4wk of treatment, morphological alterations of Müller cells and protein expression of glutamine synthase (GS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were analyzed. RESULTS PEDF at either 0.1 µg/µL or 0.2 µg/µL significantly improved the structures of both nuclei and organelles of Müller cells compared to the BSS-treated group. Expression of GS was significantly higher in the 0.2 µg/µL PEDF group than that in the BSS group (P=0.012), but expression of GFAP was significantly lower in the 0.2 µg/µL PEDF group than that in the BSS group (P=0.000); however, there were no significant differences in expression of these proteins between the 0.1 µg/µL PEDF group and the BSS group (P=0.608, P=0.152). CONCLUSION PEDF protects the morphological ultrastructure of Müller cells, improves the expression of glutamate synthase and prevents cell gliosis. PMID:25540743

  6. The revascularization of pedicle skin flaps in pigs: a functional and morphologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.M.

    1982-10-01

    Functional and morphologic changes occurring during the revascularization of pedicle flaps have been investigated in the skin of pigs. The skin flaps, 16 cm long by 4 cm wide, were based on a row of segmental vessels arising from the internal mammary artery. Comparative measurements were made in flapped and normal skin. The inherent blood supply in the pedicle of the flap was unable to maintain the whole of the flap in a viable state. Flap viability was ascertained at surgery by the use of the intravital dye Disulphine blue. Injections of the dye after surgery gave a less accurate prediction of viability than when dye was injected prior to surgery. Revascularization between the flap and surrounding skin was evident 3 to 4 days postoperatively at the distal, most hypoxic part of the viable flap. The whole flap had a collateral vascular supply 7 to 10 days after surgery. Isotope clearance studies showed that the greatest functional changes occurred in the distal third of the viable flap, where, after initially slowing, the clearance rate became faster than in normal skin (day 5). Potassium extraction studies indicated similar changes. However, an increase in the red-cell volume on day 1 suggested that vascular shunting was occurring. The results of the morphologic studies indicated a correlation between the number of blood vessels per unit area, the thickness of the dermis, and the recorded functional changes. Seven days after surgery, when isotope clearance rates were very rapid, there was a significant increase in the vascular density and dermal thickness.

  7. Experiment K-7-28: Lung Morphology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; Kaplansky, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    There are no previous studies investigating the effect of microgravity exposure during spaceflight on lung tissue. We examined the ultrastructure of the left lungs of 5 Czechoslovakian Wistar rats flown on the 13 day, 19+ hr. Cosmos 2044 mission, and compared them to 5 vivarium and 5 synchronous controls at 1-g conditions, and 5 rats exposed to 14 days of tail-suspension. Within 10 minutes of sacrifice by decapitation, the lungs were removed and immersed in 3% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (total osmolarity of the fixative: 560 mOsm; pH = 7.4). The tissue stored at 5 C was transported to our laboratory where it was processed for light and electron microscopy. No significant perivascular cuffing caused by interstitial edema was present in the tissue samples. Some of the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control rats showed alveolar edema, while vivarium controls did not. The pulmonary capillaries appeared to be more congested in the flight animals than in the other groups. This could be related to the increased hematocrit due to the microgravity exposure. In all 5 flight, 4 tail-suspended, and 3 synchronous rats, red blood cells (RBC) were present in the alveolar spaces. The RBC were either suspended free in the alveoli or observed lining the alveolar wall. The frequency of RBC lining the alveolar walls appeared greater in the dorsal (gravity non-dependent) than in ventral (gravity dependent) regions of the lung in these three animal groups. In 3 of the vivarium controls, a few RBC were found in the alveolar spaces. Intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles were observed in the flight, tail-suspended and synchronous animals, but not in the vivarium controls. The formation of intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles has been previously associated with pulmonary hypertension induced by high altitude exposure and mitral stenosis. In conclusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and alveolar edema of unknown origin occurred to a greater extent in the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control animals, and in the dorsal regions of the lung when compared to the vivarium controls. The etiology of these changes, which are possibly due to an increase in pulmonary vascular pressure, requires further investigation.

  8. T-cell acute lymphoid leukemia resembling Burkitt leukemia cell morphology: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YUE, QINGFANG; LIU, XINYUE; CHEN, LEI; LIU, ZHONGPING; CHEN, WANXIN

    2015-01-01

    Biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) is an uncommon type of cancer, which accounts for <5% of all adult ALs. Based upon a previously described scoring system, the European Group for the Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL) proposed a set of diagnostic criteria for BAL. This scoring system is based upon the number and degree of specificity of several markers for myeloid or T/B-lymphoid blasts. The present study describes a case of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with Burkitt-like cytology, which according to the French-American-British classification, corresponded to a diagnosis of Burkitt type L3 ALL. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the blasts were positive for T-lymphoid markers, cytoplasmic cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD7 and CD56, and myeloid markers, CD13, CD33 and CD15. At first, a diagnosis of BAL was suggested by the EGIL score, however, according to the 2008 World Health Organization criteria, a case of T-ALL with aberrant myeloid markers was established. The study also reviewed the literature and discussed the limitations of the EGIL scoring system in clinical decision making, to aid in the selection of an appropriate therapeutic regimen. PMID:25663889

  9. Influence of PH3 exposure on silicon substrate morphology in the MOVPE growth of III-V on silicon multijunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Tabarés, E.; García, I.; Martín, D.; Rey-Stolle, I.

    2013-11-01

    Dual-junction solar cells formed by a GaAsP or GaInP top cell and a silicon bottom cell seem to be attractive candidates to materialize the long sought-for integration of III-V materials on silicon for photovoltaic applications. One of the first issues to be considered in the development of this structure will be the strategy to create the silicon emitter of the bottom subcell. In this study, we explore the possibility of forming the silicon emitter by phosphorus diffusion (i.e. exposing the wafer to PH3 in a MOVPE reactor) and still obtain good surface morphologies to achieve a successful III-V heteroepitaxy as occurs in conventional III-V on germanium solar cell technology. Consequently, we explore the parameter space (PH3 partial pressure, time and temperature) that is needed to create optimized emitter designs and assess the impact of such treatments on surface morphology using atomic force microscopy. Although a strong degradation of surface morphology caused by prolonged exposure of silicon to PH3 is corroborated, it is also shown that subsequent anneals under H2 can recover silicon surface morphology and minimize its RMS roughness and the presence of pits and spikes.

  10. Black silicon SERS substrate: effect of surface morphology on SERS detection and application of single algal cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu-Luen; Juang, Yi-Je

    2014-03-15

    In this study, we have investigated the effect of the surface morphology of the black silicon substrate on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and explored its application of single algal cell detection. By adjusting the O2 and SF6 flow rates in the cryogenic plasma etching process, different surface morphologies of the black silicon substrate was produced without performing the lithographic process. It was found the Raman signals were better enhanced as the tip density of the black silicon substrate increased. In addition, as the thickness of the deposited gold layer increased, the SERS effect increased as well, which could be owing to the generation of more hot spots by bridging individual silicon tips through deposition of gold layer. For the black silicon substrate with tip density of 30 tips/?m(2) and covered by 400 nm deposited gold layer, the detection limit of 10 fM R6G solution concentration with uniform SERS effect across the substrate was achieved. Furthermore, detection of individual algal cell (Chlorella vulgaris) was performed at the SERS substrate as fabricated and the Raman signals of carotenoid and lipid were substantially enhanced. PMID:24121206

  11. Detailed morphological characterisation of Hendra virus infection of different cell types using super-resolution and conventional imaging.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Paul; Green, Diane; Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; White, John; Williams, Catherine; McMillan, Paul; Tilley, Leann; Lampe, Marko; Hawes, Pippa; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2014-11-27

    BackgroundHendra virus (HeV) is a pleomorphic virus belonging to the Paramyxovirus family. Our long-term aim is to understand the process of assembly of HeV virions. As a first step, we sought to determine the most appropriate cell culture system with which to study this process, and then to use this model to define the morphology of the virus and identify the site of assembly by imaging key virus encoded proteins in infected cells.MethodsA range of primary cells and immortalised cell lines were infected with HeV, fixed at various time points post-infection, labelled for HeV proteins and imaged by confocal, super-resolution and transmission electron microscopy.ResultsSignificant differences were noted in viral protein distribution depending on the infected cell type. At 8 hpi HeV G protein was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and M protein was seen predominantly in the nucleus in all cells tested. At 18 hpi, HeV-infected Vero cells showed M and G proteins throughout the cell and in transmission electron microscope (TEM) sections, in pleomorphic virus-like structures. In HeV infected MDBK, A549 and HeLa cells, HeV M protein was seen predominantly in the nucleus with G protein at the membrane. In HeV-infected primary bovine and porcine aortic endothelial cells and two bat-derived cell lines, HeV M protein was not seen at such high levels in the nucleus at any time point tested (8,12, 18, 24, 48 hpi) but was observed predominantly at the cell surface in a punctate pattern co-localised with G protein. These HeV M and G positive structures were confirmed as round HeV virions by TEM and super-resolution (SR) microscopy. SR imaging demonstrated for the first time sub-virion imaging of paramyxovirus proteins and the respective localisation of HeV G, M and N proteins within virions.ConclusionThese findings provide novel insights into the structure of HeV and show that for HeV imaging studies the choice of tissue culture cells may affect the experimental results. The results also indicate that HeV should be considered a predominantly round virus with a mean diameter of approximately 280 nm by TEM and 310 nm by SR imaging. PMID:25428656

  12. Characterization of Time-Course Morphological Features for Efficient Prediction of Osteogenic Potential in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Agata, Hideki; Kagami, Hideaki; Shiono, Hirofumi; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) represents one of the most frequently applied cell sources for clinical bone regeneration. To achieve the greatest therapeutic effect, it is crucial to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation potential of the stem cells during their culture before the implantation. However, the practical evaluation of stem cell osteogenicity has been limited to invasive biological marker analysis that only enables assaying a single end-point. To innovate around invasive quality assessments in clinical cell therapy, we previously explored and demonstrated the positive predictive value of using time-course images taken during differentiation culture for hBMSC bone differentiation potential. This initial method establishes proof of concept for a morphology-based cell evaluation approach, but reveals a practical limitation when considering the need to handle large amounts of image data. In this report, we aimed to scale-down our proposed method into a more practical, efficient modeling scheme that can be more broadly implemented by physicians on the frontiers of clinical cell therapy. We investigated which morphological features are critical during the osteogenic differentiation period to assure the performance of prediction models with reduced burden on image acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed characterization that describes both the critical observation period and the critical number of time-points needed for morphological features to adequately model osteogenic potential. Our results revealed three important observations: (i) the morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are sufficiently informative to predict bone differentiation potential, both activities of alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition, after 3 weeks of continuous culture; (ii) intervals of 48?h are sufficient for measuring critical morphological features; and (iii) morphological features are most accurately predictive when early morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are combined with later features (after 10 days of differentiation). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1430–1439. PMID:24420699

  13. Characterization of time-course morphological features for efficient prediction of osteogenic potential in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Agata, Hideki; Kagami, Hideaki; Shiono, Hirofumi; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

    2014-07-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) represents one of the most frequently applied cell sources for clinical bone regeneration. To achieve the greatest therapeutic effect, it is crucial to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation potential of the stem cells during their culture before the implantation. However, the practical evaluation of stem cell osteogenicity has been limited to invasive biological marker analysis that only enables assaying a single end-point. To innovate around invasive quality assessments in clinical cell therapy, we previously explored and demonstrated the positive predictive value of using time-course images taken during differentiation culture for hBMSC bone differentiation potential. This initial method establishes proof of concept for a morphology-based cell evaluation approach, but reveals a practical limitation when considering the need to handle large amounts of image data. In this report, we aimed to scale-down our proposed method into a more practical, efficient modeling scheme that can be more broadly implemented by physicians on the frontiers of clinical cell therapy. We investigated which morphological features are critical during the osteogenic differentiation period to assure the performance of prediction models with reduced burden on image acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed characterization that describes both the critical observation period and the critical number of time-points needed for morphological features to adequately model osteogenic potential. Our results revealed three important observations: (i) the morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are sufficiently informative to predict bone differentiation potential, both activities of alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition, after 3 weeks of continuous culture; (ii) intervals of 48 h are sufficient for measuring critical morphological features; and (iii) morphological features are most accurately predictive when early morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are combined with later features (after 10 days of differentiation). PMID:24420699

  14. Investigation of the morphology of an MEH-PPV/PCBM active layer and its application to bulk hetero-junction solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Nguyen Tam Nguyen; Park, Chinho; Jung, Jae Hak

    2012-06-01

    Bulk hetero-junction solar cells based on blends of poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and [6,6]-phenylen C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were studied. The morphological of devices were investigated where varying the nitrogen plasma treatment, the casting solvents, and the thermal treatment. An optimized morphology was found to enhance the device performance to a power conversion efficiency of up to 2.5%, are measured using a Keithley 2425 source unit with an A.M 1.5G solar simulator light source (100 W/cm2).

  15. Morphological and Parametric Estimation of Fetal Neural Stem Cell Migratory Capacity in the Rat Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Flexman; D. J. Cross; Y. Kim; S. Minoshima

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can non- invasively monitor the migratory behavior of magnetically labeled stem cells after transplantation. Signal changes associated with the clearance of the contrast agent due to cell death and leaked tracer in the interstitial space must be better understood in order to accurately interpret imaging results. In this study, fetal neural stem cells were labeled with

  16. Low-boiling-point solvent additives can also enable morphological control in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C. [Ames Laboratory; Carr, John A. [Ames Laboratory; Chen, Yuqing [Ames Laboratory; Bose, Sayantan [Ames Laboratory; Nalwa, Kanwar S. [Ames Laboratory; Petrich, Jacob W. [Ames Laboratory; Chaudhary, Sumit [Ames Laboratory

    2013-11-02

    Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in bulk-heterojunction OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Motion of variable-length MreB filaments at the bacterial cell membrane influences cell morphology

    PubMed Central

    Reimold, Christian; Defeu Soufo, Herve Joel; Dempwolff, Felix; Graumann, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of rod-cell shape in many bacteria depends on actin-like MreB proteins and several membrane proteins that interact with MreB. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that at 50-nm resolution, Bacillus subtilis MreB forms filamentous structures of length up to 3.4 ?m underneath the cell membrane, which run at angles diverging up to 40° relative to the cell circumference. MreB from Escherichia coli forms at least 1.4-?m-long filaments. MreB filaments move along various tracks with a maximal speed of 85 nm/s, and the loss of ATPase activity leads to the formation of extended and static filaments. Suboptimal growth conditions lead to formation of patch-like structures rather than extended filaments. Coexpression of wild-type MreB with MreB mutated in the subunit interface leads to formation of shorter MreB filaments and a strong effect on cell shape, revealing a link between filament length and cell morphology. Thus MreB has an extended-filament architecture with the potential to position membrane proteins over long distances, whose localization in turn may affect the shape of the cell wall. PMID:23783036

  18. Unexpected Morphological Traits of Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells with Exceptional Power Conversion Efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumbleston, John; Collins, Brian; Stuart, Andrew; Li, Zhe; Yan, Hongping; McNeill, Christopher; You, Wei; Ade, Harald

    2012-02-01

    The synthesis of new polymers for polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells has boosted the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these devices to levels now exceeding 5%. Even with these advancements in efficiency, relatively little is known of the morphological characteristics of the active layer including domain size and purity, material crystallization and orientation, and miscibility of the bulk heterojunction components. Herein, we employ a suite of soft and hard x-ray scattering and microscopy techniques to probe defining traits of the morphology for the high-performing polymers, poly[4,8-(3-butylnonyl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-alt-2-(2-butyloctyl)-5,6-difluoro-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole] (BnDT-FTAZ) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene (PTB7) blended with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and PC71BM, respectively. PCEs of 7.4% for BnDT-FTAZ and 5.3% for PTB7 based solar cells are achieved when processing methods result in smaller, more mixed polymer/fullerene phases where non-zero miscibility is measured for each system. Furthermore, the polymers do not strongly crystallize in the active layer and average domain sizes larger than 50 nm are noted for both systems.

  19. Hybrid Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Tetraploid Mice Show Apparently Normal Morphological, Physiological, and Neurological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Frieder; Zevnik, Branko; Brüning, Jens; Röhl, Mathias; Willuweit, Antje; Rode, Anja; Hennek, Thomas; Kauselmann, Gunther; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Kühn, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    ES cell-tetraploid (ES) mice are completely derived from embryonic stem cells and can be obtained at high efficiency upon injection of hybrid ES cells into tetraploid blastocysts. This method allows the immediate generation of targeted mouse mutants from genetically modified ES cell clones, in contrast to the standard protocol, which involves the production of chimeras and several breeding steps. To provide a baseline for the analysis of ES mouse mutants, we performed a phenotypic characterization of wild-type B6129S6F1 ES mice in relation to controls of the same age, sex, and genotype raised from normal matings. The comparison of 90 morphological, physiological, and behavioral parameters revealed elevated body weight and hematocrit as the only major difference of ES mice, which exhibited an otherwise normal phenotype. We further demonstrate that ES mouse mutants can be produced from mutant hybrid ES cells and analyzed within a period of only 4 months. Thus, ES mouse technology is a valid research tool for rapidly elucidating gene function in vivo. PMID:12748299

  20. Morphological changes in the rat Sertoli cell induced by the microtubule poison carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Nakai, M; Hess, R A

    1994-12-01

    Early morphological changes in the rat Sertoli cell induced by the fungicide carbendazim (methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate; MBC), a metabolite of benomyl, were examined. Adult rats were treated with single doses of MBC (400 mg/kg) or vehicle and examined by light and electron microscopy at 3 hr post-treatment. Sloughing of elongating spermatid clusters was observed in all stages of spermatogenesis, except for Stages III-V. Cleavage occurred near the apical region of the seminiferous epithelium where cytoplasmic processes of the Sertoli cell surround the heads of elongating spermatids. The cleaved cytoplasm remained attached to the sloughed spermatids and ectoplasmic specializations remained undamaged. Intact microtubules were observed in the apical Sertoli cell cytoplasm (including sloughed tissues) but were decreased in the body region, where aggregates of mitochondria were found. Cytoplasm near the cleavage site exhibited rarefaction, which was associated with swollen cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum. It appears that the mechanism of germ cell sloughing induced by MBC treatment involves the disruption of microtubules in the body region of the Sertoli cell, the retraction of cytoplasmic organelles and the swelling of endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:7886678

  1. Biochemical and morphological characterization of the nuclear matrix during the synchronous cell cycle of Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Lang, S; Decristoforo, T; Waitz, W; Loidl, P

    1993-08-01

    We have investigated biochemical and ultrastructural aspects of the nuclear matrix during the naturally synchronous cell cycle of Physarum polycephalum. The morphology of the in situ nuclear matrix exhibited significant cell cycle changes as revealed by electron microscopic examination, especially during the progression of nuclei through mitosis and S-phase. In mitosis the interchromatin matrix was found to be retracted to the nuclear periphery; during S-phase this interchromatin matrix gradually resembled, concomitant with the reconstruction of a nucleolar remnant structure. During the G2-period no significant changes in matrix morphology were observed. The pattern of nuclear matrix proteins was invariant during the cell cycle; no cycle phase-specific proteins could be detected. In vivo labelling of plasmodia with [35S]methionine/cysteine showed that only a few proteins are synthesized and assembled into nuclear matrix structures in a cell cycle-dependent way; the majority of proteins were synthesized almost continuously. This was also shown for nuclear lamins homologues. In contrast to bulk nuclear histones, those histones that remain tightly bound to the nuclear matrix were synthesized and assembled into nuclear structures in the very first hour of S-phase; assembly was terminated in mid-S-phase, indicating that nuclear matrix-bound chromatin is replicated early in S-phase. Comparison of the acetylation pattern of matrix-bound histone H4 with bulk nuclear H4 revealed a largely elevated acetate content of matrix H4. The percentage of acetylated subspecies was entirely different from that in bulk nuclear H4, indicating that matrix-associated histones represent a subpopulation of nuclear histones with distinct properties, reflecting specific structural requirements of matrix-attached chromatin. PMID:7693736

  2. ATP-induced morphological changes in supporting cells of the developing cochlea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas X. Tritsch; Ying-Xin Zhang; Graham Ellis-Davies; Dwight E. Bergles

    2010-01-01

    The developing cochlea of mammals contains a large group of columnar-shaped cells, which together form a structure known as\\u000a Kölliker’s organ. Prior to the onset of hearing, these inner supporting cells periodically release adenosine 5?-triphosphate\\u000a (ATP), which activates purinergic receptors in surrounding supporting cells, inner hair cells and the dendrites of primary\\u000a auditory neurons. Recent studies indicate that purinergic signaling

  3. Biological and morphological characterization of in vitro expanded human muscle-derived stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L’. Danišovi?; I. Varga; S. Polák; B. Baj?íková; M. Adamkov; J. Vojtaššak

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells are generally characterised as clonogenic and undifferentiated cells with the capacity of self-renewal and plasticity.\\u000a Over the past few years, the adult stem cells have been derived from various types of tissues including the skeletal muscle.\\u000a The main goal of the present study was the isolation, in vitro expansion and characterisation of muscle-derived stem cells\\u000a (MDSCs). Thereby obtained

  4. Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells using high-content imaging, machine learning, and morphological binning.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anthony P; Cameron, Robert B; Speiser, Jaime L; Wolf, Bethany J; Peterson, Yuri K; Schnellmann, Rick G; Beeson, Craig C; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the processes of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, biogenesis, and mitophagy) has been hampered by the lack of automated, deterministic methods to measure mitochondrial morphology from microscopic images. A method to quantify mitochondrial morphology and function is presented here using a commercially available automated high-content wide-field fluorescent microscopy platform and R programming-language-based semi-automated data analysis to achieve high throughput morphological categorization (puncta, rod, network, and large & round) and quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conjunction with cellular respirometry to measure mitochondrial respiratory capacity, this method detected that increasing concentrations of toxicants known to directly or indirectly affect mitochondria (t-butyl hydroperoxide [TBHP], rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, ouabain, and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP]), decreased mitochondrial networked areas in cultured 661w cells to 0.60-0.80 at concentrations that inhibited respiratory capacity to 0.20-0.70 (fold change compared to vehicle). Concomitantly, mitochondrial swelling was increased from 1.4- to 2.3-fold of vehicle as indicated by changes in large & round areas in response to TBHP, oligomycin, or ouabain. Finally, the automated identification of mitochondrial location enabled accurate quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential by measuring intramitochondrial tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence intensity. Administration of FCCP depolarized and administration of oligomycin hyperpolarized mitochondria, as evidenced by changes in intramitochondrial TMRM fluorescence intensities to 0.33- or 5.25-fold of vehicle control values, respectively. In summary, this high-content imaging method accurately quantified mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in hundreds of thousands of cells on a per-cell basis, with sufficient throughput for pharmacological or toxicological evaluation. PMID:25447550

  5. Effect of axonal micro-tubules on the morphology of retinal nerve fibers studied by second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyungsik; Danias, John

    2012-11-01

    Many studies suggest that the degradation of microtubules in the retinal ganglion cells may be an early event in the progression of glaucoma. Because reflectance and birefringence of the retinal nerve fibers arise primarily from microtubules, the optical properties have been intensively studied for early detection of the disease. We previously reported a novel nonlinear optical signal from axonal microtubules for visualizing the retinal nerve fibers, namely second-harmonic generation (SHG). We demonstrate the use of axonal SHG to investigate the effect of microtubules on the morphology of the retinal nerve fiber bundles. Time-lapse SHG imaging of ex vivo rat retinal flat mounts was performed during pharmacological treatment of nocodazole, and the intensity of axonal SHG and the changes in nerve fiber bundle morphology were monitored. We found that the microtubule disruption does not lead to immediate modification in the morphology of the nerve fibers. Our results indicate that microtubular SHG may provide a useful means for sensitive detection of axonal injuries. Since the intrinsic radiation depends on the regular architecture of the cytoskeleton element as maintained by active cellular regulations, the intensity of signal reflects the health of the retinal ganglion cell axons.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION AND CHROMOSOME DAMAGE BY AMSACRINE IN C3H/10T(1/2) CLONE 8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological transformation, cell survival, chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were measured in C3H/101/2CL8 cells after 24 hour exposure to amsacrine. A weak but dose-related increase in the percentage of dishes containing transformed foci occurred. As previously reported ...

  7. The Cell Polarity Scaffold Lethal Giant Larvae Regulates Synapse Morphology and Function Jon Staples and Kendal Broadie

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    The Cell Polarity Scaffold Lethal Giant Larvae Regulates Synapse Morphology and Function Jon Staples and Kendal Broadie Department of Biological Sciences, Kennedy Center for Research on Human #12;1 SUMMARY Lethal Giant Larvae (LGL) is a cytosolic cell polarity scaffold whose loss dominantly

  8. Crater morphology in sandstone targets: The MEMIN impact parameter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufresne, Anja; Poelchau, Michael H.; Kenkmann, Thomas; Deutsch, Alex; Hoerth, Tobias; Sch?Fer, Frank; Thoma, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Hypervelocity (2.5-7.8 km s-1) impact experiments into sandstone were carried out to investigate the influence of projectile velocity and mass, target pore space saturation, target-projectile density contrast, and target layer orientation on crater size and shape. Crater size increases with increasing projectile velocity and mass as well as with increasing target pore space saturation. Craters in water-saturated porous targets are generally shallower and larger in volume and in diameter than craters from equivalent impacts into dry porous sandstone. Morphometric analyses of the resultant craters, 5-40 cm in diameter, reveal features that are characteristic of all of our experimental craters regardless of impact conditions (I) a large central depression within a fragile, light-colored central part, and (II) an outer spallation zone with areas of incipient spallation. Two different mechanical processes, grain fragmentation and intergranular tensile fracturing, are recorded within these crater morphologies. Zone (I) approximates the shape of the transient crater formed by material compression, displacement, comminution, and excavation flow, whereas (II) is the result of intergranular tensile fracturing and spallation. The transient crater dimensions are reconstructed by fitting quadric parabolas to crater profiles from digital elevation models. The dimensions of this transient and of the final crater show the same trends: both increase in volume with increasing impact energy, and with increasing water saturation of the target pore space. The relative size of the transient crater (in percent of the final crater volume) decreases with increasing projectile mass and velocity, signifying a greater contribution of spallation on the final crater size when projectile mass and velocity are increased.

  9. Neutral density cells in the high latitude thermosphere—1. Solar maximum cell morphology and data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schoendorf; G. Crowley; R. G. Roble; F. A. Marcos

    1996-01-01

    A new high latitude thermospheric neutral density structure has been revealed in NCAR-TIGCM simulations at 120–350 km altitude. The structure consists of density cells above 50° latitude with radii of approximately 1000 km. There are between two to four cells present depending on the altitude and magnetic activity. For example, at 200 km under magnetically active conditions, the density structure

  10. Morphological analysis of tumor cell\\/endothelial cell interactions under shear flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roxana Chotard-Ghodsnia; Oualid Haddad; Anne Leyrat; Agnès Drochon; Claude Verdier; Alain Duperray

    2007-01-01

    In the process of hematogenous cancer metastasis, tumor cells (TCs) must shed into the blood stream, survive in the blood circulation, migrate through the vascular endothelium (extravasation) and proliferate in the target organs. However, the precise mechanisms by which TCs penetrate the endothelial cell (EC) junctions remain one of the least understood aspects of TC extravasation. This question has generally

  11. Effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Zuurmond, T.; Louw, G.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the endocrine, biochemical, and haematological derangements as well as pancreatic and histological changes of the bonemarrow in the primate following external fractionated subtotal marrow irradiation without bonemarrow reconstitution. The irradiation was administered in preparation for pancreatic transplantation. Two groups of animals (ten in each group) received 800 rad (8 Gy) and 1000 rad (10 Gy) respectively over 4 to 5 weeks. A maximum of 200 rads (2 Gy) were administered weekly as photons from a 6 MV linear accelerator. During irradiation the animals remained normoglycaemic in the presence of transiently elevated liver enzymes and serum amylase values, which returned to normal on completion of the irradiation. Insulin release was significantly reduced in both groups during irradiation and was associated with minimally decreased K-values in the presence of mild glucose intolerance. Pancreatic light morphologic changes included structural changes of both exocrine and endocrine elements and included necrosis of the islet cells and acinar tissue. Islet histology demonstrated striking cytocavitary network changes of alpha and beta cells, including degranulation, vacuolization, mitochondrial destruction, and an increase in lysosomes. A hypoplastic bonemarrow ranging from moderate to severe was observed in all irradiated recipients. Near total fractionated body irradiation in the primate is therefore associated with elevated liver enzymes, pancytopenia, transient hyperamylasaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, a varying degree of pancreatitis, and bonemarrow hypoplasia.

  12. Analysis of cell identity, morphology, apoptosis and mitotic activity in a primary neural cell culture system in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila, most neurogenetic research is carried out in vivo. Mammalian research demonstrates that primary cell culture techniques provide a powerful model to address cell autonomous and non-autonomous processes outside their endogenous environment. We developed a cell culture system in Drosophila using wildtype and genetically manipulated primary neural tissue for long-term observations. We assessed the molecular identity of distinct neural cell types by immunolabeling and genetically expressed fluorescent cell markers. We monitored mitotic activity of cell cultures derived from wildtype and tumorous larval brains. Our system provides a powerful approach to unveil developmental processes in the nervous system and to complement studies in vivo. PMID:22554060

  13. Relating the morphology of a poly(p-phenylene vinylene)\\/methanofullerene blend to bulk heterojunction solar cell performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen K. van Duren; Xiaoniu Yang; Joachim Loos; Corrie Bulle-Lieuwma; Alexander Sieval; Jan C. Hummelen; Rene A. Janssen

    2004-01-01

    Few techniques are available where the morphology of blends can be determined in all three dimensions on a nanometer scale. Here we describe the use of a combination of techniques to resolve the morphology both laterally and vertically in spin cast films of a poly(p-phenylene vinylene)\\/methanofullerene blend. These blends are used as photoactive films in plastic bulk heterojunction solar cells

  14. Morphological effects on the small-molecule-based solution-processed organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Chan; Brownell, Lacie V; Yan, Liang; You, Wei

    2014-09-24

    We report a proof-of-concept study on solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs) based on [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and structurally compact donor molecules which have dithiophene-phenazine-dithiophene (TH-P) and dithiophene-quinoxaline-dithiophene (TH-Q) configurations with decyloxy and methyl side groups, respectively. These molecules formed one-dimensional fibers through self-assembly via weak nonbonding interactions such as ?-? and van der Waals interactions even during a fast solvent removal process such as spin-casting. Photophysical and thermal properties of the new donor molecules were characterized with UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical data determined experimentally were correlated well with theoretical evaluations. The fibers from the two donor molecules showed distinct morphological differences, allowing for in-depth investigations into their influence on the OSC performance. A continuous three-dimensional network of endless one-dimensional nanofibers, with a width of 300-400 nm, were formed from TH-P regardless of the presence of PC61BM, affording spontaneous nanoscale phase separation that facilitates a large donor/acceptor interfacial area. Bulk (BHJ) and planar heterojunctions (PHJ) from TH-P/PC61BM showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.38% and 0.30%, respectively, under optimum device conditions. Post thermal annealing led to the increased domain size and a major decrease in Jsc. Meanwhile, shorter, more rigid needles with a large thickness variation were formed from TH-Q. A continuous network of TH-Q was obtained by spin-coating only in the presence of PC61BM, and the PCE of TH-Q/PC61BM BHJ was found to be 0.36%. However, the PHJ showed poor device performance due to TH-Q's inability to form a continuous film by spin-coating. The present study suggests a basic molecular architecture to drive one-dimensional assembly and demonstrates the significance of fibrillation for small-molecule-based OSCs. PMID:25166930

  15. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs. Morphological abnormalities were significantly more prevalent in patients with autism than in the normal control group and 48 morphological features distinguished patients from controls. Our findings show that morphological features are associated with autism. Exploring potential underlying genetic mechanisms of this association might lead to a better understanding of autism. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1018-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20473590

  16. Morphology study of progesterone polymorphs prepared by polymer-induced heteronucleation (PIHn).

    PubMed

    Araya-Sibaja, Andrea M A; Fandaruff, Cinira; Campos, Carlos E M; Soldi, Valdir; Cardoso, Simone G; Cuffini, Silvia L

    2013-01-01

    In this article, morphology of progesterone polymorphs prepared by polymer-induced heteronucleation (PIHn) technique was studied. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose(HPMC), such as dextran T-500 and gelatin G-9382, polyisoprene (PI), and acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer (NBR) were used as substrates. The crystallizations were performed by solvent evaporation at room temperature from 0.5, 10, and 40 mg/ml solutions in chloroform and acetone. Progesterone polymorphs were identified by X-ray diffraction. Differential scanning calorimetry and total attenuated reflectance infrared spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques in the identification. Depending on the polymeric matrix and the concentration used, form 1, form 2, or mixture of both polymorphs were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy pictures evidenced difference in morphology and in homogeneity of the two progesterone polymorphs. These polymorphs prepared by PIHn, did not present a distinctive morphology that allows identifying polymorph by its crystal habit. Hence, polymeric matrix induced the crystallization, affecting polymorphism and morphology. PMID:23034679

  17. Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-10-01

    A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode.A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and equipment details, solar cell fabrication protocol, electrolyte spreading time measurement details, XPS spectra, electronic study, film adhesion test detailed analysis and field emission results. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32082g

  18. The morphology of apoptosis and necrosis of fat cells after photodynamic treatment at a constant temperature in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Orlova, Tatyana G.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy with temperature control is a new approach for treatment of obesity and cellulite. Cell death can occur under the action of various physical, chemical and biological factors. Depending on the inductor, this is apoptosis or necrosis. These two forms of cell death differ on the biochemical and morphological levels. Biochemical changes occur quickly enough and it raises difficulties of their detection. One of the morphological characteristics of apoptosis is a decrease (contraction) of cells, and necrosis - an increase in the size of the cell (swelling). This attribute simply determined visually using a digital microscope. The program was designed using LabVEIW media, which allowed us to develop the software for providing interaction with the measuring and control equipment, data collection, processing and displaying the information and results of calculations and simulations for the individual cells and ensembles of cells, and, in general, to automate process.

  19. Morphology, cell viability, karyotype, expression of surface markers and plasticity of three human primary cell line cultures before and after the cryostorage in LN2 and GN2.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Alberto; Ligero, Gertrudis; López, María B; Navarro, Héctor; Carrillo, Jose A; Pantoll, Siobhan C; Díaz de la Guardia, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Primary cell line cultures from human skin biopsies, adipose tissue and tumor tissue are valuable samples for research and therapy. In this regard, their derivation, culture, storage, transport and thawing are important steps to be studied. Towards this end, we wanted to establish the derivation, and identify the culture characteristics and the loss of viability of three human primary cell line cultures (human adult dermal fibroblasts (hADFs), human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and primary culture of tumor cells from lung adenocarcinoma (PCTCLA)). Compared to fresh hADFs, hMSCs and PCTCLA, thawed cells stored in a cryogenic Dewar tanks with liquid nitrogen (LN2), displayed 98.20% ± 0.99, 95.40% ± 1.41 and 93.31% ± 3.83 of cell viability, respectively. Thawed cells stored in a Dry Vapor Shipper container with gas phase (GN2), for 20 days, in addition displayed 4.61% ± 2.78, 3.70% ± 4.09 and 9.13% ± 3.51 of average loss of cells viability, respectively, showing strong correlation between the loss of viability in hADFs and the number of post-freezing days in the Dry Vapor Shipper. No significant changes in morphological characteristics or in the expression of surface markers (being hADFs, hMSCs and PCTCLA characterized by positive markers CD73+; CD90+; CD105+; and negative markers CD14-; CD20-; CD34-; and CD45-; n=2) were found. Chromosome abnormalities in the karyotype were not found. In addition, under the right conditions hMSCs were differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. In this paper, we have shown the characteristics of three human primary cell line cultures when they are stored in LN2 and GN2. PMID:25445570

  20. Functional and morphological cardiac changes in myeloproliferative disorders (clinical study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurhan Kadikoylu; Alper Onbasili; Tarkan Tekten; Sabri Barutca; Zahit Bolaman

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiac involvement is not well defined in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiac involvement by transthoracic echocardiography in MPD. Materials and methods: The study groups were 36 patients (mean age: 58±15 years, 20 female and 16 male) with MPD and 30 age-matched healthy controls. MPD group included 15 essential thrombocythemia (ET), eight

  1. Comparative Analysis of Clinical, Hormonal and Morphological Studies in Patients with Neuroendocrine ACTH-Producing Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikova, G. S.; Lapshina, A. M.; Voronkova, I. A.; Marova, E. I.; Arapova, S. D.; Goncharov, N. P.; Dedov, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the problem of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) with clinical symptoms of hypercorticism caused by hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by tumour cells. In most cases (85%), the tumours were localized in the pituitary gland (Cushing's disease); 15% of the patients had an extrapituitary tumour that manifest as an ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS). Comparative analysis of clinical, hormonal, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of pituitary and extrapituitary ACTH-secreting NET was performed. It included 46 patients with CD and 38 ones exhibiting ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS). Results of the study suggest differences between CD and EAS in terms of the severity of clinical manifestations and duration of the disease. Hormonal studies showed that EAS unlike CD was associated with high plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, late-evening salivary cortisol and daily urinary free cortisol, the absence of a 60% or greater reduction of cortisol in the HDDST test, and the presence of a low (less than 2) ACTH gradient in response to desmopressin administration with catheterization of cavernous sinuses. The study of morphofunctional characteristics of the removed NET demonstrated the ability of both pituitary and extrapituitary NETs to express ACTH as well as GH, PRL, LH, and FSH. The angiogenic markers (CD31 and VEGF) were detected with equal frequency regardless of the NET localization. The histological structure of all corticotropinomas suggested their benign origin, but extrapituitary NETs were represented by different morphological types with varying malignancy, invasiveness, and metastatic properties. A higher cell proliferation potential (Ki-67) was documented for NET in patients presenting with an ectopic ACTH secretion compared to those having corticotropinomas. PMID:23509456

  2. Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the fundamental role of gravity in the development and function of biological organisms are a central component of the human exploration of space. Microgravity affects numerous physical phenomena relevant to biological research, including the hydrostatic pressure in fluid filled vesicles, sedimentation of organelles, and buoyancy-driven convection of flow and heat. These physical phenomena can in turn directly and indirectly affect cellular morphology, metabolism, locomotion, secretion of extracellular matrix and soluble signals, and assembly into functional tissues. Studies aimed at distinguishing specific effects of gravity on biological systems require the ability to: (i) control and systematically vary gravity, e.g. by utilizing the microgravity environment of space in conjunction with an in-flight centrifuge; and (ii) maintain constant all other factors in the immediate environment, including in particular concentrations and exchange rates of biochemical species and hydrodynamic shear. The latter criteria imply the need for gravity-independent mechanisms to provide for mass transport between the cells and their environment. Available flight hardware has largely determined the experimental design and scientific objectives of spaceflight cell and tissue culture studies carried out to date. Simple culture vessels have yielded important quantitative data, and helped establish in vitro models of cell locomotion, growth and differentiation in various mammalian cell types including embryonic lung cells [6], lymphocytes [2,8], and renal cells [7,31]. Studies done using bacterial cells established the first correlations between gravity-dependent factors such as cell settling velocity and diffusional distance and the respective cell responses [12]. The development of advanced bioreactors for microgravity cell and tissue culture and for tissue engineering has benefited both research areas and provided relevant in vitro model systems for studies of astronaut well-being (loss of muscle and skeletal tissues [15-17]) and gene- and cell-level responses to the mechanical environment [13,14,18]. All five of the spaceflight bioreactor studies described above utilized three-dimensional cell culture systems in which the cells were associated with biodegradable polymer scaffolds [17], collagen gel [16], or microcarrier beads [13-15,18] in order to promote the expression of differentiated cell function. In four of the five spaceflight bioreactor studies [15-18], cells were cultured in perfused vessels (cartridges or rotating bioreactors) within recirculating loops designed to maintain medium composition within target ranges by a combination of gas exchange and fresh medium supply. Future spaceflight studies of cells and tissues are likely to involve a three-dimensional culture system, to promote cellular differentiation, and perfusion with or without rotation, to provide a gravity-independent mechanism for fluid mixing and mass transport. Previous spaceflight studies have guided the ongoing development of NASA flight hardware for the ISS (e.g. the EDU-2 and the CCU). This next generation of hardware will have extended operational capabilities including on-line microscopy, in-line sensors for the monitoring and control of metabolic parameters, modular design for replicate cultures, and, perhaps most importantly of all, compatibility with the ISS centrifuge. The latter will permit in-flight, 1 g control cultures, and thereby allow the experimental variable to be gravity itself rather than the more general "spaceflight environment". Technical limitations of spaceflight studies (e.g. allowable size, mass, and power) continue to motivate a creative approach to system design and to result in "spin-off" technologies (e.g. the STLV) for ground-based cell and tissue culture research. The increasing scientific and medical relevance of this work is evidenced by the growing number of publications in which advanced bioreactors are used for in vitro studies in physiologically relevant cell and tissue models. PMID:12951697

  3. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  4. DNA mismatch repair deficiency in ampullary carcinoma: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 54 cases.

    PubMed

    Agaram, Narasimhan P; Shia, Jinru; Tang, Laura H; Klimstra, David S

    2010-05-01

    The significance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency or microsatellite instability (MSI) in ampullary carcinomas remains to be defined. This study evaluated the MMR status in 54 consecutive ampullary adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemical and morphologic studies. All tumors were moderately (n = 49) or poorly (n = 5) differentiated, with 7 mucinous and 1 signet-ring cell type. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were noted in 36 tumors. Loss of MMR protein by immunohistochemical analysis was identified in 3 (6%), 2 lost MSH6, and 1 lost MLH1/PMS2. One MSH6- case had 3 metachronous colorectal cancers. Five TILs per 10 high-power fields predicted immunohistochemical abnormality in 2 of 3 tumors with a specificity of 80% (41/51); however, none of the 5 tumors that had the highest TIL counts (20-62/10 high-power fields) showed abnormal immunohistochemical results. Thus, MMR deficiency occurs in ampullary carcinoma but appears less frequent than in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Typical MSI-high histologic features of CRC, such as increased TIL counts, seem to have similar yet subtly different implications in ampullary carcinoma. PMID:20395525

  5. Global analysis of fungal morphology exposes mechanisms of host cell escape

    PubMed Central

    O’Meara, Teresa R.; Veri, Amanda O.; Ketela, Troy; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry; Cowen, Leah E.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental transitions between single-cell yeast and multicellular filaments underpin virulence of diverse fungal pathogens. For the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, filamentation is thought to be required for immune cell escape via induction of an inflammatory programmed cell death. Here we perform a genome-scale analysis of C. albicans morphogenesis and identify 102 negative morphogenetic regulators and 872 positive regulators, highlighting key roles for ergosterol biosynthesis and N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate that C. albicans filamentation is not required for escape from host immune cells; instead, macrophage pyroptosis is driven by fungal cell-wall remodelling and exposure of glycosylated proteins in response to the macrophage phagosome. The capacity of killed, previously phagocytized cells to drive macrophage lysis is also observed with the distantly related fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. This study provides a global view of morphogenetic circuitry governing a key virulence trait, and illuminates a new mechanism by which fungi trigger host cell death. PMID:25824284

  6. A morphologic and immunologic surface marker study of 299 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and related leukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Lukes, R. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Parker, J. W.; Lincoln, T. L.; Pattengale, P. K.; Tindle, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    This study relateds the cytologic types of the classification of malignant lymphoma of Lukes and Collins to the results of immunologic surface marker studies as part of a systematic multiparameter study of 299 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The results support the hypothesis that malignant lymphomas are neoplasms of the immune system and involve the B- and T-cell systems and, rarely, histiocytes. The morphologic features of the cytologic types of Lukes and Collins are predictive of the subtypes of lymphoma and considerably more effective than the immunologic surface marker techniques in identifying homogeneous groups. There are considerable methodologic and interpretive problems that are evaluated in detail. The verification of the B- and T-cell subtypes of the Lukes and Collins classification indicates that the time has come to change from the terminology and classification of lymphomas of the past to a modern immunologic approach. PMID:304674

  7. Morphology control in polycarbazole based bulk heterojunction solar cells and its impact on device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ta-Ya; Alem, Salima; Tsang, Sai-Wing; Tse, Shing-Chi; Wakim, Salem; Lu, Jianping; Dennler, Gilles; Waller, David; Gaudiana, Russell; Tao, Ye

    2011-06-01

    Incremental increase in dimethyl sulfoxide (or dimethyl formamide) in ortho-dichlorobenzene solution of poly[N-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) gradually reduces the polymer-solvent interaction, the attraction forces between polymer chains become more dominant, and the polymer chains adopt a tight and contracted conformation with more interchain interactions, resulting in a progressive aggregation in both solutions and films. This was used to fine tune the morphology of PCDTBT/PC71BM based solar cells, leading to improved domain structure and hole mobility in the active layer, and significantly improved photovoltaic performance. The power conversion efficiency increased from 6.0% to 7.1% on devices with an active area of 1.0 cm2.

  8. Teneurin-3 Specifies Morphological and Functional Connectivity of Retinal Ganglion Cells in the Vertebrate Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Antinucci, Paride; Nikolaou, Nikolas; Meyer, Martin P.; Hindges, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Summary A striking feature of the CNS is the precise wiring of its neuronal connections. During vertebrate visual system development, different subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) form specific connections with their corresponding synaptic partners. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we report that the cell-adhesive transmembrane protein Teneurin-3 (Tenm3) is required by zebrafish RGCs for acquisition of their correct morphological and functional connectivity in vivo. Teneurin-3 is expressed by RGCs and their presynaptic amacrine and postsynaptic tectal cell targets. Knockdown of Teneurin-3 leads to RGC dendrite stratification defects within the inner plexiform layer, as well as mistargeting of dendritic processes into outer portions of the retina. Moreover, a subset of RGC axons exhibits tectal laminar arborization errors. Finally, functional analysis of RGCs targeting the tectum reveals a selective deficit in the development of orientation selectivity after Teneurin-3 knockdown. These results suggest that Teneurin-3 plays an instructive role in the functional wiring of the vertebrate visual system. PMID:24183672

  9. Comparative morphological study of the venom glands of the centipede Cryptops iheringi, Otostigmus pradoi and Scolopendra viridicornis.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Marta M; Pedroso, Cátia M; Knysak, Irene; Martins, Rosana; Guizze, Samuel P G; Jared, Carlos; Barbaro, Kátia C

    2009-03-01

    Centipedes are widely distributed over all the continents. As they are well adapted to urban areas they can often cause accidents to humans by injecting venom produced in the glands located inside their maxillipeds. The fine morphology of the centipede venom glands is practically unknown. This present study is the first comparative report on the histology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the venom glands of the centipede species responsible for the majority of accidents to humans in Brazil: Scolopendra viridicornis, Cryptops iheringi and Otostigmus pradoi. In all species the glands are basically composed of columnar secretory cells radially disposed side by side, individually opening through pores in a central chitinous duct. Each secretory cell is covered by striated muscular fibres. The secretion has the form of small PAS positive granules and large hyaline secretory bromophenol blue positive vacuoles, indicating the presence of neutral polysaccharides and protein. The secretion is conducted through the secretory cell necks to the pores, which open into the central chitinous duct. The results indicate a great similarity both in morphology and primary chemical composition of the venom among the studied species, except for the size of the glands, which is proportional to the body dimensions of each species. PMID:19105969

  10. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    PubMed Central

    ?lusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; G?ombik, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogus?awa; Kubera, Marta; Laso?, W?adys?aw; Popio?ek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Mika, Joanna; W?dzony, Krzysztof; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression) as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test), the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive) in 3-month-old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1?, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-?, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4) and beneficial (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)) phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1–2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like) disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-18, TNF-? and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats. Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood.

  11. Nanoscale engineering of thin film morphology for efficient organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Richa

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) have received significant industrial and academic interest in the last decade as a promising source of inexpensive renewable energy. However, further improvements in device performance and improved lifetimes are required for the commercialization of OPVs. This work is primarily focused on developing a novel device architecture to improve device performance and characterizing structure-property-performance relationships for OPVs. The excitonic nature of organic semiconductors necessitates the use of an electron donor-acceptor (D-A) heterojunction for efficient exciton dissociation and the generation of photocurrent. In many organic semiconductors, the optical absorption length is much larger than the exciton diffusion length. This trade-off between absorption and exciton diffusion is often overcome by increasing the area of the dissociating D-A interface using engineered film morphologies. This thesis presents an approach to maximize cell efficiency using a continuously graded D-A heterojunction. The graded heterojunction allows for an increase in the D-A interface area for an enhanced exciton diffusion efficiency, while also preserving the charge collection efficiency, leading to a significant improvement in device performance relative to that of optimized planar and uniformly mixed OPVs. In addition, this work correlates the optimized D-A composition gradient to the underlying film morphology and charge transport properties of uniform D-A mixtures. Subsequently, a new characterization technique to calculate the charge collection efficiency of OPVs is discussed. This technique is used to demonstrate the enhanced charge collection efficiency in graded heterojunctions relative to uniformly mixed heterojunctions. Afterwards, the properties of a new material and its potential as an electron donor material in OPVs are examined. Finally, an overview of the results and the ideas for future work are presented.

  12. Characterizing Newly Repopulated Microglia in the Adult Mouse: Impacts on Animal Behavior, Cell Morphology, and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Monica R. P.; Lee, Rafael J.; West, Brian L.; Green, Kim N.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the original resident microglia without any apparent adverse effects in healthy adult mice. PMID:25849463

  13. An ER-fMRI study of Russian inflectional morphology.

    PubMed

    Slioussar, Natalia; Kireev, Maxim V; Chernigovskaya, Tatiana V; Kataeva, Galina V; Korotkov, Alexander D; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V

    2014-03-01

    The generation of regular and irregular past tense verbs has long been a testing ground for different models of inflection in the mental lexicon. Behavioral studies examined a variety of languages, but neuroimaging studies rely almost exclusively on English and German data. In our fMRI experiment, participants inflected Russian verbs and nouns of different types and corresponding nonce stimuli. Irregular real and nonce verbs activated inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions more than regular verbs did, while no areas were more activated in the opposite comparison. We explain this activation pattern by increasing processing load: a parametric contrast revealed that these regions are also more activated for nonce stimuli compared to real stimuli. A very similar pattern is found for nouns. Unlike most previously obtained results, our findings are more readily compatible with the single-system approach to inflection, which does not postulate a categorical difference between regular and irregular forms. PMID:24576807

  14. Myofibrillar myopathy: clinical, morphological and genetic studies in 63 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duygu Selcen; Kinji Ohno; Andrew G. Engel

    2004-01-01

    Summary The term myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) was proposed in 1996 as a non-committal term for a pathological pat- tern of myofibrillar dissolution associated with accumu- lation of myofibrillar degradation products and ectopic expression of multiple proteins that include desmin, aB- crystallin (aBC), dystrophin and congophilic amyloid material. Subsequent studies revealed dominant muta- tions in desmin and aBC in some MFM

  15. Geometric control of human stem cell morphology and differentiationw Leo Q. Wan,a

    E-print Network

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    . In this study, we controlled the organization of human adipose derived stem cells using micro of cell function. Introduction Morphogenesis, a biological process of forming a tissue or a whole organism just a few examples. The geometry of newly forming tissues and organs and the associated mechanical

  16. Vascular transfer cells in Angiosperm leaves A taxonomic and morphological survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Pate; B. E. S. Gunning

    1969-01-01

    Summary A study of the fine structure of minor veins of mature leaves of 975 species and 242 families of Angiosperms shows that transfer cells are widespread amongst herbaceous Dicotyledons, are much rarer in woody Dicotyledons, and are virtually absent from the Monocotyledons. The evolutionary significance of the distribution of the cells amongst and within orders, families and minor groupings

  17. Egestion of asbestos fibers in Tetrahymena results in early morphological abnormalities. A step in the induction of heterogeneous cell lines?

    PubMed

    Hjelm, K K

    1989-01-01

    In Tetrahymena populations exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers, many cells develop morphological abnormalities within 1-2 hours. The abnormalities are mainly large or small protrusions or indentations, or flattened parts of the cell surface and most often located in the posterior part of the cell. They are formed repeatedly in all cells but are also continuously repaired so that the fraction of cells affected represents an equilibrium between these two processes. Their formation is connected with egestion of the large bundles of fibers formed by phagocytosis. Such effects of egestion of fibers do not seem to have been reported previously. Egestion of a bundle of fibers is much slower than for other types of undigestible residues. In contrast to normal exocytosis occurring invariably at the cytoproct, egestion of asbestos often occurs in the posterior part of the cell outside the cytoproct. To my knowledge this is the first reported case of either very slow or extra-cytoproctal egestion in Tetrahymena. Cells with large abnormalities have a greater tendency to develop into "early heterogeneous" cells than the average abnormal cell. Some of these give rise to hereditarily stable heterogeneous cell lines of Tetrahymena. The morphological abnormalities are probably caused by mechanical action of the crocidolite fibers resulting in local damage of the cytoskeletal elements responsible for normal cell shape. The heterogenous cell lines may arise when cellular structures carrying non-genic cytotactically inherited information are modified. The relevance of these ideas to the induction of cancer by asbestos is briefly discussed. PMID:2553916

  18. Effects of bryostatins 1 and 2 on morphological and functional differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jalava, A M; Heikkilä, J; Akerlind, G; Pettit, G R; Akerman, K E

    1990-06-01

    SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells can be induced to differentiate to mature ganglion cells when treated with the phorbol ester tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). Bryostatins are a new class of protein kinase C activators that are structurally unrelated to phorbol esters. This paper describes the effects of bryostatins 1 and 2 on morphological and functional differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. Both bryostatins induced a rapid translocation of protein kinase C from the cytosol to the membrane fraction. Within 24 h, the bryostatins had caused a nearly complete down-regulation of the enzyme. Bryostatin 1 competed for [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate binding in intact cells with potency equal to that of TPA, in contrast to bryostatin 2, which exhibited a Ki value 1 order of magnitude higher than those of the two other agents. Bryostatins induced morphological changes similar to those induced by TPA. These changes were, however, only transient, occurring during the first 6 h of incubation in the presence of these compounds. By 72 h, the cells had acquired a morphology typical of untreated cells and, although a wide range of bryostatin concentrations were used, morphological changes characteristic of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were not detected at 72 h. Bryostatin 1 at 5 nM and bryostatin 2 at 100 nM inhibited DNA synthesis, as measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine by SH-SY5Y cells, although to a significantly lesser degree than TPA. In spite of the fact that bryostatins failed to induce morphological differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells, these compounds down-regulated c-myc mRNA expression. Bryostatins were significantly weaker in stimulating noradrenaline synthesis, compared with TPA, and high concentrations of these agents blocked the effect of the phorbol ester when they were included together with TPA. When SH-SY5Y cells were incubated in the presence of high concentrations of bryostatins, a decreased sensitivity of cells to muscarinic agonist-induced increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ was observed. The results suggest that down-regulation of protein kinase C activity and c-myc mRNA expression do not necessarily correlate with the morphological differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:2334938

  19. Morphological Study of Chordae Tendinae in Human Cadaveric Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gunnal, S. A.; Wabale, R. N.; Farooqui, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The chordae tendinae (CT) are strong, fibrous connections between the valve leaflets and the papillary muscles. Dysfunction of the papillary muscles and chordae is frequent. Mitral valve replacement with preservation of CT and papillary muscles may preserve postoperative left ventricular function better than conventional mitral valve replacement in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation. Methods: The study was carried out on 116 human cadaveric hearts. The heart was opened through the atrioventricular valve to view the constituents of the complex. Origin, attachments, insertions, distribution, branching pattern and gross structure of CT were observed and studied in detail. Results: In the present study more than 21 terminologies of CT were defined by classifying it into six different types. Classification is done according to the origin, attachments, insertion, distribution, branching pattern and gross structure. Terminologies defined are as follows. Apical pillar chordae, Basal pillar chordae, True chordae, False chordae, Interpillar chordae, Pillar wall chordae, Cusp chordae, Cleft chordae, Commissural chordae, First order chordae, Second order chordae, Free zone chordae, Marginal chordae, Rough zone chordae, Straight chordae, Branched-fan shaped chordae, Spiral chordae, Irregular-web chordae, Tendinous chordae, Muscular chordae, Membranous chordae. Basal pillar chordae are found in 9.48%. Mean number of chordae taking origin from apical half of a single papillary muscle or single head of papillary muscle was 9.09 with the range of 3-18. Mean number of the marginal chordae attached to a single cusp was 22.63 ranging from 11 to 35. Strut chordae showed interesting insertion with broad aponeurosis in 38.79% and large muscular flaps in 13.79%. Chordae muscularis were found in 14% and membranous chordae were found in 6%. Conclusions: This knowledge may prove useful for cardiologists and cardiac surgeons.

  20. The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis): A Reptilian Model for Laboratory Studies of Reproductive Morphology and Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. Lovern; Melissa M. Holmes; Juli Wade

    The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) is an excellent reptil- ian model for studying reproductive behavior and the neural and muscular morphology that supports it. This lizard has been the subject of behavioral and ecological study for more than 100 yr, and a rich literature exists on its natural history. Both courtship and copulatory behaviors reveal sex and sea- sonal differences,

  1. Morphological stability of an interface between two non-Newtonian fluids moving in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Birzina, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the morphological stability of an interface in the case of the displacement of one non-Newtonian fluid by another non-Newtonian fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell has been considered. Both fluids have been described by the two-parameter Ostwald-de Waele power-law model. The nonzero viscosity of the displacing fluid has been taken into account. A generalized Darcy's law for the system under consideration, as well as an equation for the determination of the critical size of morphological stability with respect to harmonic perturbations (linear analysis), has been derived. Morphological phase diagrams have been constructed, and the region of the parameters in which nonequilibrium reentrant morphological transitions are possible has been revealed.

  2. Morphological stability of an interface between two non-Newtonian fluids moving in a Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Martyushev, L M; Birzina, A I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the morphological stability of an interface in the case of the displacement of one non-Newtonian fluid by another non-Newtonian fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell has been considered. Both fluids have been described by the two-parameter Ostwald-de Waele power-law model. The nonzero viscosity of the displacing fluid has been taken into account. A generalized Darcy's law for the system under consideration, as well as an equation for the determination of the critical size of morphological stability with respect to harmonic perturbations (linear analysis), has been derived. Morphological phase diagrams have been constructed, and the region of the parameters in which nonequilibrium reentrant morphological transitions are possible has been revealed. PMID:25679705

  3. Morphological alterations in the tympanic membrane affected by tympanosclerosis: ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Tukaj, Cecylia; Kuczkowski, Jerzy; Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Monika; Gulida, Gra?yna; Tretiakow, Dymitry; Mionskowski, Tomasz; Pawe?czyk, Tadeusz

    2014-04-01

    The ultrastructure of tympanoslerotic tissue, surgically excised from patients, has been studied with particular reference to the morphological changes of the connective tissue components and mineralization. Detailed analysis revealed the combination of degenerative and fibroplastic alterations, especially in the circular fibrous layer of the thickened lamina propria. In the biological material in this study the authors recognized different stages of calcium plaque development with discrete, moderate, and severe degree of mineralization. Extracellular matrix vesicles, with or without calcareous deposits, released by degenerating fibroblasts were prominent. In these biopsies no distinct morphological features of an inflammatory reaction were seen. PMID:24134073

  4. Comparative cytogenetical and morphological studies in ovarian dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaál, Magdolna; László, J.; Bösze, P.

    1974-01-01

    In 14 cases of the Turner syndrome and pure gonadal dysgenesis streak gonads were studied histologically. In cases where the 46,XX line was unimpaired the blood vessels of the gonad showed severe degeneration in at least 30 to 50%. These streak gonads usually contained some of the characteristic ovarian elements as well as the vascular lesions. In gonosomal monosomy, on the other hand, a similar intensive vascular degeneration could not be found and the gonad consisted of indeterminate connective tissue. These observations are strong indications of a close correlation between karyotype and the histology of the streak gonad, which may supply further information on the manner and timing of the development of the streak gonad. Images PMID:4141709

  5. Resampling-based approaches to study variation in morphological modularity.

    PubMed

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Modularity has been suggested to be connected to evolvability because a higher degree of independence among parts allows them to evolve as separate units. Recently, the Escoufier RV coefficient has been proposed as a measure of the degree of integration between modules in multivariate morphometric datasets. However, it has been shown, using randomly simulated datasets, that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size. Also, so far there is no statistical test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations. Here, we (1), using a rarefaction analysis, show that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size also in real geometric morphometric datasets; (2) propose a permutation procedure to test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations; (3) show, through simulations, that such a permutation procedure has an appropriate Type I error; (4) suggest that a rarefaction procedure could be used to obtain sample-size-corrected values of the RV coefficient; and (5) propose a nearest-neighbor procedure that could be used when studying the variation of modularity in geographic space. The approaches outlined here, readily extendable to non-morphometric datasets, allow study of the variation in the degree of integration between a priori defined modules. A Java application--that will allow performance of the proposed test using a software with graphical user interface--has also been developed and is available at the Morphometrics at Stony Brook Web page (http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/). PMID:23874956

  6. Morphologic evidence for spatially clustered spines in apical dendrites of monkey neocortical pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Aniruddha; Gao, Yuan Z; Rodriguez, Alfredo; Dickstein, Dara L; Wearne, Susan L; Luebke, Jennifer I; Hof, Patrick R; Weaver, Christina M

    2012-09-01

    The general organization of neocortical connectivity in rhesus monkey is relatively well understood. However, mounting evidence points to an organizing principle that involves clustered synapses at the level of individual dendrites. Several synaptic plasticity studies have reported cooperative interaction between neighboring synapses on a given dendritic branch, which may potentially induce synapse clusters. Additionally, theoretical models have predicted that such cooperativity is advantageous, in that it greatly enhances a neuron's computational repertoire. However, largely because of the lack of sufficient morphologic data, the existence of clustered synapses in neurons on a global scale has never been established. The majority of excitatory synapses are found within dendritic spines. In this study, we demonstrate that spine clusters do exist on pyramidal neurons by analyzing the three-dimensional locations of ?40,000 spines on 280 apical dendritic branches in layer III of the rhesus monkey prefrontal cortex. By using clustering algorithms and Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the probability that the observed extent of clustering does not occur randomly. This provides a measure that tests for spine clustering on a global scale, whenever high-resolution morphologic data are available. Here we demonstrate that spine clusters occur significantly more frequently than expected by pure chance and that spine clustering is concentrated in apical terminal branches. These findings indicate that spine clustering is driven by systematic biological processes. We also found that mushroom-shaped and stubby spines are predominant in clusters on dendritic segments that display prolific clustering, independently supporting a causal link between spine morphology and synaptic clustering. PMID:22315181

  7. Inhibition of phenolic acid metabolism results in precocious cell death and altered cell morphology in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnone, L; Merida, A; Stacey, N; Plaskitt, K; Parr, A; Chang, CF; Lynn, D; Dow, JM; Roberts, K; Martin, C

    1998-01-01

    Several complex phenotypic changes are induced when the transcription factor AmMYB308 is overexpressed in transgenic tobacco plants. We have previously shown that the primary effect of this transcription factor is to inhibit phenolic acid metabolism. In the plants that we produced, two morphological features were prominent: abnormal leaf palisade development and induction of premature cell death in mature leaves. Evidence from the analysis of these transgenic plants suggests that both changes resulted from the lack of phenolic intermediates. These results emphasize the importance of phenolic secondary metabolites in the normal growth and development of tobacco. We suggest that phenolic acid derivatives are important signaling molecules in the final stages of leaf palisade formation and that phenolic acid derivatives also play a prominent role in tissue senescence. PMID:9811790

  8. Revealing the dependence of cell spreading kinetics on its spreading morphology using microcontact printed fibronectin patterns.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Kuang; Donald, Athene

    2015-01-01

    Since the dawn of in vitro cell cultures, how cells interact and proliferate within a given external environment has always been an important issue in the study of cell biology. It is now well known that mammalian cells typically exhibit a three-phase sigmoid spreading on encountering a substrate. To further this understanding, we examined the influence of cell shape towards the second rapid expansion phase of spreading. Specifically, 3T3 fibroblasts were seeded onto silicon elastomer films made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and micro-contact printed with fibronectin stripes of various dimensions. PDMS is adopted in our study for its biocompatibility, its ease in producing very smooth surfaces, and in the fabrication of micro-contact printing stamps. The substrate patterns are compared with respect to their influence on cell spreading over time. Our studies reveal, during the early rapid expansion phase, 3T3 fibroblasts are found to spread radially following a t?¹·? law; meanwhile, they proliferated in a lengthwise fashion on the striped patterns, following a t?¹ law. We account for the observed differences in kinetics through a simple geometric analysis which predicted similar trends. In particular, a t² law for radial spreading cells, and a t¹ law for lengthwise spreading cells. PMID:25551146

  9. Craniofacial morphologic parameters in a Persian population: an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz

    2014-09-01

    Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments. PMID:25203584

  10. Transgenic study of parallelism in plant morphological evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ho-Sung; Baum, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Developmental constraint is indicated when one finds that similar genetic mechanisms are responsible for independent origins of the same derived phenotype. We studied three independent origins of rosette flowering within the mustard family and attempted to evaluate the extent to which the same mechanisms were involved in each transition from the ancestral phenotype, inflorescence flowering. We used transformation to move a candidate gene, LFY, and its cis-regulatory sequences from rosette-flowering species into an inflorescence-flowering recipient, Arabidopsis thaliana, in place of its endogenous LFY gene. The transgenic phenotypes of experimental and control lines (containing an A. thaliana LFY transgene) and the expression driven by the cis-regulatory sequences show that changes at the LFY locus might have contributed to the evolution of rosette flowering in two of the three lineages. In the third case, changes upstream of LFY are implicated. Our data suggest that changes in a single developmental regulatory program were involved in multiple origins of the same derived trait but that the specific genetic changes were different in each case. PMID:15096600

  11. Neural Crest Cell Contribution to the Developing Circulatory System Implications for Vascular Morphology?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten Bergwerff; Marlies E. Verberne; Marco C. DeRuiter; Robert E. Poelmann; Adriana C. Gittenberger-de Groot

    In this study, the distribution patterns of neural crest (NC) cells (NCCs) in the developing vascular system of the chick were thoroughly studied and examined for a correlation with smooth muscle cell differentiation and vascular morphogenesis. For this purpose, we performed long-term lineage tracing using quail-chick chimera techniques and premigratory NCC infection with a replication-incompetent retrovirus containing the LacZ reporter

  12. Expression of transfected mutant beta-actin genes: alterations of cell morphology and evidence for autoregulation in actin pools.

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, J; Ng, S Y; Aebi, U; Varma, M; Latter, G; Burbeck, S; Kedes, L; Gunning, P

    1987-01-01

    Two different mutant human beta-actin genes have been introduced into normal diploid human (KD) fibroblasts and their immortalized derivative cell line, HuT-12, to assess the impact of an abnormal cytoskeletal protein on cellular phenotypes such as morphology, growth characteristics, and properties relating to the neoplastic phenotype. A mutant beta-actin containing a single mutation (Gly-244----Asp-244) was stable and was incorporated into cytoskeletal stress fibers. Transfected KD cells which expressed the stable mutant beta-actin in excess of normal beta-actin were morphologically altered. In contrast, a second mutant beta-actin gene containing two additional mutations (Gly-36----Glu-36 and Glu-83----Asp-83, as well as Gly-244----Asp-244) did not alter cell morphology when expressed at high levels in transfected cells, but the protein was labile and did not accumulate in stress fibers. In both KD and HuT-12 cells, endogenous beta- and gamma-actin decreased in response to high-level expression of the stable mutant beta-actin, in a manner consistent with autoregulatory feedback of actin concentrations. Since the percent decreases in the endogenous beta- and gamma-actins were equal, the ratio of net beta-actin (mutant plus normal) to gamma-actin was significantly increased in the transfected cells. Antisera capable of distinguishing the mutant from the normal epitope revealed that the mutant beta-actin accumulated in stress fibers but did not participate in the formation of the actin filament-rich perinuclear network. These observations suggest that different intracellular locations differentially incorporate actin into cytoskeletal microfilaments. The dramatic impact on cell morphology and on beta-actin/gamma-actin ratios in the transfected diploid KD cells may be related to the acquisition of some of the characteristics of cells that underwent the neoplastic transformation event that originally led to the appearance of the beta-actin mutations. Images PMID:3614198

  13. Hollow fibers - Their applications to the study of mammalian cell function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Angeline, M.; Harkness, J.; Chu, M.; Grindleland, R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of hollow fiber technology in cell culture and transplantation is examined. The morphologies of encapsulated pituitary cells before and after implantation into the rat are defined. Implantation experiments using hollow fibers to study mammalian cell functions are described. Consideration is given to examining somatotroph, prolactin, prostrate, fibroblast, and retinal cell functions. These experiments demonstrate that hollow fiber technology is applicable for studying mammalian cell functions.

  14. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  15. Morphological control of CuPc and its application in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Sheng; Whang, Wha-Tzong; Suen, Shich-Chang; Shiu, Jau-Ye; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-10-01

    We have prepared organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells possessing an ideal bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure using the self-assembly of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as the donor material and fullerene (C60) as the acceptor. The variable self-assembly behavior of CuPc on a diverse range of substrates (surface energies) allowed us to control the morphology of the interface and the degree of carrier transportation within the active layer. We observed rod-like CuPc structures on indium-tin oxide (ITO), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and Au substrates. Accordingly, the interfaces and continuing transport path between CuPc and fullerene domains could be greatly improved due to the ideal BHJ structure. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms of producing CuPc rod-like films on ITO, PEDOT:PSS and Au. The OPV cell performance was greatly enhanced when a mixture of horizontal and vertical CuPc rods was present on the PEDOT:PSS surfaces, i.e. the power conversion efficiency was 50 times greater than that of the corresponding device featuring a planar CuPc structure.

  16. High-precision characterization of individual E. coli cell morphology by scanning flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Konokhova, Anastasiya I; Gelash, Andrey A; Yurkin, Maxim A; Chernyshev, Andrey V; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate a flow-cytometric method to measure length and diameter of single Escherichia coli cells with sub-diffraction precision. The method is based on the original scanning flow cytometer that measures angle-resolved light-scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual particles. We modeled the shape of E. coli cells as a cylinder capped with hemispheres of the same radius, and simulated light scattering by the models using the discrete dipole approximation. We computed a database of the LSPs of individual bacteria in a wide range of model parameters and used it to solve the inverse light-scattering problem by the nearest-neighbor interpolation. The solution allows us to determine length and diameter of each individual bacterium, including uncertainties of these estimates. The developed method was tested on two strains of E. coli. The resulting precision of bacteria length and diameter measurements varied from 50 nm to 250 nm and from 5 nm to 25 nm, respectively. The measured distributions of samples over length and diameter were in good agreement with measurements performed by optical microscopy and literature data. The described approach can be applied for rapid morphological characterization of any rod-shaped bacteria. PMID:23568828

  17. A Novel System Design for Continuous Processing of Plastic\\/Wood-Fiber Composite Foams with Improved Cell Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghaus M. Rizvi; Remon Pop-Iliev; Chul B. Parky

    2002-01-01

    It is believed that the moisture that is inherently present in nondried wood-fibers adversely affects the cell morphology of plastic\\/wood-fiber composite foams processed in extrusion. Based on this hypothesis, achieving a continuous extrusion-based production of fine-celled plastic\\/wood-fiber composite foams witha desirable quality would be strongly conditioned by the efficiency of the system designed for uninterrupted wood-fiber moisture elimination. This paper

  18. cAMP initiates early phase neuron-like morphology changes and late phase neural differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linxia Zhang; Linsey C. Seitz; Amy M. Abramczyk; Li Liu; Christina Chan

    2011-01-01

    The intracellular second messenger cAMP is frequently used in induction media to induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into\\u000a neural lineage cells. To date, an understanding of the role cAMP exerts on MSCs and whether cAMP can induce MSCs into functional\\u000a neurons is still lacking. We found cAMP initiated neuron-like morphology changes early and neural differentiation much later.\\u000a The early phase

  19. Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyesung; Brown, Patrick R; Bulovi?, Vladimir; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-11

    In this work, organic photovoltaics (OPV) with graphene electrodes are constructed where the effect of graphene morphology, hole transporting layers (HTL), and counter electrodes are presented. Instead of the conventional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) PEDOT:PSS HTL, an alternative transition metal oxide HTL (molybdenum oxide (MoO(3))) is investigated to address the issue of surface immiscibility between graphene and PEDOT:PSS. Graphene films considered here are synthesized via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) using a copper catalyst and experimental issues concerning the transfer of synthesized graphene onto the substrates of OPV are discussed. The morphology of the graphene electrode and HTL wettability on the graphene surface are shown to play important roles in the successful integration of graphene films into the OPV devices. The effect of various cathodes on the device performance is also studied. These factors (i.e., suitable HTL, graphene surface morphology and residues, and the choice of well-matching counter electrodes) will provide better understanding in utilizing graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes in future solar cell applications. PMID:22107487

  20. Hydrogen bonding in bulk heterojunction solar cells: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zeyun; Sun, Kuan; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Ji, Shaomin; Jones, David J.; Wong, Wallace W. H.

    2014-07-01

    Small molecules with dithieno[3,2-b2',3'-d]thiophene as central building block and octyl cyanoacetate and octyl cyanoacetamide as different terminal building blocks have been designed and synthesized. The amide containing small molecule can form intermolecular hydrogen bonding between N-H...O = C of the amide group. The photovoltaic properties and active layer morphologies of the two molecules in bulk heterojunction solar cells are compared to study the influence of hydrogen bonding on the active layer morphology. New methanofullerene compound containing amide group has also been synthesized and compared with conventional fullerene electron acceptors.

  1. Hydrogen bonding in bulk heterojunction solar cells: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zeyun; Sun, Kuan; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Ji, Shaomin; Jones, David J.; Wong, Wallace W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Small molecules with dithieno[3,2-b;2?,3?-d]thiophene as central building block and octyl cyanoacetate and octyl cyanoacetamide as different terminal building blocks have been designed and synthesized. The amide containing small molecule can form intermolecular hydrogen bonding between N-H…O = C of the amide group. The photovoltaic properties and active layer morphologies of the two molecules in bulk heterojunction solar cells are compared to study the influence of hydrogen bonding on the active layer morphology. New methanofullerene compound containing amide group has also been synthesized and compared with conventional fullerene electron acceptors. PMID:25027678

  2. Experimental Artifacts for Morphological Tweaking of Chemical Sensor Materials: Studies on ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ikram Ul; Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    2012-01-01

    Sensing mechanisms of gases on solid structures are predominantly surface-dominated. Benign surface features in terms of small grain size, high aspect ratio, large surface area and open and connected porosity, are required to realize a successful sensor material. Such morphological artifacts are a function of the fabrication and processing techniques employed. In this paper, we describe the fabrication of monoshaped and monosized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles by a homogeneous precipitation method, using urea and/or hexmethyltetraamine as the reductant. The effect of operating conditions and experimental variables, such as the relative concentration of the precursors, temperature, and the aging time on the morphology of the resulting particles was studied systematically. These experimental parameters were optimized in order to achieve particles of uniform morphology and of narrow size distribution. Some of these particles were employed for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. PMID:22969399

  3. Fundamental studies of copper anode passivation during electrorefining. Part 2: Surface morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, X.; Hiskey, J.B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Passivation of commercial copper anodes and pure copper has been previously analyzed by performing electrochemical measurements. Chronopotentiometry results revealed four characteristic regions involving 1--active dissolution, 2--prepassivation, 3--passivation onset, and 4--passivation, for commercial copper anodes, while only active dissolution was observed for pure copper under the conditions employed. In order to establish the relationship between surface morphology and passivation response, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were applied to characterize morphology of the product layers formed on a commercial copper anode surface for the distinctive electrochemical regions. The morphology studies suggested that the formation and stability of copper oxide surface films are critical to the onset and development of passivation. The structure and porosity of the slimes layer present in the outer layer of the anode influence the stability of copper oxide surface films which dominantly control the passivation response.

  4. Morphological and molecular changes of human granulosa cells exposed to 5-azacytidine and addressed toward muscular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Brevini, Tiziana A L; Pennarossa, Georgia; Rahman, Mahbubur M; Paffoni, Alessio; Antonini, Stefania; Ragni, Guido; deEguileor, Magda; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Gandolfi, Fulvio

    2014-10-01

    Converting adult cells from one cell type to another is a particularly interesting idea for regenerative medicine. Terminally differentiated cells can be induced to de-differentiate in vitro to become multipotent progenitors. In mammals these changes do not occur naturally, however exposing differentiated adult cells to synthetic molecules capable of selectively reverting cells from their lineage commitment to a more plastic state makes it possible to re-address their fate. Only scattered information are available on the morphological changes and ultrastructural remodeling taking place when cells convert into a different and specific type. To better clarify these aspects, we derived human granulosa cell (GC) primary cultures and analyzed the morphological changes taking place in response to the exposure to the epigenetic modifier 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR) and to the treatment with VEGF, as a stimulus for inducing differentiation into muscle cells. Ultrastructural modifications and molecular marker expression were analyzed at different intervals during the treatments. Our results indicate that the temporary up regulation of pluripotency markers is accompanied by the loss of GC-specific ultrastructural features, mainly through autophagocitosis, and is associated with a temporary chromatin decondensation. After exposure to VEGF the induction of muscle specific genes was combined with the appearance of multinucleated cells with a considerable quantity of non-spatially organized filaments. The detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in cells undergoing lineage re-addressing allows a better understanding of these process and may prove useful for refining the use of somatic cells in regenerative medicine and tissue replacement therapies. PMID:24858410

  5. Bayesian Analysis of Morphological Changes Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study

    E-print Network

    Peng, Hanchuan

    of these statistics. Finally, some statistical tests may require a predefined significance threshold; in contrast, our morphological changes associated with clinical variables. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this paper is to describe among structural and clinical #12;2 variables in medical-imaging studies. We developed this algorithm

  6. Morphological and genetic studies of waterlogged Prunus species from the Roman vicus Tasgetium

    E-print Network

    Jacomet, Stefanie

    the archaeobotanical group Prunus avium/cerasus of the same sample using chloroplast rbcL and nuclear ITS1 DNA markers damson (Prunus insititia) or sweet cherry (Prunus avium) versus sour cherry (Prunus cerasus). SecondlyMorphological and genetic studies of waterlogged Prunus species from the Roman vicus Tasgetium

  7. Morphological, biochemical and physiological studies on the preservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Morphological, biochemical and physiological studies on the preservation of buffalo (Bubalus of the effects of chloroquine-diphosphate (a membrane stabilizer) on the preservation of buffalo spermatozoa). Introduction. Buffalo plays an important role in the dairy economy of Asia. Although in India itself

  8. Functional and morphological study of cultured pancreatic islets treated with cyclosporine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad A. Ajabnoor; Mostafa M. El-Naggar; Ahmed A. Elayat; Adel Abdulrafee

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug, has been found to induce glucose intolerance through its toxic effect on the endocrine pancreas. It is not exactly known whether CsA has a direct effect on the endocrine pancreas or induces its effect indirectly. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the function and morphology of isolated pancreatic islets when they

  9. Morphological and stoichiometric study of chemical bath deposited CdS films by varying ammonia concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Q. Liu; J. H. Shi; Z. Q. Li; D. W. Zhang; X. D. Li; Z. Sun; L. Y. Zhang; S. M. Huang

    2010-01-01

    The influence of ammonia concentration on stoichiometric, surface morphological, and optical properties of chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films has been studied systemically. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films was carried out via using cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source, thiourea as the sulphur source and ammonia as the complexing agent. Ammonia concentration was changed from

  10. Dentofacial characteristics of growing patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a morphological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Morel; Sébastien Botteron; Stavros Kiliaridis

    SUMMARY Occlusal traits and craniofacial morphology were studied in growing patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Sixteen patients from 6 to 20 years of age were examined and compared with 16 healthy male individuals matched according to age. The dental arches and occlusal traits of both groups were analysed on dental casts and compared with the norms of healthy individuals

  11. Swelling and Morphology of the Skin Layer of Polyamide Composite Membranes: An Atomic Force Microscopy Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VIATCHESLAV F REGER

    The paper introduces a new methodology for studying polyamide composite membranes for reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) in liquid environments. The methodology is based on atomic force microscopy of the active layer, which had been separated from the support and placed on a solid substrate. The approach was employed to determine the thickness, interfacial morphology, and dimensional changes in

  12. Post-Traumatic Caspase-3 Expression in the Adjacent Areas of Growth Plate Injury Site: A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina

    2013-01-01

    The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate that sits between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an injury in the growth plate chondrocytes through the study of histological morphology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1, and levels of the inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-?), in order to acquire more information about post-injury reactions of physeal cell turnover. In our results, morphological analysis showed that in experimental bones, neo-formed bone trabeculae—resulting from bone formation repair—invaded the growth plate and reached the metaphyseal bone tissue (bone bridge), and this could result in some growth arrest. We demonstrated, by ELISA, increased expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-?. Immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 showed that the physeal apoptosis rate of the experimental bones was significantly higher than that of the control ones. In conclusion, we could assume that the inflammation process causes stress to chondrocytes that will die as a biological defense mechanism, and will also increase the survival of new chondrocytes for maintaining cell homeostasis. Nevertheless, the exact stimulus leading to the increased apoptosis rate, observed after injury, needs additional research to understand the possible contribution of chondrocyte apoptosis to growth disturbance. PMID:23899790

  13. Oxidized-LDL induce morphological changes and increase stiffness of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chouinard, Julie A. [Laboratoire de Bioingenierie et de Biophysique de l'Universite de Sherbrooke, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Research Centre on Aging, Sherbrooke Geriatric University Institute, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Grenier, Guillaume [Research Centre on Aging, Sherbrooke Geriatric University Institute, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Department of Surgery, Service of Orthopaedic, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Khalil, Abdelouahed [Research Centre on Aging, Sherbrooke Geriatric University Institute, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Department of Medicine, Service of Geriatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Vermette, Patrick [Laboratoire de Bioingenierie et de Biophysique de l'Universite de Sherbrooke, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Research Centre on Aging, Sherbrooke Geriatric University Institute, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: Patrick.Vermette@USherbrooke.ca

    2008-10-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) play a critical role in endothelial injury contributing to the age-related physio-pathological process of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of native LDL and ox-LDL on the mechanical properties of living human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements. The contribution of filamentous actin (F-actin) and vimentin on cytoskeletal network organization were also examined by fluorescence microscopy. Our results revealed that ox-LDL had an impact on the HUVEC shape by interfering with F-actin and vimentin while native LDL showed no effect. AFM colloidal force measurements on living individual HUVEC were successfully used to measure stiffness of cells exposed to native and ox-LDL. AFM results demonstrated that the cell body became significantly stiffer when cells were exposed for 24 h to ox-LDL while cells exposed for 24 h to native LDL displayed similar rigidity to that of the control cells. Young's moduli of LDL-exposed HUVEC were calculated using two models. This study thus provides quantitative evidence on biomechanical mechanisms related to endothelial cell dysfunction and may give new insight on strategies aiming to protect endothelial function in atherosclerosis.

  14. EFFECT OF 12-0-TETRADECANOYLPHORBOL-13-ACETATE ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND GROWTH OF C3H/10TL/2 MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the morphology and growth properties of C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 cells were examined. The morphology of these cells was changed within 30 min following treatment with 0.1 micrograms of TPA pe...

  15. Photoreceptor degeneration, structural remodeling and glial activation: a morphological study on a genetic mouse model for pericyte deficiency.

    PubMed

    Genové, G; Mollick, T; Johansson, K

    2014-10-24

    Interaction between pericytes and endothelial cells via platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) signaling is critical for the development of the retinal microvasculature. The PDGF-B retention motif controls the spatial distribution range of the growth factor in the vicinity of its producing endothelial cells allowing its recognition by PDGF receptor beta-(PDGFR-?)-carrying pericytes; this promotes recruitment of pericytes to the vascular basement membrane. Impairment of the PDGF-B signaling mechanism causes development of vascular abnormalities, and in the retina this consequently leads to defects in the neurological circuitry. The vascular pathology in the pdgf-b(ret/ret) (PDGF-B retention motif knockout) mouse retina has been previously reported; our study investigates the progressive neuronal defects and changes in the retinal morphology of this pericyte-deficient mouse model. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed retinal injuries to occur as early as postnatal day (P) 10 with substantial damage progressing from P15 and onward. Vascular abnormalities were apparent from P10, however, prominent neuronal defects were mostly observed from P15, beginning with the compromised integrity of the laminated retinal structure characterized by the presence of rosettes and focally distorted regions. Photoreceptor degeneration was observed by loss of both rod and cone cells, including the disassembly and altered structure of their synaptic terminals. Significant shortening of cone outer segments was observed from P10 and later stages; however, decrease in cone density was only observed at P28. Disorganization and dendrite remodeling of rod bipolar cells also added to the diminished neural and synaptic integrity. Moreover, in response to retinal injuries, Müller and microglial cells were observed to be in the reactive phenotype from P15 and onward. Such a sequence of events indicates that the pdgf-b(ret/ret) mouse model displays a short time frame between P10 and P15, during which the retina shifts to a retinopathic phase by the development of prominently altered morphological features. PMID:25224828

  16. Variations of morphology of activated sludge flocs studied at full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Klepacz-Smó?ka, Anna; Andrzejczak, Olga

    2015-05-01

    Digital image analysis has been intensively developed over the last two decades including its application to describe morphology of activated sludge flocs. However, only few studies concerned the variation of flocs morphology with respect to the operational conditions, particularly oxido-reductive conditions, in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In this work, morphology of activated sludge flocs was monitored over one year in two different full-scale WWTPs. The main aim of this study was to find the relationship between the operational parameters and morphology of sludge flocs. Simultaneously, the variations in floc size along activated sludge chamber were studied with respect to the oxido-reductive conditions. It was found that the sludge loading rate was one of the most important operational parameters influencing floc size. It was estimated that its values higher than 0.1?kg?BOD5?kg?TS(-1)?d(-1) contributed to the decrease in floc size. Also, the oxido-reductive conditions influenced the floc size. It was statistically proved that flocs from the anaerobic zone were usually smaller than flocs from the anoxic or aerobic zones. Distribution of floc size in a full-scale WWTP usually could be described by a log-normal model. PMID:25363823

  17. Functional and morphological analysis of the subretinal injection of human retinal progenitor cells under Cyclosporin A treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui; Baranov, Petr; Lai, Kunbei; Zhang, Xinmei; Ge,, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional and morphological changes in subretinal xenografts of human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) in B6 mice treated with Cyclosporin A (CsA; 210 mg/l in drinking water). Methods The hRPCs from human fetal eyes were isolated and expanded for transplantation. These cells, with green fluorescent protein (GFP) at 11 passages, were transplanted into the subretinal space in B6 mice. A combination of invasive and noninvasive approaches was used to analyze the structural and functional consequences of the subretinal injection of the hRPCs. The process of change was monitored using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), histology, and electroretinography (ERG) at 3 days, 1 week, and 3 weeks after transplantation. Cell counts were used to evaluate the survival rate with a confocal microscope. ERGs were performed to evaluate the physiologic changes, and the structural changes were evaluated using SDOCT and histological examination. Results The results of the histological examination showed that the hRPCs gained a better survival rate in the mice treated with CsA. The SDOCT showed that the bleb size of the retinal detachment was significantly decreased, and the retinal reattachment was nearly complete by 3 weeks. The ERG response amplitudes in the CsA group were less decreased after the injection, when compared with the control group, in the dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions. However, the cone-mediated function in both groups was less affected by the transplantation after 3 weeks than the rod-mediated function. Conclusions Although significant functional and structural recovery was observed after the subretinal injection of the hRPCs, the effectiveness of CsA in xenotransplantation may be a novel and potential approach for increasing retinal progenitor cell survival. PMID:25352736

  18. Morphologic improvement of the PBDTTT-C and PC71BM blend film with mixed solvent for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Shang-Hong; Sun, Jen-Yu; Hsu, Chi-Hsing; Lan, Shiang; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2013-12-01

    Tracing the evolution of the bulk heterojunction structure, a dramatic promotion in the efficiency of polymer solar cells has been obtained in recent years. The active layer morphology of low-bandgap polymer solar cells is one of the critical factors for high-efficiency performance. In the past, the relationship between morphology improvement and the device’s characteristics (such as efficiency, fill factor and short-circuit current) in low-bandgap polymer solar cells has been studied intensively with regards to the conventional structure. Here we demonstrate the morphologic improvement of the poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo[1,2-b4,5-b?]dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiopene)-2,6-diyl]/[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PBDTTT-C/PC71BM) blend film for inverted solar cells. By utilizing a mixed solvent of dichlorobenzene/chlorobenzene with (1,8-diiodooctane) additives, the device efficiency can be significantly enhanced, from 0.92% to 4.43%. This enhancement is attributed to active layer morphologic improvement promoting carrier transport. Furthermore, the thickness optimization of the active layer and the electron blocking layer MoO3 further contributes to efficiency. The device performance could be achieved with an efficiency as high as 5.35%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 V, a short-circuit current density of 13.5 mA cm-2, and a fill factor of 57%.

  19. Morphologic improvement of the PBDTTT-C and PC71BM blend film with mixed solvent for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Shang-Hong; Sun, Jen-Yu; Hsu, Chi-Hsing; Lan, Shiang; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2013-12-01

    Tracing the evolution of the bulk heterojunction structure, a dramatic promotion in the efficiency of polymer solar cells has been obtained in recent years. The active layer morphology of low-bandgap polymer solar cells is one of the critical factors for high-efficiency performance. In the past, the relationship between morphology improvement and the device's characteristics (such as efficiency, fill factor and short-circuit current) in low-bandgap polymer solar cells has been studied intensively with regards to the conventional structure. Here we demonstrate the morphologic improvement of the poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiopene)-2,6-diyl]/[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PBDTTT-C/PC71BM) blend film for inverted solar cells. By utilizing a mixed solvent of dichlorobenzene/chlorobenzene with (1,8-diiodooctane) additives, the device efficiency can be significantly enhanced, from 0.92% to 4.43%. This enhancement is attributed to active layer morphologic improvement promoting carrier transport. Furthermore, the thickness optimization of the active layer and the electron blocking layer MoO3 further contributes to efficiency. The device performance could be achieved with an efficiency as high as 5.35%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 V, a short-circuit current density of 13.5 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 57%. PMID:24196567

  20. Morphological and physiological properties of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing wide-field amacrine cells in the ChAT-EGFP mouse line.

    PubMed

    Knop, Gabriel C; Pottek, Mark; Monyer, Hannah; Weiler, Reto; Dedek, Karin

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian retinas comprise a variety of interneurons, among which amacrine cells represent the largest group, with more than 30 different cell types each exhibiting a rather distinctive morphology and carrying out a unique function in retinal processing. However, many amacrine types have not been studied systematically because, in particular, amacrine cells with large dendritic fields, i.e. wide-field amacrine cells, have a low abundance and are therefore difficult to target. Here, we used a transgenic mouse line expressing the coding sequence of enhanced green fluorescent protein under the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-EGFP mouse) and characterized a single wide-field amacrine cell population monostratifying in layer 2/3 of the inner plexiform layer (WA-S2/3 cell). Somata of WA-S2/3 cells are located either in the inner nuclear layer or are displaced to the ganglion cell layer and exhibit a low cell density. Using immunohistochemistry, we show that WA-S2/3 cells are presumably GABAergic but may also release acetylcholine as their somata are weakly positive for ChAT. Two-photon-guided patch-clamp recordings from intact retinas revealed WA-S2/3 cells to be ON-OFF cells with a homogenous receptive field even larger than the dendritic field. The large spatial extent of the receptive field is most likely due to the extensive homologous and heterologous coupling among WA-S2/3 cells and to other amacrine cells, respectively, as indicated by tracer injections. In summary, we have characterized a novel type of GABAergic ON-OFF wide-field amacrine cell which is ideally suited to providing long-range inhibition to ganglion cells due to its strong coupling. PMID:24299612

  1. High-grade urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis: clinicopathologic study of 108 cases with emphasis on unusual morphologic variants.

    PubMed

    Perez-Montiel, Delia; Wakely, Paul E; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Suster, Saul

    2006-04-01

    A clinicopathologic study of 108 cases of high-grade urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis is presented. Of the 108 tumors, 44 (40%) showed unusual morphologic features, including micropapillary areas (four cases), lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (two cases), sarcomatoid carcinoma (eight cases, including pseudoangiosarcomatous type), squamous differentiation and squamous cell carcinoma (15 cases), clear cells (two cases), glandular differentiation (two cases), rhabdoid, signet-ring or plasmacytoid cells (four cases), pseudosarcomatous stromal changes (four cases) and intratubular extension into the renal pelvis (three cases). Pathological staging was available in 62 patients; of these, 46 cases (74%) were in high stage (pT2-pT4) and 16 (26%) were in low stage (pTis, pTa, pT1). Clinical follow-up ranging from 1 to 256 months (median: 50 months) was available in 42 patients; of these, 26 (61%) died of tumor with a median survival of 31 months. The patients who did not die of their tumors showed only minimal or focal infiltration of the renal parenchyma by urothelial carcinoma, whereas those who died of their tumors showed massive infiltration of the kidney by the tumor. High-grade urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis can show a broad spectrum of histologic features similar to those seen in the urinary bladder. Our results support the finding that, unlike urothelial carcinomas of the bladder, the majority of primary urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis are of high histologic grade and present in advanced stages. Our study further highlights the fact that, in the renal pelvis, urothelial carcinomas show a tendency to frequently display unusual morphologic features and metaplastic phenomena. The importance of recognizing these morphologic variants of urothelial carcinoma in the renal pelvis is to avoid confusion with other conditions. The possibility of a high-grade urothelial carcinoma should always be considered in the evaluation of a tumor displaying unusual morphologic features in the renal pelvis, and attention to proper sampling as well as the use of immunohistochemical stains will be of importance to arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:16474378

  2. Effect of Allium cepa L. on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Osteoclast Precursor Cell Viability, Count, and Morphology Using 4?,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole-Staining

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio

    2014-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is known to possess numerous pharmacological properties. Our aim was to examine the in vitro effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells to determine cell viability to other future cell-based assays. Osteoclast precursor cells (RAW 264.7) were stimulated by Pg LPS (1??g/mL) and E. coli LPS (1??g/mL) in the presence or absence of different concentrations of AcE (10–1000??g/mL) for 5 days at 37°C/5% CO2. Resazurin reduction and total protein content assays were used to detect cell viability. AcE did not affect cell viability. Resazurin reduction assay showed that AcE, at up to 1000??g/mL, did not significantly affect cell viability and cellular protein levels. Additionally a caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis and there was no difference in apoptotic activity between tested groups and control group. Fluorescence images stained by DAPI showed no alteration on the morphology and cell counts of LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells with the use of AcE in all tested concentrations when compared to control. These findings suggest that Allium cepa L. extract could be used for in vitro studies on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells. PMID:25221602

  3. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM's) cultured in serum free medium (II): Lymphocyte-macrophage interaction and related morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Halpern, J; Joy, J V; Bielat, K L; Ambrus, J L

    1985-01-01

    Morphological descriptions of the attachments between lymphocytes and macrophages are made in serum free cultures. Dynamic morphological processes related to these attachments are explored in live cells using an inverted microscope and the phase technique. The May Grunwald-Giemsa stain and scanning and transmission electron microscopy are also described for the same population of cells. Immunoglobulins were detected in the cells by the immunoflourescence technique. Following lymphocyte-macrophage attachments, the macrophages shrink and round up and subsequently, their cytoplasm becomes laden with immunoglobulin. The membrance surface of interacting macrophages gradually changes from the ruffled appearance characteristic of a monocyte to a blebbed structure. The blebs seem to be related to an exocytotic process, which is most probably immunoglobulin secretion. PMID:3868683

  4. Label-Free Morphology-Based Prediction of Multiple Differentiation Potentials of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Early Evaluation of Intact Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Okada, Mai; Sawada, Rumi; Kanie, Kei; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Precise quantification of cellular potential of stem cells, such as human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), is important for achieving stable and effective outcomes in clinical stem cell therapy. Here, we report a method for image-based prediction of the multiple differentiation potentials of hBMSCs. This method has four major advantages: (1) the cells used for potential prediction are fully intact, and therefore directly usable for clinical applications; (2) predictions of potentials are generated before differentiation cultures are initiated; (3) prediction of multiple potentials can be provided simultaneously for each sample; and (4) predictions of potentials yield quantitative values that correlate strongly with the experimental data. Our results show that the collapse of hBMSC differentiation potentials, triggered by in vitro expansion, can be quantitatively predicted far in advance by predicting multiple potentials, multi-lineage differentiation potentials (osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic) and population doubling potential using morphological features apparent during the first 4 days of expansion culture. In order to understand how such morphological features can be effective for advance predictions, we measured gene-expression profiles of the same early undifferentiated cells. Both senescence-related genes (p16 and p21) and cytoskeleton-related genes (PTK2, CD146, and CD49) already correlated to the decrease of potentials at this stage. To objectively compare the performance of morphology and gene expression for such early prediction, we tested a range of models using various combinations of features. Such comparison of predictive performances revealed that morphological features performed better overall than gene-expression profiles, balancing the predictive accuracy with the effort required for model construction. This benchmark list of various prediction models not only identifies the best morphological feature conversion method for objective potential prediction, but should also allow clinicians to choose the most practical morphology-based prediction method for their own purposes. PMID:24705458

  5. Capping protein is essential for cell migration in vivo and for filopodial morphology and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sinnar, Shamim A.; Antoku, Susumu; Saffin, Jean-Michel; Cooper, Jon A.; Halpain, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Capping protein (CP) binds to barbed ends of growing actin filaments and inhibits elongation. CP is essential for actin-based motility in cell-free systems and in Dictyostelium. Even though CP is believed to be critical for creating the lamellipodial actin structure necessary for protrusion and migration, CP's role in mammalian cell migration has not been directly tested. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that structures besides lamellipodia, including lamella and filopodia, may have unappreciated roles in cell migration. CP has been postulated to be absent from filopodia, and thus its role in filopodial activity has remained unexplored. We report that silencing CP in both cultured mammalian B16F10 cells and in neurons of developing neocortex impaired cell migration. Moreover, we unexpectedly observed that low levels of CP were detectable in the majority of filopodia. CP depletion decreased filopodial length, altered filopodial shape, and reduced filopodial dynamics. Our results support an expansion of the potential roles that CP plays in cell motility by implicating CP in filopodia as well as in lamellipodia, both of which are important for locomotion in many types of migrating cells. PMID:24829386

  6. Nuclear morphometric and morphological analysis of exfoliated buccal and tongue dorsum cells in type-1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Battal, Fatih; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ermis, Bahri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type 1 that results from immunologically mediated damage to the ?-cells in the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be associated with salivary gland dysfunction and alterations in the oral epithelial cells. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes in buccal and tongue dorsum epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method in type 1 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: We performed light microscopic analysis of the buccal and tongue dorsum smears in thirty type 1 diabetic patients and thirty healthy individuals. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou method for cytological examination and nuclear morphometric analysis. In each case, the mean nuclear area, perimeter, length, breadth, and roundness factor were evaluated in each smear using the image analysis software (Q Win, Leica™). Results: The nuclear area, length, breadth, and perimeters were significantly higher in the diabetic group from tongue dorsum smear than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In the cytological examination, karyorrhexis-karyolysis-karyopyknosis, binucleation, nuclear membrane irregularity, cytoplasmic polymorphism, perinuclear halo were observed in oral smears with type 1 diabetic patients. Binucleation (P = 0.002) and nuclear membrane irregularity (P = 0.024) were significantly more common in buccal smears of diabetic group. Furthermore, the sensitivity of buccal mucosa was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: The light microscopic and nuclear morphometric study indicates that type 1 diabetes can produce morphological and nuclear morphometric changes in the oral mucosa that are noticeable with exfoliative cytology. PMID:25538382

  7. A study of cortical morphology in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    De Guio, François; Mangin, Jean-François; Rivière, Denis; Perrot, Matthieu; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Sandra W; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is responsible for a broad range of brain structural malformations, which can be studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI methods have emerged to characterize brain abnormalities, but the teratogenic effects of alcohol on cortical morphology have received little attention to date. Twenty-four 9-year-old children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (9 with fetal alcohol syndrome, 15 heavy exposed nonsyndromal children) and 16 age-matched controls were studied to assess the effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on cortical morphology. An automated method was applied to 3D T1-weighted images to assess cortical gyrification using global and regional sulcal indices and two region-based morphological measurements, mean sulcal depth and fold opening. Increasing levels of alcohol exposure were related to reduced cortical folding complexity, even among children with normal brain size, indicating a reduction of buried cortical surface. Fold opening was the strongest anatomical correlate of prenatal alcohol intake, indicating a widening of sulci in all regions that were examined. These data identify cortical morphology as a suitable marker for further investigation of brain damage associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:23946151

  8. Morphology, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on titanium, tantalum, and chromium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stiehler, Maik; Lind, Martin; Mygind, Tina; Baatrup, Anette; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Li, Haisheng; Foss, Morten; Besenbacher, Flemming; Kassem, Moustapha; Bünger, Cody

    2008-08-01

    Metallic implants are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dentistry. Durable osseous fixation of an implant requires that osteoprogenitor cells attach and adhere to the implant, proliferate, differentiate into osteoblasts, and produce mineralized matrix. In the present study, we investigated the interactions between human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and smooth surfaces of titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), and chromium (Cr). Mean cellular area was quantified using fluorescence microscopy (4 h). Cellular proliferation was assessed by (3)H-thymidine incorporation and methylene blue cell counting assays (4 days). Osteogenic differentiation response was quantified by cell-specific alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) assay (4 days), expression analysis of bone-related genes (4 days), and mineralization assay (21 days). Undifferentiated and osteogenically stimulated MSCs cultured on the different surfaces showed the same tendencies for proliferation and differentiation. MSCs exposed to Ti surfaces demonstrated enhanced proliferation compared with Ta and Cr surfaces. Cultivation of MSCs on Ta surfaces resulted in significantly increased mean cellular area and cell-specific ALP activity compared with the other surfaces tested. Cells cultured on Cr demonstrated reduced spreading and proliferation. In conclusion, Ta metal, as an alternative for Ti, can be considered as a promising biocompatible material, whereas further studies are needed to fully understand the role of Cr and its alloys in bone implants. PMID:17975813

  9. The influence of electrospun scaffold topography on endothelial cell morphology, alignment, and adhesion in response to fluid flow

    PubMed Central

    Whited, Bryce M.; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2013-01-01

    Bioengineered vascular grafts provide a promising alternative to autografts for replacing diseased or damaged arteries, but necessitate scaffold designs capable of supporting a confluent endothelium that resists endothelial cell (EC) detachment under fluid flow. To this end, we investigated whether tuning electrospun topography (i.e. fiber diameter and orientation) could impact EC morphology, alignment, and structural protein organization with the goal of forming a confluent and well-adhered endothelium under fluid flow. To test this, a composite polymer blend of Poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and type I collagen was electrospun to form scaffolds with controlled fiber diameters ranging from approximately 100 nm to 1200 nm and with varying degrees of fiber alignment. ECs were seeded onto scaffolds, and cell morphology and degree of alignment were quantified using image analysis of fluorescently stained cells. Our results show that ECs form confluent monolayers on electrospun scaffolds, with cell alignment systematically increasing with a larger degree of fiber orientation. Additionally, cells on aligned electrospun scaffolds display thick F-actin bundles parallel to the direction of fiber alignment and strong VE-cadherin expression at cell-cell junctions. Under fluid flow, ECs on highly aligned scaffolds had greater resistance to detachment compared to cells cultured on randomly oriented and semi-aligned scaffolds. These results indicate that scaffolds with aligned topographies may be useful in forming a confluent endothelium with enhanced EC adhesion for vascular tissue engineering applications. PMID:23842728

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging investigation of membrane electrode assembly of fuel cells: morphology and solvent dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen; Wu, Chien-Shun; Chu, Peter Po-Jen; Ding, Shangwu

    2009-07-01

    The structure and solvent (water, methanol, etc.) dynamics of a number of fuel membrane electrode assembly (MEA) samples are studied with nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging with spatial resolution of tens of micrometers. The micrometer-scale inhomogeneity of the samples is observed and confirmed with various weighting methods. In particular, diffusion coefficients at different positions in MEA are clearly differentiated. Furthermore, chemical shift selection imaging enables one to investigate the spatial distribution and dynamics of individual chemical groups. These types of information offer us insights into the working principle of fuel cell and pave the way to in situ studies of operating fuel cells. PMID:19106022

  11. Beach morphology monitoring in the Elwha River Littoral Cell, 2004-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathon A.; George, Douglas A.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Eshleman, Jodi; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Kaminsky, George M.; Schwartz, Andrew K.; Bierne, Matt

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Elwha River Littoral Cell, starting in 2004. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology collaborated in the data collection with the support of the local Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe. Beach monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data by using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). The monitoring program was designed to characterize the littoral system of the Elwha River before the scheduled removal of two large dams in 2012. A primary objective of this work is to quantitatively describe the topography and bathymetry of the Elwha River littoral system so that the effects of dam removal may be quantified. Sediment inputs following dam removal are hypothesized to result in (A) larger amounts of fine sediment grain-sizes entering the littoral system and, (B) a reduction or reversal of coastal erosion.

  12. Normal human epithelial cells regulate the size and morphology of tissue-engineered capillaries.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Marie-Hélène; Fradette, Julie; Fortin, Véronique; Tomasetig, Florence; Roberge, Charles J; Baker, Kathleen; Berthod, François; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie

    2010-05-01

    The survival of thick tissues/organs produced by tissue engineering requires rapid revascularization after grafting. Although capillary-like structures have been reconstituted in some engineered tissues, little is known about the interaction between normal epithelial cells and endothelial cells involved in the in vitro angiogenic process. In the present study, we used the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering to examine this relationship. An endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute was produced by adding endothelial cells to the tissue-engineered dermal substitute produced by the self-assembly approach. The latter consists in culturing fibroblasts in the medium supplemented with serum and ascorbic acid. A network of tissue-engineered capillaries (TECs) formed within the human extracellular matrix produced by dermal fibroblasts. To determine whether epithelial cells modify TECs, the size and form of TECs were studied in the endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute cultured in the presence or absence of epithelial cells. In the presence of normal keratinocytes from skin, cornea or uterine cervix, endothelial cells formed small TECs (cross-sectional area estimated at less than 50 microm(2)) reminiscent of capillaries found in the skin's microcirculation. In contrast, TECs grown in the absence of epithelial cells presented variable sizes (larger than 50 microm(2)), but the addition of keratinocyte-conditioned media or exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor induced their normalization toward a smaller size. Vascular endothelial growth factor neutralization inhibited the effect of keratinocyte-conditioned media. These results provide new direct evidence that normal human epithelial cells play a role in the regulation of the underlying TEC network, and advance our knowledge in tissue engineering for the production of TEC networks in vitro. PMID:19938961

  13. Morphological Studies on the Harderian Gland in the Ostrich (Struthio camelus domesticus) on the Embryonic and Post-natal Period.

    PubMed

    Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Go?dziewska-Har?ajczuk, K; Barszcz, K; Kowalczyk, A

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation was performed on 50 ostriches from 28th day of incubation until the 7th month of life. The morphological (morphometric, histological, histometric and histochemical) studies were conducted. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin, methyl green-pyronin Y, periodic acid-Schiff, alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale's dialyzed iron studies. The Harderian gland becomes macroscopically visible on the 28th day of incubation. It is situated in the ventronasal angle of the orbit near inter-orbital septum, between medial rectus muscle, pyramidal and ventral oblique muscles. The Harderian gland of ostrich is a tubulo-acinar gland. The acini were composed of tall conical cells which formed a small lumen and were surrounded by myoepithelial cells. These cells had a granular basophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm. Each of the lobes has a system of complex branching ducts - tertiary, secondary and primary. In the III of research group (3rd week of life), the presence of few plasma cells was demonstrated, which were located within acini and tertiary and secondary ducts, whereas the biggest concentration of plasma cells was observed in group IV of research tissue (4th month of life). The dark cells were observed first time in main ducts 72 h after hatching of nestlings (group II). The morphometric and histometric studies showed that the most intensive growth of Harderian gland occurred between the third week and the seventh month of birds' life. The histochemical study indicated the presence of neutral and acidic mucins, glycoproteins and carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides. PMID:24995381

  14. Profound morphological and functional changes of rodent Purkinje cells between the first and the second postnatal weeks: a metamorphosis?

    PubMed Central

    Dusart, Isabelle; Flamant, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Between the first and the second postnatal week, the development of rodent Purkinje cells is characterized by several profound transitions. Purkinje cells acquire their typical dendritic “espalier” tree morphology and form distal spines. During the first postnatal week, they are multi-innervated by climbing fibers and numerous collateral branches sprout from their axons, whereas from the second postnatal week, the regression of climbing fiber multi-innervation begins, and Purkinje cells become innervated by parallel fibers and inhibitory molecular layer interneurons. Furthermore, their periods of developmental cell death and ability to regenerate their axon stop and their axons become myelinated. Thus a Purkinje cell during the first postnatal week looks and functions differently from a Purkinje cell during the second postnatal week. These fundamental changes occur in parallel with a peak of circulating thyroid hormone in the mouse. All these features suggest to some extent an interesting analogy with amphibian metamorphosis. PMID:22514522

  15. Implant based differences in adverse local tissue reaction in failed total hip arthroplasties: a morphological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) is characterized by periprosthetic soft tissue inflammation composed of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and vascular changes. Multiple hip implant classes have been reported to result in ALTR, and clinical differences may represent variation in the soft tissue response at the cellular and tissue levels. The purpose of this study was to describe similarities and differences in periprosthetic tissue structure, organization, and cellular composition by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry in ALTR resulting from two common total hip arthroplasty (THA) implant classes. Methods Consecutive patients presenting with ALTR from two major hip implant classes (N?=?54 patients with Dual-Modular Neck implant; N?=?14 patients with Metal-on-Metal implant) were identified from our prospective Osteolysis Tissue Database and Repository. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, BMI, length of implantation, and serum metal ion levels were recorded. Retrieved synovial tissue morphology was graded using light microscopy and cellular composition was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results Length of implantation was shorter in the DMN group versus MoM THA group (21.3 [8.4] months versus 43.6 [13.8] months respectively; p?Morphologic examination revealed a common spectrum of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis in both groups. Macrophages were more commonly present in diffuse sheets (Grade 3) in the MoM relative to DMN group (p?=?0.016). Perivascular lymphocytes with germinal centers (Grade 4) were more common in the DMN group, which trended towards significance (p?=?0.066). Qualitative differences in corrosion product morphology were seen between the two groups. Immunohistochemistry showed features of a CD4 and GATA-3 rich lymphocyte reaction in both implants, with increased ratios of perivascular T-cell relative to B-cell markers in the DMN relative to the MoM group (p?=?0.032). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that both implant classes display common features of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis with a CD4 and GATA-3 rich inflammatory infiltrate. Qualitative differences in corrosion product appearance, macrophage morphology, and lymphocyte distributions were seen between the two implant types. Our data suggests that ALTR represents a histological spectrum with implant-based features. PMID:25242891

  16. High-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas: a clinicopathologic study of a group of tumors with heterogenous morphologic and genetic features.

    PubMed

    Sciallis, Andrew P; Bedroske, Patrick P; Schoolmeester, John K; Sukov, William R; Keeney, Gary L; Hodge, Jennelle C; Bell, Debra A

    2014-09-01

    The existence of a "high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma" category of tumors has been a controversial subject owing to, among other things, the difficulty in establishing consistent diagnostic criteria. Currently, the recommended classification for such tumors is undifferentiated uterine/endometrial sarcoma. Interest in this subject has recently increased markedly with the identification of recurrent molecular genetic abnormalities. At Mayo Clinic, a group of neoplasms has been observed that morphologically resemble, either cytologically or architecturally, classic "low-grade" endometrial stromal sarcoma but feature obvious deviations, specifically, 17 tumors with unequivocally high-grade morphology. These high-grade tumors displayed 3 morphologic themes: (1) tumors with a component that is identical to low-grade ESS that transitions abruptly into an obviously higher-grade component; (2) tumors composed exclusively of high-grade cells with uniform nuclear features but with a permeative pattern of infiltration; (3) tumors similar to the second group but with a different, yet characteristic, cytomorphology featuring enlarged round to ovoid cells (larger than those found in low-grade ESS) with smooth nuclear membranes and distinct chromatin clearing but lacking prominent nucleoli. We collected clinicopathologic data, applied immunohistochemical studies, and also tested tumors by fluorescence in situ hybridization for abnormalities in JAZF1, PHF1, YWHAE, and CCND1. Tumors from these 3 groups were found to be immunohistochemically and genetically distinct from one another. Most notable was the fact that category 3 contained all the cases that tested positive for YWHAE rearrangement, did not show any classic translocations for JAZF1, PHF1, or CCND1, often presented at a high stage, and behaved aggressively. This study demonstrates the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic heterogeneity that exists within "undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas" as currently defined and lends credence to the effort of subclassifying some tumors as truly "high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas." Our study also shows that, in the context of undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas, recognition of cytomorphologic features on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections may be used to select tumors with specific molecular genetic changes-that is, translocations involving YWHAE. Our conclusions will help further efforts towards proper sub-classification of these tumors which will aid in diagnosis and potentially affect clinical management. PMID:25133706

  17. An orphan kinesin in trypanosomes cooperates with a kinetoplastid-specific kinesin to maintain cell morphology by regulating subpellicular microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huiqing; Hu, Liu; Yu, Zhonglian; Chasse, Amanda E.; Chu, Feixia; Li, Ziyin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Microtubules are a vital part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells and are involved in various cellular processes. The cytoskeleton of Trypanosoma brucei is characterized by an array of subpellicular microtubules and is essential for maintenance of cell shape and polarity, but little is known about the regulation of the assembly and organization of the subpellicular microtubule corset. Here, we report that the orphan kinesin TbKIN-D regulates the organization of subpellicular microtubules and is required for maintaining cell morphology. TbKIN-D possesses in vitro ATPase activity, associates with cytoskeletal microtubules and is distributed throughout the cytoskeleton at all cell cycle stages. RNAi of TbKIN-D disrupts the organization of the subpellicular microtubule corset and distorts cell morphology, resulting in round cells with an elongated posterior filled with newly assembled microtubules. Depletion of TbKIN-D also abolishes the segregation of organelles and cytoskeletal structures, suggesting that cellular morphogenesis is essential for proper organelle segregation. Moreover, TbKIN-D deficiency impairs the attachment of the new flagellum without compromising the formation of the flagellum attachment zone. Finally, we identified TbKIN-C, a kinetoplastid-specific kinesin known to regulate subpellicular microtubules and cell morphogenesis in T. brucei, as a partner of TbKIN-D. Further, we demonstrate that interaction between TbKIN-C and TbKIN-D requires the coiled-coil motifs in the C-termini of both proteins. Altogether, our results suggest that TbKIN-D cooperates with TbKIN-C to maintain cell morphology by regulating the organization of the subpellicular microtubule corset. PMID:22623724

  18. One isoform of Arg/Abl2 tyrosine kinase is nuclear and the other seven cytosolic isoforms differently modulate cell morphology, motility and the cytoskeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Cristina; Torsello, Barbara; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A.; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Silvia; Perego, Roberto A., E-mail: roberto.perego@unimib.it

    2013-08-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson related gene (Arg/Abl2) regulates cell migration and morphogenesis by modulating the cytoskeleton. Arg promotes actin-based cell protrusions and spreading, and inhibits cell migration by attenuating stress fiber formation and contractility via activation of the RhoA inhibitor, p190RhoGAP, and by regulating focal adhesion dynamics also via CrkII phosphorylation. Eight full-length Arg isoforms with different N- and C-termini are endogenously expressed in human cells. In this paper, the eight Arg isoforms, subcloned in the pFLAG-CMV2 vector, were transfected in COS-7 cells in order to study their subcellular distribution and role in cell morphology, migration and cytoskeletal modulation. The transfected 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution and phosphorylates CrkII in the nucleus, whilst the other isoforms are detected in the cytoplasm. The 1BLCTL, 1BSCTL, 1ASCTS isoforms were able to significantly decrease stress fibers, induce cell shrinkage and filopodia-like protrusions with a significant increase in p190RhoGAP phosphorylation. In contrast, 1ALCTL, 1ALCTS, 1ASCTL and 1BLCTS isoforms do not significantly decrease stress fibers and induce the formation of retraction tail-like protrusions. The 1BLCTL and 1ALCTL isoforms have different effects on cell migration and focal adhesions. All these data may open new perspectives to study the mechanisms of cell invasiveness. -Highlights: • Each of the eight Arg isoforms was transfected in COS-7 cells. • Only the 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution in transfected cells. • The cytoplasmic isoforms and F-actin colocalize cortically and in cell protrusions. • Arg isoforms differently phosphorylate p190RhoGAP and CrkII. • Arg isoforms differently modulate stress fibers, cell protrusions and motility.

  19. Flow cytometry-based enrichment for cell shape mutants identifies multiple genes that influence Helicobacter pylori morphology

    PubMed Central

    Sycuro, Laura K; Rule, Chelsea S; Petersen, Timothy W; Wyckoff, Timna J; Sessler, Tate; Nagarkar, Dilip B; Khalid, Fakhra; Pincus, Zachary; Biboy, Jacoby; Vollmer, Waldemar; Salama, Nina R

    2013-01-01

    The helical cell shape of Helicobacter pylori is highly conserved and contributes to its ability to swim through and colonize the viscous gastric mucus layer. A multi-faceted peptidoglycan (PG) modification programme involving four recently characterized peptidases and two accessory proteins is essential for maintaining H.?pylori's helicity. To expedite identification of additional shape-determining genes, we employed flow cytometry with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to enrich a transposon library for bacterial cells with altered light scattering profiles that correlate with perturbed cell morphology. After a single round of sorting, 15% of our clones exhibited a stable cell shape defect, reflecting 37-fold enrichment. Sorted clones with straight rod morphology contained insertions in known PG peptidases, as well as an insertion in csd6, which we demonstrated has ld-carboxypeptidase activity and cleaves monomeric tetrapeptides in the PG sacculus, yielding tripeptides. Other mutants had only slight changes in helicity due to insertions in genes encoding MviN/MurJ, a protein possibly involved in initiating PG synthesis, and the hypothetical protein HPG27_782. Our findings demonstrate FACS robustly detects perturbations of bacterial cell shape and identify additional PG peptide modifications associated with helical cell shape in H.?pylori. PMID:24112477

  20. 3D simulation of morphological effect on reflectance of Si3N4 sub-wavelength structures for silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Lee, Ming-Yi; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Lu, Zheng-Liang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the reflectance property of the cylinder, right circular cone, and square pyramid shapes of silicon nitride (Si3N4) subwavelength structure (SWS) with respect to different designing parameters. In terms of three critical factors, the reflectance for physical characteristics of wavelength dependence, the reflected power density for real power reflection applied on solar cell, and the normalized reflectance (reflected power density/incident power density) for real reflectance applied on solar cell, a full three-dimensional finite element simulation is performed and discussed for the aforementioned three morphologies. The result of this study shows that the pyramid shape of SWS possesses the best reflectance property in the optical region from 400 to 1000 nm which is useful for silicon solar cell applications. PMID:22444686

  1. 3D simulation of morphological effect on reflectance of Si3N4 sub-wavelength structures for silicon solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the reflectance property of the cylinder, right circular cone, and square pyramid shapes of silicon nitride (Si3N4) subwavelength structure (SWS) with respect to different designing parameters. In terms of three critical factors, the reflectance for physical characteristics of wavelength dependence, the reflected power density for real power reflection applied on solar cell, and the normalized reflectance (reflected power density/incident power density) for real reflectance applied on solar cell, a full three-dimensional finite element simulation is performed and discussed for the aforementioned three morphologies. The result of this study shows that the pyramid shape of SWS possesses the best reflectance property in the optical region from 400 to 1000 nm which is useful for silicon solar cell applications. PMID:22444686

  2. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward selective differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to neural like cells.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Hoda; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Wu, Chia-Yu; Kaviani, Saeid; Soleimani, Masoud; Abassi, Naghmeh; Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neuron cells has great potential in therapy of damaged nerve tissue. It has been shown that three-dimensional biomaterials have great ability to up regulate the expression of neuronal proteins. In this study, O2 plasma technology was used to enhance hydrophilicity of poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) toward selective differentiation of MSCs into neural cells. Random and aligned PCL nanofibers scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning method and their physicochemical and mechanical properties were carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle, and tensile measurements. Contact angle studies of PCL and plasma treated PCL (p-PCL) nanofibers revealed significant change on the surface properties PCL nanofibers from the view point of hydrophilicity. Physiochemical studies revealed that p-PCL nanofibers were extremely hydrophilic compared with untreated PCL nanofibers which were highly hydrophobic and nonabsorbent to water. Differentiation of MSCs were carried out by inducing growth factors including basic fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor, and brain derived growth factor, NT3, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 media. Differentiated MSCs on nanofibrous scaffold were examined by immunofluorescence assay and was found to express the neuronal proteins; ?-tubulin III and Map2, on day 15 after cell culture. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that p-PCL nanofibrous scaffold could upregulate expression of Map-2 and downregulate expression of Nestin genes in nerve cells differentiated from MSCs. This study indicates that mesenchymal stem cell cultured on nanofibrous scaffold have potential differentiation to neuronal cells on and could apply in nerve tissue repair. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1875-1881, 2015. PMID:25203786

  3. Functional morphology of the accessory neurosecretory cells of the cat hypothalamus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Borisova

    1978-01-01

    Accessory groups of neurosecretory cells were studied by staining serial paraffin sections of the hypothalamus by Gomori's method