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1

Morphological study of endothelial cells during freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microvascular injury is recognized as a major tissue damage mechanism of ablative cryosurgery. Endothelial cells lining the vessel wall are thought to be the initial target of freezing. However, details of this injury mechanism are not yet completely understood. In this study, ECMatrix™ 625 was used to mimic the tumour environment and to allow the endothelial cells cultured in vitro to form the tube-like structure of the vasculature. The influence of water dehydration on the integrity of this structure was investigated. It was found that the initial cell shape change was mainly controlled by water dehydration, dependent on the cooling rate, resulting in the shrinkage of cells in the direction normal to the free surface. As the cooling was prolonged and temperature was lowered, further cell shape change could be induced by the chilling effects on intracellular proteins, and focal adhesions to the basement membrane. Quantitative analysis showed that the freezing induced dehydration greatly enhanced the cell surface stresses, especially in the axial direction. This could be one of the major causes of the final breaking of the cell junction and cell detachment.

Zhang, A.; Xu, L. X.; Sandison, G. A.; Cheng, S.

2006-12-01

2

Morphological study of endothelial cells during freezing.  

PubMed

Microvascular injury is recognized as a major tissue damage mechanism of ablative cryosurgery. Endothelial cells lining the vessel wall are thought to be the initial target of freezing. However, details of this injury mechanism are not yet completely understood. In this study, ECMatrix 625 was used to mimic the tumour environment and to allow the endothelial cells cultured in vitro to form the tube-like structure of the vasculature. The influence of water dehydration on the integrity of this structure was investigated. It was found that the initial cell shape change was mainly controlled by water dehydration, dependent on the cooling rate, resulting in the shrinkage of cells in the direction normal to the free surface. As the cooling was prolonged and temperature was lowered, further cell shape change could be induced by the chilling effects on intracellular proteins, and focal adhesions to the basement membrane. Quantitative analysis showed that the freezing induced dehydration greatly enhanced the cell surface stresses, especially in the axial direction. This could be one of the major causes of the final breaking of the cell junction and cell detachment. PMID:17110769

Zhang, A; Xu, L X; Sandison, G A; Cheng, S

2006-11-02

3

EARLY EFFECTS OF TRIMETHYLTIN ON THE DENTATE GYRUS BASKET CELLS: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Electrophysiological evidence for reduction of recurrent inhibition in the dentate gyrus in animals exposed to trimethyltin (TMT) suggested alterations in the inhibitory neurons (basket cells) by TMT. The present study was designed to investigate the morphology of basket cells af...

4

Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Quantification of 3D morphology and measurement of cellular functions were performed on the mouse melanoma cell lines of B16F10 to investigate the intriguing problem of structure-function relations in the genetically engineered cells with GPR4 overexpression. Results of 3D analysis of cells in suspension and phase contrast imaging of adherent cells yield consistent evidence that stimulation of the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor in these cells may modify significantly their morphology with diminishing ability to produce membrane protrusions and to migrate. Examination of the 3D parameters of mitochondria provide further insights on the measured variation of the maximal capacity of oxygen consumption rate among the genetically modified cells, indicating that the proton-sensing receptor may regulate cancer cell metabolism with increased mitochondrial surface area. Our study demonstrates clearly the significant benefits of quantitative 3D morphological study in illuminating cellular functions and development of novel morphology based cell assay methods. PMID:23064132

Zhang, Ying; Feng, Yuanming; Justus, Calvin R; Jiang, Wenhuan; Li, Zhigang; Lu, Jun Q; Brock, R Scott; McPeek, Matthew K; Weidner, Douglas A; Yang, Li V; Hu, Xin-Hua

2012-11-01

5

Morphological study on pigmented cells in the horse testis.  

PubMed

One of the most attractive characteristics of a horse testis is the change of the weight during development. As the testicular weight changes and the number of Leydig cells decreases, pigments appear in interstitial tissues. In the present study, the characteristics of the pigments found in the interstitial tissues were examined histochemically and ultrastructurally. Specific stainings indicated that the pigmented granules showed almost all of the histological and histochemical characteristics of ceroid or ceroid-like pigment. The cells showed positive reaction for acid phosphatase while the pigmented cells contained a lot of lysosomes ultrastructurally. These results suggest that macrophages might phagocytize Leydig cells, and store their digested materials as ceroid-like pigment. PMID:10563302

Murabayashi, H; Hondo, E; Kitamura, N; Furuoka, H; Taguchi, K; Nambo, Y; Yamada, J

1999-10-01

6

Morphological studies of living cells using gold nanoparticles and dark-field optical section microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphologic changes of living cells under drug interactions were studied by using 80-nm gold nanoparticles and dark-field optical section microscopy. The gold nanoparticles were coated with poly (L-lysine), which attached to the membranes of various cells by way of electrostatic attractive force. A three-dimensional (3-D) morphological image was obtained by measuring the peak scattering intensities of gold nanoparticles at

Chia-Wei Lee; Miin Jang Chen; Ji-Yen Cheng; Pei-Kuen Wei

2009-01-01

7

Morphological studies in malignant tumors of the peripheral nervous system (neurofibrosarcoma, malignant schwannoma, schwann cell sarcoma).  

PubMed

9 cases of malignant tumors of the peripheral nerve sheaths have been observed and their morphology including ultrastructures have been studied. 5 cases could be classified as neurofibrosarcomas, I as a Schwann cell sarcoma. Another cases may be grouped with the melaninproducing Schwann cell sarcomas and 2 cases with the "epitheloid Schwann cell sarcomas". The latter group, their separation or their connection to soft tissue sarcomas and to the "medullo-epitheliomas" of peripheral nerves are discussed. PMID:6939219

Flossdorf, R; Reinhardt, V; Gerhard, L

1981-01-01

8

Study of 3D cell morphology and effect on light scattering distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have acquired and reconstructed the 3D structures of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells to study morphology changes in response to gene variations. The 3D structure can be imported into a parallel FDTD code to model light scattering distribution and determine morphological parameters such as volumes of cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria. We found that the measured parameters agree with the light scatter data obtained with a flow cytometer, showing significant differences between the genetically modified and the unmodified melanoma cells.

Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Ding, Junhua; Yang, Li V.; Leffler, Nancy R.; Lu, Jun Q.; Brock, R. Scott; Hu, Xin-Hua

2009-07-01

9

A comparative morphological study of human germ cells in vitro or in situ within seminiferous tubules.  

PubMed

For many infertile couples, intracytoplasmic germ cell/spermatozoon injection into unfertilized eggs may be their only hope for producing their own biological children. Thus far, success with injection of pre-spermatozoan germ cells such as round spermatids has not been as great as that of spermatozoon injection. This could be due in part to the difficulty of identifying younger (less mature) male germ cells in testicular biopsy dispersions. To improve the identification of various types of live, dispersed, human testicular cells in vitro, a comparative study of the morphological characteristics of human spermatogenic germ cells in vitro or in situ within seminiferous tubules was conducted. Live human testicular tissue was obtained from an organ-donating, brain-dead person with a high density of various germ cells. A cell suspension was obtained by enzymatic digestion, and cells were cultured for 3 days in an excessive volume (100-fold medium:cells; v:v) of HEPES-TC 199 medium at 5 degrees C and observed live with Nomarski optics (interference-contrast microscopy). For comparative purposes, testes from ten men obtained at autopsy were fixed, embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned at 20 microm, and observed unstained by Nomarski optics. This approach allowed comparison of morphological characteristics of individual germ cells seen in vitro or in situ in the human testis. In both live and fixed preparations from control men with varied daily sperm production rates, Sertoli cells have oval to pear-shaped nuclei with indented nuclear envelopes and large nucleoli, which makes their appearance distinctly different from germ cells. The size, shape, and chromatin pattern of nuclei, and the presence of meiotic metaphase figures, acrosomic vesicles/structures, tails, and/or mitochondria in the middle piece of germ cells are characteristically seen in live cells in vitro and in those cells observed in the fixed seminiferous tubules. Hence, this comparative approach allows verification of the identity of individual germ cells seen in vitro and provides a checklist of distinguishing characteristics of live human germ cells, to be used by scientists and technical staff in infertility clinics when selecting specific germ cells from a testicular aspirate or enzymatically digested biopsy. PMID:10491626

Johnson, L; Neaves, W B; Barnard, J J; Keillor, G E; Brown, S W; Yanagimachi, R

1999-10-01

10

Studying subcellular detail in fixed astrocytes: dissociation of morphologically intact glial cells (DIMIGs)  

PubMed Central

Studying the distribution of astrocytic antigens is particularly hard when they are localized in their fine, peripheral astrocyte processes (PAPs), since these processes often have a diameter comparable to vesicles and small organelles. The most appropriate technique is immunoelectron microscopy, which is, however, a time-consuming procedure. Even in high resolution light microscopy, antigen localization is difficult to detect due to the small dimensions of these processes, and overlay from antigen in surrounding non-glial cells. Yet, PAPs frequently display antigens related to motility and glia-synaptic interaction. Here, we describe the dissociation of morphologically intact glial cells (DIMIGs), permitting unambiguous antigen localization using epifluorescence microscopy. Astrocytes are dissociated from juvenile (p13–15) mouse cortex by applying papain treatment and cytospin centrifugation to attach the cells to a slide. The cells and their complete processes including the PAPs is thus projected in 2D. The entire procedure takes 2.5–3 h. We show by morphometry that the diameter of DIMIGs, including the PAPs is similar to that of astrocytes in situ. In contrast to cell culture, results derived from this procedure allow for direct conclusions relating to (1) the presence of an antigen in cortical astrocytes, (2) subcellular antigen distribution, in particular when localized in the PAPs. The detailed resolution is shown in an exemplary study of the organization of the astrocytic cytoskeleton components actin, ezrin, tubulin, and GFAP. The distribution of connexin 43 in relation to a single astrocyte's process tree is also investigated.

Haseleu, Julia; Anlauf, Enrico; Blaess, Sandra; Endl, Elmar; Derouiche, Amin

2013-01-01

11

Growth, morphology and chemosensitivity studies on postconfluent cells cultured in 'V'-bottomed microtiter plates.  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the growth pattern, cellular organisation and chemosensitivity of established human tumour cell lines growing as postconfluent cultures in 'V'-bottomed, 96-well microtiter plates. Cross-sections of the colon (HT29, SW620, SW1116), ovarian (A2780) and head and neck (UM-SCC-22B) carcinoma microcultures allowed in situ evaluation of the cellular organisation in the wells. After 5 days of growth, every cell line had reached confluence, but each of them displayed a specific pattern of cell stacking which ranged from two to ten layers. Postconfluent HT29 cells displayed morphologic features suggestive of some degree of enterocytic differentiation. Growth and cytotoxicity could be studied reliably and reproducibly in this system with the sulforhodamine B protein assay. Against HT29 postconfluent cultures, the EC50's (drug concentrations producing absorbance readings 50% lower than those of non-treated wells) of 5-fluorouracil and of the ether lipid, hexadecylphosphocholine, were 1 mM and 50 microM respectively. The possibility to perform chemosensitivity tests using semiautomated microtiter plate technology supports further evaluation of this system as an alternative antitumour drug testing model. Images Figures 1a-1f

Pizao, P. E.; Lyaruu, D. M.; Peters, G. J.; van Ark-Otte, J.; Winograd, B.; Giaccone, G.; Pinedo, H. M.

1992-01-01

12

Ultrastructural study of highly enriched follicular dendritic cells reveals their morphology and the periodicity of immune complex binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are immune accessory cells found in the follicles of secondary lymphoid organs where they\\u000a promote B cell maturation in germinal centers (GCs) that develop following antigen exposure. Recently, we published a method\\u000a for isolating functional murine FDCs in high purity. We reasoned that disruption of FDC reticula in vivo would alter FDC morphology.\\u000a The present study

Selvakumar Sukumar; Mohey Eldin El Shikh; John G. Tew; Andras K. Szakal

2008-01-01

13

Clinicopathologic study on combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma: with emphasis on the intermediate cell morphology.  

PubMed

Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (combined HCC-CC) is a rare subtype of primary liver cancer. We investigated the histopathologic features of transitional or intermediate areas in 21 combined HCC-CCs and immunophenotypes using different hepatic progenitor cell markers (CK7, CK19, c-kit, NCAM, and EpCAM). Major histologic findings of transitional or intermediate areas of 21 combined HCC-CCs included strands/trabeculae of small, uniform, oval-shaped cells with scant cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei embedded within an abundant stroma, small cells with an antler-like anastomosing pattern, and solid nests of intermediate hepatocyte-like cells surrounded by small cells in periphery, in order of frequency. The intermediate area of one tumor was composed predominantly of spindle cells arranged in short fascicles. Immunophenotype of tumor cells with intermediate morphology suggested a progenitor cell origin for this tumor. Clinical findings of combined HCC-CC showed a closer resemblance with those of HCC than those of CC. In univariate analysis, tumor size, TNM stage, and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels showed a significant association with poor patient survival. Serum alpha-fetoprotein level was an independent prognostic indicator in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, an awareness of the clinicopathologic features, specifically the various morphologic features of intermediate areas in this tumor, is essential for prevention of potential misdiagnosis as another tumor. PMID:21860552

Park, Ho Sung; Bae, Jun Sang; Jang, Kyu Yun; Lee, Ju Hyung; Yu, Hee Chul; Jung, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Baik Hwan; Chung, Myoung Ja; Moon, Woo Sung

2011-07-27

14

Morphological spectrum of cyclin D1-positive mantle cell lymphoma: study of 168 cases.  

PubMed

Immunostaining for cyclin D1 is essential for reliable diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, a small number of cyclin D1-positive lymphomas other than MCL have been encountered. Our goal was to investigate the morphological spectrum of MCL as a disease entity, based on cyclin D1 overexpression. We reviewed 181 biopsy specimens obtained from 168 cases of cyclin D1-positive MCL. Typical findings were the presence of nodular (53.9% of cases) or diffuse (46.1%) histological patterns, containing mantle zone patterns (16.8%), naked germinal centers (33.5%) and perivascular hyaline deposition (83.2%). Unusual findings of residual germinal centers with a mantle cuff (four cases) and follicular colonization (two cases) were seen. High magnification showed a monotonous proliferation of tumor cells with cytological diversity including small (3.0%), intermediate (43.1%), medium (34.1%), medium-large (13.2%) and large (6.6%) cells. Pleomorphic and blastic/blastoid variants were encountered in 9.6 and 7.2% of cases, respectively. Three cases had foci of cells of considerable size, with a moderately abundant pale cytoplasm resembling marginal zone B cells. Two cases showed an admixture of cells which appeared transformed and mimicked the histology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic leukemia. In one, neoplastic mantle zones were surrounded by sheets of mature plasma cells, resembling the plasma cell type of Castleman's disease. An admixture of areas characteristic of MCL and of other larger cells, indicating histological progression or a composite lymphoma, were observed in seven cases. In high-grade lesions of five cases, nuclear staining of cyclin D1 was rarely detected. In our experience, cyclin D1 expression was also found in nine lymphomas other than MCL (five plasma cell myelomas, three Hodgkin's disease and one anaplastic large cell lymphoma). The application of cyclin D1 staining prompted us to recognize the broad morphological spectrum of MCL. MCL can be diagnosed with the application of cyclin D1 immunostaining, if careful attention is given to architectural and cytological features. PMID:11881727

Yatabe, Y; Suzuki, R; Matsuno, Y; Tobinai, K; Ichinohazama, R; Tamaru, J; Mizoguchi, Y; Hashimoto, Y; Yamaguchi, M; Kojima, M; Uike, N; Okamoto, M; Isoda, K; Ichimura, K; Morishima, Y; Seto, M; Suchi, T; Nakamura, S

2001-10-01

15

Studies of mitochondrial morphology and DNA amount in the rice egg cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plant vegetative cells, mitochondria are usually small and grain-shaped. In contrast, unusually shaped giant mitochondria\\u000a (large cup-shaped or long stretched-rod-shaped) appear in the egg cells of geranium, maize, Ipomoea nil, and bracken. In this study, to characterize egg cell mitochondria in rice, we used nonenzymatic manual dissection to isolate\\u000a unfertilized egg cells of rice and observed the egg cell

Hideki Takanashi; Takayuki Ohnishi; Mirai Mogi; Takashi Okamoto; Shin-ichi Arimura; Nobuhiro Tsutsumi

2010-01-01

16

Studies of the neuronal transdifferentiation process in cultured human pheochromocytoma cells: effects of steroids with differing functional groups on catecholamine content and cell morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuronal differentiation of adrenal pheochromocytoma cells from human subjects was studied in vitro for periods of up to 65 days. Changes with time in culture were observed in both intracellular catecholamine content (progressive decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, except for a possible transient early increase in the latter) and in morphology (increases in neurite outgrowth) of cells cultured

JohnW Brown; LawrenceM Fishman; Andres Carballeira

1998-01-01

17

Studies of human bone marrow treated with soybean lectin and sheep erythrocytes: stepwise analysis of cell morphology, phenotype and function.  

PubMed Central

Morphological, phenotypic and functional analyses were made of cells obtained at each step after successive treatments of 23 separate human bone marrow suspensions with soybean lectin and sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The average total number of nucleated cells harvested was 1.9 X 10(10) and the final cell suspensions contained a mean of 1.9 X 10(9) nucleated cells or 9.2 +/- 4.8% of the initial counts. Monoclonal antibody analyses revealed that both T and B lymphocytes were present in every cell fraction in percentages similar to those found initially until after the first SRBC rosette-depletion. Moreover, both soy lectin agglutinated and non-agglutinated cells exhibited vigorous proliferative responses to phytohaemagglutinin and allogeneic cells. Following the SRBC depletions, no cells having T lymphocyte phenotypes or functions could be detected, whereas 5% of the cells reacted with a monoclonal antibody to B lymphocytes. The final fraction was composed predominantly of immature myeloid cells and blasts and was depleted of erythroid elements, lymphocytes and essentially all mature cells. It contained cells reactive with monoclonal antibodies recognizing undifferentiated T cell precursors (3A1), the transferrin receptor (5E9), and a human progenitor cell antigen (My-10). The final fraction was also enriched 10-100-fold for CFU-C and 5-10-fold for CFU-GEMN colonies. These studies fail to demonstrate selective removal of T lymphocytes from human bone marrow cells by soybean lectin agglutination.

Schiff, S E; Kurtzberg, J; Buckley, R H

1987-01-01

18

The retrovirus particles in human myeloma cells RPMI8226: morphological, biochemical, immunological and infective transmission studies.  

PubMed

The retrovirus designated RPMI8226V (isolated from human myeloma cells RPMI8226) has been characterized with respect to its morphological, biochemical and immunological properties as well as its propagation in various animal and human cells. The myeloma cells RPMI8226 produce intracytoplasmatic A-type particles and extracellular particles. The extracellular particles have been classified as immature particles with translucent core center, typical mammalian C-type virus particles and C-type particles with intermediate membrane. However, the budded particles in secondarily infected human neoplastic cells contained complete doughnut-shaped nucleoids. This type of budding is rather characteristic for B-type particles. The 3H-uridine labeled RPMI8226 viral particles have a buoyant density 1.17 g/ml in sucrose gradient containing high molecular weight RNA and the distribution of viral structural proteins in SDS-PAGE is characteristic for oncornaviruses. The internal structural proteins according to MW are ranged from 13 000 to 30 000 daltons. The virus contains a magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase. The cellular homogenate and viral concentrate from RPMI8226 cultures do not react with antibodies against ALSV, MuLV, FeLV, RD114, MP-MV and SiSLV. The only reaction was scored with anti BLV antibodies. However, anti BLV serum inhibiting the reverse transcriptase activity of BLV to 60% does not cross-react with the reverse transcriptase of RPMI8226V. In contrast to BLV concentrates, neither XC nor KC cells show syncytia formation by RPMI8226V. The RPMI8226V replication is restricted to human tumor and normal human glia-like cells. The possible origin of the virus is discussed. PMID:80755

Grófová, M; Popovic, M; Ogura, H; Matoska, J; Lizonová, A; Nilsson, K; Kuzela, S

1978-01-01

19

Studies of mitochondrial morphology and DNA amount in the rice egg cell.  

PubMed

In plant vegetative cells, mitochondria are usually small and grain-shaped. In contrast, unusually shaped giant mitochondria (large cup-shaped or long stretched-rod-shaped) appear in the egg cells of geranium, maize, Ipomoea nil, and bracken. In this study, to characterize egg cell mitochondria in rice, we used nonenzymatic manual dissection to isolate unfertilized egg cells of rice and observed the egg cell mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) simultaneously. These observations showed that the mitochondria in the rice egg cell are small and grain-shaped, unlike the mitochondria in geranium, maize, I. nil, and bracken. Double staining of mitochondria by MitoTracker and mtDNA by SYBR Green I showed that mitochondria in the rice egg cell have a large amount of mtDNA compared with the rice root protoplast. We also used real-time PCR analysis to quantify the mtDNA amount in the rice egg cell. We quantified the copy numbers of four mitochondrial genes per single rice egg cell and rice leaf protoplast. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the egg cell has more than ten times more copy numbers of all of four genes encoded in the mitochondrial genome compared with the leaf protoplast. PMID:19967377

Takanashi, Hideki; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Mogi, Mirai; Okamoto, Takashi; Arimura, Shin-ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

2009-12-05

20

Early Effects of Trimethyltin on the Dentate Gyrus Basket Cells: A Morphological Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrophysiological evidence for reduction of recurrent inhibition in the dentate gyrus in animals exposed to trimethyltin (TMT) suggested alterations in the inhibitory neurons (basket cells) by TMT. The present study was designed to investigate the morp...

L. W. Chang R. S. Dyer

1985-01-01

21

Study of conjunctival goblet cell morphology and tear film stability in pseudoexfoliation syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Tear secretion and tear film stability seem to be influenced by pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX). Histopathological evaluation of conjunctival goblet cells in PEX patients might explain the influence on tear film stability. Methods In a prospective, cross-sectional study, 40 eyes of 40 patients with PEX (study group) had measurement of Schirmer test with anesthesia and break-up time prior to cataract

Vassilios P. Kozobolis; Emmanouil V. Christodoulakis; Irene I. Naoumidi; Charalambos S. Siganos; Efstathios T. Detorakis; loannis G. Pallikaris

2004-01-01

22

Immunohistochemical and morphological studies of hyperglycemic hormone-and molt-inhibiting hormone-producing cells in the eyestalk of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus, in relation to molting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to explore if immunohistochemical and morphological changes occur in crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH, Pej-SGP-III)-and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH, Pej-SGP-IV)- producing cells during molt stages. Consecutive sections prepared from immature female eyestalks at different molt stages were stained immunohistochemically. Neurosecretory cells producing each of Pej-SGP-III (Pej-SGP-III cells, CHH cells) and Pej-SGP-IV (Pej-SGP-IV cells, MIH cells) were

TUNG-WEI SHIH; YUZURU SUZUKI; HIROMICHI NAGASAWA; KATSUMI AIDA

2003-01-01

23

In vitro study of the effect of cyclic strains on the dermal fibroblast (GM3384) morphology—Mapping of cell responses to strain field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells can respond to mechanical forces and actively interact with mechanical stimulations in vitro. Understanding the effect of mechanical loading on cell morphology signifies a critical biomechanics issue in tissue engineering. In this study, human dermal fibroblasts (GM3384) underwent cyclic strain. This was done by culturing a monolayer of the cells onto a transparent membrane and applying a cyclic stress

Kelvin Y. Xie; Lingyan Yang; Kevin Chen; Qing Li

24

Menstruum induces changes in mesothelial cell morphology.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we have shown that menstrual endometrium preferentially adheres to the subepithelial lining of the peritoneum. It remains to be elucidated, however, whether this damage is preexisting or inflicted by the menstrual tissue itself. We hypothesized that the menstrual tissue itself damages the peritoneum. To investigate this, the viability of menstrual endometrial tissue in peritoneal fluid (PF) was evaluated and the morphologic changes in the mesothelial cells were studied by in vitro cocultures of menstruum with mesothelial cell monolayers. Menstruum was collected with a menstrual cup. Endometrial tissue was isolated from the menstruum, resuspended in culture medium or in the cell-free fraction of PF and cultured for 24, 48 or 72 h. A 3(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to obtain a relative measure of viable adhered endometrial cells. Mesothelial cells isolated from human omental tissue were cultured on Matrigel or uncoated plastic. At confluence, overnight cocultures were performed and scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphologic changes. The viability of endometrial fragments was 84% (n = 36, p < 0.05), 82% (n = 27, not significant) and 104% (n = 14, not significant) when cultured in the cell-free fraction of PF for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, when compared to medium with 10% fetal calf serum. Menstrual endometrial fragments or menstrual serum added to and cocultured with mesothelial cells induced severe morphologic alterations of the latter, including retraction, shrinking and gap formation. Similar morphologic changes were observed when mesothelial cells were cocultured with menstrual endometrial fragments in PF or in culture inserts. Incubation with conditioned medium from cultured menstrual endometrium induced similar but less pronounced changes in morphology. In conclusion, menstrual endometrial fragments remain viable in PF in vitro for at least 72 h. Antegradely shed menstruum induces changes in mesothelial cell morphology, including retraction and shrinking with exposure of the underlying surface. These findings suggest that menstruum is harmful to the peritoneal lining. Therefore, by local destruction of the mesothelial layer, menstrual endometrium is able to create sites for adhesion. PMID:10895021

Koks, C A; Demir Weusten, A Y; Groothuis, P G; Dunselman, G A; de Goeij, A F; Evers, J L

2000-01-01

25

On the morphology of the mesencephalic trigeminal cells. New data based on tracer studies.  

PubMed

Injections of free horseradish peroxidase in the masticatory muscles of the cat resulted in retrograde labeling of not only large and small so-called pseudounipolar cells but also of multipolar neurons within the ipsilateral mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. The latter cell type was present only in the pontine part of the nucleus, and usually more faintly labeled than the other cells. Several of the so-called pseudounipolar cells showed cell processes similar to dendrites of other cells, a finding indicating that the afferent connections of these cells are much more complex than hitherto assumed. The observations are discussed also with reference to the problem whether the multipolar cells should be considered as displaced locus coeruleus neurons. PMID:6518363

Walberg, F

1984-11-19

26

Complex morphological study of the effect of glutaurine in mast cells.  

PubMed

Glutaurine produces rapid and intensive degranulation of mast cells without affecting the composition of their granules. The mast cells of the individual organs differ in the type and extent of degranulation. There is a wide scale between excessive degranulation (mast cells of subcutaneous connective tissue and of the peritoneum), and unresponsiveness (mast cells of thyroid and lymph nodes), and there are also differences in time. The peritoneal mast cells stain positively with safranin, swell excessively and assume bizarre forms in response to 5 micrograms/rat glutaurine intraperitoneally. Frequent occurrence of lymphocyte-mast cell contacts seems typical. Glutaurine increases 3H-histidine uptake of the peritoneal fluid cells in general and 35S sulphate incorporation in the peritoneal mast cells in particular. Accumulation of these substances is more marked at 1 hour than at 3 hours after application. PMID:7446220

Feuer, L; Kovács, P; Nagy, S U; Török, O; Csaba, G

1980-01-01

27

Effects of the relationship between ??Zn and blood cells. A dynamic and morphological study.  

PubMed

We have studied the dynamic pathway of ??Zn and its autoradiographic location in blood cells, even at the ultra-structural level. We have found evidence that tends to confirm the old biochemical postulates about the capacity of this isotope to displace iron in the haemoglobin molecule. Recently, the bibliography has demonstrated that ??Co is also able to perform this displacement, but unlike ??Zn it does not invalidate the Redox function of the molecule. In the case of ??Zn, the mentioned displacement invalidates this function because the radionuclide can only use valence 2. We have also contributed evidence of erythrocytes destruction by the spleen after the incorporation of ??Zn, as well as the clearly marked degradation of haematic pigments inside the spleen. PMID:23475811

Vera-Gil, A; Pérez Castejón, M J; Whyte, J; Cisneros, A; Recreo, P; Gascón, M A; Whyte, A; Lahoz, M; Pérez Castejón, M C

2013-03-11

28

Juxtaglomerular cell tumor: a morphological, immunohistochemical and genetic study of six cases.  

PubMed

Juxtaglomerular cell tumors (JGCTs) are rare tumors characterized by renin synthesis, hyperaldosteronism and hypertension. A curious immunohistochemical overlap between JGCT and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) including the expression of vimentin, CD34, CD117, ?-smooth muscle actin was previously reported, prompting us to further investigate JGCT and its phenotypic and molecular genetic characteristics. Virtual karyotyping showed gain of chromosomes 3, 4, 10, 13, 17 and 18 in one JGCT, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study confirmed this multiple gain pattern. Additionally, loss of chromosome 9 was observed in four of six cases analyzed with FISH. A whole genome expression analysis revealed 415 up-regulated (including renin, and CD117) and 325 down-regulated genes between the 2 cases. The study confirmed earlier reports on the gain of chromosomes 4 and 10, and provided further evidence of up-regulation of the genes located on these 2 chromosomes. For the first time our study indicated the importance of the loss of chromosome 9 and loss of expression of several tumor suppressor genes located on this chromosome as possible pathogenetic events important in development of JGCT. PMID:22939575

Kuroda, Naoto; Maris, Sperga; Monzon, Federico A; Tan, Puay Hoon; Thomas, Anjula; Petersson, Fredrik B; Gatalica, Zoran; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Bender, Ryan P; Grossmann, Petr; Michal, Michal; Svajdler, Marian; Ovcak, Zdenka; Hora, Milan; Hes, Ondrej

2012-08-29

29

In vitro study of the effect of cyclic strains on the dermal fibroblast (GM3384) morphology--mapping of cell responses to strain field.  

PubMed

Cells can respond to mechanical forces and actively interact with mechanical stimulations in vitro. Understanding the effect of mechanical loading on cell morphology signifies a critical biomechanics issue in tissue engineering. In this study, human dermal fibroblasts (GM3384) underwent cyclic strain. This was done by culturing a monolayer of the cells onto a transparent membrane and applying a cyclic stress using a computer controlled bioreactor. The cells were mechanically stimulated at around 7% strain with 1 cycle per minute for 2 days. Finite element analysis (FEA) was then employed to characterize the strain field across the substrate membrane in the bioreactor. The results showed that strain distribution were non-uniform in the substrate membrane. The mapping of cell morphology with the strain field revealed that the cells exposed to the equibiaxial strain exhibited the classical spindle morphology while the cells subjected to uniaxial strain changed to a polygonal morphology. It is concluded that the nature of the strain has significant impact on the final cell morphology. PMID:21996357

Xie, Kelvin Y; Yang, Lingyan; Chen, Kevin; Li, Qing

2011-10-12

30

Studies on the morphology and spreading of human endothelial cells define key inter- and intramolecular interactions for talin1  

PubMed Central

Talin binds to and activates integrins and is thought to couple them to cytoskeletal actin. However, functional studies on talin have been restricted by the fact that most cells express two talin isoforms. Here we show that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) express only talin1, and that talin1 knockdown inhibited focal adhesion (FA) assembly preventing the cells from maintaining a spread morphology, a phenotype that was rescued by GFP-mouse talin1. Thus HUVEC offer an ideal model system in which to conduct talin structure/function studies. Talin contains an N-terminal FERM domain (comprised of F1, F2 and F3 domains) and a C-terminal flexible rod. The F3 FERM domain binds ?-integrin tails, and mutations in F3 that inhibited integrin binding (W359A) or activation (L325R) severely compromised the ability of GFP-talin1 to rescue the talin1 knockdown phenotype despite the presence of a second integrin-binding site in the talin rod. The talin rod contains several actin-binding sites (ABS), and mutations in the C-terminal ABS that reduced actin-binding impaired talin1 function, whereas those that increased binding resulted in more stable FAs. The results show that both the N-terminal integrin and C-terminal actin-binding functions of talin are essential to cell spreading and FA assembly. Finally, mutations that relieve talin auto-inhibition resulted in the rapid and excessive production of FA, highlighting the importance of talin regulation within the cell.

Kopp, Petra M.; Bate, Neil; Hansen, Tania M.; Brindle, Nicholas P.J.; Praekelt, Uta; Debrand, Emmanuel; Coleman, Stacey; Mazzeo, Daniela; Goult, Benjamin T.; Gingras, Alexandre R.; Pritchard, Catrin A.; Critchley, David R.; Monkley, Susan J.

2010-01-01

31

A morphological study on regulation of hyaline bleb formation in early embryonic cells of Cynops pyrrhogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presumptive ectodermal cells isolated from the animal pole region of Cynops pyrrhogaster embryos showed active formation of hyaline blebs after the eleventh cleavage. The role of the submembranous cortical layer (SCL) in hyaline bleb formation was investigated in relation to the number of cleavages. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining and transmission electron-microscopy showed structural changes in the SCL after the eleventh cleavage. Partial

Shinji Komazaki

1991-01-01

32

Isolation of Mesophyll Cells and Bundle Sheath Cells from Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Leaves and a Scanning Microscopy Study of the Internal Leaf Cell Morphology 1  

PubMed Central

A technique is described for the separation of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells from Digitaria sanguinalis leaves and evidence for separation is given with light and scanning electron micrographs. Gentle grinding of fully differentiated leaves in a mortar releases mesophyll cells which are isolated on nylon nets by filtration. More extensive grinding of the remaining tissue yields bundle sheath strands which are isolated by filtration with stainless steel sieves and nylon nets. Further grinding of bundle sheath strands in a tissue homogenizer releases bundle sheath cells which are collected on nylon nets. Percentage of purity derived from cell counts and yield data on a chlorophyll basis are given. The internal leaf cell morphology is presented in scanning electron micrographs and compared with light micrographs of fully-differentiated D. sanguinalis leaves. In leaves of plants which possess the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle of photosynthesis, the relationship of leaf morphology to photosynthesis in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells is considered, and the hypothesis is presented that as atmospheric CO2 enters a leaf about 85% is fixed by the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle in the mesophyll cells and 10 to 15% is fixed by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle in the bundle sheath cells. A technique also is given for the isolation of mesophyll cells from spinach leaves. Images

Edwards, Gerald E.; Black, Clanton C.

1971-01-01

33

Morphologic and histochemical studies on the differing radiosensitivity of ductular and acinar cells of the rat submandibular gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The submandibular glands of male rats were exposed to 50 Gy X-irradiation as a single dose, with or without pre-treatment\\u000a with either alpha-adrenergic agonists (noradrenaline, phenylephrine) or a cholinergic antagonist (atropine). The effects were\\u000a analyzed by morphometric, cytochemical and biophysical methods. When X-irradiated without drug pre-treatment, many serous\\u000a epithelial cells of the intralobular convoluted ducts displayed morphologic evidence of irreversible

Kisia Abok; Ulf Brunk; Bo Jung; Jan Ericsson

1984-01-01

34

Testicular mixed germ cell tumors: a morphological and immunohistochemical study using stem cell markers, OCT3\\/4, SOX2 and GDF3, with emphasis on morphologically difficult-to-classify areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell markers, OCT3\\/4, and more recently SOX2 and growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF3), have been reported to be expressed variably in germ cell tumors. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of these markers in different testicular germ cell tumors, and their utility in the differential diagnosis of morphologically difficult-to-classify components of these tumors. A total of 50 mixed testicular germ

Anuradha Gopalan; Deepti Dhall; Semra Olgac; Samson W Fine; James E Korkola; Jane Houldsworth; Raju S Chaganti; George J Bosl; Victor E Reuter; Satish K Tickoo

2009-01-01

35

Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.  

PubMed Central

Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2

Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

1979-01-01

36

Wrinkled Membrane Morphology of Biological Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membranes of many biological cells possess a wrinkled surface topology that, in some instance, serves as a reservoir for providing large surface area and membrane expansion during osmotic swelling. We consider and model the development of the wrinkled morphology to result from buckling instabilities which occur during the membrane growth. In particular, we examine the wrinkled membrane morphology of white blood cell experimentally and numerically. Our results show that the deformation mismatch between the membrane and the cytoskeleton during membrane growth triggers buckling of the membrane. This behavior of the wrinkled topology enables expansion of the cell during swelling and reveals interesting details on the role of the membrane topology.

Wang, Lifeng; Castro, Carlos; Boyce, Mary

2010-03-01

37

Roles of Alix in regulating cell morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian Alix (ALG2-interacting protein X&barbelow;) is a conserved adaptor protein that is involved in endosomal trafficking, apoptosis and growth factor receptor turnover. Accumulating evidence also indicates that Alix plays roles in promoting\\/maintaining spread and aligned fibroblast morphology in monolayer culture. Since cell morphology is determined by the structure and dynamics of an integrin-mediated transmembrane protein network that links extracellular matrix

Shujuan Pan

2005-01-01

38

A morphological biosensor for mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrical biosensor is described that can continuously track morphological changes of adherent cells providing quantitative data from both sparse and confluent cultures. The method is capable of detecting vertical motion of cells of the order of 1 nm, much below the resolution of an optical microscope.

Ivar Giaever; Charles R. Keese

1993-01-01

39

Oncocytic papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study emphasizing distinct morphology, extended immunohistochemical profile and cytogenetic features.  

PubMed

Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is traditionally classified into type 1 and type 2. Recently, an oncocytic variant of PRCC has been described. We report a series of 6 oncocytic renal papillary tumors (OPRCC) which tended to occur in older patients (mean, 56.8 years) with a male preference (male-to-female ratio is 5:1). All 6 patients are alive with no evidence of disease after initial resection, showing an indolent clinical behavior. Histologically, tumors exhibited predominant papillary structure with delicate fibrovascular cores. Papillae were lined by single layers of cells with large, deeply eosinophilic and finely granular cytoplasms and round regular nucleus. The phagocytosis of tumor cells was frequently and evidently seen in our cases that hemosiderin-laden tumor cells and foamy tumor cells were noticed in five and four cases respectively. All tumors were immunoreactive for racemase, vimentin, CD10, and MET and negative for CD117. While E-cadherin, EMA, and cytokeratin 7 exhibited variable immunopositivity. FISH analysis was performed in five of six cases and found heterogeneous results. Trisomy of chromosomes 7 was found in three cases and trisomy of chromosomes 17 in two cases. Loss of chromosome Y was noted in one of four tumors in male patients. MET gene status was also investigated by direct sequencing in all 6 cases and found no distinct mutation in any case. These results suggest that OPRCC shows distinct morphology, indolent clinical behavior, and similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features with PRCC, seems to be a variant in the PRCC group. Whether the strong expression of MET indicates a potential therapeutic target is still unknown and requires further investigation in clinical trials. PMID:23826421

Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Rao, Qiu; Shen, Qin; Shi, Shan-Shan; Li, Li; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Qun-Li; Wang, Jian-Dong; Ma, Heng-Hui; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ru-Song; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

2013-06-15

40

Oncocytic papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study emphasizing distinct morphology, extended immunohistochemical profile and cytogenetic features  

PubMed Central

Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is traditionally classified into type 1 and type 2. Recently, an oncocytic variant of PRCC has been described. We report a series of 6 oncocytic renal papillary tumors (OPRCC) which tended to occur in older patients (mean, 56.8 years) with a male preference (male-to-female ratio is 5:1). All 6 patients are alive with no evidence of disease after initial resection, showing an indolent clinical behavior. Histologically, tumors exhibited predominant papillary structure with delicate fibrovascular cores. Papillae were lined by single layers of cells with large, deeply eosinophilic and finely granular cytoplasms and round regular nucleus. The phagocytosis of tumor cells was frequently and evidently seen in our cases that hemosiderin-laden tumor cells and foamy tumor cells were noticed in five and four cases respectively. All tumors were immunoreactive for racemase, vimentin, CD10, and MET and negative for CD117. While E-cadherin, EMA, and cytokeratin 7 exhibited variable immunopositivity. FISH analysis was performed in five of six cases and found heterogeneous results. Trisomy of chromosomes 7 was found in three cases and trisomy of chromosomes 17 in two cases. Loss of chromosome Y was noted in one of four tumors in male patients. MET gene status was also investigated by direct sequencing in all 6 cases and found no distinct mutation in any case. These results suggest that OPRCC shows distinct morphology, indolent clinical behavior, and similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features with PRCC, seems to be a variant in the PRCC group. Whether the strong expression of MET indicates a potential therapeutic target is still unknown and requires further investigation in clinical trials.

Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Rao, Qiu; Shen, Qin; Shi, Shan-Shan; Li, Li; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Qun-Li; Wang, Jian-Dong; Ma, Heng-Hui; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ru-Song; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

2013-01-01

41

Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells  

PubMed Central

A subset of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina express the photopigment melanopsin and are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs). These cells are implicated in non-image forming visual responses to environmental light such as the pupillary light reflex, seasonal adaptations in physiology, photic inhibition of nocturnal melatonin release, and modulation of sleep, alertness and activity. Morphological studies have confirmed the existence of at least three distinct subpopulations of ipRGCs, but studies of the physiology of ipRGCs at the single cell level have focused mainly upon M1 cells, the dendrites of which stratify solely in sublamina a (OFF sublamina) of the retinal inner plexiform layer (IPL). Little work has been done to compare the functional properties of M1 cells to those of M2 cells, the dendrites of which stratify solely in sublamina b (ON sublamina) of the IPL. The goal of the current study was to compare the morphology, intrinsic light response, and intrinsic membrane properties of M1 and M2 cells in the mouse retina. Here we demonstrate additional morphological differences between M1 and M2 cells as well as distinct physiological characteristics of both the intrinsic light responses and intrinsic membrane properties. M2 cells displayed a more complex dendritic arborization and higher input resistance, yet showed lower light sensitivity and lower maximal light responses than M1 cells. These data indicate morphological and functional heterogeneity among ipRGCs.

Schmidt, Tiffany M.; Kofuji, Paulo

2009-01-01

42

Interactions between peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) of gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata) and Pasteurella piscicida. A morphological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peritoneal exudate cells from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) weighing 20–30 g and 0.5 g were studied using transmission electron microscopy at several time intervals after intraperitoneal injection with a virulent Pasteurella piscicida strain. Fish of 20–30 g were injected with 0.3 ml of a bacterial suspension containing 1 × 109 cells\\/ml of P. piscicida. Fish of 0.5 g were injected

Manuel Noya; Beatriz Magarińos; Jesús Lamas

1995-01-01

43

Morphologic study on experimental allergic neuritis mediated by T cell line specific for bovine P2 protein in Lewis rats.  

PubMed

Light and electron microscope studies were performed on experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) passively induced in Lewis rats by the intravenous injection of T line cells specific for bovine P2 protein. Histologic changes were almost entirely restricted to the peripheral nervous system, being most severe in the sciatic nerve and lumbosacral nerve roots, whereas the brachial nerve and cervical nerve roots were involved to a lesser extent. The lesions were composed of edema, cellular infiltrates, demyelination, and, subsequently, axonal degeneration. Infiltrated macrophages were observed actively stripping the myelin, and the Schwann cell cytoplasm of affected nerve fibers was pushed to the periphery without distinct evidence of degeneration. The first evidence of pathologic change was severe edema in the sciatic nerve 4 days postinoculation. This edema was demonstrated immunohistochemically by the presence of albumin and fibrinogen in the endoneurial space. Mast cell degranulation was observed in these edematous nerve lesions. The cellular infiltrates which formed perivascular cuffs were composed of not only mononuclear cells but also many granulocytes. In the central nervous system, meningeal cell infiltration was also observed in the spinal cord, and after 7 days postinoculation degeneration of the posterior column was also found. This latter observation is thought to represent degeneration due to axonal damage of lumbosacral posterior roots. These pathologic findings in a T cell-mediated model of EAN were essentially the same as those previously reported in conventionally induced EAN or human Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Thus, T cells specific for bovine P2 protein can induce typical EAN lesions in the Lewis rat. The further investigation of this transfer model of EAN will enable us to clarify the pathogenesis of EAN and Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:2410663

Izumo, S; Linington, C; Wekerle, H; Meyermann, R

1985-08-01

44

Cell morphologies depend on substrate rigidity.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracellular matrices and intracellular cytoskeletons are composed mainly of open meshworks formed by semi-flexible polymers linked by accessory proteins in networks with specific geometries. The viscoelastic properties of such networks often differ strongly from those of flexible polymer gels and are characterized by relatively large elastic moduli for low volume fractions, increased rigidity at increasing strains, and in some cases, negative normal stresses when deformed in simple shear. Cell structure and function depend on the stiffness of the surfaces on which cells adhere as well as on the type of adhesion complex by which the cell binds its extracellular ligand. Most cell types, including fibroblasts and endothelial cells, switch from round to spread morphology as stiffness is increased between 1000 and 10,000 Pa. In contrast, other cells types such as neutrophils do not require rigid substrates in order to spread, and neurons extend processes better on soft (50 Pa) materials than on stiffer gels. Differences in rigidity sensing and response can be exploited to design soft matrices optimized for growth and differentiation of specific cell types.

Janmey, Paul

2006-03-01

45

Spindle cell morphology is related to poor prognosis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynaecological malignancy, with an annual incidence of 2 out of 100?000 women. Although most cases of early stage vulvar cancer have a good prognosis, recurrence and rapid tumour progression can occur. We investigated the prevalence of spindle cell morphology in vulvar cancer and its association with survival. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 108 patients with primary vulvar squamous cell carcinoma who were treated at the Leiden University Medical Center during 2000–2009. Paraffin-embedded tissue was examined for the presence of spindle cell morphology. Survival and histology data were compared between cases with spindle and without spindle cell morphology. Results: Twenty-two (20%) tumours showed spindle cells infiltrating the stromal tissue. All spindle cell tumours were human papillomavirus (HPV) negative. Spindle cell morphology was strongly associated with poor prognosis and with a high risk of lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis (relative risk 2.26 (95% CI 1.47–3.47)). Five-year disease-specific survival was lower in patients with vs without spindle cell morphology (45.2% vs 79.7%, respectively; P=0.00057). Conclusion: Vulvar spindle cell morphology occurs frequently and seems to develop through the non-HPV pathway. It is associated with a worse prognosis than conventional vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.

Trietsch, M D; Peters, A A W; Gaarenstroom, K N; van Koningsbrugge, S H L; ter Haar, N T; Osse, E M; Halbesma, N; Fleuren, G J

2013-01-01

46

Spindle cell morphology is related to poor prognosis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Background:Vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynaecological malignancy, with an annual incidence of 2 out of 100?000 women. Although most cases of early stage vulvar cancer have a good prognosis, recurrence and rapid tumour progression can occur. We investigated the prevalence of spindle cell morphology in vulvar cancer and its association with survival.Methods:This retrospective cohort study included 108 patients with primary vulvar squamous cell carcinoma who were treated at the Leiden University Medical Center during 2000-2009. Paraffin-embedded tissue was examined for the presence of spindle cell morphology. Survival and histology data were compared between cases with spindle and without spindle cell morphology.Results:Twenty-two (20%) tumours showed spindle cells infiltrating the stromal tissue. All spindle cell tumours were human papillomavirus (HPV) negative. Spindle cell morphology was strongly associated with poor prognosis and with a high risk of lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis (relative risk 2.26 (95% CI 1.47-3.47)). Five-year disease-specific survival was lower in patients with vs without spindle cell morphology (45.2% vs 79.7%, respectively; P=0.00057).Conclusion:Vulvar spindle cell morphology occurs frequently and seems to develop through the non-HPV pathway. It is associated with a worse prognosis than conventional vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24064972

Trietsch, M D; Peters, A A W; Gaarenstroom, K N; van Koningsbrugge, S H L; Ter Haar, N T; Osse, E M; Halbesma, N; Fleuren, G J

2013-09-24

47

Morphological comparisons between outer and inner ramifying alpha cells of the albino rat retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The somato-dendritic morphologies of large ganglion cells were studied by intracellular injections of Lucifer yellow in perfusedin vitro preparations of the albino rat retina. The ganglion cells were prelabeled with retrogradely transported granular blue or labeled with acridine orange dropped into the perfusate ofin vitro preparations. After the dye injection, somato-dendritic morphologies were successfully studied for 210 cells, the majority

M. Tauchi; K. Morigiwa; Y. Fukuda

1992-01-01

48

Light trapping in periodically textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using realistic interface morphologies.  

PubMed

The influence of realistic interface morphologies on light trapping in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells with periodic surface textures is studied. Realistic interface morphologies are obtained by a 3D surface coverage algorithm using the substrate morphology and layer thicknesses as input parameters. Finite difference time domain optical simulations are used to determine the absorption in the individual layers of the thin-film solar cell. The influence of realistic interface morphologies on light trapping is determined by using solar cells structures with the same front and back contact morphologies as a reference. Finally the optimal surface textures are derived. PMID:24104487

Jovanov, Vladislav; Palanchoke, Ujwol; Magnus, Philipp; Stiebig, Helmut; Hüpkes, Jürgen; Sichanugrist, Porponth; Konagai, Makoto; Wiesendanger, Samuel; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Knipp, Dietmar

2013-07-01

49

Five new cases of juvenile renal cell carcinoma with translocations involving Xp11.2: a cytogenetic and morphologic study.  

PubMed

Two cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) carrying a t(X;1)(p11.2;q21) in a 12-year-old boy and a 14 year-old girl, two cases with a t(X;1)(p11.2;p34) in a 9-year-old boy and a 31-year-old woman, and one case with a t(X;17)(p11.2;q25) in a 15-year-old boy are reported. Two are likely papillary RCC, with clear or slightly eosinophilic cells, and two to a clear cell RCC; one shows a mixture of papillary and clear cell RCC architecture. Renal cell carcinomas with translocations involving Xp11.2 form a specific entity characterized by subtle pathologic features and younger age of occurrence, especially for those with the t(X;17). PMID:12781442

Pérot, Christine; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Bouvier, Raymonde; Doz, François; Fournet, Jean-Christophe; Fréneaux, Paul; Vieillefond, Annick; Couturier, Jérôme

2003-06-01

50

Morphological Study of Lumbricals - A Cadaveric Study  

PubMed Central

The apparently simple human function of closing the hand to grasp an object or opening the palm to release it are in reality tasks of considerable mechanical complexity requiring the contraction of many individual muscles Lumbricals are important part of intrinsic musculature of hand. Though several deviations from normal have been described in standard textbooks of anatomy, a review of basic anatomy of lumbricals will be helpful. Aim: Proper knowledge about anatomy and variaitions prevalent in intrinsic musculature of hand is mandatory for various surgical procedure like cleft hand surgery, pollicization & other digital transposition procedures Present study was conducted to study morphology & variations prevalent in this region. The results were compiled and tried to find out commonest variations Phylogenetical & ontogenetical basis and clinical applications related to variations encountered were tried to know by correlating it with available literature. Material & Methods: For this study 50 hands of formalin embalmed cadavers were dissected The limbs were labelled R OR L for right or left, M or F for male or female. Cunnigham’s manual for dissection was followed for dissection. Results: Origin and nerve supply of lumbricals was normal in all hands. The variations were encountered in insertion of the 3rd lumbrical (32%) and 4th lumbrical (24%) were more confined to the right hand. Variations encountered commonly were split and misplaced insertion of third & fourth lumbricals. These variations are critically analyzed in the light of accessible literature. Conclusion: Lumbricals are more variable in the insertion rather than the origin & nerve supply. The variation commonly seen were split & misplaced insertion Split insertion was common in the third lumbrical whereas misplaced insertion is more common in the fourth lumbrical Variations are more common on right hands.

Parminder, Kaur

2013-01-01

51

Organochlorines and metals induce changes in the mitochondria-rich cells of fish gills: an integrative field study involving chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses.  

PubMed

Through integrating chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on the gill mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in two fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, collected from five sites (FU10, FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50) in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and zinc as well as organochlorine (aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and metolachlor) contamination at all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Copper, chrome, iron and zinc were detected in the gills of both species, and aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide were detected in the gills of fish from all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Fish collected at FU20, FU30 and FU50 exhibited numerous alterations in the surface architecture of their pavement cells and MRCs. The surface MRC density and MRC fractional area were lower in fish from FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50 than in those from the reference site (FU10) in the winter, and some variability between the sites was observed in the summer. The organochlorine contamination at FU20 and FU50 was associated with variable changes in the MRCs and inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, especially in P. maculatus. At FU30, the alterations in the MRCs were associated with the contaminants present, especially metals. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a positive association between the biological responses of both species and environmental contamination, indicating that under realistic conditions, a mixture of organochlorines and metals affected the MRCs by inhibiting NKA activity and inducing morphological changes, which may cause an ionic imbalance. PMID:23220410

Fernandes, M N; Paulino, M G; Sakuragui, M M; Ramos, C A; Pereira, C D S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H

2012-11-19

52

An Unusual Presentation of Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour of the Abdomen: Morphological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Molecular Studies  

PubMed Central

Desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT) is an aggressive and a rare neoplasm. We report on a 34-year-old male who had abdominal discomfort with a large intraperitoneal mass. Histological examination of the tumour biopsy revealed sheets of small round cells. The cells were positive with vimentin and desmin (with occasional dot positivity) and negative for WT1 and CD 99 with immunohistochemistry. Cytogenetics showed a translocation disrupting the EWSR 1 gene on 22 q 12 consistent with DSRCT. Electron microscopic examination showed sparse cytoplasmic organelles. The patient succumbed 34 months from disease presentation after multiple chemotherapies and thereafter radiotherapy. In summary, our case exemplifies that it is crucial to combine clinical, histological, and molecular aspects in diagnosing DSRCT especially when characteristic dot positivity with desmin is weak along with deficient marking of WT1 and CD99 by immunohistochemistry. Histology was also less clear than published examples of this entity with a poor desmoplastic response. A multidisciplinary approach including early referral to specialised centres is recommended in these cases as tertiary referral centres will be required to substantiate the diagnosis.

Angunawela, Preethika; Khalafallah, Alhossain A.; Wolfswinkel, Karen; Seaton, David; Brain, Terry

2011-01-01

53

An unusual presentation of desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the abdomen: morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular studies.  

PubMed

Desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT) is an aggressive and a rare neoplasm. We report on a 34-year-old male who had abdominal discomfort with a large intraperitoneal mass. Histological examination of the tumour biopsy revealed sheets of small round cells. The cells were positive with vimentin and desmin (with occasional dot positivity) and negative for WT1 and CD 99 with immunohistochemistry. Cytogenetics showed a translocation disrupting the EWSR 1 gene on 22 q 12 consistent with DSRCT. Electron microscopic examination showed sparse cytoplasmic organelles. The patient succumbed 34 months from disease presentation after multiple chemotherapies and thereafter radiotherapy. In summary, our case exemplifies that it is crucial to combine clinical, histological, and molecular aspects in diagnosing DSRCT especially when characteristic dot positivity with desmin is weak along with deficient marking of WT1 and CD99 by immunohistochemistry. Histology was also less clear than published examples of this entity with a poor desmoplastic response. A multidisciplinary approach including early referral to specialised centres is recommended in these cases as tertiary referral centres will be required to substantiate the diagnosis. PMID:22606441

Angunawela, Preethika; Khalafallah, Alhossain A; Wolfswinkel, Karen; Seaton, David; Brain, Terry

2011-09-19

54

Relationships among cell morphology, intrinsic cell stiffness and cell-substrate interactions.  

PubMed

Cell modulus (stiffness) is a critical cell property that is important in normal cell functions and increasingly associated with disease states, yet most methods to characterize modulus may skew results. Here we show strong evidence indicating that the fundamental nature of free energies associated with cell/substrate interactions regulates adherent cell morphology and can be used to deduce cell modulus. These results are based on a mathematical model of biophysics and confirmed by the measured morphology of normal and cancerous liver cells adhered on a substrate. Cells select their final morphology by minimizing the total free energy in the cell/substrate system. The key mechanism by which substrate stiffness influences cell morphology is the energy tradeoff between the stabilizing influence of the cell-substrate interfacial adhesive energy and the destabilizing influence of the total elastic energies in the system. Using these findings, we establish a noninvasive methodology to determine the intrinsic modulus of cells by observing global changes in cell morphology in response to substrate stiffness. We also highlight the importance of selecting a relevant morphological index, cell roundness, that reflects the interchange between forms of energy governing cell morphology. Thus, cell-substrate interactions can be rationalized by the underlying biophysics, and cell modulus is easily measured. PMID:24075411

Chiang, Martin Y M; Yangben, Yanzi; Lin, Nancy J; Zhong, Julia L; Yang, Li

2013-09-26

55

Wettability of porous polydimethylsiloxane surface: morphology study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods used for producing porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. In the first method, PDMS films without photosensitizer was exposed to CO2-pulsed laser at room temperature, as the excitation source. In the second method applying NaCl solid particles to the external surface layer before it is cured. In this study the morphology, wettability and surface chemical characteristics have been investigated. These

M. T. Khorasani; H. Mirzadeh; Z. Kermani

2005-01-01

56

Endothelial cell modulation of smooth muscle cell morphology and organizational growth pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimal hyperplasia is characterized by smooth muscle cell (SMC) dedifferentiation from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype prior to migration and proliferation. Regulatory mechanisms controlling SMC phenotype are not well known. This study examined the effect of endothelial cells (ECs) on SMC morphology in coculture. Subcultured bovine ECs and SMCs were plated on opposite sides of a 13 µm thick,

Richard J. Powell; Jack L. Cronenwett; Mark F. Fillinger; Robert J. Wagner; Lawrence N. Sampson

1996-01-01

57

A LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED IN RAT LIVER CELLS BY THE AZO DYE 2-ME-DAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytological changes induced in rat liver cells by the aminoazo dye 2-Me-DAB have been examined by light and electron microscopy. It is observed that this non-carcinogenic com- pound duplicates most of the morphological alterations produced by other hepatotoxins, some of which, such as the closely related aminoazo dye 3~-Me-DAB, are potent carcinogens. These non-specific effects involve both the granular

J. G. Lafontaine; C. ALLARD

1964-01-01

58

Surface morphology and functional studies of human alveolar macrophages from cigarette smokers and nonsmokers  

SciTech Connect

The surface of macrophages inhabiting the peritoneal and alveolar spaces is pleomorphic in structure. The internal structure of these cells has been widely described and is not discussed here. Although external cell morphology has been well characterized by many researchers, this subject has not been reviewed. This review, therefore, describes in detail the surface features of macrophages as well as factors affecting macrophage morphology. Morphological studies of human cells are emphasized. Functional studies are presented and, when possible, morphological parameters are correlated with cell function. Because cigarette smoking has been well studied, the effects of this pulmonary insult are described in detail.

Finch, G.L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Fisher, G.L.; Hayes, T.L.; Golde, D.W.

1982-01-01

59

[Morphological studies of erythrocytes in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II].  

PubMed

The etiology of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) type II is unknown. The diagnosis is based on morphologic and immunologic criteria. We present three girls with well documented CDA II who were followed for 5-8 years. The anemia was mild, progressive body iron overload was found. In none of the girls splenectomy was indicated. Morphologic features of ++erythrocytes and bone marrow erythroid cells were studied by means of light and electron microscopy. Up to 45% of erythrocytes showed invaginations with endocytic cisterns and shape abnormalities (echinocytes, anisocytosis, microcytosis). Typical abnormalities of the external surface of RBC membrane: invaginations, depressions, pits and plaques were shown in the scanning electron microscopic studies. Our studies indicate that the morphological features of erythrocyte in our patients may be consequence of the biochemical changes in the membranes and may contribute to the shortened life span of erythrocytes in patients with CDA II. PMID:2131714

Koehler, M; Schmidt-Riese, L; Brandeis, W E

60

Developmental cell death: morphological diversity and multiple mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological cell death is a widespread phenomenon in the development of both vertebrates and invertebrates. This review concentrates on an aspect of developmental cell death that has tended to be neglected, the manner in which the cells are dismantled. It is emphasized that the dying cells may adopt one of at least three different morphological types: “apoptotic”, “autophagic”, and “non-lysosomal

Peter G. H. Clarke

1990-01-01

61

Follicular mucinosis: a detailed morphologic and immunopathologic study.  

PubMed

Two patients with the benign type of follicular mucinosis (FM) are presented. Their clinical features and course were characteristic for this subgroup of FM. Light and electron microscopy, direct immunofluorescence, and immunoperoxidase cell marker studies were undertaken to characterize the nature of the disease process. Light microscopy confirmed the follicular outer root sheath and sebaceous gland epithelial degenerative changes. The infiltrating inflammatory cells were morphologically benign. Electron microscopy detailed the cellular associations in the areas of degenerative change. Disattached keratinocytes were closely apposed to significant numbers of macrophages and Langerhans cells. Direct immunofluorescence studies demonstrated primarily complement (C3) and fibrinogen/fibrin in areas of reticular degeneration. Immunoperoxidase studies revealed large numbers of T cells and macrophages and a striking increase in the number of Langerhans cells in the affected follicular epithelium. The findings suggest that cell-mediated immune mechanisms may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:6233340

Lancer, H A; Bronstein, B R; Nakagawa, H; Bhan, A K; Mihm, M C

1984-05-01

62

Impulse encoding across the dendritic morphologies of retinal ganglion cells.  

PubMed

Nerve impulse entrainment and other excitation and passive phenomena are analyzed for a morphologically diverse and exhaustive data set (n = 57) of realistic (3-dimensional computer traced) soma-dendritic tree structures of ganglion cells in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina. The neurons, including axon and an anatomically specialized thin axonal segment that is observed in every ganglion cell, were supplied with five voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels (plus leakage), which were distributed in accordance with those found in a recent study that employed an equivalent dendritic cylinder. A wide variety of impulse-entrainment responses was observed, including regular low-frequency firing, impulse doublets, and more complex patterns involving impulse propagation failures (or aborted spikes) within the encoder region, all of which have been observed experimentally. The impulse-frequency response curves of the cells fell into three groups called FAST, MEDIUM, and SLOW in approximate proportion as seen experimentally. In addition to these, a new group was found among the traced cells that exhibited an impulse-frequency response twice that of the FAST category. The total amount of soma-dendritic surface area exhibited by a given cell is decisive in determining its electrophysiological classification. On the other hand, we found only a weak correlation between the electrophysiological group and the morphological classification of a given cell, which is based on the complexity of dendritic branching and the physical reach or "receptive field" area of the cell. Dendritic morphology determines discharge patterns to dendritic (synaptic) stimulation. Orthodromic impulses can be initiated on the axon hillock, the thin axonal segment, the soma, or even the proximal axon beyond the thin segment, depending on stimulus magnitude, soma-dendritic membrane area, channel distribution, and state within the repetitive impulse cycle. Although a sufficiently high dendritic Na-channel density can lead to dendritic impulse initiation, this does not occur with our "standard" channel densities and is not seen experimentally. Even so, impulses initiated elsewhere do invade all except very thin dendritic processes. Impulse-encoding irregularities increase when channel conductances are reduced in the encoder region, and the F/I properties of the cells are a strong function of the calcium- and Ca-activated K-channel densities. Use of equivalent dendritic cylinders requires more soma-dendritic surface area than real dendritic trees, and the source of the discrepancy is discussed. PMID:10200204

Sheasby, B W; Fohlmeister, J F

1999-04-01

63

Chemical Composition, Morphological Characteristics, and Cell Wall Structure of Malaysian Oil Palm Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the determination of chemical composition and the study of morphological and cell wall structure of oil palm fibers. Cellulose is the main constituent in oil palm fibers, and oil palm trunk (OPT) fiber exhibited the highest content of extractives and lignin. Fiber morphological determination also showed that OPT fibers have the highest fiber length, diameter, and

H. P. S. Abdul Khalil; M. Siti Alwani; R. Ridzuan; H. Kamarudin; A. Khairul

2008-01-01

64

localization and morphology of APUD cells in gastroenteropan creatic system of stomach-containing teleosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM To identify the type localization and morphology of APUD endocrine cells in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system of stomach-containing teleosts, and study APUD endocrine system in the stomach, intestine and pancreas of fish species. METHODS Two kinds of immunocytochemical (ICC) techniques of the streptavidin biotin- peroxidase complex (SABC) and streptavidin- peroxidase (S-P) method were used. The identification, localization and morphology

Qian Sheng Pan; Zhi Ping Fang; Feng Jie Huang

65

Development of Morphological Instability and Cells During Rapid Solidification of Laser Annealed Silicon Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The details of morphological instability occurring during rapid solidification have been studied in In exp + , Ga exp + , Sb exp + , Bi exp + , Ge exp + , Fe exp + and Cr exp + implanted silicon specimens after pulsed laser annealing. The average cell siz...

J. Narayan C. W. White

1981-01-01

66

Morphology of cell-substratum adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cell types modulate growth, differentiation, and motility through changes in cell substrate adhesion, including regulation\\u000a of focal contact formation. Clustering of cell surface adhesion receptors is an essential early step in the development of\\u000a focal contacts, and thus may influence cell physiology. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework to examine how cell\\u000a surface chemistry affects receptor clustering.

Michael D. Ward; Daniel A. Hammer

1992-01-01

67

Morphology of mitochondrial permeability transition: morphometric volumetry in apoptotic cells.  

PubMed

Here we report on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which refers to the morphology of mitochondria whose inner membrane has lost its selective permeability. In all types of apoptotic cells so far examined, we found outer mitochondrial membranes that had been ruptured. These mitochondria present a swollen matrix covered by an inner membrane herniating into the cytoplasm through the breached outer membrane. Similarly ruptured outer mitochondrial membranes have been reported in studies on mitochondrial fractions induced to undergo MPT, carried out by others. Our observations were made on five types of rat tissue cells and six different cultured cell lines in the early stages of apoptosis. Samples from the cell lines HL-60, HeLa, WEHI-164, and a special batch of PC-12 cells were subjected to various apoptogenic agents and analyzed morphometrically. Nonapoptotic companion cells with unaltered nuclear structure (CUNS) were also analyzed. The mitochondrial volume in microm(3) and the volume fraction of the cytoplasm occupied by mitochondria in cells with typical nuclear signs of apoptosis and also in CUNS were evaluated. The volume of the mitochondria with ruptured membrane represents at least 69% (47-89%) of the total mitochondrial volume of the apoptotic cells. Thus, a considerable fraction of the cellular mitochondrial mass is or was in the state of permeability transition and probably involved in enhancement of the apoptotic program. In all samples, a fraction of the cells with normal nuclei possessed mitochondria with breached outer membranes as described above. In these cells, MPT occurred before the appearance of the typical nuclear phenotype of the apoptotic cells. PMID:15532021

Sesso, Antonio; Marques, Márcia M; Monteiro, Maria M T; Schumacher, Robert I; Colquhoun, Alison; Belizário, José; Konno, Sérgio N; Felix, Tahis B; Botelho, Luis A A; Santos, Vanessa Z C; Da Silva, Guilherme R; Higuchi, Maria de L; Kawakami, Joyce T

2004-12-01

68

Morphological and Functional Platelet Abnormalities in Berkeley Sickle Cell Mice  

PubMed Central

Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as an animal model of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37 ± 3.2 vs. 27 ± 1.4, mean ± SD; p <0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505 ± 49 × 103/?l vs. 1151 ± 162 × 103/?l; p <0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and “pocked” erythrocytes (p <0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5 ± 1 % vs. 1 ± 1%; p <0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease.

Shet, Arun S.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A.; Stevens, Jacqueline R.M.; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A.; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S.

2009-01-01

69

Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct

Nipon Theera-Umpon; Paul D. Gader

2000-01-01

70

Live morphological analysis of taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuoliazation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxol (paclitaxel), one of the most active cancer chemotherapeutic agents, can cause programmed cell death (PCD) and cytoplasmic vacuolization. The objective of this study was to analyze the morphological characteristics induced by taxol. Human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells were exposed to various concentration of taxol. CCK-8 was used to assay the cell viability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), plasmid transfection and

Xiao-Ping Wang; Tong-Sheng Chen; Lei Sun; Ji-Ye Cai; Ming-Qian Wu; Martin Mok

2008-01-01

71

High Incidence of Morphological Myelodysplasia and Apoptotic Bone Marrow Cells in Behçet’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behet’s disease (BD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, and rarely complicated with myelodysplastic\\u000a syndrome (MDS). In the present study, we investigated the morphological myelodysplasia and apoptotic rate of bone marrow cells\\u000a in 15 patients with BD in comparison with MDS patients. Morphological myelodysplasia of bone marrow cells was detected in\\u000a 53.3% of BD, but none showed chromosomal

Kosei Arimura; Naomichi Arima; Kakushi Matsushita; Masaki Akimoto; Chi Young Park; Kimiharu Uozumi; Chuwa Tei

2007-01-01

72

Anatomical study of the clavicle: endomedullary morphology.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The treatment of clavicle fractures remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of clavicular intramedullary fixation by nailing through an anatomic study combined with CT scan studies. METHODS: For the anatomic study, 20 clavicles of donated bodies to science (10 men, 10 women, 10 right, 10 left) were used. We measured the length of the clavicle, lateral epiphysis diameter, mean diaphysis diameter, medial epiphysis diameter, lateral width, lateral radius of curvature, medial width and medial radius of curvature. Intramedullary cavity diameter (anteroposterior and superoinferior) and calibration were measured by CT scan study on 20 clavicles. RESULTS: Average length was 152 mm for men and 140 mm for women. The anteroposterior curvature was most pronounced. The medullary canal had a gradually decreasing size from the distal portion to the middle segment, but never disappeared. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of morphological data can clarify the specifications of an intramedullary nail: flexibility of the nail to match clavicle curvature and a locking system to ensure primary stability. Intramedullary fixation by nailing in displaced fractures of the middle portion of the clavicle is a minimally invasive surgical technique, with excellent functional and cosmetic results. PMID:23728517

Mathieu, Pierre-Alain; Marcheix, Pierre-Sylvain; Hummel, Vincent; Valleix, Denis; Mabit, Christian

2013-06-01

73

Origin of inner ear hair cells: morphological and functional differentiation from ciliary cells into hair cells in zebrafish inner ear.  

PubMed

Auditory and vestibular functions in vertebrates depend on the transduction of sound vibration or head acceleration into electrical responses in inner ear hair cells. Mechanoelectrical transduction occurs at the tip of stereocilia, which are polarized to form an orientational arrangement that determines directional sensitivity. It remains to be clarified when and how premature hair cells acquire their specialized structure and function in living animals. The developmental origin of inner ear hair cells has been studied in vivo in zebrafish embryos. Tether cells, a small number of ciliated cells associated with an "ear stone" (or otolith) in the embryonic zebrafish inner ear, are believed to be precocious hair cells. However, whether or not tether cells acquire hair bundles and mechanosensitivity remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the morphological and functional development of tether cells. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that stereocilia appeared on the tether cell apex in a polarized arrangement at 22 h postfertilization (hpf). Labeling with FM1-43, a marker of functional mechanotransduction channels, and the in vivo electrophysiological recording of mechanotransducer responses in the developing inner ear demonstrated that tether cells acquired direction-selective mechanosensitivity at 23 hpf. These results revealed that tether cells begin to function as hair cells within an hour after the appearance of a polarized array of stereociliary bundles. Thus, the ciliary cells morphologically and functionally differentiate into the first sensory hair cells in the inner ear of the zebrafish. PMID:21389233

Tanimoto, Masashi; Ota, Yukiko; Inoue, Maya; Oda, Yoichi

2011-03-01

74

A Rapid Method Combining Golgi and Nissl Staining to Study Neuronal Morphology and Cytoarchitecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue

Nadia Pilati; Matthew Barker; Sofoklis Panteleimonitis; Revers Donga; Martine Hamann

2008-01-01

75

[Morphologic methods in the study of lymph nodes].  

PubMed

A good histopathological study of lymph node biopsies is only possible if the structure and the cell morphology are well preserved. It is necessary, therefore, to ensure that the material is correctly handled from the onset of the investigation. The method of bisection, the fixation procedure, the paraffin and plastic processing, the staining techniques are exposed with practical details. The investigation of lymphoid tissue requires a multiparameter approach. Additional data can be obtained from other techniques, for example cytology, histoenzymology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy. These techniques are described so that they can be undertaken in routine pathology. PMID:6347215

Audouin, J; Diebold, J

1983-01-01

76

Probing red blood cell morphology using high-frequency photoacoustics.  

PubMed

A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5-10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology. PMID:23823224

Strohm, Eric M; Berndl, Elizabeth S L; Kolios, Michael C

2013-07-01

77

Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes  

PubMed Central

The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell’s morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane’s shear, area, and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

Park, YongKeun; Best, Catherine A.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark L.; Levine, Alex J.; Popescu, Gabriel

2010-01-01

78

Effect of soybean saponins and gypsophila saponin on morphology of colon carcinoma cells in culture.  

PubMed

The effect of saponins on colonic epithelial carcinoma cell (HCT-15) morphology was studied. Cells in culture were incubated with different concentrations of soybean saponins (SS) or gypsophila saponin (GS) for 24 hr. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a very rough and granular cell surface in cells treated with the lowest concentration of GS (40 ppm). Minor morphological changes were observed in the cell surface of soybean saponin-treated cells at a concentration of 1200 ppm. Examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated a dose-dependent effect of saponins on intracellular morphology of colonic epithelial carcinoma cells. Cells treated with 600 ppm or more of soybean saponins developed numerous cytoplasmic vesicles, had decreased density of cytoplasmic material and demonstrated deformations in plasma and nuclear membranes. Gypsophila saponin at a concentration of 40 ppm produced few changes in intracellular and membrane structure, whereas 80 ppm saponin induced the formation of vesicles. However, at both concentrations, changes in the density of cytoplasmic material was less extensive than in soybean saponin-treated cells. The highest concentration of gypsophila saponin used (160 ppm) completely destroyed the plasma membrane. These results indicate that soybean saponins and gypsophila saponin interact with cell membranes and induce significant dose-dependent cell morphological changes; however, they appear to act through different mechanisms. PMID:7759019

Sung, M K; Kendall, C W; Rao, A V

1995-05-01

79

Effects of Morphology vs. Cell-Cell Interactions on Endothelial Cell Stiffness  

PubMed Central

Biological processes such as atherogenesis, wound healing, cancer cell metastasis, and immune cell transmigration rely on a delicate balance between Cell–Cell and cell–substrate adhesion. Cell mechanics have been shown to depend on substrate factors such as stiffness and ligand presentation, while the effects of Cell–Cell interactions on the mechanical properties of cells has received little attention. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to measure the Young’s modulus of live human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In varying the degree of Cell–Cell contact in HUVECs (single cells, groups, and monolayers), we observe that increased cell stiffness correlates with an increase in cell area. Further, we observe that HUVECs stiffen as they spread onto a glass substrate. When we weaken Cell–Cell junctions (i.e., through a low dose of cytochalasin B or treatment with a VE-cadherin antibody), we observe that cell–substrate adhesion increases, as measured by focal adhesion size and density, and the stiffness of cells within the monolayer approaches that of single cells. Our results suggest that while morphology can roughly be used to predict cell stiffness, Cell–Cell interactions may play a significant role in determining the mechanical properties of individual cells in tissues by careful maintenance of cell tension homeostasis.

Stroka, Kimberly M.; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

2011-01-01

80

Advanced image processing and modeling system for the analysis of cell micrographs in morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analysis of cell-level structures is attracting substantial attention in biomedical studies. This paper presents an advanced digital image processing and modelling system for the automatic analysis of cell micrographs in morphology. For reference, photoreceptors of the rat retina are used. The system implements a new index-based quantitative method developed for the evaluation of light induced lesions in retinal Rod

Qing Wei; Ch. Reme; Peter Stucki

1993-01-01

81

The Anterior Olfactory Nucleus: Quantitative Study of Dendritic Morphology  

PubMed Central

The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) occupies a crucial position within the olfactory circuit as it is able to influence function in nearly every major synaptic processing stage of both the ipsilateral and contralateral pathway. Nevertheless, very little is known about the region’s internal organization and circuitry. The present study provides basic quantitative and qualitative data on the morphology of several cell types within the two major regions of the AON: pars externa and pars principalis. In pars externa two types of cells are analyzed, the “classical” cell (Type I), containing only apically-directed dendrites with large spines, and a previously unreported cell with basilar dendrites and complex, spiny apical processes (Type II). In pars principalis the characteristic pyramidal cell is described both on the basis of the depth of the cell bodies in the cell layer comprising the structure and on the basis of their radial location. Several other non-pyramidal neurons are also described. The findings provide useful basic information necessary for understanding and modeling the circuitry of the AON.

Brunjes, Peter C.; Kenerson, Michael C.

2012-01-01

82

Myeloma cell morphology and morphometry in correlation with clinical stages and survival.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) shows great variability in clinical course of the disease, and survival varies between a few months and more than 10 years. Myeloma plasma cells (PCs) can appear completely "normal" in morphology, but can also be overtly atypical, polymorphic, immature, as well as in all transitional forms. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the relationship between various morphological and morphometric parameters of myeloma cells, common staging/prognostic systems and survival in patients with MM. Sixty newly diagnosed MM patients were included in the study. Morphologic as well as basic morphometric features of myeloma PCs were analyzed in bone marrow (BM) aspirates, and compared with patient's clinical stage determined by Durie-Salmon and International Staging System, and with survival. We conclude that myeloma cell morphology has a prognostic potential. The most significant morphologic characteristics indicating shorter survival are: finding of >15% atypical PCs in BM aspirate, largest nuclear diameter/largest cytoplasmatic diameter of PCs ratio (maxND/maxCD)?0.65, and anisocytosis expressed as standard deviation of maxCD ?4.2 µm. Furthermore, PCs with irregular nuclei and absence of paranuclear clearing of the cytoplasm indicate more advanced stage of disease and worse prognosis. This preliminary results obtained on myeloma cells morphology and morphometry should be confirmed in the larger study which will include cytogenetic data as well as a therapeutic protocols applied. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;41:947-954. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23554178

Seili-Bekafigo, Irena; Valkovi?, Toni; Babarovi?, Emina; Duleti?-Na?inovi?, Antica; Jonji?, Nives

2013-04-03

83

Shock wave induced cytoskeletal and morphological deformations in a human renal carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

Effects of shock waves on the morphology and cytoskeleton of a human renal carcinoma cell line (ACHN) were investigated in vitro. ACHN monolayer cultured on a cover slide glass was treated with 10 shots of focused underwater shock waves, with 16 MPa peak pressure at the focal area of a piezoceramic shock wave generator. After exposure to the shock wave, based on the severity of morphological deformations of the treated cells, the monolayer was divided into three morphological areas; focal, marginal and intact. Morphological deformations were found to be associated with disorganization of the intracellular cytoskeletal filaments. Deformation of the cytoskeletal proteins in the treated cells were separately studied with respect to the location of the cells within the three morphological areas. Among three major cytoskeletal proteins, actin and tubulin, but not vimentin, were affected by the shock waves. The deformed cells reorganized their cytoskeletal network within 3 h with a pattern similar to the control, indicating the transient characteristic of the shock wave induced cytoskeletal damage in the surviving cells. The remaining cell fragments on the slide glass, which contained short actin filaments, indicated the important role of shear stress in damaging the cytoskeletal fibers by shock waves. PMID:16630122

Moosavi-Nejad, S Fatemeh; Hosseini, S Hamid R; Satoh, Makoto; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

2006-04-01

84

Fuzzy mathematical morphologies: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy set theory has found a promising field of application in the domain of digital image processing, since fuzziness is an intrinsic property of images. For dealing with spatial information in this framework from the signal level to the highest decision level, several attempts have been made to define mathematical morphology on fuzzy sets. The purpose of this paper is

Isabelle Bloch; Henri Maître

1995-01-01

85

Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell's morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a Noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane's shear and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

Popescu, Gabriel; Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine; Dasari, Ramachandra; Feld, Michael; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark; Levine, Alex

2010-03-01

86

Morphogenesis of the optic tectum in the medaka (Oryzias latipes): a morphological and molecular study, with special emphasis on cell proliferation.  

PubMed

We analyzed the medaka optic tectum (OT) morphogenesis by using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry (with a new method we developed for pulse-labeling embryos) and in situ hybridization with three probes, two for recently cloned homeobox genes (Ol-Prx3 [Paired-Related-Homeobox3] and Ol-Gsh1 [Genetic-Screen-Homeobox1]) and one for Ol-tailless. The tectal anlage first appears as a sheet of proliferating cells expressing Ol-Gsh1 and Ol-tailless but not Ol-Prx3. Cells subsequently cease to proliferate in a superficial and rostral zone and begin to express Ol-Prx3. When tectal lamination begins, the proliferative zone (mpz) becomes restricted to a crescent at the OT medial, caudal, and lateral margin. This mpz functions throughout the fish's entire life. It produces cells that are added at the OT's edge as radial rows, spanning every layer of the OT. The cells of the mpz continue to express Ol-tailless in the adult, whereas Ol-Gsh1 expression is turned off. When superficial layers form, Ol-Prx3 expression becomes restricted to the underlying deep layer, where it persists in the adult. Ol-Prx3 seems to be a marker for the differentiation of a subset of deep cells and allows analysis of tectal lamination, whereas Ol-tailless and Ol-Gsh1 could be involved in the control of tectal cell proliferation. This study constitutes a first step toward molecular approach to OT development in anamniotes. We compare and discuss the expression patterns of the homologs of the genes studied, and more generally the morphogenetic patterns of the medaka tectum, with those encountered in other cortical structures and in other vertebrate groups. PMID:10502247

Nguyen, V; Deschet, K; Henrich, T; Godet, E; Joly, J S; Wittbrodt, J; Chourrout, D; Bourrat, F

1999-10-25

87

Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At…

Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Qiu; Zhu, Jin; Shu, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiuying; Yin, Li; He, Yeqin; Packard, Jerome; Gaffney, Janet S.

2009-01-01

88

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RIVER MEGHNA: A COLLOBORATIVE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giving due importance on the control of natural disaster such as floods and river bank erosion in Bangladesh a morphological study was initiated through a cooperation between Bangladesh and Japan to evaluate the morphological process of the river and to recommend the possible preventive measure to control bank erosion. For this study a reach of the river Meghna at the

M. MOZZAMMEL HOQUE; M. MONSUR RAHMAN

89

Morphological identification of live gonadotropin, growth-hormone, and prolactin cells in goldfish ( Carassius auratus ) pituitary-cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand neuroendocrine regulation and the intracellular mechanisms mediating pituitary-hormone release, it is necessary to study the physiology of identified single cells. We have developed a system to identify gonadotropin, growth-hormone, and prolactin cells in primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells. Using Nomarski differential interference-contrast microscopy, the unique morphologies of discrete subpopulations of cells were characterized. To aid in

Fredrick Van Goor; Jeffrey I. Goldberg; Anderson O. L. Wong; Richard M. Jobin; John P. Chang

1994-01-01

90

Morphological, pharmacokinetic, and hematological studies of lead-exposed pigeons  

SciTech Connect

Adult white Carneaux pigeons were orally dosed with inorganic lead (6.25 mg Pb/kg/day, gastric intubation) for up to 64 weeks and the following studies were carried out: (1) the subcellular distribution of lead in erythrocytes; (2) the changes in tissue lead levels with time; (3) morphological assessment of tissue responses to lead; and (4) hematological effects of lead, the major systemic evidence of toxicity. In the early stage of exposure, there is some lead accumulation in the erythrocyte nucleus relative to its proportion of total cell volume, but such accumulation disappears with time. The kinetic behavior of lead in seven tissues--blood, brain, kidney, liver, femur, sciatic nerve, and crop--was seen to conform to two mathematical methods of lead distribution; brain, kidney, and femur lead increased with dosing time and reached or appeared to approach an upper plateau; lead in blood, liver, sciatic nerve, and crop increased to a maximum, followed by a decline to a lower plateau level. Morphologically, renal tubule cells showed the presence of lead-containing inclusion bodies while CNS mitochondria appeared to have accumulated lead. No evidence of segmental demyelination was seen. Lead exposure induced a marked and rapid hypochromic normocytic anemia in these birds, as well as an elevation in erythrocyte porphyrin. No disturbance in mechanical fragility or osmotic resistance was noted.

Anders, E. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Dietz, D.D.; Bagnell, C.R. Jr.; Gaynor, J.; Krigman, M.R.; Ross, D.W.; Leander, J.D.; Mushak, P.

1982-08-01

91

Perivascular Mural Cells of the Mouse Choroid Demonstrate Morphological Diversity That Is Correlated to Vasoregulatory Function  

PubMed Central

Objective Perivascular mural cells of the choroid have been implicated in physiological functioning as well as in retinal disease pathogenesis. However details regarding their form and function are not well understood. We aim to characterize choroidal mural cells in the adult mouse choroid in terms of their distribution and morphology, and correlate these to their contractile behavior. Methods Sclerochoroidal flat-mounted explants were prepared from albino transgenic mice in which the ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) promoter drives the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). ?-SMA-expressing smooth muscle cells and pericytes in the living choroid were thereby rendered fluorescent and imaged with confocal microscopy and live-cell imaging in situ. Results Choroidal perivascular mural cells demonstrate significant diversity in terms of their distribution and morphology at different levels of the vasculature. They range from densely-packed circumferentially-oriented cells that provide complete vascular coverage in primary arteries to widely-spaced stellate-shaped cells that are distributed sparsely over terminal arterioles. Mural cells at each level are immunopositive for contractile proteins ?-SMA and desmin and demonstrate vasoconstrictory contractile movements in response to endothelin-1 and the calcium ionophore, A23187, and vasodilation in response to the calcium chelator, BAPTA. The prominence of vasoregulatory contractile responses varies with mural cell morphology and density, and is greater in vessels with dense coverage of mural cells with circumferential cellular morphologies. In the choriocapillaris, pericytes demonstrate a sparse, horizontal distribution and are selectively distributed only to the scleral surface of the choriocapillaris. Conclusions Diversity and regional specialization of perivascular mural cells may subserve varying requirements for vasoregulation in the choroid. The model of the ?-SMA-GFP transgenic albino mouse provides a useful and intact system for the morphological and functional study of choroidal mural cells.

Condren, Audrey B.; Kumar, Anil; Mettu, Pradeep; Liang, Katharine J.; Zhao, Lian; Tsai, Jen-yue; Fariss, Robert N.; Wong, Wai T.

2013-01-01

92

Controlling Active Layer Morphology in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active layer in most polymer solar cells is based on the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) design. BHJs are prepared by arresting the phase separation of a polymer/fullerene blend to produce a nanoscale, interpenetrating network. Such non-equilibrium structures are very difficult to control and reproduce, posing a significant challenge for fundamental structure-property investigations. We demonstrate a new approach to control the active layer morphology with a simple two-step process: First, a thin film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is cross-linked into stable nanostructures or microstructures with electron-beam lithography [1]. Second, a soluble fullerene is spun-cast on top of the patterned polymer to complete the heterojunction. Significantly, irradiated P3HT films retain good optoelectronic properties and bilayer P3HT/fullerene heterojunctions yield power-conversion efficiencies near 0.5%. We have performed preliminary studies with model nanostructured devices and we find that efficiency increases with interfacial area [2]. These model devices are very valuable for fundamental studies because the interfacial area is accurately measured with small-angle X-ray scattering, and the active layer can be ``deconstructed'' for imaging with atomic force microscopy. [4pt] [1] S. Holdcroft, Adv. Mater. 2001, 13, 1753-1765.[0pt] [2] He et al., Adv Funct. Mater. 2011, 21, 139-146.

Moungthai, Suchanun; Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Stein, Gila

2012-02-01

93

Morphological characteristics of malignant T-cell lymphomas in baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen cases of generalized peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in baboons were phenotyped immunologically and morphologically. Using the updated Kiel classification the cases included low-grade and high-grade lymphomas and low-grade lymphomas that had transformed into high-grade lymphomas. In the low-grade group there were seven cases of lymphocytic type, partly corresponding to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia of T type and to T-zone lymphoma

Lelita A. Yakovleva; Karl Lennert; Merab G. Chikobava; Leonora V. Indzhiia; Igor N. Klotz; Boris A. Lapin

1993-01-01

94

Morphological changes of starved Salmonella enterica serovar Agona cells in soil after resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the morphological and biochemical changes ofSalmonella enterica serovar Agona incubated during 13 years in natural soil microcosm. After its resuscitation, the cells showed a biochemical\\u000a profile completely inactive. These cells recuperated their initial characters after 6 months of incubation in Tryptic Soy\\u000a broth. The scanning electron micrographs showed a reduction of the cells size and

Amina Bakhrouf; Fethi Ben Abdallah; Rihab Lagha

2008-01-01

95

Morphologic study of the Glenoid in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the natural course and the possibility of making a prognostic classification of glenoid morphology in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA). For this purpose, serial computed tomography scans of 113 osteoarthritic shoulders were reviewed. The position of the humeral head with respect to the glenoid seems to be an important predictor of the glenoid morphologic evolution. Three main glenoid types

Gilles Walch; Roger Badet; Aziz Boulahia; Alfred Khoury

1999-01-01

96

Studies of splat morphology and rapid solidification during thermal spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The splat morphology and substrate melting and re-solidification have been studied numerically and experimentally for molybdenum droplets impacting on molybdenum, mild steel, and glass substrates. The effects of the droplet size, velocity, temperature, and substrate material and temperature on the splat morphology and the rate of solidification have been investigated. The correlation between the splat flattening ratio and the Reynolds

H. Zhang; X. Y. Wang; L. L. Zheng; X. Y. Jiang

2001-01-01

97

Label-free observation of three-dimensional morphology change of a single PC12 cell by digital holographic microscopy.  

PubMed

Observation of three-dimensional (3D) morphology changes of a single mammalian cell is very useful to understand cell response for various stimuli. Conventional techniques to evaluate morphology changes with sufficient precision and high temporal resolution are limited. For example, the confocal fluorescence microscope is available to take 3D morphology changes, whereas fluorescence microscopic observation requires labeling the cells with fluorescence dye. Recently, a novel imaging method based on digital holography was developed for nonlabeling microscopic observation of 3D morphology. Digital holographic microscopy has high potentiality in digital focusing properties, video-frequency capability, noninvasive operation, and so forth. It obtains a quantitative phase image of a living cell from a single recorded hologram, with interferometric accuracy, and surveys the rapid morphology change of a single cell. In this study, digital holographic microscopy was applied to monitor the 3D morphology change of an individual PC12 cell, a nerve model cell, subjected to high K(+) stimulation. Phase images of the rapidly swelling cell were acquired, and time lapse reconstruction of 3D cell morphology was performed from phase images. Our results demonstrate that digital holographic imaging is a powerful new tool for evaluation of cell response against various stimulants without any labeling reagent. PMID:22796499

Mir, Tanveer Ahamd; Shinohara, Hiroaki

2012-07-14

98

Dasatinib inhibits primary melanoma cell proliferation through morphology-dependent disruption of Src-ERK signaling  

PubMed Central

New strategies for the treatment of advanced melanoma are urgently required. The RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway and c-Src are deregulated in the majority of malignant melanomas, suggesting that they may interact functionally and are involved in the development and progression of the malignancy. Preclinical studies have demonstrated variable inhibition of melanoma cell growth by dasatinib in vitro. Src may act through different downstream signaling pathways. In the present study, we demonstrate that dasatinib induces changes in cell morphology, characterized by an arborized and contracted appearance, and accompanied by a reduction in cell proliferation in primary melanoma cells. This morphological change is demonstrated to be associated with the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated ERK1/2. Together, these results indicate that Src may promote cell proliferation through the activation of the ERK signaling pathway in melanoma oncogenesis.

WU, JIANGHONG; LIAO, XIN; YU, BO; SU, BING

2013-01-01

99

Selenium deficiency alters epithelial cell morphology and responses to influenza.  

PubMed

It is unknown whether nutritional deficiencies affect the morphology and function of structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and modify the susceptibility to viral infections. We developed an in vitro system of differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) grown either under selenium-adequate (Se+) or selenium-deficient (Se-) conditions, to determine whether selenium deficiency impairs host defense responses at the level of the epithelium. Se- BECs had normal SOD activity, but decreased activity of the selenium-dependent enzyme GPX1. Interestingly, catalase activity was also decreased in Se- BECs. Both Se- and Se+ BECs differentiated into a mucociliary epithelium; however, Se- BEC demonstrated increased mucus production and increased Muc5AC mRNA levels. This effect was also seen in Se+ BEC treated with 3-aminotriazole, an inhibitor of catalase activity, suggesting an association between catalase activity and mucus production. Both Se- and Se+ were infected with influenza A/Bangkok/1/79 and examined 24 h postinfection. Influenza-induced IL-6 production was greater while influenza-induced IP-10 production was lower in Se- BECs. In addition, influenza-induced apoptosis was greater in Se- BEC as compared to the Se+ BECs. These data demonstrate that selenium deficiency has a significant impact on the morphology and influenza-induced host defense responses in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:17512462

Jaspers, I; Zhang, W; Brighton, L E; Carson, J L; Styblo, M; Beck, M A

2007-03-24

100

The effect of silica nanoparticle-modified surfaces on cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization and function  

PubMed Central

Chemical and morphological characteristics of a biomaterial surface are thought to play an important role in determining cellular differentiation and apoptosis. In this report, we investigate the effect of nanoparticle (NP) assemblies arranged on a flat substrate on cytoskeletal organization, proliferation and metabolic activity on two cell types, Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and mouse calvarial preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). To vary roughness without altering chemistry, glass substrates were coated with monodispersed silica nanoparticles of 50, 100 and 300 nm in diameter. The impact of surface roughness at the nanoscale on cell morphology was studied by quantifying cell spreading, shape, cytoskeletal F-actin alignment, and recruitment of focal adhesion complexes (FAC) using image analysis. Metabolic activity was followed using a thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. In the two cell types tested, surface roughness introduced by nanoparticles had cell type specific effects on cell morphology and metabolism. While BAEC on NP-modified substrates exhibited smaller cell areas and fewer focal adhesion complexes compared to BAEC grown on glass, MC3T3-E1 cells in contrast exhibited larger cell areas on NP-modified surfaces and an increased number of FACs, in comparison to unmodified glass. However, both cell types on 50 nm NP had the highest proliferation rates (comparable to glass control) whereas cells grown on 300 nm NP exhibited inhibited proliferation. Interestingly, for both cell types surface roughness promoted the formation of long, thick F-actin fibers, which aligned with the long axis of each cell. These findings are consistent with our earlier result that osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal progenitor cells is enhanced on NP-modified surfaces. Our finding that nanoroughness, as imparted by nanoparticle assemblies, effects cellular processes in a cell specific manner, can have far reaching consequences on the development of “smart” biomaterials especially for directing stem cell differentiation.

Lipski, Anna M.; Pino, Christopher J.; Haselton, Frederick R.; Chen, I.-Wei; Shastri, V. Prasad

2010-01-01

101

An Unbiased Cell Morphology-Based Screen for New, Biologically Active Small Molecules  

PubMed Central

We have implemented an unbiased cell morphology–based screen to identify small-molecule modulators of cellular processes using the Cytometrix (TM) automated imaging and analysis system. This assay format provides unbiased analysis of morphological effects induced by small molecules by capturing phenotypic readouts of most known classes of pharmacological agents and has the potential to read out pathways for which little is known. Four human-cancer cell lines and one noncancerous primary cell type were treated with 107 small molecules comprising four different protein kinase–inhibitor scaffolds. Cellular phenotypes induced by each compound were quantified by multivariate statistical analysis of the morphology, staining intensity, and spatial attributes of the cellular nuclei, microtubules, and Golgi compartments. Principal component analysis was used to identify inhibitors of cellular components not targeted by known protein kinase inhibitors. Here we focus on a hydroxyl-substituted analog (hydroxy-PP) of the known Src-family kinase inhibitor PP2 because it induced cell-specific morphological features distinct from all known kinase inhibitors in the collection. We used affinity purification to identify a target of hydroxy-PP, carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), a short-chain dehydrogenase-reductase. We solved the X-ray crystal structure of the CBR1/hydroxy-PP complex to 1.24 Ĺ resolution. Structure-based design of more potent and selective CBR1 inhibitors provided probes for analyzing the biological function of CBR1 in A549 cells. These studies revealed a previously unknown function for CBR1 in serum-withdrawal-induced apoptosis. Further studies indicate CBR1 inhibitors may enhance the effectiveness of anticancer anthracyclines. Morphology-based screening of diverse cancer cell types has provided a method for discovering potent new small-molecule probes for cell biological studies and anticancer drug candidates.

2005-01-01

102

Adult renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid morphology represents a neoplastic dedifferentiation analogous to sarcomatoid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with rhabdoid morphology (RCC-RM) is a recently described variant of RCC, which has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis, akin to sarcomatoid RCC. The current World Health Organization classification of RCC does not include the rhabdoid phenotype as a distinct histologic entity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether RCC-RM represents a dedifferentiation of a classifiable-type World Health Organization RCC or a carcinosarcoma with muscle differentiation. We reviewed 168 cases of RCC obtained between 2003 and 2008. From these cases, 10 (6%) were found to have areas of classic rhabdoid morphology. Immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, CD10, and CD117 was performed in each case using the labeled streptavidin-biotin method. Rhabdoid differentiation was identified in association with conventional-type RCC (9) and with unclassifiable-type RCC with spindle cell morphology (1). In all cases, both the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid tumoral areas were positive for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen and negative for desmin. Cytokeratin positivity in the rhabdoid areas was focal. In cases associated with conventional-type RCC, CD10 was positive in both the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid foci. CD117 was negative in these tumors. The unclassifiable-type RCC with spindle cell morphology was negative for both CD10 and CD117. The similar immunophenotype between the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid tumoral foci supports the origin of the rhabdoid cells from the classifiable-type RCC. Areas of rhabdoid morphology do not represent muscle metaplastic differentiation. Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid morphology may represent a dedifferentiation of a classifiable-type RCC, similar to that of sarcomatoid differentiation. The recognition of RCC-RM is important as it allows for the inclusion of these high-grade malignancies into a category associated with poor prognosis despite lacking the spindle cell component classically identified as sarcomatoid change. PMID:21665507

Chapman-Fredricks, Jennifer R; Herrera, Loren; Bracho, Jorge; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen; Leveillee, Raymond; Rey, Luis; Jorda, Merce

2011-06-12

103

Craniofacial morphology in patients with sickle cell disease: a cephalometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of the study was to evaluate the craniofacial morphology in Caucasian patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) by comparing them with a healthy group paired for gender and age, by means of lateral cephalometric radiographs. Thirty-six Sicilian patients with SCD (17 females and 19 males), including 14 b s ? s (mean age 28 ± 5.9 years),

Valeria Licciardello; Gregoria Bertuna; Piera Samperi

2007-01-01

104

Characterization of morphological response of red cells in a sucrose solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of red cell shape changes following transfer into sucrose media having a low chloride content was studied. Based on a large number of measurements, six types of morphological response (MR), differing both in the degree of shape changes and the time course of the process, were identified. The most prominent type of response is a triphasic sequence of

Sergey V. Rudenko

2009-01-01

105

Morphological and cytoskeletal alterations of nervous system tumor cells with different culturing methods.  

PubMed

Cell culture is one of the most important methods of research in molecular and cellular biology, and various culture systems have been developed, including two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) and floating culture systems. In the present study, we examined morphological changes and different expression patterns of cytoskeletal proteins in three different types of nervous system tumor cells grown in 2D, 3D and floating cell cultures. A172, KG-1-C and IMR-32 cells showed marked morphological changes, depending on the cell culture methods. F-actin expression was clearly observed at the level of the cells nearest the plate surface in 2D and 3D cultures. On the other hand, expression of F-actin was weak in the floating culture system. ?-tubulin was detected in the cytoplasm of cells in 2D culture, but in floating and 3D cultures, ?-tubulin was expressed in the peripheral regions of spheres and spheroids. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that nervous system tumor cells showed different alterations in morphology, and different cytoskeletal protein expression patterns, depending on the culture methods. PMID:21331444

Matsuda, Yoko; Kawamoto, Yoko; Teduka, Kiyoshi; Peng, Wei-Xia; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Naito, Zenya

2011-02-17

106

Image processing and classification algorithm for yeast cell morphology in a microfluidic chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of yeast cell morphology requires consistent identification of cell cycle phases based on cell bud size. A computer-based image processing algorithm is designed to automatically classify microscopic images of yeast cells in a microfluidic channel environment. The images were enhanced to reduce background noise, and a robust segmentation algorithm is developed to extract geometrical features including compactness, axis ratio, and bud size. The features are then used for classification, and the accuracy of various machine-learning classifiers is compared. The linear support vector machine, distance-based classification, and k-nearest-neighbor algorithm were the classifiers used in this experiment. The performance of the system under various illumination and focusing conditions were also tested. The results suggest it is possible to automatically classify yeast cells based on their morphological characteristics with noisy and low-contrast images.

Yang Yu, Bo; Elbuken, Caglar; Ren, Carolyn L.; Huissoon, Jan P.

2011-06-01

107

Morphology-Based Prediction of Osteogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) are widely used cell source for clinical bone regeneration. Achieving the greatest therapeutic effect is dependent on the osteogenic differentiation potential of the stem cells to be implanted. However, there are still no practical methods to characterize such potential non-invasively or previously. Monitoring cellular morphology is a practical and non-invasive approach for evaluating osteogenic potential. Unfortunately, such image-based approaches had been historically qualitative and requiring experienced interpretation. By combining the non-invasive attributes of microscopy with the latest technology allowing higher throughput and quantitative imaging metrics, we studied the applicability of morphometric features to quantitatively predict cellular osteogenic potential. We applied computational machine learning, combining cell morphology features with their corresponding biochemical osteogenic assay results, to develop prediction model of osteogenic differentiation. Using a dataset of 9,990 images automatically acquired by BioStation CT during osteogenic differentiation culture of hBMSCs, 666 morphometric features were extracted as parameters. Two commonly used osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were measured experimentally, and used as the true biological differentiation status to validate the prediction accuracy. Using time-course morphological features throughout differentiation culture, the prediction results highly correlated with the experimentally defined differentiation marker values (R>0.89 for both marker predictions). The clinical applicability of our morphology-based prediction was further examined with two scenarios: one using only historical cell images and the other using both historical images together with the patient's own cell images to predict a new patient's cellular potential. The prediction accuracy was found to be greatly enhanced by incorporation of patients' own cell features in the modeling, indicating the practical strategy for clinical usage. Consequently, our results provide strong evidence for the feasibility of using a quantitative time series of phase-contrast cellular morphology for non-invasive cell quality prediction in regenerative medicine.

Agata, Hideki; Kagami, Hideaki; Shiono, Hirofumi; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

2013-01-01

108

Morphology-based prediction of osteogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) are widely used cell source for clinical bone regeneration. Achieving the greatest therapeutic effect is dependent on the osteogenic differentiation potential of the stem cells to be implanted. However, there are still no practical methods to characterize such potential non-invasively or previously. Monitoring cellular morphology is a practical and non-invasive approach for evaluating osteogenic potential. Unfortunately, such image-based approaches had been historically qualitative and requiring experienced interpretation. By combining the non-invasive attributes of microscopy with the latest technology allowing higher throughput and quantitative imaging metrics, we studied the applicability of morphometric features to quantitatively predict cellular osteogenic potential. We applied computational machine learning, combining cell morphology features with their corresponding biochemical osteogenic assay results, to develop prediction model of osteogenic differentiation. Using a dataset of 9,990 images automatically acquired by BioStation CT during osteogenic differentiation culture of hBMSCs, 666 morphometric features were extracted as parameters. Two commonly used osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were measured experimentally, and used as the true biological differentiation status to validate the prediction accuracy. Using time-course morphological features throughout differentiation culture, the prediction results highly correlated with the experimentally defined differentiation marker values (R>0.89 for both marker predictions). The clinical applicability of our morphology-based prediction was further examined with two scenarios: one using only historical cell images and the other using both historical images together with the patient's own cell images to predict a new patient's cellular potential. The prediction accuracy was found to be greatly enhanced by incorporation of patients' own cell features in the modeling, indicating the practical strategy for clinical usage. Consequently, our results provide strong evidence for the feasibility of using a quantitative time series of phase-contrast cellular morphology for non-invasive cell quality prediction in regenerative medicine. PMID:23437049

Matsuoka, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Agata, Hideki; Kagami, Hideaki; Shiono, Hirofumi; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

2013-02-21

109

Influence of Sutherlandia frutescens extracts on cell numbers, morphology and gene expression in MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed

Sutherlandia frutescens is a well-known South African herbal remedy traditionally used for stomach problems, internal cancers, diabetes, various inflammatory conditions and recently to improve the overall health in cancer and HIV/AIDS patients. The influence of crude Sutherlandia frutescens extracts (prepared with 70% ethanol) was investigated on cell numbers, morphology, and gene expression profiles in a MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Time-dependent (24, 34, 48 and 72 h) and dose-dependent (0.5-2.5 mg/ml) studies were conducted utilizing spectrophotometrical analysis with crystal violet as DNA stain. A statistically significant decrease to 50% of malignant cell numbers was observed after 24 h of exposure to 1.5 mg/ml Sutherlandia frutescens extract when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphological characteristics of apoptosis including cytoplasmic shrinking, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies were observed after 24h of exposure. A preliminary global gene expression profile was obtained by means of microarray analysis and revealed valuable information about the molecular mechanisms and signal transduction associated with 70% ethanolic Sutherlandia frutescens extracts. PMID:17433588

Stander, B A; Marais, S; Steynberg, T J; Theron, D; Joubert, F; Albrecht, C; Joubert, A M

2007-03-14

110

WR-1065 and radioprotection of vascular endothelial cells. II. Morphology  

SciTech Connect

Although the aminothiol WR-1065 protects normal tissues, its direct effect on the damage and restoration of the vascular endothelium is not clear. In endothelial cells, WR-1065 attenuates both the DNA damage and the G{sub 1}-phase arrest induced by radiation. After the destruction of nearby endothelial cells, the survivors rearrange their cytoskeleton, migrate and replicate. To determine the effect of radiation on morphology and migration, portions of bovine aortic endothelial cell cultures were denuded with a pipette tip and irradiated ({sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays). The following observations were noted after 5 Gy: within 10 min, there was increased formation of protein-mixed disulfides including actin-mixed disulfide; after 30 min, {alpha}{sub 5}{Beta}{sub 1}, the integrin receptor for fibronectin, was up-regulated on the apical membrane surface. Within 5 h, actin-containing stress fibers reorganized, although there was no change in the total filamentous (F-)actin content within the cells. Compared to controls after 24 h, the irradiated cells had migrated 15% farther (P < 0.01), and at the leading edge covered twice the surface area (P < 0.0001). The addition of 2 mM WR-1065 for 2 h before 5 Gy inhibited the increased expression of {alpha}{sub 5}{Beta}{sub 1}, promoted retention of stress fibers and prevented the enhanced cell migration and spreading. These results indicate that WR-1065 prevents radiation-induced morphological responses. This effect appears to be mediated by an impact on both adhesion molecule expression and cytoskeletal reorganization. 61 refs., 6 figs.

Mooteri, S.N.; Podolski, J.L.; Drab, E.A.; Saclarides, T.J. [Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

1996-02-01

111

Morphological homogeneity of neurons: searching for outlier neuronal cells.  

PubMed

We report a morphology-based approach for the automatic identification of outlier neurons, as well as its application to the NeuroMorpho.org database, with more than 5,000 neurons. Each neuron in a given analysis is represented by a feature vector composed of 20 measurements, which are then projected into a two-dimensional space by applying principal component analysis. Bivariate kernel density estimation is then used to obtain the probability distribution for the group of cells, so that the cells with highest probabilities are understood as archetypes while those with the smallest probabilities are classified as outliers. The potential of the methodology is illustrated in several cases involving uniform cell types as well as cell types for specific animal species. The results provide insights regarding the distribution of cells, yielding single and multi-variate clusters, and they suggest that outlier cells tend to be more planar and tortuous. The proposed methodology can be used in several situations involving one or more categories of cells, as well as for detection of new categories and possible artifacts. PMID:22615032

Zawadzki, Krissia; Feenders, Christoph; Viana, Matheus P; Kaiser, Marcus; Costa, Luciano da F

2012-10-01

112

Morphology and expression status investigations of specific surface markers on B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

The morphology of cells and expression status of specific surface markers [cluster of differentiation (CD)], such as CD5, CD19, CD20, CD38, and CD45, have long been considered as the essential indicators for the diagnosis and prognosis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Clinically, it is difficult to simultaneously obtain cell morphology and distribution of surface markers with flow cytometry, especially for some surrogate markers such as CD38. Here, as an alternative and complementary prognostic method, fluorescence microscopy and image processing method are introduced to directly visualize the cells from patients and to quantitatively determine the expression status of surface markers. In this study, the morphological parameters of B-CLL cells were measured to establish the correlation between the cellular morphology and the surface marker expression. It was clear that the CD38+ and CD38- B-CLL cells from the same CD38+ patients had hardly any size differences; however, an increase in perimeter was observed for CD38- patients. Moreover, the expression level of the receptors on the cell was independent of the cell size. There was no evidence showing that the expression intensities of CD19 and CD38 were related to each other for the CD38+ B-CLL cells. On the same cells, CD5 was more selectively expressed on the cell membrane; however, the expression patterns suggested that the cell membrane of CD38- B-CLL cells contained the least expression level of CD19. Microsc. Res. Tech. 76:1147-1153, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23963997

Niu, Suli; Chan, Ryan; Berini, Pierre; Wang, Chen; Zou, Shan

2013-08-20

113

Temperature sensitivity on proliferation and morphologic alteration of human esophageal carcinoma cells in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  As basic studies of hyperthermia and hypothermia on malignant tumor, the kinetics of proliferative activity, the morphologic\\u000a changes in the two cell lines, SGF-3 and SGF-5, established in our department after the change of culture temperature were\\u000a examined. The results obtained were: a) A significant difference was found in the sensitivity to temperatures between the\\u000a two cell lines originated from

Mitsukazu Saito; Takashi Shinbo; Tomohiro Saito; Hiroshi Kato; Haruyo Otagiri; Yoshiaki Karaki; Kenji Tazawa; Masao Fujimaki

1990-01-01

114

A morphological and ultrastructural study of bone in osteogenesis imperfecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphological and electron microscopic study of bone from patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has been performed.\\u000a Bone from OI patients from various anatomical sites has been compared with that from normal, age-, site-, and sex-matched\\u000a controls. The morphology of OI bone appeared variable among patients and sites of bone examined. Immature woven bone and a\\u000a poor lamellar pattern were

J. P. Cassella; T. C. B. Stamp; S. Y. Ali

1996-01-01

115

[Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (clinico-morphological study)].  

PubMed

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma was found in 11 out of 161 patients with chondrosarcoma of the bone. The assaultive nature of the disease is illustrated by the following data: the period between the manifestation of symptoms and the first visit to the doctor was 5.9 +/- 4.3 months; metastases were detected within 20.56 +/- 6.04 months and 8 patients out of 10 died within the first 5 years. Two histological structures were observed: those of the chondrosarcoma type and hemangiopericytoma-like structures formed of small atypical cells. PMID:6636625

Solov'ev, Iu N; Eremina, L A; Petrovichev, N N; Khmelev, O N; Kasumov, I V

1983-01-01

116

Retinoids have different effects on morphological transformation and anchorage independent growth of Syrian hamster embryo cells.  

PubMed

The effect of different retinoids on morphological transformation and anchorage independent growth of Syrian hamster embryo cells has been studied. Retinoic acid and its derivatives were found to induce morphological transformation of hamster embryo cells, and to synergistically increase the transformation frequency when exposed in combination with benzo[a]pyrene. The increase was maintained when the cells were sequentially exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and retinoids in a similar way as observed for tumor promoting phorbol esters. At the same time retinoids were found to strongly decrease anchorage independent growth of a hamster embryo cell line. The present results support previous findings indicating that retinoids may have an enhancing effect on the early stages in carcinogenesis, and an inhibitory effect on the later stages. PMID:4017175

Rivedal, E; Sanner, T

1985-07-01

117

Morphology of mouse subplate cells with identified projection targets changes with age.  

PubMed

During embryonic and early postnatal development subplate neurons integrate into the developing intra- and extracortical circuitry in a dynamic fashion. They extend long-range projections to adjacent cortical regions, the contralateral hemisphere through the corpus callosum, and to subcortical structures through the internal capsule. Here we studied the developmental changes of the somatodendritic morphology of subplate neurons with specified projection target in the mouse. To do so we used carbocyanine dye tracing from the callosum, the internal capsule, or the primary somatosensory cortex. The morphology of subplate cells with projections to any of these targets is very diverse and includes pyramidal, multipolar, and neurogliaform cells. Here we demonstrate that a subpopulation of subplate cells in the mouse cortex undergoes significant changes in somatodendritic morphology during the critical period for experimental modification of the cytoarchitectonic development of the barrel cortex. Between P2 and P7 the mean maximal extent of the primary dendrite decreases significantly for subplate cells with an axon projecting through the internal capsule. Moreover, at P2 some subplate cells extend a primary dendrite to the marginal zone, whereas all dendrites of P7 subplate cells end in or below layer 4. Additionally, by tracing connections from multiple targets with different carbocyanine dyes we identified subplate cells with multiple long-range projections. PMID:21800308

Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Molnár, Zoltán

2012-01-01

118

Influence of curvature on the morphology of brain microvascular endothelial cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are hundreds or thousands of endothelial cells around the perimeter of a single artery or vein, and hence an individual cell experiences little curvature. In contrast, a single endothelial cell may wrap around itself to form the lumen of a brain capillary. Curvature plays a key role in many biological, chemical and physical processes, however, its role in dictating the morphology and polarization of brain capillary endothelial cells has not been investigated. We hypothesize that curvature and shear flow play a key role in determining the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have developed the ``rod'' assay to study the influence of curvature on the morphology of confluent monolayers of endothelial cells. In this assay cells are plated onto glass rods pulled down to the desired diameter in the range from 5 -- 500 ?m and coated with collagen. We show that curvature has a significant influence on the morphology of endothelial cells and may have an important role in blood-brain barrier function.

Ye, Mao; Yang, Zhen; Wong, Andrew; Searson, Peter

2013-03-01

119

Changes in cell morphology due to plasma membrane wounding by acoustic cavitation.  

PubMed

Acoustic cavitation-mediated wounding (i.e., sonoporation) has great potential to improve medical and laboratory applications requiring intracellular uptake of exogenous molecules; however, the field lacks detailed understanding of cavitation-induced morphologic changes in cells and their relative importance. Here, we present an in-depth study of the effects of acoustic cavitation on cells using electron and confocal microscopy coupled with quantitative flow cytometry. High resolution images of treated cells show that morphologically different types of blebs can occur after wounding conditions caused by ultrasound exposure as well as by mechanical shear and strong laser ablation. In addition, these treatments caused wound-induced nonlytic necrotic death resulting in cell bodies we call wound-derived perikarya (WD-P). However, only cells exposed to acoustic cavitation experienced ejection of intact nuclei and nearly instant lytic necrosis. Quantitative analysis by flow cytometry indicates that wound-derived perikarya are the dominant morphology of nonviable cells, except at the strongest wounding conditions, where nuclear ejection accounts for a significant portion of cell death after ultrasound exposure. PMID:20350691

Schlicher, Robyn K; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Radhakrishna, Harish; Apkarian, Robert P; Prausnitz, Mark R

2010-04-01

120

Rheumatoid lymphadenopathy: a morphological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed Central

Sixteen lymph nodes from 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were examined immunohistochemically and morphometrically and compared with 10 control nodes showing follicular hyperplasia from patients without rheumatoid disease. Frozen material was available from nine patients and all controls. The nodes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis seemed to share characteristic features. The most striking of these was follicular hyperplasia in which the germinal centres, in spite of being quite large, showed relatively sparse proliferative activity. The nodes often showed infiltration of germinal centres by CD8 positive T lymphocytes and contained fewer IL2R positive cells in the paracortex than controls. These and other features may have some correlation with disease activity. Lymphadenopathy in rheumatoid arthritis may not just be a manifestation of joint inflammation but an active component of this multisystem disease and may reflect a widespread immunological abnormality. Images

Kondratowicz, G M; Symmons, D P; Bacon, P A; Mageed, R A; Jones, E L

1990-01-01

121

Biphasic alveolosquamoid renal carcinoma: a histomorphological, immunohistochemical, molecular genetic, and ultrastructural study of a distinctive morphologic variant of renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Only a few cases of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with squamous differentiation have been published. We present 2 RCCs exhibiting a hitherto not reported biphasic neoplastic cell population exhibiting a predominantly alveolar architecture where squamoid differentiation was identified in one of the neoplastic cell populations. None of the tumors showed chromophobe features or any evidence of sarcomatoid transformation. The tumors arose in 2 adult patients and were characterized by routine histology, immunohistochemistry, ultrastructure, array comparative genomic hybridization, confirmatory fluorescent in situ hybridization, and loss of heterozygosity analysis. Tumors measured 3 and 4 cm and were located within the renal parenchyma and had no pelvicalyceal connection. Both tumors were composed of a distinctly dual-cell population. The larger tumor cells displayed squamoid features and formed round well-demarcated solid alveolated islands that, in large parts, were surrounded by a smaller neoplastic cell component. The squamoid cells were immunoreactive for cytokeratins (CKs) (AE1-AE3, Cam 5.2, CK5/6, CK7, and CK20), epithelial membrane antigen, racemase/AMACR, and carboanhydrase IX (in 1 case focally). The small cell population was positive for CK7, epithelial membrane antigen, and racemase/AMACR, whereas CK20, AE1-3, and carboanhydrase IX were negative. CD10 was focally positive in the large squamoid cells in 1 case. Cathepsin K, E-cadherin, and CD117 displayed focal positivity in 1 case. Vimentin, RCC marker, parvalbumin, S100 protein, S100 A1, p63, p53, CDX2, uroplakin III, HMB45, TFE3, WT1, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, thyroglobulin, and TTF1 were negative. The proliferative activity (Ki-67) was low (1%) in the small cell component in both cases, whereas the large neoplastic tumor cells displayed a significantly higher proliferation (20%-35%). Ultrastructurally, desmosomes and tonofilaments were identified in the large tumor cells, confirming squamoid differentiation in a subset of tumor cells. Array comparative genomic hybridization of 1 analyzable case (confirmed with fluorescent in situ hybridization and loss of heterozygosity analysis) revealed partial or complete losses of chromosomes 2, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 22, (including biallelic loss of CDKN2A locus) and partial gains of chromosomes 1, 5, 11, 12 and 13. Follow-up at 6 years showed no recurrence or metastasis in 1 patient. The other (male) patients had a subcutaneous metastasis at presentation, but during a 1-year follow-up no evidence of recurrence or further metastatic events have been documented. Our data indicate that biphasic alveolosquamoid renal carcinoma is a unique and distinctive tumor. The large squamoid and small tumor cells have overlapping but still distinctive immunohistochemical patterns of protein expression. Multiple chromosomal aberrations were identified, some of them located in regions with known tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. PMID:23036259

Petersson, Fredrik; Bulimbasic, Stela; Hes, Ondrej; Slavik, Pavol; Martínek, Petr; Michal, Michal; Gomol?áková, Barbora; Hora, Milan; Damjanov, Ivan

2012-10-02

122

An electrical impedance method to continuously monitor morphology and motion of cells in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given as follows: Great advances have been made in quantifying biochemical and physiological activities in cultured cells. It has, however been difficult to quantify changes of cell morphology. A method has now been developed that can continuously and non-invasively track morphological changes of adherent cells and provide data from both sparse and confluent cultures. In electric cell-substrate

I. Giaever; C. R. Keese

1994-01-01

123

Comparative morphology of interstitial cells of Cajal: ultrastructural characterization.  

PubMed

The shape, distribution, and ultrastructural features of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) of different tissue layers and organs of the rat and guinea-pig digestive tract were described and compared with the corresponding cells in other species including mice, dogs, and humans, as reported in the literature. By light microscopy, the best marker for ICC appeared to be immunoreactivity for c-Kit. Ultrastructurally, ICC were characterized by the presence of many mitochondria, bundles of intermediate filaments, and gap junctions, which linked ICC with each other. However, ICC were morphologically heterogeneous and had particular features, depending on their tissue and organ location and species. ICC in the deep muscular plexus of the small intestine and in the submuscular plexus of the colon were the most like smooth muscle cells, and had a distinct basal lamina and numerous caveolae. In contrast, ICC of Auerbach's plexus at all levels of the gastrointestinal tract were the least like smooth muscle cells. They most closely resembled unremarkable fibroblasts. ICC within the circular muscle layer were intermediate in form. In addition to the tissue specificity, some organ and species specificity could be distinguished. The structural differences between ICC may be determined by their microenvironment, including the effects of mechanical force, type of nerve supply, and spacial relationship with smooth muscle cells. PMID:10602287

Komuro, T

1999-11-15

124

Regulation of cerebral endothelial cell morphology by extracellular calcium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerebral endothelial cells interconnected by tight and adherens junctions constitute the structural basis of the blood-brain barrier. Extracellular calcium ions have been reported to play an important role in the formation and maintenance of the junctional complex. However, little is known about the action of calcium depletion on the structural characteristics of cerebral endothelial cells. Using atomic force microscopy we analyzed the effect of calcium depletion and readdition on the shape and size of living brain endothelial cells. It was found that the removal of extracellular calcium from confluent cell cultures induced the dissociation of the cells from each other accompanied by an increase in their height. After readdition of calcium a gradual recovery was observed until total confluency was regained. We have also demonstrated that Rho-kinase plays an important role in the calcium-depletion-induced disassembly of endothelial tight and adherens junctions. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632 could prevent the morphological changes induced by a lack of calcium as well. Our results suggest that calcium depletion induces Rho-kinase-dependent cytoskeletal changes that may be partly responsible for the disassembly of the junctional complex.

Wilhelm, Imola; Farkas, Attila E.; Nagyoszi, Péter; Váró, György; Bálint, Zoltán; Végh, Gergely A.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A.; Weksler, Babette; Krizbai, István A.

2007-10-01

125

Morphological Studies of the Vestibular Nerve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysi...

B. Bergstroem

1973-01-01

126

The morphological structure of the chick's basilar papilla: a light and transmission electron microscopic study.  

PubMed

The basilar papilla corresponds to the cochlea of mammals and is becoming a common model of assessment of the regeneration process which takes place after the damage to the inner ear caused by noise or ototoxic drugs. In this study the morphology of a chick's basilar papilla in light and electron microscopy is described. There are two types of hair cells (sensory cells): the tall hair cells and the short hair cells, whose morphology and pattern of innervation are different. The tall hair cells correspond to the inner hair cells in mammals, which are responsible for sound transduction. They are mainly innervated by the afferent (cochlear) fibers. The short hair cells correspond to the outer hair cells in mammals, which are responsible for the sound amplification. They are mainly innervated by the efferent fibers. The supporting cells, whose morphology is also described in the study, separate the hair cells from each other and from the basilar membrane. They are considered to be a source for regenerating hair cells. PMID:9835171

Sliwi?ska-Kowalska, M; Rzadzi?ska, A; Jedli?ska, U

1998-01-01

127

Morphological characterization of the progenitor blood cells in canine and feline umbilical cord.  

PubMed

The umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells with great deal of interest in regenerative medicine. The UCB cells have been extensively studied as an alternative to the bone marrow transplants. The challenge is to define specific methods to purify and characterize these cells in different animal species. This study is aimed at morphological characterization of progenitor cells derived from UCB highlighting relevant differences with peripheral blood of adult in dog and cats. Therefore, blood was collected from 18 dogs and 5 cats' umbilical cords from fetus in various developmental stages. The mononuclear cells were separated using the gradient of density Histopaque-1077. Characterization of CD34+ cells was performed by flow cytometric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Granulocytes (ancestry of the basophiles, eosinophiles, and neutrophiles) and agranulocytes (represented by immature lymphocytes) were identified. We showed for the first time the ultrastructural features of cat UCB cells. PMID:22131289

Brólio, Marina P; Vidane, Atanásio S; Zomer, Helena D; Wenceslau, Cristiane V; Ozório, Juliana J; Martins, Daniele S; Miglino, Maria A; Ambrósio, Carlos E

2011-12-01

128

Toker cells are probably precursors of Paget cell carcinoma: a morphological and ultrastructural description.  

PubMed

The present paper documents an investigation of the morphology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructure of Toker cells (TC), aiming for a better definition of these elements and better understanding of their histogenesis. We studied 12 nipples removed for nipple adenoma from twelve patients and a case of supernumerary nipple. In addition four cases of Paget's carcinoma (PC) restricted to the nipple without underlying tumor were studied for comparison. All cases were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Alcian blue pH 2.5 and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) preceded by diastase digestion and with immunohistochemistry using antisera anti cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, protein S100, GCDFP-15, c-Erb-B2, CAM 5.2, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Two cases from the nipple adenoma series were studied by electron microscopy. In seven cases within the series of 12 nipple adenomas as well as in the case of supernumerary nipple, keratin 7 antibody highlighted numerous cells located within the nipple epidermis which in three cases showed dendritic processes. These same elements were also positive with CAM 5.2. All these same elements were negative with Alcian Blue (AB), PAS and the other antisera employed. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated that these cells differed from keratinocytes while they presented the same features as the glandular cells seen in the related nipple adenoma. The cells constituting Paget's carcinoma showed more irregular nuclei and were more easily seen in the context of the epidermis. The immunocytochemical profile of the cancer cells was similar to that of TC, but in addition the neoplastic cells were c-Erb-B2 and EMA positive in all cases, and one case also displayed numerous cells immunoreactive with anti GCDFP-15 antibody. Keratin 7 highlighted dendritic cells in two cases and AB, PAS was negative in all patients. The immunocytochemical profile and the ultrastructural features of TC are similar to those of the glandular cells constituting the ducts and the adenoma. These findings together with the localization of TC near or around the openings of the lactiferous sinuses indicate that TC might be ductal cells with a dendritic aspect and migrate through the galactophorous ostia. PC cells not related to ductal carcinomas have a similar but not superimposable immunohistochemical profile to TC, and in two cases the neoplastic elements were also dendritic which suggests that these same cells are likely to be the neoplastic counterpart of TC. PMID:12189500

Marucci, Gianluca; Betts, Christine M; Golouh, Rastko; Peterse, J L; Foschini, Maria P; Eusebi, Vincenzo

2002-02-01

129

Morphological, Biological, and Biochemical Characteristics of Human Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinomas Grown in Tissue Culture and in Nude Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological, biological, biochemical, and karyotypic characteristics of four human bladder transitional cell carcinoma lines, SW-780, SW-800, SW-1738, and SW-1710, were investi gated. In tissue culture, each cell line presented a distinct phen- otypic expression. All but line SW-1710 grew when transplanted in the nude mouse. Light and electron microscopic studies showed morphological characteristics similar to the tumors of origin,

Aikaterini A. Kyriazis; Andreas P. Kyriazis; William B. McCombs; Ward D. Peterson

130

Prenatal Gonadal Steroids Affect Adult Spatial Behavior, CA1 and CA3 Pyramidal Cell Morphology in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed whether prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure affected adult spatial learning and hippocampal morphology. Water maze performance, the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell field, and the dentate gyrus-granule cell layer (DG-GCL) morphology were assessed at adulthood (70+ days of age) in males, females, androgen-treated (testosterone propionate, TP, or dihydrotestosterone propionate, DHTP) females (2–4 mg\\/day), estradiol benzoate (EB)-treated

Ceylan Isgor; Dale R. Sengelaub

1998-01-01

131

AFM-Detected Apoptotic Changes in Morphology and Biophysical Property Caused by Paclitaxel in Ishikawa and HeLa Cells  

PubMed Central

The apoptosis of cancer cells is associated with changes in the important cell properties including morphology, surface roughness and stiffness. Therefore, the changes in morphology and biophysical properties can be a good way of evaluating the anticancer activity of a drug. This study examined the effect of paclitaxel on the properties of Ishikawa and HeLa cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the relationship between the changes in morphology and the biophysical properties and apoptosis was discussed. The viability and proliferation of the cells were analyzed using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method and a TUNEL assay to confirm cellular apoptosis due to a paclitaxel treatment. AFM observations clearly showed the apoptotic morphological and biophysical changes in Ishikawa and HeLa cells. After the paclitaxel treatment, the cell membrane was torn and holed, the surface roughness was increased, and the stiffness was decreased. These changes were observed more apparently after a 24 h treatment and in Ishikawa cells compared to HeLa cells. The MTT and TUNEL assays results revealed the Ishikawa cells to be more sensitive to paclitaxel than HeLa cells and definite apoptosis occurred after a 24 h treatment. These results showed good agreement with the AFM results. Therefore, research on the morphological and biophysical changes by AFM in cancer cells will help to evaluate the anticancer activities of the drugs.

Park, Eun Kuk; Jung, Min-Hyung; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Park, Hun-Kuk

2012-01-01

132

Effect of extract of medicinal plants on the labeling of blood elements with Technetium99m and on the morphology of red blood cells: I—a study with Paullinia cupana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs can alter the labeling and the morphology of red blood cells. As Paullinia cupana is used in popular medicine, we evaluated its influence on the labeling process using technetium-99m (Tc-99m). Blood was incubated with P. cupana, stannous chloride and Tc-99m. Samples were centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. Soluble (SF)

J. F de Oliveira; A. S Ávila; A. C. S Braga; M. B. N de Oliveira; E. M Boasquevisque; R. L Jales; V. N Cardoso; M Bernardo-Filho

2002-01-01

133

Morphological study of accessory gland of Bothrops jararaca and its secretory cycle.  

PubMed

The venom gland apparatus of Bothrops jararaca is composed of four distinct parts: main venom gland, primary duct, accessory gland and secondary duct. Despite the numerous studies concerning morphology and venom production and secretion in the main venom gland, there are few studies about the accessory gland and its secretion. We characterized the accessory gland of B. jararaca snake and determined the secretion cycle by morphological analysis using light and transmission electron microscopy. Our data showed that the accessory gland of B. jararaca has a simple secretory epithelium with at least six types of cells in the anterior region: two types of secretory cells, mitochondria-rich cells without secretory vesicles, horizontal cells, dark cells and basal cells, and in the posterior region a simple epithelium with two types of cells: seromucous cells and horizontal cells. Furthermore, the mucous secretory cells of the accessory gland show a delayed and massive exocytosis that occurs four days after the extraction of venom. Morphological analysis at different steps after venom extraction showed that the accessory gland has a long cycle of production and secretion, which is not synchronous with the main venom gland secretory cycle. PMID:22227156

Sakai, Fernanda; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Yamanouye, Norma

2011-12-30

134

Co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells maintains islet organisation and morphology in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete several factors that improve survival and function of\\u000a transplanted islets. Implantation of islets beneath the kidney capsule results in morphological changes, due to interactions\\u000a of the graft with the host, thus impairing islet function. We co-transplanted MSCs with islets to determine their effects\\u000a on the remodelling process and studied graft

C. L. Rackham; P. C. Chagastelles; N. B. Nardi; A. C. Hauge-Evans; P. M. Jones; A. J. F. King

2011-01-01

135

Flow patterns and endothelial cell morphology in a simplified model of an artificial ventricle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to delineate the flow patterns in a non-unidirectional flow field inside a ventricle-shaped cell\\u000a culture chamber, and examine the resulting morphology and integrity of the endothelium in select regions of the monolayer.\\u000a The chamber was perfused by pulsatile flow, and the coherent motion of the fluid was studied using flow visualization aided\\u000a by image

Mark M. Samet; Peter I. Lelkes

1993-01-01

136

Culture of Human Endothelial Cells Derived from Umbilical Veins. IDENTIFICATION BY MORPHOLOGIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC CRITERIA  

PubMed Central

Endothelial cells were isolated from freshly obtained human umbilical cords by collagenase digestion of the interior of the umbilical vein. The cells were grown in tissue culture as a homogeneous population for periods up to 5 mo and some lines were subcultured for 10 serial passages. During the logarithmic phase of cell growth, cell-doubling time was 92 h. Light, phase contrast, and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that cultured human endothelial cells grew as monolayers of closely opposed, polygonal large cells whereas both cultured human fibroblasts and human smooth muscle cells grew as overlapping layers of parallel arrays of slender, spindle-shaped cells. By transmission electron microscopy, cultured endothelial cells were seen to contain cytoplasmic inclusions (Weibel-Palade bodies) characteristic of in situ endothelial cells. These inclusions were also found in endothelial cells lining umbilical veins but were not seen in smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts in culture or in situ. Cultured endothelial cells contained abundant quantities of smooth muscle actomyosin. Cultured endothelial cells also contained ABH antigens appropriate to the tissue donor's blood type; these antigens were not detectable on cultured smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts. These studies demonstrate that it is possible to culture morphologically and immunologically identifiable human endothelial cells for periods up to 5 mo. Images

Jaffe, Eric A.; Nachman, Ralph L.; Becker, Carl G.; Minick, C. Richard

1973-01-01

137

Morphological behavior and attachment of p19 neural cells to root-end filling materials.  

PubMed

Some techniques and instruments like stereomicroscopy and confocal microscopy used for observing neural cells are too complicated and dependent on preparation and cell fixation methods. This may question the results of these methods. Though, we have used scanning electron microscopy on replicated specimens to observe p19 neural cells and their cellular extensions. This manuscript has shown the feasibility of using replica (indirect) method instead of direct methods for observing morphological characteristics of this high sensitive cell line. As neural cells are very sensitive to fixation solutions and processes, we have used replica mode and observed neural cells with a novel indirect method. We have used replica mode in this study to indirectly and noninvasively evaluate the state of p19 neural cells and their cellular extensions. PMID:21254110

Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asgar, Kamal; Daliri, Morteza; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Delvarani, Abbas; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Karamifar, Kasra

2010-11-09

138

Morphological and Phytochemical Studies on 'Asparagus filifolius' BERTOL. (Liliaceae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is based on the species Asparagus filifolius collected from khzana, a small islet close to the west bank of Euphrates river near Haditha (Iraq). The morphological study was carried out on both male and female plants collected at different stages...

A. H. Al-Khayat A. Kery N. K. Al-Khazaraji

1989-01-01

139

The influence and interactions of substrate thickness, organization and dimensionality on cell morphology and migration.  

PubMed

Cells reside in a complex microenvironment in situ, with a number of chemical and physical parameters interacting to modulate cell phenotype and activities. To understand cell behavior in three dimensions recent studies have utilized natural or synthetic hydrogel or fibrous materials. Taking cues from the nucleation and growth characteristics of collagen fibrils in shear flow, we generate cell-laden three-dimensional collagen hydrogels with aligned collagen fibrils using a simple microfluidic device driven by hydrostatic flow. Furthermore, by regulating the collagen hydrogel thickness, the effective surface stiffness can be modulated to change the mechanical environment of the cell. Dimensionality, topography, and substrate thickness/stiffness change cell morphology and migration. Interactions amongst these parameters further influence cell behavior. For instance, while cells responded similarly to the change in substrate thickness/stiffness on two-dimensional random gels, dimensionality and fiber alignment both interacted with substrate thickness/stiffness to change cell morphology and motility. This economical, simple to use, and fully biocompatible platform highlights the importance of well-controlled physical parameters in the cellular microenvironment. PMID:23201017

Feng, Chia-hsiang; Cheng, Yu-chen; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace

2012-11-28

140

Maintenance of the cell morphology by MinC in Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

In the model organism Escherichia coli, Min proteins are involved in regulating the division of septa formation. The computational genome analysis of Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium causing gastritis and peptic ulceration, also identified MinC, MinD, and MinE. However, MinC (HP1053) shares a low identity with those of other bacteria and its function in H. pylori remains unclear. In this study, we used morphological and genetic approaches to examine the molecular role of MinC. The results were shown that an H. pylori mutant lacking MinC forms filamentous cells, while the wild-type strain retains the shape of short rods. In addition, a minC mutant regains the short rods when complemented with an intact minCHp gene. The overexpression of MinCHp in E. coli did not affect the growth and cell morphology. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MinCHp forms helix-form structures in H. pylori, whereas MinCHp localizes at cell poles and pole of new daughter cell in E. coli. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation showed MinC can interact with MinD but not with FtsZ during mid-exponential stage of H. pylori. Altogether, our results show that MinCHp plays a key role in maintaining proper cell morphology and its function differs from those of MinCEc. PMID:23936493

Chiou, Pei-Yu; Luo, Cheng-Hung; Chang, Kai-Chih; Lin, Nien-Tsung

2013-08-01

141

A two-stage morphological classifier of foci occurring in cell transformation assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell Transformation Assays (CTA) rely on the detection of phenotypic changes, namely foci, induced by chemicals (e.g., xenobiotics or candidate drugs) in mammalian cells such as C3H10T1/2 mouse fibroblasts. A focus is a cell colony and as such is made visible by standardized techniques of light microscopy. Foci exhibit a variety of morphological features, by which three "Types" have been defined. Types II and III consist of cells having undergone neoplastic transformation. The assignment of a focus to a Type is based on the evaluation of phenotypic features by a trained human expert. An automated, two-stage morphological classifier of foci is described herewith. Morphological descriptors are extracted from light microscope images by the "spectrum enhancement" algorithm, which separates structure from texture. Said descriptors are submitted to a classifier, the first stage of which is trained to discriminate transformed cells from normal ones and the 2nd stage to discriminate Type III from Type II. The classifier operating in recognition mode (on images not used for training) is satisfactory in terms of confusion matrix entries. The whole procedure is aimed at removing subjectivity from the scoring and classification of foci and thus make CTA a more powerful tool in carcinogenesis studies.

Crosta, Giovanni F.; Urani, Chiara; Bussinelli, Luca

2009-02-01

142

Morphological and electron transport studies in ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) incorporating zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated using a chemical bath deposition method. The nanoflake structures captured by a field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis traced the appearance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the photoanode thin film. The photovoltaic performance of the photoanode was quantified by means of an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit with GAMRY-Physical Electrochemistry. The ZnO-SWCNT-based DSSC exhibited good photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiency (?), photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) of 1.31%, 15.31 mA cm-2, 0.224 V and 0.36, respectively. The EIS unit was also employed to quantify the charge transport resistance (Rct), transport resistance (Rt) and effective electron lifetime (?eff) of the DSSC. The impedance analysis of the ZnO-SWCNT-based DSSC also determined greater highly efficient electron transport due to long effective electron diffusion length than the film thickness of the photoanode.

Omar, Azimah; Abdullah, Huda; Ambar Yarmo, Mohd; Shaari, Sahbudin; Raihan Taha, Mohd

2013-04-01

143

Morphological and structural study of seed pericarp of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological study of pericarp of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) seeds showed that the cells were mainly made up of spindle-shaped sclerenchyma fibers. The chemical composition of the pericarp revealed a significant amount of polysaccharides, with cellulose (35%) and xylan (27%). The structure of xylan and cellulose, both in isolated form and as a component of seed pericarp of OFI were

Youssef Habibi; Laurent Heux; Mostafa Mahrouz; Michel R. Vignon

2008-01-01

144

Studies of domain morphology in segmented polyurethanes by pulsed NMR.  

PubMed

A new technique based on the Goldman-Shen pulse sequence with varying preparation interval is proposed for the study of domain morphology of segmented polyurethanes. The results of numerical calculations of the magnetization recovery in different models of domain morphology show that the method provides new information about the domain morphology which is beyond the reach of the conventional Goldman-Shen experiment. A close agreement of the theoretical predictions with the experimental data on samples of segmented polyurethanes with a fixed molecular mass of the hard blocks and variable molecular mass of the soft blocks reinforces the above statement. The resulting structural parameters obtained by this new NMR technique are compared with the data from the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. PMID:8906412

Idiyatullin, D S; Khozina, E V; Smirnov, V S

1996-08-01

145

Carnosine Sustains the Retention of Cell Morphology in Continuous Fibroblast Culture Subjected to Nutritional Insult  

Microsoft Academic Search

L-Carnosine (?-alanyl L-histidine), occurring abundantly in skeletal muscles, has been suggested to possess antioxidant and anti-aging properties. Using three different experimental approaches (microscopic, flow cytometric and ELISA for one of the markers of DNA oxidative damage) this study on rat embryonic fibroblasts demonstrates that L-carnosine at 30 mM concentration sustains the retention of cell morphology even during a nutritional insult

Sachi Sri Kantha; Shun-ichi Wada; Hideomi Tanaka; Masao Takeuchi; Shugo Watabe; Hirotomo Ochi

1996-01-01

146

Importance of electrode\\/zirconia interface morphology in high-temperature solid electrolyte cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of electrode\\/electrolyte interface morphology in the overall polarization behaviour of high-temperature solid electrolyte cells has been studied. Carefully prepared and polished scandia-stabilized zirconia discs with sputtered platinum electrodes were examined using electron microscopy and electrical polarization techniques. Initially non-porous sputtered platinum electrodes were ‘conditioned’ by a progressive treatment to generate artificial porosity. This eliminated subsequent time-dependent changes in

Turgut M. Gür; Robert A. Huggins

1987-01-01

147

Biological and morphological characterization of human neonatal fibroblast cell culture B-HNF-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, human neonatal fibroblasts were isolated from a two-month-old human male. The purpose of the present\\u000a investigation was the analysis of the morphology (light and transmission electron microscopy), karyotype and growth characteristics\\u000a of the human neonatal fibroblast cell culture B-HNF-1. Moreover, STR typing and mitochondrial DNA amplification and sequencing\\u000a was also performed. Analysis of chromosomes count showed

Vanda Repiská; Ivan Varga; Ivan Lehocký; Daniel Böhmer; Milan Blaško; Štefan Polák; Marián Adamkov; ?uboš Danišovi?

2010-01-01

148

Formation of morphologically similar globular aggregates from diverse aggregation-prone proteins in mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in the first exon of the huntingtin (Htt) protein. N-terminal Htt peptides with polyglutamine tracts in the pathological range (51-122 glutamines) form high-molecular-weight protein aggregates with fibrillar morphology in vitro, and they form discrete inclusion bodies in a cell-culture model. However, in some studies, formation of discrete

Hideyuki Mukai; Takayuki Isagawa; Emiko Goyama; Shuhei Tanaka; Neil F. Bence; Atsuo Tamura; Yoshitaka Ono; Ron R. Kopito

2005-01-01

149

Conformational switching in ezrin regulates morphological and cytoskeletal changes required for B cell chemotaxis  

PubMed Central

B cell chemotaxis occurs in response to specific chemokine gradients and is critical for homeostasis and immune response. The molecular regulation of B cell membrane-actin interactions during migration is poorly understood. In this study we report a role for ezrin, a member of the membrane-cytoskeleton crosslinking Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) proteins, in the regulation of the earliest steps of B cell polarization and chemotaxis. We visualized chemokine-induced changes in murine B cell morphology using scanning electron microscopy, and spatiotemporal dynamics of ezrin in B cells using epifluorescence and total internal reflection microscopy. Upon chemokine stimulation ezrin is transiently dephosphorylated to assume an inactive conformation, and localizes to the lamellipodia. B cells expressing a phosphomimetic conformationally active mutant of ezrin, or those in which ezrin dephosphorylation was pharmacologically inhibited displayed impaired microvillar dynamics, morphological polarization and chemotaxis. Our data suggest a two-fold involvement of ezrin in B cell migration whereby it first undergoes chemokine-induced dephosphorylation to facilitate membrane flexibility, followed by relocalization to the actin-rich lamellipodia for dynamic forward protrusion of the cells.

Parameswaran, Neetha; Matsui, Ken; Gupta, Neetu

2011-01-01

150

Influence of Thrombin Concentration on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Cell-seeded Fibrin Hydrogels  

PubMed Central

Fibrin is a biopolymer that has been used in a variety of biomaterial, cell delivery and tissue engineering applications. The enzyme thrombin catalyzes the formation of fibrin microfibrils, which form a three-dimensional mesh in which cells can be directly embedded at the time of gel formation. In this study, fibrin hydrogels containing vascular smooth muscle cells were created using varying concentrations of thrombin. Over 7 days in culture, all gels decreased in volume as the fibrin matrix compacted, and the degree of gel compaction increased as thrombin concentration decreased. The material modulus and ultimate tensile stress of the gels also increased with decreasing thrombin concentration. Addition of thrombin to similar constructs made using collagen Type I did not show an effect on gel compaction or mechanical properties, suggesting that these effects were a result of thrombin’s action on fibrin polymerization, and not cellular functions. Cell proliferation in fibrin hydrogels was not significantly affected by thrombin addition. Matrix examination using scanning electron microscopy showed increasing fibrin fiber diameters as thrombin concentration decreased. Confocal microscopic imaging of the actin cytoskeleton showed that cell morphology on two-dimensional substrates of fibrin showed marked changes, with higher thrombin concentrations producing cells with longer cellular projections. However, these morphological changes were not as apparent in cells embedded in three-dimensional (3-D) matrices, in which cells exhibited a similar morphology independent of thrombin concentration. These results relate features of the matrix and cellular components of 3-D fibrin constructs to mechanical properties, and contribute to the understanding of structure-function relationships in cell-seeded, 3-D protein hydrogels.

Rowe, Shaneen L.; Lee, SungYun; Stegemann, Jan P.

2007-01-01

151

Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By studying the morphologies of IOM residues from a range of CM and CR chondrites, we have identified a coarsening in the texture of IOM from the more altered chondrites. Thus, parent body alteration altered/formed IOM in the CM and CR chondrites.

Changela, H.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; de Gregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

2012-03-01

152

Morphological characteristics of blood cells in monitor lizards: is erythrocyte size linked to actual body size?  

PubMed

Blood cell morphology and count are not uniform across species. Recently, between-species comparisons revealed that the size of red blood cells is associated with body size in some lizard taxa, and this finding was interpreted in the context of the metabolic theory. In the present study, we examined the numbers and the size of blood cells in 2 species of monitor lizards, the mangrove-dwelling monitor (Varanus indicus) and the savannah monitor (V. exanthematicus), and we compared these traits in individuals of different body size. The results revealed that during the course of ontogeny, the size of red blood cells increases with body mass. Because the mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with body size and the cell volume-to-surface ratio decreases with the cell size, changes in the erythrocyte size might be the result of oxygen transport adjustment. PMID:23621470

Frýdlová, Petra; Hnízdo, Jan; Chylíková, Lenka; Simková, Olga; Cikánová, Veronika; Velenský, Petr; Frynta, Daniel

2012-10-31

153

Cell morphology, ultrastructure, and calcification pattern of Oocardium stratum, a peculiar lotic desmid.  

PubMed

Cell morphology and ultrastructure of the desmid Oocardium stratum and its habitat conditions in two limestone-precipitating spring habitats in the Alps were studied. In spite of specific cell geometry, we found ultrastructural features (nucleus with nucleolus, Golgi apparatus, chloroplast structure, lipid bodies, cell wall texture) closely related to other desmids. The type of the mucilage pore apparatus perforating in high densities extended areas of the cell wall of Oocardium is of the Cosmarium type. Oocardium contrasts to Cosmarium by a peculiar bilateral cell geometry (lateral sphenoid shape) which is combined with a dislocated nucleus. Although the cell features of Oocardium did not differ between the two habitats, different calcification types (rhombohedral calcite versus fascicular-fibrous calcite) and calcification intensities were recorded. The spatial positioning and extension of the Oocardium niches differed considerably between the two springs in spite of high CO(2) oversaturation at both sites. PMID:19455279

Rott, E; Holzinger, A; Gesierich, D; Kofler, W; Sanders, D

2009-05-20

154

Rheumatoid synovial cell morphologic changes induced by a mononuclear cell factor in culture.  

PubMed

Adherent rheumatoid synovial cells in culture produce large amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and collagenase. When exposed to a monocyte-derived factor, such cells exhibit marked increases in PGE2 and collagenase production. In addition, cellular morphology becomes more stellate. In the presence of this factor, indomethacin inhibits both PGE2 production and the stellate changes, whereas collagenase production usually continues at a high rate. Addition of PGE2 to cultures reproduces the stellate change as does the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analog 8-bromo-cAMP. Colchicine inhibits morphologic transformation induced by the monocyte-derived factor, whereas cytochalasin B has no effect. It appears that the stellate morphology is dependent upon PGE2-induced cAMP stimulation and is not related to collagenase production per se. PMID:6297509

Baker, D G; Dayer, J M; Roelke, M; Schumacher, H R; Krane, S M

1983-01-01

155

Spiral ganglion cell morphology in guinea pigs after deafening and neurotrophic treatment.  

PubMed

It is well known that spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) degenerate in hair-cell-depleted cochleas and that treatment with exogenous neurotrophins can prevent this degeneration. Several studies reported that, in addition, SGC size decreases after deafening and increases after neurotrophic treatment. The dynamics of these cell size changes are not well known. In a first experiment we measured size, shape (circularity) and intracellular density of SGCs in guinea pigs at various moments after deafening (1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks) and at various cochlear locations. In a second experiment, the effect of treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on SGC morphology was investigated at various cochlear locations in deafened guinea pigs. We found that SGC size gradually decreased after deafening in the basal and middle cochlear turns. Already after one week a decrease in size was observed, which was well before the number of SGCs started to decrease. After BDNF treatment SGCs became noticeably larger than normal throughout the cochlea, including the middle and apical turns, whereas an effect on survival of SGCs was primarily observed in the basal turn. Thus, both after deafening and after neurotrophic treatment a change in size occurs before survival is affected. Morphological changes were not restricted to a subpopulation of SGCs. We argue that although changes in cell size and changes in survival might be manifestations of two separate mechanisms, morphological measures such as size, circularity and intracellular density are indicative for survival and degeneration. PMID:23361189

van Loon, Maarten C; Ramekers, Dyan; Agterberg, Martijn J H; de Groot, John C M J; Grolman, Wilko; Klis, Sjaak F L; Versnel, Huib

2013-01-26

156

`Coronate' Amacrine Cells in the Rabbit Retina Have the `Starburst' Dendritic Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholine-synthesizing cells in the rabbit retina are symmetrically distributed about the inner plexiform layer: one population of cholinergic amacrines has cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer and an equivalent population of displaced amacrines has cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer. It has been suggested that the morphological correlates of the acetylcholine-synthesizing cells are either coronate amacrine cells or

D. I. Vaney

1984-01-01

157

Regional Fibronectin and Collagen Fibril Co-Assembly Directs Cell Proliferation and Microtissue Morphology  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin stimulates cells to self-assemble into three-dimensional multicellular structures by a mechanism that requires the cell-dependent conversion of soluble fibronectin molecules into insoluble fibrils. Fibronectin also binds to collagen type I and mediates the co-assembly of collagen fibrils into the extracellular matrix. Here, the role of collagen-fibronectin binding in fibronectin-induced cellular self-assembly was investigated using fibronectin-null fibroblasts in an in vitro model of tissue formation. High resolution, two-photon immunofluorescence microscopy was combined with second harmonic generation imaging to examine spatial and temporal relationships among fibronectin and collagen fibrils, actin organization, cell proliferation, and microtissue morphology. Time course studies coupled with simultaneous 4-channel multiphoton imaging identified regional differences in fibronectin fibril conformation, collagen fibril remodeling, actin organization, and cell proliferation during three-dimensional cellular self-assembly. Regional differences in cell proliferation and fibronectin structure were dependent on both soluble fibronectin concentration and fibronectin-collagen interactions. Fibronectin-collagen binding was not necessary for either fibronectin matrix formation or intercellular cohesion. However, inhibiting fibronectin binding to collagen reduced collagen fibril remodeling, decreased fibronectin fibril extension, blocked fibronectin-induced cell proliferation, and altered microtissue morphology. Furthermore, continual fibronectin-collagen binding was necessary to maintain both cell proliferation and microtissue morphology. Collectively, these data suggest that the complex changes in extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal remodeling that mediate tissue assembly are driven, in part, by regional variations in cell-mediated fibronectin-collagen co-assembly.

Sevilla, Carlos A.; Dalecki, Diane; Hocking, Denise C.

2013-01-01

158

Regional fibronectin and collagen fibril co-assembly directs cell proliferation and microtissue morphology.  

PubMed

The extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin stimulates cells to self-assemble into three-dimensional multicellular structures by a mechanism that requires the cell-dependent conversion of soluble fibronectin molecules into insoluble fibrils. Fibronectin also binds to collagen type I and mediates the co-assembly of collagen fibrils into the extracellular matrix. Here, the role of collagen-fibronectin binding in fibronectin-induced cellular self-assembly was investigated using fibronectin-null fibroblasts in an in vitro model of tissue formation. High resolution, two-photon immunofluorescence microscopy was combined with second harmonic generation imaging to examine spatial and temporal relationships among fibronectin and collagen fibrils, actin organization, cell proliferation, and microtissue morphology. Time course studies coupled with simultaneous 4-channel multiphoton imaging identified regional differences in fibronectin fibril conformation, collagen fibril remodeling, actin organization, and cell proliferation during three-dimensional cellular self-assembly. Regional differences in cell proliferation and fibronectin structure were dependent on both soluble fibronectin concentration and fibronectin-collagen interactions. Fibronectin-collagen binding was not necessary for either fibronectin matrix formation or intercellular cohesion. However, inhibiting fibronectin binding to collagen reduced collagen fibril remodeling, decreased fibronectin fibril extension, blocked fibronectin-induced cell proliferation, and altered microtissue morphology. Furthermore, continual fibronectin-collagen binding was necessary to maintain both cell proliferation and microtissue morphology. Collectively, these data suggest that the complex changes in extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal remodeling that mediate tissue assembly are driven, in part, by regional variations in cell-mediated fibronectin-collagen co-assembly. PMID:24116223

Sevilla, Carlos A; Dalecki, Diane; Hocking, Denise C

2013-10-08

159

Morphological changes in mesothelial cells induced by shed menstrual endometrium in vitro are not primarily due to apoptosis or necrosis.  

PubMed

In a previous study on the pathogenesis of endometriosis, we observed that constituents of menstrual effluent induce morphological alterations in human mesothelial cells. In this study, we investigated whether these alterations were associated with apoptosis or necrosis or were the result of cellular remodelling. After overnight incubation of confluent monolayers of human omental mesothelial cells (HOMEC) with conditioned media prepared from menstrual effluent shed anterogradely, severe alterations in morphology were observed. Typical polygonal mesothelial cell cultures at confluency acquired elongated spindle morphology, resulting in gaps between the cells. In contrast, mesothelial cells from the control groups receiving culture medium only, retained a normal morphology. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that cytokeratin, vimentin and actin filaments were still present, homogeneously distributed in the cell cytoplasm following changes in morphology. To evaluate whether the morphological alterations were associated with apoptosis and/or necrosis, the cells were stained with the M30 CytoDeath antibody or annexin V with propidium iodide and analysed using flow cytometry. The results showed that only a small percentage (1-7%) of the affected HOMEC were undergoing apoptosis or necrosis. We conclude that the profoundly altered morphology of HOMEC is a result of cellular remodelling and that the role of apoptosis and necrosis is negligible. Soluble paracrine factors released by cells isolated from menstrual effluent shed anterogradely may induce a reorganization of the cytoskeleton. As a result, the underlying basement membrane will be exposed and the mesothelium may no longer prevent implantation of endometrium shed retrogradely into the peritoneum, thus facilitating the development of endometriosis. PMID:10875851

Demir Weusten, A Y; Groothuis, P G; Dunselman, G A; de Goeij, A F; Arends, J W; Evers, J L

2000-07-01

160

Cyanide-induced neurotoxicity: calcium mediation of morphological changes in neuronal cells.  

PubMed

Calcium channel blockade decreases the elevation of brain calcium as well as the tremors produced by cyanide in mice. To determine if cyanide-induced morphological changes could also be inhibited by calcium channel blockade, the effect of diltiazem was studied in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a neuronal model. Incubation with KCN (1 to 10 mM for 1 to 2 hr) caused depletion of secretory granules, alignment of remaining granules along the plasma membrane, and mitochondrial swelling. All these effects were inhibited by pretreatment with 0.01 mM diltiazem. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cyanide (1 to 10 mM for 1 to 2 hr) produced loss of microvilli and bleb formation in PC12 cells. These changes were partially inhibited by preincubation with 0.01 mM diltiazem. Incubation of cells with 10 mM cyanide increased release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture media at 60 and 120 min. A decrease in cell viability, as determined by trypan blue dye exclusion, paralleled the release of LDH. At 120 min of cyanide incubation, 24% of the cells excluded dye. Both the release of LDH and decreased cell viability were attenuated by pretreatment with diltiazem. The results indicate that the influx of extracellular calcium is an important factor mediating cyanide-induced morphologic changes in neuronal cells. PMID:2330585

Maduh, E U; Turek, J J; Borowitz, J L; Rebar, A; Isom, G E

1990-04-01

161

Chloride secretion in a morphologically differentiated human colonic cell line that expresses the epithelial Na+ channel  

PubMed Central

Cell line models of colonic electrolyte transport have been extensively used despite lacking some of the characteristics of native tissue. While native colonic crypts absorb or secrete NaCl, immortalized cell lines only retain the secretory phenotype. In the present study we have characterized functionally and molecularly, vectorial fluid and electrolyte transport in the morphologically differentiated human colonic cell line LIM1863. LIM1863 cells form morphologically differentiated organoids resembling native human colonic crypts, which secrete fluid and electrolytes across the apical membrane into a centrally located lumen. Net fluid secretion was evaluated by means of morphometric measurement of lumens formed in LIM organoids in response to known secretagogues. Pharmacological profiling of the channels and transporters involved in fluid and electrolyte transport showed that net fluid transport requires Cl? uptake across the basolateral membrane through a Na+–K+–2Cl? cotransporter (NKCC1) and its subsequent exit across an apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl? channel. Similar to the native colon, net Cl? secretion in the LIM1863 cell line is activated by cAMP-mediated agonists. Carbachol, a Ca2+-mediated agonist, does not induce net Cl? secretion but modulates the cAMP-activated response. Expression of chloride channels (CFTR and the Ca2+-dependent Cl? channel, ClCa1), potassium channels (KCNN4 and KCNQ1), epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) ?, ? and ? subunits and ion transporters (NKCC1; anion exchanger, AE2; Na+/H+ exchangers, NHE1–3) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot in the case of ENaC. Based on this evidence we propose that LIM1863 cells provide a unique model for studying CFTR-dependent Cl? secretion in a morphologically differentiated human colonic crypt cell line that also expresses ENaC.

Currid, Aoife; Ortega, Bernardo; Valverde, Miguel A

2004-01-01

162

A novel MEA\\/AFM platform for measurement of real-time, nanometric morphological alterations of electrically stimulated neuroblastoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of electrically induced morphological changes in neurons have either been limited by the resolution of light microscopy or the cell fixation required for electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), however, mechanically maps cell topography, offering exquisite resolution of evolving processes in three dimensions. In this paper, we present a microelectrode array (MEA) based platform for the real-time detection of

Mahesh B. Shenai; Krishna G. Putchakayala; Jessica A. Hessler; Bradford G. Orr; Mark M. Banaszak Holl

2004-01-01

163

Influence of Sutherlandia frutescens extracts on cell numbers, morphology and gene expression in MCF7 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sutherlandia frutescens is a well-known South African herbal remedy traditionally used for stomach problems, internal cancers, diabetes, various inflammatory conditions and recently to improve the overall health in cancer and HIV\\/AIDS patients. The influence of crude Sutherlandia frutescens extracts (prepared with 70% ethanol) was investigated on cell numbers, morphology, and gene expression profiles in a MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell

B. A. Stander; S. Marais; T. J. Steynberg; D. Theron; F. Joubert; C. Albrecht; A. M. Joubert

2007-01-01

164

Time-dependent morphology and adhesion of osteoblastic cells on titanium model surfaces featuring scale-resolved topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of micrometer and submicrometer surface roughness on the interaction of cells with titanium model surfaces of well-defined topography was investigated using human bone-derived cells (MG63 cells). The early phase of interactions was studied using a kinetic morphological analysis of adhesion, spreading and proliferation of the cells. By SEM and double immunofluorescent labeling of vinculin and actin, it was

O Zinger; K Anselme; A Denzer; P Habersetzer; M Wieland; J Jeanfils; P Hardouin; D Landolt

2004-01-01

165

Morphological and physiological evidence for interstitial cell of Cajal-like cells in the guinea pig gallbladder  

PubMed Central

Gallbladder smooth muscle (GBSM) exhibits spontaneous rhythmic electrical activity, but the origin and propagation of this activity are not understood. We used morphological and physiological approaches to determine whether interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are present in the guinea pig extrahepatic biliary tree. Light microscopic studies involving Kit tyrosine kinase immunohistochemistry and laser confocal imaging of Ca2+ transients revealed ICC-like cells in the gallbladder. One type of ICC-like cell had elongated cell bodies with one or two primary processes and was observed mainly along GBSM bundles and nerve fibres. The other type comprised multipolar cells that were located at the origin and intersection of muscle bundles. Electron microscopy revealed ICC-like cells that were rich in mitochondria, caveolae and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and formed close appositions between themselves and with GBSM cells. Rhythmic Ca2+ flashes, which represent Ca2+ influx during action potentials, were synchronized in any given GBSM bundle and associated ICC-like cells. Gap junction uncouplers (1-octanol, carbenoxolone, 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid and connexin mimetic peptide) eliminated or greatly reduced Ca2+ flashes in GBSM, but they persisted in ICC-like cells, whereas the Kit tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imanitib mesylate, eliminated or reduced action potentials and Ca2+ flashes in both cell types, as well as associated tissue contractions. This study provides morphological and physiological evidence for the existence of ICC-like cells in the gallbladder and presents data supporting electrical coupling between ICC-like and GBSM cells. The results support a role for ICC-like cells in the generation and propagation of spontaneous rhythmicity, and hence, the excitability of gallbladder.

Lavoie, Brigitte; Balemba, Onesmo B; Nelson, Mark T; Ward, Sean M; Mawe, Gary M

2007-01-01

166

Direct effect of interleukin 2 on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B cell functions and morphology.  

PubMed Central

The functional and morphological changes induced by recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) were studied in purified B cells from patients with untreated B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). In eight of nine patients, purified B-CLL cells increased their DNA synthesis in response to IL-2 without preactivation in vitro. This response, studied in detail in three patients, was dose dependent and reached a maximum on day 5 or 6. IL-2 induced or increased IgM secretion in cultures from five of the nine patients studied. Two of this responsive group were particularly interesting as IL-2 not only stimulated IgM secretion but also induced the secretion of IgG. Immunoglobulin production was invariably monoclonal. B CLL cells incubated with IL-2 showed distinct morphological changes including an increase in the size of cytoplasm and enlargement of nuclei together with the appearance of nucleoli. These changes were present in all IL-2 treated cultures but were more pronounced in those containing immunoglobulin secreting cells. None of the IL-2 induced changes appeared to correlate with the clinical stage of the disease or the level of Tac antigen expression on the freshly isolated CLL B cells. Images Fig. 2

Malkovska, V; Murphy, J; Hudson, L; Bevan, D

1987-01-01

167

Cultural, morphological, cell membrane, enzymatic, and neoplastic properties of cell lines derived from a Hodgkin's disease lymph node.  

PubMed

A neoplastic cell line (designated HuT11) has been established in continuous culture from an involved lymph node of a patient with Stage IIA Hodgkin's disease of the mixed cellularity type. The HuT11 line has been morphologically heterogeneous, consisting of mononucleate lymphoid-like cells, polygonal epithelioid cells, and mono-, bi-, and multinucleate giant cells. Four clones initiated from isolated binucleate giant cells of the HuT11 line also have been successfully established as continuous cell lines. The cloned lines have been morphologically distinct and more homogeneous, although typical giant cells have consistently appeared throughout the long-term culture of each. The HuT11 lines have grown as monolayers in McCoy's Medium 5A supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, with generation times of 12 to 14 hr and high saturation densities. Cytogenetic studies showed that early and later passages of HuT11 cells were aneuploid, and all cell lines were successfully heterotransplanted in the hamster cheek pouch. Repeated indirect immunofluorescence examinations have shown each cell line to be negative for Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen. Indirect immunofluorescence tests in which monospecific immunoglobulins were used revealed positive membrane reactions for the gamma (heavy)-chain and kappa (light)-chain of human immunoglobulin G in approximately 20% of viable cells in each line; however, direct immunofluorescence with anti-human immunoglobulin G F(ab')2 reagent failed to confirm these reactions. Rosette tests for B- and T-lymphocyte and macrophage membrane receptors yielded negative results. All cell lines were strongly phagocytic for latex particles and neutral red dye. Cytochemical stains of the monolayers revealed abundant esterase, fluoride-resistant nonspecific esterase, acid phosphatase, and leucine aminopeptidase activities, while lysozyme assays were negative. Although some properties of the HuT11 lines have suggested a macrophage derivation, an undifferentiated lymphoid cell origin of the Hodgkin's neoplastic cell remains a possibility. PMID:209894

Roberts, A N; Smith, K L; Dowell, B L; Hubbard, A K

1978-09-01

168

Surface Plasmon Resonance Monitoring of Cell Monolayer Integrity: Implication of Signaling Pathways Involved in Actin-Driven Morphological Remodeling.  

PubMed

Morphological changes occurring in individual cells largely influence the physiological functions of various cell layers. The control of barrier function of epithelia and endothelia is a prime example of processes highly dependent on cellular morphology and cell layer integrity. Here, we applied the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to the quantification of cellular activity of an epithelial cell monolayer stimulated by angiotensin II. The analysis of the SPR signal shows reproducible concentration-dependent biphasic responses after cell activation with angiotensin II. Phase-contrast and confocal microscopy imaging was performed to link the SPR signal to molecular and global morphological remodeling. The SPR signal was observed to be in relation with the rapid cell contraction and the subsequent cell spreading observed by phase-contrast microscopy. Additionally, the temporal redistribution of actin, observed by confocal microscopy after angiotensin II stimulation, was also found to be consistent with the SPR signal variation. The modulation of signaling pathways involved in actin-myosin driven cell contraction confirms the direct implication of actin structures in the SPR response. Additionally, we show that the intracellular calcium mobilization associated with angiotensin II stimulation did not produce any significant SPR signal variation. Altogether, our results demonstrate that SPR is a rapid label-free method to study cellular activity and molecular mechanisms implicated in the modulation of the integrity of a cell monolayer in relation to cytoskeleton remodeling with associated cell morphological changes. PMID:21052479

Cuerrier, Charles M; Chabot, Vincent; Vigneux, Sylvain; Aimez, Vincent; Escher, Emanuel; Gobeil, Fernand; Charette, Paul G; Grandbois, Michel

2008-12-01

169

Morphology of Dopaminergic Amacrine Cells in the Mouse Retina: Independence from Homotypic Interactions  

PubMed Central

To determine the role of homotypic interactions between neighboring dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells upon dendritic morphogenesis, the morphology of single cells was examined relative to the positioning of all neighboring homotypic cells. For each labeled cell, the dendritic field was reconstructed, its Voronoi domain calculated, and the two were related. The dendritic fields of DA cells were observed to be large, sparse and highly irregular. Dendrites readily overlapped those of neighboring cells, showing no evidence for dendritic tiling nor inter-digitation consistent with homotypic repulsion or avoidance. Furthermore, a direct comparison of dendritic field area to the Voronoi domain area of the same cell showed no evidence for dendritic growth being constrained or biased by the local distribution of homotypic neighbors in wild-type retinas. A comparison of the processes of adjacent filled cells confirmed their immediate proximity to one another within the inner plexiform layer, indicating that they do not engage in mutual avoidance by coursing at different depths. Together, these results suggest that the morphogenesis of DA cells is independent of homotypic interactions. However, in the absence of the pro-apoptotic Bax gene, which yields a four-fold increase in DA cell number, a small but significant reduction in dendritic field size was obtained, though not so great as would be predicted by the increase in density. The present results are considered in light of recent studies on the role of cell adhesion molecules expressed by developing DA cells.

Keeley, Patrick W.; Reese, Benjamin E.

2010-01-01

170

Effects of human placental serum on proliferation and morphology of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media used for tissue culture may have significant effects on the growth and morphology of the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). As fetal bovine serum (FBS) may induce an immunological reaction and health risks, this study was designed to evaluate and compare the effects of human placental serum (HPS) on the proliferation and morphology of hADSCs. We cultured hADSCs for

H Shafaei; A Esmaeili; M Mardani; S Razavi; B Hashemibeni; M H Nasr-Esfahani; M B Shiran; E Esfandiari

2011-01-01

171

Coccoid forms of Helicobacter pylori are the morphologic manifestation of cell death.  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori can transform from its normal helical bacillary morphology to a coccoid morphology. Since this coccoid form cannot be cultured in vitro, it has been speculated that it is a dormant form potentially involved in the transmission of H. pylori and in a patient's relapse after antibiotic therapy. In this study we determined the effects of aging, temperature, aerobiosis, starvation, and antibiotics on the morphologic conversion rate and culturability of H. pylori. Aerobiosis and the addition of a bactericidal antibiotic to the culture medium resulted in the highest conversion rate. During the conversion to coccoid forms, the cultures always lost culturability at the stage where 50% of the organisms were still in bacillary form; this result indicated that culturability and coccoid morphology are two separate but related entities. Independent of the conditions used to induce the conversion into coccoids, the morphological conversion was accompanied by several marked antigenic and ultrastructural changes. Also, both the total amounts and the integrity of RNA and DNA were significantly reduced in coccoid forms. With the potential-sensitive probe diOC(5)-3, a clear loss of membrane potential in coccoid forms was observed. Inhibition of protein or RNA synthesis by the addition of bacteriostatic antibiotics did not prevent the conversion to coccoid forms but resulted in an increased conversion rate. Hence, we conclude that conversion of H. pylori from the bacillary to the coccoid form is a passive process that does not require protein synthesis. Our data suggest that the coccoid form of H. pylori is the morphologic manifestation of bacterial cell death.

Kusters, J G; Gerrits, M M; Van Strijp, J A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M

1997-01-01

172

In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate  

PubMed Central

Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences.

Garcia-Pinto, Angelica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mario J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

2013-01-01

173

A regression model approach to enable cell morphology correction in high-throughput flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Cells exposed to stimuli exhibit a wide range of responses ensuring phenotypic variability across the population. Such single cell behavior is often examined by flow cytometry; however, gating procedures typically employed to select a small subpopulation of cells with similar morphological characteristics make it difficult, even impossible, to quantitatively compare cells across a large variety of experimental conditions because these conditions can lead to profound morphological variations. To overcome these limitations, we developed a regression approach to correct for variability in fluorescence intensity due to differences in cell size and granularity without discarding any of the cells, which gating ipso facto does. This approach enables quantitative studies of cellular heterogeneity and transcriptional noise in high-throughput experiments involving thousands of samples. We used this approach to analyze a library of yeast knockout strains and reveal genes required for the population to establish a bimodal response to oleic acid induction. We identify a group of epigenetic regulators and nucleoporins that, by maintaining an ‘unresponsive population,' may provide the population with the advantage of diversified bet hedging.

Knijnenburg, Theo A; Roda, Oriol; Wan, Yakun; Nolan, Garry P; Aitchison, John D; Shmulevich, Ilya

2011-01-01

174

Morphological transformation induced by glass fibers in BALB/c-3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to determine whether 1) glass fibers can induce morphological transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells, 2) the transforming activity of glass fibers is related to fiber size, and 3) transformed cells induced by glass fibers possess neoplastic properties. In the transformation assay, BALB/c-3T3 cells were treated with three different types of glass fibers: Manville code 100 (JM-100, Manville Corp., Denver, CO), Owens-Corning AAA-10 (AAA-10, Owens-Corning Corp., Toledo, OH), and Owens-Corning general building insulation (ISL, Owens-Corning Corp.) fibers. The neoplastic properties were investigated using the soft agar cloning and gene transfection methods. All three different glass fibers were cytotoxic at high concentrations and induced dose-related increases in morphological transformation. The transforming activity was inversely related to fiber size, with AAA-10 showing higher activity than JM-100 and JM-100 showing higher activity than ISL fiber. Transformed cells induced by glass fibers exerted anchorage-independent growth (90%) and DNA transfection-mediated transformation (100%). These results indicate that glass fibers are capable of transforming mammalian (BALB/c-3T3) cells in vitro as a function of their physical properties and that glass fiber-induced transformed cells possess preneoplastic characteristics. PMID:8525469

Gao, H G; Whong, W Z; Jones, W G; Wallace, W E; Ong, T

1995-01-01

175

Cell adhesion, multicellular morphology, and magnetosome distribution in the multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis.  

PubMed

Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis is an uncultured magnetotactic multicellular prokaryote composed of 17-40 Gram-negative cells that are capable of synthesizing organelles known as magnetosomes. The magnetosomes of Ca. M. multicellularis are composed of greigite and are organized in chains that are responsible for the microorganism's orientation along magnetic field lines. The characteristics of the microorganism, including its multicellular life cycle, magnetic field orientation, and swimming behavior, and the lack of viability of individual cells detached from the whole assembly, are considered strong evidence for the existence of a unique multicellular life cycle among prokaryotes. It has been proposed that the position of each cell within the aggregate is fundamental for the maintenance of its distinctive morphology and magnetic field orientation. However, the cellular organization of the whole organism has never been studied in detail. Here, we investigated the magnetosome organization within a cell, its distribution within the microorganism, and the intercellular relationships that might be responsible for maintaining the cells in the proper position within the microorganism, which is essential for determining the magnetic properties of Ca. M. multicellularis during its life cycle. The results indicate that cellular interactions are essential for the determination of individual cell shape and the magnetic properties of the organism and are likely directly associated with the morphological changes that occur during the multicellular life cycle of this species. PMID:23551897

Abreu, Fernanda; Silva, Karen Tavares; Leăo, Pedro; Guedes, Iame Alves; Keim, Carolina Neumann; Farina, Marcos; Lins, Ulysses

2013-04-03

176

Morphological evidence of gap junctions between bone cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cell membrane specializations occur at contact sites between adjacent osteoblasts and osteoblasts and osteocytes. These junctions\\u000a have been described by other investigators as being important in preventing the extracellular movement of material around\\u000a bone cells. Previously we described how certain small proteins circumvented the osteoblast population and rapidly penetrated\\u000a the canalicular-osteocyte system. In the present study we used lanthanum colloid

Stephen B. Doty

1981-01-01

177

A Rapid Method Combining Golgi and Nissl Staining to Study Neuronal Morphology and Cytoarchitecture  

PubMed Central

The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue slice tend to use the Golgi silver impregnation technique for neuronal morphology followed by deimpregnation as a prerequisite for showing that neuron's histological location by subsequent Nissl staining. Here, we describe a rapid method combining Golgi silver impregnation with cresyl violet staining that provides a useful and simple approach to combining cellular morphology with cytoarchitecture without the need for deimpregnating the tissue. Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the dorsal cochlear nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet–labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities. Our observation suggests that cresyl violet staining is inadequate to quantify differences in soma sizes. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:539–550, 2008)

Pilati, Nadia; Barker, Matthew; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Donga, Revers; Hamann, Martine

2008-01-01

178

Effects of the radiocontrast agent iodixanol on endothelial cell morphology and function.  

PubMed

Iodinated radiocontrast media (RCM) are usually well tolerated, but their large and increasing use renders their toxicity a relevant problem, especially in high risk patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible toxic or activating effects of iodixanol on endothelial cells (EC) and the putative in vitro protective action of N-acetylcysteine and rosuvastatin. Morphology, oxidative status, redistribution of heat-shock protein 60 and secretion of proinflammatory products were studied in cultured human EC through confocal microscopy, immunofluorescence and immuno-enzymatic methods. EC reacted to iodixanol with shrinking and bulging, increase in intracellular oxidation and translocation of Heat Shock Protein 60 to the cell membrane. The secretion of proinflammatory products was strongly stimulated by sequential incubation of EC with iodixanol and TNF? (p<0.00001 for all tested molecules, namely TNF?, IL-8, sVCAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6). N-acetylcysteine prevented morphologic and oxidative derangements, and significantly reduced proinflammatory product secretion (P range<0.0001 to<0.00001 for TNF?, VCAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6); rosuvastatin inhibited morphology and oxidative modifications only. Our data help clarifying the mechanisms of early and late toxicity of RCM and support the use of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agents for optimization of radiological procedures in high risk patients. PMID:22985912

Ronda, Nicoletta; Potě, Francesco; Palmisano, Alessandra; Gatti, Rita; Orlandini, Guido; Maggiore, Umberto; Cabassi, Aderville; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Fiaccadori, Enrico

2012-08-30

179

Morphologically Homogeneous Red Blood Cells Present a Heterogeneous Response to Hormonal Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Red blood cells (RBCs) are among the most intensively studied cells in natural history, elucidating numerous principles and ground-breaking knowledge in cell biology. Morphologically, RBCs are largely homogeneous, and most of the functional studies have been performed on large populations of cells, masking putative cellular variations. We studied human and mouse RBCs by live-cell video imaging, which allowed single cells to be followed over time. In particular we analysed functional responses to hormonal stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a signalling molecule occurring in blood plasma, with the Ca2+ sensor Fluo-4. Additionally, we developed an approach for analysing the Ca2+ responses of RBCs that allowed the quantitative characterization of single-cell signals. In RBCs, the LPA-induced Ca2+ influx showed substantial diversity in both kinetics and amplitude. Also the age-classification was determined for each particular RBC and consecutively analysed. While reticulocytes lack a Ca2+ response to LPA stimulation, old RBCs approaching clearance generated robust LPA-induced signals, which still displayed broad heterogeneity. Observing phospatidylserine exposure as an effector mechanism of intracellular Ca2+ revealed an even increased heterogeneity of RBC responses. The functional diversity of RBCs needs to be taken into account in future studies, which will increasingly require single-cell analysis approaches. The identified heterogeneity in RBC responses is important for the basic understanding of RBC signalling and their contribution to numerous diseases, especially with respect to Ca2+ influx and the associated pro-thrombotic activity.

Wang, Jue; Wagner-Britz, Lisa; Bogdanova, Anna; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Wiesen, Kathrina; Kaiser, Elisabeth; Tian, Qinghai; Krause, Elmar; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Lipp, Peter; Philipp, Stephan E.; Kaestner, Lars

2013-01-01

180

Morphologically homogeneous red blood cells present a heterogeneous response to hormonal stimulation.  

PubMed

Red blood cells (RBCs) are among the most intensively studied cells in natural history, elucidating numerous principles and ground-breaking knowledge in cell biology. Morphologically, RBCs are largely homogeneous, and most of the functional studies have been performed on large populations of cells, masking putative cellular variations. We studied human and mouse RBCs by live-cell video imaging, which allowed single cells to be followed over time. In particular we analysed functional responses to hormonal stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a signalling molecule occurring in blood plasma, with the Ca(2+) sensor Fluo-4. Additionally, we developed an approach for analysing the Ca(2+) responses of RBCs that allowed the quantitative characterization of single-cell signals. In RBCs, the LPA-induced Ca(2+) influx showed substantial diversity in both kinetics and amplitude. Also the age-classification was determined for each particular RBC and consecutively analysed. While reticulocytes lack a Ca(2+) response to LPA stimulation, old RBCs approaching clearance generated robust LPA-induced signals, which still displayed broad heterogeneity. Observing phospatidylserine exposure as an effector mechanism of intracellular Ca(2+) revealed an even increased heterogeneity of RBC responses. The functional diversity of RBCs needs to be taken into account in future studies, which will increasingly require single-cell analysis approaches. The identified heterogeneity in RBC responses is important for the basic understanding of RBC signalling and their contribution to numerous diseases, especially with respect to Ca(2+) influx and the associated pro-thrombotic activity. PMID:23840765

Wang, Jue; Wagner-Britz, Lisa; Bogdanova, Anna; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Wiesen, Kathrina; Kaiser, Elisabeth; Tian, Qinghai; Krause, Elmar; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Lipp, Peter; Philipp, Stephan E; Kaestner, Lars

2013-06-28

181

Effects of entrapment on nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of pure cultures commonly found in biological wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The effects of cell entrapment on nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of major groups of bacteria (betaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria) in biological municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. Three different entrapment media (alginate, carrageenan, and polyvinyl alcohol) were examined. Results indicated that the entrapment and type of entrapment media affected nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of the three representative species (Alcaligenes faecalis, Comamonas testosteroni, and Pseudomonas putida) studied. The highest deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid increases were observed with the alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) entrapment, respectively. A cell morphological change from bacilli to coccoidal was observed in the case of alginate entrapment while the PVA-entrapped cells had a slim morphology when compared to non-entrapped cells and formed putative nanowires. The entrapment increased or decreased the surface roughness of cells depending on the type of entrapment media. Expression of a nitrosative stress gene, which is linked to oxygen deprivation, was observed more in the alginate-entrapped cells. These research findings advance the fundamental understanding of the entrapped cell physiology which can lead to more efficient entrapped cell-based wastewater treatment. PMID:21660542

Pramanik, Sudipta; Khanna, Rohit; Katti, Kalpana; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak

2011-06-10

182

Use of specular microscopy to determine corneal endothelial cell morphology and morphometry in enucleated cat eyes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age on endothelial morphology and morphometry in cats. The corneal endothelium was studied using a contact specular microscope. A total of 18 cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) were evaluated in this study. The subjects were divided into three groups of six cats each in function of age: G1 (1 to 3 months old), G2 (5 to 12 months old), and G3 (24 to 40 months old). The examination presented data as endothelial cell density (ECD), average cell area, corneal thickness, polymegathism, and pleomorphism. Results revealed ECD decrease in corneas of normal cats with age, as well as a corresponding increase in endothelial cell area and pleomorphism. The present work suggests that the endothelial parameters evaluated change with advancing age. PMID:20618799

Franzen, Angela A; Pigatto, Joăo A T; Abib, Fernando C; Albuquerque, Luciane; Laus, José L

2010-07-01

183

In vitro radiation and chemotherapy sensitivity of established cell lines of human small cell lung cancer and its large cell morphological variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro response to radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs of cell lines established from 7 patients with small cell (SC) lung cancer were tested using a soft agarose clonogenic assay. Five cell lines retained the typical morphological and biochemical amine precursor uptake decarboxylation characteristics of SC, while two cell lines had undergone ''transformation'' to large cell (LC) morphological variants with

Desmond N. Carney; James B. Mitchell; T. J. Kinsella

1983-01-01

184

Microscope studies of the morphology and structure of carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the morphologies and structures of carbon nanotubes (bucky-tubes) and carbon nanoparticles (buckyonions) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). By SEM the carbon nanotubes are observed with features similar to those of some fibrous whiskers grown from pyrolytic graphite. This growth feature is supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The TEM results show also that the graphitic sheets can be bent into curved shapes to cap the nanotubes or form the onions. In the curved graphitic sheets elastic strains induced by layer mismatches and dislocations are revealed. The STM observations on the nanotubes show a bundle-like morphology of the carbon nanotubes, and by atomic resolution images the zigzag and armchair atomic configurations may be identified. The results also show structural distortions which may be produced by folding the graphite sheets to create the nanotubes and are responsible for the lattice mismatch.

Xie, Sishen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zebo; Liu, Wei; Wang, Gang; Qian, Shengfa; Fu, Chunsheng

1995-05-01

185

Redox regulation of morphology, cell stiffness, and lectin-induced aggregation of human platelets.  

PubMed

Redox regulation and carbohydrate recognition are potent molecular mechanisms which can contribute to platelet aggregation in response to various stimuli. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between these mechanisms and to examine whether cell surface glycocalyx and cell stiffness of human platelets are sensitive to the redox potential formed by glutathione. To this end, human platelets were treated with different concentrations (0.05 ?M to 6 mM) and ratios of reduced or oxidized glutathione (GSH or GSSG), and platelet morphological, mechanical, and functional properties were determined using conventional light microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and lectin-induced cell aggregation analysis. It was found that lowering the glutathione redox potential changed platelet morphology and increased platelet stiffness as well as modulated nonuniformly platelet aggregation in response to plant lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificity including wheat germ agglutinin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin, and Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin. Extracellular redox potential and redox buffering capacity of the GSSG/2GSH couple were shown to control the availability of specific lectin-binding glycoligands on the cell surface, while the intracellular glutathione redox state affected the general functional ability of platelets to be aggregated independently of the type of lectins. Our data provide the first experimental evidence that glutathione as a redox molecule can affect the mechanical stiffness of human platelets and induce changes of the cell surface glycocalyx, which may represent a new mechanism of redox regulation of intercellular contacts. PMID:21079947

Shamova, Ekaterina V; Gorudko, Irina V; Drozd, Elizaveta S; Chizhik, Sergey A; Martinovich, Grigory G; Cherenkevich, Sergey N; Timoshenko, Alexander V

2010-11-16

186

[The dynamic morphology of the endothelial cells of aortocoronary vessels cultured in vitro].  

PubMed

The morphologic and functional meaning of the endothelial cell, as the first cellular element between blood and tissues, has been investigated since the earliest histological knowledge of the vascular tree. Although there have been multiple attempts for its study, through different biological branches, very little has been comprehended in its dynamic biology, due to technical difficulties and to the apparent simplicity of this extraordinary cellular type. In this research we pretend to establish a morphodynamic pattern of the endothelial cells from the aortocoronary segment, using the particular advantages of tissue culture. Our results, have been obtained through careful observations with light microscopy under different optical systems and the help provided by spaced microcinematography. Our results showed the reality of the images in the different cellular phenomena, particularly, endocytotic pinocytosis, the dynamic of the cellular membrane, and the cell-cell linkages established in vitro. PMID:1285657

Martín del Campo, D; Gómez, M L; Chévez, A

187

Morphological and functional characteristics of rat steady state peritoneal dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DC) are present in lymphoid organs and also in many non-lymphoid tissues. In this study, DC in the steady state peritoneal cavity of rats were identified morphologically and functionally. Approximately 1% of the peritoneal cells are DC. On cytocentrifuge preparations these cells had the same characteristics as lymph node and spleen DC: they had an irregular outline, all were strongly MHC class II positive and had acid phosphatase activity in a spot in a juxtanuclear position. Also ultrastructurally, peritoneal DC were similar to DC isolated from lymph node and spleen. Enrichment of peritoneal DC, using overnight culture and a Nycodenz gradient, resulted in a highly purified DC fraction. Functionally, peritoneal DC appeared to be very potent antigen-presenting cells, far more potent than peritoneal macrophages, which had an inhibitory rather than an accessory function. PMID:1800309

van Vugt, E; Arkema, J M; Verdaasdonk, M A; Beelen, R H; Kamperdijk, E W

1991-12-01

188

Morphologic and immunologic characterization of 50 peripheral T-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

Fifty T-cell lymphomas, excluding mycosis fungoides and lymphoblastic lymphoma, were studied morphologically and immunohistochemically with a panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive with T-cell differentiation antigens in fresh frozen tissue. Histologically, 36% of the lymphomas were large-cell immunoblastic, 26% were diffuse large-cell, 22% were diffuse mixed small and large-cell, and 16% were monomorphic medium-sized-cell lymphomas. By immunologic studies, 64% of the lymphomas were of helper phenotype, 12% were of cytotoxic/suppressor phenotype, 8% expressed both helper and cytotoxic/suppressor suppressor antigenic markers, and 16% lacked detectable markers for either helper or cytotoxic/suppressor cells. There was no correlation between histologic category and immunophenotype. A common finding, and one which may prove to be helpful in the diagnosis of T-cell lymphomas, was the loss of one or more of the pan-T antigens Leu 1, 4, and 5 or the T-cell antigen Leu 9 in 32 cases. The expression of Leu 1 and Leu 9 was lost in 46% of cases, expression of Leu 4 was lost in 26%, and expression of Leu 5 was lost in 24%. About three-quarters of the lymphomas expressed Ia antigens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Weiss, L. M.; Crabtree, G. S.; Rouse, R. V.; Warnke, R. A.

1985-01-01

189

Morphology of Retinal Ganglion Cells in the Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)  

PubMed Central

The ferret is the premiere mammalian model of retinal and visual system development, but the spectrum and properties of its retinal ganglion cells are less well understood than in another member of the Carnivora, the domestic cat. Here, we have extensively surveyed the dendritic architecture of ferret ganglion cells and report that the classification scheme previously developed for cat ganglion cells can be applied with few modifications to the ferret retina. We confirm the presence of alpha and beta cells in ferret retina, which are very similar to those in cat retina. Both cell types exhibited an increase in dendritic field size with distance from the area centralis (eccentricity) and with distance from the visual streak. Both alpha and beta cell populations existed as two subtypes whose dendrites mainly stratified in sublamina a or b of the inner plexiform layer. Six additional morphological types of ganglion cells were identified: four monostratified cell types (delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta) and two bistratified types (theta and iota). These types closely resembled their counterparts in the cat in terms of form, relative field size, and stratification. Our data indicate that among carnivore species, the complement of retinal ganglion cells resemble one another closely, and that the ferret is a useful model for studies of the ontogenetic differentiation of ganglion cell types.

Isayama, Tomoki; O'Brien, Brendan J.; Ugalde, Irma; Muller, Jay F.; Frenz, Aaron; Aurora, Vikas; Tsiaras, William; Berson, David M.

2012-01-01

190

Control of Cell Morphology: Signalling by the Receptor Notch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this study has been to test the hypothesis that the Notch gene controls axon extension in Drosophila by a mechanism distinct from that by which it controls cell fate, and if so, to identify Notch domains and downstream effectors that execute t...

E. Giniger

1998-01-01

191

Cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(lactic acid) using endothermic chemical foaming agent.  

PubMed

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was foamed with an endothermic chemical foaming agent (CFA) through an extrusion process. The effects of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed on the cellular structures, void fraction, and cell-population density of foamed PLA were investigated. The apparent melt viscosity of PLA was measured to understand the effect of melt index on the cell morphology of foamed PLA samples. The void fraction was strongly dependent on the PLA melt index. It increased with increasing melt index, reaching a maximum value, after which it decreased. Melt index showed no significant effect on the cell-population density of foamed samples within the narrow range studied. A gas containment limit was observed in PLA foamed with CFA. Both the void fraction and cell-population density increased with an initial increase in CFA content, reached a maximum value, and then decreased as CFA content continued to increase. The processing speed also affected the morphology of PLA foams. The void fraction reached a maximum value as the extruder's screw speed increased to 40 rpm and a further increase in the processing speed tended to reduce the void fraction of foamed samples. By contrast, cell-population density increased one order of magnitude by increasing the screw speed from 20 to 120 rpm. The experimental results indicate that a homogeneous and finer cellular morphology could be successfully achieved in PLA foamed in an extrusion process with a proper combination of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed. PMID:19615893

Matuana, Laurent M; Faruk, Omar; Diaz, Carlos A

2009-07-16

192

Morphological analysis of squamous cells in routine Pap smears as a predictor of bone mineral density in asymptomatic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study attempted to find out possible coherence between morphologic characteristics in Pap smears and bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by DEXA. Study Design: DEXA measurement (with the result expressed as T-score) was performed in 79 women in whom Pap smears for routine cervical cancer screening were obtained. The smears were grouped into atrophic and mature cell

Alenka Repše-Fokter; Samo K. Fokter; Radko Komadina; Draga Štiblar-Martinic; Iztok Takac

2004-01-01

193

Studying the properties of galaxy cluster morphology estimators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray observations of galaxy clusters reveal a large range of morphologies with various degrees of disturbance, showing that the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical shape, which are used to determine the cluster mass from X-ray data are not always satisfied. It is therefore important for the understanding of cluster properties as well as for cosmological applications to detect and quantify substructure in X-ray images of galaxy clusters. Two promising methods to do so are power ratios and center shifts. Since these estimators can be heavily affected by Poisson noise and X-ray background, we performed an extensive analysis of their statistical properties using a large sample of simulated X-ray observations of clusters from hydrodynamical simulations. We quantify the measurement bias and error in detail and give ranges where morphological analysis is feasible. A new, computationally fast method to correct for the Poisson bias and the X-ray background contribution in power ratio and center shift measurements is presented and tested for typical XMM-Newton observational data sets. We studied the morphology of 121 simulated cluster images and established structure boundaries to divide samples into relaxed, mildly disturbed and disturbed clusters. In addition, we present a new morphology estimator - the peak of the 0.3-1 r500P3/P0 profile to better identify merging clusters. The analysis methods were applied to a sample of 80 galaxy clusters observed with XMM-Newton. We give structure parameters (P3/P0 in r500, w and P3/P0max) for all 80 observed clusters. Using our definition of the P3/P0 (w) substructure boundary, we find 41% (47%) of our observed clusters to be disturbed. Figures 4, 12, and Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Weißmann, A.; Böhringer, H.; Šuhada, R.; Ameglio, S.

2013-01-01

194

Morphologic Evidence of Anti-Tumor Specificity of T Cells Activated by Denritic Cells Derived from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Thyroid Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that immunization with autologous dendritic cells (DCs) results in protective immunity and rejection of established tumors in various human malignancies. The purpose of this study is to determine whether DCs are generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNs) by using cytokines such as F1t-3 ligand (FL), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-4, and TNF-?, and whether cytotoxic T cells activated against the thyroid cancer tissues by the DCs. Peripheral blood was obtained from 2 patients with thyroid cancer. DCs were established from PBMNs by culturing in the presence of FL, GM-CSF, IL-4, and TNF-? for 14 days. At day 14, the differentiated DCs was analyzed morphologically. The immunophenotypic features of DCs such as CDla, CD83, and CD86 were analyzed by immunofluorelescence microscopy. At day 18, DCs and T cells were incubated with thyroid cancer tissues or normal thyroid tissues for additional 4 days, respectively. DCs generated from the PBMNs showed the typical morphology of DCs. Activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were observed also. DCs and the CTLs were attached to the cancer tissues on scanning electron microscope. The DCs activated the CTLs, which able to specifically attack the thyroid cancer. This study provides morphologic evidence that the coculture of T cells/cancer tissues activated the T cells and differentiated CTLs. The CTLs tightly adhered to cancer tissues and lysed cancer tissues vigorously. Therefore DCs could be used as potential vaccines in the immunotherapy.

2012-01-01

195

Retinal Progenitor Cell Xenografts to the Pig Retina Morphologic Integration and Cytochemical Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results:The GFPmurine retinal progenitor cells sur- vived well for up to 14 days after transplantation to the pig retina. After 5 weeks, fewer GFP cells were found. In the pigs that received laser treatment before grafting of cell suspension, GFP cells integrated into the reti- nal pigment epithelium and all layers of the retina. The GFPcells exhibited morphologic evidence of

Karin Warfvinge; Jens F. Kiilgaard; Erin B. Lavik; Erik Scherfig; Robert Langer; Henry J. Klassen; Michael J. Young

196

Nanoscale Morphology and Charge Transport in Hybrid Solar Cells by Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the dependence of photoactive response on nanoscale morphology provide essential insights to further improve processing and achieve morphologies with enhanced device performance. To study the correlation between local morphology and photoactive response, we have fabricated hybrid polymer/zinc oxide thin films and have characterized their electrical properties at nanoscale resolution with conducting probe atomic force microscopy (c-AFM). The charge carrier mobilities were extracted based on local IV characteristics. The surface morphology and current mapping were recorded simultaneously under various illumination and biasing conditions, enabling direct study of morphology dependent transport processes in these photoactive devices.

Sun, Jiebing; Wagner, Sean R.; Enderich, Daniel; Duxbury, Phillip; Zhang, Pengpeng

2011-03-01

197

Spatial buffering of potassium by retinal Müller (glial) cells of various morphologies calculated by a model.  

PubMed

In a previous study we found the morphometrical data of rabbit retinal Müller (radial glial) cells to vary greatly with their localization in various parts of the retina. The long cells of the central retina have thinner vitreal processes and smaller endfeet than the short cells of the retinal periphery. This configuration should impair the spatial buffering capacity of the central Müller cells for excess K+ ions. To test this hypothesis, we developed a simple modified model for the calculation of K+ clearance by spatial buffering, diffusion through the extracellular space, and co-operation of both processes. K+ clearance processes were demonstrated to depend greatly on the retinal geometry and Müller cell morphology in different parts of the retina. The efficiency of spatial buffering exhibited an obvious optimum for Müller cells of intermediate length, and decreased very steeply in longer cells. Some conclusions are drawn with respect to retinal physiology. In particular, it is suggested that very long and slender radial glia is unable to perform sufficient K+ clearance preventing long-lasting extracellular [K+] elevations after neuronal activity. Such [K+] elevations could depolarize these glial cells so as to enforce their mitotic division. This mechanism might lead to the perinatal transformation of embryonic radial glia into adult multipolar glia when neuronal activity commences in CNS tissues thicker than the maximal effective length of radial glial cells. PMID:3670605

Eberhardt, W; Reichenbach, A

1987-08-01

198

Tetrodotoxin suppresses morphological enhancement of the metastatic MAT-LyLu rat prostate cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Voltage-gated Na+ channels are expressed by highly metastatic MAT-LyLu cells, but not by poorly metastatic AT-2 cells, derived from the rodent Dunning model of prostatic cancer. We have investigated the possible involvement of these channels in the morphological development of the cells. Incubation of both the MAT-LyLu and the AT-2 cell line for 24 h with the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) at 6 microM altered the morphology only of the MAT-LyLu cell line. TTX produced significant decreases in: (a) cell process length and (b) field diameter, and increases in (c) cell body diameter and (d) process thickness. Importantly, 6 microM TTX had no significant effects on proliferation rates or cellular toxicity. The results suggest that Na+ channel activity plays a significant role in determining the morphological development of MAT-LyLu cells in such a way as to enhance their metastatic potential. PMID:10022970

Fraser, S P; Ding, Y; Liu, A; Foster, C S; Djamgoz, M B

1999-03-01

199

Morphological alterations and cytoskeletal reorganization in opossum kidney (OK) cells during osmotic swelling and volume regulation.  

PubMed

Cells from a variety of tissues regulate their volume when exposed to anisotonic conditions. After exposure of cells to hypotonic conditions, the rapid phase of cell swelling is followed by a slower phase of cell shrinkage towards the initial volume. The present study investigates morphological alterations of adherent and fully spread cells after exposure to hypotonic conditions and the reorganization of cytoskeletal components such as F-actin, actin-binding proteins, microtubules and intermediate-sized filaments. We used cells of a continuous epithelial cell line from the opossum kidney (OK cells), which were exposed to hypotonic conditions for a period of 60 min at 25 degrees C. The osmolarity was reduced by 40% from 320 mosmol/l (isotonic conditions) to 192 mosmol/l (hypotonic conditions). The initial swelling after exposure of OK cells to hypotonic conditions caused enhanced ruffling membrane activity, formation of lamellipodia and an extended space between adjacent cells which was caused by a more rounded cell shape. Moreover, the height of cells located in the centre of cell clusters increased by 32 +/- 8% (mean value +/- SEM) as checked by morphometric analysis of the vertical distance between the apical and basolateral F-actin domain. Although the fluorescence intensity and organization of F-actin in a horizontal direction remained unaltered during cell swelling, we observed a loss of periodicity and irregular distribution of myosin aggregates and a partial rearrangement of vimentin filaments in the form of short fragments. In all experiments the organization of microtubles was observed to be unaltered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7814272

Dartsch, P C; Kolb, H A; Beckmann, M; Lang, F

1994-08-01

200

Functional and morphologic characteristics of the leukemic cells of a patient with acute monocytic leukemia: correlation with clinical features.  

PubMed

The clinical course of a patient with acute monocytic leukemia and prominent infiltration of the skin and testes is described. In vitro studies demonstrated that the circulating monocyte precursors were capable of adherence to nylon fibers, and phagocytosis of bacteria and latex particles. In vivo, migration of leukemic cells to skin windows was observed. Extreme nuclear folding, marked surface activity, and morphologic features suggesting nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation were seen by light and electron microscopy. The presence of morphologically and functionally more differentiated monocytic cells may account for the marked tiuuse invasion in this patient and, possibly, in other patients with monocytic leukemia. PMID:1055611

Schiffer, C A; Sanel, F T; Stechmiller, B K; Wiernik, P H

1975-07-01

201

Effects of cucurbitacins on cell morphology are associated with sensitization of renal carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Cucurbitacins B and D were among the compounds identified as sensitizers of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in a high-throughput screen. Therefore a series of cucurbitacins was further investigated for TRAIL sensitization and possible mechanisms of action. A total of six cucurbitacins promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis (B, I, E, C, D, and K) and one (P) was inactive. Sensitization of renal adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL was apparent after as little as 1–4 h pretreatment and did not require continued presence of cucurbitacin. Active cucurbitacins induced caspase-8 activation only after subsequent TRAIL addition and caspase activation was required for apoptosis suggesting amplified proximal signaling from TRAIL death receptors. Cucurbitacin-sensitized TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine. Structure–activity relationship analysis in comparison to published studies suggests that TRAIL-sensitizing and general cytotoxic activities of cucurbitacins may be decoupled. Cucurbitacins are reported to be inhibitors of STAT3 activation. However, their TRAIL-sensitizing activity is STAT3-independent. Treatment of renal carcinoma cells with active cucurbitacins produced rapid and dramatic changes in cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization (also prevented by NAC). Therefore, cucurbitacins may be useful as tools for investigating the molecular mechanism(s) of action of TRAIL sensitizers, particularly with regard to temporal aspects of sensitization and modulation of TRAIL signaling by cell morphology, and could form the basis for future therapeutic development in combination with TRAIL death receptor agonists.

Thomas, Cheryl L.; Brooks, Alan D.; Booth, Nancy Lynn; Lowery, Evan M.; Pompei, Richard J.; McMahon, James B.; Sayers, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

202

Effects of cucurbitacins on cell morphology are associated with sensitization of renal carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Cucurbitacins B and D were among the compounds identified as sensitizers of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in a high-throughput screen. Therefore a series of cucurbitacins was further investigated for TRAIL sensitization and possible mechanisms of action. A total of six cucurbitacins promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis (B, I, E, C, D, and K) and one (P) was inactive. Sensitization of renal adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL was apparent after as little as 1-4 h pretreatment and did not require continued presence of cucurbitacin. Active cucurbitacins induced caspase-8 activation only after subsequent TRAIL addition and caspase activation was required for apoptosis suggesting amplified proximal signaling from TRAIL death receptors. Cucurbitacin-sensitized TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine. Structure-activity relationship analysis in comparison to published studies suggests that TRAIL-sensitizing and general cytotoxic activities of cucurbitacins may be decoupled. Cucurbitacins are reported to be inhibitors of STAT3 activation. However, their TRAIL-sensitizing activity is STAT3-independent. Treatment of renal carcinoma cells with active cucurbitacins produced rapid and dramatic changes in cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization (also prevented by NAC). Therefore, cucurbitacins may be useful as tools for investigating the molecular mechanism(s) of action of TRAIL sensitizers, particularly with regard to temporal aspects of sensitization and modulation of TRAIL signaling by cell morphology, and could form the basis for future therapeutic development in combination with TRAIL death receptor agonists. PMID:21928090

Henrich, Curtis J; Thomas, Cheryl L; Brooks, Alan D; Booth, Nancy Lynn; Lowery, Evan M; Pompei, Richard J; McMahon, James B; Sayers, Thomas J

2012-01-01

203

Morphological analysis of cell growth mutants in physcomitrella.  

PubMed

This protocol describes a quantitative analysis of the morphology of small plants from the moss Physcomitrella patens. The protocol can be used for the analysis of growth phenotypes produced by transient RNA interference or for the analysis of stable mutant plants. Information is presented to guide the investigator in the choice of vectors and basic conditions to perform transient RNA interference in moss. Detailed directions and examples for fluorescence image acquisition of small regenerating moss plants are provided. Instructions for the use of an ImageJ-based macro for quantitative morphological analysis of these plants are also provided. PMID:24132431

Bibeau, Jeffrey P; Vidali, Luis

2014-01-01

204

Interplay of three-dimensional morphologies and photocarrier dynamics of polymer/TiO2 bulk heterojunction solar cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the interplay of three-dimensional morphologies and the photocarrier dynamics of polymer/inorganic nanocrystal hybrid photoactive layers consisting of TiO(2) nanoparticles and nanorods. Electron tomography based on scanning transmission electron microscopy using high-angle annular dark-field imaging was performed to analyze the morphological organization of TiO(2) nanocrystals in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in optimal solar cell devices. The Three-dimensional (3D) morphologies of these hybrid films were correlated with the photocarrier dynamics of charge separation, transport, and recombination, which were comprehensively probed by various transient techniques. Visualization of these 3D bulk heterojunction morphologies clearly reveals that elongated and anisotropic TiO(2) nanorods in P3HT not only can significantly reduce the probability of the interparticle hopping transport of electrons by providing better connectivity with respect to the TiO(2) nanoparticles, but also tend to form a large-scale donor-acceptor phase-separated morphology, which was found to enhance hole transport. The results support the establishment of a favorable morphology for polymer/inorganic hybrid solar cells due to the presence of the dimensionality of TiO(2) nanocrystals as a result of more effective mobile carrier generation and more efficient and balanced transport of carriers. PMID:21682313

Li, Shao-Sian; Chang, Ching-Pin; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Yun-Yue; Chang, Chia-Hao; Yang, Jer-Ren; Chu, Ming-Wen; Chen, Chun-Wei

2011-07-07

205

Morphological and oxidative alterations on Sertoli cells cytoskeleton due to retinol-induced reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Retinol (vitamin A) is involved in several cellular processes, like cell division, differentiation, transformation and apoptosis. Although it has been shown that retinol is a limitant factor for all these processes, the precise mechanisms by which retinol acts are still unknown. In the present study we hypothesised that alterations in the cytoskeleton of Sertoli cells induced by retinol supplementation could indicate an adaptive maintenance of its functions, since it plays an important role in the transformation process that we observed. Previous results demonstrated that Sertoli cells treated with retinol showed an oxidative imbalance, that leads the cell to two phenotypes: apoptosis or transformation. Our group has identified characteristics of Sertoli cells transformed by retinol which results in normal cell functions modification. In the present study the actin filament fluorescence assay and the deformation coefficient showed a modification in the morphology induced by retinol. We also observed an oxidative alteration in isolated cytoskeleton proteins and did not show alterations when these proteins are analyzed by electrophoreses. Our results showed an increase in mitochondria superoxide production and a decrease in nitric oxide levels. All results were partially or completely reverted by co-treatment of the antioxidant Trolox. These findings suggest that the cytoskeleton components suffer individual alterations in different levels and that these alterations generate a global phenotype modification and that these processes are probably ROS dependent. We believe that the results from this study indicate an adaptation of the cytoskeleton to oxidative imbalance since there was not a loss of its function. PMID:15881670

de Oliveira, Ramatis Birnfeld; Klamt, Fábio; Castro, Mauro A A; Polydoro, Manuela; Zanotto Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

2005-03-01

206

Morphologic, cytochemical and neurochemical characterization of the human medulloblastoma cell line TE671  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medulloblastoma cell line TE671 was characterized by morphologic, cytochemical, neurochemical, and growth criteria. In contrast to the uniform, in vivo histopathologic appearance of the tumor, TE671 in vitro exhibits six morphologic subtypes (Types I–VI) in varying percentages over 14 days in culture. TE671 grows as a monolayer by the merging of separate foci. Cells were positive for Periodic acid Schiff

Paul M. Zeltzer; Sandra L. Schneider; Daniel D. Von Hoff

1984-01-01

207

Effects of ovarian morphology on oocyte quantity and quality, granulosa cells, in vitro maturation, and steroid hormone production in buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ovarian morphology on oocyte quantity and quality, as well as the effect of preincubated granulosa cells (PGCs) on in vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes and steroid hormone production. A total of 52 ovarian pairs were grouped into 3 types: Type I (with functional corpus luteum), Type II (with regressed corpus

H. A. Amer; A. O. Hegab; S. M. Zaabal

2008-01-01

208

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces morphological and biochemical markers of apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2(D)3], the active metabolite of vitamin D, is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer cell growth both in vivo and in vitro. To complement data which documents the anti-proliferative effects of 1,25(OH)2(D)3, we assessed the role of apoptosis in vitamin D-mediated growth arrest of MCF-7 cells. Time course studies indicated that 100 nM 1,25(OH)2(D)3 significantly reduces MCF-7 cell numbers within 48 h of treatment. Morphological assessment demonstrated that MCF-7 cells treated with 1,25(OH)2(D)3 for 48 h exhibit characteristic apoptotic features, including cytoplasmic condensation, pyknotic nuclei, condensed chromatin and nuclear matrix re-organization. In situ end labelling with terminal transferase indicated that cells exhibiting apoptotic morphology in 1,25(OH)2(D)3-treated cultures were positive for DNA strand breaks. These morphological features of apoptosis were accompanied by an increase in the cell death rate assessed as soluble DNA-histone complexes indicative of DNA fragmentation. To complement the morphological data, we assessed the temporal expression of two proteins which have been associated with apoptosis in mammary cells and tumors. The steady state mRNA levels for TRPM-2/clusterin and cathepsin B mRNA were significantly up-regulated in MCF-7 cells treated with 1,25(OH)2(D)3 compared to control cells. Time-dependent increases in the expression of TRPM-2/clusterin and cathepsin B proteins were detected by Western blotting in 1,25(OH)2(D)3-treated cells. These findings indicate that, in addition to its anti-proliferative effects, 1,25(OH)2(D)3 activates the apoptotic cell death pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. PMID:8903420

Simboli-Campbell, M; Narvaez, C J; Tenniswood, M; Welsh, J

1996-07-01

209

Morphological study of the calcaneofibular ligament in cadavers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the anatomical and morphological characteristics and the maximum elongation of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) in cadavers. In a sample of 72 cadaveric lower limbs the mean values of length, width, thickness, and angle with the sagittal plane were recorded for the CFL. The mean ligament's length was 31.8 mm, and the mean width and thickness were 4.4 mm and 1.5 mm respectively. The mean angle with the sagittal plane was 51.11°. In 72.2% of the lower limbs studied, the ligament presented one band, while 22.2% and 5.6% of them were two-banded and three-banded respectively. A common origin with the anterior talofibular ligament (TFL) was found in 24 of the feet (33%). There were also 4 cases in which the anterior TFL was absent. Finally, we measured the maximal elongation of the ligament during extreme inversion and simultaneous dorsal flexion and found it to be 2.88 mm on average. We noticed and statistically verified that women presented a greater elongation compared to men. A precise knowledge of the origin, insertion, direction, and morphology of CFL is critical for ligament injuries in ankle sprains and during ankle reconstruction. Ligament elasticity plays an important role in the range of ankle motion and ligament shearing. Male and female ankle joints differ in several anthropometric characteristics and thus the genre differences in ligament elongation are of great interest. PMID:21866529

Kitsoulis, P; Marini, A; Pseftinakou, A; Iliou, K; Galani, V; Paraskevas, G

2011-08-01

210

Morphological Characterization of Bushy Cells and Their Inputs in the Laboratory Mouse (Mus musculus) Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus  

PubMed Central

Spherical and globular bushy cells of the AVCN receive huge auditory nerve endings specialized for high fidelity neural transmission in response to acoustic events. Recent studies in mice and other rodent species suggest that the distinction between bushy cell subtypes is not always straightforward. We conducted a systematic investigation of mouse bushy cells along the rostral-caudal axis in an effort to understand the morphological variation that gives rise to reported response properties in mice. We combined quantitative light and electron microscopy to investigate variations in cell morphology, immunostaining, and the distribution of primary and non-primary synaptic inputs along the rostral-caudal axis. Overall, large regional differences in bushy cell characteristics were not found; however, rostral bushy cells received a different complement of axosomatic input compared to caudal bushy cells. The percentage of primary auditory nerve terminals was larger in caudal AVCN, whereas non-primary excitatory and inhibitory inputs were more common in rostral AVCN. Other ultrastructural characteristics of primary auditory nerve inputs were similar across the rostral and caudal AVCN. Cross sectional area, postsynaptic density length and curvature, and mitochondrial volume fraction were similar for axosomatic auditory nerve terminals, although rostral auditory nerve terminals contained a greater concentration of synaptic vesicles near the postsynaptic densities. These data demonstrate regional differences in synaptic organization of inputs to mouse bushy cells rather than the morphological characteristic of the cells themselves.

Lauer, Amanda M.; Connelly, Catherine J.; Graham, Heather; Ryugo, David K.

2013-01-01

211

Effect of asiatic and ursolic acids on morphology, hydrophobicity, and adhesion of UPECs to uroepithelial cells.  

PubMed

Adhesion of bacteria to epithelial tissue is an essential step in the progression of the urinary tract infections. Reduction of virulence factors responsible for microbial attachment may help to decrease or inhibit colonization of the host organism by pathogens. In the age of increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance, more and more attention is being paid to the use of plants and/or their bioactive components in the prevention and treatment of human infections. Asiatic acid (AA) and ursolic acid (UA), two plant secondary metabolites, were used as potential antibacterial agents. The current study aimed to determine the possible impact of AA and UA on morphology, hydrophobicity, and adhesion of clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC) to the uroepithelial cells. Our work describes for the first time the effects exerted by AA and UA on virulence factors of UPECs. The impact of both acids on the cell surface hydrophobicity of the investigated strains was very weak. The results clearly show the influence of AA and UA on the presence of P fimbriae and curli fibers, morphology of the UPECs cells and their adhesion to epithelium; however, some differences between activities of AA and UA were found. PMID:23132656

Dorota, Wojnicz; Marta, Kicia; Dorota, Tichaczek-Goska

2012-11-07

212

Application of optical trapping for detection of Calcium induced morphological changes of red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates an optical trap based method for detection of structural changes of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane affected by Ca2+ ions. Individual cells are immobilized by use of optical tweezers and are monitored live while the concentration of Ca2+ ions in the buffer is changed simultaneously. Ca2+ ions affect cells' membrane morphology, which results in the change

Ali-Reza Moradi; Mohammad Kutub Ali; Mehdi Daneshpanah; Arun Anand; Bahram Javidi

2010-01-01

213

Chapter 16 Cytotoxicity and morphological endpoints of exposure to UV: cultured cells as a model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ultraviolet radiations are characterized, in vivo, by a series of morphological and ultrastructural alterations of human epidermis. These changes finally lead to the well described skin pathological modifications including erythema or cancerogenesis. These alterations are however easier to detect by using cultured cells, i.e. cultured cell lines as well as primary cultures of human epidermal cells such

Elisabetta Straface; Mario Falchi; Paolo U. Giacomoni; Walter Malorni

2001-01-01

214

Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors Induce Dramatic Morphological Changes of KNRK Cells that are Blocked by Microtubule Interfering Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) exhibit the remarkable ability to inhibit transformed phenotypes of a variety of human cancer cell lines and to block the growth of cancer cells in a number of animal model systems. In this paper, we report that the addition of FTI to y-K-ras-transformed NRK cells (KNRK) results in dramatic morphological changes. Within 24 h after the addition

Nobutaka Suzuki; Keith del Villar; Fuyuhiko Tamanoi

1998-01-01

215

Folliculocentric B-cell-rich follicular dendritic cells sarcoma: a hitherto unreported morphological variant mimicking lymphoproliferative disorders.  

PubMed

We report three cases of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) showing a hitherto undescribed histological pattern consisting of nodular tumor growth associated with small B lymphocytes. FDCS tumor cells consistently showed large epithelioid features and were intermingled with small lymphocytes in the nodules in two cases, whereas they formed cohesive aggregates surrounded by lymphocyte mantle in the other. These features were easily confused with lymphomatous proliferations and, in particular, subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma, high-grade follicular lymphoma, and germinotropic large B-cell lymphomas. The diagnosis was established by the use of a broad panel of antibodies that showed a variable expression of the FDC markers CD21, CD23, CD35, clusterin, podoplanin, claudin 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CXCL13. The associated B lymphocytes revealed a mantle zone B phenotype, with expression of CD20 and PAX5, together with TCL1 and IgD. Of notice, in all cases, morphological features suggesting hyaline-vascular Castleman disease were recognized in the interfollicular areas, containing scattered epithelioid cells similar to those found in the nodules, thus providing a useful clue for FDCS diagnosis. Of the 3 cases, 1 presented multiple recurrences unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and finally died of disease 14 years after diagnosis. This study further emphasizes the extreme variability of morphological presentation of FDCS and expands the spectrum of lesions showing a nodular growth pattern occurring in human lymph nodes. PMID:21835430

Lorenzi, Luisa; Lonardi, Silvia; Petrilli, Giulia; Tanda, Francesco; Bella, Michelangelo; Laurino, Licia; Rossi, Giuseppe; Facchetti, Fabio

2011-08-10

216

Characterization of morphological response of red cells in a sucrose solution.  

PubMed

The dynamics of red cell shape changes following transfer into sucrose media having a low chloride content was studied. Based on a large number of measurements, six types of morphological response (MR), differing both in the degree of shape changes and the time course of the process, were identified. The most prominent type of response is a triphasic sequence of shape changes consisting of a fast transformation into a sphere (phase 1), followed by restoration of the discoid shape (phase 2) and final transformation into spherostomatocytes (phase 3), with individual parameters which could vary significantly. It was found that individual morphological response exhibited day to day variations, depending on the initial state of the red blood cells and the donor, but to a larger extent depended on the composition of the sucrose solution, such as concentration and type of buffers, the presence of EDTA, calcium, as well as very small amounts of extracellular hemoglobin. MR shows strong pH and ionic strength dependence. Low pH inhibited phase 1 and high pH changed dramatically the time course of the response. Increasing ionic strength inhibited all phases of MR, and at concentrations above 10-20 mM NaCl it was fully suppressed. Tris and phosphate were also inhibitory whereas HEPES, MOPS and Tricine were less effective. MR occurred also in hypertonic or hypotonic sucrose solutions, with exception of extreme hypotonicity due to volume restrictions. It is concluded that strong membrane depolarization per se is not a causal factor leading to MR, and its different phases could be regulated independently. For some types of morphological response the fast shape transformation from sphere to disc and back to sphere occurs within a 10 s time interval and could be accelerated several fold in the presence of a small amount of hemoglobin. It is suggested that MR represents a type of general cell reaction that occurs upon exposure to low ionic strength. PMID:19249232

Rudenko, Sergey V

2009-02-26

217

Shape-memory-actuated change in scaffold fiber alignment directs stem cell morphology.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering scaffolds have traditionally been static physical structures poorly suited to mimicking the complex dynamic behavior of in vivo microenvironments. Here we present a thermoresponsive scaffold that can be programmed to change macroscopic shape and microscopic architecture during cell culture. The scaffold, which was prepared by electrospinning a shape memory polymer (SMP), was used to test the hypothesis that a shape-memory-actuated change in scaffold fiber alignment could be used to control the behavior of attached and viable cells. To test this hypothesis, we stretched an SMP scaffold of randomly oriented fibers and fixed the scaffold in a temporary but stable elongated shape in which fibers were aligned by the strain. Following seeding and culture of human adipose-derived stem cells on the strain-aligned scaffold, the scaffold was triggered to transition back to its initial shape and random fiber orientation via shape memory actuation using a cytocompatible temperature increase. We found that cells preferentially aligned along the fiber direction of the strain-aligned scaffold before shape memory actuation. After shape memory actuation, cells remained attached and viable but lost preferential alignment. These results demonstrate that shape-memory-actuated changes in scaffold fiber alignment can be achieved with attached and viable cells and can control cell morphological behavior. The incorporation of shape memory into cytocompatible scaffolds is anticipated to facilitate the development, delivery and functionality of tissue engineering scaffolds and the in vitro and in vivo study and application of mechanobiology. PMID:23851156

Tseng, Ling-Fang; Mather, Patrick T; Henderson, James H

2013-07-09

218

Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P. E.; Camacho-Díaz, B. H.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

2012-02-01

219

A collagen-coated surface enables quantitative evaluation of morphological behaviors of rabbit chondrocytes relating to cell differentiation in an early culture phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface with collagen type I coating was used as a tool mimicking three dimensional environment for studying the behaviors of rabbit chondrocyte aggregates found in an early culture phase. The morphology of cell aggregates was evaluated quantitatively in terms of a morphology-relating parameter of specific branching factor, Zs, determined under varied culture conditions. Branching in aggregates increased along with

Ali Baradar Khoshfetrat; Masahiro Kino-oka; Katsura Sugawara; Masahito Taya

2009-01-01

220

MicroRNA-200 Family Members Differentially Regulate Morphological Plasticity and Mode of Melanoma Cell Invasion  

PubMed Central

Background A functional role of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in neoplasia and metastasis is becoming clear, and the miR-200 family has received much attention for potentially regulating tumor progression. The miRNAs of this family have been shown to suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and their down-regulation in some tumors promotes invasion and metastasis. Interestingly, while miR-200 is down-regulated in some cancers, it is up-regulated in others. Principal Findings We show that levels of miR-200 are increased in melanoma cell lines compared to normal melanocytes and that miR-200 family members play a role in determining modes of tumor cell migration. Individual tumor cells can invade in either elongated, “mesenchymal-type” or rounded, “amoeboid-like” modes and these two modes of invasion are inter-convertible [1]. In melanoma cell lines, expression of miR-200 members does not suppress invasion but rather leads to a switch between modes of invasion. MicroRNA-200c results in a higher proportion of cells adopting the rounded, amoeboid-like mode of invasion, while miR-200a results in a protrusion-associated elongated mode of invasion. Functional target identification studies suggest that the morphological effects of miR-200c may be mediated by reduced expression of MARCKS, which has been linked to formation of cell protrusions. In contrast miR-200a reduces actomyosin contractility, a feature of rounded morphology. Significance Overall our findings call into question the general role of miR-200 in suppressing invasion and metastasis, and highlight novel distinguishing characteristics of individual miR-200 family members.

Elson-Schwab, Ilan; Lorentzen, Anna; Marshall, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

221

Low-level phenolic estrogen pollutants impair islet morphology and ?-cell function in isolated rat islets.  

PubMed

Phenolic estrogen pollutants, a class of typical endocrine-disrupting chemicals, have attracted public attention due to their estrogenic activities of imitating steroid hormone 17?-estradiol (E(2)) effects. Exposure to these pollutants may disrupt insulin secretion and be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of phenolic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) on rat pancreatic islets in vitro, whose estrogenic activities were DES>NP>OP>BPA. Isolated ?-cells were exposed to E(2), DES, OP, NP, or BPA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 25, and 250??g/l) for 24?h. Parameters of insulin secretion, content, and morphology of ?-cells were measured. In the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test, E(2) and DES increased insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner in a 16.7?mM glucose condition. However, for BPA, NP, or OP with lower estrogenic activity, the relationship between the doses and insulin secretion was an inverted U-shape. Moreover, OP, NP, or BPA (25??g/l) impaired mitochondrial function in ?-cells and induced remarkable swelling of mitochondria with loss of distinct cristae structure within the membrane, which was accompanied by disruption of mRNA expression of genes playing a key role in ?-cell function (Glut2 (Slc2a2), Gck, Pdx1, Hnf1?, Rab27a, and Snap25), and mitochondrial function (Ucp2 and Ogdh). Therefore, these phenolic estrogens can disrupt islet morphology and ?-cell function, and mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to play an important role in the impairment of ?-cell function. PMID:22946080

Song, Liqiong; Xia, Wei; Zhou, Zhao; Li, Yuanyuan; Lin, Yi; Wei, Jie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Xu, Bing; Shen, Jie; Li, Weiyong; Xu, Shunqing

2012-09-03

222

Morphologic and immunocytochemical performances of effusion cell blocks prepared using 3 different methods.  

PubMed

With increased use of the ThinPrep method for nongynecologic specimens, cell blocks are more commonly prepared by harvesting cells that are fixed in CytoLyt solution. The current study compared morphologic and immunocytochemical performance of effusion cell blocks prepared using CytoLyt-prefixed thrombin clot (CTC) with plasma thrombin clot (PT) and HistoGel (HG) preparation. The study included a total of 25 malignant or benign serous fluids. Three individual cell block materials were simultaneously prepared from each of the 25 effusion specimens using the CTC, PT, or HG method. H&E staining and immunostaining for pancytokeratin (pan-CK), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), B72.3, HBME-1, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), CD45, CD20, and CD3 were then performed. The CTC preparation revealed compatible cellularity and good cellular details. In addition, CTC cell blocks revealed a similar percentage of cells with positive immunostaining along with the strongest intensity and the least background staining. The CTC method can be used reliably as an adjunct to other preparation techniques. PMID:23355202

Jing, Xin; Li, Qing Kay; Bedrossian, Ursula; Michael, Claire W

2013-02-01

223

Molecular morphology and toxicity of cytoplasmic prion protein aggregates in neuronal and non-neuronal cells  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have revealed that accumulation of prion protein (PrP) in the cytoplasm results in the production of aggregates that are insoluble in non-ionic detergents and partially resistant to proteinase K. Transgenic mice expressing PrP in the cytoplasm develop severe ataxia with cerebellar degeneration and gliosis, suggesting that cytoplasmic PrP may play a role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The mechanism of cytoplasmic PrP neurotoxicity is not known. In this report, we determined the molecular morphology of cytoplasmic PrP aggregates by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Transient expression of cytoplasmic PrP produced juxtanuclear aggregates reminiscent of aggresomes in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cells and mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. Time course studies revealed that discrete aggregates form first throughout the cytoplasm, and then coalesce to form an aggresome. Aggresomes containing cytoplasmic PrP were 1–5-?m inclusion bodies and were filled with electron-dense particles. Cytoplasmic PrP aggregates induced mitochondrial clustering, reorganization of intermediate filaments, prevented the secretion of wild-type PrP molecules and diverted these molecules to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic PrP decreased the viability of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. We conclude that any event leading to accumulation of PrP in the cytoplasm is likely to result in cell death.

Grenier, Catherine; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Volkov, Leonid; Roucou, Xavier

2010-01-01

224

A biosensor that monitors cell morphology with electrical fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a “whole cell” biosensor that is very useful in the field of animal cell tissue culture and in many ways is akin to the canary in a coal mine. The heart of this method, called ECIS for electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, is a small gold electrode immersed in tissue culture medium. When cells attach and spread on this electrode,

Charles R. Keese; I. Giaever

1994-01-01

225

T1 intralaminar screws: an anatomic, morphologic study.  

PubMed

In some scenarios, such as complex revisions or tumor cases, intralaminar screw placement in the upper thoracic spine can be used to supplement or replace traditional pedicle screw placement. Despite the theortic feasibility of placing these screws, no thorough anatomic study has evaluated the morphology of the T1 lamina for screw placement.Anatomic data of the T1 lamina, including height, width (the upper, middle, and lower one-third segments), and length (with and without penetration of the facet articulation) were analyzed for 112 T1 vertebrae. The placement of screws with widths of 3.5 or 4 mm and screws with lengths of 24 or 26 mm in the T1 lamina was feasible in all of the laminas measured with the exception of 2 outliers. Furthermore, relationships were found between T1 lamina size and patient height and between T1 lamina size and sex, but no relationship was found between T1 lamina size and race.The morphology of the T1 lamina allows for the simple and safe placement of common screw diameters and is a viable salvage or alternative to the traditional pedicle screw. PMID:23590788

Weaver, John; Seipel, Shane; Eubanks, Jason

2013-04-01

226

The use of optical coherence tomography for morphological study of scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aimed at possible widening of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) field of application, an attempt is made to use OCT in tissue engineering and cell transplantology as a tool for morphological studies of substrate materials by the example of scaffolds. By means of the traditional fibreoptical OCT scheme the images of inner structure of scaffolds are obtained, and simultaneously the spatial distribution of the intralipid flow velocity is reconstructed using the Doppler OCT. It is shown that combined use of traditional OCT and Doppler OCT schemes allows revealing the regions of the scaffold demonstrating optimal effect of shear stress, which is a key factor of cell growth.

Veksler, B. A.; Kuz'min, V. L.; Kobzev, E. D.; Meglinski, I. V.

2012-05-01

227

Immune cells in periapical granuloma: morphological and immunohistochemical characterization.  

PubMed

Samples of periapical granulomas obtained from 12 patients were examined using light and electron microscopes and monoclonal antibodies. Monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were nearly always the most abundant cell populations. Ultrastructural analysis showed close contacts between macrophages and cells of the lymphoid lineage, with the lymphoid cells frequently demonstrating blastic features. Immunohistochemical staining with the anti-interleukin 2 receptor antibody showed that the concentration of labeled cells was quite low. The vast majority were lymphocytes, though some mast cells were also labeled. Mast cells were chiefly located in perivascular areas and interleukin 2 receptor-positive mast cells were frequently associated with lymphoid cells. mast cells could be part of a negative feedback mechanism in the immune response. By releasing histamine, they would block the immune response and by absorbing interleukin 2 they would remove it as an immune system stimulant. PMID:1895036

Piattelli, A; Artese, L; Rosini, S; Quaranta, M; Musiani, P

1991-01-01

228

Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

Barrall, G.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Science Div.

1995-09-01

229

Filming a live cell by scanning electrochemical microscopy: label-free imaging of the dynamic morphology in real time  

PubMed Central

The morphology of a live cell reflects the organization of the cytoskeleton and the healthy status of the cell. We established a label-free platform for monitoring the changing morphology of live cells in real time based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The dynamic morphology of a live human bladder cancer cell (T24) was revealed by time-lapse SECM with dissolved oxygen in the medium solution as the redox mediator. Detailed local movements of cell membrane were presented by time-lapse cross section lines extracted from time-lapse SECM. Vivid dynamic morphology is presented by a movie made of time-lapse SECM images. The morphological change of the T24 cell by non-physiological temperature is in consistence with the morphological feature of early apoptosis. To obtain dynamic cellular morphology with other methods is difficult. The non-invasive nature of SECM combined with high resolution realized filming the movements of live cells.

2012-01-01

230

Effect of pH on the morphology OF Lactobacillus helveticus in free?cell batch and immobilized?cell continuous fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH control set point in the 4.3–6.3 range on the morphology of Lactobacillus helveticus was studied in free?cell batch and immobilized?cell continuous fermentations using a supplemented whey permeate medium. The mean chain length of L. helveticus was measured by microscopic observation in both free and entrapped phase. In free?cell batch fermentation, chain elongation of L. helveticus occurred

S. Norton; C. Lacroix; J. C. Vuillemard

1993-01-01

231

Studying femtosecond-laser hyperdoping by controlling surface morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the fundamental properties of femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) hyperdoping by developing techniques to control the surface morphology following laser irradiation. By decoupling the formation of surface roughness from the doping process, we study the structural and electronic properties of fs-laser doped silicon. These experiments are a necessary step toward developing predictive models of the doping process. We use a single fs-laser pulse to dope silicon with sulfur, enabling quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and Hall effect measurements. These measurements indicate that at laser fluences at or above 4 kJ m-2, a single laser pulse yields a sulfur dose >(3 +/- 1) × 1013 cm-2 and results in a 45-nm thick amorphous surface layer. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method for hyperdoping large areas of silicon without producing the surface roughness.

Winkler, Mark T.; Sher, Meng-Ju; Lin, Yu-Ting; Smith, Matthew J.; Zhang, Haifei; Grade?ak, Silvija; Mazur, Eric

2012-05-01

232

Studying femtosecond-laser hyperdoping by controlling surface morphology  

SciTech Connect

We study the fundamental properties of femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) hyperdoping by developing techniques to control the surface morphology following laser irradiation. By decoupling the formation of surface roughness from the doping process, we study the structural and electronic properties of fs-laser doped silicon. These experiments are a necessary step toward developing predictive models of the doping process. We use a single fs-laser pulse to dope silicon with sulfur, enabling quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and Hall effect measurements. These measurements indicate that at laser fluences at or above 4 kJ m{sup -2}, a single laser pulse yields a sulfur dose >(3 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} and results in a 45-nm thick amorphous surface layer. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method for hyperdoping large areas of silicon without producing the surface roughness.

Winkler, Mark T.; Sher, Meng-Ju [Department of Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Lin Yuting; Zhang, Haifei [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Smith, Matthew J.; Gradecak, Silvija [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mazur, Eric [Department of Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2012-05-01

233

Cytostasis and morphological changes induced by mifepristone in human metastatic cancer cells involve cytoskeletal filamentous actin reorganization and impairment of cell adhesion dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in cell shape and plasticity in cytoskeletal dynamics are critically involved in cell adhesion, migration, invasion and the overall process of metastasis. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that the synthetic steroid mifepristone inhibited the growth of highly metastatic cancer cells, while simultaneously causing striking changes in cellular morphology. Here we assessed whether such morphological alterations developed in response to cytostatic concentrations of mifepristone are reversible or permanent, involve rearrangement of cytoskeletal proteins, and/or affect the adhesive capacity of the cells. Methods Cancer cell lines of the ovary (SKOV-3), breast (MDA-MB-231), prostate (LNCaP), and nervous system (U87MG) were exposed to cytostatic concentrations of mifepristone and studied by phase-contrast microscopy. The transient or permanent nature of the cytostasis and morphological changes caused by mifepristone was assessed, as well as the rearrangement of cytoskeletal proteins. De-adhesion and adhesion assays were utilized to determine if mifepristone-arrested and morphologically dysregulated cells had abnormal de-adhesion/adhesion dynamics when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Results Mifepristone-treated cells displayed a long, thin, spindle-like shape with boundaries resembling those of loosely adhered cells. Growth arrest and morphology changes caused by mifepristone were reversible in SKOV-3, MDA-MB-231 and U87MG, but not in LNCaP cells that instead became senescent. All cancer cell types exposed to mifepristone displayed greatly increased actin ruffling in association with accelerated de-adhesion from the culture plate, and delayed adhesion capacity to various extracellular matrix components. Conclusions Cytostatic concentrations of mifepristone induced alterations in the cellular structure of a panel of aggressive, highly metastatic cancer cells of different tissues of origin. Such changes were associated with re-distribution of actin fibers that mainly form non-adhesive membrane ruffles, leading to dysregulated cellular adhesion capacity.

2013-01-01

234

Morphologic features in the regenerating liver—a comparative intravital, lightmicroscopical and ultrastructural analysis with focus on hepatic stellate cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different cell types play a role in the liver regeneration. The present study reveals morphological key steps of liver regeneration\\u000a by correlating intravital, light, and electron microscopic with immunohistochemistry results focusing on hepatic stellate\\u000a cells (HSCs). In Lewis rats, liver regeneration was induced by a 2\\/3-hepatectomy. Animals (n?=?7 each) were killed after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days.

Tymoteusz Budny; Daniel Palmes; Udo Stratmann; Evgeny Minin; Hermann Herbst; Hans-Ullrich Spiegel

2007-01-01

235

Genetically-Directed, Cell Type-Specific Sparse Labeling for the Analysis of Neuronal Morphology  

PubMed Central

Background In mammals, genetically-directed cell labeling technologies have not yet been applied to the morphologic analysis of neurons with very large and complex arbors, an application that requires extremely sparse labeling and that is only rendered practical by limiting the labeled population to one or a few predetermined neuronal subtypes. Methods and Findings In the present study we have addressed this application by using CreER technology to non-invasively label very small numbers of neurons so that their morphologies can be fully visualized. Four lines of IRES-CreER knock-in mice were constructed to permit labeling selectively in cholinergic or catecholaminergic neurons [choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IRES-CreER or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IRES-CreER], predominantly in projection neurons [neurofilament light chain (NFL)-IRES-CreER], or broadly in neurons and some glia [vesicle-associated membrane protein2 (VAMP2)-IRES-CreER]. When crossed to the Z/AP reporter and exposed to 4-hydroxytamoxifen in the early postnatal period, the number of neurons expressing the human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter can be reproducibly lowered to fewer than 50 per brain. Sparse Cre-mediated recombination in ChAT-IRES-CreER;Z/AP mice shows the full axonal and dendritic arbors of individual forebrain cholinergic neurons, the first time that the complete morphologies of these very large neurons have been revealed in any species. Conclusions Sparse genetically-directed, cell type-specific neuronal labeling with IRES-creER lines should prove useful for studying a wide variety of questions in neuronal development and disease.

Rotolo, Thomas; Smallwood, Philip M.; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

2008-01-01

236

Effects of three-dimensional culturing on osteosarcoma cells grown in a fibrous matrix: analyses of cell morphology, cell cycle, and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma cells were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors with either a fibrous matrix or nonporous microcarriers to study the environmental effects on cell growth, morphology, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry and visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The three-dimensional (3-D) fibrous culture had better cell growth and higher metabolic rates than the two-dimensional (2-D) microcarrier culture because cells in the fibrous matrix were protected from shear stress and had lower apoptosis and cell death even under suboptimal conditions (e.g., nutrient depletion). The polyester fibrous matrix used in this study also exhibited the capability of selectively retaining viable and nonapoptotic cells and disposing apoptotic and nonviable cells. Consequently, very few apoptotic cells were found in the fibrous matrix even in the long-term (1 month) T-flask culture. In the continuous culture with packed fibrous matrixes for cell support, most cells were arrested in the G1/G0 phase after 4 days. Decreasing the dissolved oxygen level from 60 to 10% air saturation did not significantly change cell cycle and apoptosis, which remained low at approximately 15%. These results could explain why the fibrous bed bioreactor had good long-term stability and was advantageous for production of non-growth-associated proteins by animal cell cultures. PMID:14524722

Chen, Chunnuan; Chen, Kathryn; Yang, Shang-Tian

237

Morphological gradients in sensory hair cells of the amphibian papilla of the frog, Rana pipiens pipiens.  

PubMed

The sensory hair cells of the amphibian papilla (AP) of the northern leopard frog were examined in a light-microscopic analysis. Hair cell length and cross-sectional area were found to vary systematically along the rostro-caudal axis of the endorgan. The AP was readily divided into three morphological regions. Rostrally-located hair cells are tall, cylindrically-shaped cells with large cross-sectional areas and long stereocilia; caudally-located hair cells are short, goblet-shaped cells with small cross-sectional areas and short stereocilia. In the middle region, hair cells exhibit features intermediate to those of hair cells located at the AP extremes. The detailed pattern of changes in hair cell morphology along the endorgan correlates well with its observed tonotopy and may have implications for the intrinsic tuning of the AP. PMID:7852205

Simmons, D D; Bertolotto, C; Narins, P M

1994-10-01

238

In vitro effects of Sutherlandia frutescens water extracts on cell numbers, morphology, cell cycle progression and cell death in a tumorigenic and a non-tumorigenic epithelial breast cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sutherlandia frutescens is a South African herb traditionally used for internal cancers, diabetes, a variety of inflammatory conditions and recently to improve the overall health in cancer and HIV\\/AIDS patients. The in vitro effects of S. frutescens extracts were evaluated on cell numbers, morphology, cell cycle progression and cell death. Dose-dependent studies (2–10mg\\/ml) revealed a decrease in malignant cell numbers

Andre Stander; Sumari Marais; Voula Stivaktas; Christiaan Vorster; Carl Albrecht; Mona-Liza Lottering; Annie M. Joubert

2009-01-01

239

Histopathologic diagnosis of lymphomatous versus inflammatory erythroderma: a morphologic and phenotypic study on 47 skin biopsies.  

PubMed Central

Erythroderma may reveal a cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and various erythrodermic inflammatory dermatoses (EID), and histopathological diagnosis is often difficult. The aim of this study was to determine whether morphological parameters, ?-catenin and JunB, previously shown to be expressed by CTCL cells, the epidermal CD8:CD3 ratio, and CD30 expression may help for histopathological diagnosis of erythroderma, especially for the differential diagnosis between lymphomas and EID. We retrospectively reviewed a series of 47 skin biopsies from patients with erythroderma (18 CTCL and 29 EID). Etiological diagnosis in each case was established using all clinical, biological and histopathological results. At global blinded assessment of HES stained slides, a correct diagnosis of the underlying cause of erythroderma was made using only morphologic criteria in 31% of cases. A correct differential diagnosis between lymphoma and EID was done with certainty in 57% of cases. Various morphologic and phenotypic parameters were then recorded and we compared their frequency in the CTCL versus the EID group. With the exception of atypical lymphocytes, the moderate to high density of dermal infiltrates and Pautrier’s microabcesses, only found in CTCL, no morphologic parameter was found to be specific of CTCL, although single lymphocytes epidermotropism, telangiectasias and slight lymphocytic dermal infiltrate were significantly more frequent in EID. A low (<10%) CD8:CD3 ratio in the epidermal lymphocytic infiltrate and dermal CD30+ lymphocytes were significantly more frequent in CTCL. JunB expression by lymphocytes was specific of CTCL, but was inconstant in our series (17%). We found ?-catenin expression in a minority of cases from both the CTCL and EID groups. Among EID, dermal suprapapillary thinning was specific of psoriasis. Neutrophils exocytosis and edema of papillary dermis were significantly more frequent in psoriasis, and spongiosis was more frequent in eczema. In conclusion, few morphological and phenotypical parameters are helpful in making a differential diagnosis between erythrodermic CTCL and EID using paraffin embedded skin biopsies.

Ram-Wolff, Caroline; Martin-Garcia, Nadine; Bensussan, Armand; Bagot, Martine; Ortonne, Nicolas

2010-01-01

240

A spectral graph theoretic approach to quantification and calibration of collective morphological differences in cell images  

PubMed Central

Motivation: High-throughput image-based assay technologies can rapidly produce a large number of cell images for drug screening, but data analysis is still a major bottleneck that limits their utility. Quantifying a wide variety of morphological differences observed in cell images under different drug influences is still a challenging task because the result can be highly sensitive to sampling and noise. Results: We propose a graph-based approach to cell image analysis. We define graph transition energy to quantify morphological differences between image sets. A spectral graph theoretic regularization is applied to transform the feature space based on training examples of extremely different images to calibrate the quantification. Calibration is essential for a practical quantification method because we need to measure the confidence of the quantification. We applied our method to quantify the degree of partial fragmentation of mitochondria in collections of fluorescent cell images. We show that with transformation, the quantification can be more accurate and sensitive than that without transformation. We also show that our method outperforms competing methods, including neighbourhood component analysis and the multi-variate drug profiling method by Loo et al. We illustrate its utility with a study of Annonaceous acetogenins, a family of compounds with drug potential. Our result reveals that squamocin induces more fragmented mitochondria than muricin A. Availability: Mitochondrial cell images, their corresponding feature sets (SSLF and WSLF) and the source code of our proposed method are available at http://aiia.iis.sinica.edu.tw/. Contact: chunnan@iis.sinica.edu.tw Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Lin, Yu-Shi; Lin, Chung-Chih; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Ku, Tien-Chuan; Huang, Yi-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Nan

2010-01-01

241

Morphology and dye-coupling of cells in the pigeon isthmo-optic nucleus.  

PubMed

Ground-feeding birds such as pigeons possess the most developed isthmo-optic nucleus in all classes of vertebrates. A previous study showed that this centrifugal or retinopetal nucleus modulates visual activity in tectal cells of pigeons; the present study aimed at revealing the morphology and possible dye-coupling of neurons in the isthmo-optic nucleus and in the ectopic cell region by intracellular injections of Lucifer yellow into neurons in slices. One hundred and twelve successfully labeled cells of the isthmo-optic nucleus were classified into bipolar (83%) and multipolar (17%) types, each of which was further divided into two subtypes, B and P and M and N, respectively. Neurons of B- and P-types are similar in that they have apical dendrites and axons usually arising from the opposite pole of piriform perikarya, but they differ in the length (20-120 vs. 10-20 microm) of their dendritic stems; M- and N-types possess polygonal perikarya giving rise to two to five primary dendrites either in the same orientation (M) or in a radiation fashion (N), and their axons originate from perikarya or occasionally from dendritic stems. Twelve single-injections resulted in the labeling of 26 cells, including 11 pairs and 1 quadruple labeling. About half of these are closely apposed 'twin-cells'. Dye-coupling was found only between neighboring cells in the cell lamina. Thirteen cells in the ECR rostroventral to the ION were labeled and could be grouped into large or L- (46%) and small or S- (54%) types, mainly depending on the dendritic field size and the number of primary dendrites. No dye-coupling was observed between the presumptive ECR cells. The functional role of the ION and the significance of dye-coupling between neurons are discussed. PMID:9933783

Li, W; Wang, S

1999-01-01

242

Morphology of horizontal cells in the frog retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of horizontal cells, H1 and H2, were classified using the Golgi technique on flat mounts of the retina of the frog. Cell type H l possesses rather short, thick dendrites; the diameter of its dendritic field ranges from 40–90 µm. H2-cell displays long and thin dendrites; the diameter of its dendritic field is 70–160 µm. H1-cells possess an

Petra Stephan; Reto Weiler

1981-01-01

243

Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of the winter flounder mauthner cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flatfish (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) have Mauthner cells (M-cells) which are small as compared to certain other teleosts and behaviorally these fish display a suppression of a M-cell initiated startle response while on the substrate. They may depend on camouflage and, therefore, immobility in protection from predation. This ability to suppress the startle response could then be expressed in membrane properties of

Steven J. Zottoli

1981-01-01

244

Morphological and biological characterization of cell line developed from bovine Echinococcus granulosus.  

PubMed

The taeniid tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of echinococcal disease, a major zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Several efforts to establish an in vitro model of E. granulosus have been undertaken; however, many of them have been designed for Echinococcus multilocularis. In the present study, we have described and characterized a stable cell line obtained from E. granulosus bovine protoscoleces maintained 3 yr in vitro. Growth characterization, morphology by light, fluorescent and electronic microscopy, and karyotyping were carried out. Cell culture origin was confirmed by immunofluorescent detection of AgB4 antigen and by PCR for the mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1 (DCO1) gene. Cells seeded in agarose biphasic culture resembled a cystic structure, similar to the one formed in secondary hosts. This cell line could be a useful tool to research equinococcal behavior, allowing additional physiological and pharmacological studies, such as the effect of growth factors, nutrients, and antiparasitic drugs on cell viability and growth and on cyst formation. PMID:20844980

Echeverría, Claudia I; Isolabella, Dora M; Prieto Gonzalez, Elio A; Leonardelli, Araceli; Prada, Laura; Perrone, Alina; Fuchs, Alicia G

2010-09-16

245

Imaging flow cytometry for morphologic and phenotypic characterization of rare circulating endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Endothelial cells in the peripheral circulation are rare events that require technically rigorous approaches for detection by flow cytometry. Visualization of these cells has been even more demanding, as this has historically required extensive enrichment and processing prior to attempting imaging. As a result, few, if any, examples exist on images of peripheral blood circulating endothelial cells (CECs) that include verification of the cell lineage both phenotypically and genomically. In this study, we have devised a method whereby CECs can be directly visualized after lysis of red blood cells and staining, without pre-enrichment or additional processing. Peripheral blood is stained with CD45, CD146, CD3, Hoechst, and DAPI to permit identification of CD146 positive, nonleukocyte, nucleated, and live cells that fit the description of CECs. These cells are imaged using the Amnis ImageStream(X) , an imaging flow cytometer. Genomic verification of the endothelial nature of these cells is accomplished by using an aliquot of the same stained samples for sorting CECs using similar gating strategies. This proof of principle of direct imaging of CECs by imaging flow cytometry will permit studies to be conducted heretofore not possible, as the ImageStream(X) has the capability of detecting additional fluorochromes other than those used to identify the CECs. Such potential investigations include antigen colocalization or capping, autophagy and apoptosis, morphologic changes in response to therapy, and others. Thus, this method will enable a broad range of novel studies to be conducted using CECs as surrogates of the endothelium. Published 2013 Wiley-Periodicals, Inc.† PMID:23554273

Samsel, Leigh; Dagur, Pradeep K; Raghavachari, Nalini; Seamon, Catherine; Kato, Gregory J; McCoy, J Philip

2013-03-29

246

Spectral, thermal and morphological studies of chromium nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cr(0) nanoparticles were synthesized by solution reduction process successfully. The influence of parameters on the size of Cr(0) nanoparticles was studied and the referential process parameters were obtained. The morphology and structure of the synthesized Cr(0) nanoparticles were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), QELS Data and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR). The results show that Cr(0) nanoparticles are of high purity. XRD analysis revealed all relevant Bragg's reflection for crystal structure of Cr metal. XRD spectrum also indicates that there is no oxidation of Cr(0) nanoparticles to chromium oxide. TEM showed nearly uniform distribution of particles in methanol which was confirmed by QELS. Cr(0) nanoparticles can be synthesized easily by reducing agent and are quite stable too.

Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Avdhesh

2013-02-01

247

A viscometric study of tuning micellar morphology by organic additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micellar morphology in aqueous 0.2 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions has been studied in the simultaneous presence\\u000a of organic salts (anilinium hydrochloride, AHC; ortho-toluidine hydrochloride, oTHC; para-toluidine hydrochloride, pTHC) and aliphatic alcohols (n-butanol, C4OH; n-pentanol, C5OH; n-hexanol, C6OH; n-heptanol, C7OH), aliphatic amines (n-butylamine, C4NH2; n-pentylamine, C5NH2; n-hexylamine, C6NH2; n-heptylamine, C7NH2), or hydrocarbons (n-hexane, C6H; n-heptane, C7H) by viscosity measurements

Ziya Ahmad Khan; Sanjeev Kumar; Tanweer Ahmad

2008-01-01

248

Physical Model Study: Rill Erosion Morphology and Flow Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using common catchment size erosion model software either lack of knowledge or lack in process ability of watershed characteristics leads to increasing simplifications in model assumptions. Referring to open channel hydraulics, erosion model equations are prevalently based on stepwise uniform flow condition requirements. Approaching balance of gravitational and frictional resistance forces, channel roughness is fundamental model input. The fusion of simplified model assumptions and the use of lumped roughness determination cause ambivalence in model calibration. By means of a physical model experiment at the National Soil Erosion Laboratory (NSERL), West Lafayette, USA, channel roughness was itemized into skin friction and channel shape friction due to rill morphology. Particularly the Manning-Strickler equation was analyzed concerning the applicability of constant and holistic factors describing boundary friction impacts. The insufficiency in using the Manning-Strickler equation for non-uniform flow conditions is widely advised, whereas lack in predictability in rill erosion development inhibits proper model adoptions. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of channel morphology on roughness assessment in rill erosion scale. Therefore a 1.9 meter long, 0.6 meter wide and 0.3 meter deep flume with an inclination of 10 % was filled with a loamy soil representing a section of a hill slope. The soil was prepared and saturated by simulated rainfall before each model run. A single erosion channel was enforced to develop by means of steady state runoff. Two different erosion channel types were initiated and observed: I.) a Straight Constrained Rill (SCR) shape by concentration of the runoff into a prepared straight initial rill and II.) a Free Developing Rill (FDR) by back-cut erosion through the plain soil body. Discharge of the outflow was measured in 5 minute interval and outflow sediment concentration was measured every minute. A top view stereo camera setup was installed to detect the channel topography whereas additional channel width and knick point depth measurements were undertaken manually. Flow velocity was measured at different channel development stages using colour tracer. Based on the measurements the comparison of flow conditions of different channel types was enabled. Assuming the flow conditions are described by the Manning-Strickler equation adequately, the extracted roughness factor for the SCR is influenced by skin friction only, whereas the FDR holistic roughness factor consists of both - skin and shape friction. By means of the rill erosion study a significant dependency of Manning-Strickler roughness factors and the developed rill morphology was observed. The experimentally extracted roughness values related to skin friction only (SCR) are up to 30 % higher than the roughness values out of the FDR experiment. Disregarding criticism about common channel flow equations used in erosion models, experimental studies may provide fractional explain-ability of holistic constants and diminish uncertainty in parameter estimations. The present study shows rill roughness characteristics under specific conditions - varying the experimental conditions reasonable predictions for estimating the rill morphological impact may result.

Strohmeier, S.; Klik, A.; Nouwakpo, S. K.

2012-04-01

249

Correlating titania morphology and chemical composition with dye-sensitized solar cell performance.  

PubMed

We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO(2) as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO(2) material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs. PMID:21508451

Santulli, Alexander C; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Tiano, Amanda L; DeRosa, Donald; Wong, Stanislaus S

2011-04-20

250

Correlating titania morphology and chemical composition with dye-sensitized solar cell performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO2 as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO2 material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

Santulli, Alexander C.; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Tiano, Amanda L.; DeRosa, Donald; Wong, Stanislaus S.

2011-06-01

251

Morphological changes in dendritic spines of Purkinje cells associated with motor learning.  

PubMed

Experience-dependent changes of spine structure and number may contribute to long-term memory storage. Although several studies demonstrated structural spine plasticity following associative learning, there is limited evidence associating motor learning with alteration of spine morphology. Here, we investigated this issue in the cerebellar Purkinje cells using high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). Adult rats were trained in an obstacle course, demanding significant motor coordination to complete. Control animals either traversed an obstacle-free runway or remained sedentary. Quantitative analysis of spine morphology showed that the density and length of dendritic spines along the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells were significantly increased in the rats that learned complex motor skills compared to active or inactive controls. Classification of spines into shape categories indicated that the increased spine density and length after motor learning was mainly attributable to an increase in thin spines. These findings suggest that motor learning induces structural spine plasticity in the cerebellar Purkinje neurons, which may play a crucial role in acquiring complex motor skills. PMID:17720555

Lee, Kea Joo; Jung, Joon Goo; Arii, Tatsuo; Imoto, Keiji; Rhyu, Im Joo

2007-08-27

252

Multiscale Morphology of Organic Semiconductor Thin Films Controls the Adhesion and Viability of Human Neural Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract We investigate how multiscale morphology of functional thin films affects the in vitro behavior of human neural astrocytoma 1321N1 cells. Pentacene thin film morphology is precisely controlled by means of the film thickness, ? (here expressed in monolayers (ML)). Fluorescence and atomic force microscopy allow us to correlate the shape, adhesion, and proliferation of cells to the morphological properties of pentacene films controlled by saturated roughness, ?, correlation length, ?, and fractal dimension, df. At early incubation times, cell adhesion exhibits a transition from higher to lower values at ? ? 10 ML. This is explained using a model of conformal adhesion of the cell membrane onto the growing pentacene islands. From the model fitting of the data, we show that the cell explores the surface with a deformation of the membrane whose minimum curvature radius is 90 (± 45) nm. The transition in the adhesion at ?10 ML arises from the saturation of ? accompanied by the monotonic increase of ?, which leads to a progressive decrease of the pentacene local radius of curvature and hence to the surface area accessible to the cell. Cell proliferation is also enhanced for ? < 10 ML, and the optimum morphology parameter ranges for cell deployment and growth are ? ? 6 nm, ? > 500 nm, and df > 2.45. The characteristic time of cell proliferation is ? ? 10 ± 2 h.

Tonazzini, I.; Bystrenova, E.; Chelli, B.; Greco, P.; Stoliar, P.; Calo, A.; Lazar, A.; Borgatti, F.; D'Angelo, P.; Martini, C.; Biscarini, F.

2010-01-01

253

Multiscale morphology of organic semiconductor thin films controls the adhesion and viability of human neural cells.  

PubMed

We investigate how multiscale morphology of functional thin films affects the in vitro behavior of human neural astrocytoma 1321N1 cells. Pentacene thin film morphology is precisely controlled by means of the film thickness, Theta (here expressed in monolayers (ML)). Fluorescence and atomic force microscopy allow us to correlate the shape, adhesion, and proliferation of cells to the morphological properties of pentacene films controlled by saturated roughness, sigma, correlation length, xi, and fractal dimension, d(f). At early incubation times, cell adhesion exhibits a transition from higher to lower values at Theta approximately 10 ML. This is explained using a model of conformal adhesion of the cell membrane onto the growing pentacene islands. From the model fitting of the data, we show that the cell explores the surface with a deformation of the membrane whose minimum curvature radius is 90 (+/- 45) nm. The transition in the adhesion at approximately 10 ML arises from the saturation of xi accompanied by the monotonic increase of sigma, which leads to a progressive decrease of the pentacene local radius of curvature and hence to the surface area accessible to the cell. Cell proliferation is also enhanced for Theta < 10 ML, and the optimum morphology parameter ranges for cell deployment and growth are sigma 500 nm, and d(f) > 2.45. The characteristic time of cell proliferation is tau approximately 10 +/- 2 h. PMID:20550892

Tonazzini, I; Bystrenova, E; Chelli, B; Greco, P; Stoliar, P; Calň, A; Lazar, A; Borgatti, F; D'Angelo, P; Martini, C; Biscarini, F

2010-06-16

254

Effects of tachyplesin on the morphology and ultrastructure of human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC823  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM To investigate the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823 after being treated with tachyplesin. METHODS Tachyplesin was isolated from acid extracts of Chinese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus) hemocytes. BGC-823 cells and the cells treated with 2.0mg\\/L tachyplesin were examined respectively under light microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscope. RESULTS BGC-823 cells had undergone

Qi Fu Li; Gao Liang Ou-Yang; Chang You Li; Shui Gen Hong

255

Tetrodotoxin suppresses morphological enhancement of the metastatic MAT-LyLu rat prostate cancer cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage-gated Na+ channels are expressed by highly metastatic MAT-LyLu cells, but not by poorly metastatic AT-2 cells, derived from the rodent\\u000a Dunning model of prostatic cancer. We have investigated the possible involvement of these channels in the morphological development\\u000a of the cells. Incubation of both the MAT-LyLu and the AT-2 cell line for 24 h with the Na+ channel blocker

S. P. Fraser; Y. Ding; A. Liu; C. S. Foster; M. B. A. Djamgoz

1999-01-01

256

[Case conference of hematological diseases based on the morphology of blood cells: Chairman's introductory remarks].  

PubMed

A case conference of hematological diseases based on the morphology of blood cells was held as a Joint Symposium of JSLM and JSLH. Four cases were presented and discussed mainly from the viewpoint of morphology: a case of acute leukemia with basophilia, two cases of acute leukemia and another malignancy, and a case of bone marrow invasion of malignant melanoma. Each case included pathological and curious morphological findings to be carefully examined and intensively discussed by the commentators and participants. Differential diagnosis of immature or abnormal blastic cells was found to be particularly important. Finally, each presenter elucidated the final diagnosis of their own case and added an explanation. The importance of morphological evaluation was reconfirmed at this conference. PMID:23855191

Tohyama, Kaoru

2013-04-01

257

Morphology and growth characteristics of epithelial cells from classic Wilms' tumors.  

PubMed Central

The ability to establish cell cultures representing the epithelial component of Wilms' tumor was determined for 18 cases of classic Wilms' tumors. From these 18 cases only two resulted in the culture of epithelial cells. Although the tumors from both cases were composed of a prominent epithelial component, other classic tumors not producing epithelial cell cultures also possessed appreciable epithelial components. Likewise, heterotransplants of these two primary tumors failed to give rise to epithelial cell cultures, although cultures of the blastemal element were produced. This suggests that Wilms' tumors may be prone to differentiate in different directions at varying times during tumor growth, possibly dependent on local tumor environment. Epithelial cells from these two classic cases were grown in culture in basal medium composed of a 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F-12 medium, supplemented with selenium, insulin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, tri-iodothyronine, and epidermal growth factor, on a collagen type I matrix with absorbed fetal calf serum proteins. One of the two cases also required the addition of bovine pituitary extract, ethanolamine, prostaglandin E1, and putrescine for optimum growth. Morphological analysis disclosed that the cultured cells were very similar to normal renal tubular cells in culture, except that the cells displayed little evidence for differentiated active ion transport and tended to grow in a multilayered arrangement. The culture of the epithelial cells from classic Wilms' tumors provides a model system for the study of tumor differentiation and progression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12

Hazen-Martin, D. J.; Garvin, A. J.; Gansler, T.; Tarnowski, B. I.; Sens, D. A.

1993-01-01

258

Pressure Effects on the Morphology of Mammalian Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living mammalian cells can be perturbed by high pressure in a continuous and controlled manner. The effects can be easily measured and quantified using the well-established method of Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS). ECIS is an electrical biosensor that quantitatively monitors behaviours of living cells including spreading and adhesion, micromotion and migration. Here we describe the experimental set-up of the pressure equipment and how ECIS is adapted to data collection under these conditions. Preliminary results suggest that high pressure affects the cell attachment and spreading and causes well-attached cells to round up. Results will be presented on the behavior of monolayers of BSC-1 cells upon application of pressures up to 2 kbars of nitrogen gas..

Schroeder, John; Keese, Charles R.; Giaever, Ivar

2009-03-01

259

Chemical and Morphological Studies of Bacterial Spore Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The purine analogue, 8-azaguanine, was added to cultures of the parasporal crystal-formingBacillus cereus var. alestl at different times during growth,and,synchronous,sporulation. The effect of its incorporation,has been studied with particular reference to cell growth, nucleic acid composition, cytol- ogy, and the synthesis of the spore and crystal protein. Additions of the analogue,during any,stage of growth,prevented,further cell proliferation and,all spore and,crystal

I. Elizabeth Young; Philip C. Fitz-james

260

THE MORPHOLOGY OF ANTIBODY-FORMING CELLS IN THE MOUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popliteal lymph nodes of mice were antigenically stimulated with sheep erythrocytes, and the changing numbers of cells releasing 19S or 7S haemolytic antibody were assayed using a modification of the Jerne-Ingraham plaque technique. For the first 2–3 days after primary immunization, no plaque- forming cells could be found in these nodes. A rapid rise in the number of cells

AJ Cunningham

1968-01-01

261

Pressure Effects on the Morphology of Mammalian Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living mammalian cells can be perturbed by high pressure in a continuous and controlled manner. The effects can be easily measured and quantified using the well-established method of Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS). ECIS is an electrical biosensor that quantitatively monitors behaviours of living cells including spreading and adhesion, micromotion and migration. Here we describe the experimental set-up of the

John Schroeder; Charles R. Keese; Ivar Giaever

2009-01-01

262

Morphology of cells malignantly transformed by alpha particle irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that one alpha particle (with LET approximately 100keV\\/micrometers) traversing a cell nucleus would kill a cell has been a concept which has been traditionally accepted by most radiation biologists. It was, therefore, difficult to see how alpha radiation could act directly on nuclear DNA to cause cancer. In experiments where mouse embryo cells (C3H 10T1\\/2) were irradiated with

E. L. Lloyd; C. B. Henning

1981-01-01

263

Bioeffective Ultrasound at Very Low Doses: Reversible Manipulation of Neuronal Cell Morphology and Function in Vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct and safe manipulation of neurons by external means is an increasingly studied therapeutic modality with the potential to treat many neurological diseases. Anticipating such future applications, we investigated reversible bioeffects of very low dose focused ultrasound on neuronal cell morphology and function in vitro. To test morphological changes, undifferentiated PC12 cells were serum-cultured. The culture plates were placed on an inverted optical microscope. An f/1.1 ultrasound transducer with a water-filled coupling cone was focused on the culture and excited with 30-ms 4.67-MHz 100-kPa pulses. To test functional changes, rat hippocampal slices were cultured and individually transferred to the well of a 60-channel multi electrode array. An f/2.1 ultrasound transducer with a water-filled coupling cone was focused on a culture and excited with 100-?s 4.04-MHz 77-kPa pulses. The culture was stimulated before and after the ultrasonic stimulus with a 100-?s 100-?A biphasic electrical stimulus. Optical microscopy of PC12 cultures under insonification revealed that cells that were clustered near the ultrasound focal region elongated by approximately 2 ?m during insonification and returned to approximately their original shapes following insonification. We conclude that the acoustic radiation force is capable of reversibly deforming cultured cells. In the rat hippocampal cultures, the ultrasonically and electrically evoked responses exhibited similar biphasic waveforms. In addition, robust electrically evoked responses following insonification indicated that the insonified cultures remained viable. We conclude that low-dose ultrasound can stimulate neurons; the mechanism is currently under investigation.

Muratore, Robert

2009-04-01

264

Morphological, biochemical and molecular effects of cocaine on mouse neuroblastoma cells culture in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare the effects of cocaine at morphological, basal cytotoxicity, biochemical and molecular levels, cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2a) were exposed to a range of concentrations of cocaine hydrochloride. Neuroblastoma cell proliferation, evaluated by quantification of total protein content, was very sensitive to cocaine, being increasingly inhibited from 12 to 72 hr of exposure (EC50 = 3.1 mm

G. Repetto; A. del Peso; A. Garfia; M. J. Gonzalez-Muńoz; M. Salguero; P. Sanz; M. Repetto

1997-01-01

265

Physical, Morphological, and Biochemical Alterations in the Membrane of AKR Mouse Cells after Interferon Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon treatment of AKR,C- cells was followed by the establishment of an antiviral state and apparently concomitant morphological, physical, and biochemical alterations of the cell plasma membrane. The density of the plasma membrane was significantly altered, and the concentration of some plasma membrane glycoproteins and the number of intramembranous particles observed in freeze-fracture electron micrographs were increased. A parallel increase

Esther H. Chang; Francis T. Jay; Robert M. Friedman

1978-01-01

266

Morphological and cell volume changes in the rat lens during the formation of radiation cataracts  

SciTech Connect

Earlier studies showed that x-irradiation caused an initial increase in early postnatal rat lens epithelial cell volume followed by swelling of the underlying lens fibers. This suggested a correlation between damaged epithelial cell volume regulation and subsequent fiber cell swelling. To test this hypothesis, 4 wk.-old Sprague Dawley rats were injected with ({sup 3}H)-thymidine and, 24 hrs. later, their eyes were irradiated with either 4 or 12 Gy. Lenses were examined with a slit lamp and cataracts were graded on a scale of 1+ to 4+. The surface morphology of these lens fibers and their attachment at the posterior suture were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Lenses were also labeled with ({sup 35}S)-methionine and labeling of their crystalline, cytoskeletal and membrane proteins was examined by SDS-PAGE. Rats exposed to 4 or 12 Gy developed 0.5-1.5+ or 2.5-3.0+ cataracts, respectively, 10 to 16 wks, after x-irradiation. Epithelial and equatorial cells of both groups did not significantly increase in volume during this period. Autoradiography showed that affected fibers had been epithelial cells at the time of x-irradiation.

Bredehoft, C.C.

1985-01-01

267

Morphological differentiation of astroglial progenitor cells from EGF-responsive neurospheres in response to fetal calf serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, and retinol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procurement of multipotential neuroglial stem cells is possible with the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Stem cells will differentiate into neurons and glia upon the removal of EGF from the culture medium. We have previously characterized the neuronal differentiation of stem cells derived from long-term cultured nonpassage neurospheres. In the current study, we (1) characterize the morphological differentiation of

Yung H. Chiang; Vincenzo Silani; Feng C. Zhou

1996-01-01

268

Transitional cell-like morphology in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma: morphologic, immunohistochemical, and behavioral features distinguishing it from high-grade serous carcinoma.  

PubMed

Transitional cell-like growth has been reported as a morphologic variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma in the uterus but is not well-described in the ovary. We report the clinicopathologic features of a series of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas with transitional cell-like morphology, emphasizing the distinction from its mimics, including high-grade serous carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, and granulosa cell tumor. Among a cohort of 71 ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas surgically staged at our institution, 10 tumors (14%) exhibited transitional cell-like morphology. Patient age ranged from 39 to 79 years (mean, 52 y). Five tumors were stage I, 2 were stage II, and 3 stage III. The tumors ranged from 8.5 to 23 cm, and the transitional cell-like component occupied from 5% to 90% of the overall tumor, with the remainder being conventional endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The most compelling findings to support that this tumor pattern represents a morphologic variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma are that the transitional cell-like components (1) merged directly and seamlessly with the conventional endometrioid component; (2) contained areas of mature or immature squamous differentiation; (3) lacked WT1 immunoexpression; (4) lacked the characteristic p53/p16 immunophenotype of high-grade serous carcinoma; and (5) did not appear to independently affect patient outcome. Two patients (20%) whose tumor contained transitional cell-like morphology died, whereas 14 patients (23%) lacking this morphology died. Although uncommon, transitional cell-like morphology appears to be a variant growth pattern of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma that does not affect behavior and that should be distinguished from high-grade serous carcinoma and conventional ovarian transitional cell carcinoma. PMID:23108017

Karnezis, Anthony N; Aysal, Anil; Zaloudek, Charles J; Rabban, Joseph T

2013-01-01

269

Cell motility, morphology, viability and proliferation in response to nanotopography on silicon black  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of cells' interactions with nanostructured materials is fundamental for bio-nanotechnology. We present results for how individual mouse fibroblasts from cell line NIH3T3 respond to highly spiked surfaces of silicon black that were fabricated by maskless reactive ion etching (RIE). We did standard measurements of cell viability, proliferation, and morphology on various surfaces. We also analyzed the motility of cells on the same surfaces, as recorded in time lapse movies of sparsely populated cell cultures. We find that motility and morphology vary strongly with nano-patterns, while viability and proliferation show little dependence on substrate type. We conclude that motility analysis can show a wide range of cell responses e.g. over a factor of two in cell speed to different nano-topographies, where standard assays, such as viability or proliferation, in the tested cases show much less variation of the order 10-20%.Knowledge of cells' interactions with nanostructured materials is fundamental for bio-nanotechnology. We present results for how individual mouse fibroblasts from cell line NIH3T3 respond to highly spiked surfaces of silicon black that were fabricated by maskless reactive ion etching (RIE). We did standard measurements of cell viability, proliferation, and morphology on various surfaces. We also analyzed the motility of cells on the same surfaces, as recorded in time lapse movies of sparsely populated cell cultures. We find that motility and morphology vary strongly with nano-patterns, while viability and proliferation show little dependence on substrate type. We conclude that motility analysis can show a wide range of cell responses e.g. over a factor of two in cell speed to different nano-topographies, where standard assays, such as viability or proliferation, in the tested cases show much less variation of the order 10-20%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11455k

?opaci?ska, Joanna M.; Gr?dinaru, Cristian; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Křbler, Carsten; Schmidt, Michael S.; Madsen, Martin T.; Skolimowski, Maciej; Dufva, Martin; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Mřlhave, Kristian

2012-05-01

270

Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Laminar Cells in the Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus  

PubMed Central

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) is organized into a series of fibro-dendritic laminae, orthogonal to the tonotopic progression. Many neurons have their dendrites confined to one lamina while others have dendrites that cross over a number of laminae. Here, we have used juxtacellular labeling in urethane anesthetized guinea pigs to visualize the cells with biocytin and have analyzed their response properties, in order to try and link their structure and function. Out of a sample of 38 filled cells, 15 had dendrites confined within the fibro-dendritic laminae and in 13 we were also able to reconstruct their local axonal tree. Based on dendritic morphology they were subdivided into flat or less flat; small, medium, or large; elongated or disk-shaped cells. Two of the elongated cells had many dendritic spines while the other cells had few or none. Twelve of the cells had their local axonal tree restricted to the same lamina as their dendrites while one cell had its dendrites in a separate lamina from the axon. The axonal plexus was more extensive (width 0.7–1.4?mm) within the lamina than the dendrites (width generally 0.07–0.53?mm). The intrinsic axons were largely confined to a single lamina within the central nucleus, but at least half the cells also had output axons with two heading for the commissure and five heading into the brachium. We were able to identify similarities in the physiological response profiles of small groups of our filled cells but none appeared to represent a homogeneous morphological cell type. The only common feature of our sample was one of exclusion in that the onset response, a response commonly recorded from IC cells, was never seen in laminar cells, but was in cells with a stellate morphology. Thus cells with laminar dendrites have a wide variety of physiological responses and morphological subtypes, but over 90% have an extensive local axonal tree within their local lamina.

Wallace, Mark N.; Shackleton, Trevor M.; Palmer, Alan R.

2012-01-01

271

Application of mathematical morphology to the quantification of in vitro endothelial cell organization into tubular-like structures.  

PubMed

Experiments of in vitro angiogenesis are important tools for studying both the mechanisms of formation of new blood vessels and the potential development of therapeutic strategies to modulate neovascularisation (e.g., screening of new pharmacological molecules). One of the most frequently used angiogenesis assays is the culture of endothelial cells on a reconstituted basement membrane named Matrigel, since the cells constitute a capillary-like network which can be quantified by image analysis. In this paper, a global, robust and fully automated methodology is proposed to segment and quantify in vitro endothelial cell networks from greyscale images using mathematical morphology operators. After extracting the established cell network by means of a top-hat transformation and separating the tubular structures and the cell aggregates by size and shape an interpolation algorithm yields a reconstituted closed network. Using these image data results different kinds of quantitative parameters are calculated: size/shape, morphological distribution, spatial organisation, etc. In this paper, we have established an automatic quantitative analysis to evaluate a modulator effect of a sulphated exopolysaccharide on FGF-2-induced in vitro angiogenesis, according to different parameters. Experimental results allow us to draw a discussion of the pertinence of the alternative morphological parameters to evaluate the characteristics and behaviour of cell cultures. PMID:17531137

Angulo, J; Matou, S

2007-04-27

272

Characterization of macrophage cell line A640BB2: A640BB2 resembles peritoneal exudate macrophages in cell morphology, tumor cell recognition, responsiveness to immunomodulator OK432 and lysosomal enzyme activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of mouse macrophage (MP) cell lines A640-BB-2, J774.1 and P388D1 and mouse peritoneal exudate MPs were studied and compared in cell morphology, ability to recognize tumor cells in the presence and absence of OK-432 known to activate MPs, and in lysosomal enzyme activity. In A640-BB-2 cells and exudate MPs, cell surfaces showed a few ridge-like processes and microvilli; spontaneous

Takahiko Tanigawa; Hisao Takayama; Hitoshi Osatake; Keiichi Tanaka; Noriko Kasagi; Yoshinori Tanaka

1992-01-01

273

Morphological and neoplastic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 mouse embryo cells by insoluble carcinogenic nickel compounds  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied induction of cytotoxicity and morphological transformation in C3H/10T1/2 Cl8 (10T1/2) mouse embryo fibroblasts by soluble and insoluble carcinogenic nickel compounds. Soluble nickel sulfate and nickel chloride caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity after 48 hr treatments, but neither compound induced morphological transformation even at concentrations causing up to 94% cytotoxicity. In soluble nickel subsulfide, nickel monosulfide, and nickel oxide caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity and a low, dose-dependent frequency of morphological transformation after 48 hr exposure of cells to these compounds. Foci were predominantly of type II morphology; type III foci were rare. The insoluble nickel compounds studied caused no induction of base substitution mutations to ouabain resistance in 10T1/2 cells over concentration ranges that induced morphological transformation. They twice cloned type II and type III foci induced by insoluble nickel compounds, established independent cell lines, and characterized their phenotypes. These data indicate that insoluble carcinogenic nickel compounds induced type II foci in 10T1/2 cells, some of which were tumorigenic, and that the 10T1/2 cell system is suitable for studying mechanisms of nickel compound-induced morphological transformation in mammalian cells.

Miura, T.; Patierno, S.R.; Sakuramoto, T.; Landolph, J.R. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

1989-01-01

274

Thymic nurse cells in culture: morphological and antigenic characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial monolayers were derived from thymic nurse cells (TNC), and were seeded onto collagen-coated dishes immediately after their isolation from young adult C3H-murine thymuses. Different media and supplements were tested in order to obtain cultures that were as pure as possible. Primary cultures were enriched in epithelial cells but always contained non-epithelial components among which fibroblasts predominated. Immunodetection of keratins,

Dominique Toussaint-Demylle; Jean-Marie Scheiff; Stanislas Haumont

1993-01-01

275

Thymic nurse cells. Lymphoepithelial cell complexes in murine thymuses: morphological and serological characterization.  

PubMed

We describe a new cellular component of normal mouse thymuses, which is isolated by fractionated trypsin dissociation of minced thymus tissue followed by repeated unit gravity sedimentation. These cells are of unusually large size, with diameters of 30 mum and more. They represent cellular complexes of single large cells filled with high numbers of lymphoid cells. The majority of the engulfed lymphoid cells is not only fully intact, as judged by morphological criteria, but, moreover, includes a high proportion of mitotic figures. Electron microscopic investigations reveal the epithelial character of the large thymic nurse cells (TNC). The peripherally situated cytoplasmic tonofilament streams, and characteristic vacuoles filled with coarse, unidentified material, closely resemble cytoplasmic organelles found in the cortical reticuloepithelial cells described in situ. The internalized lymphocytes are located within caveolae lined by plasma membranes. These TNC caveolae are completely sequestered, and have lost any communication with the extracellular space, as demonstrated by the inability of an electrondense marker, cationized ferritin, to diffuse into the perilymphocytic clefts. The structural interactions between the membranes of the engulfed thymocytes with the surrounding TNC caveolar membranes were investigated both in ultrathin sections and in freeze-etch preparates. Two distinct contact types between both membranes were discerned: (a) complete, close contact along the entire lymphocyte circumference, and (b) more frequently, contact restricted to discrete, localized areas. Judging from their size and distribution, the localized contacts could correspond particle aggregates of freeze-etch preparates, which morphologically resemble certain stages of gap junction. Furthermore, we regularly found square arrays of particles of uniform size, which so far have been thought to be typical for cell membranes actively engaged in ion exchange. Tight junction-like particle arrays, which were present on TNC outer membranes, and probably represented disrupted contacts between adjacent TNC in the intact tissue, could not be found on caveolar or lymphocyte membranes. Finally, one of the most conspicuous specializations of the TNC caveolar membrane were membrane invaginations, which were arranged mainly in groups, and which probably reflect endo- or exocytotoxic events. We investigated the surface antigen phenotype of TNC by indirect immunofluorescence, with monoclonal antibodies against determinants of H-2- complex subregions as well as against lymphocyte differentiation markers. Semiquantification was reached with flow cytofluorimetry, followed by morphological control by fluorescence microscopy. The surface antigen formula of TNC is: Ig(-), Thy-l(-), H-2K(++), I-A (++), I-E/C(+), H-D(++), Ly-1(-), Ly-2(-), Qat-4(-), Qat-5(-), and peanut agglutinin (PNA)(-). Thymic macrophages, which were identified by double fluorescence, with rhodamine- coupled zymosan as a phagocytosis marker, were serologically identical with TNC. Free thymocytes, in contrast, had the following antigen formula: Ig(-), Thy-1(++), H-2K(+/-), I-A(-), I-E/C(-), H-2D(+/-), Ly-1(+/-), Ly-2(+), Qat- 4(-), Qat-5(-), and PNA(+). The unprecedented finding of high numbers of dividing thymocytes sojourning within thymic epithelial cells, and the particular specializations of the TNC caveolar membranes surrounding these engulfed thymocytes is the basis of a hypothesis that postulates that an intraepithelial differentiation cycle is one essential step in, intrathymic T lymphocyte generation. PMID:6966312

Wekerle, H; Ketelsen, U P; Ernst, M

1980-04-01

276

Optic disc morphology in south India: the Vellore Eye Study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the morphology of the optic nerve head in an unselected population group in south India. Methods: The study included 70 subjects forming a population based sample, selected in a random manner. Mean age was 47.5 (SD 8.7) years, mean refractive error measured ?0.07 (1.11) dioptres (range ?4.50 to +2.50 dioptres). Optic disc slides were morphometrically analysed. Results: Mean optic disc area measured 2.58 (0.65) mm2. It was statistically independent of age and refractive error. Optic disc shape was slightly vertically oval. Mean neuroretinal rim area was 1.60 (0.37) mm2. It was significantly and positively correlated with optic disc size and optic cup size. It was independent of age, sex, refractive error, and axial length. In all subjects included in the study, the rim was smallest in the temporal horizontal optic disc sector. Mean horizontal cup/disc diameter ratio (0.66 (0.07)) was significantly (p<0.001) higher than the mean vertical cup/disc diameter ratio (0.56 (0.08)). Both ratios were highly significantly (p <0.001) and positively correlated with optic disc size. The ? zone of parapapillary atrophy (0.84 (0.29) mm2), and ? zone (0.13 (0.38) mm2), respectively, occurred in 69 (98.6%) subjects and in eight (11.4%) subjects, respectively. They were significantly larger in the temporal horizontal sector. The ? zone was significantly (p<0.001) larger and occurred significantly more often than ? zone. Retinal arterioles and venules were wider, and in spatial correlation, the visibility of the retinal nerve fibre layer was significantly better, in the temporal inferior disc arcade and the temporal superior arcade than in the nasal superior arcade and the nasal inferior vessel arcade. Except for the absolute size measurements these optic nerve head parameters did not differ markedly (p >0.05) from the values found in white people. Conclusions: South Indians and white people do not show marked differences in the morphology of the optic nerve head as measured by morphometric optic disc parameters, with the possible exception of the absolute optic disc dimensions.

Jonas, J B; Thomas, R; George, R; Berenshtein, E; Muliyil, J

2003-01-01

277

Thermal instability of DLC film surface morphology - an AFM study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface morphology of the DLC film during thermal annealing at particular temperature above the graphitization temperature shows blistering and buckling and also delaminates from the substrate. The DLC film shows poor thermal stability at higher temperature.

Maheswaran, R.; Thiruvadigal, D. John; Gopalakrishnan, C.

2012-06-01

278

Morphological changes induced by advanced glycation endproducts in osteoblastic cells: Effects of co-incubation with alendronate.  

PubMed

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) accumulate with age in various tissues, and are further increased in patients with Diabetes mellitus, in which they are believed to contribute to the development and progression of chronic complications that include a decrease in bone quality. Bisphosphonates are anti-osteoporotic drugs that have been used for the treatment of patients with diabetic bone alterations, although with contradictory results. In the present study, we have evaluated the in vitro alterations on osteoblastic morphology by environmental scanning electron microscopy, in actin cytoskeleton and apoptosis induced by AGEs, as well as the modulation of these effects by alendronate (an N-containing bisphosphonate). Our present results provide evidence for disruption induced by AGEs of the osteoblastic actin cytoskeleton (geodesic domes) and significant alterations in cell morphology with a decrease in cell-substratum interactions leading to an increase in apoptosis of osteoblasts and a decrease in osteoblastic proliferation. High concentrations of alendronate (10(-5)M, such as could be expected in an osteoclastic lacuna) further increase osteoblastic morphological and cytoskeletal alterations. However, low doses of alendronate (10(-8)M, compatible with extracellular fluid levels to which an osteoblast could be exposed for most of its life cycle) do not affect cell morphology, and in addition are able to prevent AGEs-induced alterations and consequently apoptosis of osteoblasts. PMID:23465485

Gangoiti, María Virginia; Anbinder, Pablo Sebastián; Cortizo, Ana María; McCarthy, Antonio Desmond

2013-03-05

279

Investigation of cell morphology for disease diagnostics via high content screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ninety percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by metastatic disease, i.e. the spreading of a subset of cells from a primary tumor in an organ to distal sites in other organs. Understanding this progression from localized to metastatic disease is essential for further developing effective therapeutic and treatment strategies. However, despite research efforts, no distinct genetic, epigenetic, or proteomic signature of cancer metastasis has been identified so far. Metastasis is a physical event: through invasion and migration through the dense, tortuous stromal matrix, intravasation, shear forces of blood flow, successful re-attachment to blood vessel walls, migration, the colonization of a distal site, and, finally, reactivation following dormancy, metastatic cells may share precise physical properties. Cell morphology is the most direct physical property that can be measured. In this work, we develop a high throughput cell phenotyping process and investigate the morphological signature of primary tumor cells and liver metastatic pancreatic cancer cells.

Khatau, Shyam

2013-03-01

280

CN MORPHOLOGY STUDIES OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2  

SciTech Connect

We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September, the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December, the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January, the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13 to 17, 17.2 hr from September 10 to 13, 18.2 hr from October 12 to 19, and 18.7 hr from October 31 to November 7. We conducted Monte Carlo jet modeling to constrain the pole orientation and locations of the active regions based on the observed morphology. Our preliminary, self-consistent pole solution has an obliquity of 10{sup 0} relative to the comet's orbital plane (i.e., it is centered near R.A. = 257{sup 0} and decl. = +67{sup 0} with an uncertainty around this position of about 15{sup 0}) and has two mid-latitude sources, one in each hemisphere.

Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G., E-mail: knight@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

2011-06-15

281

Effects of common topical otic preparations on the morphology of isolated cochlear outer hair cells.  

PubMed

Otic drops are commonly used not only for otitis externa but also for otorrhea in the presence of tympanostomy tube or tympanic membrane perforation. Many studies have demonstrated the ototoxicity of common otic preparations such as Cortisporin otic drops. Recent studies have suggested the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic drops as an alternative owing to their excellent antimicrobial coverage and no ototoxic effect. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative ototoxicity of four common otic preparations by direct exposure to isolated cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). OHCs from adult chinchilla cochlea were exposed to standard bathing solution (control), Cortisporin, Cipro HC, Ciloxan, and Floxin. The cells were observed using an inverted microscope, and the images recorded in digital still-frame and video, and analyzed on the Image Pro-Plus 3.0 program. As measured by time to cell death and change in morphology of OHCs, Cortisporin was most toxic to OHCs. Among the fluoroquinolone drops, Floxin was more toxic than Ciloxan or Cipro HC. PMID:11349764

Russell, P T; Church, C A; Jinn, T H; Kim, D J; John, E O; Jung, T T

2001-01-01

282

Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) Protein Plays Important Roles in Regulating Cell Adhesion, Morphology, Proliferation and Migration  

PubMed Central

PML protein plays important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. It forms PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act like nuclear relay stations and participate in many cellular functions. In this study, we have examined the proteome of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from normal (PML+/+) and PML knockout (PML?/?) mice. The aim was to identify proteins that were differentially expressed when MEFs were incapable of producing PML. Using comparative proteomics, total protein were extracted from PML?/? and PML+/+ MEFs, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels and the differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Nine proteins (PML, NDRG1, CACYBP, CFL1, RSU1, TRIO, CTRO, ANXA4 and UBE2M) were determined to be down-regulated in PML?/? MEFs. In contrast, ten proteins (CIAPIN1, FAM50A, SUMO2 HSPB1 NSFL1C, PCBP2, YWHAG, STMN1, TPD52L2 and PDAP1) were found up-regulated. Many of these differentially expressed proteins play crucial roles in cell adhesion, migration, morphology and cytokinesis. The protein profiles explain why PML?/? and PML+/+ MEFs were morphologically different. In addition, we demonstrated PML?/? MEFs were less adhesive, proliferated more extensively and migrated significantly slower than PML+/+ MEFs. NDRG1, a protein that was down-regulated in PML?/? MEFs, was selected for further investigation. We determined that silencing NDRG1expression in PML+/+ MEFs increased cell proliferation and inhibited PML expression. Since NDRG expression was suppressed in PML?/? MEFs, this may explain why these cells proliferate more extensively than PML+/+ MEFs. Furthermore, silencing NDRG1expression also impaired TGF-?1 signaling by inhibiting SMAD3 phosphorylation.

Tang, Mei Kuen; Liang, Yong Jia; Chan, John Yeuk Hon; Wong, Sing Wan; Chen, Elve; Yao, Yao; Gan, Jingyi; Xiao, Lihai; Leung, Hin Cheung; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Wang, Hua; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho

2013-01-01

283

Influence of Levamisole and Other Angiogenesis Inhibitors on Angiogenesis and Endothelial Cell Morphology in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels is required for many physiological processes and for growth of solid tumors. Initiated by hypoxia, angiogenesis involves binding of angiogenic factors to endothelial cell (EC) receptors and activation of cellular signaling, differentiation, migration, proliferation, interconnection and canalization of ECs, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and stabilization of newly formed vessels. Experimentally, these processes can be studied by several in vitro and in vivo assays focusing on different steps in the process. In vitro, ECs form networks of capillary-like tubes when propagated for three days in coculture with fibroblasts. The tube formation is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and omission of VEGF from the culture medium results in the formation of clusters of undifferentiated ECs. Addition of angiogenesis inhibitors to the coculture system disrupts endothelial network formation and influences EC morphology in two distinct ways. Treatment with antibodies to VEGF, soluble VEGF receptor, the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5614, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor (PTPI) IV or levamisole results in the formation of EC clusters of variable size. This cluster morphology is a result of inhibited EC differentiation and levamisole can be inferred to influence and block VEGF signaling. Treatment with platelet factor 4, thrombospondin, rapamycin, suramin, TNP-470, salubrinal, PTPI I, PTPI II, clodronate, NSC87877 or non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) results in the formation of short cords of ECs, which suggests that these inhibitors have an influence on later steps in the angiogenic process, such as EC proliferation and migration. A humanized antibody to VEGF is one of a few angiogenesis inhibitors used clinically for treatment of cancer. Levamisole is approved for clinical treatment of cancer and is interesting with respect to anti-angiogenic activity in vivo since it inhibits ECs in vitro with a morphology resembling that obtained with antibodies to VEGF.

Friis, Tina; Engel, Anne-Marie; Bendiksen, Christine D.; Larsen, Line S.; Houen, Gunnar

2013-01-01

284

Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast with transformation from adenosquamous carcinoma to osteosarcomatoid and spindle cell morphology  

PubMed Central

Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast refers to a heterogenous group of mammary carcinomas that contain a mixture of various cell types, including squamous cells, spindle cells and/or a mesenchymal component, such as bone or cartilage. To the best of our knowledge, the clinical course of a tumour that has undergone a transformation from one type of metaplastic carcinoma to another subtype has not previously been reported. The present study reports the five-year clinical and pathological course of a metaplastic breast carcinoma in a 55-year-old female, who was diagnosed with a sclerosing fibroadenomatous nodule with osseous metaplasia and focal atypia. A recurrent tumour was documented four years later, showing a predominant component of osteosarcoma with adenosquamous carcinoma. Upon pathological review of the initial mass, the diagnosis was changed to low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma. The patient was treated with breast conserving therapy. However, one year later, a recurrent metaplastic carcinoma with spindle cell morphology was documented and surgically removed by mastectomy. Subsequently, pulmonary invasion of the chest wall occurred and the patient eventually succumbed due to the invasive nature of the disease.

CHUTHAPISITH, SUEBWONG; WARNNISSORN, MALEE; AMORNPINYOKIAT, NATTAWUT; PRADNIWAT, KANAPON; ANGSUSINHA, TAMNIT

2013-01-01

285

Hexagonal micron scale pillars influence epithelial cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation, migration, and cytoskeletal arrangement.  

PubMed

A desirable attribute of implants penetrating epithelium is the inhibition of downward epithelial migration. Simple grooved topographies can inhibit this migration either directly or indirectly by promoting connective tissue attachment, but few studies have focused on the direct effect of geometrically complex topographies on epithelial behavior. Therefore, we examined the influence of novel topographies comprising square floors surrounded by six-sided pillars on periodontal ligament epithelial cell adhesion, morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and migration. Relative to cells on smooth surface, epithelial cells on the pillar substrata adhered closely, exhibited reduced proliferation, had a reduced velocity, but higher persistence. Vinculin staining demonstrated that cells formed mature adhesions on the pillar tops, but smaller punctate adhesion in the gaps and on the pillar walls. Overall more mature adhesions were found on pillars compared to smooth surfaces, which may account for the reduced speed of migration limited on the pillars. F-actin stress fibers were predominantly found on pillar tops within 6 h, whereas microtubules (MTs) had a tendency to form in the gaps between the six-sided pillars. In conclusion, microfabricated pillars altered epithelial migration in ways that could prove useful in inhibition of epithelial downward migration on transmucosal implants. PMID:18773428

Nematollahi, M; Hamilton, D W; Jaeger, N J; Brunette, D M

2009-10-01

286

Neuronal morphological change of size-sieved stem cells induced by neurotrophic stimuli.  

PubMed

Size-sieved stem cells (SSCs) derived from human bone marrow have the ability to differentiate into bone, fat and cartilage. SSCs can differentiate into active neural cells after exposure to antioxidant agents. The aim of the present study is to understand if SSCs can be stimulated to differentiate into neurons in response to neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP). SSCs in a serum-free medium transform from a fibroblastic-like form to a multipolar morphology. Treatment of SSCs with GDNF, PACAP, and dbcAMP increased the production of neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and a cytoskeleton protein-alpha-tubulin. Examination of a vesicle protein-synapsin-1 or a neuronal progenitor marker-internexin in SSCs indicated that treatment with GDNF, PACAP, and dbcAMP further elongated cell processes and increased process branching. The findings indicate that neurotrophic signaling and cAMP-dependent signaling might promote the neuronal differentiation of SSCs. PMID:15308290

Tzeng, Shun-Fen; Tsai, May J; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Cheng, Henrich

2004-08-26

287

Controlling Morphology and Molecular Packing of Alkane Substituted Phthalocyanine Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells.  

PubMed

Systematic changes in the exocyclic substiution of core phthalocyanine platform tune the absorption properties to yield commercially viable dyes that function as the primary light absorbers in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Blends of these complementary phthalocyanines absorb a broader portion of the solar spectrum compared to a single dye, thereby increasing solar cell performance. We correlate grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering structural data with solar cell performance to elucidate the role of nanomorphology of active layers composed of blends of phthalocyanines and a fullerene derivative. A highly reproducible device architecture is used to assure accuracy and is relevant to films for solar windows in urban settings. We demonstrate that the number and structure of the exocyclic motifs dictate phase formation, hierarchical organization, and nanostructure, thus can be employed to tailor active layer morphology to enhance exciton dissociation and charge collection efficiencies in the photovoltaic devices. These studies reveal that disordered films make better solar cells, short alkanes increase the optical density of the active layer, and branched alkanes inhibit unproductive homogeneous molecular alignment. PMID:23589766

Jurow, Matthew J; Hageman, Brian A; Dimasi, Elaine; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pabon, Cesar; Black, Charles T; Drain, Charles Michael

2013-02-01

288

Morphological and biochemical characterization of Erwinia amylovora-induced hypersensitive cell death in apple leaves.  

PubMed

In attached apple leaves, spot-inoculated with Erwinia amylovora, the phenotypic appearance of the hypersensitive response (HR) and the participation of ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) (a plant caspase-1-like protease) were analysed. The HR in both the resistant and susceptible genotypes expressed a similar pattern of distinguishable micro HR lesions that progressed into confined macro HR lesions. The HR symptoms in apple were compared to those in non-host tobacco. The morphology of dead cells (protoplast shrinkage and retraction from cell wall) in apple leaves resembled necrotic programmed cell death (PCD). Lesion formation in both cv. Free Redstar (resistant) and cv. Idared (highly susceptible) was preceded by ROS accumulation and elevation of ethylene levels. Treatment of infected leaves with an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis led to a decrease of ethylene emission and suppression of lesion development in both cultivars. In the resistant but not in the susceptible apple cultivar an early and late increase in VPE gene expression was detected. This suggests that VPE might be an underlying component of the response to E. amylovora in resistant apple cultivars. The findings show that in the studied pathosystem the cell death during the HR proceeds through a signal transduction cascade in which ROS, ethylene and VPE pathways play a role. PMID:23321023

Iakimova, Elena T; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Michalczuk, Lech; W?grzynowicz-Lesiak, El?bieta; Mikici?ski, Artur; Woltering, Ernst J

2012-12-29

289

Comparative morphology and tumourigenicity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in athymic rats and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four human hepatoma cell lines PLC\\/PRF\\/5, Hep G2, Sk-Hep 1 and Mahlavu were inoculated subcutaneously into athymic Balb\\/c nude mice and N\\/NIH outbred nude rats, producing well encapsulated tumours. The 4 hepatoma tumour types in the athymic rodents differ morphologically. PLC\\/PRF\\/5 and Hep G2 cells are well differentiated polygonal cells which resemble normal hepatocytes. Tumour arrangement is characterized by solid

Daniel Shouval; Lucia Schuger; Itzhak S. Levij; Lola M. Reid; Zvi Neeman; David A. Shafritz

1988-01-01

290

Emergence of Large-Scale Cell Morphology and Movement from Local Actin Filament Growth Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Variations in cell migration and morphology are consequences of changes in underlying cytoskeletal organization and dynamics. We investigated how these large-scale cellular events emerge as direct consequences of small-scale cytoskeletal molecular activities. Because the properties of the actin cytoskeleton can be modulated by actin-remodeling proteins, we quantitatively examined how one such family of proteins, enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (Ena/VASP), affects the migration and morphology of epithelial fish keratocytes. Keratocytes generally migrate persistently while exhibiting a characteristic smooth-edged “canoe” shape, but may also exhibit less regular morphologies and less persistent movement. When we observed that the smooth-edged canoe keratocyte morphology correlated with enrichment of Ena/VASP at the leading edge, we mislocalized and overexpressed Ena/VASP proteins and found that this led to changes in the morphology and movement persistence of cells within a population. Thus, local changes in actin filament dynamics due to Ena/VASP activity directly caused changes in cell morphology, which is coupled to the motile behavior of keratocytes. We also characterized the range of natural cell-to-cell variation within a population by using measurable morphological and behavioral features—cell shape, leading-edge shape, filamentous actin (F-actin) distribution, cell speed, and directional persistence—that we have found to correlate with each other to describe a spectrum of coordinated phenotypes based on Ena/VASP enrichment at the leading edge. This spectrum stretched from smooth-edged, canoe-shaped keratocytes—which had VASP highly enriched at their leading edges and migrated fast with straight trajectories—to more irregular, rounder cells migrating slower with less directional persistence and low levels of VASP at their leading edges. We developed a mathematical model that accounts for these coordinated cell-shape and behavior phenotypes as large-scale consequences of kinetic contributions of VASP to actin filament growth and protection from capping at the leading edge. This work shows that the local effects of actin-remodeling proteins on cytoskeletal dynamics and organization can manifest as global modifications of the shape and behavior of migrating cells and that mathematical modeling can elucidate these large-scale cell behaviors from knowledge of detailed multiscale protein interactions.

Lacayo, Catherine I; Pincus, Zachary; VanDuijn, Martijn M; Wilson, Cyrus A; Fletcher, Daniel A; Gertler, Frank B; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A

2007-01-01

291

Fibrocartilage Tissue Engineering: The Role of the Stress Environment on Cell Morphology and Matrix Expression  

PubMed Central

Although much is known about the effects of uniaxial mechanical loading on fibrocartilage development, the stress fields to which fibrocartilaginous regions are subjected to during development are mutiaxial. That fibrocartilage develops at tendon-to-bone attachments and in compressive regions of tendons is well established. However, the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the stresses needed for the development of fibrocartilage is not known. Here, we developed and applied an in vitro system to determine whether fibrocartilage can develop under a state of periodic hydrostatic tension in which only a single principal component of stress is compressive. This question is vital to efforts to mechanically guide morphogenesis and matrix expression in engineered tissue replacements. Mesenchymal stromal cells in a 3D culture were exposed to compressive and tensile stresses as a result of an external tensile hydrostatic stress field. The stress field was characterized through mechanical modeling. Tensile cyclic stresses promoted spindle-shaped cells, upregulation of scleraxis and type one collagen, and cell alignment with the direction of tension. Cells experiencing a single compressive stress component exhibited rounded cell morphology and random cell orientation. No difference in mRNA expression of the genes Sox9 and aggrecan was observed when comparing tensile and compressive regions unless the medium was supplemented with the chondrogenic factor transforming growth factor beta3. In that case, Sox9 was upregulated under static loading conditions and aggrecan was upregulated under cyclic loading conditions. In conclusion, the fibrous component of fibrocartilage could be generated using only mechanical cues, but generation of the cartilaginous component of fibrocartilage required biologic factors in addition to mechanical cues. These studies support the hypothesis that the 3D stress environment influences cell activity and gene expression in fibrocartilage development.

Das, Rosalina; Birman, Victor; Smith, Lester; Ku, Katherine; Elson, Elliott L.; Pryse, Kenneth M.; Marquez, Juan Pablo; Genin, Guy M.

2011-01-01

292

Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

2011-12-01

293

Continuous lateral gradients in film morphology for position sensitive detection and organic solar cell optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to fabricate binary organic donor and acceptor blends exhibiting a controlled lateral gradient in morphology. Upon combining photometry, ellipsometry and Xray maps together with photoinduced absorption measurements, we show how the gradual exposure to solvent vapor results in a varying degree of polymer crystallinity for the polythiophene/soluble fullerene system along one direction. These morphologically graded samples are characterized by a spectral photoresponse that depends on the specific location in the area of the device where the light beam impinges, a property that stands as proof-of-concept for position sensitive detection. Moreover, we demonstrate that the development of graded morphologies is an effective one-step method which allows for fast performance optimization of organic solar cells. Finally, the appropriateness of eight different solvents for morphology control via vapor annealing is evaluated in a time-effective way using the advanced method, which helps to identify boiling point and solubility as the key processing parameters.

Campoy-Quiles, M.; Randon, V.; Mróz, M. M.; Jarzaguet, M.; Garriga, M.; Cabanillas-González, J.

2013-07-01

294

[Incidence, morphology and diagnostic studies of Entamoeba gingivalis, Gros, 1849].  

PubMed

Entamoeba gingivalis is found only in its trophozoite form and it is postulated that its main transmission mechanism is through the kiss. E. gingivalis is considered pathogenic by some authors and commensal to others. It does not have a defined role in the installation of disease. To address some of this questions we studied a 100 patients who were seen through the Odontological Hospital from the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia in order to determine its frequency in the buccal cavity. The material were collected using swabs from four different buccal sites and the smears were stained by a modified Papanicolaou technique. The results revealed positivity index of 62%. The affinity of the dye to the food vacuole contents and to the ingested bacterias prevents clear visualisation of the central and peripherical chromatin constituents of the parasite's nucleus. Mouth washes with 3ml of saline from 10 patients, were used to evaluate which parasitological method of diagnosis (fresh, iron-haematoxylin stained, Giemsa and Papanicolaou) gives better visualisation of the parasite. The mouth washes sediment from fresh material revealed 100% of positivity and clear visualisation of the free form and locomotion of the trophozoites. No stained technique of the smear showed adequate visualisation, presenting the nucleus partially covered by the food vacuoles. In stained preparations by toluidine blue ultrastructure analysis of the morphology of parasite can be observed. PMID:8668839

Favoreto Junior, S; Machado, M I

295

Role of laminin and basement membrane in the morphological differentiation of human endothelial cells into capillary-like structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have defined a signal responsible for the morphological differentiation of human umbilical vein and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. We find that human umbilical vein endothelial cells deprived of growth factors undergo morphologi- cal differentiation with tube formation after 6-12 wk, and that human dermal microvascular endothelial cells differentiate after 1 wk of growth factor deprivation. Here,

Yasuo Kubota; Hynda K. Kleinman; George R. Martin; Thomas J. Lawley

1988-01-01

296

Morphology and Chemistry of Cell Walls of Micrococcus radiodurans  

PubMed Central

Walls of the pigmented strain of Micrococcus radiodurans showed several layers in the electron microscope. These layers include an outermost network structure removed by trypsin, a fragile soft layer containing hexagonally packed subunits, and a rigid layer penetrated by numerous holes. The two inner layers were separated by a process of autolysis, trypsin treatment, and gradient centrifugation. The hexagonally packed layer was less dense, pink in color, and it contained carotenoids, lipid, protein, and polysaccharide. The lipid consisted of odd-numbered as well as even-numbered fatty acids, and the polysaccharide contained rhamnose and mannose, but it did not contain heptose. The “holey” layer was white and was composed of a mucopeptide containing glucosamine, muramic acid, and four main amino acids (glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, and l-ornithine, in the ratios of 1:1.7:1.8:1.2, respectively). This layer also contained phosphorus, glucose, and a trace of meso- and ll-diaminopimelic acid. A white mutant, W1, of M. radiodurans had no pigment or lipid in its walls, but it contained small amounts of the “hexagonal” layer. The holey layer, constituting the bulk of the wall, was similar in morphology and composition to that layer in the pigmented strain. Lysozyme did not remove the lipoprotein-polysaccharide component from the walls of the pigmented strains, and the hexagonally packed structure was not visibly affected, except for change in a minor structure. Most of the mucopeptide layer was solubilized by lysozyme, but a structureless bag-shaped residue was left. This residue contained phosphorus, carbohydrate, and limited amino acids, but it did not contain muramic acid, glucosamine, or ornithine. Aqueous phenol removed a lipoprotein component from strain R1, which contained limited fatty acids. It also removed meso- and ll-diaminopimelic acid. Images

Work, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Hilary

1968-01-01

297

Morphological studies of the developing human esophageal epithelium.  

PubMed

This article focusses on the structural development of human esophageal ciliated epithelium. A combination of transmission electron microscopic (TEM), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), radioautographic, and light microscopic (LM) analyses were carried out using intact fetal tissues between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation as well as cultured esophageal explants. Up to the age of 10 weeks, the stratified esophageal epithelium consisted of two longitudinal primary folds. The surface cells were undifferentiated and contained large glycogen aggregates. Between 11 and 16 weeks, the primary folds (now up to four) had developed secondary folds. The thickness of the epithelium drastically increased (123%) in concomittance with a differentiation of surface columnar ciliated cells. These highly specialized surface cells exhibited junctional complexes and well-developed organelles with numerous microvilli interspersed among the cilia. Transverse sections revealed the internal structure of the cilia with a consistent pattern of nine doublet microtubules surrounding a central pair of single microtubules. Freeze-fracture studies illustrated the presence of a ciliary necklace composed of 6 ring-like rows of intramembranous particles. They also revealed the structure of ciliary cell tight junctions consisting of up to nine anastomosing strands (P-face) or complementary grooves (E-face). Ultrastructural studies (LM, TEM, SEM) of the esophageal squamous epithelium obtained after 15 days of culture showed that the newly formed epithelium was similar to adult human epithelium. Finally LM and SEM observations established that the esophagogastric junction was not yet well delineated, consisting of a transitional area composed of a mixture of esophageal ciliated cells and gastric columnar mucous cells. PMID:7670160

Ménard, D

1995-06-15

298

Isolation and characterization of epithelial and myogenic cells by "fishing" for the morphologically distinct cell types in rat primary periodontal ligament cultures.  

PubMed

The periodontal ligament (PDL) contains various cell populations and plays a central role in the maintenance, repair, and regeneration of the periodontium, i.e., tooth-supporting structures. Because primary cells isolated from PDL tissue are heterogeneous, the establishment of an effective isolation method for cells of interest is desired. In the present study, two morphologically distinct cell types were identified in confluent primary cultures derived from rat PDL. To isolate these cell populations, a small piece of filter paper soaked with trypsin-EDTA was placed directly onto the target cell population, enabling the cells to detach from the culture dish. The filter papers were then transferred into fresh culture dishes to establish outgrowth cultures; these two steps constitute the "cell fishing" method. The "fished" cell types were propagated and subcultured for further analyses. In morphological evaluation, immunocytochemical analyses, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the isolated cells exhibited a polygonal appearance or a mono- or multinucleated appearance, with a high cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio, leading to their being characterized as epithelial or myogenic cell populations, respectively. Surprisingly, a notable proportion of the multinuclear cells in the primary and subsequent isolated cultures demonstrated dramatic, spontaneous contractions, a feature typical of skeletal muscle cells. Finally, the isolated cell populations maintained a normal karyotype with a diploid chromosomal number. These results demonstrated that physiological epithelial and skeletal muscle cells can be obtained from primary PDL cultures without artificial induction using growth factors or chemicals, and can be propagated as individual lineage-committed cell populations; the populations consisted of differentiated and progenitor cells that maintained chromosomal stability. This simple, classical culture procedure provides new insights into the biological properties of PDL cells, which are potentially important for the differentiation of tissue or somatic stem cells and for the development of future cell-based therapies for dental and muscular diseases. PMID:23649106

Tominaga, Noriko; Nakahara, Taka; Nasu, Masanori; Satoh, Tazuko

2013-05-04

299

Effect of Staphylococcus aureus delta toxin on Chinese hamster ovary cell morphology and Y-1 adrenal cell morphology and steroidogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Since Staphylococcus aureus delta toxin previously had been shown to increase the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) content of guinea pig ileum, the effect of delta toxin on such cAMP-mediated responses as morphogenesis and steroidogenesis in cultured tissue cells was examined. In contrast to cholera toxin, delta toxin did not cause spindling of Chinese hamster ovary cells. Unlike adrenocorticotropin or cholera toxin, delta toxin was unable to cause rounding of Y-1 adrenal cells or to promote steroid production by the cells. S. aureus alpha toxin and enterotoxin B were also unable to cause rounding of Y-1 adrenal cells. Omission of Ca2+ from the media still allowed for increased steroid production by adrenocorticotropin but not by delta toxin. Delta toxin at concentrations greater than 10 micrograms/ml did cause lysis of both Chinese hamster ovary and Y-1 adrenal cells. These findings suggest that the increase in intestinal cAMP levels caused by delta toxin is mediated through a mechanism different from that initiated by cholera toxin.

O'Brien, A D; Kapral, F A

1977-01-01

300

AMPK Regulates ER Morphology and Function in Stressed Pancreatic ?-Cells via Phosphorylation of DRP1.  

PubMed

Experimental lipotoxicity constitutes a model for ?-cell demise induced by metabolic stress in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid excess induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is accompanied by ER morphological changes whose mechanisms and relevance are unknown. We found that the GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, is an ER resident regulating ER morphology in stressed ?-cells. Inhibition of DRP1 activity using a GTP hydrolysis-defective mutant (Ad-K38A) attenuated fatty acid-induced ER expansion and mitochondrial fission. Strikingly, stimulating the key energy-sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increased the phosphorylation at the anti-fission site Serine 637 and largely prevented the alterations in ER and mitochondrial morphology. Expression of a DRP1 mutant resistant to phosphorylation at this position partially prevented the recovery of ER and mitochondrial morphology by AMPK. Fatty acid-induced ER enlargement was associated with proinsulin retention in the ER, together with increased proinsulin/insulin ratio. Stimulation of AMPK prevented these alterations, as well as mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. In summary, DRP1 regulation by AMPK delineates a novel pathway controlling ER and mitochondrial morphology, thereby modulating the response of ?-cells to metabolic stress. DRP1 may thus function as a node integrating signals from stress regulators, such as AMPK, to coordinate organelle shape and function. PMID:23979843

Wikstrom, Jakob D; Israeli, Tal; Bachar-Wikstrom, Etty; Swisa, Avital; Ariav, Yafa; Waiss, Meytal; Kaganovich, Daniel; Dor, Yuval; Cerasi, Erol; Leibowitz, Gil

2013-08-26

301

Automatic robust neurite detection and morphological analysis of neuronal cell cultures in high-content screening.  

PubMed

Cell-based high content screening (HCS) is becoming an important and increasingly favored approach in therapeutic drug discovery and functional genomics. In HCS, changes in cellular morphology and biomarker distributions provide an information-rich profile of cellular responses to experimental treatments such as small molecules or gene knockdown probes. One obstacle that currently exists with such cell-based assays is the availability of image processing algorithms that are capable of reliably and automatically analyzing large HCS image sets. HCS images of primary neuronal cell cultures are particularly challenging to analyze due to complex cellular morphology. Here we present a robust method for quantifying and statistically analyzing the morphology of neuronal cells in HCS images. The major advantages of our method over existing software lie in its capability to correct non-uniform illumination using the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization method; segment neuromeres using Gabor-wavelet texture analysis; and detect faint neurites by a novel phase-based neurite extraction algorithm that is invariant to changes in illumination and contrast and can accurately localize neurites. Our method was successfully applied to analyze a large HCS image set generated in a morphology screen for polyglutamine-mediated neuronal toxicity using primary neuronal cell cultures derived from embryos of a Drosophila Huntington's Disease (HD) model. PMID:20405243

Wu, Chaohong; Schulte, Joost; Sepp, Katharine J; Littleton, J Troy; Hong, Pengyu

2010-06-01

302

Cadherin-Dependent Cell Morphology in an Epithelium: Constructing a Quantitative Dynamical Model  

PubMed Central

Cells in the Drosophila retina have well-defined morphologies that are attained during tissue morphogenesis. We present a computer simulation of the epithelial tissue in which the global interfacial energy between cells is minimized. Experimental data for both normal cells and mutant cells either lacking or misexpressing the adhesion protein N-cadherin can be explained by a simple model incorporating salient features of morphogenesis that include the timing of N-cadherin expression in cells and its temporal relationship to the remodeling of cell-cell contacts. The simulations reproduce the geometries of wild-type and mutant cells, distinguish features of cadherin dynamics, and emphasize the importance of adhesion protein biogenesis and its timing with respect to cell remodeling. The simulations also indicate that N-cadherin protein is recycled from inactive interfaces to active interfaces, thereby modulating adhesion strengths between cells.

Gemp, Ian M.; Carthew, Richard W.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

2011-01-01

303

Echinoid regulates tracheal morphology and fusion cell fate in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Morphogenesis of the Drosophila embryonic trachea involves a stereotyped pattern of epithelial tube branching and fusion. Here, we report unexpected phenotypes resulting from maternal and zygotic (M/Z) loss of the homophilic cell adhesion molecule Echinoid (Ed), as well as the subcellular localization of Ed in the trachea. ed(M/Z) embryos have convoluted trachea reminiscent of septate junction (SJ) and luminal matrix mutants. However, Ed does not localize to SJs, and ed(M/Z) embryos have intact SJs and show normal luminal accumulation of the matrix-modifying protein Vermiform. Surprisingly, tracheal length is not increased in ed(M/Z) mutants, but a previously undescribed combination of reduced intersegmental spacing and deep epidermal grooves produces a convoluted tracheal phenotype. In addition, ed(M/Z) mutants have unique fusion defects involving supernumerary fusion cells, ectopic fusion events and atypical branch breaks. Tracheal-specific expression of Ed rescues these fusion defects, indicating that Ed acts in trachea to control fusion cell fate. PMID:20730906

Laplante, Caroline; Paul, Sarah M; Beitel, Greg J; Nilson, Laura A

2010-09-01

304

A SYNCHRONIC CONTRASTIVE STUDY OF ENGLISH AND YORUBA MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A RECIPE FOR LANGUAGE EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature of linguistics is replete with separate studies of the morphological systems of English and Yoruba. Researchers concentrated their attention on pure linguistic analysis with little effort on comparative studies and implications for language teaching. This paper is on synchronic, contrastive study of English and Yoruba morphological systems. It is a sociolinguistic as well as psycholinguistic study in which

A. A. Olaoye

305

Morphological characterization of cells in concentrated suspensions using multispectral diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

Based on a non-spherical model of particle scattering, we investigate the capabilities and limitations of a T-matrix based inverse algorithm to morphologically characterize cells in concentrated suspensions. Here the cells are modeled as randomly orientated spheroidal particles with homogenous dielectric properties and suspended in turbid media. The inverse algorithm retrieves the geometrical parameters and the concentration of cells simultaneously by inverting the reduced scattering coefficient spectra obtained from multispectral diffuse optical tomography (MS-DOT). Both round and spheroidal cells are tested and the role of multiple and higher order scattering of particles on the performance of the algorithm is evaluated using different concentrations of cells.

Hajihashemi, Mohammad Reza; Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei

2013-01-01

306

Altered Dendritic Morphology of Purkinje cells in Dyt1 ?GAG Knock-In and Purkinje Cell-Specific Dyt1 Conditional Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Background DYT1 early-onset generalized dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions. It is caused by a trinucleotide deletion of a GAG (?GAG) in the DYT1 (TOR1A) gene encoding torsinA; the mouse homolog of this gene is Dyt1 (Tor1a). Although structural and functional alterations in the cerebellum have been reported in DYT1 dystonia, neuronal morphology has not been examined in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we examined the morphology of the cerebellum in Dyt1 ?GAG knock-in (KI) mice. Golgi staining of the cerebellum revealed a reduction in the length of primary dendrites and a decrease in the number of spines on the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells. To determine if this phenomenon was cell autonomous and mediated by a loss of torsinA function in Purkinje cells, we created a knockout of the Dyt1 gene only in Purkinje cells of mice. We found the Purkinje-cell specific Dyt1 conditional knockout (Dyt1 pKO) mice have similar alterations in Purkinje cell morphology, with shortened primary dendrites and decreased spines on the distal dendrites. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that the torsinA is important for the proper development of the cerebellum and a loss of this function in the Purkinje cells results in an alteration in dendritic structure.

Zhang, Lin; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Jin, Yuan-Hu; DeAndrade, Mark P.; Hashimoto, Kenji; Standaert, David G.; Li, Yuqing

2011-01-01

307

Importance of electrode\\/zirconia interface morphology in high-temperature solid-electrolyte cells. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of electrode\\/electrolyte interface morphology in the overall polarization behavior of high-temperature solid-electrolyte cells was studied. Carefully prepared and polished scandia-stabilized zirconia discs with sputtered platinum electrodes were examined using electron-microscopy and electrical-polarization techniques. Initially, non-porous sputtered platinum electrodes were conditioned by a progressive treatment to generate artificial porosity. This eliminated subsequent time-dependent changes in the interface-related impedance of

T. M. Gur; R. A. Huggins

1987-01-01

308

Enhanced charge collection via nanoporous morphology in polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated a simple and nonlithographic method that enlarges the active layer/metal electrode contact area in polymer solar cells by adding the thermal initiator 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as a nanohole generating agent. From diffused light spectra and x-ray diffraction measurements, it is found that device performance enhancement comes not from a change in the charge carrier generation or transportation characteristics but from increased charge carrier collection due to the reduced contact resistance and shortened pathway to the electrode caused by enlarged interface area.

Lee, Hang Ken; Jeon, Ji Hye; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, O. Ok; Kim, Jai-Kyung; Im, Sang Hyuk; Park, Jong Hyeok

2010-03-01

309

In vitro reparative dentin: a biochemical and morphological study.  

PubMed

In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a  synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP), as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I  collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization.  PMID:24085272

Teti, G; Salvatore, V; Ruggeri, A; Manzoli, L; Gesi, M; Orsini, G; Falconi, M

2013-08-06

310

In Vitro Reparative Dentin: a Biochemical and Morphological Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP), as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization.

Teti, G.; Salvatore, V.; Ruggeri, A.; Manzoli, L.; Gesi, M.; Orsini, G.; Falconi, M.

2013-01-01

311

Ethanol interferes with thrombin mediated changes in the morphology and cytoskeleton of human vascular endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The effect of physiological concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) on the response of human vascular endothelial cells (EC) to thrombin was examined Treatment of EC with EtOH concentrations of 20-85mM for 2-10 min. produced no significant changes in the morphology of 3- and 4-day monolayers established on fibronectin coated polystyrene. When examined immunofluorescently no significantly changes in the microfilament or microtubule structures were seen. Exposure of EC monolayers to 0.5 and 1 U/ml of thrombin for 1-60 minutes causes a concentration and time dependent monolayer retraction, evidenced by a general decrease in cell size, increase in visible gaps in the monolayer and redistribution of the microtubule and microfilament networks. Pretreatment of EC monolayers with EtOH for 3-5 minutes prior to addition of thrombin prevents the changes seen with thrombin alone. Immunofluorescent examination of the microfilament and microtubule structures suggests than EtOH may act in part via the microtubule network, which appears to be disorganized/disrupted when the EC are exposed to EtOH and then thrombin. Colchicine studies show that EC which have been pretreated with EtOH respond to colchicine differently then cells which have not previously seen EtOH. These data suggest that EtOH may alter EC monolayer responsiveness either by indirect changes which are reflected in cytoskeletal disorganization or possibly by direct influence on the cytoskeleton.

Pratt, K.J.; Rubin, R.; Hoek, J.; Williams, S.K. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1991-03-15

312

Morphological responses of mitochondria-rich cells to hypersaline environment in the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus.  

PubMed

A population of the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus, was found to inhabit mudflat that remained uncovered by tide for more than 20 days in some neap tides. During these prolonged emersion periods, P. minutus retreated into burrows containing little water, with a highest recorded salinity of 84 ± 7.4 psu (practical salinity unit). To explore the mechanical basis for this salinity tolerance in P. minutus, we determined the densities of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in the inner and outer opercula and the pectoral fin skin, in comparison with P. takita, [corrected] from an adjacent lower intertidal habitat, and studied morphological responses of MRCs to exposure to freshwater (FW), and 100% (34-35 psu) and 200% seawater (SW). Periophthalmus minutus showed a higher density of MRCs in the inner operculum (3365 ± 821 cells mm(-2)) than in the pectoral fin skin (1428 ± 161) or the outer operculum (1100 ± 986), all of which were higher than the MRC densities in p. takita. [corrected]. No mortality occurred in 100% or 200% SW, but half of the fish died within four days in FW. Neither 200% SW nor FW exposure affected MRC density. Transfer to 200% SW doubled MRC size after 9-14 days with no change in the proportion of MRCs with apical pits or plasma sodium concentration. In contrast, transfer to FW resulted in a rapid closing of pits and a significant reduction in plasma sodium concentration. These results suggest that P. minutus has evolved morphological and physiological mechanisms to withstand hypersaline conditions that they may encounter in their habitat. PMID:22775253

Itoki, Naoko; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Masahiro; Takeda, Tatsusuke; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

2012-07-01

313

Morphological factors as indicators of malignancy of squamous cell carcinomas in cattle exposed naturally to bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum).  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the upper digestive tract (UDT) of cattle have been associated with chronic bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) toxicity and infection with bovine papillomavirus type-4. These tumours share some morphological similarities with human head and neck SCCs. In this study, morphological changes were correlated with the biological behaviour of 40 alimentary SCCs in cattle grazing on pastures with high bracken content. The majority of SCCs were localized to the cranial and caudal regions of the UDT (almost 45% each). More than 60% of the tumours were well differentiated and were found mostly in the cranial region. Metastasis occurred in 58% of the cases, mostly to regional lymph nodes. All poorly differentiated SCCs had evidence of metastasis. Morphological patterns characterized by islands and ribbons of neoplastic keratinocytes were more prominent in well differentiated SCCs. These patterns varied greatly in moderately differentiated SCCs. Poorly differentiated tumours were characterized by the presence of cellular aggregates and individual cells and these tumours had more marked desmoplasia. A significant positive association was established between lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltration and tumour-associated tissue eosinophilia. Evaluation of argyrophylic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) revealed higher proliferation indices in poorly differentiated tumours than in moderately or well differentiated lesions. There was significant correlation between the AgNOR index and histological grading. The morphological factors analyzed were all related to histological grading, which is the major factor predicting the biological behaviour of SCCs in cattle naturally exposed to bracken fern. PMID:20542519

Masuda, E K; Kommers, G D; Martins, T B; Barros, C S L; Piazer, J V M

2010-06-09

314

Fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein, is required for normal nuclear morphology and cellular growth in HeLa cells  

SciTech Connect

Fibrillarin is a key small nucleolar protein in eukaryotes, which has an important role in pre-rRNA processing during ribosomal biogenesis. Though several functions of fibrillarin are known, its function during the cell cycle is still unknown. In this study, we confirmed the dynamic localization of fibrillarin during the cell cycle of HeLa cells and also performed functional studies by using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNAi technique. We observed that depletion of fibrillarin has almost no effect on the nucleolar structure. However, fibrillarin-depleted cells showed abnormal nuclear morphology. Moreover, fibrillarin depletion resulted in the reduction of the cellular growth and modest accumulation of cells with 4n DNA content. Our data suggest that fibrillarin would play a critical role in the maintenance of nuclear shape and cellular growth.

Amin, Mohammed Abdullahel [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Matsunaga, Sachihiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Ma, Nan [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Takata, Hideaki [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Yokoyama, Masami [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Uchiyama, Susumu [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Kiichi [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan)]. E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

2007-08-24

315

Morphological stability of organic solar cells based upon an oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)-C70 dyad.  

PubMed

An oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)-C(70) dyad achieves the highest power conversion efficiency (1.92%) in dyad-based organic solar cells to date. Covalent attachment in the dyad prevents large phase separation, resulting in good morphological and device stability at high temperatures as compared with mixed bulk heterojunction devices. PMID:23108576

Izawa, Seiichiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Tajima, Keisuke

2012-12-14

316

Variation of cell and matrix morphologies in articular cartilage among locations in the adult human knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Objective: Understanding of articular cartilage physiology, remodelling mechanisms, and evaluation of tissue engineering repair methods requires reference information regarding normal structural organization. Our goals were to examine the variation of cartilage cell and matrix morphology in different topographical areas of the adult human knee joint. Methods: Osteochondral explants were acquired from seven distinct anatomical locations of the knee joints

Thomas M. Quinn; Ernst B. Hunziker; Hans-Jörg Häuselmann

2005-01-01

317

Powder size effect on cell morphology of combustion synthesized porous Al 3Ti\\/Al composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous Al3Ti\\/Al composites were fabricated by the combustion foaming process and the effect of elemental powder size on porosity and cell morphology was investigated. High porosity was obtained by using the small titanium powders. Pores also became larger and more spherical by using the small titanium powders. Pore size became smaller and porosity became higher by decreasing the aluminum powder

Makoto Kobashi; Norio Inoguchi; Naoyuki Kanetake

2010-01-01

318

Comparison of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cellular morphology and ultrastructure between human umbilical cord and placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Research in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is mainly focused on applications for treatments of brain and spinal cord injury as well as mechanisms underlying effects of MSCs. However, due to numerous limitations, there is little information on selection of appropriate sources of MSCs for transplantation in clinical applications. Therefore, in this study we compared various properties of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (HUCMSCs) with human placenta-derived MSCs (HPDMSCs), including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cellular morphology, ultrastructure, and their ability to secrete various growth factors (i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factors-1, and hepatocyte growth factor), which will allow us to select appropriate MSC sources for cellular therapy. Cell culture, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used for assessment of HUCMSCs and HPDMSCs. Results showed that the two types of cells appeared slightly different when they were observed under AFM. HUCMSCs appeared more fibroblast-like, whereas HPDMSCs appeared as large flat cells. HUCMSCs had higher proliferative rate and lower rate of apoptosis than HPDMSCs (p<0.05). However, HPDMSCs secreted more of the three growth factors than HUCMSCs (p<0.05). Results of TEM revealed that the two types of MSCs underwent active metabolism and had low degree of differentiation, especially HUCMSCs. Results of AFM showed that HUCMSCs had stronger ability of mass transport and cell migration than HPDMSCs. However, HPDMSCs displayed stronger adhesive properties than HUCMSCs. Our findings indicate that different sources of MSCs have different properties, and that care should be taken when choosing the appropriate sources of MSCs for stem cell transplantation. PMID:23523648

Zhu, Shao-Fang; Zhong, Zhi-Nian; Fu, Xia-Fei; Peng, Dong-Xian; Lu, Guo-Hui; Li, Wen-Hu; Xu, Hong-Yan; Hu, Hong-Bo; He, Jian-Ming; Su, Wei-Yan; He, Yuan-Li

2013-03-21

319

STUDY OF MORPHOLOGY OF SUGAR CRYSTALS BY IMAGE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane sugar is one of the oldest and most important economical assets in Brazil, especially in the North-East region. Sugar classification is based on its granulometry, color and morphology, which have a strong influence on the physical properties such as strength, flow and transport, as well as on product aspect. If the formation of large agglomerates is reduced, the particles

Mauricio da Motta; Marie-Noëlle Pons

320

Induction of the photosynthetic membranes of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: biochemical and morphological studies.  

PubMed Central

Cells of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides grown in a 25% O2 atmosphere were rapidly subjected to total anaerobiosis in the presence of light to study the progression of events associated with the de novo synthesis of the inducible intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM). This abrupt change in physiological conditions resulted in the immediate cessation of cell growth and whole cell protein, DNA, and phospholipid accumulation. Detectable cell growth and whole cell protein accumulation resumed ca. 12 h later. Bulk phospholipid accumulation paralleled cell growth, but the synthesis of individual phospholipid species during the adaptation period suggested the existence of a specific regulatory site in phospholipid synthesis at the level of the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase system. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy showed that aerobic cells contain small indentations within the cell membrane that appear to be converted into discrete ICM invaginations within 1 h after the imposition of anaerobiosis. Microscopic examination also revealed a series of morphological changes in ICM structure and organization during the lag period before the initiation of photosynthetic growth. Bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and the formation of the two light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes of R. sphaeroides (B800-850 and B875) occurred coordinately within 2 h after the shift to anaerobic conditions. Using antibodies prepared against various ICM-specific polypeptides, the synthesis of reaction center proteins and the polypeptides associated with the B800-850 complex was monitored. The reaction center H polypeptide was immunochemically detected at low levels in the cell membrane of aerobic cells, which contained no detectable ICM or bacteriochlorophyll. The results are discussed in terms of the oxygen-dependent regulation of gene expression in R. sphaeroides and the possible role of the reaction center H polypeptide and the cell membrane indentations in the site-specific assembly of ICM pigment-protein complexes during the de novo synthesis of the ICM. Images

Chory, J; Donohue, T J; Varga, A R; Staehelin, L A; Kaplan, S

1984-01-01

321

Morphological and cytoskeletal changes of pancreatic cancer cells in three-dimensional spheroidal culture.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures are expected to mimic in vivo environments. We used a NanoCulture plate to determine the spheroid-forming ability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines and compared the morphology and expression of cytoskeletal proteins of PDAC cells to those in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. All examined PDAC cells grew as monolayers in 2D culture. PANC-1 and KLM-1 formed spheroids in 3D culture, but PK-45H and MIAPaCa-2 did not. Strong expression of F-actin was observed in the cells attached to the surface of the plate, which formed cell projections in 3D culture. F-actin was detected on the grids of the NanoCulture plate in PANC-1 cells but not in PK-45H. The levels of tubulin expression in cells were higher in 3D culture than in 2D culture. The expression level of E-cadherin mRNA in PANC-1 and KLM-1 was higher than that in PK-45H and MIAPaCa-2. In conclusion, PDAC cells showed morphological changes, spheroid formation, and alterations of cytoskeletal proteins in 3D culture. E-cadherin might be one of the key molecules involved in spheroid formation of PDAC cells. The 3D spheroidal culture system was a useful method for cell imaging with contrast-phase microscopy and confocal microscopy. PMID:21267697

Matsuda, Yoko; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Kawamoto, Yoko; Kawahara, Kiyoko; Peng, Wei-Xia; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Naito, Zenya

2011-01-26

322

Assembly and Reorientation of Stress Fibers Drives Morphological Changes to Endothelial Cells Exposed to Shear Stress  

PubMed Central

Fluid shear stress greatly influences the biology of vascular endothelial cells and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells undergo profound shape change and reorientation in response to physiological levels of fluid shear stress. These morphological changes influence cell function; however, the processes that produce them are poorly understood. We have examined how actin assembly is related to shear-induced endothelial cell shape change. To do so, we imposed physiological levels of shear stress on cultured endothelium for up to 96 hours and then permeabilized the cells and exposed them briefly to fluorescently labeled monomeric actin at various time points to assess actin assembly. Alternatively, monomeric actin was microinjected into cells to allow continuous monitoring of actin distribution. Actin assembly occurred primarily at the ends of stress fibers, which simultaneously reoriented to the shear axis, frequently fused with neighboring stress fibers, and ultimately drove the poles of the cells in the upstream and/or downstream directions. Actin polymerization occurred where stress fibers inserted into focal adhesion complexes, but usually only at one end of the stress fiber. Neither the upstream nor downstream focal adhesion complex was preferred. Changes in actin organization were accompanied by translocation and remodeling of cell-substrate adhesion complexes and transient formation of punctate cell-cell adherens junctions. These findings indicate that stress fiber assembly and realignment provide a novel mode by which cell morphology is altered by mechanical signals.

Noria, Sabrena; Xu, Feng; McCue, Shannon; Jones, Mara; Gotlieb, Avrum I.; Langille, B. Lowell

2004-01-01

323

Bacillus subtilis ?-Phosphoglucomutase Is Required for Normal Cell Morphology and Biofilm Formation†  

PubMed Central

Mutations designated gtaC and gtaE that affect ?-phosphoglucomutase activity required for interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and ?-glucose 1-phosphate were mapped to the Bacillus subtilis pgcA (yhxB) gene. Backcrossing of the two mutations into the 168 reference strain was accompanied by impaired ?-phosphoglucomutase activity in the soluble cell extract fraction, altered colony and cell morphology, and resistance to phages ?29 and ?11. Altered cell morphology, reversible by additional magnesium ions, may be correlated with a deficiency in the membrane glycolipid. The deficiency in biofilm formation in gtaC and gtaE mutants may be attributed to an inability to synthesize UDP-glucose, an important intermediate in a number of cell envelope biosynthetic processes.

Lazarevic, Vladimir; Soldo, Blazenka; Medico, Noel; Pooley, Harold; Bron, Sierd; Karamata, Dimitri

2005-01-01

324

Alterations in red blood cell morphology during a 500 metre dive.  

PubMed

Following compression to 500 m in a simulated chamber dive, the blood samples of the six divers were all found to contain several types of non-discoid erythrocytes. Compression to this depth induced a pressure stress and sensitisation in a proportion of each divers' erythrocyte population. Long in vitro decompression procedures further stressed these red cells and resulted in additional morphological changes. The formation of stomatocytes was increased by an acidic-buffered fixative, conversely, an alkaline medium caused echinocytosis. Cell counts of each morphological cell type showed that as echinocyte stage III & IV numbers were reduced a simultaneous decrease in mean haemoglobin concentration occurred. Decompressions of blood samples for routine haematology should be at a rate of 3 m/min so as to be completed within four hours from venesection. Hyperbaric exposure time explicitly influence these red cell anomalies and development of a subclinical anaemia. PMID:3105264

Paciorek, J A; Onarheim, J

1986-01-01

325

The effect of silica nanoparticle-modified surfaces on cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and morphological characteristics of a biomaterial surface are thought to play an important role in determining cellular differentiation and apoptosis. In this report, we investigate the effect of nanoparticle (NP) assemblies arranged on a flat substrate on cytoskeletal organization, proliferation and metabolic activity on two cell types, Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and mouse calvarial preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). To vary

Anna M. Lipski; Christopher J. Pino; Frederick R. Haselton; I.-Wei Chen; V. Prasad Shastri

2008-01-01

326

Relation between substrate surface morphology and microcrystalline silicon solar cell performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, the structural and electrical performances of microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) single junction solar cells co-deposited on a series of substrates having different surface morphologies varying from V-shaped to U-shaped valleys, are analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to quantify the density of cracks within the cells deposited on the various substrates. Standard 1 sun, variable illumination

Martin Python; Evelyne Vallat-Sauvain; Julien Bailat; Didier Dominé; Luc Fesquet; Arvind Shah; Christophe Ballif

2008-01-01

327

Correlating titania morphology and chemical composition with dye-sensitized solar cell performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO2 as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural

Alexander C. Santulli; Christopher Koenigsmann; Amanda L. Tiano; Donald DeRosa; Stanislaus S. Wong

2011-01-01

328

Optimization of Cell Morphology Measurement via Single-Molecule Tracking PALM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In neurons, the shape of dendritic spines relates to synapse function, which is rapidly altered during experience-dependent neural plasticity. The small size of spines makes detailed measurement of their morphology in living cells best suited to super-resolution imaging techniques. The distribution of molecular positions mapped via live-cell Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) is a powerful approach, but molecular motion complicates this

Nicholas A. Frost; Hsiangmin E. Lu; Thomas A. Blanpied

2012-01-01

329

Gap junction morphology of retinal horizontal cells is sensitive to pH alterations in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated goldfish retinae were incubated in NaHCO3-reduced solutions, a treatment known to lower intracellular pH and to decrease gap-junction-mediated coupling between cells. The morphology of the gap junctions of horizontal cells examined by means of freezefracture replicas and ultrathin sections displays alterations after such treatment. The gap-junctional particles aggregate into dense clusters or crystalline arrays, whereas controls (pH 7.5) display

Yvonne Schmitz; Hartwig Wolburg

1991-01-01

330

Automatic Robust Neurite Detection and Morphological Analysis of Neuronal Cell Cultures in High-content Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-based high content screening (HCS) is becoming an important and increasingly favored approach in therapeutic drug discovery\\u000a and functional genomics. In HCS, changes in cellular morphology and biomarker distributions provide an information-rich profile\\u000a of cellular responses to experimental treatments such as small molecules or gene knockdown probes. One obstacle that currently\\u000a exists with such cell-based assays is the availability of

Chaohong Wu; Joost Schulte; Katharine J. Sepp; J. Troy Littleton; Pengyu Hong

2010-01-01

331

Aldolase directly interacts with ARNO and modulates cell morphology and acidic vesicle distribution  

PubMed Central

Previously, we demonstrated that the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) a2-subunit functions as an endosomal pH sensor that interacts with the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) guanine nucleotide exchange factor, ARNO. In the present study, we showed that ARNO directly interacts not only with the a2-subunit but with all a-isoforms (a1–a4) of the V-ATPase, indicating a widespread regulatory interaction between V-ATPase and Arf GTPases. We then extended our search for other ARNO effectors that may modulate V-ATPase-dependent vesicular trafficking events and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Pull-down experiments using cytosol of mouse proximal tubule cells (MTCs) showed that ARNO interacts with aldolase, but not with other enzymes of the glycolytic pathway. Direct interaction of aldolase with the pleckstrin homology domain of ARNO was revealed by pull-down assays using recombinant proteins, and surface plasmon resonance revealed their high avidity interaction with a dissociation constant: KD = 2.84 × 10?10 M. MTC cell fractionation revealed that aldolase is also associated with membranes of early endosomes. Functionally, aldolase knockdown in HeLa cells produced striking morphological changes accompanied by long filamentous cell protrusions and acidic vesicle redistribution. However, the 50% knockdown we achieved did not modulate the acidification capacity of endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Finally, a combination of small interfering RNA knockdown and overexpression revealed that the expression of aldolase is inversely correlated with gelsolin levels in HeLa cells. In summary, we have shown that aldolase forms a complex with ARNO/Arf6 and the V-ATPase and that it may contribute to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and/or the trafficking and redistribution of V-ATPase-dependent acidic compartments via a combination of protein-protein interaction and gene expression mechanisms.

Merkulova, Maria; Hurtado-Lorenzo, Andres; Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Brown, Dennis; Ausiello, Dennis A.

2011-01-01

332

Optimization of cell morphology measurement via single-molecule tracking PALM.  

PubMed

In neurons, the shape of dendritic spines relates to synapse function, which is rapidly altered during experience-dependent neural plasticity. The small size of spines makes detailed measurement of their morphology in living cells best suited to super-resolution imaging techniques. The distribution of molecular positions mapped via live-cell Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) is a powerful approach, but molecular motion complicates this analysis and can degrade overall resolution of the morphological reconstruction. Nevertheless, the motion is of additional interest because tracking single molecules provides diffusion coefficients, bound fraction, and other key functional parameters. We used Monte Carlo simulations to examine features of single-molecule tracking of practical utility for the simultaneous determination of cell morphology. We find that the accuracy of determining both distance and angle of motion depend heavily on the precision with which molecules are localized. Strikingly, diffusion within a bounded region resulted in an inward bias of localizations away from the edges, inaccurately reflecting the region structure. This inward bias additionally resulted in a counterintuitive reduction of measured diffusion coefficient for fast-moving molecules; this effect was accentuated by the long camera exposures typically used in single-molecule tracking. Thus, accurate determination of cell morphology from rapidly moving molecules requires the use of short integration times within each image to minimize artifacts caused by motion during image acquisition. Sequential imaging of neuronal processes using excitation pulses of either 2 ms or 10 ms within imaging frames confirmed this: processes appeared erroneously thinner when imaged using the longer excitation pulse. Using this pulsed excitation approach, we show that PALM can be used to image spine and spine neck morphology in living neurons. These results clarify a number of issues involved in interpretation of single-molecule data in living cells and provide a method to minimize artifacts in single-molecule experiments. PMID:22570741

Frost, Nicholas A; Lu, Hsiangmin E; Blanpied, Thomas A

2012-05-03

333

Intelligent Computation and Precise Measurement of DNA Content in Cell Nucleus: A Calibration Approach Based on Morphology and Support Vector Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of quantitative cytology, the measurement of the DNA content in cell nuclear is the most important basis and necessary premise of cancer screening and diagnosis. Due to some unavoidable factors, certain errors may occur in the measurement of the DNA content through processing and analysis of the cell nuclei image. A new calibration approach based on morphology

Gang Lu; Yi Zhang; Baochuan Pang

2009-01-01

334

Evaluation of morphologically unclassified renal cell carcinoma with electron microscopy and novel renal markers: implications for tumor reclassification.  

PubMed

Despite progress in the classification of renal cell carcinomas (RCC), a subset of these carcinomas remains unclassified (RCC-U). Patients with RCC-U usually present at a late stage and have a poor prognosis. Several studies have attempted to extract new classifications of newly recognized renal carcinomas from the group of RCC-U. However, to date, no studies in the literature have attempted to characterize the RCC-U with unrecognizable cell types beyond the morphologic evaluation on H&E-stained sections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this group of RCC-U using electron microscopy and novel renal markers. Ten cases of such RCC-U were identified for this study. At the ultrastructural level, they did not show typical morphology that resembled any of the well-studied, recognizable subtypes of RCC. However, they did reveal features of renal tubular epithelial differentiation. The histologic, ultrastructural, and immunophenotypic features indicated that these tumors are poorly differentiated renal epithelial tumors, possibly derived from the proximal nephron, with an immunohistochemical profile similar to high-grade clear cell RCC. It is, therefore, proposed that this group of renal carcinomas be renamed "poorly differentiated renal cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified." The current study showed that PAX-8 and carbonic anhydrase IX are reliable markers for this novel group of renal carcinoma, and that electron microscopy is an important adjunct in the evaluation of new and unusual renal entities. PMID:23383617

Talento, Romualdo; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Yin, Ming

2013-02-01

335

Liver-cell patterning lab chip: mimicking the morphology of liver lobule tissue.  

PubMed

A lobule-mimetic cell-patterning technique for on-chip reconstruction of centimetre-scale liver tissue of heterogeneous hepatic and endothelial cells via an enhanced field-induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) trap is demonstrated and reported. By mimicking the basic morphology of liver tissue, the classic hepatic lobule, the lobule-mimetic-stellate-electrodes array was designed for cell patterning. Through DEP manipulation, well-defined and enhanced spatial electric field gradients were created for in-parallel manipulation of massive individual cells. With this liver-cell patterning labchip design, the original randomly distributed hepatic and endothelial cells inside the microfluidic chamber can be manipulated separately and aligned into the desired pattern that mimicks the morphology of liver lobule tissue. Experimental results showed that both hepatic and endothelial cells were orderly guided, snared, and aligned along the field-induced orientation to form the lobule-mimetic pattern. About 95% cell viability of hepatic and endothelial cells was also observed after cell-patterning demonstration via a fluorescent assay technique. The liver function of CYP450-1A1 enzyme activity showed an 80% enhancement for our engineered liver tissue (HepG2+HUVECs) compared to the non-patterned pure HepG2 for two-day culturing. PMID:23743812

Ho, Chen-Ta; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Chen, Rong-Jhe; Chin, Chung-Kuang; Gong, Song-En; Chang, Hwan-You; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Hsu, Long; Yew, Tri-Rung; Chang, Shau-Feng; Liu, Cheng-Hsien

2013-09-21

336

Pathology of HIV-associated nephropathy: a detailed morphologic and comparative study.  

PubMed

Clinical and pathologic findings in the kidneys of 30 consecutive acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) autopsies and in 34 consecutive renal biopsies performed on HIV infected patients at our institution between 1983 and 1987 were studied. To determine if the lesions of HIV-associated nephropathy have morphologic specificity, a subgroup of 13 biopsies with a diagnosis of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVN) were compared to 13 biopsies each of heroin-associated nephropathy (HAN) and of idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (IFSGS) matched for patient age, proteinuria and serum creatinine. A diagnosis of HIVN was made in 1 of 30 (3.3%) AIDS autopsies and 26 of 34 (76.5%) renal biopsies. When compared to HAN and IFSGS, HIVN had more globally "collapsed" glomeruli (P less than 0.001), less glomerular hyalinosis (P less than 0.02), more severe visceral epithelial cell swelling (P less than 0.05), more numerous visceral epithelial cell droplets (P less than 0.002), more prevalent and severe tubular microcystic dilatation (P less than 0.02), and tubular cell degenerative changes (P less than 0.001). Focal glomerular electron-dense deposits were present in 14 of 26 cases. Tubuloreticular inclusions were extremely numerous in glomerular and interstitial capillary endothelial cells as well as in interstitial leukocytes (P less than 0.001). Granular degeneration of nuclear chromatin was present in 10 of 26 cases. Nuclear bodies were more numerous in tubular and interstitial cells of HIVN (P less than 0.01), particularly type 3 (P less than 0.001). Reversal of tissue T4/T8 ratio was observed. We conclude that while no single morphologic feature of HIVN is specific, the combination of clinical and pathologic findings is quite distinctive and permits a presumptive diagnosis of HIVN in otherwise asymptomatic carriers. PMID:2770114

D'Agati, V; Suh, J I; Carbone, L; Cheng, J T; Appel, G

1989-06-01

337

Immerse precipitation as an efficient protocol to optimize morphology and performance of organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a film-forming processing method for morphology control and organic solar cells (OSCs) optimization. In this protocol, the processing solvent inside a wet active layer is removed by dripping a soaking solvent that is selectively soluble for the processing solvents onto the wet active layer film. By this method, OSCs based on diketopyrrolopyrrole containing copolymers: [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend were fabricated. Devices processed by this treatment show a significantly increased efficiency by a factor of 3 compared to devices fabricated by the traditional spin-coating method (from 1.03% to 3.2%), which is mainly attributed to morphology improvements.

Zuo, Lijian; Cao, Zhen; Hu, Xiaolian; Gu, Zhuowei; Pan, Hongbin; Chen, Hongzheng

2012-12-01

338

Morphology of cystic renal lesions. Lectin and immuno-histochemical study.  

PubMed

Renal cystic disease include heritable, developmental and acquired disorders. Morphological features were extensively studied mainly in cases of autosomal dominant polycystic and experimentally induced cystic disorders. We report the immunohistochemical (cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, Tamm-Horsfall protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and lectin-binding (soybean agglutinin, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin) profile of cystic kidneys from 9 surgically removed and 21 autopsy cases. The primary renal diseases displayed great diversity. Beside polycystic kidney diseases we studied cysts associated to renal neoplasm, hemodialysis, nephrosis syndrome and chronic transplant rejection. Cystic epithelium demonstrated positive reactions with distal tubular markers (epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin) or collecting duct (soybean agglutinin, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin) and Henle loop markers (Tamm-Horsfall protein) but the latter in lesser extent. The large number of the vimentin positive cases are suggestive to dedifferentiation or cellular regeneration. The former might be underlined by the diffuse cytoplasmic or basolateral membrane staining of the epithelial membrane antigen in some cystic epithelial cells. Not the cystic epithelium but rather the neighbouring non-dilated tubular cells and interstitial cells presented proliferative activity which was most intense in areas where vimentin and variable nephron segment markers in the same tissue were expressed. Positive reaction of the type IV basement membrane collagen and the rate of the inflammation failed to show similar connection. This finding suggests the importance of the inflammatory cells in the development and/or expansion of the cysts. PMID:9408336

Kovács, J; Zilahy, M; Gomba, S

1997-01-01

339

Ultrastructural immunolocalization of basic fibroblast growth factor in endothelial cells: morphologic evidence for unconventional secretion of a novel protein.  

PubMed

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is one of the most potent angiogenic factors. Unlike many other growth factors, bFGF lacks a classic peptide sequence for its secretion. Recent studies suggest that there is an unconventional secretory pathway for this growth factor. The aim of this study was to identify the specific location of bFGF in endothelial cells and to find morphologic evidences concerning its synthesis, storage and release from endothelial cells. The capillaries in hippocampus, adrenal gland, kidney, peripheral nerves as well as the vessels in connective tissues were analysed by using immunogold labeling techniques at electron microscope level. Results show that endogenous bFGF is mainly located in the nuclei of endothelial cells. Slight immunoreactivity is found in the cytoplasm. Immunolabeling is notably absent in pinocytotic vesicles, Golgi complexes, endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear membrane and intercellular junctions. These results provide morphologic evidence suggesting that endothelial cells might export bFGF via unique cellular pathways that are clearly distinct from classical signal peptide mediated secretion and/or release of this protein could be directly through mechanically induced disruptions of these cells. The current study support the recent hypothesis related with unconventional secretory pathway for bFGF as some other "cargo" proteins. PMID:21830143

Aktas, Ranan Gulhan; Kayton, Robert J

2011-08-10

340

Morphological Purkinje cell changes in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) was recently identified as a form of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia associated\\u000a with a small CAG repeat expansion of the gene encoding an ? 1 A-voltage-dependent calcium channel gene subunit on chromosome\\u000a 19p13. In this study 50-?m-thick sections of cerebellar tissue from one patient with SCA6 were subjected to free-floating\\u000a immunohistochemical staining with calbindin-D and

Q. Yang; Y. Hashizume; M. Yoshida; Y. Wang; Y. Goto; N. Mitsuma; K. Ishikawa; H. Mizusawa

2000-01-01

341

Distinct roles for paxillin and Hic-5 in regulating breast cancer cell morphology, invasion, and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Individual metastatic tumor cells exhibit two interconvertible modes of cell motility during tissue invasion that are classified as either mesenchymal or amoeboid. The molecular mechanisms by which invasive breast cancer cells regulate this migratory plasticity have yet to be fully elucidated. Herein we show that the focal adhesion adaptor protein, paxillin, and the closely related Hic-5 have distinct and unique roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell lung metastasis by modulating cell morphology and cell invasion through three-dimensional extracellular matrices (3D ECMs). Cells depleted of paxillin by RNA interference displayed a highly elongated mesenchymal morphology, whereas Hic-5 knockdown induced an amoeboid phenotype with both cell populations exhibiting reduced plasticity, migration persistence, and velocity through 3D ECM environments. In evaluating associated signaling pathways, we determined that Rac1 activity was increased in cells devoid of paxillin whereas Hic-5 silencing resulted in elevated RhoA activity and associated Rho kinase–induced nonmuscle myosin II activity. Hic-5 was essential for adhesion formation in 3D ECMs, and analysis of adhesion dynamics and lifetime identified paxillin as a key regulator of 3D adhesion assembly, stabilization, and disassembly.

Deakin, Nicholas O.; Turner, Christopher E.

2011-01-01

342

No Relationship between Embryo Morphology and Successful Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background The large number (30) of permanent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and additional 29 which did not continue growing, in our laboratory at Karolinska Institutet have given us a possibility to analyse the relationship between embryo morphology and the success of derivation of hESC lines. The derivation method has been improved during the period 2002–2009, towards fewer xeno-components. Embryo quality is important as regards the likelihood of pregnancy, but there is little information regarding likelihood of stem cell derivation. Methods We evaluated the relationship of pronuclear zygote stage, the score based on embryo morphology and developmental rate at cleavage state, and the morphology of the blastocyst at the time of donation to stem cell research, to see how they correlated to successful establishment of new hESC lines. Results Derivation of hESC lines succeeded from poor quality and good quality embryos in the same extent. In several blastocysts, no real inner cell mass (ICM) was seen, but permanent well growing hESC lines could be established. One tripronuclear (3PN) zygote, which developed to blastocyst stage, gave origin to a karyotypically normal hESC line. Conclusion Even very poor quality embryos with few cells in the ICM can give origin to hESC lines.

Strom, Susanne; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny; Holm, Frida; Bergstrom, Rosita; Eklund, Linda; Stromberg, Anne-Marie; Hovatta, Outi

2010-01-01

343

Surface Plasmon Resonance Monitoring of Cell Monolayer Integrity: Implication of Signaling Pathways Involved in Actin-Driven Morphological Remodeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological changes occurring in individual cells largely influence the physiological functions of various cell layers.\\u000a The control of barrier function of epithelia and endothelia is a prime example of processes highly dependent on cellular morphology\\u000a and cell layer integrity. Here, we applied the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to the quantification of cellular\\u000a activity of an epithelial cell monolayer stimulated

Charles M. Cuerrier; Vincent Chabot; Sylvain Vigneux; Vincent Aimez; Emanuel Escher; FERNAND GOBEIL JR; Paul G. Charette; Michel Grandbois

2008-01-01

344

Effect of tributyltin on trout blood cells: changes in mitochondrial morphology and functionality.  

PubMed

The aquatic environment is the largest sink for the highly toxic organotin compounds, particularly as one of the main sources is the direct release of organotins from marine antifouling paints. The aim of this study was to investigate the mitochondrial toxicity and proapoptotic activity of tributyltin chloride (TBTC) in teleost leukocytes and nucleated erythrocytes, by means of electron microscopy investigation and mitochondrial membrane potential evaluation, in order to provide an early indicator of aquatic environmental pollution. Erythrocytes and leukocytes were obtained from an inbred strain of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Transmission electronic micrographs of trout red blood cells (RBC) incubated in the presence of TBTC at 1 and 5 microM for 60 min showed remarkable mitochondrial morphological changes. TBTC-mediated toxicity involved alteration of the cristae ultrastructure and mitochondrial swelling, in a dose-dependent manner. Both erythrocytes and leukocytes displayed a consistent drop in mitochondrial membrane potential following TBTC exposure at concentrations >1 microM. The proapoptotic effect of TBTC on fish blood cells, and involvement of mitochondrial pathways was also investigated by verifying the release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and the presence of "DNA laddering". Although mitochondrial activity was much more strongly affected in erythrocytes, leukocytes incubated in the presence of TBTC showed the characteristic features of apoptosis after only 1 h of incubation. Longer exposures, up to 12 h, were required to trigger an apoptotic response in erythrocytes. PMID:12729919

Tiano, Luca; Fedeli, Donatella; Santoni, Giorgio; Davies, Ian; Falcioni, Giancarlo

2003-05-12

345

Pancreas beta-cells morphology, liver antioxidant enzymes and liver oxidative parameters in alloxan-resistant and alloxan-susceptible Wistar rats: a viable model system for the study of concepts into reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate biochemical and antioxidant parameters in alloxan-resistant (ALR) and alloxan-susceptible (ALS) rats. Diabetes was induced in 60-day-old male Wistar rats by a single intraperitonial injection of alloxan (AL, 150 mg/kg). Ten days after induction, a group of rats showed a significant decrease in glycemia. This group was named alloxan-resistant group. Susceptible rats showed a remarkable increase in the plasma lipid content, blood glucose and HbA1. Glycogen content in the liver decreased significantly in the ALS group (2.08 +/- 0.41 mg%) compared with ALR group (4.22 +/- 0.18). Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were quantified in the plasma. Interestingly, ALR rats showed a decrease in both activities (42.1 +/- 6.11 and 21.7 +/- 5.54 U/mL) when compared with ALS rats (59.1 +/- 6.55 and 58.1 +/- 7.28 U/mL). The TBARS index was significantly increased in the ALS liver (0.38 +/- 0.08 nm/mg protein) when compared with the ALR liver (0.18 +/- 0.04). Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the ALR (230 +/- 13 and 131 +/- 15 U/mg protein) liver showed a marked increase when compared with the ALS liver (148 +/- 13 and 68 +/- 5 U/mg protein). The immunohistochemical and hematoxilin-eosin analysis also revealed that pancreatic islets of ALR rats display a different morphology amongst the groups. These results suggest an increased regenerative or recovery process in the ALR rat pancreatic islets and an increased hepatic antioxidant defenses in these group of alloxan-resistant rats. PMID:19049670

Behr, Guilherme Antônio; da Silva, Evandro Gomes; Ferreira, Amâncio Romanelli; Cerski, Carlos Thadeu Schmidt; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

2008-12-01

346

[Cytological, morphological and functional changes of Russian sturgeons's (Acipenser guldenshtadti) sperm cells after cryopreservation].  

PubMed

The article presents some experimental results concerning the problem of genetic conservation of valuable and endangered animal species. Biotechnical development of the cryopreservation of spermatic cells for the purpose of their extended storage at low and ultra low temperatures is a priority line of the investigations in the topical area and implies creation of animal genomes cryobanks. It is known that water crystals of plasma and the cell itself often cause the spermatholysis in the course of freezing. That is why the search for the substances with cryoprotective properties continues up to the present moment. In this study, we investigated cryoprotective properties of glycerin, dimethyl sulfoxide and heparin in different proportions using spermatic fluid of sturgeon Acipenser guldenshtadti (Brandt). These results obtained were compared with the cryoprotectors of well-known composition. In addition, freezing and storage of the spermatic fluid were executed in two variations: at low and ultralow temperatures. Cold tolerance of the sperm cells was estimated by the sperm mobility and by light microscopy morphological analysis of the cells. It was shown to be linked to the composition of cryoprotectors. The heaviest violations were observed under addition of osmotic active substances, some inorganic compounds among them. Principle of our modification is based on that we used fluid substances: glycerin, dimethyl sulfoxide, heparin eliminating water as a solvent. The results obtained showed that our modified cryoprotectors and the standard cryoprotectors had equal efficiency. The article also presents the data on the spermatic fluid freezing at low temperature. They are important in case of modern freezing systems. PMID:20058814

Zemkov, G V; Akimochkina, T N

2009-01-01

347

EVALUATION OF BENZO[C]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

EVALUATION OF BENZO[c]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T?CL8 CELLS Abstract The morphological cell transforming activities of three dihydrodiols of benzo[c]chrysene (B[c]C), trans-B[c]C-7,8-diol, trans-B[c]C-9...

348

Coupling actin flow, adhesion, and morphology in a computational cell motility model.  

PubMed

Cell migration is a pervasive process in many biology systems and involves protrusive forces generated by actin polymerization, myosin dependent contractile forces, and force transmission between the cell and the substrate through adhesion sites. Here we develop a computational model for cell motion that uses the phase-field method to solve for the moving boundary with physical membrane properties. It includes a reaction-diffusion model for the actin-myosin machinery and discrete adhesion sites which can be in a "gripping" or "slipping" mode and integrates the adhesion dynamics with the dynamics of the actin filaments, modeled as a viscous network. To test this model, we apply it to fish keratocytes, fast moving cells that maintain their morphology, and show that we are able to reproduce recent experimental results on actin flow and stress patterns. Furthermore, we explore the phase diagram of cell motility by varying myosin II activity and adhesion strength. Our model suggests that the pattern of the actin flow inside the cell, the cell velocity, and the cell morphology are determined by the integration of actin polymerization, myosin contraction, adhesion forces, and membrane forces. PMID:22493219

Shao, Danying; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

2012-04-09

349

Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development  

PubMed Central

Background Zebrafish germ cells contain granular-like structures, organized around the cell nucleus. These structures share common features with polar granules in Drosophila, germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others. Little is known about the structure of these granules as well as their segregation in mitosis during early germ-cell development. Results Using transgenic fish expressing a fluorescently labeled novel component of Zebrafish germ cell granules termed Granulito, we followed the morphology and distribution of the granules. We show that whereas these granules initially exhibit a wide size variation, by the end of the first day of development they become a homogeneous population of medium size granules. We investigated this resizing event and demonstrated the role of microtubules and the minus-end microtubule dependent motor protein Dynein in the process. Last, we show that the function of the germ cell granule resident protein the Tudor domain containing protein-7 (Tdrd7) is required for determination of granule morphology and number. Conclusion Our results suggest that Zebrafish germ cell granules undergo a transformation process, which involves germ cell specific proteins as well as the microtubular network.

Strasser, Markus J; Mackenzie, Natalia C; Dumstrei, Karin; Nakkrasae, La-Iad; Stebler, Jurg; Raz, Erez

2008-01-01

350

Morphological Types and Connectivity of Horizontal Cells Found in the Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Retina  

PubMed Central

We describe here different types of horizontal cells in the zebrafish retina and how they connect to photoreceptors. To label horizontal cells, crystals of DiI were placed onto the tips of pulled glass pipettes and inserted into the inner nuclear layer of fixed whole-mount retinas. The DiI-labeled horizontal cells were imaged by confocal microscopy and analyzed according to dendritic arborization, cell depth, dendritic terminal morphology, and connectivity with photoreceptors. Three types of horizontal cells were unequivocally identified: two cone-connecting (H1/2 and H3) and one rod-related cell. H1/2 cells have dendritic terminals that are arranged in “rosette” clusters and that connect to cone photoreceptors without any apparent specificity. H3 cells are larger and have dendritic terminal doublets arranged in a rectilinear pattern. This pattern corresponds to the mosaic of the single cones in the zebrafish photoreceptor mosaic and indicates that H3 cells connect specifically to either the blue-sensitive (long-single) or ultraviolet-sensitive (short-single) cones. Thus, H3 cells are likely to be chromaticity-type cells that process specific color information, whereas H1/2 cells are probably luminosity-type cells that process luminance information. Rod horizontal cells were identified by their shape and dendritic pattern, and they connect with numerous rod photo-receptors via small spherical terminals.

SONG, PHILIP I.; MATSUI, JONATHAN I.; DOWLING, JOHN E.

2008-01-01

351

Effects of local anesthetics on cell morphology and membrane-associated cytoskeletal organization in BALB/3T3 cells  

PubMed Central

Tertiary amine local anesthetics (dibucaine, tetracaine, procaine) reversibly affect the morphology of untransformed BALB/3T3 cells and the organization of membrane-associated cytoskeletal elements. In the presence of these drugs cells contract and become rounded in shape with the appearance of numerous surface "blebs." Electron microscope examination of anesthetic-treated cells revealed significant reductions in plasma membrane-associated microtubules and microfilaments and/or their plasma membrane attachment. The relationship of the findings on local anesthetic-induced changes in cellular cytoskeletal systems is discussed in relation to previous proposals on plasma membrane organization and control of cell surface receptor topography and mobility.

1976-01-01

352

Light-emitting dendrimer film morphology: A neutron reflectivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements to probe the physical structure of phosphorescent dendrimer films. The dendrimers consisted of fac-tris(2-phenylpyridyl)iridium(III) cores, biphenyl-based dendrons (first or second generation), and perdeuterated 2-ethylhexyloxy surface groups. We found that the shape and hydrodynamic radius of the dendrimer were both important factors in determining the packing density of the dendrimers. ``Cone'' shaped dendrimers were found to pack more effectively than ``spherical'' dendrimers even when the latter had a smaller radius. The morphology of the films determined by NR was consistent with the measured photoluminescence and charge transporting properties of the materials.

Vickers, S. V.; Barcena, H.; Knights, K. A.; Thomas, R. K.; Ribierre, J.-C.; Gambino, S.; Samuel, I. D. W.; Burn, P. L.; Fragneto, Giovanna

2010-06-01

353

Inflectional Morphology in Cri du Chat Syndrome--A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined morphological skills in a girl with cri du chat syndrome, addressing three questions: (1) To what extent does the subject inflect words? (2) To what extent are words inflected correctly? (3) To what extent do the inflected words reflect productive morphological rules, and to what extent can they be considered to be…

Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

2012-01-01

354

The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensionalassays correlate with their profiles of gene expression  

SciTech Connect

3D cell cultures are rapidly becoming the method of choice for the physiologically relevant modeling of many aspects of non-malignant and malignant cell behavior ex vivo. Nevertheless, only a limited number of distinct cell types have been evaluated in this assay to date. Here we report the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes of a substantial panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adopts a colony morphology of one of four main classes in 3D culture. These morphologies reflect, at least in part, the underlying gene expression profile and protein expression patterns of the cell lines, and distinct morphologies were also associated with tumor cell invasiveness and with cell lines originating from metastases. We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even tumor cells are cultured in 3D microenvironments.

Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Genee Y.; Myers, Connie A.; Neve, RichardM.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Spellman, Paul T.; Lorenz, Katrin; Lee, Eva H.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, MinaJ.

2007-01-31

355

HUCB Cell Therapy Blocks the Morphological Change and Recruitment of CD11b-Expressing, Isolectin-Binding Proinflammatory Cells after MCAO  

PubMed Central

Secondary neurodegeneration resulting from stroke is mediated by delayed proinflammatory signaling and immune cell activation. Although it remains unknown which cell surface markers signify a proinflammatory phenotype, increased isolectin binding occurs on CD11b-expressing immune cells within injured brain tissue. Several reports have confirmed the efficacy of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cell therapy in reducing ischemic injury in rat after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and these effects were attributed in part to dampened neuroinflammation. The present study examined the time course of lectin binding to cells of microglia/macrophage lineage within 96 hrs after MCAO, and whether delayed HUCB cell treatment alters the migration and/or morphological characteristics of these cells throughout the period of infarct expansion. Isolectin binding was upregulated in response to injury, was maximal at 96 hrs, and colocalized with cells that expressed the putative proinflammatory markers MMP-9 and nitric oxide. Isolectin-tagged fluorescence was also significantly increased at 72 hrs and localized to greater numbers of amoeboid, CD11b-expressing cells relative to 51 hrs. Treatment with 1×106 HUCB cells significantly reduced total lectin binding at 72 hrs, as well as the total area occupied by lectin-tagged fluorescence at both 51 and 72 hrs, relative to vehicle-treated controls. This effect was accompanied by a shift in the morphology of CD11b-positive cells from amoeboid to ramified shape. These data indicate that HUCB cell therapy suppressed the recruitment of proinflammatory, isolectin-binding cells during the period of infarct expansion, thus offering a potential mechanism for the protective effects of HUCB cell therapy.

Leonardo, Christopher C.; Hall, Aaron A.; Collier, Lisa A.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Willing, Alison E.; Pennypacker, Keith R.

2009-01-01

356

Human umbilical cord blood cell therapy blocks the morphological change and recruitment of CD11b-expressing, isolectin-binding proinflammatory cells after middle cerebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Secondary neurodegeneration resulting from stroke is mediated by delayed proinflammatory signaling and immune cell activation. Although it remains unknown which cell surface markers signify a proinflammatory phenotype, increased isolectin binding occurs on CD11b-expressing immune cells within injured brain tissue. Several reports have confirmed the efficacy of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cell therapy in reducing ischemic injury in rat after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and these effects were attributed in part to dampened neuroinflammation. The present study examined the time course of lectin binding to cells of microglia/macrophage lineage within 96 hr after MCAO and whether delayed HUCB cell treatment alters the migration and/or morphological characteristics of these cells throughout the period of infarct expansion. Isolectin binding was up-regulated in response to injury, was maximal at 96 hr, and colocalized with cells that expressed the putative proinflammatory markers MMP-9 and nitric oxide. Isolectin-tagged fluorescence was also significantly increased at 72 hr and localized to greater numbers of amoeboid, CD11b-expressing cells relative to 51 hr. Treatment with 1 x 10(6) HUCB cells significantly reduced total lectin binding at 72 hr, as well as the total area occupied by lectin-tagged fluorescence at both 51 and 72 hr, relative to vehicle-treated controls. This effect was accompanied by a shift in the morphology of CD11b-positive cells from amoeboid to ramified shape. These data indicate that HUCB cell therapy suppressed the recruitment of proinflammatory, isolectin-binding cells during the period of infarct expansion, thus offering a potential mechanism for the protective effects of HUCB cell therapy. PMID:19998484

Leonardo, Christopher C; Hall, Aaron A; Collier, Lisa A; Ajmo, Craig T; Willing, Alison E; Pennypacker, Keith R

2010-05-01

357

APC/?-catenin-rich complexes at membrane protrusions regulate mammary tumor cell migration and mesenchymal morphology  

PubMed Central

Background The APC tumor suppressor is mutated or downregulated in many tumor types, and is prominently localized to punctate clusters at protrusion tips in migratory cells, such as in astrocytes where it has been implicated in directed cell motility. Although APC loss is considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, for example, it is less clear what role APC plays in tumor cell motility and whether loss of APC might be an important promoter of tumor progression in addition to initiation. Methods The localization of APC and ?-catenin was analyzed in multiple cell lines, including non-transformed epithelial lines treated with a proteasome inhibitor or TGF? to induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as several breast cancer lines, by immunofluorescence. APC expression was knocked down in 4T07 mammary tumor cells using lentiviral-mediated delivery of APC-specific short-hairpin (sh) RNAs, and assessed using quantitative (q) reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and western blotting. Tumor cell motility was analyzed by performing wound-filling assays, and morphology via immunofluorescence (IF) and phase-contrast microscopy. Additionally, proliferation was measured using BrdU incorporation, and TCF reporter assays were performed to determine ?-catenin/TCF-mediated transcriptional activity. Results APC/?-catenin-rich complexes were observed at protrusion ends of migratory epithelial cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor or when EMT has been induced and in tumor cells with a mesenchymal, spindle-like morphology. 4T07 tumor cells with reduced APC levels were significantly less motile and had a more rounded morphology; yet, they did not differ significantly in proliferation or ?-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we found that APC/?-catenin-rich complexes at protrusion ends were dependent upon an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. Conclusions These findings indicate that membrane protrusions with APC/?-catenin-containing puncta control the migratory potential and mesenchymal morphology of mammary tumor cells and suggest that APC loss during later stages of tumor progression might impact tumor cell dissemination or colonization.

2013-01-01

358

Rab3a ablation related changes in morphology of secretory vesicles in major endocrine pancreatic cells, pituitary melanotroph cells and adrenal gland chromaffin cells in mice.  

PubMed

In this work we have compared the ultrastructural characteristics of major pancreatic endocrine cells, pituitary melanotrophs and adrenal chromaffin cells in the normal mouse strain (wild type, WT) and mice with a known secretory deficit, the Rab3a knockout strain (Rab3a KO). For this purpose, pancreata, pituitary glands and adrenal glands from the Rab3a KO and from the WT mice were analysed, using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In order to assess the significance of the presence of Rab3a proteins in the relevant cells, we focused primarily on their secretory vesicle morphology and distribution. Our results showed a comparable general morphology in Rab3a KO and WT in all assessed endocrine cell types. In all studied cell types, the distribution of secretory granules along the plasma membrane (number of docked and almost-docked vesicles) was comparable between Rab3a KO and WT mice. Specific differences were found in the diameters of their secretory vesicles, diameters of their electron-dense cores and the presence of autophagic structures in the cells of Rab3A KO mice only. Occasionally, individual electron-dense round vesicles were present inside autophagosome-like structures; these were possibly secretory vesicles or their remnants. The differences found in the diameters of the secretory vesicles confirm the key role of Rab3a proteins in controlling the balance between secretory vesicle biogenesis and degradation, and suggest that the ablation of this protein probably changes the nature of the reservoir of secretory vesicles available for regulated exocytosis. PMID:23399968

Lipovšek, Saška; Janžekovi?, Franc; Leitinger, Gerd; Rupnik, Marjan Slak

2013-02-08

359

Morphological and proliferative abnormalities in renal mesangial cells lacking RhoGDI.  

PubMed

The regulation of Rho GTPase activities and expression is critical in the development and function of the kidney. Rho GTPase activities and cytosol-membrane cycling are regulated by Rho GDP Dissociation Inhibitor (RhoGDI), and RhoGDI knockout mice develop defects in kidney structure and function that lead to death due to renal failure. It is therefore important to understand the changes in RhoGDI-regulated Rho GTPase activities and cell morphology that lead to kidney failure in RhoGDI (-/-) mice. Here, we characterize a renal mesangial cell line derived from the RhoGDI (-/-) mouse in which we verify the absence of GDI proteins. In the absence of RhoGDI, we show an increase in the specific activity of Rac1, and to a lesser extent, RhoA and Cdc42 GTPases in these cells. This is accompanied by a compensatory decrease in the steady-state protein levels of Rho GTPases. Morphological analysis of RhoGDI (-/-) mesangial cells reveals a decrease in cell spreading and in focal contacts compared to wild-type cells. Finally, RhoGDI (-/-) mesangial cells show a decreased ability to proliferate and survive. These functional and structural changes are likely to contribute to the defects in renal architecture and function observed in the RhoGDI (-/-) mouse. PMID:19765647

Bielek, Heike; Anselmo, Anthony; Dermardirossian, Celine

2009-09-15

360

Morphological control of CuPc and its application in organic solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have prepared organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells possessing an ideal bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure using the self-assembly of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as the donor material and fullerene (C60) as the acceptor. The variable self-assembly behavior of CuPc on a diverse range of substrates (surface energies) allowed us to control the morphology of the interface and the degree of carrier transportation

Yu-Sheng Hsiao; Wha-Tzong Whang; Shich-Chang Suen; Jau-Ye Shiu; Chih-Ping Chen

2008-01-01

361

No Relationship between Embryo Morphology and Successful Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe large number (30) of permanent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and additional 29 which did not continue growing, in our laboratory at Karolinska Institutet have given us a possibility to analyse the relationship between embryo morphology and the success of derivation of hESC lines. The derivation method has been improved during the period 2002–2009, towards fewer xeno-components. Embryo

Susanne Ström; Kenny Rodriguez-Wallberg; Frida Holm; Rosita Bergström; Linda Eklund; Anne-Marie Strömberg; Outi Hovatta

2010-01-01

362

Automated Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtype Classification Using Morphological, Textural and Wavelets Based Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new image quantification and classification method for improved pathological diagnosis of human renal cell carcinoma.\\u000a This method combines different feature extraction methodologies, and is designed to provide consistent clinical results even\\u000a in the presence of tissue structural heterogeneities and data acquisition variations. The methodologies used for feature extraction\\u000a include image morphological analysis, wavelet analysis and texture analysis,

Qaiser Chaudry; Syed Hussain Raza; Andrew N. Young; May D. Wang

2009-01-01

363

Morphological and ultrastructural changes in vegetative cells and heterocysts of Anabaena variabilis grown with fructose.  

PubMed Central

The morphology and ultrastructure of Anabaena variabilis grown in medium with and without 40 mM fructose were compared. Vegetative cells and young heterocysts in fructose-supplemented medium were significantly larger, were filled with glycogen granules, and had fewer thylakoids. Developing heterocysts contained large numbers of glycogen granules well into mature stages, and envelope formation was precocious. As heterocysts enlarged in fructose medium, their shape became more broadly oblong compared with the more rectangular heterocysts in fructose-free medium. Images

Lang, N J; Krupp, J M; Koller, A L

1987-01-01

364

SCMD: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphological Database  

PubMed Central

To study the global regulation of cell morphology, a number of groups have recently reported genome-wide screening data for yeast mutants with abnormal morphology. Despite the relatively simple ellipsoidal shape of yeast cells, in the past, cell morphology researchers have processed information on cells manually. These time-consuming, entirely subjective tasks motivated us to develop image-processing software that automatically extracts yeast cells from micrographs and processes them to measure key morphological characteristics such as cell size, roundness, bud neck position angle, nuclear DNA localization and actin localization. To date, we have retrieved 960 609 cells from 52 988 micrographs of 2531 mutants using our software, and we have published the results in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphological Database (SCMD), which facilitates the analysis of abnormal cells. Our system provides quantitative data for shapes of the daughter and mother cells, localization of the nuclear DNA and morphology of the actin patches. To search for mutants with similar morphological traits, the system outputs a list of mutants ranked by similarity of average morphological parameters. The SCMD is available at http://yeast.gi.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/.

Saito, Taro L.; Ohtani, Miwaka; Sawai, Hiroshi; Sano, Fumi; Saka, Ayaka; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yukawa, Masashi; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Morishita, Shinichi

2004-01-01

365

Sperm mitochondria of patients with normal sperm motility and with asthenozoospermia: morphological and functional study.  

PubMed

Studies were performed on ejaculated human spermatozoa (32 subjects with normal sperm motility and 25 subjects with low sperm motility). Morphology of sperm midpiece was evaluated in light, fluorescent and transmission or scanning electron microscope. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (delta(psi)m) and mass of mitochondria were analysed by flow cytometry using mitochondrial specific probes JC-1 and Mito Tracker Green FM. Moreover, oxidoreductive capability of sperm mitochondria was assessed using cytochemical reaction for NADH-dependent dehydrogenases. In flow cytometry analysis of JC-1-stained spermatozoa, two asthenozoospermic subpopulations were distinguished: patients with a high percentage (76 +/- 11%, 13 subjects) and patients with a low percentage (29 +/- 14%,12 subjects) of spermatozoa with functional-polarized mitochondria with high delta(psi)m. Our microscopic investigations of spermatozoa of seven asthenozoospermic patients reveal that the deformed and unusually thickened sperm midpieces (50-70% of cells), occasionally with persistent cytoplasmic droplet, contain supernumerary mitochondria with normal substructure, full oxidoreductive capability and high delta(psi)m. The midpiece deformations cause nonprogressive movement or immotility. They can also appear in smaller number of spermatozoa (5-35% of cells) in patients with normal sperm motility. Moreover, in three cases of asthenozoospermia midpiece malformations were accompanied by abnormal morphology of outer dense fibers and axoneme. The cytochemical, fluorescence and SEM studies showed the absence of midpieces in many (60-80%) spermatozoa in some other cases of asthenozoospermia. The morphological observations corresponded with flow cytometry analysis of Mito Tracker Green FM-stained spermatozoa. Our results suggest that in some cases of asthenozoospermia the sperm mitochondria can be functionally active and display high delta(psi)m in large number of cells. The results may suggest that asthenozoospermia does not necessarily result from energetic disturbances of sperm mitochondria. The low sperm motility may be associated with deformations of the mitochondrial sheath containing functional mitochondria. The combination of fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry with electron microscopic investigations is a sensitive, precise and comprehensive examination which helps discover sperm abnormalities responsible for asthenozoospermia. PMID:13678331

Piasecka, Ma?gorzata; Kawiak, Jerzy

2003-01-01

366

Endothelial Cells from Diverse Tissues Exhibit Differences in Growth and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased recognition of the role of endothelial cells in disease and the development of methods for endothelial cell culture has led to an upsurge inin vitrostudies of endothelial cell function. However, the cells most often used for these studies do not reflect thein vivoheterogeneity of endothelial cells. To assess intrinsic differences between large and small vessel endothelial cells from

Linden E. Craig; Jeffrey P. Spelman; John D. Strandberg; M. Christine Zink

1998-01-01

367

Chitosan-mediated changes in cell wall composition, morphology and ultrastructure in two wood-inhabiting fungi.  

PubMed

The effect of chitosan on cell wall deposition was investigated in the two wood-inhabiting fungal species Trichoderma harzianum (CBS 597.91) and Sphaeropsis sapinea (NZFS 2725). The study used three independent analytical techniques to quantify chitin in the fungal mycelium. A colorimetric method for the detection of D-glucosamine was compared with two gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) methods employing alditol acetates analysis and pyrolysis. The latter used a stable-isotope-labelled internal standard, d(3)-N-acetyl glucosamine. At least in the case of S. sapinea, the study provided evidence of an increase in the chitin content in the mycelium due to chitosan treatment, indicating that chitosan treatment affected cell wall deposition. Electron microscopy techniques showed alteration in surface morphology and cell wall texture due to chitosan treatment. The implications of these results are discussed with a view to analysing possible mechanisms for growth inhibitory effects of chitosan on fungal hyphae. PMID:17707625

Vesentini, Damiano; Steward, Diane; Singh, Adya P; Ball, Roderick; Daniel, Geoffrey; Franich, Robert

2007-06-29

368

Chronic administration of risperidone in a rat model of schizophrenia: a behavioural, morphological and molecular study.  

PubMed

In the present work we analyzed the effect of the chronic administration of risperidone (2mg/kg over 65 days) on behavioural, morphological and molecular aspects in an experimental model of schizophrenia obtained by bilateral injection of ibotenic acid into the ventral hippocampus of new-born rats. Our results show that during their adult lives the animals with hippocampal lesions exhibit different alterations, mainly at behavioural level and in the gene expression of dopamine D(2) and 5-HT(2A) receptors. However, at morphological level the study performed on the prefrontal cortex did not reveal any alterations in either the thickness or the number of cells immunoreactive for c-Fos, GFAP, CBP or PV. Overall, risperidone administration elicited a trend towards the recovery of the values previously altered by the hippocampal lesion, approaching the values seen in the animals without lesions. It may be concluded that the administration of risperidone in the schizophrenia model employed helps to improve the altered functions, with no significant negative effects. PMID:23291154

Castellano, O; Arji, M; Sancho, C; Carro, J; Riolobos, A S; Molina, V; Gómez-Nieto, R; de Anchieta de Castro E Horta, José; Herrero-Turrión, M J; López, D E

2013-01-04

369

Effects of substrate stiffness on cell morphology, cytoskeletal structure, and adhesion.  

PubMed

The morphology and cytoskeletal structure of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and neutrophils are documented for cells cultured on surfaces with stiffness ranging from 2 to 55,000 Pa that have been laminated with fibronectin or collagen as adhesive ligand. When grown in sparse culture with no cell-cell contacts, fibroblasts and endothelial cells show an abrupt change in spread area that occurs at a stiffness range around 3,000 Pa. No actin stress fibers are seen in fibroblasts on soft surfaces, and the appearance of stress fibers is abrupt and complete at a stiffness range coincident with that at which they spread. Upregulation of alpha5 integrin also occurs in the same stiffness range, but exogenous expression of alpha5 integrin is not sufficient to cause cell spreading on soft surfaces. Neutrophils, in contrast, show no dependence of either resting shape or ability to spread after activation when cultured on surfaces as soft as 2 Pa compared to glass. The shape and cytoskeletal differences evident in single cells on soft compared to hard substrates are eliminated when fibroblasts or endothelial cells make cell-cell contact. These results support the hypothesis that mechanical factors impact different cell types in fundamentally different ways, and can trigger specific changes similar to those stimulated by soluble ligands. PMID:15573414

Yeung, Tony; Georges, Penelope C; Flanagan, Lisa A; Marg, Beatrice; Ortiz, Miguelina; Funaki, Makoto; Zahir, Nastaran; Ming, Wenyu; Weaver, Valerie; Janmey, Paul A

2005-01-01

370

Study of Structural Morphology of Hemp Fiber from the Micro to the Nanoscale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this work has been to study how high pressure defibrillation and chemical purification affect the hemp fiber\\u000a morphology from micro to nanoscale. Microscopy techniques, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the\\u000a structure and properties of the prepared micro and nanofibers. Microscopy studies showed that the used individualization processes\\u000a lead to a unique morphology of

Bei Wang; Mohini Sain; Kristiina Oksman

2007-01-01

371

Rapid morphological brain abnormalities during acute methamphetamine intoxication in the rat: An experimental study using light and electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes morphological abnormalities of brain cells during acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication in the rat and demonstrates the role of hyperthermia, disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and edema in their development. Rats with chronically implanted brain, muscle and skin temperature probes and an intravenous (i.v.) catheter were exposed to METH (9mg\\/kg) at standard (23°C) and warm (29°C) ambient

Hari S. Sharma; Eugene A. Kiyatkin

2009-01-01

372

Morphological Characterization of Low-Bandgap Crystalline Polymer:PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the morphology of polymer-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is key to improving device efficiencies. Blends of a low-bandgap silole-containing conjugated polymer, poly[(4,4'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-5,5'-diyl] (PSBTBT) with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated using different processing conditions. Scanning force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry and neutron reflectivity studies showed that thermal annealing did not induce obvious changes in the structure of the active layer. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering showed that the crystallization of PSBTBT and segregation of PCBM occurred during spin coating, and a brief thermal annealing increased the ordering of PSBTBT and enhanced the segregation of the PCBM, forming domains with 10-nm in size, leading to an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

Lu, Haiyun; Russell, Thomas

2011-03-01

373

Difference of Morphology and Immunophenotype between Central and Peripheral Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Lung.  

PubMed

Background. Recent agents, that is, pemetrexed and bevacizumab, have shown reproductive negative association between squamous histology. According to these agents' effectiveness, ruling out of the squamous histology is a significant issue for surgical pathologists. Several articles have proposed the distinction of peripheral type from central type of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) due to its similarity to adenocarcinoma, although little evidence to support the difference between these two types was published. In this study, we compared the clinicopathologic findings of central and peripheral pulmonary SqCCs. Material and Methods. 15 central and 35 peripheral types of SqCC from 2005 to 2010 were examined. Twelve morphological features were scored based on their intensity in the original H&E slides, and then, tissue microarray holding triplicated cores from 43 cases was immunohistochemically examined for cytokeratin (CK)7, CK14, TTF-1, Napsin A, p63, CK34 ? E12, CK5/6, and p53. Result. Most of the histological findings did not separate central and peripheral SqCCs; only the presence of emphysema, interstitial fibrosis, and entrapped pneumocytes inside the tumor showed statistic predominance in peripheral SqCC. This is the first immunophenotypic research in the central and peripheral types of SqCC. PMID:24069587

Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Sano, Hisao; Egashira, Ryoko; Tabata, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Tomonori; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Kashima, Yukio; Hori, Takashi; Nunomura, Sayuri; Fukuoka, Junya

2013-08-29

374

Difference of Morphology and Immunophenotype between Central and Peripheral Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Lung  

PubMed Central

Background. Recent agents, that is, pemetrexed and bevacizumab, have shown reproductive negative association between squamous histology. According to these agents' effectiveness, ruling out of the squamous histology is a significant issue for surgical pathologists. Several articles have proposed the distinction of peripheral type from central type of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) due to its similarity to adenocarcinoma, although little evidence to support the difference between these two types was published. In this study, we compared the clinicopathologic findings of central and peripheral pulmonary SqCCs. Material and Methods. 15 central and 35 peripheral types of SqCC from 2005 to 2010 were examined. Twelve morphological features were scored based on their intensity in the original H&E slides, and then, tissue microarray holding triplicated cores from 43 cases was immunohistochemically examined for cytokeratin (CK)7, CK14, TTF-1, Napsin A, p63, CK34?E12, CK5/6, and p53. Result. Most of the histological findings did not separate central and peripheral SqCCs; only the presence of emphysema, interstitial fibrosis, and entrapped pneumocytes inside the tumor showed statistic predominance in peripheral SqCC. This is the first immunophenotypic research in the central and peripheral types of SqCC.

Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Sano, Hisao; Egashira, Ryoko; Tabata, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Tomonori; Kashima, Yukio; Nunomura, Sayuri

2013-01-01

375

Viperid venom glands with defective venom production. Morphological study.  

PubMed

The venom of viperid snakes is collected monthly at Butantan Institute for research purposes and production of antivenoms. Here we describe histological and ultrastructural changes on Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops sp. venom glands with defective venom production. Secretory tubules commonly showed partial or total obliteration of their lumina by masses of necrotic cells and cellular debris. Secretory cells showed varying degrees of degenerative and/or metaplastic alterations seriously affecting the structures responsible for the synthesis and secretion of venom. The intertubular connective tissue presented fibroblast hyperplasia, inflammatory cells infiltration, vacuolated cells and blood vessels alterations. In two venom glands out of nineteen snakes examined, virus-like particles were found. The alterations observed in most of the glands could have been caused by excessive manual pressure, during venom extraction routine, causing disruption of the secretory tubules and leakage of venom to the intertubular connective tissue. PMID:23583664

Giannotti, Karina Cristina; Sesso, Antonio; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Fernandes, Wilson; Cardoso, Rubens Pinto; Camargo, Gabriela Grilo; Carneiro, Sylvia Mendes

2013-04-09

376

Elongated cell morphology and uniaxial mechanical stretch contribute to physical attributes of niche environment for MSC tenogenic differentiation.  

PubMed

Specific lineage differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), such as osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, is the major subject of MSC-based musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, an ideal induction regime for MSC tenogenic differentiation is less explored. While induced differentiation of MSCs using chemical signalling, such as growth factors, has been the mainstream methodology in the past decades, recent studies show that a physical signal is one of the major attributes that composes in vivo niches of MSCs, and is a potent factor in determining MSC fate in several in vitro models; for example, control of cell shape with surface topography can drive MSCs towards a specific lineage differentiation. Mechanical signals also play important roles in the differentiation of MSCs towards certain lineages. Tendon is a connective tissue which is subjected to dynamic uniaxial mechanical stretch by physical activity. Additionally, tenocytes have a unique elongated cell morphology and are aligned in parallel with collagen fibres. We thus would hypothesize that both enforced elongated cell morphology and uniaxial mechanical stretch signal contribute to the major physical niche attributes of tenocytes' in vivo microenvironment, and mimicking these physical signals may be sufficient to induce tenogenic differentiation of MSCs. PMID:23505099

Wang, Wenbo; Deng, Dan; Li, Jie; Liu, Wei

2013-04-11

377

Two morphological types of pineal window in catfish in relation to photophase and scotophase activity: a morphological and experimental study.  

PubMed

The pineal window is a transparent/translucent pineal covering on the dorsal surface of the cranium of certain fishes and is associated with light reactions of fish. In the present study, catfish species Clarias batrachus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus vittatus, M. seenghala, and M. cavassius were examined for the type of pineal window present. Two morphologically different types of pineal window were found: an opaque-looking pineal window in C. batrachus and H. fossilis and a translucent type of pineal window in M. vittatus, M. seenghala, and M. cavassius. The distributional pattern of pigments in the melanophores at the pineal window were studied in terms of Melanophore Index (MI). In all of the species studied, a pineal foramen, a subepidermal lens-like tissue, and pineal end vesicle were present. Experiments were carried out on catfish having the opaque pineal window, as it is uncommon in catfish. Catfish with normal and shielded pineal window were exposed to conditions of artificial constant illumination (LL) and darkness (DD) to evaluate the effects of altered photoperiods on the state of pigmentation of melanophores at the pineal window. Recordings of diel activity patterns, which are light dependent in catfish, were carried out under both natural and artificial photoperiods in fish with a normal or shielded window in order to assess its functional nature. The existence of two morphologically and functionally different types of pineal window in a relatively closely related group of catfish has been demonstrated in this study. The nature of the opaque type of pineal window has been reconsidered based on new experimental evidence. PMID:12506400

Srivastava, S

2003-01-01

378

A quantitative study of peculiarities in galaxy morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have developed a refined version of the asymmetry parameter first presented by Abraham et al. (1996). Coupled with a simple concentration index, this pair of indices, AW-CW, is compared to Abraham et al.'s log(AA)-log(C A) algorithm. These indices are then applied to a large sample of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field with photometric redshifts from Connolly (1999). This allows investigation of trends at redshifts which have been largely inaccessible until now. The final sample consists of ~350 objects detected by the AW-CW algorithms with first-moment radii, r1 >= 0'.2 (corresponding to F814WAB ~ 26). The distribution of objects in the AW- CW plane is found to change with redshift. The region of the AW - CW plane populated by objects out to z ~ 1.2 is roughly constant. Accounting for bandpass shifting effects, this region resembles that populated by local bright galaxies (Frei et al. 1996) cosmologically simulated at z = 0.8. Beyond z ~ 1.2, the distribution of galaxies undergoes a significant change. Highly concentrated objects disappear from the AW-C W plane, while high asymmetry objects appear. The high concentration objects below z ~ 1.2 all have early-type morphologies. Very low resolution SEDs of these galaxies created using colors from Williams et al. (1996) are used to calculate the expected appearance of these objects at higher redshifts (z = 1.5 and 2.3). Assuming their luminosities and SEDs have not changed, one-third of the z ~ 0.8 objects would be undetected at z = 1.5, and 97% would disappear by z = 2.3. Any true drop in the number density of these objects would be completely masked by such strong selection effects. An increase in the number and degree of asymmetric objects is also seen beyond z ~ 1.2. Many of these objects exhibit multiple condensations, consistent with merging. Though the shifting of the ultraviolet galaxy spectrum into the F814W-band may be partially responsible, the majority of the increase in both number and degree of asymmetry appears to reflect a genuinely higher number density of asymmetric objects at earlier epochs. AW and CW are shown to be useful tools for exploring galaxy morphology over a wide range of redshifts. Future refinements combined with better SEDs and evolutionary models will undoubtedly reveal valuable insight into galaxy evolution.

Wu, Katherine Liang-Kai

379

Morphology of graft endothelium and donor age.  

PubMed Central

The corneal endothelium of 42 clear corneal transplants was studied with a specular microscope. The endothelial cell morphology was analysed by using a computerised image analysis system. A quantitative index was developed to study the degree of variation in cell size. By applying this objective index we observed that pleomorphism is independent of age, and considerable alteration occurs in cell morphology during healing. Images

Rao, G N; Waldron, W R; Aquavella, J V

1980-01-01

380

Surface modification of poly( l -lactic acid) affects initial cell attachment, cell morphology, and cell growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this study was to develop a highly porous scaffold to be used in regeneration of blood vessels, nerves, and other hollow tissues with small openings. Using the phase-inversion method and a mixture of water and methanol as a coagulating agent, we prepared highly porous flat membranes from poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) with numerous pores both on the surface

Manae Yamaguchi; Toshio Shinbo; Toshiyuki Kanamori; Pi-chao Wang; Motohiro Niwa; Hiroyoshi Kawakami; Shoji Nagaoka; Kohichiro Hirakawa; Masahiro Kamiya

2004-01-01