Sample records for study cell morphology

  1. Morphological Study of Dendritic Cells in Human Cervix by Zinc Iodide Osmium Method

    PubMed Central

    Lionel, J; Indrasingh, Inbam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population of antigen presenting cells that have been identified in several tissues including the female reproductive organs. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the morphological differences of dendritic cells in normal human exocervix using the Zinc Iodide Osmium (ZIO) procedure. Materials and Methods: Normal cervical tissues obtained from nine patients who underwent abdominal hysterectomies for various ailments were processed for histochemical study. Six microns thick serial sections were taken and viewed under a light microscope. The diameters of the cells were measured under a magnification of 40x using the Cellsens image analysing software and analysed using SPSS version 16. Results and Conclusion: In the normal human exocervix, a greater density of ZIO-positive DCs was noted in the epithelium and subepithelium and their distribution was not uniform. In some areas of epithelium, the ZIO-positive cells in the basal layer showed a typical dendritic morphology, while the cells in the intermediate and superficial layers were nondendritic polygonal cells. Intraepithelial capillaries were noted, which were surrounded by ZIO-positive nondendritic polygonal cells. There was significant difference in the mean diameters of typical DCs (8.61±1.86 ?m) and nondendritic polygonal cells (10.97±1.93 ?m). In the subepithelium the DCs had typical morphology and their distribution varied. ZIO positive DCs were noted in the epithelium and cervical glands of endocervix also. In conclusion, the human cervix has different subsets of ZIO positive DCs with varied distribution. Their functional role has yet to be defined. PMID:25120961

  2. Bullous keratopathy: a study of endothelial cell morphology in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A K; Cheng, H

    1988-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative endothelial cell morphology was examined in three types of patients participating in a randomised, controlled trial of cataract surgery. The first sustained modest endothelial cell loss and served as controls, the second and third sustained high cell loss, but only the latter progressed to bullous keratopathy. The technique of examining endothelial cell morphology is described and its validity assessed. Measures of cell area, number of sides, side length, and variation in cell size and cell shape were utilised. No significant differences were found between the three groups by any of the preoperative morphological measures. Furthermore, postoperative values of variation in cell shape and cell size did not differ significantly between the groups. No evidence was found in our patients to support the hypothesis that eyes at particular risk of developing bullous keratopathy may be differentiated on the basis of their preoperative or early postoperative endothelial cell morphology. PMID:3390413

  3. Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain. PMID:24665354

  4. Effect of beta-D-xyloside on the renal glomerular cells. II. Morphological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kanwar, Y.S.; Rosenzweig, L.J.; Jakubowski, M.L.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside on the renal glomerulus was studied. Rat kidneys were labeled with (35S)sulfate in the presence or absence of beta-xyloside by using an isolated organ perfusion system and were processed subsequently for morphological studies. By using electron microscopy, preferential intracytoplasmic vesiculation of the visceral epithelium was observed in the beta-xyloside-treated kidneys. The vesicles were distributed throughout the cytoplasm, particularly in the vicinity of Golgi apparatus. They were acid-phosphatase negative, devoid of clathrin-coat, and contained osmium-impregnated reaction products. The visceral epithelial foot processes remained firmly attached to the glomerular basement membrane. No loss of cell-surface associated sialoglycoproteins, as evidenced by colloidal iron staining, was observed. No significant change in the morphological features of glomerular endothelial or mesangial cells was noted. By using electron microscopy autoradiography, a significant increase in the number of silver grains over the epithelium, and a decrease in the number over the extracellular matrices was observed. The majority of the grains were either associated with intracytoplasmic vesicles or Golgi apparatus. The mean grain densities (concentration of radiation) increased by 3.6-fold for the epithelium, and decreased by 2.4- and 1.6-fold for the basement membrane and mesangial matrix, respectively. The grain densities over the endothelial and mesangial cells were similar in control and experimental groups. These data indicate that xyloside induces selective alterations in Golgi apparatus of the visceral epithelium and a dramatic imbalance in the de novo synthesized sulfated macromolecules of cellular and extracellular compartments.

  5. Effects of substratum morphology on cell physiology.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, R; Stephanopoulos, G; Wang, D I

    1994-04-01

    Among the host of substratum properties that affect animal cell behavior, surface morphology has received relatively little attention. The earliest effect of surface morphology on animal cells was discovered almost a century ago when it was found that cells became oriented in response to the underlying topography. This phenomenon is now commonly known as contact guidance. From then until very recently, little progress has been made in understanding the role of surface morphology on cell behavior, primarily due to a lack of defined surfaces with uniform morphologies. This problem has been solved recently with the development of photolithographic techniques to prepare substrata with well defined and uniform surface morphologies. Availability of such surfaces has facilitated systematic in vitro experiments to study influence of surface morphology on diverse cell physiological aspects such as adhesion, growth, and function. For example, these studies have shown that surfaces with uniform multiples parallel grooves can enhance cell adhesion by confining cells in grooves and by mechanically interlocking them. Several independent studies have demonstrated that cell shape is a major determinant of cell growth and function. Because surface morphology has been shown to modulate the extent of cell spreading and cell shape, its effects on cell growth and function appear to be mediated via this biological coupling between cell shape and function. New evidence in the cell biology literature is emerging to suggest that surface morphology could affect other cell behavioral properties such as post-translational modifications. Further elucidation of such effects will enable better designs for implant and cell culture substrata. PMID:18615800

  6. Morphology of MDMO-PPV:PCBM bulk heterojunction organic solar cells studied by AFM, KFM, and TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Tom; Beelen, Zjef; D'Haen, Jan; Munters, Tom; Goris, Ludwig; Manca, Jean; D'Olieslaeger, Marc; Vanderzande, Dirk; De Schepper, Luc; Andriessen, Ronn

    2003-02-01

    The microstructure of MDMO-PPV:PCBM blends as used in bulk hetero-junction organic solar cells was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin Force Microscopy (KFM) to image the surface morphology and by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to reveal images of the film's interior. By introducing KFM, it was possible to demonstrate that phase separated domains have different local electrical properties than the surrounding matrix. Since blend morphology clearly influences global electrical properties and photovoltaic performance, an attempt to control the morphology by means of casting conditions was undertaken. By using AFM, it has been proven that not only the choice of solvent, but also drying conditions dramatically influence the blend structure. Therefore, the possibility of discovering the blend morphology by AFM, KFM and TEM makes them powerful tools for understanding today's organic photovoltaic performances and for screening new sets of materials.

  7. Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis

    PubMed Central

    NAKADA, Kojin; FUJISAWA, Kuniyasu; HORIUCHI, Hiroyuki; FURUSAWA, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of chromatin in thrombocytes are different from those of lymphocytes or neutrophils, but some small neutrophils have similar chromatin. Therefore, it is necessary to perform peroxidase staining to distinguish small neutrophils from thrombocytes. Basophils have large basophilic granules in cytoplasm. Based on density fractionation of blood cells, thrombocytes in the low-density area were separated from other blood cells. Identification of peripheral blood cells from ayu was possible with these staining methods. Monocytes/macrophages from spleen are specifically positive for esterase staining by ?-naphthyl butyrate. As a result, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils and monocytes/macrophages were identified in smears from peripheral blood or spleen tissue. In this paper, we confirmed that the peripheral blood corpuscles of ayu are able to be identified using the present staining methods. PMID:24476851

  8. Studies on morphology and cytochemistry in blood cells of ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Kojin; Fujisawa, Kuniyasu; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2014-05-01

    Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of chromatin in thrombocytes are different from those of lymphocytes or neutrophils, but some small neutrophils have similar chromatin. Therefore, it is necessary to perform peroxidase staining to distinguish small neutrophils from thrombocytes. Basophils have large basophilic granules in cytoplasm. Based on density fractionation of blood cells, thrombocytes in the low-density area were separated from other blood cells. Identification of peripheral blood cells from ayu was possible with these staining methods. Monocytes/macrophages from spleen are specifically positive for esterase staining by ?-naphthyl butyrate. As a result, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils and monocytes/macrophages were identified in smears from peripheral blood or spleen tissue. In this paper, we confirmed that the peripheral blood corpuscles of ayu are able to be identified using the present staining methods. PMID:24476851

  9. An ultrastructural study of the morphology and lectin-binding properties of human mast cell granules.

    PubMed

    Jones, C J; Kirkpatrick, C J; Stoddart, R W

    1988-08-01

    The morphological characteristics and lectin-binding properties of mast cell granules from four human neurofibromata are described. Ultrastructural examination of the granules revealed that some contained dense cores, others had membranous configurations and some forms were intermediate between the two. A round electron-lucent area was present in some granules. After treatment with biotinylated lectins (10 micrograms ml-1) followed by an avidin-peroxidase revealing system (5 micrograms ml-1 in 0.125 M Tris-buffered saline with 0.347 M NaCl, pH 7.6), mast cell granules strongly bound Concanavalin A, garden pea, lentil, wheatgerm, erythro- and leuco-kidney bean lectins. This indicated the presence of abundant N-linked complex-type saccharide sequences. Soybean and peanut lectins showed only weak binding, while the presence of sparse alpha-L-fucosyl terminals was indicated by the weak binding of winged pea lectin. The staining intensity of wheatgerm lectin was considerably reduced when incubated in the presence of its specific competing sugar tri-N-acetylchitotriose. Despite a wide variety of morphological differences between granules, all showed similar staining patterns and all granules within a single cell shared the same binding characteristics. PMID:3198420

  10. A quantitative study of MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion, morphology and biomechanics on chitosan-collagen blend films at single cell level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuang; Xie, Xu-Dong; Huang, Xun; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Zhou, Chang-Ren

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between cells and biomaterials plays a key role in cell proliferation and differentiation in tissue engineering. However, a quantitative analysis of those interactions has been less well studied. The objective of this study was to quantitative recapitulate the difference of MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion, morphological and biomechanical properties on chitosan-collagen films in terms of chemical composition. Here, the unbinding force between MC3T3-E1 cell and a series of chitosan-collagen films was probed by a real-time and in situ atomic force microscopy-single cell force spectroscopy (AFM-SCFS). Meanwhile, changes in cell morphology and Young's modulus on different chitosan-collagen films were detected by AFM. The cell area and CCK-8 results showed that cell spreading and proliferation increased with increasing collagen content. AFM observations clearly showed cell height decreased and pseudopod fusion with the collagen content increased. Cell adhesive force increased from 0.76±0.17nN to 1.70±0.19nN. On the contrary, cells Young's modulus, which reflected biophysical changes of cells decreased from 11.94±3.19kPa to 1.81±0.52kPa, respectively. It suggested that stronger cell-substrate interactions benefit cell adhesion, and better cell flexibility improve cell spreading. The findings indicate that cell morphology, adhesive force and Young's modulus are significant affected by various chitosan-collagen substrates. Those methods and quantitative results have guiding significance for investigating the mechanism of chitosan and/or collagen based cell-targeting drug carrier and the preparation of chitosan-collagen composite biomaterials. PMID:25996415

  11. Morphological studies on neuroglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Murabe; Y. Sano

    1981-01-01

    The silver-impregnation procedure of Tsujiyama is suitable for demonstration of all three classical types of neuroglial cells; in the present study it was used for electron microscopic identification of neuroglial cells in the brain of the cat. The aim of the present study was 1) to determine impregnated structural correlates of neuroglial cells at the light- and electron-microscopic levels, and

  12. Morphological effects of sodium fusidate (fusidin) on pancreatic islet cells: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Horn, T; Bendtzen, K; Hageman, I; Buschard, K

    1994-01-01

    Fusidic acid has been shown to prevent the lymphocyte co-stimulatory activities of cytokines and seems--in preliminary trials--clinically effective as an immunoregulatory drug e.g. in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A toxic effect of fusidic acid may however be suspected since a previous study showed a significant dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum in cultured pancreatic islet cells from normal rats. In this study we examined the ultrastructural effects of the sodium salt of fusidic acid (fusidin) on cultured rat islet cells (treatment period 3-5 days), and of islet cells from rats receiving fusidin for 6 days. Electron microscopically, fusidin treatment in vitro (3 to 30 micrograms/ml) showed a significant dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum of islet cells. No dose dependent changes were found. In the in vivo model no changes were demonstrated in concentrations of fusidin up to 9.64 micrograms/ml of homogenated pancreatic tissue. It is concluded that treatment with fusidin gives no detectable ultrastructural changes in vivo. PMID:7800668

  13. Quality of bronchial biopsies for morphology study and cell sampling: A comparison of asthmatic and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Isabelle; Laviolette, Michel; Olivenstein, Ron; Chakir, Jamila; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Hamid, Qutayba

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchial biopsies are widely used for histopathological, primary cell culture and genetic studies, but very few reports have evaluated their quality. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The present project evaluated the quality (using a scoring system) and the general morphology of a pool of six bronchial biopsy specimens taken from three different sampling sites (the lobar, segmental and subsegmental carinae) in 27 subjects (13 asthmatic subjects and 14 healthy controls). The present study also assessed quantitative measurements of structural changes related to asthma. RESULTS: In total, 94.4% of the biopsy attempts had enough tissue to be processed. From these, 61.7% were scored with a good to excellent quality, while 76.5% presented smooth muscle bundles and 40.5% had an intact epithelium wall. The data also confirmed the structural changes observed in asthma, such as increased apparent thickening of the basement membrane, reduced amounts of smooth muscle for healthy controls and decreased percentage of intact epithelium for asthmatic subjects. CONCLUSION: A pool of six bronchial biopsy specimens can provide tissue of excellent quality in both asthmatic and healthy subjects and, consequently, a valuable sample for morphological analysis of mucosal structures. PMID:19107244

  14. Isolation of Mesophyll Cells and Bundle Sheath Cells from Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Leaves and a Scanning Microscopy Study of the Internal Leaf Cell Morphology 1

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Gerald E.; Black, Clanton C.

    1971-01-01

    A technique is described for the separation of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells from Digitaria sanguinalis leaves and evidence for separation is given with light and scanning electron micrographs. Gentle grinding of fully differentiated leaves in a mortar releases mesophyll cells which are isolated on nylon nets by filtration. More extensive grinding of the remaining tissue yields bundle sheath strands which are isolated by filtration with stainless steel sieves and nylon nets. Further grinding of bundle sheath strands in a tissue homogenizer releases bundle sheath cells which are collected on nylon nets. Percentage of purity derived from cell counts and yield data on a chlorophyll basis are given. The internal leaf cell morphology is presented in scanning electron micrographs and compared with light micrographs of fully-differentiated D. sanguinalis leaves. In leaves of plants which possess the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle of photosynthesis, the relationship of leaf morphology to photosynthesis in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells is considered, and the hypothesis is presented that as atmospheric CO2 enters a leaf about 85% is fixed by the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle in the mesophyll cells and 10 to 15% is fixed by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle in the bundle sheath cells. A technique also is given for the isolation of mesophyll cells from spinach leaves. Images PMID:16657571

  15. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shengyong; Zhao, Mingzhu; Wu, Guang; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed. PMID:22272215

  16. Studies on the morphology and spreading of human endothelial cells define key inter- and intramolecular interactions for talin1

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Petra M.; Bate, Neil; Hansen, Tania M.; Brindle, Nicholas P.J.; Praekelt, Uta; Debrand, Emmanuel; Coleman, Stacey; Mazzeo, Daniela; Goult, Benjamin T.; Gingras, Alexandre R.; Pritchard, Catrin A.; Critchley, David R.; Monkley, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Talin binds to and activates integrins and is thought to couple them to cytoskeletal actin. However, functional studies on talin have been restricted by the fact that most cells express two talin isoforms. Here we show that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) express only talin1, and that talin1 knockdown inhibited focal adhesion (FA) assembly preventing the cells from maintaining a spread morphology, a phenotype that was rescued by GFP-mouse talin1. Thus HUVEC offer an ideal model system in which to conduct talin structure/function studies. Talin contains an N-terminal FERM domain (comprised of F1, F2 and F3 domains) and a C-terminal flexible rod. The F3 FERM domain binds ?-integrin tails, and mutations in F3 that inhibited integrin binding (W359A) or activation (L325R) severely compromised the ability of GFP-talin1 to rescue the talin1 knockdown phenotype despite the presence of a second integrin-binding site in the talin rod. The talin rod contains several actin-binding sites (ABS), and mutations in the C-terminal ABS that reduced actin-binding impaired talin1 function, whereas those that increased binding resulted in more stable FAs. The results show that both the N-terminal integrin and C-terminal actin-binding functions of talin are essential to cell spreading and FA assembly. Finally, mutations that relieve talin auto-inhibition resulted in the rapid and excessive production of FA, highlighting the importance of talin regulation within the cell. PMID:20605055

  17. Morphological Changes of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Cyclic Stretch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samane Ghazanfari; Mohammad Tafazzoli-shadpour; Naser Amirizadeh; Esmael Jafargholi Rangraz

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and can differentiate into multiple non-hematopoietic cell lineages such as smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Mechanical stimulations are critical to morphological changes, development, regeneration, and pathology of mesenchymal tissues. The type of mechanical stimulation applied on the cells is important for the induced cell response and function. To study effects of

  18. A simulation study on the effects of dendritic morphology on layer V prefrontal pyramidal cell firing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Psarrou, Maria; Stefanou, Stefanos S.; Papoutsi, Athanasia; Tzilivaki, Alexandra; Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal cells, the most abundant neurons in neocortex, exhibit significant structural variability across different brain areas and layers in different species. Moreover, in response to a somatic step current, these cells display a range of firing behaviors, the most common being (1) repetitive action potentials (Regular Spiking—RS), and (2) an initial cluster of 2–5 action potentials with short interspike interval (ISIs) followed by single spikes (Intrinsic Bursting—IB). A correlation between firing behavior and dendritic morphology has recently been reported. In this work we use computational modeling to investigate quantitatively the effects of the basal dendritic tree morphology on the firing behavior of 112 three-dimensional reconstructions of layer V PFC rat pyramidal cells. Particularly, we focus on how different morphological (diameter, total length, volume, and branch number) and passive [Mean Electrotonic Path length (MEP)] features of basal dendritic trees shape somatic firing when the spatial distribution of ionic mechanisms in the basal dendritic trees is uniform or non-uniform. Our results suggest that total length, volume and branch number are the best morphological parameters to discriminate the cells as RS or IB, regardless of the distribution of ionic mechanisms in basal trees. The discriminatory power of total length, volume, and branch number remains high in the presence of different apical dendrites. These results suggest that morphological variations in the basal dendritic trees of layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC influence their firing patterns in a predictive manner and may in turn influence the information processing capabilities of these neurons. PMID:25278837

  19. Structural, Morphological, and Electron Transport Studies of Annealing Dependent In2O3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S.; Abdullah, H.; Shaari, S.; Muchtar, A.; Asshari, I.

    2015-01-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films annealed at various annealing temperatures were prepared by using spin-coating method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The objective of this research is to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in In2O3 thin films by finding the optimum annealing temperature and also to study the reason for high and low performance in the annealed In2O3 thin films. The structural and morphological characteristics of In2O3 thin films were studied via XRD patterns, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), EDX sampling, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The annealing treatment modified the nanostructures of the In2O3 thin films viewed through FESEM images. The In2O3-450°C-based DSSC exhibited better photovoltaic performance than the other annealed thin films of 1.54%. The electron properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit. The In2O3-450°C thin films provide larger diffusion rate, low recombination effect, and longer electron lifetime, thus enhancing the performance of DSSC. PMID:26146652

  20. Morphologic and histochemical studies on the differing radiosensitivity of ductular and acinar cells of the rat submandibular gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kisia Abok; Ulf Brunk; Bo Jung; Jan Ericsson

    1984-01-01

    Summary  The submandibular glands of male rats were exposed to 50 Gy X-irradiation as a single dose, with or without pre-treatment\\u000a with either alpha-adrenergic agonists (noradrenaline, phenylephrine) or a cholinergic antagonist (atropine). The effects were\\u000a analyzed by morphometric, cytochemical and biophysical methods. When X-irradiated without drug pre-treatment, many serous\\u000a epithelial cells of the intralobular convoluted ducts displayed morphologic evidence of irreversible

  1. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: A two-dimensional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.

  2. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: a two-dimensional study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells. PMID:25019819

  3. Different effects of sonoporation on cell morphology and viability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Zhen; Saggar, Jasdeep K.; Zhou, Zhao-Li; Bing-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate changes in cell morphology and viability after sonoporation. Sonoportion was achieved by ultrasound (21 kHz) exposure on adherent human prostate cancer DU145 cells in the cell culture dishes with the presence of microbubble contrast agents and calcein (a cell impermeant dye). We investigated changes in cell morphology immediately after sonoporation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and changes in cell viability immediately and 6 h after sonoporation under fluorescence microscope. It was shown that various levels of intracellular calcein uptake and changes in cell morphology can be caused immediately after sonoporation: smooth cell surface, pores in the membrane and irregular cell surface. Immediately after sonoporation, both groups of cells with high levels of calcein uptake and low levels of calcein uptake were viable; 6 h after sonoporation, group of cells with low levels of calcein uptake still remained viable, while group of cells with high levels of calcein uptake died. Sonoporation induces different effects on cell morphology, intracellular calcein uptake and cell viability PMID:22642588

  4. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  5. Surface morphology of normal and neoplastic rat cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, M. W.; Bigner, D. D.

    1977-01-01

    Nontumorigenic rat cells and their tumorigenic counterparts were studied with scanning electron microscopy under controlled conditions in vitro and with transmission electron microscopy after replantation in vivo to discern if external morphology reflected the cell's neoplastic state or the etiology of transformation. Interphase cells in six of seven nontumorigenic lines were flat and monolayered under confluent conditions and exhibited smooth, nonactive cell surfaces. A nontumorigenic cell line morphologically transformed with human adenovirus-2 consisted of spherical cells with blebbed surfaces. Cells from six tumorigenic lines transformed with avian sarcoma virus had highly active surfaces with many surface projections. Cells from two chemical carcinogen-transformed rat embryo lines were flat with no surface projections in subconfluent culture and rounded with only a few microvilli at high densities, but cells from a sarcoma chemically induced in an adult rat were villous. When villous cells were syngeneically replanted in vivo, they lost most microvilli. The external morphology of cells was influenced by a number of factors simultaneously, with no universal pattern associated with tumorigenic capacity or transforming agent. Images Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figures 16-17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:195471

  6. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, W G; Beers, E P; Dangl, J L; Franklin-Tong, V E; Gallois, P; Hara-Nishimura, I; Jones, A M; Kawai-Yamada, M; Lam, E; Mundy, J; Mur, L A J; Petersen, M; Smertenko, A; Taliansky, M; Van Breusegem, F; Wolpert, T; Woltering, E; Zhivotovsky, B; Bozhkov, P V

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term ‘apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined. PMID:21494263

  7. Cell morphology, cell filaments and cell death during in vitro ageing: aphidicolin and serum deprivation effects on mouse diploid fibroblasts (a correlated scanning electron microscope and immunocytochemical study).

    PubMed

    De Vos, L; Van Gansen, P

    1982-01-01

    Terminal fibroblasts differ from early ones by slowing down in replicative activity, increase in cell area, changes in the cytoskeleton and changes in the way of dying. Replication was inhibited in early fibroblasts either with aphidicolin or by serum deprivation. Both treatments induce cell flattening and increase in cell surface. Aphidicolin has no effect on actin-microfilaments whereas serum deprivation induces the terminal pattern of filaments in many early cells. After both treatments, fibroblasts keep dying as early cells do. We conclude that there is no direct relation between changes in the organization of cell filaments and slowing down of replication (inducing cell flattening); we suggest that they depend on changes in the cell membrane structure appearing during in vitro terminal differentiation. PMID:6820851

  8. Cryptococcal Cell Morphology Affects Host Cell Interactions and Pathogenicity

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    the infection [5,7]. Additionally, phagocytosis of yeast cells induces differentiation into hyphal cells [6 host phagocytosis to allow survival of a subset of the population at early stages of infection. Thus, morphological changes play unique and specialized roles during infection. Citation: Okagaki LH, Strain AK

  9. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  10. A morphologic and morphometric study of the mitochondria in several hepatoma cell lines and in isolated hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hetty Volman

    1978-01-01

    Summary  Some characteristics of the mitochondria of hepatocytes and of three hepatoma cell lines have been compared. By means of stereologic\\u000a analysis of electron micrographs of cross-sections through cells the volume of mitochondria per unit volume of cell cytoplasm\\u000a and the surface areas of the mitochondrial envelope and cristae membranes have been measured. The relative mitochondrial volume\\u000a in the cytoplasm decreases

  11. Morphological and ultrastructural characterization of sea urchin immune cells.

    PubMed

    Deveci, Remziye; ?ener, Ecem; ?zzeto?lu, Sava?

    2015-05-01

    The free circulating coelomocytes in the coelomic cavity of echinoderms are considered to be immune effectors by phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity, and by the production of antimicrobial agents. Although echinoderms (especially sea urchin embryo) have been used as a model organisms in biology, no uniform criteria exist for classification of coelomocytes in echinoderms, and few studies have reported about the biological functions of their coelomocytes. Hence, we study the coelomocytes in the echinoid sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, and describe their morphological and ultrastructural features using light and transmission electron microscopes. We classify the coelomocytes of P. lividus into red spherule and colorless spherule cells, small cells, vibratile cells, and phagocytic cells; petaloid and filopodial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing ultrastructural details of the coelomocytes of P. lividus. PMID:25645676

  12. Nanoscale Morphology of High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoniu Yang; Joachim Loos; Sjoerd C. Veenstra; Wiljan J. H. Verhees; Martijn M. Wienk; Jan M. Kroon; Matthias A. J. Michels; René A. J. Janssen

    2005-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction are used to study the changes in morphology of composite films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a methanofullerene derivative (PCBM) in bulk heterojunction solar cells. Thermal annealing produces and stabilizes a nanoscale interpenetrating network with crystalline order for both components. P3HT forms long, thin conducting nanowires in a rather homogeneous, nanocrystalline PCBM film. Both the

  13. Morphological alterations and cytoskeletal reorganization in opossum kidney (OK) cells during osmotic swelling and volume regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Dartsch; H. A. Kolb; M. Beckmann; F. Lang

    1994-01-01

    Cells from a variety of tissues regulate their volume when exposed to anisotonic conditions. After exposure of cells to hypotonic conditions, the rapid phase of cell swelling is followed by a slower phase of cell shrinkage towards the initial volume. The present study investigates morphological alterations of adherent and fully spread cells after exposure to hypotonic conditions and the reorganization

  14. Heme-oxygenase-1 implications in cell morphology and the adhesive behavior of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gueron, Geraldine; Giudice, Jimena; Valacco, Pia; Paez, Alejandra; Elguero, Belen; Toscani, Martin; Jaworski, Felipe; Leskow, Federico Coluccio; Cotignola, Javier; Marti, Marcelo; Binaghi, Maria; Navone, Nora; Vazquez, Elba

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Although previous studies in PCa have focused on cell adherens junctions (AJs), key players in metastasis, they have left the molecular mechanisms unexplored. Inflammation and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical in the regulation of cell adhesion and the integrity of the epithelium. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) counteracts oxidative and inflammatory damage. Here, we investigated whether HO-1 is implicated in the adhesive and morphological properties of tumor cells. Genes differentially regulated by HO-1 were enriched for cell motility and adhesion biological processes. HO-1 induction, increased E-cadherin and ?-catenin levels. Immunofluorescence analyses showed a striking remodeling of E-cadherin/?-catenin based AJs under HO-1 modulation. Interestingly, the enhanced levels of E-cadherin and ?-catenin coincided with a markedly change in cell morphology. To further our analysis we sought to identify HO-1 binding proteins that might participate in the regulation of cell morphology. A proteomics approach identified Muskelin, as a novel HO-1 partner, strongly implicated in cell morphology regulation. These results define a novel role for HO-1 in modulating the architecture of cell-cell interactions, favoring a less aggressive phenotype and further supporting its anti-tumoral function in PCa. PMID:24961479

  15. [Experimental morphological study of posttraumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy prevention by cell adhesion peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser].

    PubMed

    Khoroshilova-Maslova, I P; Babizhaev, M A; Kiseleva, O A; Ilatovskaia, L V

    1997-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) was induced in 25 rabbits by injection of autologous adenosine phosphate-activated platelets in the vitreous. Injury to the internal interface retinal membrane as a result of adhesion of aggregated platelets to it, followed by the formation of an epiretinal membrane, underlies the morphogenesis of experimental PVR. Proliferative processes in the retina were paralleled by destructive atrophic changes in it, which might be due to active physiological substances released in the course of aggregation. The development of PVR was inhibited by a synthetic peptide of cell adhesion with Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser amino acid sequence, which was injected simultaneously with autologous activated platelets. Possible receptor mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of inhibition of the proliferative process in the retina of experimental animals are discussed. PMID:9381638

  16. Freezing behavior of adherent neuron-like cells and morphological change and viability of post-thaw cells.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of nerve cells forming a neuronal network has largely been neglected, despite the fact that the cryopreservation of nerve cells benefits the study of cells in the areas of medicine and poison screening. Freezing of nerve cells is also attractive for studying cell morphology because of the characteristic long, thread-like neurites extending from the cell body. In the present study, freezing of neuron-like cells adhering to the substrate (differentiated PC12 cells), in physiological saline, was investigated in order to understand the fundamental freezing and thawing characteristics of nerve cells with neurites. The microscopic freezing behavior of cells under different cooling rates was observed. Next, the post-thaw morphological changes in the cells, including the cytoskeleton, were investigated and post-thaw cell viability was evaluated by dye exclusion using propidium iodide. Two categories of morphological changes, beading and shortening of the neurites, were found and quantified. Also, the morphological changes of neurites due to osmotic stress from sodium chloride were studied to gain a better understanding of causation. The results showed that morphological changes and cell death were promoted with a decrease in end temperature during freezing. PMID:25645578

  17. Developmental mechanisms that regulate retinal ganglion cell dendritic morphology

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ning

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental features of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is that dendrites of individual RGCs are confined to one or a few narrow strata within the inner plexiform layer (IPL), and each RGC synapses only with a small group of presynaptic bipolar and amacrine cells with axons/dendrites ramified in the same strata to process distinct visual features. The underlying mechanisms which control the development of this laminar-restricted distribution pattern of RGC dendrites have been extensively studied, and it is still an open question whether the dendritic pattern of RGCs is determined by molecular cues or by activity-dependent refinement. Accumulating evidence suggests that both molecular cues and activity-dependent refinement might regulate RGC dendrites in a cell subtype-specific manner. However, identification of morphological subtypes of RGCs before they have achieved their mature dendritic pattern is a major challenge in the study of RGC dendritic development. This problem is now being circumvented through the use of molecular markers in genetically engineered mouse lines to identify RGC subsets early during development. Another unanswered fundamental question in the study of activity-dependent refinement of RGC dendrites is how changes in synaptic activity lead to the changes in dendritic morphology. Recent studies have started to shed light on the molecular basis of activity-dependent dendritic refinement of RGCs by showing that some molecular cascades control the cytoskeleton reorganization of RGCs. PMID:21542137

  18. Endothelial cell responses in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and morphology to stiffness of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer substrates.

    PubMed

    Ataollahi, Forough; Pramanik, Sumit; Moradi, Ali; Dalilottojari, Adel; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular environments can regulate cell behavior because cells can actively sense their mechanical environments. This study evaluated the adhesion, proliferation and morphology of endothelial cells on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/alumina (Al2 O3 ) composites and pure PDMS. The substrates were prepared from pure PDMS and its composites with 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 at a curing temperature of 50°C for 4 h. The substrates were then characterized by mechanical, structural, and morphological analyses. The cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphology of cultured bovine aortic endothelial (BAEC) cells on substrate materials were evaluated by using resazurin assay and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-1,3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-acetylated LDL (Dil-Ac-LDL) cell staining, respectively. The composites (PDMS/2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 ) exhibited higher stiffness than the pure PDMS substrate. The results also revealed that stiffer substrates promoted endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation and also induced spread morphology in the endothelial cells compared with lesser stiff substrates. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of time on cell proliferation depended on stiffness. Therefore, this study concludes that the addition of different Al2 O3 percentages to PDMS elevated substrate stiffness which in turn increased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation significantly and induced spindle shape morphology in endothelial cells. PMID:24733741

  19. Nanoparticle Induced Cell Magneto-Rotation: Monitoring Morphology, Stress and Drug Sensitivity of a Suspended Single Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Elbez, Remy; McNaughton, Brandon H.; Patel, Lalit; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-01-01

    Single cell analysis has allowed critical discoveries in drug testing, immunobiology and stem cell research. In addition, a change from two to three dimensional growth conditions radically affects cell behavior. This already resulted in new observations on gene expression and communication networks and in better predictions of cell responses to their environment. However, it is still difficult to study the size and shape of single cells that are freely suspended, where morphological changes are highly significant. Described here is a new method for quantitative real time monitoring of cell size and morphology, on single live suspended cancer cells, unconfined in three dimensions. The precision is comparable to that of the best optical microscopes, but, in contrast, there is no need for confining the cell to the imaging plane. The here first introduced cell magnetorotation (CM) method is made possible by nanoparticle induced cell magnetization. By using a rotating magnetic field, the magnetically labeled cell is actively rotated, and the rotational period is measured in real-time. A change in morphology induces a change in the rotational period of the suspended cell (e.g. when the cell gets bigger it rotates slower). The ability to monitor, in real time, cell swelling or death, at the single cell level, is demonstrated. This method could thus be used for multiplexed real time single cell morphology analysis, with implications for drug testing, drug discovery, genomics and three-dimensional culturing. PMID:22180784

  20. Effect of Matrigel on Function and Morphology of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cell in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marefat Ghaffari Novin; Mohammad Nouri

    Introduction: The importance of extra cellular matrix (ECM) in development and function of different cells has been reported but little is known about its role in human endometrial epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of artificial ECM (Matrigel) and progesterone on the function and morphology of human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. Methods: Endometrial

  1. Morphological studies on the culture of kidney epithelial cells in a fiber-in-fiber bioreactor design with hollow fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Fey-Lamprecht, F; Albrecht, W; Groth, T; Weigel, T; Gross, U

    2003-05-01

    A hollow fiber-in-fiber-based bioreactor system was tested for the applicability to host kidney epithelial cells as a model system for a bioartificial kidney. Hollow fibers were prepared from polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polysulfone-polyvinylpyrollidinone (PVP) blend (PSU) and poly(acrylonitrile-N-vinylpyrollidinone) copolymer P(AN-NVP). Hollow fibers with smaller and larger diameters were prepared so that the smaller fitted into the larger, with a distance of 50-100 microm in between. The following material combinations as outer and inner fiber were applied: PAN-PAN; PSU-PSU, PSU-P(AN-NVP). Madin-Darby kidney epithelial cells (MDCK) were seeded in the interfiber space and cultured for a period up to 14 days. Light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were used to follow the adhesion and growth of cells, and to characterize their morphology. As a result, we found that MDCK cells were able to grow in the interfiber space in mono- and multilayers without signs of systemic degeneration. Comparison of the different materials showed that PAN and P(AN-NVP) provided the best growth conditions, indicated by a tight attachment of cells on hollow fiber membrane, and subsequent proliferation and development of structural elements of normal epithelia, such as tight junctions and microvilli. In conclusion, the fiber-in-fiber design seems to be an interesting system for the construction of a bioartificial kidney. PMID:12734806

  2. Integrin ?v?3–RGDS interaction mediates fibrin-induced morphological changes of glomerular endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qihe Xu; Xiangmei Chen; Bo Fu; Yizhou Ye; Lifang Yu; Jianzhong Wang; Wenge Li; Qingli Cheng

    1999-01-01

    Integrin ?v?3–RGDS interaction mediates fibrin-induced morphological changes of glomerular endothelial cells.BackgroundIn our previous studies, we found that intraglomerular deposition of fibrin and its metabolites was related to glomerular sclerosis and reduced renal function. It has been reported that both overlying and underlying fibrin may induce specific morphological changes of cultured endothelial cells from large blood vessels. The dependency of these

  3. Neuronize: a tool for building realistic neuronal cell morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Juan P.; Mata, Susana; Bayona, Sofia; Pastor, Luis; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a tool, Neuronize, for building realistic three-dimensional models of neuronal cells from the morphological information extracted through computer-aided tracing applications. Neuronize consists of a set of methods designed to build 3D neural meshes that approximate the cell membrane at different resolution levels, allowing a balance to be reached between the complexity and the quality of the final model. The main contribution of the present study is the proposal of a novel approach to build a realistic and accurate 3D shape of the soma from the incomplete information stored in the digitally traced neuron, which usually consists of a 2D cell body contour. This technique is based on the deformation of an initial shape driven by the position and thickness of the first order dendrites. The addition of a set of spines along the dendrites completes the model, building a final 3D neuronal cell suitable for its visualization in a wide range of 3D environments. PMID:23761740

  4. Immunoregulatory cells in human decidua : morphology, immunohistochemistry and function

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Immunoregulatory cells in human decidua : morphology, immunohistochemistry and function Judith N of potentially immunocompetent cells in human decidua. However, their roles both in vitro and in vivo remain pregnancy have led to investigation of immunoregulatory function by decidualised endometrium. Human decidua

  5. A Study of the Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Morphology of Nafion Ionomer Dispersion for Use in the Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng; Zou, Zhiqing; Khatun, Sufia; Akins, Daniel; Adam, Yara; Suarez, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation in heat-treated Nafion ionomer dispersion and 117 membrane are investigated by 1H and 19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra, spin-lattice relaxation time, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. Results demonstrate that heat-treatment affects the average Nafion particle size in aqueous dispersions. Measurements on heat-treated Nafion 117 membrane show changes in the 1H isotropic chemical shift and no significant changes in ionic conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of prepared cathode catalyst layer containing the heat-treated dispersions reveals that the surface of the electrode with the catalyst ink that has been pretreated at ca. 80 °C exhibits a compact and uniform morphology. The decrease of Nafion ionomer’s size results in better contact between catalyst particles and electrolyte, higher electrochemically active surface area, as well as significant improvement in the DMFC’s performance, as verified by electrochemical analysis and single cell evaluation. PMID:24958431

  6. Effects of Morphology vs. Cell–Cell Interactions on Endothelial Cell Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Stroka, Kimberly M.; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2011-01-01

    Biological processes such as atherogenesis, wound healing, cancer cell metastasis, and immune cell transmigration rely on a delicate balance between Cell–Cell and cell–substrate adhesion. Cell mechanics have been shown to depend on substrate factors such as stiffness and ligand presentation, while the effects of Cell–Cell interactions on the mechanical properties of cells has received little attention. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to measure the Young’s modulus of live human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In varying the degree of Cell–Cell contact in HUVECs (single cells, groups, and monolayers), we observe that increased cell stiffness correlates with an increase in cell area. Further, we observe that HUVECs stiffen as they spread onto a glass substrate. When we weaken Cell–Cell junctions (i.e., through a low dose of cytochalasin B or treatment with a VE-cadherin antibody), we observe that cell–substrate adhesion increases, as measured by focal adhesion size and density, and the stiffness of cells within the monolayer approaches that of single cells. Our results suggest that while morphology can roughly be used to predict cell stiffness, Cell–Cell interactions may play a significant role in determining the mechanical properties of individual cells in tissues by careful maintenance of cell tension homeostasis. PMID:21359128

  7. The morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma: study including 132 cases with pure type 1 and type 2 morphology as well as tumors with overlapping features.

    PubMed

    Chevarie-Davis, Myriam; Riazalhosseini, Yasser; Arseneault, Madeleine; Aprikian, Armen; Kassouf, Wassim; Tanguay, Simon; Latour, Mathieu; Brimo, Fadi

    2014-07-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC) are classically divided into type 1 and 2 tumors. However, many cases do not fulfill all the criteria for either type. We describe the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of 132 pRCCs to better characterize the frequency and nature of tumors with overlapping features. Cases were reviewed and classified; IHC evaluation of CK7, EMA, TopoII?, napsin A, and AMACR was performed on 95 cases. The frequencies of type 1, type 2, and "overlapping" pRCC were 25%, 28%, and 47%, respectively. The 2 categories of "overlapping" tumors were: (1) cases with bland cuboidal cells but no basophilic cytoplasm (type A); and (2) cases with predominantly type 1 histology admixed with areas showing prominent nucleoli (type B). The pathologic stage of "overlapping" cases showed concordance with type 1 tumors. Using the 2 discriminatory markers (CK7, EMA), "type A" cases were similar to type 1. Although the high-nuclear grade areas of "type B" tumors showed some staining differences from their low-nuclear grade counterpart, their IHC profile was closer to type 1. Single nucleotide polymorphism array results, although preliminary and restricted to only 9 cases (3 with overlapping features), also seemed to confirm those findings. In conclusion, we demonstrate that variations in cytoplasmic quality and/or presence of high-grade nuclei in tumors otherwise displaying features of type 1 pRCCs are similar in stage and IHC profile those with classic type 1 histology, suggesting that their spectrum might be wider than originally described. PMID:24919183

  8. Correlating cell morphology and stochastic gene expression using fluorescence spectroscopy and GPU-enabled image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Douglas; Shapiro, Evan; Perillo, Evan; Werner, James

    2014-03-01

    Biological processes at the microscopic level appear stochastic, requiring precise measurement and analytical techniques to determine the nature of the underlying regulatory networks. Single-molecule, single-cell studies of gene expression have provided insights into how cells respond to external stimuli. Recent work has suggested that macroscopic cell properties, such as cell morphology, are correlated with gene expression. Here we present single-cell studies of a signal-activated gene network: Interleukin 4 (IL4) RNA production in rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells during the allergic response. We fluorescently label individual IL4 RNA transcripts in populations of RBL cells, subject to varying external stimuli. A custom super-resolution microscope is used to measure the number of fluorescent labeled IL4 transcripts in populations of RBL cells on a cell-by-cell basis. To test the hypothesis that cell morphology is connected genotype, we analyze white light images of RBL cells and cross-reference cell morphology with IL4 RNA levels. We find that the activation of RBL cells, determined by white-light imaging, is well correlated with IL4 mRNA expression.

  9. Mitochondrial morphology and distribution in mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann E. Frazier; Clement Kiu; Diana Stojanovski; Nicholas J. Hoogenraad; Michael T. Ryan

    2006-01-01

    It is now appreciated that mitochondria form tubular net- works that adapt to the requirements of the cell by under- going changes in their shape through fission and fusion. Proper mitochondrial distribution also appears to be required for ATP delivery and calcium regulation, and, in some cases, for cell development. While we now realise the great importance of mitochondria for

  10. Passage-dependent morphological and phenotypical changes of a canine histiocytic sarcoma cell line (DH82 cells).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Franziska; Contioso, Vanessa Bono; Stein, Veronika M; Carlson, Regina; Tipold, Andrea; Ulrich, Reiner; Puff, Christina; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Spitzbarth, Ingo

    2015-01-15

    DH82 cells represent a permanent macrophage cell line isolated from a dog with histiocytic sarcoma (HS) and are commonly used in various fields of research upon infection and cancer, respectively. Despite its frequent use, data on cell surface antigen expression of this cell line are fragmentary and in part inconsistent. We therefore aimed at a detailed morphological and antigenic characterization of DH82 cells with respect to passage-dependent differences. Cellular morphology of early (? 13) and late (? 66) passages of DH82 cells was evaluated via scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, cells were labelled with 10 monoclonal antibodies directed against CD11c, CD14, CD18, CD44, CD45, CD80, CD86, MHC-I, MHC-II, and ICAM-1 for flow cytometric analysis. Early passage cells were characterized by round cell bodies with abundant small cytoplasmic projections whereas later passages exhibited a spindle-shaped morphology with large processes. The percentage of CD11c-, CD14-, CD18-, CD45-, and CD80 positive cells significantly decreased in late passages whereas the expression of CD44, CD86, MHC-I, MHC-II and ICAM-1 remained unchanged. DH82 cells represent a remarkably heterogeneous cell line with divergent antigenic and morphologic properties. The present findings have important implications for future studies, which should consider distinct characteristics with regard to the used passage. PMID:25534080

  11. Morphologic, Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-jian Zhang; Li-ya Ye; Lian-qiu Wu; Yu-ling Xin; Feng Gu; Ji-xiao Niu; Zhi-hua Yang; Guang-jin Zhu; Georges E. Grau; Jin-ning Lou

    2006-01-01

    Backgrounds\\/Aims: The pathogenesis of cavernous hemangiomas is largely unknown, and it is speculated that abnormal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis may be involved. In this study, the characteristics of cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells (CHECs) derived from the human liver were analyzed in terms of morphology, phenotype and function and compared with human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). Methods and Results: By transmission

  12. Morphological and Functional Platelet Abnormalities in Berkeley Sickle Cell Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shet, Arun S.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A.; Stevens, Jacqueline R.M.; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A.; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as an animal model of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37 ± 3.2 vs. 27 ± 1.4, mean ± SD; p <0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505 ± 49 × 103/?l vs. 1151 ± 162 × 103/?l; p <0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and “pocked” erythrocytes (p <0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5 ± 1 % vs. 1 ± 1%; p <0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease. PMID:18374611

  13. ISS external contamination surface morphology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visentine, James T.; Alred, John W.; Soares, Carlos E.; Carruth, Melvin R.

    2001-03-01

    A study was conducted by Boeing-Houston to determine how the morphology and surface porosity of various materials and coatings used for ISS applications will influence the way contaminant molecules condense and deposit on sensitive optical and thermal control surfaces. The coatings used for these studies included: (1) clad aluminum, which served as a baseline reference material; (2) Silver Teflon film, which is used as a reflective surface for the ISS passive radiators' (3) Chromic Acid Anodized Aluminum, which is used as a thermal control coating for the ISS debris shields; (4) Sulfuric Acid Anodized Aluminum, which is used as a thermal control coating for the ISS truss elements, and Z-93P potassium silicate paint, which is used as a white reflective coating for the ISS active thermal radiators. The results of this study have shown that surface morphology, surface porosity, and surface texture greatly influence the way in which liquid silicone contaminant films condense in a vacuum environment and deposit on ISS materials and surface coatings.

  14. Morphology control of the perovskite films for efficient solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lingling; Zhang, Danfei; Ma, Yingzhuang; Lu, Zelin; Chen, Zhijian; Wang, Shufeng; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-06-21

    In the past two years, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells has significantly increased up to 20.1%. These state-of-the-art new devices surpass other third-generation solar cells to become the most promising rival to the silicon-based solar cells. Since the morphology of the perovskite film is one of the most crucial factors to affect the performance of the device, many approaches have been developed for its improvement. This review provides a systematical summary of the methods for morphology control. Introductions and discussions on the mechanisms and relevant hotspots are also given. Understanding the growth process of perovskite crystallites has great benefits for further efficiency improvement and enlightens us to exploit new technologies for large-scale, low-cost and high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:25800254

  15. Unraveling the Role of Morphology on Organic Solar Cell Performance

    E-print Network

    Biswajit Ray; Pradeep R. Nair; Muhammad A. Alam

    2010-11-03

    Polymer based organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology offers a relatively inexpensive option for solar energy conversion provided its efficiency increases beyond the current level (6-7%) along with significant improvements in operational lifetime. The critical aspect of such solar cells is the complex morphology of distributed bulk heterojunctions, which plays the central role in the conversion of photo-generated excitons to electron-hole pairs. However, the fabrication conditions that can produce the optimal morphology are still unknown due to the lack of quantitative understanding of the effects of process variables on the cell morphology. In this article, we develop a unique process-device co-simulation framework based on phase-field model for phase separation coupled with self-consistent drift-diffusion transport to quantitatively explore the effects of the process conditions (e.g., annealing temperature, mixing ratio, anneal duration) on the organic solar cell performance. Our results explain experimentally observed trends of open circuit voltage and short circuit current that would otherwise be deemed anomalous from the perspective of conventional solar cells. In addition to providing an optimization framework for OPV technology, our morphology-aware modeling approach is ideally suited for a wide class of problems involving porous materials, block co-polymers, polymer colloids, OLED devices etc.

  16. Probing red blood cell morphology using high-frequency photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Eric M; Berndl, Elizabeth S L; Kolios, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5-10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology. PMID:23823224

  17. Tendon cell outgrowth rates and morphology associated with kevlar-49.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Gordon, K E

    1988-12-01

    A rat tendon cell model was used to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of kevlar-49. The cell response to kevlar was compared to carbon AS-4 and nylon sutures. Three trials were run and cell growth rates were statistically similar for all the materials tested. A separate experiment was conducted in which the same fiber materials were placed in the same Petri dish. Again, the rates were similar for each material. Finally, the cells were observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the three classic cell morphologies associated with this tendon cell model were observed. Also, cellular attachment to the fiber and cellular encapsulation of the fiber were identical for the three materials tested. Kevlar-49 proved to be comparable to carbon AS4 and nylon sutures in terms of cellular response and cell outgrowth rates. PMID:3235468

  18. Morphology and morphometrics of hematological cells from eastern sarus crane, Grus antigone sharpii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N.-A. Narkkong; Worapol Aengwanich; A. Tanomthong

    2011-01-01

    The population of the eastern sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii) has been greatly reduced both in distribution and number, and documents presenting the blood cell characteristics and morphometric\\u000a data of blood cells in this kind of bird are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the morphometric and morphological\\u000a aspects of the blood cells of the eastern sarus

  19. Expression of VHL Causes Three-Dimensional Morphological Changes in Renal Cells Indicative of Proximal Tubule Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chiatar, Shivannah S; Eze, Ogechukwu P; Schoenfeld, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene are responsible for the VHL hereditary cancer syndrome, and are associated with the majority of clear cell renal cell carcinomas. In this study, scanning electron microscopy of VHL-negative renal carcinoma cells was utilized to examine the effects of VHL re-expression on the morphology of these cells. Significant differences were observed between the morphology of VHL-negative control cells and those with reintroduced VHL, with VHL expression mediating an apical surface that mounded upward, as opposed to the flat surfaces seen with VHL-negative cells. In long term cultures, rounded VHL-expressing cells grew in clusters on top the monolayer, and microvilli were observed on the apical face of these cells, in a manner suggestive of proximal tubule differentiation. In contrast, VHL-negative cells remained flat and did not develop microvilli in long-term cultures. Since VHL is a key member of an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex whose best known target is hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-?), we looked at the effects of HIF-? expression on cell morphology. Knockdown of HIF-2? in cells that only express this isoform had no effect on the morphology of the cells. These results indicate that VHL expression directs three dimensional morphological changes in renal cells indicative of differentiation, and while dysregulation of HIF-? may be necessary for tumorigenesis following VHL loss, it is not the major determinant of these VHL-mediated morphological changes. PMID:24308012

  20. Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine; Dasari, Ramachandra; Feld, Michael; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark; Levine, Alex

    2010-03-01

    The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell's morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a Noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane's shear and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

  1. Morphological and smooth muscle cell phenotypic changes in fetal rabbit aorta during early development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Cayatte; M. Ashraf; M. T. R. Subbiah

    1989-01-01

    Summary Previous studies from our laboratory noted a) high aortic cholesterol esterification activity in the fetal rabbit, and b) increased susceptibility of fetal aortic explants to smooth muscle cell proliferation in culture, two features commonly associated with atherogenesis. This prompted us to examine in detail morphological development of fetal aorta and its relationship to fetal plasma cholesterol levels. Our studies

  2. Three-dimensional numerical model of cell morphology during migration in multi-signaling substrates.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Doweidar, Mohamed Hamdy

    2015-01-01

    Cell Migration associated with cell shape changes are of central importance in many biological processes ranging from morphogenesis to metastatic cancer cells. Cell movement is a result of cyclic changes of cell morphology due to effective forces on cell body, leading to periodic fluctuations of the cell length and cell membrane area. It is well-known that the cell can be guided by different effective stimuli such as mechanotaxis, thermotaxis, chemotaxis and/or electrotaxis. Regulation of intracellular mechanics and cell's physical interaction with its substrate rely on control of cell shape during cell migration. In this notion, it is essential to understand how each natural or external stimulus may affect the cell behavior. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) computational model is here developed to analyze a free mode of cell shape changes during migration in a multi-signaling micro-environment. This model is based on previous models that are presented by the same authors to study cell migration with a constant spherical cell shape in a multi-signaling substrates and mechanotaxis effect on cell morphology. Using the finite element discrete methodology, the cell is represented by a group of finite elements. The cell motion is modeled by equilibrium of effective forces on cell body such as traction, protrusion, electrostatic and drag forces, where the cell traction force is a function of the cell internal deformations. To study cell behavior in the presence of different stimuli, the model has been employed in different numerical cases. Our findings, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental observations, indicate that adding a new stimulus to the cell substrate pushes the cell to migrate more directionally in more elongated form towards the more effective stimuli. For instance, the presence of thermotaxis, chemotaxis and electrotaxis can further move the cell centroid towards the corresponding stimulus, respectively, diminishing the mechanotaxis effect. Besides, the stronger stimulus imposes a greater cell elongation and more cell membrane area. The present model not only provides new insights into cell morphology in a multi-signaling micro-environment but also enables us to investigate in more precise way the cell migration in the presence of different stimuli. PMID:25822332

  3. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells: long term culture characterization and impact of insulin on cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Palma-Vera, S; Einspanier, R; Schoen, J

    2014-09-01

    In vitro models that resemble cell function in vivo are needed to understand oviduct physiology. This study aimed to assess cell functions and insulin effects on bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOECs) cultured in an air-liquid interface. BOECs (n=6) were grown in conditioned Ham's F12, DMEM or Ham's F12/DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) for 3 weeks. After selecting the most suitable medium (Ham's F12), increasing insulin concentrations (1 ng/mL, 20 ng/mL and 5 ?g/mL) were applied, and cell morphology and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER; n=4) were evaluated after 3 and 6 weeks. Keratin immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were conducted (n=4) to assess cell differentiation. BOECs grown without insulin supplementation or with 1 ng/mL of insulin displayed polarization and secretory activity. However, cells exhibited only 50% of the height of their in vivo counterparts. Cultures supplemented with 20 ng/mL insulin showed the highest quality, but the 5 ?g/mL concentration induced massive growth. TEER correlated negatively with insulin concentration (r=-0.459; p=0.009). OVGP1 and PGR transcripts were still detectable after 3 and 6 weeks. Cellular localization of keratins closely resembled that of BOECs in vivo. Cultures showed heterogeneous expression of PGR and OVGP1 in response to estradiol (10 pg/mL). In summary, BOECs grown for long term in an air-liquid interface expressed markers of cell differentiation. Additionally, insulin supplementation (20 ng/mL) improved the cell morphology in vitro. PMID:25152518

  4. ACME: automated cell morphology extractor for comprehensive reconstruction of cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Mosaliganti, Kishore R; Noche, Ramil R; Xiong, Fengzhu; Swinburne, Ian A; Megason, Sean G

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of cell shape, cell migration, and cell rearrangements is important for addressing classical questions in developmental biology such as patterning and tissue morphogenesis. Time-lapse microscopic imaging of transgenic embryos expressing fluorescent reporters is the method of choice for tracking morphogenetic changes and establishing cell lineages and fate maps in vivo. However, the manual steps involved in curating thousands of putative cell segmentations have been a major bottleneck in the application of these technologies especially for cell membranes. Segmentation of cell membranes while more difficult than nuclear segmentation is necessary for quantifying the relations between changes in cell morphology and morphogenesis. We present a novel and fully automated method to first reconstruct membrane signals and then segment out cells from 3D membrane images even in dense tissues. The approach has three stages: 1) detection of local membrane planes, 2) voting to fill structural gaps, and 3) region segmentation. We demonstrate the superior performance of the algorithms quantitatively on time-lapse confocal and two-photon images of zebrafish neuroectoderm and paraxial mesoderm by comparing its results with those derived from human inspection. We also compared with synthetic microscopic images generated by simulating the process of imaging with fluorescent reporters under varying conditions of noise. Both the over-segmentation and under-segmentation percentages of our method are around 5%. The volume overlap of individual cells, compared to expert manual segmentation, is consistently over 84%. By using our software (ACME) to study somite formation, we were able to segment touching cells with high accuracy and reliably quantify changes in morphogenetic parameters such as cell shape and size, and the arrangement of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Our software has been developed and tested on Windows, Mac, and Linux platforms and is available publicly under an open source BSD license (https://github.com/krm15/ACME). PMID:23236265

  5. The effect of silica nanoparticle-modified surfaces on cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization and function

    PubMed Central

    Lipski, Anna M.; Pino, Christopher J.; Haselton, Frederick R.; Chen, I.-Wei; Shastri, V. Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Chemical and morphological characteristics of a biomaterial surface are thought to play an important role in determining cellular differentiation and apoptosis. In this report, we investigate the effect of nanoparticle (NP) assemblies arranged on a flat substrate on cytoskeletal organization, proliferation and metabolic activity on two cell types, Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and mouse calvarial preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). To vary roughness without altering chemistry, glass substrates were coated with monodispersed silica nanoparticles of 50, 100 and 300 nm in diameter. The impact of surface roughness at the nanoscale on cell morphology was studied by quantifying cell spreading, shape, cytoskeletal F-actin alignment, and recruitment of focal adhesion complexes (FAC) using image analysis. Metabolic activity was followed using a thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. In the two cell types tested, surface roughness introduced by nanoparticles had cell type specific effects on cell morphology and metabolism. While BAEC on NP-modified substrates exhibited smaller cell areas and fewer focal adhesion complexes compared to BAEC grown on glass, MC3T3-E1 cells in contrast exhibited larger cell areas on NP-modified surfaces and an increased number of FACs, in comparison to unmodified glass. However, both cell types on 50 nm NP had the highest proliferation rates (comparable to glass control) whereas cells grown on 300 nm NP exhibited inhibited proliferation. Interestingly, for both cell types surface roughness promoted the formation of long, thick F-actin fibers, which aligned with the long axis of each cell. These findings are consistent with our earlier result that osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal progenitor cells is enhanced on NP-modified surfaces. Our finding that nanoroughness, as imparted by nanoparticle assemblies, effects cellular processes in a cell specific manner, can have far reaching consequences on the development of “smart” biomaterials especially for directing stem cell differentiation. PMID:18606447

  6. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haruk, Alexander M.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design. PMID:26110382

  7. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Haruk, Alexander M; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design. PMID:26110382

  8. Parallel implementation of morphological processing on Cell\\/BE with OpenCV interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Sugano; Ryusuke Miyamoto

    2008-01-01

    One of the most frequently used operations in image recognition is morphological processing. In this paper, we propose a parallel implementation of morphological processing optimized for cell broadband engine (cell), which is one of the latest high performance embedded processors. By utilizing the computational power of cell suitable for image recognition, we achieve high-speed morphological processing. Moreover, we construct a

  9. Chagasic cardiopathy. Immunopathologic and morphologic studies in myocardial biopsies.

    PubMed Central

    Cossio, P. M.; Laguens, R. P.; Kreutzer, E.; Diez, C.; Segal, A.; Arana, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Immunopathologic and morphologic studies at the light and transmission electron microscope levels were carried out in myocardial biopsies of 4 chagasic individuals with circulating antibodies reacting with plasma membrane of striated muscle and endothelial cells (EVI antibody). Two cases did not present clinical evidences of heart involvement, and 2 cases showed chronic heart disease. In viv deposits of immunoglobulins were found at the plasma membrane of working myocardial cells and endothelial cells. The cytologic location of the in vivo bound gamma-globulin was coincident with the specificity of the EVI antibody. Ultrastructural studies showed intracellular alterations compatible with hypoxia of the fibers; these lesions, although they were more severe in the 2 cases with heart disease, were also present in the asymptomatic individuals. These results are congruent with a possible pathogenic effect of the EVI antibody. In 2 patients with Chagas' heart disease, foci of mononuclear infiltrates were examined by transmission electron microscopy. At that level, a close relationship between lymphoctes and muscle cells was observed, with imbrication of the plasma membranes and disappearance of the basal laminae. In the neighborhood of the lymphocytes, definite muscle cell abnormalities were found. These observations are also congruent with the recently suggested possibility that a lymphocyte-mediated immune response against heart tissue may participate in some of the pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic chagasic cardiopathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:402815

  10. Immunopathologic and morphologic studies of skeletal muscle in Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Laguens, R. P.; Cossio, P. M.; Diez, C.; Segal, A.; Vasquez, C.; Kreutzer, E.; Khoury, E.; Arana, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Skeletal muscle biopsies from 21 individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi were studied my means of immunofluorescence, ultrastructural immunochemical, light and electron microscopic, and histochemical procedures. In 12 cases, definite morphologic alterations were found. These alterations were coincident with the presence of circulating antibodies against the plasma membrane of striated muscle fibers and endothelial cells (EVI antibodies). In almost all cases the lesions also presented autologous immunoglobulins bound to the plasma membrane of muscle fibers and endothelial cells. Interstitial inflammatory exudate was not observed in the diseased muscle. On the basis of these observations, it is suggested that the EVI antibody is related to some of the pathogenetic mechanism of skeletal muscle damage in Chagas' disease. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:125546

  11. Functional differences between two morphologically distinct cell subpopulations within a human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Solimene, A C; Carneiro, C R; Melati, I; Lopes, J D

    2001-05-01

    The LISP-I human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line was isolated from a hepatic metastasis at the Ludwig Institute, Săo Paulo, SP, Brazil. The objective of the present study was to isolate morphologically different subpopulations within the LISP-I cell line, and characterize some of their behavioral aspects such as adhesion to and migration towards extracellular matrix components, expression of intercellular adhesion molecules and tumorigenicity in vitro. Once isolated, the subpopulations were submitted to adhesion and migration assays on laminin and fibronectin (crucial proteins to invasion and metastasis), as well as to anchorage-independent growth. Two morphologically different subpopulations were isolated: LISP-A10 and LISP-E11. LISP-A10 presents a differentiated epithelial pattern, and LISP-E11 is fibroblastoid, suggesting a poorly differentiated pattern. LISP-A10 expressed the two intercellular adhesion molecules tested, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and desmoglein, while LISP-E11 expressed only low amounts of CEA. On the other hand, adhesion to laminin and fibronectin as well as migration towards these extracellular matrix proteins were higher in LISP-E11, as expected from its poorly differentiated phenotype. Both subpopulations showed anchorage-independent growth on a semi-solid substrate. These results raise the possibility that the heterogeneity found in the LISP-I cell line, which might have contributed to its ability to metastasize, was due to at least two different subpopulations herein identified. PMID:11323753

  12. A Study of Unbalanced Morphological Understanding: Morphological Land Use Patterns Analysis of U.S. Megaregions 

    E-print Network

    Ko, Youngho

    2012-07-16

    Problem: This study identifies some issues in the definitions of US megaregions which have strongly emphasized functional relationships without considering morphological characteristics. An extensive review of the literature revealed...

  13. High throughput quantification of cells with complex morphology in mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritika J; Gibbons, Hannah M; Mee, Edward W; Faull, Richard L; Dragunow, Michael

    2007-08-30

    Automated image-based and biochemical assays have greatly increased throughput for quantifying cell numbers in in vitro studies. However, it has been more difficult to automate the counting of specific cell types with complex morphologies in mixed cell cultures. We have developed a fully automated, fast, accurate and objective method for the quantification of primary human GFAP-positive astrocytes and CD45-positive microglia from images of mixed cell populations. This method, called the complex cell count (CCC) assay, utilizes a combination of image processing and analysis operations from MetaMorph (Version 6.2.6, Molecular Devices). The CCC assay consists of four main aspects: image processing with a unique combination of morphology filters; digital thresholding; integrated morphometry analysis; and a configuration of object standards. The time needed to analyze each image is 1.82s. Significant correlations have been consistently achieved between the data obtained from CCC analysis and manual cell counts. This assay can quickly and accurately quantify the number of human astrocytes and microglia in mixed cell culture and can be applied to quantifying a range of other cells/objects with complex morphology in neuroscience research. PMID:17559941

  14. Morphological features of cloned lymphocytes expressing gamma/delta T cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Arancia, G; Malorni, W; Iosi, F; Zarcone, D; Cerruti, G; Favre, A; Zeromski, J; Grossi, C E; Moretta, A

    1991-01-01

    We have analyzed the morphological characteristics of human T lymphocytes bearing CD3-associated T cell receptor (TcR) gamma and delta chains. BB3 and delta-TCS1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were used to identify two distinct, nonoverlapping populations of TcR gamma/delta + cells which express the products of V delta 2 and V delta 1 gene segments, respectively. In the peripheral blood, most V delta 1+ (delta TCS-1+) lymphocytes express the non-disulfide-linked form of receptor whereas V delta 2+ (BB3+) cells express the disulfide-linked form. The majority of cloned TcR gamma/delta + cells exhibit a growth pattern different from that of conventional TcR alpha/beta + cells as they adhere promptly to surfaces and undergo morphological changes which can be summarized as follows: cells spread on the surface, form a distinct uropod and, in the final phase of adherence, emit long filopodia ending with adhesion plaques. Immunofluorescence studies of TcR gamma/delta + clones demonstrated the presence of submembraneous actin microfilaments and actin-binding protein confirming that these cells are capable of active motility which is related to the propensity of TcR gamma/delta + cells to home to epithelia. Scanning electron microscope analyses of effector/target cell conjugates showed that in TcR gamma/delta + cells the region of the uropodia next to the cell body is responsible for the binding to tumor target cells. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analyses revealed that LFA-1 molecules are predominantly distributed in the uropodium whereas they are virtually absent in the cell bodies. These morphological characteristics of TcR gamma/delta + cells may pertain to defensive mechanisms the mucosal level. PMID:1991486

  15. Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Qiu; Zhu, Jin; Shu, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiuying; Yin, Li; He, Yeqin; Packard, Jerome; Gaffney, Janet S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At…

  16. Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoying Wu; Richard C. Anderson; Wenling Li; Xinchun Wu; Hong Li; Jie Zhang; Qiu Zheng; Jin Zhu; Hua Shu; Wei Jiang; Xi Chen; Qiuying Wang; Li Yin; Yeqin He; Jerome Packard; Janet S. Gaffney

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At the beginning of second grade and at the

  17. Changes in cell morphology due to plasma membrane wounding by acoustic cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Schlicher, Robyn K.; Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Radhakrishna, Harish; Apkarian, Robert P.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation-mediated wounding (i.e., sonoporation) has great potential to improve medical and laboratory applications requiring intracellular uptake of exogenous molecules; however, the field lacks detailed understanding of cavitation-induced morphological changes in cells and their relative importance. Here, we present an in-depth study of the effects of acoustic cavitation on cells using electron and confocal microscopy coupled with quantitative flow cytometry. High resolution images of treated cells show that morphologically different types of blebs can occur after wounding conditions caused by ultrasound exposure as well as by mechanical shear and strong laser ablation. In addition, these treatments caused wound-induced non-lytic necrotic death resulting in cell bodies we call wound-derived perikarya (WD-P). However, only cells exposed to acoustic cavitation experienced ejection of intact nuclei and nearly instant lytic necrosis. Quantitative analysis by flow cytometry indicates that wound-derived perikarya are the dominant morphology of nonviable cells, except at the strongest wounding conditions, where nuclear ejection accounts for a significant portion of cell death after ultrasound exposure. PMID:20350691

  18. AFM-Detected Apoptotic Changes in Morphology and Biophysical Property Caused by Paclitaxel in Ishikawa and HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Kuk; Jung, Min-Hyung; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    The apoptosis of cancer cells is associated with changes in the important cell properties including morphology, surface roughness and stiffness. Therefore, the changes in morphology and biophysical properties can be a good way of evaluating the anticancer activity of a drug. This study examined the effect of paclitaxel on the properties of Ishikawa and HeLa cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the relationship between the changes in morphology and the biophysical properties and apoptosis was discussed. The viability and proliferation of the cells were analyzed using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method and a TUNEL assay to confirm cellular apoptosis due to a paclitaxel treatment. AFM observations clearly showed the apoptotic morphological and biophysical changes in Ishikawa and HeLa cells. After the paclitaxel treatment, the cell membrane was torn and holed, the surface roughness was increased, and the stiffness was decreased. These changes were observed more apparently after a 24 h treatment and in Ishikawa cells compared to HeLa cells. The MTT and TUNEL assays results revealed the Ishikawa cells to be more sensitive to paclitaxel than HeLa cells and definite apoptosis occurred after a 24 h treatment. These results showed good agreement with the AFM results. Therefore, research on the morphological and biophysical changes by AFM in cancer cells will help to evaluate the anticancer activities of the drugs. PMID:22272274

  19. Cell-Substrate Interactions Feedback to Direct Cell Migration along or against Morphological Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Girish; Ho, Chia-Chi; Co, Carlos C.

    2015-01-01

    In response to external stimuli, cells polarize morphologically into teardrop shapes prior to moving in the direction of their blunt leading edge through lamellipodia extension and retraction of the rear tip. This textbook description of cell migration implies that the initial polarization sets the direction of cell migration. Using microfabrication techniques to control cell morphologies and the direction of migration without gradients, we demonstrate that after polarization, lamelipodia extension and attachment can feedback to change and even reverse the initial morphological polarization. Cells do indeed migrate faster in the direction of their morphologically polarization. However, feedback from subsequent lamellipodia extension and attachment can be so powerful as to induce cells to reverse and migrate against their initial polarization, albeit at a slower speed. Constitutively active mutants of RhoA show that RhoA stimulates cell motility when cells are guided either along or against their initial polarization. Cdc42 activation and inhibition, which results in loss of directional motility during chemotaxis, only reduces the speed of migration without altering the directionality of migration on the micropatterns. These results reveal significant differences between substrate directed cell migration and that induced by chemotactic gradients. PMID:26186588

  20. Morphology and mechanics of chondroid cells from human adipose-derived Stem cells detected by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Simin; Shi, Qiping; Zha, Zhengang; Yao, Ping; Lin, Hongsheng; Liu, Ning; Wu, Hao; Jin, Hua; Cai, Jiye

    2012-06-01

    Chondroid cell from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) has emerged as an alternative treatment option for articular cartilage defects. Herein, we successfully compared ADSCs, normal chondrocytes, and chondroid cells. The comparative study of ADSCs and chondroid cells revealed type II collagen (COL II) and glycosaminoglycans expression of chondroid cells were similar to those in normal chondrocytes, and much higher than ADSCs. Using atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), we compared the differences in morphology, mechanical properties, and F-actin distribution between chondroid cells and normal chondrocytes. Our results showed no differences observed between these two types of cells regarding morphology, stiffness, and F-actin distribution. However, found that the adhesion force in chondroid cells was lower than that in normal chondrocytes. Taken together, our AFM and LCSM analyses suggest that the lower adhesion force in chondroid cells may contribute to the dedifferentiation of ADSC-derived chondroid cells. Future examination of surface adhesion force-related protein expression will likely provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation of ADSC-derived chondroid cells. PMID:22403013

  1. Chronic Replication Problems Impact Cell Morphology and Adhesion of DNA Ligase I Defective Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leva, Valentina; Bione, Silvia; Carriero, Roberta; Mazzucco, Giulia; Palamidessi, Andrea; Scita, Giorgio; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Moderate DNA damage resulting from metabolic activities or sub-lethal doses of exogenous insults may eventually lead to cancer onset. Human 46BR.1G1 cells bear a mutation in replicative DNA ligase I (LigI) which results in low levels of replication-dependent DNA damage. This replication stress elicits a constitutive phosphorylation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase that fails to arrest cell cycle progression or to activate apoptosis or cell senescence. Stable transfection of wild type LigI, as in 7A3 cells, prevents DNA damage and ATM activation. Here we show that parental 46BR.1G1 and 7A3 cells differ in important features such as cell morphology, adhesion and migration. Comparison of gene expression profiles in the two cell lines detects Bio-Functional categories consistent with the morphological and migration properties of LigI deficient cells. Interestingly, ATM inhibition makes 46BR.1G1 more similar to 7A3 cells for what concerns morphology, adhesion and expression of cell-cell adhesion receptors. These observations extend the influence of the DNA damage response checkpoint pathways and unveil a role for ATM kinase activity in modulating cell biology parameters relevant to cancer progression. PMID:26151554

  2. Prenatal Gonadal Steroids Affect Adult Spatial Behavior, CA1 and CA3 Pyramidal Cell Morphology in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ceylan Isgor; Dale R. Sengelaub

    1998-01-01

    The present study assessed whether prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure affected adult spatial learning and hippocampal morphology. Water maze performance, the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell field, and the dentate gyrus-granule cell layer (DG-GCL) morphology were assessed at adulthood (70+ days of age) in males, females, androgen-treated (testosterone propionate, TP, or dihydrotestosterone propionate, DHTP) females (2–4 mg\\/day), estradiol benzoate (EB)-treated

  3. THE MORPHOLOGY OF CENTRAL PLACES: A CASE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WAYNE K. D. DAVIES

    1968-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to study the interrelationships existing between the morphology and the function of urban areas, either within or between centers. Accordingly a partial theory of the morphological structure of commercial places is proposed. This theory recognizes that any new commercial function locating in a central place can either occupy an existing building, convert the building, or

  4. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays. PMID:25717323

  5. Identification of morphological differences between avian influenza A viruses grown in chicken and duck cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Mubarak, Firas; Daly, Janet; Christie, Denise; Fountain, Donna; Dunham, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Although wild ducks are considered to be the major reservoirs for most influenza A virus subtypes, they are typically resistant to the effects of the infection. In contrast, certain influenza viruses may be highly pathogenic in other avian hosts such as chickens and turkeys, causing severe illness and death. Following in vitro infection of chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts (CEF and DEF) with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses, duck cells die more rapidly and produce fewer infectious virions than chicken cells. In the current study, the morphology of viruses produced from CEF and DEF cells infected with low pathogenic avian H2N3 was examined. Transmission electron microscopy showed that viruses budding from duck cells were elongated, while chicken cells produced mostly spherical virions; similar differences were observed in viral supernatants. Sequencing of the influenza genome of chicken- and duck-derived H2N3 LPAI revealed no differences, implicating host cell determinants as responsible for differences in virus morphology. Both DEF and CEF cells produced filamentous virions of equine H3N8 (where virus morphology is determined by the matrix gene). DEF cells produced filamentous or short filament virions of equine H3N8 and avian H2N3, respectively, even after actin disruption with cytochalasin D. These findings suggest that cellular factors other than actin are responsible for the formation of filamentous virions in DEF cells. The formation of elongated virions in duck cells may account for the reduced number of infectious virions produced and could have implications for virus transmission or maintenance in the reservoir host. PMID:25613009

  6. Role of Alpha-Synuclein Protein Levels in Mitochondrial Morphology and Cell Survival in Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Li, Wenwei; Lu, Chuanzhen

    2012-01-01

    ?-Synuclein is highly associated with some neurodegeneration and malignancies. Overexpressing wild-type or mutant ?-synuclein promotes neuronal death by mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying mechanisms of which remain poorly defined. It was recently reported that ?-synuclein expression could directly lead to mitochondrial fragmentation in vitro and in vivo, which may be due to ?-synuclein localization on mitochondria. Here, we applied a double staining method to demonstrate mitochondrial morphogenetic changes in cells overexpressed with ?-synuclein. We show that mitochondrial localization of ?-synuclein was increased following its overexpression in three distinct cell lines, including HeLa, SH-SY5Y, and PC12 cells, but no alteration in mitochondrial morphology was detected. However, ?-synuclein knockdown prevents MPP+-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells. These data suggest that ?-synuclein protein levels hardly affect mitochondrial morphology in normal cell lines, but may have some influence on that under certain environmental conditions. PMID:22558453

  7. Studying femtosecond-laser hyperdoping by controlling surface morphology

    E-print Network

    Winkler, Mark T.

    We study the fundamental properties of femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) hyperdoping by developing techniques to control the surface morphology following laser irradiation. By decoupling the formation of surface roughness from ...

  8. Morphological and ultrastructural study of extrusion texturized defatted soy flour 

    E-print Network

    Kazemzadeh, Massoud

    1980-01-01

    MORPHOLOGICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF EXTRUSION TEXTURIZED DEFATTED SOY FLOUR A Thesis by MASSOUD KAZEMZADEH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&% University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIEiVCE May 1980 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology MORPHOLOGICAL AHD ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF EXTRUSION TEXTURIZED DEFATTED SOY FLOUR A Thesis by MASSOUD KAZEMZADEH Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman oi' ommittee) (Member...

  9. Importance of electrode\\/zirconia interface morphology in high-temperature solid electrolyte cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turgut M. Gür; Robert A. Huggins

    1987-01-01

    The role of electrode\\/electrolyte interface morphology in the overall polarization behaviour of high-temperature solid electrolyte cells has been studied. Carefully prepared and polished scandia-stabilized zirconia discs with sputtered platinum electrodes were examined using electron microscopy and electrical polarization techniques. Initially non-porous sputtered platinum electrodes were ‘conditioned’ by a progressive treatment to generate artificial porosity. This eliminated subsequent time-dependent changes in

  10. Tissue Morphology and Cell Impedance Based Biosensors for Toxicity Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?a?o, S.

    2009-01-01

    In vitro neurotoxicity testing and toxicity effect quantification plays an important role in many disciplines of biomedicine as an alternative to in vivo methods. The principle of the majority of in vitro methods corresponds to the basic concept of biosensors, i.e. measured quantity is by means of biological sensing element transformed to physical quantity easily measurable by electrical methods of measurement. Two types of biosensors suitable for neurotoxicity measurements are described in the paper. A common feature for both types is application of a living organism as biological sensing element. In the first type of biosensor the morphology of cell is evaluated using image processing methods known as videometry. In the second type of biosensors the electrical impedance of cells using an improved version of the ECIS (Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing) method is a measure of toxicity effects. The results of experiments with biosensors using videometry and a proposal for improvements of ECIS based biosensors are included in the paper.

  11. MOLECULAR, CELLULAR, AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Chicken Embryo Extract Mitigates Growth and Morphological Changes in a Spontaneously Immortalized Chicken Embryo Fibroblast Cell Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Christman; B.-W. Kong; M. M. Landry; D. N. Foster

    The SC-1 spontaneously immortalized chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell line has been estab- lished recently. Although this cell line had been in culture for over 3 yr, its growth rate has remained lower than that of primary CEF cells, and the morphology has not been as uniform as observed in primary cells. In the pres- ent study, the SC-1 cell

  12. Cyanide-induced neurotoxicity: calcium mediation of morphological changes in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Maduh, E U; Turek, J J; Borowitz, J L; Rebar, A; Isom, G E

    1990-04-01

    Calcium channel blockade decreases the elevation of brain calcium as well as the tremors produced by cyanide in mice. To determine if cyanide-induced morphological changes could also be inhibited by calcium channel blockade, the effect of diltiazem was studied in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a neuronal model. Incubation with KCN (1 to 10 mM for 1 to 2 hr) caused depletion of secretory granules, alignment of remaining granules along the plasma membrane, and mitochondrial swelling. All these effects were inhibited by pretreatment with 0.01 mM diltiazem. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cyanide (1 to 10 mM for 1 to 2 hr) produced loss of microvilli and bleb formation in PC12 cells. These changes were partially inhibited by preincubation with 0.01 mM diltiazem. Incubation of cells with 10 mM cyanide increased release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture media at 60 and 120 min. A decrease in cell viability, as determined by trypan blue dye exclusion, paralleled the release of LDH. At 120 min of cyanide incubation, 24% of the cells excluded dye. Both the release of LDH and decreased cell viability were attenuated by pretreatment with diltiazem. The results indicate that the influx of extracellular calcium is an important factor mediating cyanide-induced morphologic changes in neuronal cells. PMID:2330585

  13. Regional Fibronectin and Collagen Fibril Co-Assembly Directs Cell Proliferation and Microtissue Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Sevilla, Carlos A.; Dalecki, Diane; Hocking, Denise C.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin stimulates cells to self-assemble into three-dimensional multicellular structures by a mechanism that requires the cell-dependent conversion of soluble fibronectin molecules into insoluble fibrils. Fibronectin also binds to collagen type I and mediates the co-assembly of collagen fibrils into the extracellular matrix. Here, the role of collagen-fibronectin binding in fibronectin-induced cellular self-assembly was investigated using fibronectin-null fibroblasts in an in vitro model of tissue formation. High resolution, two-photon immunofluorescence microscopy was combined with second harmonic generation imaging to examine spatial and temporal relationships among fibronectin and collagen fibrils, actin organization, cell proliferation, and microtissue morphology. Time course studies coupled with simultaneous 4-channel multiphoton imaging identified regional differences in fibronectin fibril conformation, collagen fibril remodeling, actin organization, and cell proliferation during three-dimensional cellular self-assembly. Regional differences in cell proliferation and fibronectin structure were dependent on both soluble fibronectin concentration and fibronectin-collagen interactions. Fibronectin-collagen binding was not necessary for either fibronectin matrix formation or intercellular cohesion. However, inhibiting fibronectin binding to collagen reduced collagen fibril remodeling, decreased fibronectin fibril extension, blocked fibronectin-induced cell proliferation, and altered microtissue morphology. Furthermore, continual fibronectin-collagen binding was necessary to maintain both cell proliferation and microtissue morphology. Collectively, these data suggest that the complex changes in extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal remodeling that mediate tissue assembly are driven, in part, by regional variations in cell-mediated fibronectin-collagen co-assembly. PMID:24116223

  14. Stochastic Collective Movement of Cells and Fingering Morphology: No Maverick Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ouaknin, Gaddiel Yonathan; Bar-Yoseph, Pinhas Zvi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The classical approach to model collective biological cell movement is through coupled nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations for biological cells and diffusive chemicals that interact with the biological cells. This approach takes into account the diffusion of cells, proliferation, death of cells, and chemotaxis. Whereas the classical approach has many advantages, it fails to consider many factors that affect multicell movement. In this work, a multiscale approach, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model, is used. This model is implemented for biological cells coupled with the finite element method for a diffusive chemical. The Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model takes the biological cell state as discrete and allows it to include cohesive forces between biological cells, deformation of cells, following the path of a single cell, and stochastic behavior of the cells. Where the continuity of the tissue at the epidermis is violated, biological cells regenerate skin to heal the wound. We assume that the cells secrete a diffusive chemical when they feel a wounded region and that the cells are attracted by the chemical they release (chemotaxis). Under certain parameters, the front encounters a fingering morphology, and two fronts progressing against each other are attracted and correlated. Cell flow exhibits interesting patterns, and a drift effect on the chemical may influence the cells' motion. The effects of a polarized substrate are also discussed. PMID:19804711

  15. Effects of entrapment on nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of pure cultures commonly found in biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Sudipta; Khanna, Rohit; Katti, Kalpana; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak

    2011-10-01

    The effects of cell entrapment on nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of major groups of bacteria (betaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria) in biological municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. Three different entrapment media (alginate, carrageenan, and polyvinyl alcohol) were examined. Results indicated that the entrapment and type of entrapment media affected nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of the three representative species (Alcaligenes faecalis, Comamonas testosteroni, and Pseudomonas putida) studied. The highest deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid increases were observed with the alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) entrapment, respectively. A cell morphological change from bacilli to coccoidal was observed in the case of alginate entrapment while the PVA-entrapped cells had a slim morphology when compared to non-entrapped cells and formed putative nanowires. The entrapment increased or decreased the surface roughness of cells depending on the type of entrapment media. Expression of a nitrosative stress gene, which is linked to oxygen deprivation, was observed more in the alginate-entrapped cells. These research findings advance the fundamental understanding of the entrapped cell physiology which can lead to more efficient entrapped cell-based wastewater treatment. PMID:21660542

  16. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell migration is important to vascular wall regeneration following injury or stress. However, the mechanism(s) governing this response is not well understood. The microgravity environment of space may complicate the response of these cells to injury. To date, there are no reports in this area. We examined how bovine aortic (BAEC) and pulmonary (BPEC) endothelial cells respond to denudation injury under hypergravity (HGrav) and simulated microgravity (MGrav), using image analysis. In 10% FBS, the migration of confluent BAEC and BPEC into the denuded area was not affected by HGrav or MGrav. However, in low FBS (0.5%), signficantly retarded migration under MGrav, and increased migration under HGrav was found. MGrav also decreased the migration of postconfluent BPEC while HGrav showed no difference. Both MGrav and HGrav strongly decreased the migration of postconfluent BAEC. Also, both cell lines showed significant morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. These studies indicate that endothelial cell function is affected by changes in gravity.

  17. Manifestations of morphological impairments in Greek aphasia: A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyrana Tsapkini; Gonia Jarema; Eva Kehayia

    2001-01-01

    The present study addresses the issue of morphological manifestations specific to non-fluent aphasia in Greek. The off-line performance of a Greek-speaking aphasic patient is investigated using Paradis'(1987) Bilingual Aphasia Test. His difficulties with inflectional morphology are further probed through a series of comprehension, production, repetition and reading tasks. Results obtained show a dissociation in the patient's processing of nouns and

  18. Treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis with corticosteroids and a gluten-free diet: a study of jejunal morphology and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parveen J. Kumar; D. B. A. Silk; R. Marks; M. L. Clark; A. M. Dawson

    1973-01-01

    The jejunal morphological and functional response to either a gluten-free diet or corticosteroid therapy was studied in six patients with dermatitis herpetiformis. In each treatment group there were two patients with subtotal villous atrophy and one with partial villous atrophys. After treatment, in both groups, morphological improvement was seen in villous and surface cell heights, mucosal thickness, and intraepithelial lymphocyte

  19. Morphological and electron transport studies in ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Azimah; Abdullah, Huda; Ambar Yarmo, Mohd; Shaari, Sahbudin; Raihan Taha, Mohd

    2013-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) incorporating zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated using a chemical bath deposition method. The nanoflake structures captured by a field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis traced the appearance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the photoanode thin film. The photovoltaic performance of the photoanode was quantified by means of an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit with GAMRY-Physical Electrochemistry. The ZnO-SWCNT-based DSSC exhibited good photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiency (?), photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) of 1.31%, 15.31 mA cm-2, 0.224 V and 0.36, respectively. The EIS unit was also employed to quantify the charge transport resistance (Rct), transport resistance (Rt) and effective electron lifetime (?eff) of the DSSC. The impedance analysis of the ZnO-SWCNT-based DSSC also determined greater highly efficient electron transport due to long effective electron diffusion length than the film thickness of the photoanode.

  20. A Comparison between Growth Morphology of "Eutectic" Cells/Dendrites and Single-Phase Cells/Dendrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2003-01-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) intermetallic and ceramic-based eutectic alloys with an in-situ composite microstructure containing finely distributed, long aspect ratio, fiber, or plate reinforcements are being seriously examined for several advanced aero-propulsion applications. In designing these alloys, additional solutes need to be added to the base eutectic composition in order to improve heir high-temperature strength, and provide for adequate toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. Solute addition, however, promotes instability at the planar liquid-solid interface resulting in the formation of two-phase eutectic "colonies." Because morphology of eutectic colonies is very similar to the single-phase cells and dendrites, the stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka has been extended to describe their formation. Onset of their formation shows a good agreement with this approach; however, unlike the single-phase cells and dendrites, there is limited examination of their growth speed dependence of spacing, morphology, and spatial distribution. The purpose of this study is to compare the growth speed dependence of the morphology, spacing, and spatial distribution of eutectic cells and dendrites with that for the single-phase cells and dendrites.

  1. Morphologically normal, CD30-negative B-lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations in classical Hodgkin's disease: the progenitor cell of the malignant clone?

    PubMed

    Jansen, M P; Hopman, A H; Bot, F J; Haesevoets, A; Stevens-Kroef, M J; Arends, J W; Jox, A; Wolf, J; Ramaekers, F C; Schouten, H C

    1999-12-01

    A recent study observed that numerical chromosome abnormalities in Hodgkin's disease (HD) are detected not only in morphologically abnormal Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, but also in a fraction of morphologically normal cells. However, the phenotypic constitution of these genetically abnormal, morphologically normal cells and their relationship to the malignant Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells could not be established in the earlier cases studied, because of the low frequency of these cells. The present study investigated two cases of classical Hodgkin's disease containing a relatively large population of such apparently normal cells with aberrant chromosome copy numbers. The phenotype and their position within the developmental route of the malignant compartment were examined by a combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry approach. Numerical abnormalities for chromosome 1 in one case and for chromosomes X, Y, and 1 in the other case were observed not only in CD30-positive Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, but also in CD30-negative, morphologically normal cells. It was shown that these genetically aberrant cells expressed the B-cell antigen CD19, thus confirming their B-cell nature. These studies indicate a relationship between the genome aberrations in these genetically abnormal, morphologically normal B-cells and the Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, suggesting that they are progenitor cells of the malignant cell fraction. PMID:10629553

  2. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation. PMID:25929521

  3. The use of optical coherence tomography for morphological study of scaffolds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B A Veksler; V L Kuz'min; E D Kobzev; I V Meglinski

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at possible widening of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) field of application, an attempt is made to use OCT in tissue engineering and cell transplantology as a tool for morphological studies of substrate materials by the example of scaffolds. By means of the traditional fibreoptical OCT scheme the images of inner structure of scaffolds are obtained, and simultaneously the

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF RAT KIDNEY CORTEX SLICES UNDERGOING ISOSMOTIC SWELLING AND ITS REVERSAL: A POSSIBLE MECHANISM FOR OUABAIN-RESISTANT CONTROL OF CELL VOLUME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slices of rat kidney cortex were induced to swell by preincubation at 1C in an isotonic Ringer's solution, and their capacity to reverse swelling, by net extrusion of cellular water, was studied during subsequent incubation at 25C. The recovery from swelling was prevented by the ...

  5. Morphological changes in early melanoma development: influence of nutrients, growth inhibitors and cell-adhesion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Clément; Ciarletta, Pasquale; Ben Amar, Martine

    2011-12-01

    Current diagnostic methods for skin cancers are based on some morphological characteristics of the pigmented skin lesions, including the geometry of their contour. The aim of this article is to model the early growth of melanoma accounting for the biomechanical characteristics of the tumor micro-environment, and evaluating their influence on the tumor morphology and its evolution. The spatial distribution of tumor cells and diffusing molecules are explicitly described in a three-dimensional multiphase model, which incorporates general cell-to-cell mechanical interactions, a dependence of cell proliferation on contact inhibition, as well as a local diffusion of nutrients and inhibiting molecules. A two-dimensional model is derived in a lubrication limit accounting for the thin geometry of the epidermis. First, the dynamical and spatial properties of planar and circular tumor fronts are studied, with both numerical and analytical techniques. A WKB method is then developed in order to analyze the solution of the governing partial differential equations and to derive the threshold conditions for a contour instability of the growing tumor. A control parameter and a critical wavelength are identified, showing that high cell proliferation, high cell adhesion, large tumor radius and slow tumor growth correlate with the occurrence of a contour instability. Finally, comparing the theoretical results with a large amount of clinical data we show that our predictions describe accurately both the morphology of melanoma observed in vivo and its variations with the tumor growth rate. This study represents a fundamental step to understand more complex microstructural patterns observed during skin tumor growth. Its results have important implications for the improvement of the diagnostic methods for melanoma, possibly driving progress towards a personalized screening. PMID:21903099

  6. [Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (clinico-morphological study)].

    PubMed

    Solov'ev, Iu N; Eremina, L A; Petrovichev, N N; Khmelev, O N; Kasumov, I V

    1983-01-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma was found in 11 out of 161 patients with chondrosarcoma of the bone. The assaultive nature of the disease is illustrated by the following data: the period between the manifestation of symptoms and the first visit to the doctor was 5.9 +/- 4.3 months; metastases were detected within 20.56 +/- 6.04 months and 8 patients out of 10 died within the first 5 years. Two histological structures were observed: those of the chondrosarcoma type and hemangiopericytoma-like structures formed of small atypical cells. PMID:6636625

  7. Quantifying the relation between the morphology and performance of polymer solar cells using Monte Carlo simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao Lei; Yan Yao; Ankit Kumar; Yang Yang; Vidvuds Ozolins

    2008-01-01

    Morphology is a crucially important factor determining the efficiency of photocurrent generation in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. Morphology, which depends on the characteristics of the polymers as well as on the conditions of phase separation, affects the performance of solar cells by influencing the rate of exciton dissociation and the efficiency of charge carrier transport. Using Monte Carlo simulations,

  8. Blood Cell Morphology and Plasma Biochemistry of the Captive European Pond Turtle Emys orbicularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Metin; O. Türkozan; F. Kargin; Y. K. Basumoglu; E. Taskavak; S. Koca

    2006-01-01

    Metin K., O. Türkozan, F. Kargin, Y. K. Basimoglu, E. Taskavak, S. Koca: Blood Cell Morphology and Plasma Biochemistry of the Captive European Pond Turtle Emys orbicularis. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 49-55. The morphological characteristics of peripheral blood cells, micronucleated erythrocytes counts and plasma biochemistry profile were examined in ten healthy captive European pond turtles Emys orbicularis. Blood samples

  9. ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3HIOT1/2 CL8 CELLS. Studies of defined mixtures of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have identified three major categories of interacti...

  10. Morphology and chirality control self-assembly of sickle hemoglobin inside red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuejin; Lei, Huan; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle cells exhibit abnormal morphology and membrane mechanics in the deoxygenated state due to the polymerization of the interior sickle hemoglobin (HbS). In this study, the dynamics of self-assembly behavior of HbS in solution and corresponding induced cell morphologies have been investigated by dissipative particle dynamics approach. A coarse-grained HbS model, which contains hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles, is constructed to match the structural properties and physical description (including crowding effects) of HbS. The hydrophobic interactions are shown to be necessary with chirality being the main driver for the formation of HbS fibers. In the absence of chain chirality, only the self-assembled small aggregates are observed whereas self-assembled elongated step-like bundle microstructures appear when we consider the chain chirality. Several typical cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes), induced by the growth of HbS fibers, are revealed and their deviations from the biconcave shape are quantified by the asphericity and elliptical shape factors.

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pinto, Angélica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastiăo D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mário J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences. PMID:24143045

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation and morphological transfordmation induced by four vanadium compounds on MC3T3E1 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. C. Sálice; A. M. Cortizo; C. L. Gómez Dumm; S. B. Etcheverry

    1999-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the phosphotyrosine-protein levels induced by insulin and by four vanadium derivatives in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells. We have also attempted to associate these patterns vath the vanadium-induced growth and morphological changes of such cells. Vanadate (Vi), vanadyl (VO), bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) (BMOV) and bis(maltolato)dioxovanadium (V) (BMV) stimulate cell growth in a narrow range of concentration,

  13. The prevalence of the red cell morphology changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Neam?u, Marius Cristian; Cr?i?oiu, ?tefania; Avramescu, Elena Taina; Margin?, Denisa Marilena; B?c?noiu, Manuela Violeta; Turneanu, Denisa; D?nciulescu Miulescu, Rucsandra

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hematological alterations are a common finding in patients with diabetes. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of the red cell morphology changes in diabetic patients and their correlation with markers of glycemic control. Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited for this study. Patient demographics, relevant concomitant illnesses and medical history were recorded. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters (fasting plasma glucose - FPG, glycated hemoglobin - HbA1c, glomerular filtration rate - GFR) and morphology of blood smear were assessed. Results were compared with the same measurements in 30 subjects without diabetes mellitus. The groups were similar in terms of age and gender but there were statistically significant differences for the recorded parameters in patients of study group and control subjects. Regarding the assessment of FPG, in the study group were recorded averages of 217.70±73.20 mg÷dL compared with controls that compared with controls that had a blood glucose value of 90.03±6.59 mg÷dL. In the study group, mean HbA1c was 7.95±1.99%. For the control group, the mean value of HbA1c was 5.65±0.32%. In the study group, GFR ranged between 47.70 and 118.90 mL÷min.÷1.73 m˛. For the control group, GFR values were between 88.00 and 130.00 mL÷min.÷1.73 m˛. In the analysis of blood cytology for the study group, there were changes in the smear type hypochromia, anisocytosis and poikilocyosis (20 patients - 66.66%). In terms of red cell morphology, changes were recorded anulocytes type, red cells in "mark to the target fired" (codocytes), bream (leptocytes), schizocytes, and red cells in "drop" (dacryocytes). We observed a high prevalence of the red cell morphology changes in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic subjects. Our findings suggest the need of screening for routine hematological tests in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25826504

  14. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  15. Action potential morphology of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes does not predict cardiac chamber specificity and is dependent on cell density.

    PubMed

    Du, David T M; Hellen, Nicola; Kane, Christopher; Terracciano, Cesare M N

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) have proposed the distinction of heart chamber-specific (atrial, ventricular, pacemaker) electrophysiological phenotypes based on action potential (AP) morphology. This suggestion has been based on data acquired using techniques that allow measurements from only a small number of cells and at low seeding densities. It has also been observed that density of culture affects the properties of iPSC-CMs. Here we systematically analyze AP morphology from iPSC-CMs at two seeding densities: 60,000 cells/well (confluent monolayer) and 15,000 cells/well (sparsely-seeded) using a noninvasive optical method. The confluent cells (n = 360) demonstrate a series of AP morphologies on a normally distributed spectrum with no evidence for specific subpopulations. The AP morphologies of sparsely seeded cells (n = 32) displayed a significantly different distribution, but even in this case there is no clear evidence of chamber-specificity. Reduction in gap junction conductance using carbenoxolone only minimally affected APD distribution in confluent cells. These data suggest that iPSC-CMs possess a sui generis AP morphology, and when observed in different seeding densities may encompass any shape including those resembling chamber-specific subtypes. These results may be explained by different functional maturation due to culture conditions. PMID:25564842

  16. Growth, cell cycle progression, and morphology of 3T3 cells following fibroin microsphere ingestion.

    PubMed

    Go, Nam Kyung; Lee, Jin Sil; Lee, Joon Ho; Hur, Won

    2015-04-01

    Cellular uptake of microspheres may cause physiological stress and toxicity. In this report, we investigated the effect of cellular uptake of fibroin microspheres on the growth, cell cycle progression, and morphology of 3T3 cells. The microspheres were prepared by physical cross-linking of fibroin molecules without any chemical modification. Fluorescent microspheres are comprised of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran core and fibroin shell. More than 90% of cells were determined to be fluorescence-positive following 24-h incubation with fluorescent microspheres (0.17 mg/mL). Microsphere localization in the cytoplasm was demonstrated using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Cellular uptake of microspheres did not influence cellular viability, but microsphere concentrations above 0.1 mg/mL resulted in decreased cell proliferation. The proliferation inhibition was attributed to G2 /M phase delay in cell cycle progression and S-phase delay at higher microsphere concentrations (0.33 mg/mL). Although flow cytometry light-scattering data raised the possibility of morphological changes, Coulter counter analysis confirmed no significant size differences between cells incubated with and without microspheres. Accordingly, fibroin microspheres can be a potential vehicle for intracytoplasmic delivery of cargos, without affecting cell viability. PMID:25044553

  17. Stem cell isolation by a morphology-based selection method in postnatal mouse ovary

    PubMed Central

    Parvari, Soraya; Abbasi, Niloufar; Malek, Valliollah Gerayeli; Amidi, Fardin; Aval, Fereydoon Sargolzaei; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Izadyar, Fariburz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An increasing body of evidence has emerged regarding the existence and function of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs); however, their female counterparts are the subject of extensive debate. Theoretically, ovarian germ stem cells (GSCs) have to reside in the murine ovary to support and replenish the follicle pool during the reproductive life span. Recently, various methods have been recruited to isolate and describe aspects of ovarian GSCs, but newer and more convenient strategies in isolation are still growing. Herein, a morphology-based method was used to isolate GSCs. Material and methods A cell suspension of mouse neonatal ovaries was cultured. Colonies of GSCs were harvested mechanically and cultivated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Alkaline phosphatase activity was assessed to verify stemness features of cells in colonies. Expression of germ and stem cell specific genes (Oct-4, Nanog, Fragilis, C-kit, Dazl, and Mvh) was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunofluorescence of Oct4, Dazl, Mvh, and SSEA-1 was also performed. Results Small colonies without a clear border appeared during the first 4 days of culture, and the size of colonies increased rapidly. Cells in colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that Oct-4, Fragilis, C-kit, Nanog, Mvh, and Dazl were expressed in colony-forming cells. Immunofluorescence revealed a positive signal for Oct4, Dazl, Mvh, and SSEA-1 in colonies as well. Conclusions The applicability of morphological selection for isolation of GSCs was verified. This method is easier and more economical than other techniques. The availability of ovarian stem cells can motivate further studies in development of oocyte and cell-based therapies. PMID:26170863

  18. Lithium intercalation studies of petroleum cokes of different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. D.; Derwin, D. J.; Zaleski, P.; Song, X.; Kinoshita, K.

    Petroleum cokes with different morphologies are studied in lithium intercalation experiments. Several types of calcined petroleum cokes with varying microstructures and surface morphologies are heat treated at temperatures approaching 2800°C. The physical and structural properties are studied by multi-point N 2 gas adsorption analysis, particle size measurements, electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Changes in the properties of materials during heat treatment are significant. The effects of the coke structures and heat treatment conditions on their electrochemical lithium intercalation behavior will be discussed.

  19. Nonperturbative imaging of nucleoid morphology in live bacterial cells during an antimicrobial peptide attack.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Somenath; Choi, Heejun; Rangarajan, Nambirajan; Barns, Kenneth J; Bratton, Benjamin P; Weisshaar, James C

    2014-08-01

    Studies of time-dependent drug and environmental effects on single, live bacterial cells would benefit significantly from a permeable, nonperturbative, long-lived fluorescent stain specific to the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA). The ideal stain would not affect cell growth rate or nucleoid morphology and dynamics, even during laser illumination for hundreds of camera frames. In this study, time-dependent, single-cell fluorescence imaging with laser excitation and a sensitive electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) camera critically tested the utility of "dead-cell stains" (SYTOX orange and SYTOX green) and "live-cell stains" (DRAQ5 and SYTO 61) and also 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Surprisingly, the dead-cell stains were nearly ideal for imaging live Escherichia coli, while the live-cell stains and DAPI caused nucleoid expansion and, in some cases, cell permeabilization and the halting of growth. SYTOX orange performed well for both the Gram-negative E. coli and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. In an initial application, we used two-color fluorescence imaging to show that the antimicrobial peptide cecropin A destroyed nucleoid-ribosome segregation over 20 min after permeabilization of the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane, reminiscent of the long-term effects of the drug rifampin. In contrast, the human cathelicidin LL-37, while similar to cecropin A in structure, length, charge, and the ability to permeabilize bacterial membranes, had no observable effect on nucleoid-ribosome segregation. Possible underlying causes are suggested. PMID:24907320

  20. Dendritic morphology of caudal periaqueductal gray projecting retinal ganglion cells in Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Ren, Chaoran; Pu, Mingliang; Cui, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the morphological features of the caudal periaqueductal gray (cPAG)-projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in Mongolian gerbils using retrograde labeling, in vitro intracellular injection, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction approaches. cPAG-projecting RGCs exhibit small somata (10-17 µm) and irregular dendritic fields (201-298 µm). Sizes of somata and dendritic fields do not show obvious variation at different distance from the optic disk (eccentricity). Dendrites are moderately branched. Morphological analysis (n?=?23) reveals that cPAG-projecting RGCs ramified in sublamina a and b in the inner plexiform layer. These cells exhibit different stratification patterns based on the thickness of dendritic bands in sublaminas a and b: majority of analyzed cells (16 out of 23) have two bands of arborizations share similar thickness. The rest of analyzed cells (7 out of 23) exhibit thinner band in sublamina a than in sublamina b. Together, the present study suggests that cPAG of Mongolian gerbil could receive direct retinal inputs from two types of bistratified RGCs. Furthermore, a small subset of melanopsin-expressing RGCs (total 41 in 6 animals) is shown to innervate the rostral PAG (rPAG). Functional characteristics of these non-visual center projecting RGCs remain to be determined. PMID:25054882

  1. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors induce dramatic morphological changes of KNRK cells that are blocked by microtubule interfering agents

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobutaka; Del Villar, Keith; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

    1998-01-01

    Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) exhibit the remarkable ability to inhibit transformed phenotypes of a variety of human cancer cell lines and to block the growth of cancer cells in a number of animal model systems. In this paper, we report that the addition of FTI to v-K-ras- transformed NRK cells (KNRK) results in dramatic morphological changes. Within 24 h after the addition of FTI, the round morphology of KNRK cells was changed to an elongated (flattened and spread out) morphology resembling those of untransformed NRK cells. No morphological effects were seen when similar concentrations of FTI were added to NRK cells. Phalloidin staining showed that FTI treatment did not restore the disrupted actin cytoskeleton in KNRK cells. In contrast, FTI addition resulted in the appearance of extensive microtubule networks in KNRK cells. The addition of a low concentration (1.2 nM) of vincristine or vinblastine, agents that interfere with microtubule dynamics, blocked the FTI-induced morphological changes in KNRK cells. In contrast, cytochalasin B, which interferes with actin polymerization, did not block the morphological changes. The FTI-induced morphological changes were associated with a decrease in the percentage of cells in S-phase, and the addition of 1.2 nM vincristine did not have additional effects on cell cycle progression. A higher concentration (12 nM) of vincristine caused synergistic effect with FTI to enrich dramatically KNRK cells in G2/M phase. These results suggest that FTI affects cell morphology and that microtubule dynamics are involved in these processes. PMID:9724732

  2. Comparative Morphology of Dendritic Arbors in Populations of Purkinje Cells in Mouse Sulcus and Apex

    PubMed Central

    Nedelescu, Hermina; Abdelhack, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Foliation divides the mammalian cerebellum into structurally distinct subdivisions, including the concave sulcus and the convex apex. Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic morphology varies between subdivisions and changes significantly ontogenetically. Since dendritic morphology both enables and limits sensory-motor circuit function, it is important to understand how neuronal architectures differ between brain regions. This study employed quantitative confocal microcopy to reconstruct dendritic arbors of cerebellar PCs expressing green fluorescent protein and compared arbor morphology between PCs of sulcus and apex in young and old mice. Arbors were digitized from high z-resolution (0.25?µm) image stacks using an adaptation of Neurolucida's (MBF Bioscience) continuous contour tracing tool, designed for drawing neuronal somata. Reconstructed morphologies reveal that dendritic arbors of sulcus and apex exhibit profound differences. In sulcus, 72% of the young PC population possesses two primary dendrites, whereas in apex, only 28% do. Spatial constraints in the young sulcus cause significantly more dendritic arbor overlap than in young apex, a distinction that disappears in adulthood. However, adult sulcus PC arbors develop a greater number of branch crossings. These results suggest developmental neuronal plasticity that enables cerebellar PCs to attain correct functional adult architecture under different spatial constraints. PMID:24312734

  3. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  4. Tyrosine phosphorylation and morphological transformation induced by four vanadium compounds on MC3T3E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Sálice, V C; Cortizo, A M; Gómez Dumm, C L; Etcheverry, S B

    1999-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the phosphotyrosine-protein levels induced by insulin and by four vanadium derivatives in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells. We have also attempted to associate these patterns with the vanadium-induced growth and morphological changes of such cells. Vanadate (Vi), vanadyl (VO), bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) (BMOV) and bis(maltolato)dioxovanadium (V) (BMV) stimulate cell growth in a narrow range of concentration, but are also inhibitors for the cells at high concentrations. Vanadium-treated cells displayed clear changes in their morphology after overnight incubation. However, BMV was the least cytotoxic and the weakest inducer of morphological changes. All the compounds promote the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in several proteins. This effect was more pronounced at low than at high doses. At low doses (10 microM), BMV showed a phosphorylation pattern similar to that of insulin, while Vi, VO and BMOV induced strong phosphorylation of cell proteins. The present findings suggest that the vanadium-induced growth regulation and morphological changes in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells are associated with the ability of these agents to increase the phosphotyrosine protein levels and to inhibit phosphotyrosine phosphatases. These properties are dependent on the oxidation state as well as on the organic ligand which coordinates the vanadium atom. PMID:10497886

  5. Cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(lactic acid) using endothermic chemical foaming agent.

    PubMed

    Matuana, Laurent M; Faruk, Omar; Diaz, Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was foamed with an endothermic chemical foaming agent (CFA) through an extrusion process. The effects of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed on the cellular structures, void fraction, and cell-population density of foamed PLA were investigated. The apparent melt viscosity of PLA was measured to understand the effect of melt index on the cell morphology of foamed PLA samples. The void fraction was strongly dependent on the PLA melt index. It increased with increasing melt index, reaching a maximum value, after which it decreased. Melt index showed no significant effect on the cell-population density of foamed samples within the narrow range studied. A gas containment limit was observed in PLA foamed with CFA. Both the void fraction and cell-population density increased with an initial increase in CFA content, reached a maximum value, and then decreased as CFA content continued to increase. The processing speed also affected the morphology of PLA foams. The void fraction reached a maximum value as the extruder's screw speed increased to 40 rpm and a further increase in the processing speed tended to reduce the void fraction of foamed samples. By contrast, cell-population density increased one order of magnitude by increasing the screw speed from 20 to 120 rpm. The experimental results indicate that a homogeneous and finer cellular morphology could be successfully achieved in PLA foamed in an extrusion process with a proper combination of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed. PMID:19615893

  6. Morphological Differences between Circulating Tumor Cells from Prostate Cancer Patients and Cultured

    E-print Network

    Ma, Hongshen

    Morphological Differences between Circulating Tumor Cells from Prostate Cancer Patients more variability than cultured cancer cells in nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and shape profile. Citation Tumor Cells from Prostate Cancer Patients and Cultured Prostate Cancer Cells. PLoS ONE 9(1): e85264. doi

  7. Discrimination of normal and transformed cells in vitro by cytologic and morphologic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig D. Albright; Robert Hay; Raymond T. Jones; James H. Resau

    1989-01-01

    Malignant A-549 lung carcinoma and adenovirus-12 SV40 hybrid virus transformed non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were objectively discriminated from normal bronchial epithelial (BE) cells on the basis of Papanicolaou stained nuclear features (e.g. shape, chromatin texture, hyperchromasia) and nucleolar morphology (e.g. number per cell, irregular contours). Morphometric analysis indicated that significant differences in cellular morphology existed between BE, BEAS-2B,

  8. Planetary geological studies. [MARS crater morphology and ejecta deposit topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    A global data base was assembled for the study of Mars crater ejecta morphology. The craters were classified as to morhology using individual photographic prints of Viking orbiter frames. Positional and scale information were derived by fitting digitized mosaic coordinates to lattitude-longitude coordinates of surface features from the Mars geodetic control net and feature coordinates from the U.S.G.S. series of 1:5,00,000 scale shaded relief maps. Crater morphology characteristics recorded are of two classes - attributes of each ejecta deposit and other crater charactersitics. Preliminary efforts to check the data base with findings of other workers are described.

  9. Mapping the complex morphology of cell interactions with nanowire substrates using FIB-SEM.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, Rafa?; Křbler, Carsten; Jensen, Mikkel R B; Lopaci?ska, Joanna; Schmidt, Michael S; Skolimowski, Maciej; Abeille, Fabien; Qvortrup, Klaus; Mřlhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Using high resolution focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we study the details of cell-nanostructure interactions using serial block face imaging. 3T3 Fibroblast cellular monolayers are cultured on flat glass as a control surface and on two types of nanostructured scaffold substrates made from silicon black (Nanograss) with low- and high nanowire density. After culturing for 72 hours the cells were fixed, heavy metal stained, embedded in resin, and processed with FIB-SEM block face imaging without removing the substrate. The sample preparation procedure, image acquisition and image post-processing were specifically optimised for cellular monolayers cultured on nanostructured substrates. Cells display a wide range of interactions with the nanostructures depending on the surface morphology, but also greatly varying from one cell to another on the same substrate, illustrating a wide phenotypic variability. Depending on the substrate and cell, we observe that cells could for instance: break the nanowires and engulf them, flatten the nanowires or simply reside on top of them. Given the complexity of interactions, we have categorised our observations and created an overview map. The results demonstrate that detailed nanoscale resolution images are required to begin understanding the wide variety of individual cells' interactions with a structured substrate. The map will provide a framework for light microscopy studies of such interactions indicating what modes of interactions must be considered. PMID:23326412

  10. Isolation and morphological studies of a variant of Ceratodon purpureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Larpent-Gourgaud; M. P. Aumaitre

    1982-01-01

    Summary Morphological variants from protonema ofCeratodon purpureus (Hedw.) were obtained using nitrosoguanidine (NTG). In one of the variants, reduced growth was accompagnied by hyperbranching and inhibition of caulogenesis. The deposition of branches in this strain can be studied by enzymatic analysis.

  11. Parallel implementation of morphological processing by arbitrary kernels on Cell\\/BE with OpenCV interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Sugano; Ryusuke Miyamoto

    2008-01-01

    One of the most frequently used operations in image recognition is morphological processing. In this paper, we propose a parallel implementation of morphological processing optimized for Cell Broadband Engine (Cell), which is one of the latest high performance embedded processors. By utilizing the computational power of Cell suitable for image recognition, we achieve high-speed morphological processing. Moreover, we construct a

  12. A Screen for Morphological Complexity Identifies Regulators of Switch-like Transitions between Discrete Cell Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zheng; Sadok, Amine; Sailem, Heba; McCarthy, Afshan; Xia, Xiaofeng; Li, Fuhai; Garcia, Mar Arias; Evans, Louise; Barr, Alexis; Perrimon, Norbert; Marshall, Christopher J; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Bakal, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The way in which cells adopt different morphologies is not fully understood. Cell shape could be a continuous variable or restricted to a set of discrete forms. We developed quantitative methods to describe cell shape and show that Drosophila hemocytes in culture are a heterogeneous mixture of five discrete morphologies. In an RNAi screen of genes affecting the morphological complexity of heterogeneous populations, we found that most genes regulate the transition between discrete shapes rather than generating new morphologies. In particular, we identified a subset of genes, including the tumour suppressor PTEN, that decrease the heterogeneity of the population leading to populations enriched in rounded or elongated forms. We show that these genes have a highly conserved function as regulators of cell shape in both mouse and human metastatic melanoma cells. PMID:23748611

  13. Morphological Characterization of Bushy Cells and Their Inputs in the Laboratory Mouse (Mus musculus) Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Amanda M.; Connelly, Catherine J.; Graham, Heather; Ryugo, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Spherical and globular bushy cells of the AVCN receive huge auditory nerve endings specialized for high fidelity neural transmission in response to acoustic events. Recent studies in mice and other rodent species suggest that the distinction between bushy cell subtypes is not always straightforward. We conducted a systematic investigation of mouse bushy cells along the rostral-caudal axis in an effort to understand the morphological variation that gives rise to reported response properties in mice. We combined quantitative light and electron microscopy to investigate variations in cell morphology, immunostaining, and the distribution of primary and non-primary synaptic inputs along the rostral-caudal axis. Overall, large regional differences in bushy cell characteristics were not found; however, rostral bushy cells received a different complement of axosomatic input compared to caudal bushy cells. The percentage of primary auditory nerve terminals was larger in caudal AVCN, whereas non-primary excitatory and inhibitory inputs were more common in rostral AVCN. Other ultrastructural characteristics of primary auditory nerve inputs were similar across the rostral and caudal AVCN. Cross sectional area, postsynaptic density length and curvature, and mitochondrial volume fraction were similar for axosomatic auditory nerve terminals, although rostral auditory nerve terminals contained a greater concentration of synaptic vesicles near the postsynaptic densities. These data demonstrate regional differences in synaptic organization of inputs to mouse bushy cells rather than the morphological characteristic of the cells themselves. PMID:23991186

  14. The Analysis of Purkinje Cell Dendritic Morphology in Organotypic Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kapfhammer, Josef P.; Gugger, Olivia S.

    2012-01-01

    Purkinje cells are an attractive model system for studying dendritic development, because they have an impressive dendritic tree which is strictly oriented in the sagittal plane and develops mostly in the postnatal period in small rodents 3. Furthermore, several antibodies are available which selectively and intensively label Purkinje cells including all processes, with anti-Calbindin D28K being the most widely used. For viewing of dendrites in living cells, mice expressing EGFP selectively in Purkinje cells 11 are available through Jackson labs. Organotypic cerebellar slice cultures cells allow easy experimental manipulation of Purkinje cell dendritic development because most of the dendritic expansion of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree is actually taking place during the culture period 4. We present here a short, reliable and easy protocol for viewing and analyzing the dendritic morphology of Purkinje cells grown in organotypic cerebellar slice cultures. For many purposes, a quantitative evaluation of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree is desirable. We focus here on two parameters, dendritic tree size and branch point numbers, which can be rapidly and easily determined from anti-calbindin stained cerebellar slice cultures. These two parameters yield a reliable and sensitive measure of changes of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. Using the example of treatments with the protein kinase C (PKC) activator PMA and the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) we demonstrate how differences in the dendritic development are visualized and quantitatively assessed. The combination of the presence of an extensive dendritic tree, selective and intense immunostaining methods, organotypic slice cultures which cover the period of dendritic growth and a mouse model with Purkinje cell specific EGFP expression make Purkinje cells a powerful model system for revealing the mechanisms of dendritic development. PMID:22473312

  15. Morphological changes induced in human red cells by rabbit univalent antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zappacosta, S.; Gisonni, P.; Martinelli, G.

    1967-01-01

    In an attempt to study size and shape variations induced in red cells by fixation of relatively large amounts of antibody protein in the absence of haemagglutination, microscopic analysis has been performed on human O red cells incubated with rabbit univalent anti-human red cell antibodies. These were obtained by recombining half-molecules of anti-red cell ?G-immunoglobulin with half-molecules of non-specific ?G-immunoglobulin. Changes in cell morphology accounted essentially for a diameter increase during incubation at 37° in the presence of the recombined fraction. These changes were a progressive variation towards the sphere and then the disk shape. The amount of univalent material effective in determining such variation was estimated to be near to 45,000 molecules/cell, i.e. about twice the amount of bivalent molecules per cell giving 50 per cent agglutination. The possibility that the mechanism of action of either the bivalent ?G-immunoglobulin antibody or the recombined univalent molecule might be the same in respect to cytotoxicity is discussed. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:4165630

  16. Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nossol, Constanze; Barta-Böszörményi, Anicň; Kahlert, Stefan; Zuschratter, Werner; Faber-Zuschratter, Heidi; Reinhardt, Nicole; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Wimmers, Klaus; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef

    2015-01-01

    The pig shows genetical and physiological resemblance to human, which predestines it as an experimental animal model especially for mucosal physiology. Therefore, the intestinal epithelial cell lines 1 and J2 (IPEC-1, IPEC-J2) - spontaneously immortalised cell lines from the porcine intestine - are important tools for studying intestinal function. A microarray (GeneChip Porcine Genome Array) was performed to compare the genome wide gene expression of IPECs. Different significantly up-regulated pathways were identified, like “lysosome”, “pathways in cancer”, “regulation of actin cytoskeleton” and “oxidative phosphorylation” in IPEC-J2 in comparison to IPEC-1. On the other hand, “spliceosome”, “ribosome”, “RNA-degradation” and “tight junction” are significantly down-regulated pathways in IPEC-J2 in comparison to IPEC-1. Examined pathways were followed up by functional analyses. ATP-, oxygen, glucose and lactate-measurement provide evidence for up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in IPEC-J2. These cells seem to be more active in their metabolism than IPEC-1 cells due to a significant higher ATP-content as well as a higher O2- and glucose-consumption. The down-regulated pathway “ribosome” was followed up by measurement of RNA- and protein content. In summary, IPEC-J2 is a morphologically and functionally more differentiated cell line in comparison to IPEC-1. In addition, IPEC-J2 cells are a preferential tool for in vitro studies with the focus on metabolism. PMID:26147118

  17. Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nossol, Constanze; Barta-Böszörményi, Anicň; Kahlert, Stefan; Zuschratter, Werner; Faber-Zuschratter, Heidi; Reinhardt, Nicole; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Wimmers, Klaus; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef

    2015-01-01

    The pig shows genetical and physiological resemblance to human, which predestines it as an experimental animal model especially for mucosal physiology. Therefore, the intestinal epithelial cell lines 1 and J2 (IPEC-1, IPEC-J2) - spontaneously immortalised cell lines from the porcine intestine - are important tools for studying intestinal function. A microarray (GeneChip Porcine Genome Array) was performed to compare the genome wide gene expression of IPECs. Different significantly up-regulated pathways were identified, like "lysosome", "pathways in cancer", "regulation of actin cytoskeleton" and "oxidative phosphorylation" in IPEC-J2 in comparison to IPEC-1. On the other hand, "spliceosome", "ribosome", "RNA-degradation" and "tight junction" are significantly down-regulated pathways in IPEC-J2 in comparison to IPEC-1. Examined pathways were followed up by functional analyses. ATP-, oxygen, glucose and lactate-measurement provide evidence for up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in IPEC-J2. These cells seem to be more active in their metabolism than IPEC-1 cells due to a significant higher ATP-content as well as a higher O2- and glucose-consumption. The down-regulated pathway "ribosome" was followed up by measurement of RNA- and protein content. In summary, IPEC-J2 is a morphologically and functionally more differentiated cell line in comparison to IPEC-1. In addition, IPEC-J2 cells are a preferential tool for in vitro studies with the focus on metabolism. PMID:26147118

  18. Morphology Evolution of Molecular Weight Dependent P3HT: PCBM Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Dian; Briseno, Alejandro; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Effective strategies to maximize the performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic devices have to be developed and understood to realize their full potential. In BHJ solar cells, the morphology of the active layer is a critical issue to improve device efficiency. In this work, we choose poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) system to study the morphology evolution. Different molecular weight P3HTs were synthesized by using Grignard Metathesis (GRIM)~method. In device optimization, polymer with a molecular weight between 20k-30k shows the highest efficiency. It was observed that the as-spun P3HT: PCBM (1:1) blends do not have high order by GISAXS. Within a few seconds of thermal annealing at 150& circ; the crystallinity of P3HT increaased substantially and the polymer chains adopted an edge-on orientation. An-bicontinous morphology was also developed within this short thermal treatment. The in situ GISAXS experiment showed that P3HT of high molecular weight was more easily crystallized from a slowly evaporated chlorobenzene solution and their edge-on orientation is much more obvious than for the lower molecular weight P3HTs. DSC was used to study the thermal properties of P3HTs and P3HT: PCBM blend. The ? of P3HT-PCBM was also calculated by using melting point depression method.

  19. Effects of Environmental Cl Levels on Cl Uptake and Mitochondria-rich Cell Morphology in Gills of the Stenohaline Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Il-Chi Chang; Tsung-Han Lee; Hong-Chih Wu; Pung-Pung Hwang

    2002-01-01

    Il-Chi Chang, Tsung-Han Lee, Hong-Chih Wu and Pung-Pung Hwang (2002) Effects of environmental Cl- levels on Cl- uptake and mitochondria-rich cell morphology in gills of the stenohaline goldfish, Carassius aura- tus. Zoological Studies 41(3): 236-243. The objective of the present study was to examine the correlation between morphological changes in gill MR cells and modulations in Cl- uptake in a

  20. Morphological Study of the Accommodative Apparatus in the Monkey Eye

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Mari; Inoue, Kenichi; Senoo, Haruki; Takada, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    For more than a century there has been debate concerning the mechanism of accommodation—whether the lens capsule or lens material itself determines the functional relationship between ciliary muscle contractility and lens deformation during refractive adaptation. This morphological study in monkey eyes investigates the composition and distribution of several connective tissue components in the accommodative apparatus relaying muscle force to lens organization. Elastin distributes on the marginal surface of the ciliary process. A zonule is composed of fibrillin produced by epithelial cells of the process. In the progress of extension over the posterior chamber, fibrils unite into strands and possess longitudinal plasticity. By induction of the elastin network, strands extend in a concentric direction covering the equatorial region of the capsule. Upon tethering to the lens, the strand ramifies into fibrils, penetrating deeply close to the epithelial layer of the lens and binding with the collagen of the intercellular spaces. Tight linkage of the zonule with the capsule transmits precise contractility. Inside the lens, the cortical layer's elastic connective tissue network forms widely spaced lamellae of crystalline fibers. In contrast, the central nuclear lamellae are tightly opposed. The accumulation of lamellae is greater in the anterior cortex than in the posterior, yielding a more variable anterior chamber depth in the visual axis. The plasticity of the zonule and connective tissue distribution inside the lens produces an adjustable configuration. Thus, tight linkage between the dynamism of the capsule with interaction of the lenticular flexibility provides a novel understanding of accommodation. Anat Rec, 298:630–636, 2015. PMID:25403484

  1. Interplay of three-dimensional morphologies and photocarrier dynamics of polymer/TiO2 bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Sian; Chang, Ching-Pin; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Yun-Yue; Chang, Chia-Hao; Yang, Jer-Ren; Chu, Ming-Wen; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the interplay of three-dimensional morphologies and the photocarrier dynamics of polymer/inorganic nanocrystal hybrid photoactive layers consisting of TiO(2) nanoparticles and nanorods. Electron tomography based on scanning transmission electron microscopy using high-angle annular dark-field imaging was performed to analyze the morphological organization of TiO(2) nanocrystals in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in optimal solar cell devices. The Three-dimensional (3D) morphologies of these hybrid films were correlated with the photocarrier dynamics of charge separation, transport, and recombination, which were comprehensively probed by various transient techniques. Visualization of these 3D bulk heterojunction morphologies clearly reveals that elongated and anisotropic TiO(2) nanorods in P3HT not only can significantly reduce the probability of the interparticle hopping transport of electrons by providing better connectivity with respect to the TiO(2) nanoparticles, but also tend to form a large-scale donor-acceptor phase-separated morphology, which was found to enhance hole transport. The results support the establishment of a favorable morphology for polymer/inorganic hybrid solar cells due to the presence of the dimensionality of TiO(2) nanocrystals as a result of more effective mobile carrier generation and more efficient and balanced transport of carriers. PMID:21682313

  2. Neuronal activity and AMPA-type glutamate receptor activation regulates the morphological development of oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Fannon, Jessica; Tarmier, Wysnavie; Fulton, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Myelination is initiated when oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) contact target axons. Neuronal activity promotes myelination through actions that may involve OPC AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors (AMPAR, NMDAR). Therefore, activity and AMPAR/NMDAR activation are predicted to promote the morphological development of OPC. AMPAR can regulate OPC development, but this analysis was not performed in situ and the role of action potentials was not examined. Hence, the influence of activity and AMPAR on OPC morphology and development remain untested in the CNS where axon-glial interactions are preserved. Data on NMDAR are mixed with conflicting results from in vitro and in vivo work. To gain a fuller understanding of activity-dependent OPC development in situ, we explored the role of AMPAR and NMDAR in cerebellar slice cultures that permit the study of endogenous OPC development and myelination. The structure of individual OPC was resolved from cells labeled with membrane targeted GFP. Morphological data were then validated against assays of OPC development. Blocking either activity or AMPAR impaired the morphological development of OPC and promoted proliferation and differentiation. Increasing the pool of oligodendrocytes by blocking activity or AMPAR failed to promote myelination. Instead both myelination and the expression of myelin basic protein were reduced by these treatments suggesting that full differentiation to a myelinating phenotype did not occur. Blocking NMDAR left OPC proliferation, differentiation and morphology unchanged. These data indicate an important role for AMPAR but not NMDAR in mediating the activity-dependent signals that regulate OPC morphology, development and myelination. PMID:25739948

  3. Alkaline hemolysis fragility is dependent on cell shape: results from a morphology tracker

    E-print Network

    Hughey, Richard

    Alkaline hemolysis fragility is dependent on cell shape: results from a morphology tracker Cristian., University of California, Santa Cruz Background: Viral capsids, bacterial toxins, alkaline solutions display increased alkaline hemolysis fragility (shorter lifetimes), providing an explanation

  4. The influence of substrate heating on morphology and layer growth in C 60:ZnPc bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Pfuetzner; Christine Mickel; Jens Jankowski; Moritz Hein; Jan Meiss; Christoph Schuenemann; Chris Elschner; Alexandr A. Levin; Bernd Rellinghaus; Karl Leo; Moritz Riede

    2011-01-01

    The change of morphology in mixed layers due to different substrate temperature Tsub of organic solar cells containing C60 and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is studied. Heating the substrate during deposition of the bulk heterojunction C60:ZnPc leads to a significant improvement of solar cell performance, mainly due to an increase in photocurrent and fill factor (FF). This is attributed to improved

  5. The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Volker

    1 The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells Stefan D.a.j.janssen@tue.nl #12;2 Abstract: The efficiency of polymer solar cells critically depends on the intimacy of mixing and quantitative correlation between solar cell performance, photophysical data and the three

  6. OPTIMUM MORPHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE GAINS OF ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS Biswajit Ray and Muhammad A. Alam

    E-print Network

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    geometry. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Research in the area of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell startedOPTIMUM MORPHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE GAINS OF ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS Biswajit Ray and Muhammad A. Alam photovoltaic (OPV) cell. The innovation of bulk heterojunction (BH) led to significant improvement for exciton

  7. Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lensink, Saskia E.; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual language control (BLC) is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an event-related potential (ERP) study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch) and L2 (English). Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block. PMID:25566022

  8. Morphological, anatomical and palynological studies on Asyneuma michauxioides (Campanulaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emine Alçitepe

    2008-01-01

    The morphological, anatomical and palynological features of Asyneuma michauxioides (Boiss.) Damboldt (Campanulaceae) were investigated. This species is an East Mediterranean Floristic Element and an endemic\\u000a in Turkey. In anatomical studies, cross-sections of the root and stem were examined and demonstrated by photographs. It has\\u000a conspicuous endodermis in which the Casparian bands are indistinct in the stem. According to the result

  9. Morphological analysis of cell growth mutants in Physcomitrella.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Jeffrey P; Vidali, Luis

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a quantitative analysis of the morphology of small plants from the moss Physcomitrella patens. The protocol can be used for the analysis of growth phenotypes produced by transient RNA interference or for the analysis of stable mutant plants. Information is presented to guide the investigator in the choice of vectors and basic conditions to perform transient RNA interference in moss. Detailed directions and examples for fluorescence image acquisition of small regenerating moss plants are provided. Instructions for the use of an ImageJ-based macro for quantitative morphological analysis of these plants are also provided. PMID:24132431

  10. Ultrastructural and cytobiological studies on possible interactions between PTHrP-secreting tumor cells, stromal cells, and bone cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Ito; Norio Amizuka; Shohei Tanaka; Yukiko Funatsu-Ozawa; Shin-ichi Kenmotsu; Kimimitsu Oda; Tamio Nakajima; Hidehiro Ozawa

    2003-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) induces pathological bone resorption in an endocrine manner, resulting in hypercalcemia of malignancy. However, the histopathological aspect of the action of PTHrP secreted by tumor cells on bone resorption has not well been documented. Therefore, we studied cell–cell interactions between bone cells, stromal cells, and PTHrP-secreting tumor cells (EC-GI-10) morphologically. Tumor cells injected subcutaneously into the

  11. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-09-09

    In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

  12. Morphological changes in amphibian and fish cell lines infected with Andrias davidianus ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Gao, X C; Chen, Z Y; Yuan, J D; Zhang, Q Y

    2015-01-01

    Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV) is an emerging viral pathogen that causes severe disease in Chinese giant salamanders, the largest extant amphibian in the world. A fish cell line, Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC), and a new amphibian cell line, Chinese giant salamander spleen cell (GSSC), were infected with ADRV and observed by light and electron microscopy. The morphological changes in these two cell lines infected with ADRV were compared. Cytopathic effect (CPE) began with rounding of the cells, progressing to cell detachment in the cell monolayer, followed by cell lysis. Significant CPE was visualized as early as 24 h post infection (hpi) in EPC cells and at 36 hpi in GSSC cells. Microscopical examination showed clear and significant CPE in EPC cells, while less extensive and irregular CPE with some adherent cells remaining was observed in GSSC cells. Following ADRV infection, CPE became more extensive. Transmission electron micrographs showed many virus particles around cytoplasmic vacuoles, formed as crystalline arrays or scattered in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Infected cells showed alteration in nuclear morphology, with condensed and marginalized nuclear chromatin on the inner aspect of the nuclear membrane and formation of a cytoplasmic viromatrix adjacent to the nucleus in both cell lines. Some virus particles were also detected in the nucleus of infected GSSC cells. Both cell lines are able to support replication of ADRV and can therefore be used to investigate amphibian ranaviruses. PMID:25728809

  13. Morphological changes in human gastric epithelial cells induced by nuclear targeting of Helicobacter pylori urease subunit A.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwa; Jun, So Hyun; Kim, Jung-Min; Baik, Seung Chul; Lee, Je Chul

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins and their pathological effects on host cells are an emerging pathogenic mechanism in bacteria. We have previously reported that urease subunit A (UreA) of Helicobacter pylori targets the nuclei of COS-7 cells through nuclear localization signals (NLSs). This study further investigated whether UreA of H. pylori targets the nuclei of gastric epithelial cells and then induces molecular and cellular changes in the host cells. H. pylori 26695 strain produced and secreted outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). UreA was translocated into gastric epithelial AGS cells through outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and then targeted the nuclei of AGS cells. Nuclear targeting of rUreA did not induce host cell death, but resulted in morphological changes, such as cellular elongation, in AGS cells. In contrast, AGS cells treated with rUreA?NLS proteins did not show this morphological change. Next generation sequencing revealed that nuclear targeting of UreA differentially regulated 102 morphogenesis- related genes, of which 67 and 35 were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. Our results suggest that nuclear targeting of H. pylori UreA induces both molecular and cellular changes in gastric epithelial cells. PMID:26025173

  14. Morphological and cell volume changes in the rat lens during the formation of radiation cataracts

    SciTech Connect

    Bredehoft, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that x-irradiation caused an initial increase in early postnatal rat lens epithelial cell volume followed by swelling of the underlying lens fibers. This suggested a correlation between damaged epithelial cell volume regulation and subsequent fiber cell swelling. To test this hypothesis, 4 wk.-old Sprague Dawley rats were injected with ({sup 3}H)-thymidine and, 24 hrs. later, their eyes were irradiated with either 4 or 12 Gy. Lenses were examined with a slit lamp and cataracts were graded on a scale of 1+ to 4+. The surface morphology of these lens fibers and their attachment at the posterior suture were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Lenses were also labeled with ({sup 35}S)-methionine and labeling of their crystalline, cytoskeletal and membrane proteins was examined by SDS-PAGE. Rats exposed to 4 or 12 Gy developed 0.5-1.5+ or 2.5-3.0+ cataracts, respectively, 10 to 16 wks, after x-irradiation. Epithelial and equatorial cells of both groups did not significantly increase in volume during this period. Autoradiography showed that affected fibers had been epithelial cells at the time of x-irradiation.

  15. Control of cell morphology of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus for enhanced cell stability during industrial processing.

    PubMed

    Senz, Martin; van Lengerich, Bernhard; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The viability of bacteria during industrial processing is an essential quality criterion for bacterial preparations, such as probiotics and starter cultures. Therefore, producing stable microbial cultures during proliferation is of great interest. A strong correlation between the culture medium and cellular morphology was observed for the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which is commonly used in the dairy industry as a probiotic supplement and as a starter culture. The cell shapes ranged from single short rods to long filamentous rods. The culture medium composition could control this phenomenon of pleomorphism, especially the use of peptone in combination with an adequate heating of the medium during preparation. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the cell size and stability of the microorganisms during industrial processing steps, such as freeze-drying, extrusion encapsulation and storage following dried preparations. The results revealed that short cells are more stable than long cells during each of the industrially relevant processing steps. As demonstrated for L. acidophilus NCFM, the adaptation of the medium composition and optimized medium preparation offer the possibility to increase the concentration of viable cells during up- and survival rate during down-stream processing. PMID:25305442

  16. Correlating Titania Morphology and Chemical Composition with Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Santulli, A.C.; Wong, S.; Koenigsmann, C.; Tiano, A.L., DeRosa, D.

    2011-04-20

    We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO{sub 2} as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO{sub 2} material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

  17. Early development of cochlear hair cell stereociliary surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Sobin, A; Anniko, M

    1984-01-01

    The early development of the surface structures of differentiating cochlear hair cells (guinea-pig) was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A basal-to-apical gradient was evident in hair cell maturation. Inner hair cells developed before outer hair cells at the same level in the cochlea. The first sign of the onset of hair cell differentiation was a regularization of the pattern of microvilli on the future hair cell. Later, the cluster of regularized microvilli was rebuilt to form the stereociliary bundle, with a stepwise increase in the length of those stereocilia facing the stria vascularis. PMID:6517743

  18. Morphological Measurement of Living Cells in Methanol with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunxin; Yang, Yishu; Wang, Dayong; Ouyang, Liting; Zhang, Yizhuo; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Xinlong

    2013-01-01

    Cell morphology is the research foundation in many applications related to the estimation of cell status, drug response, and toxicity screening. In biomedical field, the quantitative phase detection is an inevitable trend for living cells. In this paper, the morphological change of HeLa cells treated with methanol of different concentrations is detected using digital holographic microscopy. The compact image-plane digital holographic system is designed based on fiber elements. The quantitative phase image of living cells is obtained in combination with numerical analysis. The statistical analysis shows that the area and average optical thickness of HeLa cells treated with 12.5% or 25% methanol reduce significantly, which indicates that the methanol with lower concentration could cause cellular shrinkage. The area of HeLa cells treated with 50% methanol is similar to that of normal cells (P > 0.05), which reveals the fixative effect of methanol with higher concentration. The maximum optical thickness of the cells treated with 12.5%, 25%, and 50% methanol is greater than that of untreated cells, which implies the pyknosis of HeLa cells under the effect of methanol. All of the results demonstrate that digital holographic microscopy has supplied a noninvasive imaging alternative to measure the morphological change of label-free living cells. PMID:23424605

  19. The nucleation of iron on dense wustite: A morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moujahid, S. El; Rist, A.

    1988-10-01

    Dense wustite was reduced at temperatures from 430 to 1100 °C in CO-A, CO-CO2, H2-A, and H2-H2O mixtures. Most of the experiments were conducted on a hot stage microscope, providing a clear record of the sequence of events. The morphology of phases was further studied on the optical and the scanning electron microscopes. Two types of nuclei were identified: (1) dense nuclei, ranging from regular whiskers to simple protrusions, around which flat bases develop to form a protective film, and (2) porous nuclei with lenticular shapes, which remain level with the sample surface as they grow (both radially and into the wustite) to form a porous layer. Mild gases and moderate temperatures favor dense iron, whereas strong gases and extreme temperatures (either low or high) favor porous iron. The domains of the two types are represented in morphology maps. They overlap in transition zones where mixed nuclei are found; in this case the porous nuclei appear later than the dense ones but they grow much faster. The morphology maps support the view that sponge iron in iron ore reduction does not originate from porous iron nuclei but develops as a maze of dense iron growths. Experiments with cold-worked and annealed samples indicate that dislocations are essential to the growth of whiskers.

  20. WISE morphological study of Wolf-Rayet nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toalá, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Guzmán, V.

    2015-06-01

    We present a morphological study of nebulae around Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars using archival narrow-band optical and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared images. The comparison among WISE images in different bands and optical images proves to be a very efficient procedure to identify the nebular emission from WR nebulae, and to disentangle it from that of the ISM material along the line of sight. In particular, WR nebulae are clearly detected in the WISE W4 band at 22 ?m. Analysis of available mid-IR Spitzer spectra shows that the emission in this band is dominated by thermal emission from dust spatially coincident with the thin nebular shell or most likely with the leading edge of the nebula. The WR nebulae in our sample present different morphologies that we classified into well defined WR bubbles (bubble ?-type nebulae), clumpy and/or disrupted shells (clumpy/disrupted C-type nebulae), and material mixed with the diffuse medium (mixed ?-type nebulae). The variety of morphologies presented by WR nebulae shows a loose correlation with the central star spectral type, implying that the nebular and stellar evolutions are not simple and may proceed according to different sequences and time-lapses. We report the discovery of an obscured shell around WR 35 only detected in the infrared. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Single-cell morphological data reveals signaling network architecture

    E-print Network

    Nir, Oaz

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis, the migration of cancer cells from the primary site of tumorigenesis and the subsequent invasion of secondary tissues, causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. To spread, metastatic cells dramatically rearrange ...

  2. Marked difference in self-assembly, morphology, and cell viability of positional isomeric dipeptides generated by reversal of sequence.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sudeshna; Tai, Yian

    2015-02-01

    In this study two positional isomeric dipeptides Boc-m-ABA-Aib-OMe () and Boc-Aib-m-ABA-OMe () synthesized by reversal of the positions of two rigid amino acids (m-ABA: m-aminobenzoic acid, Aib: ?-aminoisobutyric acid) showed marked difference in morphology under the same environmental conditions. Investigation of single crystal structures reveals the difference in crystal packing and higher order self-assembly pattern for both the isomeric peptides, which might be the responsible factor for their different morphological patterns. Moreover, these isomeric dipeptides have produced different cellular viability effects towards normal bone cells. These two peptides would have utilities in the model study of isomeric peptides/proteins, where morphological difference under identical conditions brings changes in their individual bio-activities and where the reversal of sequence causes different cellular viability and generates health hazard. PMID:25574757

  3. Electrophysiological and morphological characterization of the winter flounder mauthner cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Zottoli

    1981-01-01

    Flatfish (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) have Mauthner cells (M-cells) which are small as compared to certain other teleosts and behaviorally these fish display a suppression of a M-cell initiated startle response while on the substrate. They may depend on camouflage and, therefore, immobility in protection from predation. This ability to suppress the startle response could then be expressed in membrane properties of

  4. Morphology of polymer\\/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Hoppe; Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci

    2006-01-01

    Within the different organic photovoltaic devices the conjugated polymer\\/fullerene bulk heterojunction approach is one of the foci of today's research interest. These devices are highly dependent on the solid state nanoscale morphology of the two components (donor\\/acceptor) in the photoactive layer. The need for finely phase separated polymer-fullerene blends is expressed by the limited exciton diffusion length present in organic

  5. Cell motility, morphology, viability and proliferation in response to nanotopography on silicon black.

    PubMed

    ?opaci?ska, Joanna M; Gr?dinaru, Cristian; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Křbler, Carsten; Schmidt, Michael S; Madsen, Martin T; Skolimowski, Maciej; Dufva, Martin; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Mřlhave, Kristian

    2012-06-21

    Knowledge of cells' interactions with nanostructured materials is fundamental for bio-nanotechnology. We present results for how individual mouse fibroblasts from cell line NIH3T3 respond to highly spiked surfaces of silicon black that were fabricated by maskless reactive ion etching (RIE). We did standard measurements of cell viability, proliferation, and morphology on various surfaces. We also analyzed the motility of cells on the same surfaces, as recorded in time lapse movies of sparsely populated cell cultures. We find that motility and morphology vary strongly with nano-patterns, while viability and proliferation show little dependence on substrate type. We conclude that motility analysis can show a wide range of cell responses e.g. over a factor of two in cell speed to different nano-topographies, where standard assays, such as viability or proliferation, in the tested cases show much less variation of the order 10-20%. PMID:22614757

  6. Proliferation and cell death of human glioblastoma cells after carbon-ion beam exposure: Morphologic and morphometric analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuma Oishi; Atsushi Sasaki; Nobuyuki Hamada; Shogo Ishiuchi; Tomoo Funayama; Tetsuya Sakashita; Yasuhiko Kobayashi; Takashi Nakano; Yoichi Nakazato

    2008-01-01

    Histological analyses of glioblastoma cells after carbon-ion exposure are still limited and ultrastructural characteristics have not been investigated in detail. Here we report the results of morphological and morphometric analyses of a human glioblastoma cell line, CGNH-89, after ionizing radiation to characterize the effect of a carbon-beam on glioblastoma cells. Using CGNH-89 cells exposed to 0-10 Gy of X-ray (140kVp)

  7. Two cases of thrombohaemolytic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with changes in red cell morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. McCormack; D. J. OBrien; R. A. M. Oliver

    1963-01-01

    Two adult cases of thrombohaemolytic thrombocytopenic purpura are described. Both showed striking morphological changes in the red cells with increased saline osmotic fragility, in addition to thrombocytopenia and generalized hyaline thrombi affecting small blood vessels. These changes support the hypothesis that this is a triple auto-immune disorder affecting red cells, platelets, and small blood vessels.

  8. A compact physical model for morphology induced intrinsic degradation of organic bulk heterojunction solar cell

    E-print Network

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    for an intrinsic degradation concern for bulk heterojunction type organic photovoltaic (BH-OPV) cells that involve photovoltaic cell (BH-OPV) has an important advantage of economical proc- essing, which is unfortunatelyA compact physical model for morphology induced intrinsic degradation of organic bulk

  9. Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Laminar Cells in the Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Mark N.; Shackleton, Trevor M.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) is organized into a series of fibro-dendritic laminae, orthogonal to the tonotopic progression. Many neurons have their dendrites confined to one lamina while others have dendrites that cross over a number of laminae. Here, we have used juxtacellular labeling in urethane anesthetized guinea pigs to visualize the cells with biocytin and have analyzed their response properties, in order to try and link their structure and function. Out of a sample of 38 filled cells, 15 had dendrites confined within the fibro-dendritic laminae and in 13 we were also able to reconstruct their local axonal tree. Based on dendritic morphology they were subdivided into flat or less flat; small, medium, or large; elongated or disk-shaped cells. Two of the elongated cells had many dendritic spines while the other cells had few or none. Twelve of the cells had their local axonal tree restricted to the same lamina as their dendrites while one cell had its dendrites in a separate lamina from the axon. The axonal plexus was more extensive (width 0.7–1.4?mm) within the lamina than the dendrites (width generally 0.07–0.53?mm). The intrinsic axons were largely confined to a single lamina within the central nucleus, but at least half the cells also had output axons with two heading for the commissure and five heading into the brachium. We were able to identify similarities in the physiological response profiles of small groups of our filled cells but none appeared to represent a homogeneous morphological cell type. The only common feature of our sample was one of exclusion in that the onset response, a response commonly recorded from IC cells, was never seen in laminar cells, but was in cells with a stellate morphology. Thus cells with laminar dendrites have a wide variety of physiological responses and morphological subtypes, but over 90% have an extensive local axonal tree within their local lamina. PMID:22933991

  10. Differences in regulation of tight junctions and cell morphology between VHL mutations from disease subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene cause clear cell renal carcinomas, hemangioblastomas, and pheochromocytomas. The VHL gene product is part of an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-?) is a key substrate, although additional VHL functions have been described. A genotype-phenotype relationship exists in VHL disease such that specific VHL mutations elicit certain subsets of these tumors. Here, we examine VHL genotype-phenotype correlations at the cellular level, focusing on the regulation of tight junctions and cell morphology. Methods Wild-type and various mutant VHL proteins representing VHL disease subtypes were stably expressed in 3 VHL-negative renal carcinoma cell lines. Using these cell lines, the roles of various VHL-associated cellular functions in regulation of cell morphology were investigated. Results As a whole, type 1 mutants varied greatly from type 2 mutants, demonstrating high levels of HIF-2?, cyclin D1 and ?5 integrin, lower p27 levels, and a spindly, fibroblastic cellular appearance. Type 2 mutations demonstrated an epithelial morphology similar to wild-type VHL in the majority of the renal cell lines used. Knockdown of p27 in cells with wild-type VHL led to perturbations of both epithelial morphology and ZO-1 localization to tight junctions. ZO-1 localization correlated well with VHL disease subtypes, with greater mislocalization observed for genotypes associated with a higher risk of renal carcinoma. HIF-2? knockdown in 786-O partially restored ZO-1 localization, but did not restore an epithelial morphology. Conclusion VHL has both HIF-? dependent and HIF-? independent functions in regulating tight junctions and cell morphology that likely impact the clinical phenotypes seen in VHL disease. PMID:19602254

  11. Relating morphological characteristics to the open-circuit voltage of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Teng; Birgersson, Erik; Luther, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    A closed-form expression for the open-circuit voltage of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells is derived as a function of the donor/acceptor morphology based on a spatially smoothed modelling framework. It is found that the open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells is in leading order determined by a single morphological feature: the ratio between the donor volume fraction and the specific interfacial area. Other morphological characteristics of the donor/acceptor blend, such as the connectivity of percolation pathways, do not have significant impact on the open-circuit voltage. Our findings are verified with detailed charge carrier transport simulations utilizing randomly generated donor/acceptor morphologies.

  12. Chronic administration of risperidone to healthy rats: a behavioural and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Castellano, O; Moscoso, A; Riolobos, A S; Carro, J; Arji, M; Molina, V; López, D E; Sancho, C

    2009-12-28

    Taking into account that most of the experimental research into the effects of antipsychotic drugs has mainly focused on behavioural aspects, the aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of a chronic therapeutic dose of risperidone (1 mg/kg/day during 140 days) on both behavioural and morphological aspects in healthy rats. The behavioural results revealed only minor modifications in prepulse inhibition, showing the risperidone-treated group higher values at 70 days of treatment with respect to the vehicle group. Moreover, in the open-field test, this group showed a greater incidence of grooming. In the active avoidance test, no differences were found between the groups studied. Additionally, in the morphological study performed to analyse cortical thickness and the number of GFAP-, CaBP-, PV- and Fos-immunostained cells no differences were seen between the two groups studied. It is important to note that the risperidone-treated group showed a slight increase in the total number of cells counted, although this increase was not significant. Our results indicate that the chronic administration of therapeutic doses of risperidone does not produce any dramatic behavioural or morphological changes in healthy animals. PMID:19665494

  13. Current morphologic criteria perform poorly in identifying hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome-associated uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Alsolami, Sana; El-Bahrawy, Mona; Kalloger, Steve E; AlDaoud, Nagla; Pathak, Tilak B; Chung, Catherine T; Cheung, Catherine T; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tomlinson, Ian P; Pollard, Patrick J; Gilks, C Blake; McCluggage, W Glenn; Clarke, Blaise A

    2014-11-01

    The contemporary oncologic pathology report conveys diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and hereditary predisposition information. Each component may be premised on a morphologic feature or a biomarker. Clinical validity and reproducibility are paramount as is standardization of reporting and clinical response to ensure individualization of patient care. Regarding hereditary predisposition, morphology-based genetic referral systems in some instances have eclipsed genealogy-based systems, for example, cell type in ovarian cancer and BRCA screening. In other instances such as Lynch syndrome, morphology-based schemas supplement clinical schemas and there is an emerging standard of care for reflex biomarker testing. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome predisposes patients to uterine and cutaneous leiomyomas (LMs) and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Several authors have emphasized the role pathologists may play in identifying this syndrome by recognizing the morphologic characteristics of syndromic uterine LMs and RCCs. Recently immunohistochemical overexpression of S-(2-succinyl) cysteine (2SC) has been demonstrated as a robust biomarker of mutation status in tumors from HLRCC patients. In this blinded control-cohort study we demonstrate that the proposed morphologic criteria used to identify uterine LMs in HLRCC syndrome are largely irreproducible among pathologists and lack sufficient robustness to serve as a trigger to triage cases for 2SC immunohistochemistry or patients for further family/personal history inquiry. Although refinement of morphologic criteria can be considered, in view of the availability of a clinically robust biomarker, consideration should be given to reflex testing of uterine LMs with an appropriate age cut off or in the setting of a suspicious family history. PMID:25272294

  14. Pressure Effects on the Morphology of Mammalian Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, John; Keese, Charles R.; Giaever, Ivar

    2009-03-01

    Living mammalian cells can be perturbed by high pressure in a continuous and controlled manner. The effects can be easily measured and quantified using the well-established method of Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS). ECIS is an electrical biosensor that quantitatively monitors behaviours of living cells including spreading and adhesion, micromotion and migration. Here we describe the experimental set-up of the pressure equipment and how ECIS is adapted to data collection under these conditions. Preliminary results suggest that high pressure affects the cell attachment and spreading and causes well-attached cells to round up. Results will be presented on the behavior of monolayers of BSC-1 cells upon application of pressures up to 2 kbars of nitrogen gas..

  15. Familial Follicular Cell Tumors: Classification and Morphological Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vânia Nosé

    2010-01-01

    Familial follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancer, papillary (PTC), and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC),\\u000a accounts for 95% of thyroid malignancies. The majority of are sporadic, and at least 5% of these patients will have familial\\u000a disease. Familial thyroid syndromes are classified into familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC), derived from calcitonin-producing\\u000a C cells, and familial follicular cell tumors or non-medullary thyroid carcinoma

  16. Morphological and cytochemical determination of cell death by apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Burton E.; Budd, Ralph C.

    2007-01-01

    Several modes of cell death are now recognized, including necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. Oftentimes the distinctions between these various modes may not be apparent, although the precise mode may be physiologically important. Accordingly, it is often desirable to be able to classify the mode of cell death. Apoptosis was originally defined by structural alterations in cells observable by transmitted light and electron microscopy. Today, a wide variety of imaging and cytochemical techniques are available for the investigation of apoptosis. This review will highlight many of these methods, and provide a critique on the advantages and disadvantages associated with them for the specific identification of apoptotic cells in culture and tissues. PMID:18000678

  17. Actin-myosin network influences morphological response of neuronal cells to altered osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Bober, Brian G; Love, James M; Horton, Steven M; Sitnova, Mariya; Shahamatdar, Sina; Kannan, Ajay; Shah, Sameer B

    2015-04-01

    Acute osmotic fluctuations in the brain occur during a number of clinical conditions and can result in a variety of adverse neurological symptoms. Osmotic perturbation can cause changes in the volumes of intra- and extracellular fluid and, due to the rigidity of the skull, can alter intracranial pressure thus making it difficult to analyze purely osmotic effects in vivo. The present study aims to determine the effects of changes in osmolarity on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in vitro, and the role of the actin-myosin network in regulating this response. Cells were exposed to hyper- or hypoosmotic media and morphological and cytoskeletal responses were recorded. Hyperosmotic shock resulted in a drop in cell body volume and planar area, a persisting shape deformation, and increases in cellular translocation. Hypoosmotic shock did not significantly alter planar area, but caused a transient increase in cell body volume and an increase in cellular translocation via the development of small protrusions rich in actin. Disruption of the actin-myosin network with latrunculin and blebbistatin resulted in changes to volume and shape regulation, and a decrease in cellular translocation. In both osmotic perturbations, no apparent disruptions to cytoskeletal integrity were observed by light microscopy. Overall, because osmotically induced changes persisted even after volume regulation occurred, it is possible that osmotic stress may play a larger role in neurological dysfunction than currently believed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25809276

  18. Controlling Morphology and Molecular Packing of Alkane Substituted Phthalocyanine Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jurow, Matthew J.; Hageman, Brian A.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pabon, Cesar; Black, Charles T.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic changes in the exocyclic substiution of core phthalocyanine platform tune the absorption properties to yield commercially viable dyes that function as the primary light absorbers in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Blends of these complementary phthalocyanines absorb a broader portion of the solar spectrum compared to a single dye, thereby increasing solar cell performance. We correlate grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering structural data with solar cell performance to elucidate the role of nanomorphology of active layers composed of blends of phthalocyanines and a fullerene derivative. A highly reproducible device architecture is used to assure accuracy and is relevant to films for solar windows in urban settings. We demonstrate that the number and structure of the exocyclic motifs dictate phase formation, hierarchical organization, and nanostructure, thus can be employed to tailor active layer morphology to enhance exciton dissociation and charge collection efficiencies in the photovoltaic devices. These studies reveal that disordered films make better solar cells, short alkanes increase the optical density of the active layer, and branched alkanes inhibit unproductive homogeneous molecular alignment. PMID:23589766

  19. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maďté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of ?-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells. PMID:25305245

  20. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast with transformation from adenosquamous carcinoma to osteosarcomatoid and spindle cell morphology

    PubMed Central

    CHUTHAPISITH, SUEBWONG; WARNNISSORN, MALEE; AMORNPINYOKIAT, NATTAWUT; PRADNIWAT, KANAPON; ANGSUSINHA, TAMNIT

    2013-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast refers to a heterogenous group of mammary carcinomas that contain a mixture of various cell types, including squamous cells, spindle cells and/or a mesenchymal component, such as bone or cartilage. To the best of our knowledge, the clinical course of a tumour that has undergone a transformation from one type of metaplastic carcinoma to another subtype has not previously been reported. The present study reports the five-year clinical and pathological course of a metaplastic breast carcinoma in a 55-year-old female, who was diagnosed with a sclerosing fibroadenomatous nodule with osseous metaplasia and focal atypia. A recurrent tumour was documented four years later, showing a predominant component of osteosarcoma with adenosquamous carcinoma. Upon pathological review of the initial mass, the diagnosis was changed to low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma. The patient was treated with breast conserving therapy. However, one year later, a recurrent metaplastic carcinoma with spindle cell morphology was documented and surgically removed by mastectomy. Subsequently, pulmonary invasion of the chest wall occurred and the patient eventually succumbed due to the invasive nature of the disease. PMID:24137400

  1. Nail morphology studies as assessments for onychomycosis treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Repka, Michael A; O'Haver, John; See, Chun Hwa; Gutta, Kavitha; Munjal, Manish

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the morphology of the human nail treated with chemical penetration enhancers (CPE), bioadhesives and surface modifiers for assessment of topical treatment modalities for onychomycosis. CPEs, including dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and urea were applied to human nail samples. Additional samples were treated with surface modifiers, tartaric acid (TTA) and phosphoric acid gel (PA). Other nail specimens were subjected to the bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 971P and Klucel MF. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarized light microscopy (PLM) were utilized to visualize nail morphology and topographical changes of the human nail samples subjected to the various chemical agents. AFM, SEM and PLM micrographs revealed changes in topography to the dorsal layer when CPEs and surface modifiers were applied. Roughness scores as determined by NANOSCOPE IIIA software indicated a 2-fold increase when the dorsal nail layer was subjected to PA versus the control (147.8 vs. 85.0 nm, respectively). In contrast, when carbomer 971P was applied to the dorsal surface, roughness scores decreased significantly (44.6 vs. 85.0 nm, respectively). AFM, SEM and PLM studies of the human nail subjected to various chemical agents may be useful in the design and formulation of novel drug delivery systems for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. The AFM studies offer both a qualitative and quantitative assessment for nail treatment opportunities. PMID:12270239

  2. Role of laminin and basement membrane in the morphological differentiation of human endothelial cells into capillary-like structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Kubota; Hynda K. Kleinman; George R. Martin; Thomas J. Lawley

    1988-01-01

    We have defined a signal responsible for the morphological differentiation of human umbilical vein and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. We find that human umbilical vein endothelial cells deprived of growth factors undergo morphologi- cal differentiation with tube formation after 6-12 wk, and that human dermal microvascular endothelial cells differentiate after 1 wk of growth factor deprivation. Here,

  3. Isolation and Morphological Characterisation of Ovine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Krzysztof, Marycz; Karol, Wrzeszcz; Joanna, Czoga?a

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: AD-MSCs (adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells), as an easy obtainable population of multipotent cells, have been successfully applied in many diseases in animals. Having very similar properties and morphology to these collected from bone marrow, are very attractive object for regenerative medicine. Conclusions: Ovine subcutaneous fat from many regions of the body is rich source of stem cells, which could be used in locomotive system disorders experimental therapy on sheep models. PMID:24298341

  4. Study cell invasion by optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Hoban, Paul R.; Sule-Suso, Joseph; Holley, Sarah; El Haj, Alicia J.; Bahrami, Fariba; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2006-02-01

    Cancer is a world-wide health problem associated with an increasing death rate. The mechanisms of how normal cells transform into cancer cells are not fully understood. Intensive investigations have been undertaken to identify genes whose unregulated expression are involved in this process. In this study, we have grown, on collagen gel, adherent mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) knocked out for Cyl-1 (MEF Cyl1-/-) which have been transfected with the human proto-oncogene cyclin D1 (CCND1) under the control of an inducible expression system. CCND1 expression can be regulated in the fibroblasts via the presence of an inducer, isopropyl ?-D-Thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). In the absence of IPTG, CCND1 expression is silenced. The migration ability of the resultant cells on the collagen gel has been monitored by complementary optical techniques: the conventional light microscopy; optical coherence tomography and Fourier Transform Infrared Microspcopic Spectroscopy (FTIR) using Synchrotron beam source. It is found that the cells expressing CCND1 exhibited cell invasion morphology and had different matrix compositions near the cell layer in comparison to the cells not expressing CCND1. The results from this study are consistent with published findings that expression of CCND1 has oncogenic potential and is involved in cell invasion in vitro. Application of complementary optical techniques proves to be an efficient way obtaining morphological and composition information of cell invasion.

  5. Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) Protein Plays Important Roles in Regulating Cell Adhesion, Morphology, Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mei Kuen; Liang, Yong Jia; Chan, John Yeuk Hon; Wong, Sing Wan; Chen, Elve; Yao, Yao; Gan, Jingyi; Xiao, Lihai; Leung, Hin Cheung; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Wang, Hua; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    PML protein plays important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. It forms PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act like nuclear relay stations and participate in many cellular functions. In this study, we have examined the proteome of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from normal (PML+/+) and PML knockout (PML?/?) mice. The aim was to identify proteins that were differentially expressed when MEFs were incapable of producing PML. Using comparative proteomics, total protein were extracted from PML?/? and PML+/+ MEFs, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels and the differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Nine proteins (PML, NDRG1, CACYBP, CFL1, RSU1, TRIO, CTRO, ANXA4 and UBE2M) were determined to be down-regulated in PML?/? MEFs. In contrast, ten proteins (CIAPIN1, FAM50A, SUMO2 HSPB1 NSFL1C, PCBP2, YWHAG, STMN1, TPD52L2 and PDAP1) were found up-regulated. Many of these differentially expressed proteins play crucial roles in cell adhesion, migration, morphology and cytokinesis. The protein profiles explain why PML?/? and PML+/+ MEFs were morphologically different. In addition, we demonstrated PML?/? MEFs were less adhesive, proliferated more extensively and migrated significantly slower than PML+/+ MEFs. NDRG1, a protein that was down-regulated in PML?/? MEFs, was selected for further investigation. We determined that silencing NDRG1expression in PML+/+ MEFs increased cell proliferation and inhibited PML expression. Since NDRG expression was suppressed in PML?/? MEFs, this may explain why these cells proliferate more extensively than PML+/+ MEFs. Furthermore, silencing NDRG1expression also impaired TGF-?1 signaling by inhibiting SMAD3 phosphorylation. PMID:23555679

  6. Fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein, is required for normal nuclear morphology and cellular growth in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mohammed Abdullahel [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Matsunaga, Sachihiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Ma, Nan [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Takata, Hideaki [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Yokoyama, Masami [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Uchiyama, Susumu [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Kiichi [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan)]. E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-24

    Fibrillarin is a key small nucleolar protein in eukaryotes, which has an important role in pre-rRNA processing during ribosomal biogenesis. Though several functions of fibrillarin are known, its function during the cell cycle is still unknown. In this study, we confirmed the dynamic localization of fibrillarin during the cell cycle of HeLa cells and also performed functional studies by using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNAi technique. We observed that depletion of fibrillarin has almost no effect on the nucleolar structure. However, fibrillarin-depleted cells showed abnormal nuclear morphology. Moreover, fibrillarin depletion resulted in the reduction of the cellular growth and modest accumulation of cells with 4n DNA content. Our data suggest that fibrillarin would play a critical role in the maintenance of nuclear shape and cellular growth.

  7. Controlled thickness and morphology for highly efficient inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dong, Hua; Xia, Bin; Yuan, Fang; Jiao, Bo; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihang; Hou, Xun

    2015-06-28

    Recently, inverted planar heterojunction (PHJ) perovskite solar cells have been developed rapidly by numerous preparations and relative optimizations. Sequential solution deposition is easy to manipulate but it is difficult to control the thickness and morphology of perovskite films. In this article, we report an improved sequential deposition, named twice dipping-vapor solution deposition (TD-VSD) technology, to accurately achieve superior perovskite films. It is demonstrated that the morphology of perovskite films depended on the substrate temperatures as well as the dipping times. The resulting solar cells showed the power conversion efficiency as high as 11.77% based on the ideal thickness and morphology. This work provides a simple but effective fabrication to well control the perovskite films and enhance the power conversion efficiency for inverted PHJ solar cells. PMID:26030406

  8. Cadherin-Dependent Cell Morphology in an Epithelium: Constructing a Quantitative Dynamical Model

    PubMed Central

    Gemp, Ian M.; Carthew, Richard W.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    Cells in the Drosophila retina have well-defined morphologies that are attained during tissue morphogenesis. We present a computer simulation of the epithelial tissue in which the global interfacial energy between cells is minimized. Experimental data for both normal cells and mutant cells either lacking or misexpressing the adhesion protein N-cadherin can be explained by a simple model incorporating salient features of morphogenesis that include the timing of N-cadherin expression in cells and its temporal relationship to the remodeling of cell-cell contacts. The simulations reproduce the geometries of wild-type and mutant cells, distinguish features of cadherin dynamics, and emphasize the importance of adhesion protein biogenesis and its timing with respect to cell remodeling. The simulations also indicate that N-cadherin protein is recycled from inactive interfaces to active interfaces, thereby modulating adhesion strengths between cells. PMID:21814505

  9. Controlled thickness and morphology for highly efficient inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Jun; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dong, Hua; Xia, Bin; Yuan, Fang; Jiao, Bo; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihang; Hou, Xun

    2015-06-01

    Recently, inverted planar heterojunction (PHJ) perovskite solar cells have been developed rapidly by numerous preparations and relative optimizations. Sequential solution deposition is easy to manipulate but it is difficult to control the thickness and morphology of perovskite films. In this article, we report an improved sequential deposition, named twice dipping-vapor solution deposition (TD-VSD) technology, to accurately achieve superior perovskite films. It is demonstrated that the morphology of perovskite films depended on the substrate temperatures as well as the dipping times. The resulting solar cells showed the power conversion efficiency as high as 11.77% based on the ideal thickness and morphology. This work provides a simple but effective fabrication to well control the perovskite films and enhance the power conversion efficiency for inverted PHJ solar cells.Recently, inverted planar heterojunction (PHJ) perovskite solar cells have been developed rapidly by numerous preparations and relative optimizations. Sequential solution deposition is easy to manipulate but it is difficult to control the thickness and morphology of perovskite films. In this article, we report an improved sequential deposition, named twice dipping-vapor solution deposition (TD-VSD) technology, to accurately achieve superior perovskite films. It is demonstrated that the morphology of perovskite films depended on the substrate temperatures as well as the dipping times. The resulting solar cells showed the power conversion efficiency as high as 11.77% based on the ideal thickness and morphology. This work provides a simple but effective fabrication to well control the perovskite films and enhance the power conversion efficiency for inverted PHJ solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01988e

  10. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of human amniotic fluid-derived cells: a morphological and proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Pipino, Caterina; Pierdomenico, Laura; Di Tomo, Pamela; Di Giuseppe, Fabrizio; Cianci, Eleonora; D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Morabito, Caterina; Centurione, Lucia; Antonucci, Ivana; Mariggiň, Maria A; Di Pietro, Roberta; Ciccarelli, Renata; Marchisio, Marco; Romano, Mario; Angelucci, Stefania; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-06-15

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells derived from Amniotic Fluid (AFMSCs) are multipotent cells of great interest for regenerative medicine. Two predominant cell types, that is, Epithelial-like (E-like) and Fibroblast-like (F-like), have been previously detected in the amniotic fluid (AF). In this study, we examined the AF from 12 donors and observed the prevalence of the E-like phenotype in 5, whereas the F-like morphology was predominant in 7 samples. These phenotypes showed slight differences in membrane markers, with higher CD90 and lower Sox2 and SSEA-4 expression in F-like than in E-like cells; whereas CD326 was expressed only in the E-like phenotype. They did not show any significant differences in osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic differentiation. Proteomic analysis revealed that samples with a predominant E-like phenotype (HC1) showed a different profile than those with a predominant F-like phenotype (HC2). Twenty-five and eighteen protein spots were differentially expressed in HC1 and HC2 classes, respectively. Of these, 17 from HC1 and 4 from HC2 were identified by mass spectrometry. Protein-interaction networks for both phenotypes showed strong interactions between specific AFMSC proteins and molecular chaperones, such as preproteasomes and mature proteasomes, both of which are important for cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Collectively, our results provide evidence that, regardless of differences in protein profiling, the prevalence of E-like or F-like cells in AF does not affect the differentiation capacity of AFMSC preparations. This may be valuable information with a view to the therapeutic use of AFMSCs. PMID:25608581

  11. Importance of electrode\\/zirconia interface morphology in high-temperature solid-electrolyte cells. Technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Gur; R. A. Huggins

    1987-01-01

    The role of electrode\\/electrolyte interface morphology in the overall polarization behavior of high-temperature solid-electrolyte cells was studied. Carefully prepared and polished scandia-stabilized zirconia discs with sputtered platinum electrodes were examined using electron-microscopy and electrical-polarization techniques. Initially, non-porous sputtered platinum electrodes were conditioned by a progressive treatment to generate artificial porosity. This eliminated subsequent time-dependent changes in the interface-related impedance of

  12. Effects of streptozotocin-induced long-term diabetes on parietal cell function and morphology in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim M. A. Bastaki; Ernest Adeghate; Irwin S. Chandranath; Naheed Amir; Saeed Tariq; Rashed S. Hameed; Abdu Adem

    2010-01-01

    Gastric pathology is a common complication in diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the functions and morphological\\u000a changes of the parietal cells of the rat stomach after streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Wistar\\u000a rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg\\/kg body weight). The rats were weighed weekly and sacrificed\\u000a after 6 months. The

  13. Morphological Changes in Paraurethral Area after Introduction of Tissue Engineering Construct on the Basis of Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Makarov; I. V. Arutyunyan; G. B. Bol’shakova; A. V. Volkov; D. V. Gol’dshtein

    2009-01-01

    We studied morphological changes in the paraurethral area of Wistar rats after introduction of tissue engineering constructs\\u000a on the basis of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells and gelatin sponge. The tissue engineering construct containing autologous\\u000a culture of the stromal fraction of the adipose tissue was most effective. After introduction of this construct we observed\\u000a more rapid degradation of the construct matrix

  14. Metal Salts as Promoters of in Vitro Morphological Transformation of Hamster Embryo Cells Initiated by Benzo(a)pyrene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar Riveda; Tore Sanner

    The hamster embryo cell bioassay has been used to study the effect of metal salts on morphological transformation. A synergistic enhancement of the transformation frequency was found for the combined treatment with organic carcinogens (benzo(a)pyrene, W-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 4-ni- troquinoline 1-oxide) and nickel sulfate, cadmium acetate, or potassium enrĂłmate. Chromic chloride and zinc chloride did not induce transformation themselves, and they

  15. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina, E-mail: s.schlie@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Ngezahayo, Anaclet, E-mail: ngezahayo@biophysik.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Biophysics, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, Hannover 30419 (Germany); Chichkov, Boris N., E-mail: b.chichkov@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-06-10

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions—which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. -- Highlights: • We analyse the impact of ECM components on cell behaviour in vitro. • We compare five different cell types, using the same culture conditions. • The ECM significantly guides all cell responses. • Cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand-priority ranking. • This gives insight in tissue formation and is essential for biomedical applications.

  16. Morphologic, molecular, and ultrastructural characterization of a feline synovial cell sarcoma and derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Cazzini, Paola; Frontera-Acevedo, Karelma; Garner, Bridget; Howerth, Elizabeth; Torres, Bryan; Northrup, Nicole; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2015-05-01

    A 2.5-year-old, male, neutered cat presented with a 5-month history of progressive right hind limb lameness and an enlarged right popliteal lymph node. Radiographs revealed significant bony lysis of the tarsus and distal tibia, and fine-needle aspirate of the bone lesion and lymph node revealed a neoplastic population of cells with uncertain origin. Amputation was elected, and the mass was submitted for histology and cellular culture for better characterization. Histologic examination revealed a mixture of spindle-shaped cells and larger, round to polygonal cells. All cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, and only the larger polygonal cells were also positive for cytokeratin. All cells were negative for desmin, smooth muscle actin, cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD18, CD79a, macrophage antibody (MAC)387, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Cultured neoplastic cells failed to express CD18, and were not able to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1 (IL-1)?, and IL-6 when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, disproving that the cells originated from the macrophage or monocyte line. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells were characterized by abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, interdigitating cellular processes, and membrane condensations. Based on location and cytologic, histologic, ultrastructural, and functional studies, this neoplasm was considered a synovial cell sarcoma. PMID:25901004

  17. Morphological development of thick-tufted layer v pyramidal cells in the rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Romand, Sandrine; Wang, Yun; Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Markram, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer V pyramidal (TTL5) neuron is a key neuron providing output from the neocortex. Although it has been extensively studied, principles governing its dendritic and axonal arborization during development are still not fully quantified. Using 3-D model neurons reconstructed from biocytin-labeled cells in the rat somatosensory cortex, this study provides a detailed morphological analysis of TTL5 cells at postnatal day (P) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 60. Three developmental periods were revealed, which were characterized by distinct growing rates and properties of alterations in different compartments. From P7 to P14, almost all compartments grew fast, and filopodia-like segments along apical dendrite disappeared; From P14 to P21, the growth was localized on specified segments of each compartment, and the densities of spines and boutons were significantly increased; From P21 to P60, the number of basal dendritic segments was significantly increased at specified branch orders, and some basal and oblique dendritic segments were lengthened or thickened. Development changes were therefore seen in two modes: the fast overall growth during the first period and the slow localized growth (thickening mainly on intermediates or lengthening mainly on terminals) at the subsequent stages. The lengthening may be accompanied by the retraction on different segments. These results reveal a differential regulation in the arborization of neuronal compartments during development, supporting the notion of functional compartmental development. This quantification provides new insight into the potential value of the TTL5 morphology for information processing, and for other purposes as well. PMID:21369363

  18. A Morphological Study of the Petunia integrifolia Complex (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    ANDO, TOSHIO; ISHIKAWA, NOBUYUKI; WATANABE, HITOSHI; KOKUBUN, HISASHI; YANAGISAWA, YOSHIKI; HASHIMOTO, GORO; MARCHESI, EDUARDO; SUÁREZ, ENRIQUE

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Petunia inflata has been treated taxonomically in various ways: it has been described as an independent species, treated as a synonym of P. integrifolia, and also regarded as a subspecies of P. integrifolia. The present study was designed to resolve the ambiguity involving the P. integrifolia complex (P. integrifolia plus P. inflata). • Methods Tentative identification (either integrifolia group or inflata group) was carried out in the field based on the observation of live specimens at the restricted type localities. The accuracy of the tentative identification was later tested with principal component and cluster analyses of data obtained by measuring 21 morphological characters on cultivated live specimens sourced from 113 natural populations of the P. integrifolia complex in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. • Key Results There was a clear, statistically significant gap between the morphological measurements of the two groups, ensuring the accuracy of identification carried out in the field except for a probable hybrid swarm. Previously, the condition of the pedicel in the fruiting state was considered an important character distinguishing between these two groups; however, the condition of the pedicel was rather variable in the integrifolia group. The two groups were found to have geographically distinct distributions: the integrifolia group occurred in southern regions, whereas the inflata group occurred in northern regions. • Conclusions Based on the available evidence, it is suggested that the two groups are allopatric species, P. integrifolia and P. inflata, in agreement with the opinion of Fries (1911). PMID:16103037

  19. Morphologic study of the glenoid in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Walch, G; Badet, R; Boulahia, A; Khoury, A

    1999-09-01

    We studied the natural course and the possibility of making a prognostic classification of glenoid morphology in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA). For this purpose, serial computed tomography scans of 113 osteoarthritic shoulders were reviewed. The position of the humeral head with respect to the glenoid seems to be an important predictor of the glenoid morphologic evolution. Three main glenoid types were defined: Type A, Type B, Type C. Type A (59%) was marked by a well-centered humeral head and a balanced distribution of strengths against the surface of the glenoid. The symmetric erosion was explained by the absence of subluxation. In Type B (32%), the posterior subluxation of the humeral head was responsible for the asymmetric load against the glenoid and was implicated in the development of primary GHOA, particularly the exaggerated posterior wear pattern. Type C (9%) was defined by a glenoid retroversion of more than 25 degrees, regardless of erosion; retroversion was primarily of dysplastic origin and explained the early event of osteoarthritis. In primary GHOA, this classification of the glenoid can discriminate retroversion between posterior erosion and dysplasia. PMID:10512449

  20. Studying femtosecond-laser hyperdoping by controlling surface morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Mark T.; Sher, Meng-Ju [Department of Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Lin Yuting; Zhang, Haifei [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Smith, Matthew J.; Gradecak, Silvija [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mazur, Eric [Department of Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We study the fundamental properties of femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) hyperdoping by developing techniques to control the surface morphology following laser irradiation. By decoupling the formation of surface roughness from the doping process, we study the structural and electronic properties of fs-laser doped silicon. These experiments are a necessary step toward developing predictive models of the doping process. We use a single fs-laser pulse to dope silicon with sulfur, enabling quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and Hall effect measurements. These measurements indicate that at laser fluences at or above 4 kJ m{sup -2}, a single laser pulse yields a sulfur dose >(3 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} and results in a 45-nm thick amorphous surface layer. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method for hyperdoping large areas of silicon without producing the surface roughness.

  1. Roles of curli, cellulose and BapA in Salmonella biofilm morphology studied by atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Jonas; Henrik Tomenius; Abdul Kader; Staffan Normark; Ute Römling; Lyubov M Belova; Öjar Melefors

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curli, cellulose and the cell surface protein BapA are matrix components in Salmonella biofilms. In this study we have investigated the roles of these components for the morphology of bacteria grown as colonies on agar plates and within a biofilm on submerged mica surfaces by applying atomic force microscopy (AFM) and light microscopy. RESULTS: AFM imaging was performed on

  2. Carbon availability affects diurnally controlled processes and cell morphology of Cyanothece 51142.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Jana; Elvitigala, Thanura R; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142. PMID:23457634

  3. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness in Guangxi Maonan and Han adolescent students of China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hao; Zuo, Hui-Yi; Chen, Jin-Mao; Cai, Jie; Qin, Yu-Zhua; Huang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Ying-Ying; Tang, Dong-Yong; Tan, Shao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness in the Guangxi Maonan and Han adolescent students of China. METHODS Noncontact specular microscope (Topcon SP3000P, Tokyo, Japan) was performed in 133 adolescent students of Maonan nationality (M:F 54:79) and 105 adolescent students of Han nationality (M:F 50:55), 5 to 20y of age, who were randomly selected from 3 schools in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. Parameters studied included endothelial cell density, mean cell area, coefficient of variation in cell size, percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness. RESULTS Endothelial cell density, mean cell area, coefficient of variation in cell size, percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness in the study population were (2969.50±253.93) cells/mm2, (339.23±29.44) µm2, (29.96±4.07) %, (64.58±9.41) % and (523.71±32.82) µm in Maonan and (2998.26±262.65) cells/mm2, (336.11±30.07) µm2, (29.89±5.03) %, (64.91±11.64) % and (524.39±33.15) µm in Han, respectively. No significant differences were observed in endothelial cell density, mean cell area, coefficient of variation in cell size, percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness between Maonan and Han (P=0.615, 0.659, 0.528, 0.551, 0.999). In Maonan and Han, we found age was negatively correlated with endothelial cell density and percentage hexagonality and positively correlated with mean cell area and coefficient of variation in cell size. Negative correlation was also found between central corneal thickness and age in Han, whereas no correlation was found in Maonan. CONCLUSION There were no differences between Maonan and Han in corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness. In these two nationalities, there were statistically significant decrease in endothelial cell density and percentage hexagonality with increasing age and statistically significant increase in cell area and coefficient of variation in cell size with increasing age. Central corneal thinned with increasing age in Han, whereas difference did not attain statistical significance in Maonan. PMID:26086017

  4. Evaluation of morphologically unclassified renal cell carcinoma with electron microscopy and novel renal markers: implications for tumor reclassification.

    PubMed

    Talento, Romualdo; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Yin, Ming

    2013-02-01

    Despite progress in the classification of renal cell carcinomas (RCC), a subset of these carcinomas remains unclassified (RCC-U). Patients with RCC-U usually present at a late stage and have a poor prognosis. Several studies have attempted to extract new classifications of newly recognized renal carcinomas from the group of RCC-U. However, to date, no studies in the literature have attempted to characterize the RCC-U with unrecognizable cell types beyond the morphologic evaluation on H&E-stained sections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this group of RCC-U using electron microscopy and novel renal markers. Ten cases of such RCC-U were identified for this study. At the ultrastructural level, they did not show typical morphology that resembled any of the well-studied, recognizable subtypes of RCC. However, they did reveal features of renal tubular epithelial differentiation. The histologic, ultrastructural, and immunophenotypic features indicated that these tumors are poorly differentiated renal epithelial tumors, possibly derived from the proximal nephron, with an immunohistochemical profile similar to high-grade clear cell RCC. It is, therefore, proposed that this group of renal carcinomas be renamed "poorly differentiated renal cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified." The current study showed that PAX-8 and carbonic anhydrase IX are reliable markers for this novel group of renal carcinoma, and that electron microscopy is an important adjunct in the evaluation of new and unusual renal entities. PMID:23383617

  5. Morphological factors as indicators of malignancy of squamous cell carcinomas in cattle exposed naturally to bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum).

    PubMed

    Masuda, E K; Kommers, G D; Martins, T B; Barros, C S L; Piazer, J V M

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the upper digestive tract (UDT) of cattle have been associated with chronic bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) toxicity and infection with bovine papillomavirus type-4. These tumours share some morphological similarities with human head and neck SCCs. In this study, morphological changes were correlated with the biological behaviour of 40 alimentary SCCs in cattle grazing on pastures with high bracken content. The majority of SCCs were localized to the cranial and caudal regions of the UDT (almost 45% each). More than 60% of the tumours were well differentiated and were found mostly in the cranial region. Metastasis occurred in 58% of the cases, mostly to regional lymph nodes. All poorly differentiated SCCs had evidence of metastasis. Morphological patterns characterized by islands and ribbons of neoplastic keratinocytes were more prominent in well differentiated SCCs. These patterns varied greatly in moderately differentiated SCCs. Poorly differentiated tumours were characterized by the presence of cellular aggregates and individual cells and these tumours had more marked desmoplasia. A significant positive association was established between lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltration and tumour-associated tissue eosinophilia. Evaluation of argyrophylic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) revealed higher proliferation indices in poorly differentiated tumours than in moderately or well differentiated lesions. There was significant correlation between the AgNOR index and histological grading. The morphological factors analyzed were all related to histological grading, which is the major factor predicting the biological behaviour of SCCs in cattle naturally exposed to bracken fern. PMID:20542519

  6. Morphologic study of posterior articular depression in Schatzker IV fractures.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qilin; Hu, Chengfang; Xu, Yafeng; Wang, Dan; Luo, Congfeng

    2015-02-01

    The Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures is widely accepted. Type IV fractures are medial tibial plateau fractures that are either split off as a wedge fragment or depressed and comminuted. Posterior articular surface depression in Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures can be seen as a unique variant that increases the difficulty of reduction of the articular surface. Its morphologic characteristics have not been fully studied, and the incidence is sometimes underestimated. The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphologic characteristics of posterior articular depression in Schatzker type IV fractures based on computed tomography measurements. From January 2009 to December 2011, the medical records, including digital radiologic data, of all patients treated for tibial plateau fracture at the authors' institution were retrospectively analyzed. Articular surface depression deeper than 5 mm was the criterion for study inclusion. The depression depth, precise location of the articular depression center, surface area percentage, and distance of the fracture gap to the depression center were calculated. One hundred fifteen cases of Schatzker type IV fracture were retrieved, and a total of 47.83% (55 of 115) cases had posterior articular surface depression. The average depth of the depressed articular surface was 12.41 mm, the surface area percentage was 20.15% of the entire tibial plateau, and the gap distance from the medial direction was 41.40 mm, 2.8 times longer than that from the posterior direction, which was 14.91 mm. Posterior articular surface depression occurs in nearly half of Schatzker type IV fractures, and the posterior approach provides more direct access to the depression than the medial approach. PMID:25665117

  7. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiri, Azadeh, E-mail: z_kabiri@resident.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandiari, Ebrahim, E-mail: esfandiari@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemibeni, Batool, E-mail: hashemibeni@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Mohammad, E-mail: m_kazemi@med.mui.ac.i [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mardani, Mohammad, E-mail: mardani@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: abesmaeili@yahoo.com [Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. The effect of different surface morphology and roughness on osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ball, Michael; Grant, David M; Lo, Wei-jen; Scotchford, Colin A

    2008-09-01

    Increased magnitude of biomaterial surface roughness and micromachined-grooved surfaces has both been shown to stimulate osteoblast activity, but have not been compared in the same study quantitatively. A series of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) samples were prepared using simple machining techniques to undertake such a comparison. Samples were either grit blasted (Gb) or shot peened (Sp) to give random discontinuities, or silicon carbide ground (SiC) to produce ordered grooves. These were compared with micropolished samples (Mp). The samples were coated with a 1 mum continuous coating of hydroxyapatite to remove differences in surface chemistry. Human osteoblast-like cells were seeded onto the materials and metabolic activity, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin production assessed. Cell responses were highly dependent on the substrate that they were cultured on. Cells cultured on the smooth and ordered (Mp and SiC, respectively) samples had higher metabolic activity and a more elongated morphology than those cultured on the randomly structured Gb or Sp samples. Over 21 days, cell metabolic activity peaked relative to the control between 7 and 14 days on the Mp sample, and between 14 and 21 days on the Gb, Sp, and SiC samples. In common with other researchers, we note that micron scale topography may have potential for influencing osseointegration. More importantly, as the magnitude of the discontinuities on SiC, Gb, and Sp were similar, the differences in cell responses does not appear to lie with the size of the features, but whether the features showed an ordered or disordered structure. PMID:18022800

  9. Effects of Vitamin D on Airway Epithelial Cell Morphology and Rhinovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Brockman-Schneider, Rebecca A.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Gern, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D has been linked to reduced risk of viral respiratory illness. We hypothesized that vitamin D could directly reduce rhinovirus (RV) replication in airway epithelium. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC) were treated with vitamin D, and RV replication and gene expression were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Cytokine/chemokine secretion was measured by ELISA, and transepithelial resistance (TER) was determined using a voltohmmeter. Morphology was examined using immunohistochemistry. Vitamin D supplementation had no significant effects on RV replication, but potentiated secretion of CXCL8 and CXCL10 from infected or uninfected cells. Treatment with vitamin D in the form of 1,25(OH)2D caused significant changes in cell morphology, including thickening of the cell layers (median of 46.5 µm [35.0–69.0] vs. 30 µm [24.5–34.2], p<0.01) and proliferation of cytokeratin-5-expressing cells, as demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. Similar effects were seen for 25(OH)D. In addition to altering morphology, higher concentrations of vitamin D significantly upregulated small proline-rich protein (SPRR1?) expression (6.3 fold-induction, p<0.01), suggestive of squamous metaplasia. Vitamin D treatment of hBECs did not alter repair of mechanically induced wounds. Collectively, these findings indicate that vitamin D does not directly affect RV replication in airway epithelial cells, but can influence chemokine synthesis and alters the growth and differentiation of airway epithelial cells. PMID:24475177

  10. Morphology, properties, and performance of electrodeposited n-CdSe in liquid junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkiewicz, M.; Ling, I.; Parsons, W.S.

    1982-09-01

    The authors describe the mechanisms for galvanostatic electrodeposition of CdSe in terms of competition between chemical reactions that lead to Se formation and electrochemical reduction of Se as polyselenide, at the interfaces between selenium and selenide. This mechanism leads to a cauliflower morphology for the resulting film. This morphology is ideal for a photoanode in the liquid junction solar cell configuration, and the authors describe the performance of such an electrode. In spite of the unique morphology, solid-state properties of the film can be evaluated and the methodology for these evaluations is presented. The performance of the liquid junction solar cells is limited by the dark current and the dielectric properties of the material. The authors also describe the effects of metal ions such as Zn/sup +2/, Ru/sup +3/, and Ga/sup +3/ on the various electrode properties.

  11. How Specific Is the Connection between Morphological Awareness and Spelling? A Study of French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, S.; Deacon, S. H.; Pacton, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. We show that French children in Grades 3 and 4 appear to use morphological information in spelling; spelling of sounds for which there are several alternatives was more accurate in derived than in nonderived words. The link between morphological awareness and…

  12. A viscometric study of tuning micellar morphology by organic additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziya Ahmad Khan; Sanjeev Kumar; Tanweer Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    The micellar morphology in aqueous 0.2 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions has been studied in the simultaneous presence\\u000a of organic salts (anilinium hydrochloride, AHC; ortho-toluidine hydrochloride, oTHC; para-toluidine hydrochloride, pTHC) and aliphatic alcohols (n-butanol, C4OH; n-pentanol, C5OH; n-hexanol, C6OH; n-heptanol, C7OH), aliphatic amines (n-butylamine, C4NH2; n-pentylamine, C5NH2; n-hexylamine, C6NH2; n-heptylamine, C7NH2), or hydrocarbons (n-hexane, C6H; n-heptane, C7H) by viscosity measurements

  13. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  14. Massive obesity and the kidney. A morphologic and statistical study.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The renal morphology of 5 grossly obese patients with normal renal function and many of the features of the Pickwickian syndrome was studied at autopsy. The most striking feature was that of increased glomerular size. Measurements of two parameters of glomerular areas indicated statistically significant glomerular enlargement for both as compared to controls. Glomerulomegaly was primarily the result of vascular dilatation and a variable mesangial component. This abnormality was related to several factors, including increased blood volume, hypoxia, and increased right ventricular pressure. Polycythemia, commonly noted in other similar conditions with glomerulomegaly, is believed to be of no importance in the pathogenesis of glomerular enlargement. Images Figure 3-6 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1180328

  15. EVALUATION OF BENZO[C]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF BENZO[c]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T?CL8 CELLS Abstract The morphological cell transforming activities of three dihydrodiols of benzo[c]chrysene (B[c]C), trans-B[c]C-7,8-diol, trans-B[c]C-9...

  16. Molecular Dynamic Simulation: Morphology Study of Organic Photovoltaic Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Di

    Engineering heterodyne junction solar cells requires precise positioning of the photoactive polymers and the PCBM conductors such that maximum current reaches the electrodes with minimal resistive scattering. One possible method for accomplishing this may be to use polymer phase segregation in combination with the nanoparticles' natural segregation to the interfaces. In this manner, large-scale devices can be formed using self-assembly methods, rather than fixed methods. We have used Molecular Dynamics simulation to predict the morphology of polymer blends and determine which combination of factors would yield the optimal cylindrical pattern, which would contact the electrodes, while producing the largest number of interfaces. Secondly, we were also able to determine the conditions that would cause the particles to segregate and template along the interfaces, which would provide direct conductivity to the electrodes. Using thin film and bulk structures and by manipulating particle size, the attraction between the particle and the polymer component, and the amount of filler within the material, we can explore the formation of cheaper, more effective and efficient networks.

  17. Online monitoring of metabolism and morphology of peptide-treated neuroblastoma cancer cells and keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Sabine; Andrä, Jörg

    2011-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are promising anti-cancer agents with a unique mode of action. We established the usage of a chip-based sensor to monitor the dynamic interplay between cells on the chip and peptides and compared it with endpoint tests. Human neuroblastoma cancer cells and spontaneously immortalized non-cancer keratinocytes were perfused with representative peptides (NK-2, NK11, and melittin). The sensor system enabled continuous recording of cell layer impedance (adhesion/confluence), oxygen consumption (respiration) and extracellular acidification (glycolysis) and provided insights in cell damage, stress response and recovery. Cells responded differentially to peptide treatment. During perfusion, peptides accumulated on the cell surface until they reached a critical concentration. Preceding to cell death, melittin triggered glycolysis, suggesting stress response. NK-2 induced no change in energy metabolism, but led to an increase in impedance, i.e. a temporarily altered morphology, which appeared to be an excellent parameter to detect subtle structural changes of cell layers. PMID:21643697

  18. A Morphological Study of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    E-print Network

    C. Wainwright; E. Berger; B. E. Penprase

    2005-08-02

    We present a comprehensive study of the morphological properties of 42 gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the optical band. The purpose of this study is to understand the relation of GRBs to their macro-environments, and to compare the GRB-selected galaxies to other high redshift samples. We perform both qualitative and quantitative analyses by categorizing the galaxies according to their visual properties, and by examining their surface brightness profiles. We find that all of the galaxies have approximately exponential profiles, indicative of galactic disks, and have a median scale length of about 1.7 kpc. Inspection of the visual morphologies reveals a high fraction of merging and interacting systems, with \\~30% showing clear signs of interaction, and an additional ~30% exhibiting irregular and asymmetric structure which may be the result of recent mergers; these fractions are independent of redshift and galaxy luminosity. On the other hand, the three GRB host galaxies for which submillimeter and radio emission has been detected are isolated and compact, unlike the luminous submillimeter-selected galaxies. The fraction of mergers appears to be elevated compared to other high redshift samples, particularly for the low luminosities of GRB hosts (M_B ~ -16 to -21 mag). This suggests that merging and interacting galaxies undergoing a burst of star formation may be an efficient site for the production of GRB progenitors. Finally, we show that GRB hosts clearly follow the size-luminosity relation present in other galaxy samples, but thanks to absorption redshifts they help extend this relation to lower luminosities.

  19. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  20. Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy Chung, 2006 (Doc. ID 72519); published October 11, 2006 We describe azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy: 290.0290, 170.6510, 170.4580, 170.3890. Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) is an optical technique

  1. The effect of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan D. Oosterhout; Martijn M. Wienk; Svetlana S. van Bavel; Ralf Thiedmann; L. Jan Anton Koster; Jan Gilot; Joachim Loos; Volker Schmidt; René A. J. Janssen

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of polymer solar cells critically depends on the intimacy of mixing of the donor and acceptor semiconductors used in these devices to create charges and on the presence of unhindered percolation pathways in the individual components to transport holes and electrons. The visualization of these bulk heterojunction morphologies in three dimensions has been challenging and has hampered progress

  2. Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atay, Safinur [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Gercel-Taylor, Cicek [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Kesimer, Mehmet [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, Douglas D., E-mail: ddtaylor@louisville.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

  3. Changes of cell morphology and prolactin secretion induced by 2-Br- alpha-ergocryptine, estradiol, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The secretion of prolactin in cultured pituitary cells was studied in correlation with the cellular changes induced by stimulatory or inhibitory agents. The techniques used in this study were: radioimmunoassay, immunocytochemistry, scanning (SEM) as well as transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Prolactin secretion was stimulated by 17 beta-estradiol (10 nM) as well as thyrotropin- releasing hormone (TRH) (3 nM) and inhibited by 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154) (1 muM). The total prolactin (release and cell content) increased between 2 and 8 d of estradiol treatment, indicating an increase of both synthesis and release of prolactin. This finding was in agreement with TEM observations because, in estradiol-treated prolactin cells, the Golgi saccules were distended and Golgi elements were increased, thus indicating increased synthetic activity of these cells. The addition of TRH over a 4-h period resulted in a significant degranulation of prolactin cells. In contrast, prolactin secretory granules became accumulated in the cells after CB-154 treatment for a period ranging from 4 to 24 h. In agreement, light microscope immunocytochemistry showed an increased reaction for prolactin after short-term (< 24 h) incubation with CB-154. Because prolactin cells represent approximately 70% of the glandular cell population as revealed by immunocytochemistry, it was then possible to observe the changes of cell surface by SEM. In most cells, estradiol and TRH led to an increase in the number and prominence of microvilli and blebs, whereas CB-154 treatment resulted in a slightly decreased number of microvilli and an increased occurrence of membrane foldings. This report thus provides morphological evidence for the stimulatory effects of estradiol and TRH, and the inhibitory effects of CB-154 on prolactin secretion in pituitary cells in primary culture. These data, moreover, show that acute changes in secretory activity of prolactin-secreting cells are accompanied by marked changes of their morphological characteristics. PMID:6772648

  4. The effect of silica nanoparticle-modified surfaces on cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M. Lipski; Christopher J. Pino; Frederick R. Haselton; I.-Wei Chen; V. Prasad Shastri

    2008-01-01

    Chemical and morphological characteristics of a biomaterial surface are thought to play an important role in determining cellular differentiation and apoptosis. In this report, we investigate the effect of nanoparticle (NP) assemblies arranged on a flat substrate on cytoskeletal organization, proliferation and metabolic activity on two cell types, Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and mouse calvarial preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). To vary

  5. Dynamics Study on Morphological Stabilities of Cellular Crystal Lateral Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guowei; Chen, Shuying; Li, Qingchun; Yue, Xudong; Jin, Guangcan

    2012-06-01

    The lateral wall stabilities during the growing process of cellular crystal in the melt were studied in this article. The dynamics equation of cylindrical solid-liquid interface morphological stabilities in melt was first derived, and then the expression of criterion for cylindrical solid-liquid interface morphological stabilities was defined. The effect of the shape factor, solid radius, and other relevant factors on the morphological stabilities was analyzed. Also, the critical shape factor and critical growth rate for keeping the stabilities of the interface were determined. The phenomenon during the lateral growth process of ?-phase cellular crystal in carbon steel was observed under a high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscope (HTCSLM), which was used to verify the theoretical analysis and calculated results. The results indicate that the shape factor is beneficial to improving the stabilities of the cellular crystal lateral wall. During the increase process of the cellular crystal radius, however, there is a certain value of the cellular crystal radius, which induces the shape factor to reduce stabilities of the cellular crystal lateral wall rapidly. Even if the other conditions are unchanged, the shape of the cellular crystal may also cause the cellular crystal lateral wall to lose its stabilities. There are two critical growth rates to keep the cellular crystal lateral wall growing stably under the conditions of this research. For the Fe-0.15 pct C-0.8 pct Mn alloy, these two critical growth rates are 10-4 and 10 cm/s orders of magnitude, respectively. The difference between them is more than 105 times, so the slow critical growth rate conforms to the actual critical growth rate. The radius of the cellular crystal is the main influencing factor of lateral wall stabilities. The bigger the radius of the cellular crystal is, the worse the stabilities of the lateral wall are. That is also one of the reasons that the fine cellular crystal can survive during a certain period. The results of the theoretical analysis about stabilities of the cellular crystal lateral wall agree well with the lateral growth phenomena of ? phase cellular crystal in carbon steel observed by a HTCSLM. The theoretically calculated results of the radial critical growth rates are coincident with the experimental results.

  6. Hybrid morphology dependence of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Weifeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-01-01

    A nanocrystal thin-film solar cell operating on an exciton splitting pattern requires a highly efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and transportation of separated charges. A hybrid bulk-heterojunction (HBH) nanostructure providing a large contact area and interpenetrated charge channels is favorable to an inorganic nanocrystal solar cell with high performance. For this freshly appeared structure, here in this work, we have firstly explored the influence of hybrid morphology on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells with variation in CdSe nanoparticle morphology. Quantum dot (QD) or nanotetrapod (NT)-shaped CdSe nanocrystals have been employed together with CdTe NTs to construct different hybrid structures. The solar cells with the two different hybrid active layers show obvious difference in photovoltaic performance. The hybrid structure with densely packed and continuously interpenetrated two phases generates superior morphological and electrical properties for more efficient inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which could be readily realized in the NTs:QDs hybrid. This proved strategy is applicable and promising in designing other highly efficient inorganic hybrid solar cells. PMID:25386107

  7. Hybrid morphology dependence of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Weifeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-10-01

    A nanocrystal thin-film solar cell operating on an exciton splitting pattern requires a highly efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and transportation of separated charges. A hybrid bulk-heterojunction (HBH) nanostructure providing a large contact area and interpenetrated charge channels is favorable to an inorganic nanocrystal solar cell with high performance. For this freshly appeared structure, here in this work, we have firstly explored the influence of hybrid morphology on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells with variation in CdSe nanoparticle morphology. Quantum dot (QD) or nanotetrapod (NT)-shaped CdSe nanocrystals have been employed together with CdTe NTs to construct different hybrid structures. The solar cells with the two different hybrid active layers show obvious difference in photovoltaic performance. The hybrid structure with densely packed and continuously interpenetrated two phases generates superior morphological and electrical properties for more efficient inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which could be readily realized in the NTs:QDs hybrid. This proved strategy is applicable and promising in designing other highly efficient inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  8. Morphology of Nucleolar Cistrons in a Plant Cell, Acetabularia mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Trendelenburg, Michael F.; Spring, Herbert; Scheer, Ulrich; Franke, Werner W.

    1974-01-01

    The structural organization of transcriptionally active DNA that contains cistrons for precursor molecules of ribosomal RNA is described in positively stained spread preparations from nuclei and nucleoli isolated from the green alga, Acetabularia mediterranea Lmx. These nuclei contain large aggregates of nucleolar subunits in which fibril-covered regions, the putative active cistrons for precursors of ribosomal RNA, alternate with fibril-free intercepts, the “spacers.” The length distribution of the different intercepts of this DNA is given, and the pattern is compared with those shown in animal cell systems. The data are discussed in relation to problems of transcription and of amplification of ribosomal RNA genes. Images PMID:4610581

  9. Optimization of Cell Morphology Measurement via Single-Molecule Tracking PALM

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Nicholas A.; Lu, Hsiangmin E.; Blanpied, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    In neurons, the shape of dendritic spines relates to synapse function, which is rapidly altered during experience-dependent neural plasticity. The small size of spines makes detailed measurement of their morphology in living cells best suited to super-resolution imaging techniques. The distribution of molecular positions mapped via live-cell Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) is a powerful approach, but molecular motion complicates this analysis and can degrade overall resolution of the morphological reconstruction. Nevertheless, the motion is of additional interest because tracking single molecules provides diffusion coefficients, bound fraction, and other key functional parameters. We used Monte Carlo simulations to examine features of single-molecule tracking of practical utility for the simultaneous determination of cell morphology. We find that the accuracy of determining both distance and angle of motion depend heavily on the precision with which molecules are localized. Strikingly, diffusion within a bounded region resulted in an inward bias of localizations away from the edges, inaccurately reflecting the region structure. This inward bias additionally resulted in a counterintuitive reduction of measured diffusion coefficient for fast-moving molecules; this effect was accentuated by the long camera exposures typically used in single-molecule tracking. Thus, accurate determination of cell morphology from rapidly moving molecules requires the use of short integration times within each image to minimize artifacts caused by motion during image acquisition. Sequential imaging of neuronal processes using excitation pulses of either 2 ms or 10 ms within imaging frames confirmed this: processes appeared erroneously thinner when imaged using the longer excitation pulse. Using this pulsed excitation approach, we show that PALM can be used to image spine and spine neck morphology in living neurons. These results clarify a number of issues involved in interpretation of single-molecule data in living cells and provide a method to minimize artifacts in single-molecule experiments. PMID:22570741

  10. Three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells by using low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Kakuno, Yumi; Goto, Kentaro; Fukami, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Norikazu; Iwai, Hidenao; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing need for non-invasive imaging techniques in the field of stem cell research. Label-free techniques are the best choice for assessment of stem cells because the cells remain intact after imaging and can be used for further studies such as differentiation induction. To develop a high-resolution label-free imaging system, we have been working on a low-coherence quantitative phase microscope (LC-QPM). LC-QPM is a Linnik-type interference microscope equipped with nanometer-resolution optical-path-length control and capable of obtaining three-dimensional volumetric images. The lateral and vertical resolutions of our system are respectively 0.5 and 0.93 ?m and this performance allows capturing sub-cellular morphological features of live cells without labeling. Utilizing LC-QPM, we reported on three-dimensional imaging of membrane fluctuations, dynamics of filopodia, and motions of intracellular organelles. In this presentation, we report three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells). Two groups of monolayer hiPS cell cultures were prepared so that one group was cultured in a suitable culture medium that kept the cells undifferentiated, and the other group was cultured in a medium supplemented with retinoic acid, which forces the stem cells to differentiate. The volumetric images of the 2 groups show distinctive differences, especially in surface roughness. We believe that our LC-QPM system will prove useful in assessing many other stem cell conditions.

  11. Inhibition of Phenolic Acid Metabolism Results in Precocious Cell Death and Altered Cell Morphology in Leaves of Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lodovico Tamagnone; Angel Merida; Nicola Stacey; Kitty Plaskitt; Adrian Parr; Chi-Feng Chang; David Lynn; J. Maxwell Dow; Keith Roberts; Cathie Martin

    1998-01-01

    Several complex phenotypic changes are induced when the transcription factor AmMYB308 is overexpressed in trans- genic tobacco plants. We have previously shown that the primary effect of this transcription factor is to inhibit phenolic acid metabolism. In the plants that we produced, two morphological features were prominent: abnormal leaf palisade development and induction of premature cell death in mature leaves.

  12. ICSH recommendations for the standardization of nomenclature and grading of peripheral blood cell morphological features.

    PubMed

    Palmer, L; Briggs, C; McFadden, S; Zini, G; Burthem, J; Rozenberg, G; Proytcheva, M; Machin, S J

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines provide information on how to reliably and consistently report abnormal red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets using manual microscopy. Grading of abnormal cells, nomenclature and a brief description of the cells are provided. It is important that all countries in the world use consistent reporting of blood cells. An international group of morphology experts have decided on these guidelines using consensus opinion. For some red blood cell abnormalities, it was decided that parameters produced by the automated haematology analyser might be more accurate and less subjective than grading using microscopy or automated image analysis and laboratories might like to investigate this further. A link is provided to show examples of many of the cells discussed in this guideline. PMID:25728865

  13. Effects of entrapment on nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of pure cultures commonly found in biological wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudipta Pramanik; Rohit Khanna; Kalpana Katti; John McEvoy; Eakalak Khan

    The effects of cell entrapment on nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface property, and stress of major groups\\u000a of bacteria (betaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria) in biological municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. Three\\u000a different entrapment media (alginate, carrageenan, and polyvinyl alcohol) were examined. Results indicated that the entrapment\\u000a and type of entrapment media affected nucleic acid content, cell morphology, cell surface

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RNA SYNTHESIS, CELL DIVISION, AND MORPHOLOGY OF MAMMALIAN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Studzinski, George P.; Ellem, Kay A. O.

    1966-01-01

    Logarithmically growing HeLa cell monolayers were treated with a range of concentrations of puromycin aminonucleoside (AMS). The effects of AMS were studied by the following means: microscope examination of treated cells; enumeration of the cell number using an electronic particle counter; analyses for DNA, RNA, and protein content; incorporation of P32 and H3-thymidine into nucleic acids; and fractionation of nucleic acids by column chromatography. Taking the rate of incorporation of the isotopic precursor as a measure of nucleic acid synthesis, it was found that concentrations of the inhibitor which had a rapid effect on the rate of cell division inhibited the synthesis of all types of nucleic acids and of protein, but depressed ribosomal RNA synthesis most markedly. Lower concentrations of AMS selectively inhibited ribosomal RNA and, to a lesser extent, transfer RNA synthesis. Partial inhibition of ribosomal RNA synthesis with low doses had no effect on the rate of cell division within the period studied (3 generation times). The cell content of RNA returned to normal when the inhibitor was removed. PMID:5962936

  15. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris N

    2013-06-10

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions-which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. PMID:23588204

  16. A ROCK Inhibitor Blocks the Inhibitory Effect of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan on Morphological Changes of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells into Neuron-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Suk; Joe, Young Ae

    2013-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) inhibits neurite outgrowth of various neuronal cell types, and CSPG-associated inhibition of neurite outgrowth is mediated by the Rho/ROCK pathway. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into neuron-like cells under specific conditions and have been shown to differentiate into neuron-like cells by co-treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the hypoxia condition mimicking agent CoCl2. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that a ROCK inhibitor might be beneficial to regenerate neurons during stem cell therapy by preventing transplanted MSCs from inhibition by CSPG in damaged tissues. Indeed, dose-dependent inhibition by CSPG pretreatment was observed during morphological changes of Wharton’s jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) induced by Y27632 alone. The formation of neurite-like structures was significantly inhibited when WJ-MSCs were pre-treated with CSPG before induction under Y27632 plus CoCl2 conditions, and pretreatment with a protein kinase C inhibitor reversed such inhibition. However, CSPG treatment resulted in no significant inhibition of the WJ-MSC morphological changes into neuron-like cells after initiating induction by Y27632 plus CoCl2. No marked changes were detected in expression levels of neuronal markers induced by Y27632 plus CoCl2 upon CSPG treatment. CSPG also blocked the morphological changes of human bone marrow-derived MSCs into neuron-like cells under other neuronal induction condition without the ROCK inhibitor, and Y27632 pre-treatment blocked the inhibitory effect of CSPG. These results suggest that a ROCK inhibitor can be efficiently used in stem cell therapy for neuronal induction by avoiding hindrance from CSPG. PMID:24404335

  17. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensionalassays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Genee Y.; Myers, Connie A.; Neve, RichardM.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Spellman, Paul T.; Lorenz, Katrin; Lee, Eva H.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-01-31

    3D cell cultures are rapidly becoming the method of choice for the physiologically relevant modeling of many aspects of non-malignant and malignant cell behavior ex vivo. Nevertheless, only a limited number of distinct cell types have been evaluated in this assay to date. Here we report the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes of a substantial panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adopts a colony morphology of one of four main classes in 3D culture. These morphologies reflect, at least in part, the underlying gene expression profile and protein expression patterns of the cell lines, and distinct morphologies were also associated with tumor cell invasiveness and with cell lines originating from metastases. We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even tumor cells are cultured in 3D microenvironments.

  18. Epigenetic reprogramming by tumor-derived EZH2 gain-of-function mutations promotes aggressive 3D cell morphologies and enhances melanoma tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Barsotti, Anthony M.; Ryskin, Michael; Zhong, Wenyan; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Giannakou, Andreas; Loreth, Christine; Diesl, Veronica; Follettie, Maximillian; Golas, Jonathan; Lee, Michelle; Nichols, Timothy; Fan, Conglin; Li, Gang; Dann, Stephen; Fantin, Valeria R.; Arndt, Kim; Verhelle, Dominique; Rollins, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to genetic alterations, cancer cells are characterized by myriad epigenetic changes. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that is over-expressed and mutated in cancer. The EZH2 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations first identified in lymphomas have recently been reported in melanoma (~2%) but remain uncharacterized. We expressed multiple EZH2 GOF mutations in the A375 metastatic skin melanoma cell line and observed both increased H3K27me3 and dramatic changes in 3D culture morphology. In these cells, prominent morphological changes were accompanied by a decrease in cell contractility and an increase in collective cell migration. At the molecular level, we observed significant alteration of the axonal guidance pathway, a pathway intricately involved in the regulation of cell shape and motility. Furthermore, the aggressive 3D morphology of EZH2 GOF-expressing melanoma cells (both endogenous and ectopic) was attenuated by EZH2 catalytic inhibition. Finally, A375 cells expressing exogenous EZH2 GOF mutants formed larger tumors than control cells in mouse xenograft studies. This study not only demonstrates the first functional characterization of EZH2 GOF mutants in non-hematopoietic cells, but also provides a rationale for EZH2 catalytic inhibition in melanoma. PMID:25671303

  19. Effect of lentivirus-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuexiao; Lin, Yazhou; Yang, Kun; Yue, Bin; Xiang, Hongfei; Chen, Bohua

    2015-07-01

    Lower back pain is a common concern, and 40% of all cases involve the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). However, the excessive apoptosis of disc cells plays an important role in IVD degeneration, particularly in the nucleus pulposus (NP). Thus, anti-apoptotic gene therapy to attenuate or reverse the degenerative process within the NP is being developed. Survivin is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) and has been extensively investigated in cancer cells. However, little is known of the effects of survivin transfection on NP cells derived from degenerative human disc. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lentivirus (LV)?mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of NP cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro. NP cells were transfected with LV?mediated survivin. Subsequently, cell morphology was observed and the survivin mRNA expression levels were measured by RT?qPCR. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and by measuring caspase?3 activity. The results revealed that the morphology of the NP cells derived from degenerative human disc transfected with LV?mediated survivin was significantly altered as evidenced by cytomorphosis, the reduction of the cytoplasm and cell shrinkage. Following transfection, survivin gene expression significantly increased in the transfected cells and subsequent generation cells; however, no significant differences in the cell apoptotic rate and caspase?3 activity were observed. We found that transfection of the survivin gene into NP cells led to the stable expression of survivin and induced marked changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, no significant anti-apoptotic effects were observed following LV?mediated survivin transfection. Overall, our findings demonstrate that LV carrying surviving may be used to successfully enforce the expression of survivin in NP cells. However, cell morphology was evidently altered, whereas the apoptotic rate did not decrease. Comprehensive studies on the feasibility of using survivin in gene therapy in an aim to attenuate disc degeneration are warranted. Further research on the mechanisms responsible for the changes in cell morphology and cell function are also required. PMID:26017192

  20. Induction of the photosynthetic membranes of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: biochemical and morphological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chory, J.; Donohue, T.J.; Varga, A.R.; Staehelin, L.A.; Kaplan, S.

    1984-07-01

    Cells of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides grown in a 25% O/sub 2/ atmosphere were rapidly subjected to total anaerobiosis in the presence of light to study the progression of events associated with the de novo synthesis of the inducible intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM). This abrupt change in physiological conditions resulted in the immediate cessation of cell growth and whole cell protein, DNBA, and phospholipid accumulation. Detectable cell growth and whole cell protein accumulation resumed ca. 12 h later. Bulk phospholipid accumulation paralleled cell growth, but the synthesis of individual phospholipid species during the adaptation period suggested the existence of a specific regulatory site in phospholipid synthesis at the level of the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase system. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy showed that aerobic cells contain small indentations within the cell membrane that appear to be converted into discrete ICM invaginations within 1 hr after the imposition of anaerobiosis. Microscopic examination also revealed a series of morphological changes in ICM structure and organization during the lag period before the initiation of photosynthetic growth. Bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and the formation of the two light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes of R. sphaeroides (B800-B875) occurred coordinately within 2 h after the shift to anaerobic conditions. Using antibodies prepared against various ICM-specific polypeptides, the synthesis of reaction center proteins and the polypeptides associated with the B800-850 complex was monitored. The reaction center H polypeptide was immunochemically detected at low levels in the cell membrane of aerobic cells, which contained no detectable ICM or bacteriochlorophyll. 68 references, 11 figures.

  1. Repressed synthesis of ribosomal proteins generates protein-specific cell cycle and morphological phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Mamata; Bommakanti, Ananth; Shamsuzzaman, Md.; Gregory, Brian; Samsel, Leigh; Zengel, Janice M.; Lindahl, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The biogenesis of ribosomes is coordinated with cell growth and proliferation. Distortion of the coordinated synthesis of ribosomal components affects not only ribosome formation, but also cell fate. However, the connection between ribosome biogenesis and cell fate is not well understood. To establish a model system for inquiries into these processes, we systematically analyzed cell cycle progression, cell morphology, and bud site selection after repression of 54 individual ribosomal protein (r-protein) genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that repression of nine 60S r-protein genes results in arrest in the G2/M phase, whereas repression of nine other 60S and 22 40S r-protein genes causes arrest in the G1 phase. Furthermore, bud morphology changes after repression of some r-protein genes. For example, very elongated buds form after repression of seven 60S r-protein genes. These genes overlap with, but are not identical to, those causing the G2/M cell cycle phenotype. Finally, repression of most r-protein genes results in changed sites of bud formation. Strikingly, the r-proteins whose repression generates similar effects on cell cycle progression cluster in the ribosome physical structure, suggesting that different topological areas of the precursor and/or mature ribosome are mechanistically connected to separate aspects of the cell cycle. PMID:24109599

  2. Unpinning the Open-Circuit Voltage in Organic Solar Cells through Tuning Ternary Blend Active Layer Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlyabich, Petr; Thompson, Barry; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2015-03-01

    The use of ternary, as opposed to binary, blends having complementary absorption in active layers of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells is a simple approach to increase overall light absorption. While the open-circuit voltage (Voc) of such solar cells have generally been shown to be pinned by the smallest energy level difference between the donor and acceptor constituents, there have been materials systems, that when incorporated into active layers of solar cells, exhibit composition dependent and tunable Voc. Herein, we demonstrate that this Voc tunability in ternary blend solar cells is correlated with the morphology of the active layer. Chemical compatibility between the constituents in the blend, as probed by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) measurements, affords Voc tuning. The constituents need not ``co-crystallize'' limited miscibility between the constituents in the active layers of solar cells affords Voc tunability. Poor physical interactions between the constituent domains within the active layers, on the other hand, result in devices that exhibit an invariant Voc that is pinned by the smallest energy level difference between the donor(s) and the acceptor(s). Our morphological studies thus support the proposed alloying model that was put forth originally.

  3. Nanoporous gold membranes: From morphological control to fuel cell catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi

    Porous noble metals are particularly attractive for scientific research and industrial applications such as catalysis, sensing, and filtration. In this thesis, I will discuss the fabrication, characterization, and application of a new class of porous metals, called nanoporous metals (NPM). NPM is made during selective dissolution (also called dealloying) of reactive components (e.g., silver) from multi-component alloys (e.g., Ag/Au alloy). Commercially available white gold leaf (Ag65Au35) can, for example, be etched into nanoporous gold (NPG) membrane by simply floating the leaf on concentrated nitric acid for periods of a few minutes. NPG leaf adopts a single crystal porous structure within individual grains. The microstructure of NPG, such as the pore size, is tunable between a few nanometers to sub-micron length scale by either thermal annealing or post-treatment in nitric acid for extended period of time. A new gas-liquid-solid interface electroless plating technique is developed to uniformly cover the NPG surface with other metals, such as silver and platinum. This technique allows new opportunities of making functionalized nanostructures. We show that a combination of silver plating and dealloying can be used to make multimodal porous metals, which are expected to have application in sensing field. Electroless platinum plating onto NPG shows very usual growth mode. TEM observation indicates that the platinum layer on NPG surface takes a novel form of layer-islanding growth (Stranski-Krastanov growth). Annealing the Pt/NPG composite smoothens the Pt islands and forms a 1 nm coherent Pt layer on the NPG backbone, possibly with dislocation formation at the Pt/Au interface. Furthermore, it was found that we could dissolve the gold away in aqueous gold etchant, leaving behind the 1 nm-thick Pt shell, a structure we call nanotubular mesoporous platinum (NMP). Pt plated NPG has a series of unique structural properties, such as high active surface area, thermally stable, low Pt usage, and better tolerance to CO poisoning. We incorporated it as a membrane electrode into a working proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Preliminary results show that Pt/NPG has very good fuel cell performance at a very low platinum loading.

  4. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin

    2013-11-01

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe-Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe2Al5) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is `thick' and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  5. Morphological Study of Palatal Rugae in a Sudanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Hamid, Awrad

    2015-01-01

    Palatal rugae patterns have unique characteristics and have been proposed as an alternative method to establish identity when other means, such as fingerprints and dental records, are not attainable. This study was conducted to determine the morphological characteristics of palatine rugae and to assess the existence of side asymmetry in them in Sudanese Arabs. It also assesses the possibility of determining sex using logistic regression. One hundred dental casts for 50 males and 50 females aged between 18 and 23 were studied for palatal rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, as well as sexual dimorphism and side symmetry. The most predominant rugae were primary, and the most prevalent shapes in both sexes were wavy, curved, and straight forms. The predominant orientation was forward. Side asymmetry existed more in the orientations than in the shapes, but no side asymmetry was recorded in the dimensions. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, except for forward-directed rugae (P < 0.037). A predictive value of 60% was obtained in assigning sex using dimensions and orientations and of 58% using shapes alone. Therefore, the palatal rugae are not recommended for assigning sex effectively among Sudanese Arabs unless it is the only means available. PMID:25737723

  6. A SYNCHRONIC CONTRASTIVE STUDY OF ENGLISH AND YORUBA MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A RECIPE FOR LANGUAGE EDUCATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Olaoye

    The literature of linguistics is replete with separate studies of the morphological systems of English and Yoruba. Researchers concentrated their attention on pure linguistic analysis with little effort on comparative studies and implications for language teaching. This paper is on synchronic, contrastive study of English and Yoruba morphological systems. It is a sociolinguistic as well as psycholinguistic study in which

  7. The measurement of the morphology of closed cell foams which control the overall thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Glicksman, L.R.; Stewart, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Means to characterize and measure morphology which affects the solid and radiative contributions in closed cell foams have been developed. From measured two-dimensional intercept area distributions, the actual cell size distribution is calculated. For each of the small-celled polyurethane foams examined, the distribution is narrow, close to the mean cell diameter. From numerical analysis of extreme cell segregation, less than 13% error in the extinction coefficient and the radiative contribution calculated from the mean cell diameter is expected due to cell size distribution. A means to measure the fraction of solid in the strut from strut cross sectional areas is derived. For the small-celled foams analyzed, the fraction of solid in the strut decreases from 0.67 to 0.34 as mean cell diameter decreases from 0.363 mm to 0.109 mm. Smaller celled foams which show a redistribution of polymer from the struts to the cell walls as cell size decreases will exhibit a larger solid conductivity which may counterbalance the decrease in radiation which accompanies the small cell size.

  8. Unusual morphology of desmoplastic small round cell tumor from an ascitic fluid in the postchemotherapy setting

    PubMed Central

    González-Arango, Ricardo; Castro-Villabón, Diana; Barrera-Herrera, Luis E.; Palau, Mauricio; Rodríguez-Urrego, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a malignant neoplasm that most often presents in male adolescents as an abdominal mass. Cytological features have been previously described, but only two reports noted post chemotherapy changes on effusions. We report a case of a 15-year-old male with DSRCT status postchemotherapy that presented with ascitis. Unusual morphology was seen: Numerous malignant large and single cells with prominent nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm in a background without the stroma, occasional mitosis, and the abundant apoptosis. Cell block immunocytochemistry was confirmatory. Awareness of the postchemotherapy changes in this tumor will allow us to diagnose recurrence. PMID:25948947

  9. Oncocytes, oxyphils, Hürthle, and Askanazy cells: morphological and molecular features of oncocytic thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Mete, Ozgur; Asa, Sylvia L

    2010-03-01

    Our understanding of oncocytic change in thyroid nodules is evaluated in light of the recent progress in understanding the mitochondrial DNA, its mutations, and somatic mutations that affect mitochondrial function. These changes are largely unrelated to the genetic events that result in proliferation and neoplastic transformation of thyroid follicular epithelial cells. The criteria for diagnosing lesions that are composed predominantly of oncocytic cells are the same as those applied to follicular lesions that do not contain oncocytic cells, including follicular variant papillary carcinomas, based on nuclear morphology, immunohistochemical profiles, and molecular markers. PMID:20013317

  10. Understanding Polymer-Fullerene Morphology in Organic Solar Cells via Photoluminescence, Raman Scattering, and Spectroscopic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carach, Christopher Andrew

    Understanding and controlling carrier transport in conjugated polymer films and composites is critical to the development and application of plastic solar cells. Recent efforts have focused on "bulk heterojunction" structures where a conjugated polymer donor is mixed at the nanoscale with a fullerene acceptor to achieve large interfacial areas for exciton splitting. In these systems, fabrication protocols dramatically affect device efficiency and charge transport is intimately tied to film morphology through local order, domain formation, and compositional heterogeneity. We employ both far-field and confocal/near-field optical spectroscopy (absorbance, low-temperature photoluminescence, Raman) to study chain order (aggregation, pi-stacking), photo-oxidation, and local morphology in conjugated polymer (PPV and polythiophene) -- fullerene (PCBM) blends. Through quantitative analysis of exciton bandwidths, emission intensity, and vibronic lineshapes, we demonstrate that competition exists between the chemical "disordering" effect of photo-degradation and the physical "ordering" effect of aggregation, each of which dominate under different processing conditions. Large changes in photoluminescence and Raman show that PCBM begins to significantly hinder intra-chain planarization and inter-chain pi-overlap at a critical PCBM weight fraction. Furthermore, the critical weight fraction is a function of the polymer regiochemistry, occurring at lower PCBM weight fractions for a more regio-random polymer. Mild thermal annealing of blended films was seen to restore order, which results from PCBM phase segregation (lower dispersion) and growth of polymer aggregates. Spatially resolved spectral analysis of photoluminescence was also used to map fullerene diffusion and agglomeration as well as detect local changes in interfacial contact between donor and acceptor domains due to thermal annealing.

  11. Jaw Lever Analysis of Hawaiian Gobioid Stream Fishes: A Simulation Study of Morphological Diversity and

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    Jaw Lever Analysis of Hawaiian Gobioid Stream Fishes: A Simulation Study of Morphological Diversity- mance; simulation; muscle; adductor mandibulae; biomechanics; lever; Hawai'i INTRODUCTION Gobioid fishes

  12. Regenerative fuel cell study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    The completion of the study is reported for the regenerative fuel cell subsystem (RFCS) as an energy storage process for use aboard the space shuttle launched modular space station (MSS). The MSS mission requirements, and RFCS are discussed, and a comparison between RFCS and a nickel cadmium battery subsystem is presented. Development costs are also discussed.

  13. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its birth until the time of collection and to extract selected chambers for further studies. The variation in chamber number during the sampling period (in this study limited at 15 months) will allow the estimation of the mean chamber building rate for each investigated species. However, a number of morphological aberrations within the population can be observed: often multiple proloculi are present; their orientation to the equatorial plane (or planes) respectively the spatial position of the foramina between proloculus (or proloculi) to the reniform deuteroloculi, the geometry of septa and septula and their variation trough ontogeny and several other ontogenetic variation need further attention. Many new insights into the biology of living and fossil LBF will be obtained when the three dimensional morphology of the complete foraminiferal shell is raised to the population level.

  14. Mucinous spindle and tubular renal cell carcinoma: analysis of chromosomal aberration pattern of low-grade, high-grade, and overlapping morphologic variant with papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peckova, Kvetoslava; Martinek, Petr; Sperga, Maris; Montiel, Delia Perez; Daum, Ondrej; Rotterova, Pavla; Kalusová, Kristýna; Hora, Milan; Pivovarcikova, Kristýna; Rychly, Boris; Vranic, Semir; Davidson, Whitney; Vodicka, Josef; Dubová, Magdaléna; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2015-08-01

    The chromosomal numerical aberration pattern in mucinous tubular and spindle renal cell carcinoma (MTSRCC) is referred to as variable with frequent gains and losses. The objectives of this study are to map the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations (extent and location) in a large cohort of the cases and relate these findings to the morphologic variants of MTSRCC. Fifty-four MTSRCCs with uniform morphologic pattern were selected (of 133 MTSRCCs available in our registry) and divided into 3 groups: classic low-grade MTSRCC (Fuhrman nucleolar International Society of Urological Pathology grade 2), high-grade MTSRCC (grade 3), and overlapping MTSRCC with papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) morphology. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis was applied to 16 cases in which DNA was well preserved. Four analyzable classic low-grade MTSRCCs showed multiple losses affecting chromosomes 1, 4, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 22. No chromosomal gains were found. Four analyzable cases of MTSRCC showing overlapping morphology with PRCC displayed a more variable pattern including normal chromosomal status; losses of chromosomes 1, 6, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 22; and gains of 3, 7, 16, and 17. The group of 4 high-grade MTSRCCs exhibited a more uniform chromosomal aberration pattern with losses of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22 and without any gains detected. (1) MTSRCC, both low-grade and high-grade, shows chromosomal losses (including 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22) in all analyzable cases; this seems to be the most frequent chromosomal numerical aberration in this type of RCC. (2) Cases with overlapping morphologic features (MTSRCC and PRCC) showed a more variable pattern with multiple losses and gains, including gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 (2 cases). This result is in line with previously published morphologic and immunohistochemical studies that describe the broad morphologic spectrum of MTSRCC, with changes resembling papillary RCC. (3) The diagnosis of MTSRCC in tumors with overlapping morphology (MTSRCC and PRCC) showing gains of both chromosomes 7 and 17 remains questionable. Based on our findings, we recommend that such tumors should not be classified as MTSRCC but rather as PRCC. PMID:26009022

  15. THE K-REGION DIHYDRODIOL OF BENZO[A]PYRENE INDUCES DNA DAMAGE AND MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION IN C3H10T1/2CL8 MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS WITHOUT THE FORMATION OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The K -region dihydrodiol ofbenzo[ a ]pyrene induces DNA damage and morphological cell transformation in C3HlOTY2CL8 mouse embryo cells without the formation of detectable stable covalent DNA adducts Benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P) is the most thoroughly studied polycyclic aro...

  16. Quantification of Dynamic Morphological Drug Responses in 3D Organotypic Cell Cultures by Automated Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Härmä, Ville; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Happonen, Antti; Ahonen, Ilmari; Virtanen, Johannes; Siitari, Harri; Ĺkerfelt, Malin; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nees, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Glandular epithelial cells differentiate into complex multicellular or acinar structures, when embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix. The spectrum of different multicellular morphologies formed in 3D is a sensitive indicator for the differentiation potential of normal, non-transformed cells compared to different stages of malignant progression. In addition, single cells or cell aggregates may actively invade the matrix, utilizing epithelial, mesenchymal or mixed modes of motility. Dynamic phenotypic changes involved in 3D tumor cell invasion are sensitive to specific small-molecule inhibitors that target the actin cytoskeleton. We have used a panel of inhibitors to demonstrate the power of automated image analysis as a phenotypic or morphometric readout in cell-based assays. We introduce a streamlined stand-alone software solution that supports large-scale high-content screens, based on complex and organotypic cultures. AMIDA (Automated Morphometric Image Data Analysis) allows quantitative measurements of large numbers of images and structures, with a multitude of different spheroid shapes, sizes, and textures. AMIDA supports an automated workflow, and can be combined with quality control and statistical tools for data interpretation and visualization. We have used a representative panel of 12 prostate and breast cancer lines that display a broad spectrum of different spheroid morphologies and modes of invasion, challenged by a library of 19 direct or indirect modulators of the actin cytoskeleton which induce systematic changes in spheroid morphology and differentiation versus invasion. These results were independently validated by 2D proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility assays. We identified three drugs that primarily attenuated the invasion and formation of invasive processes in 3D, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Two of these compounds block Rac signalling, one affects cellular cAMP/cGMP accumulation. Our approach supports the growing needs for user-friendly, straightforward solutions that facilitate large-scale, cell-based 3D assays in basic research, drug discovery, and target validation. PMID:24810913

  17. In Vitro Reparative Dentin: a Biochemical and Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Teti, G.; Salvatore, V.; Ruggeri, A.; Manzoli, L.; Gesi, M.; Orsini, G.; Falconi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP), as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. PMID:24085272

  18. In vitro reparative dentin: a biochemical and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Teti, G; Salvatore, V; Ruggeri, A; Manzoli, L; Gesi, M; Orsini, G; Falconi, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP), as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. PMID:24085272

  19. Morphological Study of the Newly Designed Cementless Femoral Stem

    PubMed Central

    Baharuddin, Mohd Yusof; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Mohd Noor, Alias

    2014-01-01

    A morphology study was essential to the development of the cementless femoral stem because accurate dimensions for both the periosteal and endosteal canal ensure primary fixation stability for the stem, bone interface, and prevent stress shielding at the calcar region. This paper focused on a three-dimensional femoral model for Asian patients that applied preoperative planning and femoral stem design. We measured various femoral parameters such as the femoral head offset, collodiaphyseal angle, bowing angle, anteversion, and medullary canal diameters from the osteotomy level to 150?mm below the osteotomy level to determine the position of the isthmus. Other indices and ratios for the endosteal canal, metaphyseal, and flares were computed and examined. The results showed that Asian femurs are smaller than Western femurs, except in the metaphyseal region. The canal flare index (CFI) was poorly correlated (r < 0.50) to the metaphyseal canal flare index (MCFI), but correlated well (r = 0.66) with the corticomedullary index (CMI). The diversity of the femoral size, particularly in the metaphyseal region, allows for proper femoral stem design for Asian patients, improves osseointegration, and prolongs the life of the implant. PMID:25025068

  20. Functional Diversity of Layer IV Spiny Neurons in Rat Somatosensory Cortex: Quantitative Morphology of Electrophysiologically Characterized and Biocytin Labeled Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen F. Staiger; Iris Flagmeyer; Dirk Schubert; Karl Zilles; Rolf Kötter; Heiko J. Luhmann

    2004-01-01

    Previous analyses of the spiny layer IV neurons have almost exclu- sively focused on spiny stellate cells. Here we provide detailed morphological data characterizing three subpopulations of spiny neurons in slices of adolescent rats: (i) spiny stellate cells (58%), (ii) star pyramidal cells (25%) and (iii) pyramidal cells (17%), which can be distinguished objectively by the preferential orientation of their

  1. THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 279~272-280(1989) Morphological Study of Flight Motor

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Meldrum

    1989-01-01

    ). Morphological studies of neurons thus provide an essential basis for further physiological studies. In additionTHE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 279~272-280(1989) Morphological Study of Flight Motor Neurons of the difference between the flight systems of these two groups. Key words: insects, wing muscle, neuronal

  2. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Conti, Valentina; Gandaglia, Anna; Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions. PMID:26098633

  3. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions. PMID:26098633

  4. Following the biochemical and morphological changes of Bacillus atrophaeus cells during the sporulation process using Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Herbert J; Pitesky, Maurice E; Fergenson, David P; Steele, Paul T; Horn, Joanne; Frank, Matthias; Gard, Eric E

    2006-10-01

    Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS), a real-time single cell analytical technique, was used to follow the biochemical and morphological changes within a group of Bacillus atrophaeus cells by measuring individual cells during the process of sporulation. A mutant of B. atrophaeus that lacks the ability to produce dipicolinic acid (DPA) was also analyzed. Single cell aerodynamic sizing was used to follow gross morphological changes, and chemical analysis of single cells by mass spectrometry was used to follow some biochemical changes of B. atrophaeus cells during endospore formation. PMID:16616384

  5. Targeted disruption of vinculin genes in F9 and embryonic stem cells changes cell morphology, adhesion, and locomotion.

    PubMed Central

    Coll, J L; Ben-Ze'ev, A; Ezzell, R M; Rodríguez Fernández, J L; Baribault, H; Oshima, R G; Adamson, E D

    1995-01-01

    Vinculin, a major constituent of focal adhesions and zonula adherens junctions, is thought to be involved in linking the microfilaments to areas of cell-substrate and cell-cell contacts. To test the role of vinculin in cell adhesion and motility, we used homologous recombination to generate F9 embryonal carcinoma and embryonic stem cell clones homozygous for a disrupted vinculin gene. When compared to wild-type cells, vinculin-mutant cells displayed a rounder morphology and a reduced ability to adhere and spread on plastic or fibronectin. Decreased adhesion of the mutant cells was associated with a reduction in lamellipodial extensions, as observed by time-lapse video microscopy. The locomotive activities of control F9 and the vinculin-null cells were compared in two assays. Loss of vinculin resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in cell motility. These results demonstrate an important role for vinculin in determining cell shape, adhesion, surface protrusive activity, and cell locomotion. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568093

  6. Studying Cryogenic Fracturing Process and Fracture Morphology using Transparent Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, M.; Yin, X.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Wu, Y. S.; Alqahtani, N.; Patterson, T.; Yao, B.; Miskimins, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cryogenic fracturing exploits thermal gradient and resulting local tensile stress to initiate fractures / cracks on a surface exposed to cryogenic fluids. This study investigates the development and morphology of cracks generated from cryogenic thermal shock in a borehole geometry. The study evaluates cryogenic thermal shock under no external confining stress to specimens. To better understand this process in a geometry relevant to applications, a borehole was drilled through transparent acrylic specimens representing a wellbore. This borehole was partially cased with stainless steel tubing set by a high yield epoxy. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the wellbore through a stainless steel tube. The pressure was low (< 10 psia) and the fractures were initiated by the thermal shock; these initiated fractures allowed further penetration of the cryogen, which helped to propagate fractures throughout the specimen. A major advantage of performing this experiment in a transparent cryogenic specimen is the ability to observe fracture proliferation through time. It is observed that fracture growth was characterized by abrupt starts and stops, which suggest that the tensile stress generated inside the borehole must reach a certain threshold for fracture initiation and growth. Two distinctive patterns in crack development were observed: one is horizontal-planar-radial pattern created by longitudinal thermal contraction, and another is vertical cracks by circumferential contraction. The horizontal cracks appeared to be spaced by a certain length, known as the exclusion distance, which exists because a set of cracks cannot be created closer than a certain length due to limited amount of thermal contraction. The vertical tension cracks tend to initiate between the horizontal radial cracks and bridge them, as it may be energy-efficient to start from and propagate to existing defects.

  7. Electrophysiological properties of morphologically distinct cells isolated from the rabbit atrioventricular node.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, A A; Adjemian, R A; Zhao, J; Ogbaghebriel, A; Shrier, A

    1996-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted using the whole-cell patch clamp technique to determine the electrophysiological properties and ionic currents of ovoid and rod-shaped single isolated calcium-tolerant rabbit atrioventricular (AV) nodal cells. 2. Action potential morphologies observed in these cells were similar to those obtained previously from intracellular recordings of intact atrioventricular nodal preparations: ovoid cells had N- or NH-like action potential configurations (see below), whereas rod-shaped cells had AN-like configurations. 3. Action potential restitution in AV nodal cells was characterized by a progressive increase in overshoot potential, maximal upstroke velocity (Vmax) and action potential duration, as well as a decrease in latency from stimulus to Vmax. In rod-shaped cells, premature stimuli could induce regenerative membrane responses before full action potential repolarization, whereas ovoid cells showed only post-repolarization refractoriness. In ovoid cells stimulated at the low stimulus intensities there was no shortening of the action potential duration and the most premature action potentials were often prolonged. 4. The quasi-steady-state current-voltage relationship of ovoid cells was significantly steeper, at both depolarized and hyperpolarized potentials, than that of either the rod-shaped AV nodal cells or atrial cells. The rod-shaped AV nodal cells and the atrial cells had similar current-voltage (I-V) relationships in the positive potential range, but the I-V curves crossed over at potentials of about-90 mV. 5. A hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(f)) was apparent in the range between -60 and -90 mV in 95% of the ovoid cells (n = 75), whereas in 88% of rod-shaped cells (n = 16) I(f) was activated at more negative potentials. The magnitude of I(f) in ovoid cells, measured at -100 mV, was approximately 25 times that in rod-shaped cells. 6. A rapid inward current (INa) greater than 1 nA was found in all rod-shaped cells (n = 16) but in only 30% of ovoid cells (n = 75). A transient outward current (I(to)) was found in 93% of rod-shaped cells (n = 14) and in 42% of ovoid cells (n = 54). The combination of I(to) and INa was found in 93% of rod-shaped cells but in only 24% of ovoid cells. 7. These results suggest that there are at least two populations of isolated AV nodal cells with distinct action potentials and ionic current profiles that may contribute to the complex electrophysiological properties observed in the intact AV node. Images Figure 1 PMID:8799901

  8. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Cooper; R. Krueger

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc\\/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on semiconductor morphologies with ZnO nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason B. Baxter; Eray S. Aydil

    2006-01-01

    ZnO nanowires and structures that combine nanowires and nanoparticles were used as the wide band gap semiconducting photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The nanowires provide a direct path from the point of photogeneration to the conducting substrate and offer alternative semiconductor network morphologies to those possible with sintered nanoparticles. Growing nanowires with dendrite-like branched structure greatly enhances their surface

  10. TCEB1-mutated renal cell carcinoma: a distinct genomic and morphological subtype.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, A Ari; Tickoo, Satish K; Jacobsen, Anders; Sarungbam, Judy; Sfakianos, John P; Sato, Yusuke; Morikawa, Teppei; Kume, Haruki; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio; Chen, Ying-Bei; Sankin, Alexander I; Mano, Roy; Coleman, Jonathan A; Russo, Paul; Ogawa, Seishi; Sander, Chris; Hsieh, James J; Reuter, Victor E

    2015-06-01

    Integrated sequencing analysis identified a group of tumors among clear cell renal cell carcinomas characterized by hotspot mutations in TCEB1 (a gene that contributes to the VHL complex to ubiquitinate hypoxia-inducible factor). We analyzed 11 tumors from two distinct cohorts with TCEB1 mutations along with an expanded cohort to assess whether these should be considered an entity distinct from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma. All tumors were characterized by hotspot mutations in TCEB1 Y79C/S/F/N or A100P. Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumors were assessed by two experienced genitourinary pathologists. Clinical and pathological variables, copy number alterations, mutations, and expression signatures were compared with a cohort of TCEB1 wild-type tumors. All TCEB1-mutated tumors were VHL and PBRM1 wild type and contained distinct copy number profiles including loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 8, the location of TCEB1 (8q21.11). All tumors lacked the clear cell renal cell carcinoma signature 3p loss and contained distinct gene expression signatures. None of the clear cell papillary tumors harbored TCEB1 mutations. Pathologically, all TCEB1-mutated tumors shared characteristic features including thick fibromuscular bands transecting the tumor, pure clear cell cytology frequently with cells showing voluminous cytoplasm, and clear cell renal cell carcinoma-like acinar areas associated with infolding tubular and focally papillary architecture. The presence of voluminous cytoplasm, absence of luminal polarization of tumor nuclei, and lack of extensive cup-like distribution of carbonic anhydrase-IX expression distinguish it from clear cell papillary carcinoma. None of the patients developed metastases at last follow-up (median 48 months). In sum, TCEB1-mutated renal cell carcinoma is a distinct entity with recurrent hotspot mutations, specific copy number alterations, pathway activation, and characteristic morphological features. Further clinical follow-up is needed to determine whether these tumors are more indolent compared with the conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25676555

  11. Morphological studies of the skeletal muscles of rats during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrov, Y.; Kovachev, G.; Cheresharov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The skeletal musculature of two groups of Wistar strain rats were studied. A group of 60 day old members were kept in individual cells for physiologic immobilization, while the control group was raised under normal conditions. All animals were killed for tests at 450 days. Skeletal muscles of rats kept 390 days immobilized had a lower weight, muscle fiber diameter of m. semitendinosus was smaller in immobilized rats while variability in muscle fiber thickness was greater in the test group. It is found that degenerative processes involved light and dark fibers.

  12. Correlations between the Dielectric Properties and Exterior Morphology of Cells Revealed by Dielectrophoretic Field-Flow Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Shim, Sangjo; Noshari, Jamileh; Becker, Frederick F.; Stemke-Hale, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Although dielectrophoresis (DEP) has great potential for addressing clinical cell isolation problems based on cell dielectric differences, a biological basis for predicting the DEP behavior of cells has been lacking. Here, the dielectric properties of the NCI-60 panel of tumor cell types have been measured by dielectrophoretic (DEP) field-flow fractionation, correlated with the exterior morphologies of the cells during growth, and compared with the dielectric and morphological characteristics of the subpopulations of peripheral blood. In agreement with earlier findings, cell total capacitance varied with both cell size and plasma membrane folding and the dielectric properties of the NCI-60 cell types in suspension reflected the plasma membrane area and volume of the cells at their growth sites. Therefore, the behavior of cells in DEP-based manipulations is largely determined by their exterior morphological characteristics prior to release into suspension. As a consequence, DEP is able to discriminate between cells of similar size having different morphological origins, offering a significant advantage over size-based filtering for isolating circulating tumor cells, for example. The findings provide a framework for anticipating cell dielectric behavior on the basis of structure-function relationships and suggest that DEP should be widely applicable as a surface marker-independent method for sorting cells. PMID:23172680

  13. Apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells of cattle: morphological features and clearance by homologous phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Carou, María Clara; Cruzans, Paula Romina; Maruri, Alejandro; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Lombardo, Daniel Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is involved in many physiological processes of the ovary, such as recruitment of prenatal germ cells, follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteolysis. Based on the need for the involvement of phagocytic cells to achieve apoptosis clearance and that follicular atresia is triggered by weak apoptotic stimuli, we postulate that granulosa cells engullng apoptotic corpses (ACs) must carry out this macrophagic process. Since apoptosis was early defined in terms of morphological aspects, here we describe apoptosis induced by a GnRH analog (leuprolide acetate, LA) at histological level on bovine granulosa cells (primary culture, CPGB, and an established cell line, BGC-1). We observed two main types of apoptosis. In type A, the whole cell or most of it is compacted into a single large AC that is then engulfed by neighboring cells or simply detached. In type B, small portions of cells, either with or without nuclear material, become ACs that are also phagocytosed. Apoptosis and homologous phagocytosis were confirmed by TUNEL and immunocytochemistry for Bax and active caspase 3. Induction of apoptosis was significant in BGC-1 cells treated for 24 h with 100 nM LA. CPGB cells showed two types of response with different doses of LA. Fetal calf serum was necessary to find apoptosis induced by LA. PMID:25511683

  14. Gut associated lymphoid tissue: a morphological and immunocytochemical study of the human appendix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Spencer; T Finn; P G Isaacson

    1985-01-01

    Gut associated lymphoid tissue in 15 normal appendices has been characterised in tissue sections using both morphological criteria and immunocytochemical techniques. A panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was used including antibodies to B-cells, T-cells, macrophages, HLA DR and immunoglobulins. The lymphoid tissue in the appendix was shown to bear a strong resemblance to that in lymph nodes with the

  15. Rim morphology of nanopore for studying single biomolecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaige; Li, Qiang; Xu, Guiwen; Jin, Aizi; Gu, Changzhi

    2009-05-01

    The fabrication and application of micro- and nanoscale containers and devices are recently attracted much attention. The top profiles of these nanoscale patterns are very important for nano-devices integration. The morphologies of small containers, nanopit and nanopore fabricated with focused ion beam (FIB) milling tool, are explored by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The topography of every pattern looks like a volcano. The protruded ring-shaped structures surrounding the crater are attributed to the swelling due to the amorphization when FIB processed the crystal silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrate. In addition, the morphologies of anodic alumina oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated by anodizing of metallic aluminum are discussed.

  16. Morphological study of Albanian words, and processing with NooJ

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Morphological study of Albanian words, and processing with NooJ Odile Piton1 , Klara Lagji2 1 and transducers for the automatic processing of the Albanian Language. We will analyze the words inside a linear-2Feb2010 #12;Morphological study of Albanian words, and processing with NooJ for part of verbal forms

  17. LASER CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE STUDY OF DENTAL MORPHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Jernvall, Jukka

    LASER CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE STUDY OF DENTAL MORPHOLOGY with eosin dye are optically sectioned with 25-100 µm intervals using a laser confocal microscope Systems in the Study of Dental Morphology. Palaeontologia Electronica, 2(1): 18., 905KB http

  18. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  19. Subtype-dependent Morphological and Functional Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Mouse Models of Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Puyang, Zhen; Chen, Hui; Liu, Xiaorong

    2015-01-01

    In this short review, Puyang and her colleagues compared the results from three laboratories on the dendritic and functional degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in mouse models of experimental glaucoma [1–4]. Acute or chronic ocular hypertension was induced in mice, and different techniques were applied to identify RGC types. The dendritic alternations of RGCs were examined following the induction of ocular hypertension, and their light response properties were characterized by the multi-electrode array (MEA) recording. These studies support the notion that the morphological and functional degeneration of RGCs are subtype-dependent in experimental glaucoma. PMID:26000339

  20. Real-time in-situ observation of morphological changes in organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells by means of capacitance measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Lungenschmied; Siegfried Bauer; Reinhard Schwödiauer; Sheila Rodman; Darcy Fournier; Gilles Dennler; Christoph J. Brabec

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to directly study temperature induced structural and morphological changes in the active layer of organic solar cells by capacitance determination. At sufficiently high frequencies the change in device capacitance with temperature is dominated by the expansion of the organic layer. Variations in the expansion coefficient or the permittivity are visible in the capacitive response. We have

  1. Morphological and morphometric characterization of direct transdifferentiation of support cells into hair cells in ototoxin-exposed neonatal utricular explants.

    PubMed

    Werner, Mimmi; Van De Water, Thomas R; Hammarsten, Peter; Arnoldsson, Göran; Berggren, Diana

    2015-03-01

    We have studied aminoglycoside-induced vestibular hair-cell renewal using long-term culture of utricular macula explants from 4-day-old rats. Explanted utricles were exposed to 1 mM of gentamicin for 48 h, during 2nd and 3rd days in vitro (DIV), and then recovering in unsupplemented medium. Utricles were harvested at specified time points from the 2nd through the 28th DIV. The cellular events that occurred within hair cell epithelia during the culture period were documented from serial sectioned specimens. Vestibular hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs) were systematically counted using light microscopy (LM) with the assistance of morphometric software. Ultrastructural observations were made from selected specimens with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After 7 DIV, i.e. four days after gentamicin exposure, the density of HCs was 11% of the number of HCs observed in non-gentamicin-exposed control explants. At 28 DIV the HC density was 61% of the number of HCs observed in the control group explant specimens. Simultaneously with this increase in HCs there was a corresponding decline in the number of SCs within the epithelium. The proportion of HCs in relation to SCs increased significantly in the gentamicin-exposed explant group during the 5th to the 28th DIV period of culture. There were no significant differences in the volume estimations of the gentamicin-exposed and the control group explants during the observed period of culture. Morphological observations showed that gentamicin exposure induced extensive loss of HCs within the epithelial layer, which retained their intact apical and basal linings. At 7 to 14 DIV (i.e. 3-11 days after gentamicin exposure) a pseudostratified epithelium with multiple layers of disorganized cells was observed. At 21 DIV new HCs were observed that also possessed features resembling SCs. After 28 DIV a new luminal layer of HCs with several layers of SCs located more basally characterized the gentamicin-exposed epithelium. No mitoses were observed within the epithelial layer of any explants. Our conclusion is that direct transdifferentiation of SCs into HCs was the only process contributing to the renewal of HCs after gentamicin exposure in these explants of vestibular inner ear epithelia obtained from the labyrinths of 4-day-old rats. PMID:25576788

  2. Morphological Analysis in Sentence Processing: An ERP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mark; Badecker, William; Osterhout, Lee

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effects of syntactic (tense) violations occurring on regularly versus irregularly inflected verbs using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Discusses implications of the results with respect to morphological parsing, the time course of syntactic feature analysis, and their consequent effects on temporal properties of ERP…

  3. Screening of agents which convert 'transformed morphology' of Rous sarcoma virus-infected rat kidney cells to 'normal morphology': identification of an active agent as herbimycin and its inhibition of intracellular src kinase.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Y; Hori, M; Takeuchi, T; Umezawa, H

    1985-08-01

    During the course of screening of agents active in converting the transformed morphology of Rous sarcoma virus-infected rat kidney cells to the normal morphology, we identified an active substance produced by Streptomyces sp. MH237-CF8 as herbimycin. Herbimycin converted almost all cells into the normal morphology. The antibiotic was found to be an inhibitor of p60src-associated protein kinase in the cells. PMID:3930444

  4. Early B-cell Factor 1 Regulates Adipocyte Morphology and Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Mejhert, Niklas; Fretz, Jackie A.; Arner, Erik; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Gong, Xiaowei; Strömblad, Staffan; Douagi, Iyadh; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Dahlman, Ingrid; Daub, Carsten O.; Rydén, Mikael; Horowitz, Mark C.; Arner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary White adipose tissue (WAT) morphology characterized by hypertrophy (i.e. fewer but larger adipocytes) associates with increased adipose inflammation, lipolysis, insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. However, the causal relationships and the mechanisms controlling WAT morphology are unclear. Herein, we identified EBF1 as an adipocyte-expressed transcription factor with decreased expression/activity in WAT hypertrophy. In human adipocytes, the regulatory targets of EBF1 were enriched for genes controlling lipolysis and adipocyte morphology/differentiation and in both humans and murine models, reduced EBF1 levels associated with increased lipolysis and adipose hypertrophy. Although EBF1 did not affect adipose inflammation, TNF? reduced EBF1 gene expression. High fat diet-intervention in Ebf1+/? mice resulted in more pronounced WAT hypertrophy and attenuated insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type littermate controls. We conclude that EBF1 is an important regulator of adipose morphology and fat cell lipolysis and may constitute a link between WAT inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, adipose hypertrophy and insulin resistance. PMID:24856929

  5. Cell Surface Expression of Polysialic Acid on NCAM Is a Prerequisite for Activity-Dependent Morphological Neuronal and Glial Plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dionysia T. Theodosis; Renee Bonhomme; Sergio Vitiello; Genevieve Rougon; Dominique A. Poulain

    1999-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) on the extracellular domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) reduces cell adhesion and is considered an important regulator of cell surface interactions. The hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS), whose glia, neurons, and synapses undergo striking, reversible morpholog- ical changes in response to physiological stimulation, ex- presses high levels of PSA-NCAM throughout life. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry

  6. Influence of charge carrier mobility and morphology on solar cell parameters in devices of mono- and bis-fullerene adducts.

    PubMed

    Muth, Mathis-Andreas; Mitchell, William; Tierney, Steven; Lada, Thomas A; Xue, Xiang; Richter, Henning; Carrasco-Orozco, Miguel; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2013-12-01

    Herein, we analyze charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells and correlate them with device parameters. A low band gap donor-acceptor copolymer in combination with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or two bis-adduct fullerenes, bis-PCBM and bis-o-quino-dimethane C60 (bis-oQDMC), is investigated. We study the charge transport of polymer:fullerene blends in hole- and electron-only devices using the space-charge limited current method. Lower electron mobilities are observed in both bis-adduct fullerene blends. Hole mobility, however, is decreased only in the blend containing bis-oQDMC. Both bis-adduct fullerene blends show very high open circuit voltage in solar cell devices, but poor photocurrent compared to the standard PCBM blend for an active layer thickness of 200 nm. Therefore, a higher short circuit current is feasible for the polymer:bis-PCBM blend by reducing the active layer thickness in order to compensate for the low electron mobility, which results in a PCE of 4.3%. For the polymer:bis-oQDMC blend, no such improvement is achieved due to an unfavorable morphology in this particular blend system. The results are supported by external quantum efficiency measurements, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV/vis spectroscopy. Based on these results, the investigations presented herein give a more scientific basis for the optimization of solar cells. PMID:24196215

  7. Change of Morphology and Cytoskeletal Protein Gene Expression during Dibutyryl cAMP-induced Differentiation in C6 Glioma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiwei Hu; Takeshi Onuma; Naoko Birukawa; Masashi Abe; Etsuro Ito; Zhong Chen; Akihisa Urano

    2008-01-01

    Elevation of the intracellular cAMP level induces morphological changes of astrocyte-like differentiation in C6 glioma cells.\\u000a Such changes may be accompanied with expression of cytoskeletal protein genes. We therefore analyzed morphological changes\\u000a after a treatment with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) and then assessed the expression of cytoskeletal protein genes by a quantitative\\u000a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cell number remained unaltered

  8. Epithelial cell morphology and adhesion on diamond films deposited and chemically modified by plasma processes.

    PubMed

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Ukraintsev, Egor; Krátká, Marie; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, Frantisek; Mandys, Vaclav

    2014-09-01

    The authors show that nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with a linear antenna delivery system are well compatible with epithelial cells (5637 human bladder carcinoma) and significantly improve the cell adhesion compared to reference glass substrates. This is attributed to better adhesion of adsorbed layers to diamond as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) beneath the cells. Moreover, the cell morphology can be adjusted by appropriate surface treatment of diamond by using hydrogen and oxygen plasma. Cell bodies, cytoplasmic rims, and filopodia were characterized by Peakforce AFM. Oxidized NCD films perform better than other substrates under all conditions (96% of cells adhered well). A thin adsorbed layer formed from culture medium and supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) covered the diamond surface and played an important role in the cell adhesion. Nevertheless, 50-100 nm large aggregates formed from the RPMI medium without FBS facilitated cell adhesion also on hydrophobic hydrogenated NCD (increase from 23% to 61%). The authors discuss applicability for biomedical uses. PMID:25280853

  9. Microfabrication of Custom Collagen Structures Capable of Guiding Cell Morphology and Alignment.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Eun-A; Ahn, Suji; Jaworski, Justyn

    2015-06-01

    The patterning of biological components into structural analogues of native tissues to simulate an environment for directing cell growth is one important strategy in biomaterials fabrication. It is widely accepted that chemical, mechanical, and topological cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) provide important signals for guiding cells to exhibit characteristic polarity, orientation, and morphology. To fully understand the delicate relationship between cell behavior and ECM features, biomaterials fabrication requires improved techniques for tailoring nano/microstructured patterns from relevant biological building blocks rather than using nonbiological materials. Here we reveal a unique approach for the nano/microfabrication of custom patterned biomaterials using collagen as the sole building material. With this new fabrication technique, we further revealed that custom collagen patterns could direct the orientation and morphology of fibroblast growth as a function of vertex density and pattern spacing. Our findings suggest that this technique may be readily adopted for the free form fabrication of custom cell scaffolds purely from natural biological molecules including collagen, among other relevant ECM components. PMID:25955148

  10. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  11. Morphological and semantic effects in visual word recognition: A time-course study

    E-print Network

    Davis, Matt

    that there is a level of processing or representation at which morphemes are treated differently from whole words of morphology on language processing. It has been shown across languages that recognition of a target word (eMorphological and semantic effects in visual word recognition: A time-course study Kathleen Rastle

  12. Modification of osteoarthritis by pulsed electromagnetic field—a morphological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. McK Ciombor; R. K Aaron; S Wang; B Simon

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Hartley guinea pigs spontaneously develop arthritis that bears morphological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical similarities to human osteoarthritis. It is characterized by the appearance of superficial fibrillation by 12 months of age and severe cartilage lesions and eburnation by 18 months of age. This study examines the effect of treatment with a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) upon the morphological progression of

  13. Comparative Studies on the External Morphology of three Species of the Genus Acrotylus Fieber. (Orthoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SYED ADEEL AKHTAR SHAH; ANJUM SUHAIL; MUHAMMAD ARSHAD; M. TAYYIB; M. ASGHAR

    Grasshoppers are important species of insects but comparatively little information is available in the literature on morphology of species of the genus Acrotylus (Fieber). No significant efforts seem to have been done to study their external morphology, which forms the basis for ascertaining the characters of taxonomic value for the correct identification of this important group of insects. The present

  14. Altered Mitochondrial Membrane Potential, Mass, and Morphology in the Mononuclear Cells of Humans with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Widlansky, Michael E.; Wang, Jingli; Shenouda, Sherene M.; Hagen, Tory M.; Smith, Anthony R.; Kizhakekuttu, Tinoy J.; Kluge, Matthew A.; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Gutterman, David D.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and morphological changes are important in inflammatory cell activation. Despite the pathophysiological relevance, no valid and reproducible method for measuring mitochondrial homeostasis in human inflammatory cells is currently available. This study's purpose was to define and validate reproducible methods for measuring relevant mitochondrial perturbations and to determine whether these methods could discern mitochondrial perturbations in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a condition associated with altered mitochondrial homeostasis. We employed 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1'3,3'-tetraethylbenzamidazol-carboncyanine (JC-1) to estimate mitochondrial membrane potential (?m) and acridine orange 10-nonyl bromide (NAO) to assess mitochondrial mass in human mononuclear cells isolated from blood. Both assays were reproducible. We validated our findings by electron microscopy and pharmacological manipulation of ?m. We measured JC-1 and NAO fluorescence in the mononuclear cells of 27 T2DM patients and 32 controls. Mitochondria were more polarized (P=0.02) and mitochondrial mass was lower in T2DM (P=0.008). Electron microscopy demonstrated diabetic mitochondria were smaller, more spherical, and occupied less cellular area in T2DM. Mitochondrial superoxide production was higher in T2DM (P=0.01). Valid and reproducible measurements of mitochondrial homeostasis can be made in human mononuclear cells using these fluorophores. Further, potential clinically relevant perturbations in mitochondrial homeostasis in T2DM human mononuclear cells can be detected. PMID:20621033

  15. Low-aspect ratio nanopatterns on bioinert alumina influence the response and morphology of osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wittenbrink, Isabel; Hausmann, Anne; Schickle, Karolina; Lauria, Ines; Davtalab, Roswitha; Foss, Morten; Keller, Adrian; Fischer, Horst

    2015-09-01

    Topographical features on the nanometer scale are known to influence cellular behavior. The response of specific cell types to various types of surface structures is currently still being investigated. Alumina ceramics play an important role as biomaterials, e.g., in medical and dental applications. In this study, we investigated the influence of nanoscale surface features with low aspect ratio (< 0.1) on the response of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. To this end, low-energy ion irradiation was employed to produce shallow nanoscale ripple patterns on Al2O3(0001) surfaces with lateral periodicities of 24 nm and 179 nm and heights of only 0.7 and 11.5 nm, respectively. The nanopatterning was found to increase the proliferation of MG-63 cells and may lead to pseudopodia alignment along the ripples. Furthermore, focal adhesion behavior and cell morphology were analyzed. We found that MG-63 cells are able to recognize surface nanopatterns with extremely low vertical variations of less than 1 nm. In conclusion, it is shown that surface topography in the sub-nm range significantly influences the response of osteoblast-like cells. PMID:26022980

  16. Influence of Zn incorporation in CdS: Structural and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Fu, M.; Mitra, P.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, cadmium zinc sulfide (CdxZn1-xS) alloy compounds have been paid much attention in the fields of opto-electronics, particularly in photovoltaic devices. In this report, the structural, morphological and optical properties of Cdx Zn1-x S films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), which is a very attractive method for low-cost and large-area solar cell applications, has been presented. The as-grown layers were characterized using XRD, EDAX, FESEM, TEM and UV-vis spectrophotometers. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and SAED measurement reveals a dominant cubic structure with a minor hexagonal phase for high zinc content films. EDAX analysis shows nearly stoichiometric films with cadmium excess. Close packed and less dissociated surface morphology was observed in the Cdx Zn1-x S ternary thin films with lower Zn2+ content than the higher Zn2+ content one. Agglomeration of nanocrystals for high zinc content films results in enhanced absorption. The mean grain size of Cd0.5 Zn0.5 S calculated from TEM image is ~15 nm. Optical absorption study exhibits a distinct blue shift in band gap energy with enhancement of zinc content in the film.

  17. Structural and surface morphological study of Ni doped ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khawal, H. A., E-mail: drbndole.phy@gmail.com; Dole, B. N., E-mail: drbndole.phy@gmail.com [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad- 431 004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Samples of Zn{sub 1?x}Ni{sub x}S (x=0.00, 0.04, 0.08) nanoparticles were synthesized by using the co-precipitation method at room temperature. Structural parameters were investigated by X – ray diffraction (XRD), it reveals that all samples of Ni doped ZnS exhibit the cubic structure with no additional impurity phase. The average crystallite size of all samples is in the range of 2.70 to 2.90 nm. The lattice parameters, X – ray density, volume of unit cell and grain size were calculated using XRD data. It is found that the lattice parameter increases with increasing Ni concentration. Surface morphology of samples was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). From this study it is concluded that samples exhibit cubic morphology. Chemical compositions of Ni doped and pure ZnS samples were detected using EDAX spectra. It is confirmed from EDAX that Ni substitute into ZnS lattice.

  18. Functional genomics of cell morphology using RNA interference: pick your style, broad or deep

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    Several new studies have used RNA interference to screen for protein functions affecting cell shape, mitosis and cytokinesis of Drosophila cells in culture. One broad survey of nearly 1,000 proteins and three studies focused on cytoskeletal and motor proteins have identified key proteins essential for these processes in animal cells. PMID:14527346

  19. Morphological studies of cultured swine aorta media expiants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Rossi; J. Alroy; S. Röthenmund

    1972-01-01

    Summary  Expiants obtained from the media of swine abdominal aortas, free of intimai cells and of vasa vasis, were cultivated in a\\u000a semisynthetic medium for various periods of time, up to 50 days. Under these conditions it was observed that some smooth muscle\\u000a cells, apparently independently from their location, undergo dedifferentiation, become rich in organelles, migrate and possibly\\u000a multiply. These cells,

  20. Nasal seromucinous hamartoma (microglandular adenosis of the nose): a morphological and molecular study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini-Spaltro, Andrea; Morandi, Luca; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Cavazza, Alberto; Brisigotti, Massimo; Damiani, Stefania; Jain, Sanjiv; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2010-12-01

    Five cases of nasal seromucinous hamartoma were studied and their clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular data are reported. The patients, three females and two males, ranged in age from 49 to 66 years (mean 56 year, SD ± 7.91). All lesions were located in the nasal cavity. In four cases where follow-up was obtained, no recurrence was evident. In all cases, numerous small seromucinous tubules, embedded in a cellular stroma, were present in the lamina propria. Tubules were lined by one layer of cuboidal cells which displayed luminal phenotype positive for lysozyme and EMA in four, and S100 protein in all cases. Collagen IV and laminin positive basal lamina outlined the tubules which lacked basal cells. Stromal spindle cells present among tubules were immunoreactive for calponin in all cases and for alpha-smooth muscle actin in four cases. DNA mutation analysis of mitochondrial D-loop region was performed by direct sequencing in order to verify the mutation rate of these lesions. The tubules of the five seromucinous hamartomas showed a higher mutation rate especially in heteroplasmy (0.52% homoplasmy, 2.02% heteroplasmy) in comparison to normal seromucinous glands which exhibited a lower mutation frequency (0.83%). This is considered a sign of a low cellular proliferation rate consistent with a benign process. It is concluded that nasal seromucinous hamartomas are benign glandular proliferations that may resemble microglandular adenosis of the breast. Their distinction from benign and malignant mimics is discussed. PMID:20922408

  1. Morphological changes and nuclear translocation of DLC1 tumor suppressor protein precede apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Baozhu [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)], E-mail: bby1@cdc.gov; Jefferson, Amy M.; Millecchia, Lyndell [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Popescu, Nicholas C. [Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 28092 (United States); Reynolds, Steven H. [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

    2007-11-01

    We have previously shown that reactivation of DLC1, a RhoGAP containing tumor suppressor gene, inhibits tumorigenicity of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLC). After transfection of NSCLC cells with wild type (WT) DLC1, changes in cell morphology were observed. To determine whether such changes have functional implications, we generated several DLC1 mutants and examined their effects on cell morphology, proliferation, migration and apoptosis in a DLC1 deficient NSCLC cell line. We show that WT DLC1 caused actin cytoskeleton-based morphological alterations manifested as cytoplasmic extensions and membrane blebbings in most cells. Subsequently, a fraction of cells exhibiting DLC1 protein nuclear translocation (PNT) underwent caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We also show that the RhoGAP domain is essential for the occurrence of morphological alterations, PNT and apoptosis, and the inhibition of cell migration. DLC1 PNT is dependent on a bipartite nuclear localizing sequence and most likely is regulated by a serine-rich domain at N-terminal part of the DLC1 protein. Also, we found that DLC1 functions in the cytoplasm as an inhibitor of tumor cell proliferation and migration, but in the nucleus as an inducer of apoptosis. Our analyses provide evidence for a possible link between morphological alterations, PNT and proapoptotic and anti-oncogenic activities of DLC1 in lung cancer.

  2. A rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test based on single-cell morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Mincheol; Kim, Eun-Geun; Lee, Ji Soo; Lee, Seungok; Joo, Seik; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Eui-Chong; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Hee Chan; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2014-12-17

    A rapid antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) is desperately needed in clinical settings for fast and appropriate antibiotic administration. Traditional ASTs, which rely on cell culture, are not suitable for urgent cases of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance owing to their relatively long test times. We describe a novel AST called single-cell morphological analysis (SCMA) that can determine antimicrobial susceptibility by automatically analyzing and categorizing morphological changes in single bacterial cells under various antimicrobial conditions. The SCMA was tested with four Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standard bacterial strains and 189 clinical samples, including extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci from hospitals. The results were compared with the gold standard broth microdilution test. The SCMA results were obtained in less than 4 hours, with 91.5% categorical agreement and 6.51% minor, 2.56% major, and 1.49% very major discrepancies. Thus, SCMA provides rapid and accurate antimicrobial susceptibility data that satisfy the recommended performance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25520395

  3. Aggregation and morphology control enables multiple cases of high-efficiency polymer solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhang; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Zhengke; Mu, Cheng; Hu, Huawei; Jiang, Kui; Lin, Haoran; Ade, Harald; Yan, He

    2014-01-01

    Although the field of polymer solar cell has seen much progress in device performance in the past few years, several limitations are holding back its further development. For instance, current high-efficiency (>9.0%) cells are restricted to material combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor. Here we report the achievement of high-performance (efficiencies up to 10.8%, fill factors up to 77%) thick-film polymer solar cells for multiple polymer:fullerene combinations via the formation of a near-ideal polymer:fullerene morphology that contains highly crystalline yet reasonably small polymer domains. This morphology is controlled by the temperature-dependent aggregation behaviour of the donor polymers and is insensitive to the choice of fullerenes. The uncovered aggregation and design rules yield three high-efficiency (>10%) donor polymers and will allow further synthetic advances and matching of both the polymer and fullerene materials, potentially leading to significantly improved performance and increased design flexibility. PMID:25382026

  4. Aggregation and morphology control enables multiple cases of high-efficiency polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhang; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Zhengke; Mu, Cheng; Ma, Wei; Hu, Huawei; Jiang, Kui; Lin, Haoran; Ade, Harald; Yan, He

    2014-01-01

    Although the field of polymer solar cell has seen much progress in device performance in the past few years, several limitations are holding back its further development. For instance, current high-efficiency (>9.0%) cells are restricted to material combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor. Here we report the achievement of high-performance (efficiencies up to 10.8%, fill factors up to 77%) thick-film polymer solar cells for multiple polymer:fullerene combinations via the formation of a near-ideal polymer:fullerene morphology that contains highly crystalline yet reasonably small polymer domains. This morphology is controlled by the temperature-dependent aggregation behaviour of the donor polymers and is insensitive to the choice of fullerenes. The uncovered aggregation and design rules yield three high-efficiency (>10%) donor polymers and will allow further synthetic advances and matching of both the polymer and fullerene materials, potentially leading to significantly improved performance and increased design flexibility. PMID:25382026

  5. KT5720 and U-98017 inhibit MAPK and alter the cytoskeleton and cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Olsen, M K; Reszka, A A; Abraham, I

    1998-09-01

    We previously identified KT5720 and U-98017 as agents that had paclitaxel (taxol)-like activity in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) paclitaxel-dependent cell screen for paclitaxel mimetics. In vitro polymerization of purified brain tubulin is not affected substantially by these compounds, suggesting that, unlike paclitaxel, these agents do not directly affect tubulin. However, these compounds cause profound rearrangements of the cytoskeleton in intact cells, including an apparent alteration of microtubule length, overlapping of cells, and an increase in cell size. We show that KT5720 and U-98017 effectively inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in vitro. Staurosporine, a poor inhibitor of MAPK but a potent inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity, phospholipid/Ca++-dependent kinase (PKC), and cdc2, does not cause similar changes. In addition, paclitaxel-dependent cells grown in U-98017 have substantially decreased levels of stimulated MAPK. In correlation with these results, we have confirmed the presence of MAPK in isolated tubulin and microtubules in cells. We have examined the hypothesis that these compounds are working through inhibition of MAPK to alter microtubules by inhibiting the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins. A MAPKK dominant negative mutation transfected in CHO cells inhibits activation of MAPK. Transfectants carrying this dominant mutant have impaired activation of MAPK and an altered cell morphology, similar in some respects to that seen with KT5720 and U-98017. These results support a role for MAPK family members in the control of microtubule dynamics and suggest that in intact cells U-98017 and KT5720 achieve their effects of altering cytoskeleton and supporting partial growth of paclitaxel-dependent cells through inhibition of kinases such as MAPK. PMID:9699505

  6. Physiological and morphological characterization of OFF-center amacrine cells in the turtle retina.

    PubMed

    Ammermüller, J; Weiler, R

    1988-07-01

    OFF-center amacrine cells were intracellularly recorded and stained with Lucifer yellow to investigate the cell correlations between photoresponses and morphological features. All OFF-amacrine cells were monostratified and branched within the outer half of the inner plexiform layer. In the flat-mounted retina, however, three distinct morphological classes were distinguishable, which correlated with observed physiological differences. Class 1 consisted of wide-field, stellate amacrine cells with long, thin processes, which branched only close to the soma. The diameter of the circular dendritic field ranged from 0.8 mm to 2.0 mm. Their photoresponse to spot stimulation was a hyperpolarization during light-ON and a small depolarization after light-OFF. They showed strong antagonistic center-surround organization of the receptive field. Its size was approximately equal to the dendritic field size. Class 2 consisted of wide-field, giant amacrine cells with a "central" dendritic field formed by thick dendrites, and a "peripheral" dendritic field formed by a few long and thin, "axonlike" processes. The shape of the dendritic field was elongated, with the long axis parallel to the visual streak. Their receptive field size was considerably smaller than their dendritic field size, which was several millimeters of diameter along the long axis. Their photoresponse to spot stimulation was a fast depolarization after light-OFF, and about 50% of these cells showed strong antagonistic center-surround receptive field organization. Class 3 consisted of small- or medium-field, "starburstlike" amacrine cells with circular dendritic fields of 0.1 mm to 0.6 mm diameter. Their fine, beaded dendrites branched predominantly in the distal parts of the dendritic field. their photoresponses to light were similar to those of the giant amacrine cells; however, their receptive field size exceeded the dendritic field size. Radial sections of the retinas with labeled cells were incubated in antisera to reveal the putative transmitters GABA, serotonin, neurotensin, met-enkephalin and glucagon. No immunoreactivity with these antisera was detected within the stained OFF-center amacrine cells. PMID:3417900

  7. Anatomical study of the human omohyoid muscle: regarding intermediate morphologies between normal and anomalous morphologies of the superior belly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiki Sukekawa; Ichizoh Itoh

    2006-01-01

    Intermediate morphologies between normal and anomalous morphologies of the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle (Om) were\\u000a macroscopically and stereomicroscopically observed in 34 cadavers (24 males and 10 females aged between 51 and 97 years; average\\u000a age 71.0 years) for anatomical practice, which had been preserved in the Department of Morphological Biology, Ohu University\\u000a School of Dentistry. The intermediate morphologies

  8. CHANGES IN SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS DURING THE CELL CYCLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEITH PORTER; DAVID PRESCOTT; JEARL FRYE

    1973-01-01

    Synchronized populations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in confluent culture have been examined by scanning electron microscopy and their surface changes noted as the cells progress through the cycle . During G, it is characteristic for cells to show large numbers of microvilli, blebs, and ruffles . Except for the ruffles, these tend to diminish in prominence during S

  9. Study of the formed elements in MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION

    E-print Network

    ­ have hemoglobin carry O2 ­ Leukocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Monocytes Lymphocytes ­ Produced by monocytes, macrophages, T lymphocytes, fibroblasts, & endotheliel cells #12;9/10/2013 10 EARLY-ACTING (Multilineage) SCF (stem cell factor)- (CFU-GEMM, CFU-GM, CFU MK, BFU-E). Flt 3 Ligand ­ Inhibits apoptosis

  10. The Impact of Tissue Fixatives on Morphology and Antibody-based Protein Profiling in Tissues and Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Linda; Edvinsson, Ĺsa; Asplund, Anna; Hober, Sophia; Kampf, Caroline; Pontén, Fredrik; Wester, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Pathology archives harbor large amounts of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, used mainly in clinical diagnostics but also for research purposes. Introduction of heat-induced antigen retrieval has enabled the use of tissue samples for extensive immunohistochemical analysis, despite the fact that antigen retrieval may not recover all epitopes, owing to alterations of the native protein structure induced by formalin. The aim of this study was to investigate how different fixatives influence protein recognition by immunodetection methods in tissues, cell preparations, and protein lysates, as compared with formalin. Seventy-two affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies were used to evaluate seven different fixatives. The aldehyde-based fixative Glyo-fixx proved to be excellent for preservation of proteins in tissue detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), similar to formalin. A non-aldehyde–based fixative, NEO-FIX was superior for fixation of cultured cells, in regard to morphology, and thereby also advantageous for IHC. Large variability in the amount of protein extracted from the differently fixed tissues was observed, and the HOPE fixative provided the overall highest yield of protein. In conclusion, morphological resolution and immunoreactivity were superior in tissues fixed with aldehyde-based fixatives, whereas the use of non-aldehyde–based fixatives can be advantageous in obtaining high protein yield for Western blot analysis. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:237–246, 2010) PMID:19901271

  11. Black silicon SERS substrate: effect of surface morphology on SERS detection and application of single algal cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu-Luen; Juang, Yi-Je

    2014-03-15

    In this study, we have investigated the effect of the surface morphology of the black silicon substrate on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and explored its application of single algal cell detection. By adjusting the O2 and SF6 flow rates in the cryogenic plasma etching process, different surface morphologies of the black silicon substrate was produced without performing the lithographic process. It was found the Raman signals were better enhanced as the tip density of the black silicon substrate increased. In addition, as the thickness of the deposited gold layer increased, the SERS effect increased as well, which could be owing to the generation of more hot spots by bridging individual silicon tips through deposition of gold layer. For the black silicon substrate with tip density of 30 tips/?m(2) and covered by 400 nm deposited gold layer, the detection limit of 10 fM R6G solution concentration with uniform SERS effect across the substrate was achieved. Furthermore, detection of individual algal cell (Chlorella vulgaris) was performed at the SERS substrate as fabricated and the Raman signals of carotenoid and lipid were substantially enhanced. PMID:24121206

  12. CHANGES IN SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS DURING THE CELL CYCLE

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Keith; Prescott, David; Frye, Jearl

    1973-01-01

    Synchronized populations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in confluent culture have been examined by scanning electron microscopy and their surface changes noted as the cells progress through the cycle. During G1 it is characteristic for cells to show large numbers of microvilli, blebs, and ruffles. Except for the ruffles, these tend to diminish in prominence during S and the cells become relatively smooth as they spread thinly over the substrate. During G2 microvilli increase in number and the cells thicken in anticipation of rounding up for mitosis. It appears that the changes observed here reflect the changing capacity of CHO cells during the cycle to respond to contact with other cells in the population, because, as noted in the succeeding paper (Rubin and Everhart), CHO cells in sparse nonconfluent cultures do not show the same wide range of changes during the cell cycle. Normal, nontransformed cells of equivalent type in confluent culture are essentially devoid of microvilli, blebs, and ruffles. The relation of these surface configurations to the internal structure of the cell is discussed. PMID:4735453

  13. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling. PMID:25477855

  14. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling. PMID:25477855

  15. Characterization of Time-Course Morphological Features for Efficient Prediction of Osteogenic Potential in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Agata, Hideki; Kagami, Hideaki; Shiono, Hirofumi; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) represents one of the most frequently applied cell sources for clinical bone regeneration. To achieve the greatest therapeutic effect, it is crucial to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation potential of the stem cells during their culture before the implantation. However, the practical evaluation of stem cell osteogenicity has been limited to invasive biological marker analysis that only enables assaying a single end-point. To innovate around invasive quality assessments in clinical cell therapy, we previously explored and demonstrated the positive predictive value of using time-course images taken during differentiation culture for hBMSC bone differentiation potential. This initial method establishes proof of concept for a morphology-based cell evaluation approach, but reveals a practical limitation when considering the need to handle large amounts of image data. In this report, we aimed to scale-down our proposed method into a more practical, efficient modeling scheme that can be more broadly implemented by physicians on the frontiers of clinical cell therapy. We investigated which morphological features are critical during the osteogenic differentiation period to assure the performance of prediction models with reduced burden on image acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed characterization that describes both the critical observation period and the critical number of time-points needed for morphological features to adequately model osteogenic potential. Our results revealed three important observations: (i) the morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are sufficiently informative to predict bone differentiation potential, both activities of alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition, after 3 weeks of continuous culture; (ii) intervals of 48?h are sufficient for measuring critical morphological features; and (iii) morphological features are most accurately predictive when early morphological features from the first 3 days of differentiation are combined with later features (after 10 days of differentiation). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1430–1439. PMID:24420699

  16. Morphological diagnoses of the Japan adult leukemia study group acute myeloid leukemia protocols: central review.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, K; Tomonaga, M; Kobayashi, T; Takeuchi, J; Ohshima, T; Furusawa, S; Saitoh, K; Ohno, R

    2001-01-01

    A morphological review system of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group has developed from the AML-87 through the AML-92 experience. We reviewed 1427 (90%) of 1592 cases enrolled in the AML-87, -89, or -92 protocols for morphology; 1408 (88%) were eligible. The rate of diagnostic concordance between each institute and the Committee on Morphological Diagnosis ranged from 76% to 80%. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes were as follows: AML M0, 27 (2%); M1, 179 (13%); M2, 472 (34%); M3, 358 (25%); M4, 265 (19%); M5, 57 (4%); M6, 39 (3%); and M7, 11 (1%). The reason for the high number of patients with AML M3 is that many M3 patients were enrolled in the AML-92 protocol, which contained all-trans-retinoic acid. AML M0, M6 and M7 belonged to the poor prognostic groups. Auer bodies were found in 284 (53%) of 538 patients who survived significantly longer than those without Auer bodies in AML-87/-89. In AML-92 except for AML M3, 259 (43%) of 602 cases were Auer+ and also showed better survival rates. The survival of patients with >50% myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive blast cells was better than those with < or =50% MPO+ blast cells in AML-87/-89. This trend was also seen in AML-92 excluding M3. AML with trilineage dysplasia (AML/TLD) is characterized as a subtype of de novo AML that shows morphological dysplasia of mature hematopoietic cells on a background of leukemic blast cells The number of patients with AML/TLD was 89 (16.5%) of 545 patients reviewed in AML-87/-89. AML-92, except for M3, showed a higher rate of patients with TLD (161 cases; 27.6%) because there were no patients with TLD in the AML M3 group. Survival rates for AML/TLD were worse than those for AML/non-TLD in both the AML-87/-89 and -92 protocols. Eighty percent of all cases (793/986) entered in AML-92 were analyzed cytogenetically. Fifty-one cases were not available for karyotyping because of a lack of mitoses or inappropriate preparations. The most frequent karyotype was normal, which accounted for 34.2%. The t(15;17), t(8;21), and inv(16) karyotypes, which are regarded as good risk factors, were 23.8%, 9.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. Abnormal chromosomes 5, 7, t(9;22), and t(6;9) were considered to be poor or intermediate risk factors As a new system of karyotyping begins in the ongoing AML protocol, useful chromosomal data will be obtained in the near future. PMID:11372762

  17. Bacteroides gingivalis, Bacteroides asaccharolyticus , and Bacteroides melaninogenicus subspecies: Cell surface morphology and adherence to erythrocytes and human buccal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuji Okuda; Jřrgen Slots; Robert J. Genco

    1981-01-01

    All study strains ofBacteroides gingivalis, B. asaccharolyticus, andB. melaninogenicus subspecies possessed numerous pilus-like fibers and capsule-like outer surface structures. The capsular morphology varied between the different species and subspecies.B. gingivalis strongly agglutinated 16 erythrocyte species studied.B. asaccharolyticus showed variable and weak agglutination of only a few erythrocyte species.B. melaninogenicus subsp.intermedius strains strongly agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and exhibited variable, often weak

  18. Morphological characterization and conservation of bovine spermatogenic cells by refrigeration at 4°C and freezing using different cryoprotective molecules.

    PubMed

    Martins, C F; Silva, A E D Feliciano; Dode, M N; Rumpf, R; Cumpa, H C B; Silva, C G; Pivato, I

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were study a practical method to characterize bovine spermatogenic cells and test the efficiency cells conservation by refrigeration at 4°C and cryopreservation in different solutions using two cooling curves. Cellular identification was performing by analysis of shape, size and morphology, associated with nucleus positioning and nuclear-cytoplasm ratio (NCR). Cellular samples were kept at 4°C for a period of 96h in refrigeration solution and every 24h plasma membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated. Cryopreservation of cells was carried out using solutions containing 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide, 5% Dimethylformamide, 7% Glycerol and 7% Ethylene glycol, using a controlled and non-controlled cooling curve. Results of cellular characterization demonstrated that spermatocytes II presented a cylindrical shape, NCR of 1:1.5 and diameter ranging from 14.5 to 17.5?m. Round spermatids presented diameter ranging from 7.6 to 13.4?m, acrosomal cap and NCR of 1:2. Elongation and elongated spermatids showed to marked divergence in shape. There was a daily significant loss of viability of cooled cells until third day of storage, however they presented 72.77±5.16% viability after 4days of storage at 4°C. There was no difference among the cryoprotectant solutions and cooling curves. In conclusion we demonstrated that association of microscopes and staining was a practical method to identify bovine spermatogenic cells. Furthermore, refrigeration at 4°C is an important strategy to preserve over 70% of viable cells after 4days and cryopreservation, regardless of cryoprotectant solution or cooling curve used, can maintain over 50% of cells viable. PMID:26049113

  19. The regulator RamA influences cmytA transcription and cell morphology of Corynebacterium ammoniagenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok-Myung; Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Kwang-Jin; Park, Jun-Sung; Ha, Un-Hwan; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Heung-Shick

    2010-08-01

    RamA plays a regulatory role for acetate utilization and S-layer biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Looking for any additional role, the function of RamA was analyzed in Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, which is closely related to C. glutamicum. In this study, we showed that the DeltaramA mutant constructed by a markerless knockout strategy possessed increased cell surface hydrophobicity, leading to the formation of aggregated cell masses in liquid media. In addition, the mutant exhibited an elongated cell shape as observed by SEM, suggesting that cell wall-associated proteins might be influenced. Furthermore, cell surface proteome analysis revealed that the expression of cmytA gene encoding corynomycoloyl transferase required for cell wall biosynthesis was down-regulated in the mutant, supporting the regulatory role of RamA in cell wall assembly. These studies support a novel regulatory role of RamA in inducing the expression of proteins required for cell wall assembly. PMID:20107993

  20. Motion of variable-length MreB filaments at the bacterial cell membrane influences cell morphology

    PubMed Central

    Reimold, Christian; Defeu Soufo, Herve Joel; Dempwolff, Felix; Graumann, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of rod-cell shape in many bacteria depends on actin-like MreB proteins and several membrane proteins that interact with MreB. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that at 50-nm resolution, Bacillus subtilis MreB forms filamentous structures of length up to 3.4 ?m underneath the cell membrane, which run at angles diverging up to 40° relative to the cell circumference. MreB from Escherichia coli forms at least 1.4-?m-long filaments. MreB filaments move along various tracks with a maximal speed of 85 nm/s, and the loss of ATPase activity leads to the formation of extended and static filaments. Suboptimal growth conditions lead to formation of patch-like structures rather than extended filaments. Coexpression of wild-type MreB with MreB mutated in the subunit interface leads to formation of shorter MreB filaments and a strong effect on cell shape, revealing a link between filament length and cell morphology. Thus MreB has an extended-filament architecture with the potential to position membrane proteins over long distances, whose localization in turn may affect the shape of the cell wall. PMID:23783036

  1. Morphological and rheological study of polypropylene blends with a commercial modifier based on hydrogenated oligo (cyclopentadiene)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Muke; N Kao; S. N Bhattacharya

    2001-01-01

    Morphology and rheology of the blends of two commercial polypropylene (PP) grades (designated as MA3 and MM1) with a commercial modifier (EP1) based on hydrogenated oligo (cyclopentadiene) (HOCP) were studied using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and dynamic shear rheometry. Melting and crystallisation points as well as glass-transition temperatures were determined and correlated to blends' compositions. Morphology was additionally studied

  2. A study of the morphology, cytology and breeding behavior of Pennisetum ciliare 

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Warner D.

    1954-01-01

    A STUDY OP THE MORPHOLOGY, CYTOLOGY, AND BREEDING BEHAVIOR OP PENNISETUM CILIARE A Dissertation By Warner D. Pisher Approved as to style and content by: (p.r /Q & y ________ _ Chairman of Committee ?....... ? - ........... ....H e ad ^ or.../Dep ar t ment August 1953 A STUDY OP THE MORPHOLOGY, CYTOLOGY, AND BREEDING BEHAVIOR OP PENNISETUM ClLIARE By Warner D. FisherHI Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment...

  3. The morphology of apoptosis and necrosis of fat cells after photodynamic treatment at a constant temperature in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Yu. Yanina; Tatyana G. Orlova; Valery V. Tuchin; Gregory B. Altshuler

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy with temperature control is a new approach for treatment of obesity and cellulite. Cell death can occur under the action of various physical, chemical and biological factors. Depending on the inductor, this is apoptosis or necrosis. These two forms of cell death differ on the biochemical and morphological levels. Biochemical changes occur quickly enough and it raises difficulties

  4. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensional assays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Paraic

    The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensional assays correlate-Hoff a , Ole W. Petersenb , Joe W. Graya , Mina J. Bissella, * a Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Structural Cell Biology Unit, Institute of Medical Anatomy, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK

  5. Low-boiling-point solvent additives can also enable morphological control in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C. [Ames Laboratory; Carr, John A. [Ames Laboratory; Chen, Yuqing [Ames Laboratory; Bose, Sayantan [Ames Laboratory; Nalwa, Kanwar S. [Ames Laboratory; Petrich, Jacob W. [Ames Laboratory; Chaudhary, Sumit [Ames Laboratory

    2013-11-02

    Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in bulk-heterojunction OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of the morphology of organic heterojunction on the photovoltaic cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhájecká, K.; Pfleger, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present a series of organic photovoltaic (PV) cells based on the bulk-distributed heterojunction where ? -conjugated polymer poly[1-(4-trimethylsilylphenyl)-2-phenylvinylene], PSDPhV, acts as the donor upon photoexcitation and the substituted perylene based low-molecular-weight compound: N,N`-di(pent-3-yl)-perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide), DPe-PTCDI, as the acceptor of photogenerated electrons. According to both absorption spectra and AFM images of the thin films spin-coated from solution of DPe-PTCDI and PSDPhV in toluene, the DPe-PTCDI is molecularly dissolved in conjugated polymer matrix. Upon exposition of layers to toluene vapors, microcrystals of DPe-PTCDI are progressively formed. The influence of the morphology of DPe-PTCDI inside the polymer matrix on PV cell performance is investigated. This paper has been presented at “ECHOS06”, Paris, 28 30 juin 2006.

  7. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy).

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, F; Daunton, N G

    1992-07-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight. PMID:1619441

  8. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  9. Type 2 Helper T-Cell Cytokines Induce Morphologic and Molecular Characteristics of Atopic Dermatitis in Human Skin Equivalent

    PubMed Central

    Kamsteeg, Marijke; Bergers, Mieke; de Boer, Roelie; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Hato, Stanleyson V.; Schalkwijk, Joost; Tjabringa, Geuranne S.

    2011-01-01

    Both the immune system and the epidermis likely have an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). The objective of the present study was to develop a human skin equivalent model exhibiting morphologic and molecular characteristics of AD in a controlled manner. Skin equivalents generated from normal adult human keratinocytes were stimulated with type 2 T-helper cell (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, and morphologic features and gene expression of the epidermis were studied. Th2 cytokines induced intercellular edema similar to spongiotic changes observed in lesional AD as assessed at histopathologic analysis and electron microscopy. Furthermore, genes known to be specifically expressed in epidermis of patients with AD such as CAII and NELL2 were induced. In contrast, expression of psoriasis-associated genes such as elafin and hBD2 was not changed. Th2 cytokines caused DNA fragmentation in the keratinocytes, which could be inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD, which suggests that apoptosis was induced. In addition, up-regulation of the death receptor Fas was observed in keratinocytes after Th2 cytokine stimulation. IL-4 and IL-13 induced phosphorylation of the signaling molecule STAT6. It was concluded that the skin equivalent model described herein may be useful in investigation of the epidermal aspects of AD and for study of drugs that act at the level of keratinocyte biology. PMID:21514424

  10. Two-dimensional simulation of organic bulk heterojunction solar cell: influence of the morphology.

    PubMed

    Raba, Adam; Cordan, Anne-Sophie; Leroy, Yann

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in organic solar cells show interesting power conversion efficiencies. However, with the use of organic semiconductors and bulk heterojunction cells, many new concepts have to be introduced to understand their characteristics. Only few models investigate these new concepts, and most of them are one-dimensional only. In this work, we present a two-dimensional model based on solving the drift-diffusion equations. The model describes the generation of excitons in the donor phase of the active layer and their diffusion towards an interface between the two separate acceptor and donor domains. Then, when the exciton reaches the interface, it forms a charge transfer state which can split into free charges due to the internal potential. Finally, these free charges are transported toward the electrodes within their respective domains (electrons in acceptor domain, holes in donor domain) before being extracted. In this model, we can follow the distribution of each species and link it to the physical processes taken into account. Using the finite element method to solve the equations of the model, we simulate the effect of the bulk heterojunction morphology on photocurrent curves. We concentrate on the morphology parameters such as the mean acceptor/donor domain sizes and the roughness of,the interface between the donor and acceptor domains. Results are discussed in relation with experimental observations. PMID:23901547

  11. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  12. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  13. Keratin Classes as Molecular Markers Epithelia: Cell Culture Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM G. NELSON; TUNG-TIEN SUN

    1983-01-01

    The keratins are a highly heterogeneous group of proteins that form intermediate filaments in a wide variety of epithelial cells. These proteins can be divided into at least seven major classes according to their molecular weight and their immunological reactivity with monoclonal antibodies. Tissue-distribution studies have revealed a correlation between the expression of specific keratin classes and different morphological features

  14. Solar cell design study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Lamorte; J. R. Hauser; M. A. Littlejohn; M. Simons

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews the present state-of-the-art in the technology of selected III-V compounds most applicable to solar cells. Emphasis is placed on those areas of III-V materials technology that can be advanced most effectively in the development of high efficiency solar cells for use in the near-earth space environment. Solar cell configurations evaluated or modeled include homojunctions, heterojunctions, Schottky barriers,

  15. Evaluation of the effects of Angelicae dahuricae radix on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su-Hyeon; Kim, Bo-Bae; Lee, Ji-Eun; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2015-07-01

    Angelicae dahuricae radix is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat various diseases in China and Korea, such as colds, headaches, rhinitis and psoriasis. Angelicae dahuricae radix has been used as an anti?inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antioxidant remedy. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of the extracts of Angelicae dahuricae radix on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the gingiva. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from the gingiva were grown in the presence of Angelicae dahuricae radix at final concentrations that ranged from 0.001 to 100 µg/ml. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope, and the analysis of cell proliferation was performed with cell counting kit?8 (CCK?8) on days 1, 3 and 7. The cells in the control group had spindle?shaped, fibroblast?like morphology at days 1, 3 and 7 under optical microscopy. The shapes of the cells in 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml Angelicae dahuricae radix were similar to the shapes of the cells in the control group. The relative values of the CCK?8 assays of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 µg/ml Angelicae dahuricae radix were 102.5±0.6, 133.3±9.6, 148.4±20.5, 147.7±12.6, 132.3±27.7 and 101.1±4.6%, respectively, when the CCK?8 result of the control group on day 1 was considered to be 100%. There was a marginal increase in cell proliferation at 0.1 and 1 µg/ml groups at day 1; however, this did not achieve statistical significance (P=0.052). The relative values of the CCK?8 assays of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml Angelicae dahuricae radix were 96.5±1.3, 89.3±0.9, 90.3±3.0, 84.8±12.2, 92.3±4.5 and 86.8±11.7%, respectively, when the CCK?8 result of the control group on day 3 was considered to be 100% (P>0.05). The relative values of the CCK?8 assays of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml Angelicae dahuricae radix day 7 were 94.9±22.3, 102.8±22.1, 127.4±7.4, 130.4±1.3, 129.2±10.8 and 124.8±9.1%, respectively, when the CCK?8 result of the control group on day 7 was considered to be 100%, but there were no statistically significant differences among the groups (P>0.05). Within the limits of this study, Angelicae dahuricae radix at the tested concentrations did not produce statistically significant differences in the viability of stem cells derived from the gingiva. PMID:25760069

  16. CRISPR/Cas9n-Mediated Deletion of the Snail 1Gene (SNAI1) Reveals Its Role in Regulating Cell Morphology, Cell-Cell Interactions, and Gene Expression in Ovarian Cancer (RMG-1) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Misako; Sato, Masahiro; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Snail1 is a transcription factor that induces the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, epithelial cells lose their junctions, reorganize their cytoskeletons, and reprogram gene expression. Although Snail1 is a prominent repressor of E-cadherin transcription, its precise roles in each of the phenomena of EMT are not completely understood, particularly in cytoskeletal changes. Previous studies have employed gene knockdown systems to determine the functions of Snail1. However, incomplete protein knockdown is often associated with these systems, which may cause incorrect interpretation of the data. To more precisely evaluate the functions of Snail1, we generated a stable cell line with a targeted ablation of Snail1 (Snail1 KO) by using the CRISPR/Cas9n system. Snail1 KO cells show increased cell–cell adhesion, decreased cell–substrate adhesion and cell migration, changes to their cytoskeletal organization that include few stress fibers and abundant cortical actin, and upregulation of epithelial marker genes such as E-cadherin, occludin, and claudin-1. However, morphological changes were induced by treatment of Snail1 KO cells with TGF-beta. Other transcription factors that induce EMT were also induced by treatment with TGF-beta. The precise deletion of Snail1 by the CRISPR/Cas9n system provides clear evidence that loss of Snail1 causes changes in the actin cytoskeleton, decreases cell–substrate adhesion, and increases cell–cell adhesion. Treatment of RMG1 cells with TGF-beta suggests redundancy among the transcription factors that induce EMT. PMID:26161782

  17. Reversible alterations in cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayer morphology and albumin permeability induced by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Ryan, U.S.; Davenport, W.C.; Chaney, E.L.; Strickland, D.L.; Kwock, L.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of ionizing irradiation (0, 600, 1500, or 3000 rads) on the permeability of pulmonary endothelial monolayers to albumin were studied. Pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to confluence on gelatin-coated polycarbonate filters, placed in serum-free medium, and exposed to a /sup 60/Co source. The monolayers were placed in modified flux chambers 24 hours after irradiation; /sup 125/I-albumin was added to the upper well, and both the upper and lower wells were serially sampled over 4 hours. The amount of albumin transferred from the upper well/hour over the period of steady-state clearance (90-240 min after addition of /sup 125/I-albumin) was 2.8 +/- 0.2% in control monolayers and was increased in monolayers exposed to 1500 or 3000 rads (increase of 63 +/- 10% and 61 +/- 10%, respectively, P less than 0.01). No increase was found in monolayers exposed to 600 rads. The increases in endothelial albumin transfer rates were associated with morphologic evidence of monolayer disruption and endothelial injury which paralleled the changes in albumin permeability. Dose-dependent alterations in endothelial actin filament organization were also found. Incubation of the monolayers exposed to 3000 rads with medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum for 24 hours resulted in normalization of albumin permeability, improvement in morphologic appearance of the monolayers, and reorganization of the actin filament structure. These studies demonstrate that ionizing radiation is an active principle in the reversible disorganization of cultured pulmonary endothelial cell monolayers without the need of other cell types or serum components.

  18. Effect of axonal micro-tubules on the morphology of retinal nerve fibers studied by second-harmonic generation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungsik; Danias, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Many studies suggest that the degradation of microtubules in the retinal ganglion cells may be an early event in the progression of glaucoma. Because reflectance and birefringence of the retinal nerve fibers arise primarily from microtubules, the optical properties have been intensively studied for early detection of the disease. We previously reported a novel nonlinear optical signal from axonal microtubules for visualizing the retinal nerve fibers, namely second-harmonic generation (SHG). We demonstrate the use of axonal SHG to investigate the effect of microtubules on the morphology of the retinal nerve fiber bundles. Time-lapse SHG imaging of ex vivo rat retinal flat mounts was performed during pharmacological treatment of nocodazole, and the intensity of axonal SHG and the changes in nerve fiber bundle morphology were monitored. We found that the microtubule disruption does not lead to immediate modification in the morphology of the nerve fibers. Our results indicate that microtubular SHG may provide a useful means for sensitive detection of axonal injuries. Since the intrinsic radiation depends on the regular architecture of the cytoskeleton element as maintained by active cellular regulations, the intensity of signal reflects the health of the retinal ganglion cell axons. PMID:23089666

  19. Goat and sheep ovarian tissue cryopreservation: Effects on the morphology and development of primordial follicles and density of stromal cell.

    PubMed

    Faustino, L R; Santos, R R; Silva, C M G; Pinto, L C; Celestino, J J H; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R; Rodrigues, A P R

    2010-10-01

    The effect of exposure to cryoprotectant and cryopreservation of goat and sheep ovarian cortical fragments on the morphology of primordial follicles, stromal cell density and follicular development was performed. Goat and sheep ovarian fragments were exposed to 1.0 or 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5, 10 or 20min, followed or not by conventional cryopreservation. Follicular morphology and stromal cell density were evaluated by means of classical histological analysis. In addition, ovarian fragments were cultured for 1 or 7 days after cryopreservation to evaluate follicular development. Both exposure to cryoprotectant and cryopreservation of goat and sheep ovarian tissue did affect the morphology of primordial follicles and stromal cell density, except when goat ovarian tissue was exposed to EG for 5min. Although exposure time did not influence follicular morphology in both species, increase in the exposure time from 5 to 20min did reduce goat stromal cell density. Increase in EG concentration from 1.0 to 1.5M did result in the decrease of the percentage of goat morphologically normal primordial follicles evaluated after exposure only. In vitro culture of frozen-thawed goat and sheep ovarian tissue showed that exposure to 1.0M, for 10min, before freezing of goat and sheep ovarian tissue does not impair follicular developmental capacity. In addition, stromal cell density may play a role in follicular survival and development after cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. PMID:20800393

  20. Experiment K-7-28: Lung Morphology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; Kaplansky, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    There are no previous studies investigating the effect of microgravity exposure during spaceflight on lung tissue. We examined the ultrastructure of the left lungs of 5 Czechoslovakian Wistar rats flown on the 13 day, 19+ hr. Cosmos 2044 mission, and compared them to 5 vivarium and 5 synchronous controls at 1-g conditions, and 5 rats exposed to 14 days of tail-suspension. Within 10 minutes of sacrifice by decapitation, the lungs were removed and immersed in 3% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (total osmolarity of the fixative: 560 mOsm; pH = 7.4). The tissue stored at 5 C was transported to our laboratory where it was processed for light and electron microscopy. No significant perivascular cuffing caused by interstitial edema was present in the tissue samples. Some of the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control rats showed alveolar edema, while vivarium controls did not. The pulmonary capillaries appeared to be more congested in the flight animals than in the other groups. This could be related to the increased hematocrit due to the microgravity exposure. In all 5 flight, 4 tail-suspended, and 3 synchronous rats, red blood cells (RBC) were present in the alveolar spaces. The RBC were either suspended free in the alveoli or observed lining the alveolar wall. The frequency of RBC lining the alveolar walls appeared greater in the dorsal (gravity non-dependent) than in ventral (gravity dependent) regions of the lung in these three animal groups. In 3 of the vivarium controls, a few RBC were found in the alveolar spaces. Intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles were observed in the flight, tail-suspended and synchronous animals, but not in the vivarium controls. The formation of intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles has been previously associated with pulmonary hypertension induced by high altitude exposure and mitral stenosis. In conclusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and alveolar edema of unknown origin occurred to a greater extent in the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control animals, and in the dorsal regions of the lung when compared to the vivarium controls. The etiology of these changes, which are possibly due to an increase in pulmonary vascular pressure, requires further investigation.

  1. Vital imaging of H9c2 myoblasts exposed to tert-butylhydroperoxide – characterization of morphological features of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Sardăo, Vilma A; Oliveira, Paulo J; Holy, Jon; Oliveira, Catarina R; Wallace, Kendall B

    2007-01-01

    Background When exposed to oxidative conditions, cells suffer not only biochemical alterations, but also morphologic changes. Oxidative stress is a condition induced by some pro-oxidant compounds, such as by tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) and can also be induced in vivo by ischemia/reperfusion conditions, which is very common in cardiac tissue. The cell line H9c2 has been used as an in vitro cellular model for both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Understanding how these cells respond to oxidative agents may furnish novel insights into how cardiac and skeletal tissues respond to oxidative stress conditions. The objective of this work was to characterize, through vital imaging, morphological alterations and the appearance of apoptotic hallmarks, with a special focus on mitochondrial changes, upon exposure of H9c2 cells to tBHP. Results When exposed to tBHP, an increase in intracellular oxidative stress was detected in H9c2 cells by epifluorescence microscopy, which was accompanied by an increase in cell death that was prevented by the antioxidants Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Several morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis were noted, including changes in nuclear morphology, translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, and cell blebbing. An increase in the exposure period or in tBHP concentration resulted in a clear loss of membrane integrity, which is characteristic of necrosis. Changes in mitochondrial morphology, consisting of a transition from long filaments to small and round fragments, were also detected in H9c2 cells after treatment with tBHP. Bax aggregates near mitochondrial networks were formed after short periods of incubation. Conclusion Vital imaging of alterations in cell morphology is a useful method to characterize cellular responses to oxidative stress. In the present work, we report two distinct patterns of morphological alterations in H9c2 cells exposed to tBHP, a pro-oxidant agent frequently used as model to induce oxidative stress. In particular, dynamic changes in mitochondrial networks could be visualized, which appear to be centrally involved in how these cells respond to oxidative stress. The data also indicate that the cause of H9c2 cell death following tBHP exposure is increased intracellular oxidative stress. PMID:17362523

  2. Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-10-01

    A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode.A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and equipment details, solar cell fabrication protocol, electrolyte spreading time measurement details, XPS spectra, electronic study, film adhesion test detailed analysis and field emission results. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32082g

  3. Morphology, cell viability, karyotype, expression of surface markers and plasticity of three human primary cell line cultures before and after the cryostorage in LN2 and GN2.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Alberto; Ligero, Gertrudis; López, María B; Navarro, Héctor; Carrillo, Jose A; Pantoll, Siobhan C; Díaz de la Guardia, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Primary cell line cultures from human skin biopsies, adipose tissue and tumor tissue are valuable samples for research and therapy. In this regard, their derivation, culture, storage, transport and thawing are important steps to be studied. Towards this end, we wanted to establish the derivation, and identify the culture characteristics and the loss of viability of three human primary cell line cultures (human adult dermal fibroblasts (hADFs), human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and primary culture of tumor cells from lung adenocarcinoma (PCTCLA)). Compared to fresh hADFs, hMSCs and PCTCLA, thawed cells stored in a cryogenic Dewar tanks with liquid nitrogen (LN2), displayed 98.20% ± 0.99, 95.40% ± 1.41 and 93.31% ± 3.83 of cell viability, respectively. Thawed cells stored in a Dry Vapor Shipper container with gas phase (GN2), for 20 days, in addition displayed 4.61% ± 2.78, 3.70% ± 4.09 and 9.13% ± 3.51 of average loss of cells viability, respectively, showing strong correlation between the loss of viability in hADFs and the number of post-freezing days in the Dry Vapor Shipper. No significant changes in morphological characteristics or in the expression of surface markers (being hADFs, hMSCs and PCTCLA characterized by positive markers CD73+; CD90+; CD105+; and negative markers CD14-; CD20-; CD34-; and CD45-; n=2) were found. Chromosome abnormalities in the karyotype were not found. In addition, under the right conditions hMSCs were differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. In this paper, we have shown the characteristics of three human primary cell line cultures when they are stored in LN2 and GN2. PMID:25445570

  4. The morphology of apoptosis and necrosis of fat cells after photodynamic treatment at a constant temperature in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Orlova, Tatyana G.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy with temperature control is a new approach for treatment of obesity and cellulite. Cell death can occur under the action of various physical, chemical and biological factors. Depending on the inductor, this is apoptosis or necrosis. These two forms of cell death differ on the biochemical and morphological levels. Biochemical changes occur quickly enough and it raises difficulties of their detection. One of the morphological characteristics of apoptosis is a decrease (contraction) of cells, and necrosis - an increase in the size of the cell (swelling). This attribute simply determined visually using a digital microscope. The program was designed using LabVEIW media, which allowed us to develop the software for providing interaction with the measuring and control equipment, data collection, processing and displaying the information and results of calculations and simulations for the individual cells and ensembles of cells, and, in general, to automate process.

  5. Morphological effects on the small-molecule-based solution-processed organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Chan; Brownell, Lacie V; Yan, Liang; You, Wei

    2014-09-24

    We report a proof-of-concept study on solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs) based on [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and structurally compact donor molecules which have dithiophene-phenazine-dithiophene (TH-P) and dithiophene-quinoxaline-dithiophene (TH-Q) configurations with decyloxy and methyl side groups, respectively. These molecules formed one-dimensional fibers through self-assembly via weak nonbonding interactions such as ?-? and van der Waals interactions even during a fast solvent removal process such as spin-casting. Photophysical and thermal properties of the new donor molecules were characterized with UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical data determined experimentally were correlated well with theoretical evaluations. The fibers from the two donor molecules showed distinct morphological differences, allowing for in-depth investigations into their influence on the OSC performance. A continuous three-dimensional network of endless one-dimensional nanofibers, with a width of 300-400 nm, were formed from TH-P regardless of the presence of PC61BM, affording spontaneous nanoscale phase separation that facilitates a large donor/acceptor interfacial area. Bulk (BHJ) and planar heterojunctions (PHJ) from TH-P/PC61BM showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.38% and 0.30%, respectively, under optimum device conditions. Post thermal annealing led to the increased domain size and a major decrease in Jsc. Meanwhile, shorter, more rigid needles with a large thickness variation were formed from TH-Q. A continuous network of TH-Q was obtained by spin-coating only in the presence of PC61BM, and the PCE of TH-Q/PC61BM BHJ was found to be 0.36%. However, the PHJ showed poor device performance due to TH-Q's inability to form a continuous film by spin-coating. The present study suggests a basic molecular architecture to drive one-dimensional assembly and demonstrates the significance of fibrillation for small-molecule-based OSCs. PMID:25166930

  6. CELL SIGNALING: Nuclear Actin as Choreographer of Cell Morphology and Transcription

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jiang I. Wu (Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Stanford University School of Medicine; )

    2007-06-22

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Changes in the cell's cytoskeleton affect gene expression through a signaling circuit that involves regulation of cofactor transport and function by actin in the nucleus.

  7. Phenotypic, Morphological, and Functional Heterogeneity of Splenic Immature Myeloid Cells in the Host Response to Tularemia

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, John W.; Tam, Jason W.; Okan, Nihal A.; Mena, Patricio; Furie, Martha B.; Thanassi, David G.; Benach, Jorge L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have linked accumulation of the Gr-1+ CD11b+ cell phenotype with functional immunosuppression in diverse pathological conditions, including bacterial and parasitic infections and cancer. Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells were the largest population of cells present in the spleens of mice infected with sublethal doses of the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS). In contrast, the number of T cells present in the spleens of these mice did not increase during early infection. There was a significant delay in the kinetics of accumulation of Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells in the spleens of B-cell-deficient mice, indicating that B cells play a role in recruitment and maintenance of this population in the spleens of mice infected with F. tularensis. The splenic Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells in tularemia were a heterogeneous population that could be further subdivided into monocytic (mononuclear) and granulocytic (polymorphonuclear) cells using the Ly6C and Ly6G markers and differentiated into antigen-presenting cells following ex vivo culture. Monocytic, CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G? cells but not granulocytic, CD11b+ Ly6Cint Ly6G+ cells purified from the spleens of mice infected with F. tularensis suppressed polyclonal T-cell proliferation via a nitric oxide-dependent pathway. Although the monocytic, CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G? cells were able to suppress the proliferation of T cells, the large presence of Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells in mice that survived F. tularensis infection also suggests a potential role for these cells in the protective host response to tularemia. PMID:22526678

  8. Limited value of morphological assessment at days 1 and 2 to predict blastocyst development potential: A prospective study based on 4042 embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guerif; A. Le Gouge; B. Giraudeau; J. Poindron; R. Bidault; O. Gasnier; D. Royere

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive and routine developmental markers are available to select the most viable embryo; however their respective values in terms of blastocyst development potential remain difficult to distinguish. METHODS: During this prospective study, the sequential growth of 4042 embryos individually cultured from day 1 to day 5\\/6 was recorded. Pronuclear morphology on day 1, and early cleavage, cell number and

  9. Polymer Solar Cells: Understanding Solvent Interactions and Morphology, and Strategies for Efficiency Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lilian

    Organic solar cells have the potential to be unrivaled in terms of processing cost, speed, and simplicity. The simplest of such devices consists of a single bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) active layer, in which the electron donor (conjugated polymer) and electron acceptor (fullerene) are deposited from a common solvent. The performance of BHJ solar cells is strongly correlated with the nanoscale structure of the active layer. Various processing techniques have been explored to improve the nanoscale morphology of the BHJ layer, e.g. by varying the casting solvent, thermal annealing, solvent annealing, and solvent additives. An understanding of the role of residual solvent in the BHJ layer is imperative in order to develop strategies for morphology stabilization and preserve the longevity of the device. This work highlights the effect of residual solvents on acceptor, (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) diffusion and ultimately the stability of the morphology. We first show that solvent is retained within the BHJ film despite prolonged heat treatment, leading to extensive phase separation between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and PCBM. We then show that the addition of a small volume fraction of nitrobenzene to the casting solution inhibits the diffusion of PCBM in the film and improves the fill factor of the BHJ device without further tempering. Other commonly used additives for morphology improvement were also investigated, i.e. 1,8-diiodooctane and 1-chloronaphthalene. We show that the choice of solvent additives has direct implications on morphological evolution, i.e. P3HT:PCBM BHJ films processed with a small amount of 1,8-diiodooctane or 1-chloronaphthalene have more crystalline PCBM domains compared to crystalline P3HT domains, while the opposite is true for films cast with nitrobenzene additive and films cast purely from chlorobenzene. The BHJ film cross-links when annealed at 300°C in the presence of 1,8-diiodooctane. Cross-linking is found to occur even in pristine P3HT and PCBM films annealed under similar conditions. Our work in understanding solvent interactions greatly facilitated our venture into multi-junction solution-processed devices. In our exploration of various device architectures for optimal performance, we have also established a way to modify the surface energy of a film to render it amenable to subsequent solution-processing. The tandem architecture offers a strategy to efficiently harvest photons from the full solar spectrum by stacking multiple photoactive layers with complementary absorption spectra. We found that the current predominant choices for solution-processed electron transport layer (ETL) each have their problems when implemented into a tandem device. Hence, we are presenting the novel use of stacked perovskite, (TBA,H)Ca2Nb3O 10 (CNO), semiconductor nanosheets as an ETL and we have successfully demonstrated a completely solution-processed tandem polymer solar cell. While further optimization of the CNO-layer is still required, the robust CNO-layer can be spin-coated on top of the BHJ photoactive layer and is stable towards subsequent processing and heat-treatment. We also explored the feasibility of introducing silver nanoparticles into the device structure via a low-cost solution-processable route for the exploitation of surface plasmon resonance for near-field absorption enhancement in the photoactive layer. We find that the photo-reduction of Ag+ to Ag appears to be a promising route for in-situ deposition of Ag nanoparticles.

  10. Global analysis of fungal morphology exposes mechanisms of host cell escape

    PubMed Central

    O’Meara, Teresa R.; Veri, Amanda O.; Ketela, Troy; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry; Cowen, Leah E.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental transitions between single-cell yeast and multicellular filaments underpin virulence of diverse fungal pathogens. For the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, filamentation is thought to be required for immune cell escape via induction of an inflammatory programmed cell death. Here we perform a genome-scale analysis of C. albicans morphogenesis and identify 102 negative morphogenetic regulators and 872 positive regulators, highlighting key roles for ergosterol biosynthesis and N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate that C. albicans filamentation is not required for escape from host immune cells; instead, macrophage pyroptosis is driven by fungal cell-wall remodelling and exposure of glycosylated proteins in response to the macrophage phagosome. The capacity of killed, previously phagocytized cells to drive macrophage lysis is also observed with the distantly related fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. This study provides a global view of morphogenetic circuitry governing a key virulence trait, and illuminates a new mechanism by which fungi trigger host cell death. PMID:25824284

  11. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs. Morphological abnormalities were significantly more prevalent in patients with autism than in the normal control group and 48 morphological features distinguished patients from controls. Our findings show that morphological features are associated with autism. Exploring potential underlying genetic mechanisms of this association might lead to a better understanding of autism. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1018-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20473590

  12. Morphology study of progesterone polymorphs prepared by polymer-induced heteronucleation (PIHn).

    PubMed

    Araya-Sibaja, Andrea M A; Fandaruff, Cinira; Campos, Carlos E M; Soldi, Valdir; Cardoso, Simone G; Cuffini, Silvia L

    2013-01-01

    In this article, morphology of progesterone polymorphs prepared by polymer-induced heteronucleation (PIHn) technique was studied. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose(HPMC), such as dextran T-500 and gelatin G-9382, polyisoprene (PI), and acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer (NBR) were used as substrates. The crystallizations were performed by solvent evaporation at room temperature from 0.5, 10, and 40 mg/ml solutions in chloroform and acetone. Progesterone polymorphs were identified by X-ray diffraction. Differential scanning calorimetry and total attenuated reflectance infrared spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques in the identification. Depending on the polymeric matrix and the concentration used, form 1, form 2, or mixture of both polymorphs were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy pictures evidenced difference in morphology and in homogeneity of the two progesterone polymorphs. These polymorphs prepared by PIHn, did not present a distinctive morphology that allows identifying polymorph by its crystal habit. Hence, polymeric matrix induced the crystallization, affecting polymorphism and morphology. PMID:23034679

  13. N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE AND 4-(METHYLNITROSAMINO)-1-(3-PYRIDYL)-1-BUTANONE INDUCED MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF CH3/10T1/2CL8 CELLS EXPRESSING HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450 2A6

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transfection of specific genes into cells capable of expressing chemically-induced morphological cell transformation provides a valuable approach to study the mechanisms of action of carcinogens. uman cytochrome P450 isozyme, CYP2A6, has been successfully expressed from a retrovi...

  14. Russian study of morphological prognostic factors characterization in BRAF-mutant cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Aksenenko, M B; Kirichenko, A K; Ruksha, T G

    2015-07-01

    Melanoma is one of the aggressive cancer types causing the majority of deaths in skin cancer patients. Mutational screening of the tumor revealed a number of driver mutations in oncogenes which enabled melanoma classification into a few molecular subtypes. BRAF is a key component of mitogen-activated kinase pathway; its activating mutation leads to accelerated melanoma cells proliferation, invasion and survival. Somatic mutations in BRAF were reported in various malignancies, including thyroid cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. Specific features of BRAF-positive tumors could have clinical implications as mutational alterations may have an impact on the biological behavior of the tumor and prognosis of the disease. In the present study, the frequency of BRAF V600E mutation was evaluated in Russian patients with melanocytic lesions, of which 41.25% were primary melanoma and 60% were melanocytic nevi. Melanoma patients with trunk localization were of younger age in the BRAF-positive group as compared with BRAF-negative patients. Immunohistochemical evaluations of Ki-67 expression, as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9, were found to be equal in BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative tumors. MMP-2/MMP-9 immunoreactivity was observed in stromal and/or melanocytic cells both in melanoma and nevi patients. Besides tumor cells, MMP-9 expression was observed in lymphocytes in 27.2% of BRAF-positive and in 19.1% of BRAF-negative patients. Histopathological prognostic markers (Breslow thickness, mitotic index, ulceration, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes pattern) did not show any differences depending on BRAF V600E mutational status. The frequency of BRAF-positive melanomas in Russian cohort is similar to other Caucasian population rates. BRAF V600E mutation harboring tumors are more often observed in younger patients without specific features of morphological prognostic factors. PMID:25888143

  15. Morphological and morphometric study of atrial specific granules and other secretory components in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Caliari, M. V.; Lana, M.; Leite, V. H.; Tafuri, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in blood volume can induce morphometric and morphological alterations in the secretory complex of the myoendocrine cells due to the stretching of atrial walls. These alterations were studied by electron microscopy, using dogs infected intraperitonially with Trypanosoma cruzi and necropsied during the acute phase of the infection when congestive heart failure was present. Several changes were observed in the myoendocrine cells of the heart: hypertrophy and hyperplasia of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, increase in telenuclear secretory complex, increase in fusion of type B atrial specific granules (ASG), decrease of the total number of ASG, enlargement of the maximum diameter of type A ASG and a relative increase in the number of type B ASG. These alterations suggest a larger secretory activity of the atrial myoendocrine cells with a larger secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7547444

  16. Morphology control in polycarbazole based bulk heterojunction solar cells and its impact on device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ta-Ya; Alem, Salima; Tsang, Sai-Wing; Tse, Shing-Chi; Wakim, Salem; Lu, Jianping; Dennler, Gilles; Waller, David; Gaudiana, Russell; Tao, Ye

    2011-06-01

    Incremental increase in dimethyl sulfoxide (or dimethyl formamide) in ortho-dichlorobenzene solution of poly[N-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) gradually reduces the polymer-solvent interaction, the attraction forces between polymer chains become more dominant, and the polymer chains adopt a tight and contracted conformation with more interchain interactions, resulting in a progressive aggregation in both solutions and films. This was used to fine tune the morphology of PCDTBT/PC71BM based solar cells, leading to improved domain structure and hole mobility in the active layer, and significantly improved photovoltaic performance. The power conversion efficiency increased from 6.0% to 7.1% on devices with an active area of 1.0 cm2.

  17. Characterizing Newly Repopulated Microglia in the Adult Mouse: Impacts on Animal Behavior, Cell Morphology, and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Monica R. P.; Lee, Rafael J.; West, Brian L.; Green, Kim N.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the original resident microglia without any apparent adverse effects in healthy adult mice. PMID:25849463

  18. Imageability and Transparency in Morphological Awareness: A Study of How Third-Grade Children Made Lemonade from Lemon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological awareness has been established as important to literacy success, and as such, it is critical to study factors affecting children's performance on measures of this skill. Morphological transparency, or the clarity of the sound and letter pattern relationship between base words and their associated morphological forms, has been found…

  19. Summary In a 4-year study, we investigated changes in leaf physiology, crown morphology and whole-tree biomass allo-

    E-print Network

    Lechowicz, Martin J.

    Summary In a 4-year study, we investigated changes in leaf physiology, crown morphology and whole-tree, whereas crown morphological and whole-tree allocational parameters were mainly influenced by tree size variation with tree size in both crown morphology and whole- tree biomassallocation. When sugar maple

  20. Comparative morphological study of the venom glands of the centipede Cryptops iheringi, Otostigmus pradoi and Scolopendra viridicornis.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Marta M; Pedroso, Cátia M; Knysak, Irene; Martins, Rosana; Guizze, Samuel P G; Jared, Carlos; Barbaro, Kátia C

    2009-03-01

    Centipedes are widely distributed over all the continents. As they are well adapted to urban areas they can often cause accidents to humans by injecting venom produced in the glands located inside their maxillipeds. The fine morphology of the centipede venom glands is practically unknown. This present study is the first comparative report on the histology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the venom glands of the centipede species responsible for the majority of accidents to humans in Brazil: Scolopendra viridicornis, Cryptops iheringi and Otostigmus pradoi. In all species the glands are basically composed of columnar secretory cells radially disposed side by side, individually opening through pores in a central chitinous duct. Each secretory cell is covered by striated muscular fibres. The secretion has the form of small PAS positive granules and large hyaline secretory bromophenol blue positive vacuoles, indicating the presence of neutral polysaccharides and protein. The secretion is conducted through the secretory cell necks to the pores, which open into the central chitinous duct. The results indicate a great similarity both in morphology and primary chemical composition of the venom among the studied species, except for the size of the glands, which is proportional to the body dimensions of each species. PMID:19105969

  1. Retinoid- and sodium-butyrate– induced decrease in heat shock protein 70 membrane-positive tumor cells is associated with reduced sensitivity to natural killer cell lysis, growth delay, and altered growth morphology

    PubMed Central

    Gehrmann, Mathias; Schönberger, Johann; Zilch, Tanja; Rossbacher, Lydia; Thonigs, Gerald; Eilles, Christoph; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    Human tumors frequently present heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) on their cell membranes, whereas corresponding normal tissues fail to do so. Therefore, an Hsp70 membrane-positive phenotype provided a tumor-specific marker. Moreover, membrane-bound Hsp70 provides a target structure for the cytolytic attack mediated by natural killer (NK) cells. Vitamin A derivatives 13-cis retinoic acid (13-RA) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and sodium-butyrate (SBU) are known for their redifferentiating capacity. Therefore, we asked the question whether loss in tumorigenicity might be associated with a reduced Hsp70 membrane expression. For our studies we used epithelial colon (CX+/CX?) and thyroid (ML-1) cancer cells, with initially different Hsp70 cell surface expression pattern. After treatment up to 7 weeks with freshly prepared 13-RA, ATRA, and SBU at nonlethal concentrations of 10 ?M, 1 ?M, and 0.5 mM, respectively, growth morphology, Hsp70 levels, and sensitivity toward Hsp70-specific NK cells were compared with that of untreated tumor cells. Significant growth delay was determined in CX+ tumor cells after 6 weeks treatment with 13-RA. Concomitantly, growth morphology changed from spheroid cell clusters to monolayers. Despite a weak increase in cytosolic Hsp70, the percentage of Hsp70 membrane-positive cells dropped significantly after repeated treatments with 13-RA and ATRA in CX+ and ML-1 but not in CX? tumor cells. Similar results were observed with SBU. Functionally, the decrease in Hsp70 membrane-positive CX+ and ML-1 cells correlated with a reduced sensitivity to lysis mediated by NK cells. In summary, redifferentiating agents predominantly affected Hsp70 membrane-positive tumors. The decrease in Hsp70 membrane positivity correlated with a lower sensitivity to NK lysis, growth delay, and altered growth morphology. PMID:16038410

  2. Vascular transfer cells in Angiosperm leaves A taxonomic and morphological survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Pate; B. E. S. Gunning

    1969-01-01

    Summary A study of the fine structure of minor veins of mature leaves of 975 species and 242 families of Angiosperms shows that transfer cells are widespread amongst herbaceous Dicotyledons, are much rarer in woody Dicotyledons, and are virtually absent from the Monocotyledons. The evolutionary significance of the distribution of the cells amongst and within orders, families and minor groupings

  3. Morphology, morphometry and electron microscopy of HeLa cells infected with bovine Mycoplasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Boatman; Frank Cartwright; George Kenny

    1976-01-01

    The host-parasite relationship of HeLa M cells artificially infected with a bovine species of Mycoplasma was studied by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The use of morphometry to quantitate some of the findings was explored. The parasites were seen in locations extracellular to the cell surface. The detection of small numbers of organisms by light microscopy

  4. Predicting the morphology of sickle red blood cells using coarse-grained models of intracellular aligned hemoglobin polymers†

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-01-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBCs) exhibit heterogeneous cell morphologies (sickle, holly leaf, granular, etc.) in the deoxygenated state due to the polymerization of the sickle hemoglobin. Experimental evidence points to a close relationship between SS-RBC morphology and intracellular aligned hemoglobin polymers. Here, we develop a coarse-grained (CG) stochastic model to represent the growth of the intracellular aligned hemoglobin polymer domain. The CG model is calibrated based on the mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, bending rigidity) of the sickle hemoglobin fibers reported in experiments. The process of the cell membrane transition is simulated for physiologic aligned hemoglobin polymer configurations and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Typical SS-RBC morphologies observed in experiments can be obtained from the current model as a result of the intracellular aligned hemoglobin polymer development without introducing any further ad hoc assumptions. It is found that the final shape of SS-RBCs is primarily determined by the angular width of the aligned hemoglobin polymer domain, but it also depends, to a lesser degree, on the polymer growth rate and the cell membrane rigidity. Cell morphologies are quantified by structural shape factors, which agree well with experimental results from medical images. PMID:24307912

  5. Morphological stability of an interface between two non-Newtonian fluids moving in a Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Martyushev, L M; Birzina, A I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the morphological stability of an interface in the case of the displacement of one non-Newtonian fluid by another non-Newtonian fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell has been considered. Both fluids have been described by the two-parameter Ostwald-de Waele power-law model. The nonzero viscosity of the displacing fluid has been taken into account. A generalized Darcy's law for the system under consideration, as well as an equation for the determination of the critical size of morphological stability with respect to harmonic perturbations (linear analysis), has been derived. Morphological phase diagrams have been constructed, and the region of the parameters in which nonequilibrium reentrant morphological transitions are possible has been revealed. PMID:25679705

  6. Pattern formation during insect leg segmentation: Studies with a prepattern of a cell surface antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betty A. Norbeck; Jeffrey L. Denburg

    1991-01-01

    Summary A monoclonal antibody (MAb) that binds to a cell surface antigen selectively localized to epithelial cells undergoing morphogenesis was used to study the segmentation of the growing embryonic leg of the cockroachPeriplaneta americana. The MAb labels circumferential stripes of cells at locations where invagination will occur to form the leg segments. The formation of these stripes precedes any morphological

  7. Hydrogen bonding in bulk heterojunction solar cells: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zeyun; Sun, Kuan; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Ji, Shaomin; Jones, David J.; Wong, Wallace W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Small molecules with dithieno[3,2-b;2?,3?-d]thiophene as central building block and octyl cyanoacetate and octyl cyanoacetamide as different terminal building blocks have been designed and synthesized. The amide containing small molecule can form intermolecular hydrogen bonding between N-H…O = C of the amide group. The photovoltaic properties and active layer morphologies of the two molecules in bulk heterojunction solar cells are compared to study the influence of hydrogen bonding on the active layer morphology. New methanofullerene compound containing amide group has also been synthesized and compared with conventional fullerene electron acceptors. PMID:25027678

  8. Neural Crest Cell Contribution to the Developing Circulatory System Implications for Vascular Morphology?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten Bergwerff; Marlies E. Verberne; Marco C. DeRuiter; Robert E. Poelmann; Adriana C. Gittenberger-de Groot

    In this study, the distribution patterns of neural crest (NC) cells (NCCs) in the developing vascular system of the chick were thoroughly studied and examined for a correlation with smooth muscle cell differentiation and vascular morphogenesis. For this purpose, we performed long-term lineage tracing using quail-chick chimera techniques and premigratory NCC infection with a replication-incompetent retrovirus containing the LacZ reporter

  9. Optical scatter imaging: a microscopic modality for the rapid morphological assay of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustany, Nada N.

    2007-02-01

    Tumors derived from epithelial cells comprise the majority of human tumors and their growth results from the accumulation of multiple mutations affecting cellular processes critical for tissue homeostasis, including cell proliferation and cell death. To understand these processes and address the complexity of cancer cell function, multiple cellular responses to different experimental conditions and specific genetic mutations must be analyzed. Fundamental to this endeavor is the development of rapid cellular assays in genetically defined cells, and in particular, the development of optical imaging methods that allow dynamic observation and real-time monitoring of cellular processes. In this context, we are developing an optical scatter imaging technology that is intended to bridge the gap between light and electron microscopy by rapidly providing morphometric information about the relative size and shape of non-spherical organelles, with sub-wavelength resolution. Our goal is to complement current microscopy techniques used to study cells in-vitro, especially in long-term time-lapse studies of living cells, where exogenous labels can be toxic, and electron microscopy will destroy the sample. The optical measurements are based on Fourier spatial filtering in a standard microscope, and could ultimately be incorporated into existing high-throughput diagnostic platforms for cancer cell research and histopathology of neoplastic tissue arrays. Using an engineered epithelial cell model of tumor formation, we are currently studying how organelle structure and function are altered by defined genetic mutations affecting the propensity for cell death and oncogenic potential, and by environmental conditions promoting tumor growth. This talk will describe our optical scatter imaging technology and present results from our studies on apoptosis, and the function of BCL-2 family proteins.

  10. Chromosomal and morphological studies of diploid and polyploid cytotypes of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa M. de Oliveira; Eliana R. Forni-Martins; Pedro M. Magalhăes; Marcos N. Alves

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined the chromosome number and some morphological features of strains of Stevia rebaudiana. The chromosomes were analyzed during mitosis and diakinesis, and the tetrad normality and pollen viability were also assessed. In addition, stomata and pollen were measured and some plant features were studied morphometrically. All of the strains had 2n = 22, except for two,

  11. The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis): A Reptilian Model for Laboratory Studies of Reproductive Morphology and Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. Lovern; Melissa M. Holmes; Juli Wade

    The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) is an excellent reptil- ian model for studying reproductive behavior and the neural and muscular morphology that supports it. This lizard has been the subject of behavioral and ecological study for more than 100 yr, and a rich literature exists on its natural history. Both courtship and copulatory behaviors reveal sex and sea- sonal differences,

  12. Modifications in plasma membrane lipid composition and morphological features of AH-130 hepatoma cells by polyenylphosphatidylcholine in vivo treatment.

    PubMed

    Cinosi, Vincenzo; Antonini, Roberto; Crateri, Pasqualina; Arancia, Giuseppe

    2011-07-01

    The plasma membrane lipid composition in AH-130 hepatoma cells was found to change remarkably after polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) treatment. Plasma membranes from cells grown in rats treated for 7 days i.v. with 20 mg/kg/day PPC, when compared to those of control cells, did not show significantly different amounts of cholesterol or phospholipids relative to protein content, but, surprisingly, the individual phospholipid distribution inside the two membrane leaflets changed dramatically. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid in the external membrane leaflet, increased ~47% (p<0.001). By contrast, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the most important component of the inner leaflet, decreased nearly 37% (p<0.001), while sphingomyelin (SM) also decreased ~17%, (p=0.1). Tumor cells collected from control rats at the same time interval and observed by scanning electron microscopy, exhibited a spherical shape with numerous and randomly distributed long microvilli, the same morphological and ultrastructural features displayed by the implanted cells. Conversely, tumor cells from PPC-treated rats no longer showed the roundish cell profile, and microvilli appeared shortened and enlarged, with the formation of surface blebs. Transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed the morphological and ultrastructural cell changes, mainly seen as loss of microvilli and intense cytoplasmic vacuolization. Taken together, these results indicate that the new phospholipid class distribution in the plasma membrane leaflets, modifying tumor cell viable structures, produced heavy cell damage and in many cases brought about complete cellular disintegration. PMID:21519791

  13. Bmcc1s, a Novel Brain-Isoform of Bmcc1, Affects Cell Morphology by Regulating MAP6/STOP Functions

    E-print Network

    predominantly expressed in the mouse brain. In primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons, Bmcc1s localizedBmcc1s, a Novel Brain-Isoform of Bmcc1, Affects Cell Morphology by Regulating MAP6/STOP Functions and Cdc42GAP Homology) domain-containing protein Bmcc1/Prune2 is highly enriched in the brain

  14. Morphology of graft endothelium and donor age.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, G N; Waldron, W R; Aquavella, J V

    1980-01-01

    The corneal endothelium of 42 clear corneal transplants was studied with a specular microscope. The endothelial cell morphology was analysed by using a computerised image analysis system. A quantitative index was developed to study the degree of variation in cell size. By applying this objective index we observed that pleomorphism is independent of age, and considerable alteration occurs in cell morphology during healing. Images PMID:7000174

  15. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  16. Effects of the morphology of nanostructured ZnO films on the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Giannouli; F. Spiliopoulou

    The main aim of this work was to examine the physical characteristics of nanostructured thin films used in dye-sensitized solar cells. Parameters such as the thickness and the morphology of the films were investigated, as these factors greatly affect the efficiency and the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. To this aim, nanostructured ZnO films of varying thickness (from 2 to

  17. EFFECT OF 12-0-TETRADECANOYLPHORBOL-13-ACETATE ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND GROWTH OF C3H/10TL/2 MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the morphology and growth properties of C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 cells were examined. The morphology of these cells was changed within 30 min following treatment with 0.1 micrograms of TPA pe...

  18. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with microcystic and adenomatous arrangement and pigmentation—a diagnostic pitfall. Morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular genetic report of 20 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Hes; T. Vanecek; D. M. Perez-Montiel; I. Alvarado Cabrero; M. Hora; S. Suster; J. Lamovec; R. Curik; V. Mandys; M. Michal

    2005-01-01

    We present clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular genetic features of 20 cases of a peculiar form of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) with morphology differing from that of conventional CRCC. Microscopically, the typical features of the tumors were microcystic arrangement and formation of adenomatous structures. Microcystic areas were composed of smaller eosinophilic and bigger pale cells having cytological appearance

  19. In-Depth Understanding of the Morphology-Performance Relationship in Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Cheng, Yi-Bing; McNeill, Christopher R

    2015-07-01

    It is well-established that thermal annealing optimizes the morphology and improves the efficiency of P3HT-based organic solar cells, but the effects of different cooling rates after annealing are not well understood. In this paper, we use a model system based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to examine the relationship between morphology and device performance for annealing before (preannealing) and after (postannealing) the application of the electrode, with different cooling rates and in different device architectures. In the conventional structure, postannealing is confirmed to significantly enhance efficiency. The device prepared with a slow cooling rate (3.6%) shows a higher average power conversion efficiency than that prepared with a fast cooling rate (3.3%). The microstructural changes underlying this 10% increase in device performance and further effects of cooling rate, pre- and postannealing, and device architecture are comprehensively examined with a combination of synchrotron-based techniques, including grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The best device in the conventional architecture (postannealed with slow cooling rate) shows a more face-on orientation and narrower orientational distribution of P3HT crystallites. In addition, postannealing leads to PCBM diffusion toward the blend/top electrode interface. The enrichment of PCBM at the blend/top electrode interface plays a positive role in aiding electron collection at the electrode in the conventional structure, but it has a negative effect on the performance of the inverted structure, where hole collection at the top electrode instead is required. For this reason, in an inverted structure, preannealed films with slow cooling exhibit the best photovoltaic performance. PMID:26020455

  20. Craniofacial morphologic parameters in a Persian population: an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz

    2014-09-01

    Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments. PMID:25203584

  1. Effects of electric fields on human mesenchymal stem cell behaviour and morphology using a novel multichannel device.

    PubMed

    Banks, T A; Luckman, P S B; Frith, J E; Cooper-White, J J

    2015-06-01

    The intrinsic piezoelectric nature of collagenous-rich tissues, such as bone and cartilage, can result in the production of small, endogenous electric fields (EFs) during applied mechanical stresses. In vivo, these EFs may influence cell migration, a vital component of wound healing. As a result, the application of small external EFs to bone fractures and cutaneous wounds is actively practiced clinically. Due to the significant regenerative potential of stem cells in bone and cartilage healing, and their potential role in the observed improved healing in vivo post applied EFs, using a novel medium throughput device, we investigated the impacts of physiological and aphysiological EFs on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) for up to 15 hours. The applied EFs had significant impacts on hBM-MSC morphology and migration; cells displayed varying degrees of conversion to a highly elongated phenotype dependent on the EF strength, consistent perpendicular alignment to the EF vector, and definitive cathodal migration in response to EF strengths ?0.5 V cm(-1), with the fastest migration speeds observed at between 1.7 and 3 V cm(-1). We observed variability in hBM-MSC donor-to-donor responses and overall tolerances to applied EFs. This study thus confirms hBM-MSCs are responsive to applied EFs, and their rate of migration towards the cathode is controllable depending on the EF strength, providing new insight into the physiology of hBM-MSCs and possibly a significant opportunity for the utilisation of EFs in directed scaffold colonisation in vitro for tissue engineering applications or in vivo post implantation. PMID:25988194

  2. Functional and morphological analysis of the subretinal injection of human retinal progenitor cells under Cyclosporin A treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui; Baranov, Petr; Lai, Kunbei; Zhang, Xinmei; Ge,, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional and morphological changes in subretinal xenografts of human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) in B6 mice treated with Cyclosporin A (CsA; 210 mg/l in drinking water). Methods The hRPCs from human fetal eyes were isolated and expanded for transplantation. These cells, with green fluorescent protein (GFP) at 11 passages, were transplanted into the subretinal space in B6 mice. A combination of invasive and noninvasive approaches was used to analyze the structural and functional consequences of the subretinal injection of the hRPCs. The process of change was monitored using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), histology, and electroretinography (ERG) at 3 days, 1 week, and 3 weeks after transplantation. Cell counts were used to evaluate the survival rate with a confocal microscope. ERGs were performed to evaluate the physiologic changes, and the structural changes were evaluated using SDOCT and histological examination. Results The results of the histological examination showed that the hRPCs gained a better survival rate in the mice treated with CsA. The SDOCT showed that the bleb size of the retinal detachment was significantly decreased, and the retinal reattachment was nearly complete by 3 weeks. The ERG response amplitudes in the CsA group were less decreased after the injection, when compared with the control group, in the dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions. However, the cone-mediated function in both groups was less affected by the transplantation after 3 weeks than the rod-mediated function. Conclusions Although significant functional and structural recovery was observed after the subretinal injection of the hRPCs, the effectiveness of CsA in xenotransplantation may be a novel and potential approach for increasing retinal progenitor cell survival. PMID:25352736

  3. Morphological Analysis and Lentiviral Transduction of Fetal Monkey Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang I. Lee; Donald B. Kohn; Jason E. Ekert; Alice F. Tarantal

    2004-01-01

    We explored the transduction kinetics of HIV-1-derived lentiviral vectors containing the CMV, EF1?, or PGK promoter expressing EGFP in fetal rhesus monkey bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rhMSC). Studies included the effects of transduction (MOI 0–100) on growth, cell cycle, and differentiation toward an osteogenic lineage. Flow cytometric analysis indicated an approximate 8- to 10-fold greater quantity of EGFP-expressing rhMSC

  4. Morphologic, immunologic, biochemical, and cytogenetic characteristics of the human glioblastoma-derived cell line, SNB-19

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Welch; Richard S. Morrison; Janet L. Gross; Susanne M. Gollin; Richard B. Kitson; Ronald H. Goldfarb; Kenneth A. Giuliano; Margaret K. Bradley; Paul L. Kornblith

    1995-01-01

    Summary  Human glioma-derived cell cultures and lines have proven to be of significant value in the study of the basic properties that\\u000a contribute to the highly malignant, invasive and angiogenic phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. It is frequently\\u000a difficult to establish lines that retain glial tumor properties in long term culture. The SNB-19 cell line has maintained\\u000a and exhibited properties of

  5. Bmcc1s, a Novel Brain-Isoform of Bmcc1, Affects Cell Morphology by Regulating MAP6/STOP Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bosc, Christophe; Delphin, Christian; Loew, Damarys; Rostaing, Philippe; Amigou, Edwige; Ezan, Pascal; Wingertsmann, Laure; Guillaud, Laurent; Andrieux, Annie; Giaume, Christian; Cohen-Salmon, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The BCH (BNIP2 and Cdc42GAP Homology) domain-containing protein Bmcc1/Prune2 is highly enriched in the brain and is involved in the regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics and cell survival. However, the molecular mechanisms accounting for these functions are poorly defined. Here, we have identified Bmcc1s, a novel isoform of Bmcc1 predominantly expressed in the mouse brain. In primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons, Bmcc1s localized on intermediate filaments and microtubules and interacted directly with MAP6/STOP, a microtubule-binding protein responsible for microtubule cold stability. Bmcc1s overexpression inhibited MAP6-induced microtubule cold stability by displacing MAP6 away from microtubules. It also resulted in the formation of membrane protrusions for which MAP6 was a necessary cofactor of Bmcc1s. This study identifies Bmcc1s as a new MAP6 interacting protein able to modulate MAP6-induced microtubule cold stability. Moreover, it illustrates a novel mechanism by which Bmcc1 regulates cell morphology. PMID:22523599

  6. Automated statistical quantification of three-dimensional morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin of multiple red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Inkyu; Javidi, Bahram; Yi, Faliu; Boss, Daniel; Marquet, Pierre

    2012-04-23

    In this paper, we present an automated approach to quantify information about three-dimensional (3D) morphology, hemoglobin content and density of mature red blood cells (RBCs) using off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and statistical algorithms. The digital hologram of RBCs is recorded by a CCD camera using an off-axis interferometry setup and quantitative phase images of RBCs are obtained by a numerical reconstruction algorithm. In order to remove unnecessary parts and obtain clear targets in the reconstructed phase image with many RBCs, the marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm is applied to the phase image. Each RBC in the segmented phase image is three-dimensionally investigated. Characteristic properties such as projected cell surface, average phase, sphericity coefficient, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH surface density of each RBC is quantitatively measured. We experimentally demonstrate that joint statistical distributions of the characteristic parameters of RBCs can be obtained by our algorithm and efficiently used as a feature pattern to discriminate between RBC populations that differ in shape and hemoglobin content. Our study opens the possibility of automated RBC quantitative analysis suitable for the rapid classification of a large number of RBCs from an individual blood specimen, which is a fundamental step to develop a diagnostic approach based on DHM. PMID:22535119

  7. A review of rapid microwave fixation technology: its expanding niche in morphologic studies.

    PubMed

    Login, G R; Dvorak, A M

    1993-01-01

    Microwave (MW) fixation methods are important because excellent preservation of both cell structure and antigenicity can be attained several orders of magnitude faster than by routine chemical fixation methods. However, because of the limitations of commercial MW ovens, fixation results are often irreproducible. We present a standardization protocol for MW fixation in household MW ovens that emphasizes magnetron warm-up; the use of a water load during sample irradiation, of an agar/saline/Giemsa model to evaluate uniformity of irradiation within the MW cavity, and of specimen containers with one dimension less than 1.5 cm; and fast specimen handling to prevent conductive heating artifacts after irradiation. We describe a prototypic MW device that improves the precision of sample irradiation and fixes blocks of tissue and cells in suspension in milliseconds. The solutions used to immerse the specimen during irradiation influence the specimen morphology. Aldehyde- or osmium-containing solutions used simultaneously with MW irradiation resulted in the best morphologic preservation of specimens up to 1 cm3. Using MW fixation methods and a postembedding, ultrastructural immunogold-labeling approach, we have localized granule chymase and histamine in rat mast cells and amylase in rat parotid acinar cells. PMID:8287206

  8. Temporal Analysis of Coxiella burnetii Morphological Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry A. Coleman; Elizabeth R. Fischer; Dale Howe; David J. Mead; Robert A. Heinzen

    2004-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii undergoes a poorly defined developmental cycle that generates morphologically distinct small-cell variants (SCV) and large-cell variants (LCV). We developed a model to study C. burnetii morpho- genesis that uses Vero cells synchronously infected with homogeneous SCV (Nine Mile strain in phase II) harvested from aged infected cell cultures. A time course transmission electron microscopic analysis over 8 days

  9. Orientation and Morphology of Calcite Nucleated under Floating Monolayers: A Magnesium-ion-enhanced Nucleation Study

    SciTech Connect

    B Stripe; A Uysal; P Dutta

    2011-12-31

    We have studied the biomimetic growth of calcium carbonate crystals under floating monolayer templates, in the presence of Mg ions, using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and SEM imaging. Crystals grown under sulfate monolayers nucleate from the (0 0 1) plane with and without Mg ions, while undergoing substantial changes in morphology. Crystals grown under alcohol monolayers nucleate from the (1 0 4) plane in the presence of Mg. X-ray data do not detect orientation in crystals grown under acid monolayers, but at higher Mg concentrations the resulting morphologies are indicative of template-nucleated growth. These results suggest that Mg provides living organisms a way to enhance the orientation and control the morphology of acid-templated crystals.

  10. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  11. Computational study of boron nitride nanotube synthesis: How catalyst morphology stabilizes the boron nitride bond

    E-print Network

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Computational study of boron nitride nanotube synthesis: How catalyst morphology stabilizes the boron nitride bond S. Riikonen,1 A. S. Foster,1,2 A. V. Krasheninnikov,1,3 and R. M. Nieminen1,* 1 COMP methods for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes work much worse than for their carbon counterparts, we

  12. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of morphological and mechanistic aspects of electroless copper deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Johannes Weber

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis the mechanism of electroless copper plating and the morphology of the deposit has been studied. The main tool for this investigation has been in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In addition, the deposit surface has also been examined by scanning electron microscopy. In electroless copper plating, copper ions are reduced by the oxidation of formaldehyde. Both partial reactions

  13. Describing Peripancreatic Collections in Severe Acute Pancreatitis Using Morphologic Terms: An International Interobserver Agreement Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hjalmar C. van Santvoort; Thomas L. Bollen; Marc G. Besselink; Peter A. Banks; Marja A. Boermeester; Casper H. van Eijck; Jonathan Evans; Patrick C. Freeny; Lars Grenacher; John J. Hermans; Karen D. Horvath; David M. Hough; Johan S. Laméris; Maarten S. van Leeuwen; Koenraad J. Mortele; John P. Neoptolemos; Michael G. Sarr; Santhi Swaroop Vege; Jens Werner; Hein G. Gooszen

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The current terminology for describing peripancreatic collections in acute pancreatitis (AP) derived from the Atlanta Symposium (e.g. pseudocyst, pancreatic abscess) has shown a very poor interobserver agreement, creating the potential for patient mismanagement. A study was undertaken to determine the interobserver agreement for a new set of morphologic terms to describe peripancreatic collections in AP. Methods: An international, interobserver

  14. Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) larval midgut and salivary gland morphology: Light and electron microscopy studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology of Hessian fly larval (first instar) midgut and salivary gland tissue is described by light and transmission electron microscopy. These data serve as the basis for future research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of wheat resistance to Hessian fly. Future studies include (1) a co...

  15. Real-Time Fine Morphology of Motile Human Sperm Cells is Associated With IVF-ICSI Outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Bartoov; Arie Berkovitz; Fina Eltes; Avraham Kogosowski; Yves Menezo; Yona Barak

    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present prospective study was to de- termine whether,subtle sperm,morphological,characteristics affect the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and if so, to identify those that are relevant. For this purpose, we developed a new method, the motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME). The examination,is performed,in real time using an in- verted light microscope,equipped,with high-power Nomarski optics

  16. Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma and Renal Angiomyoadenomatous Tumor: Two Variants of a Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Genetic Distinct Entity of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deml, Karl-Friedrich; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Compérat, Eva; von Teichman, Adriana; Storz, Martina; Schraml, Peter; Bonventre, Joseph V; Fend, Falko; Fleige, Barbara; Nerlich, Andreas; Gabbert, Helmut E; GaBler, Nikolaus; Grobholz, Rainer; Hailemariam, Seife; Hinze, Raoul; Knüchel, Ruth; Lhermitte, Benoit; Nesi, Gabriella; Rüdiger, Thomas; Sauter, Guido; Moch, Holger

    2015-07-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (ccpRCC) and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor (RAT) share morphologic similarities with clear cell (ccRCC) and papillary RCC (pRCC). It is a matter of controversy whether their morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features allow the definition of a separate renal carcinoma entity. The aim of our project was to investigate specific renal immunohistochemical biomarkers involved in the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway and mutations in the VHL gene to clarify the relationship between ccpRCC and RAT. We investigated 28 ccpRCC and 9 RAT samples by immunohistochemistry using 25 markers. VHL gene mutations and allele losses were investigated by Sanger sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clinical follow-up data were obtained for a subset of the patients. No tumor recurrence or tumor-related death was observed in any of the patients. Immunohistochemistry and molecular analyses led to the reclassification of 3 tumors as ccRCC and TFE3 translocation carcinomas. The immunohistochemical profile of ccpRCC and RAT samples was very similar but not identical, differing from both ccRCC and pRCC. Especially, the parafibromin and hKIM-1 expression exhibited differences in ccpRCC/RAT compared with ccRCC and pRCC. Genetic analysis revealed VHL mutations in 2/27 (7%) and 1/7 (14%) ccpRCC and RAT samples, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis disclosed a 3p loss in 2/20 (10%) ccpRCC samples. ccpRCC and RAT have a specific morphologic and immunohistochemical profile, but they share similarities with the more aggressive renal tumors. On the basis of our results, we regard ccpRCC/RAT as a distinct entity of RCCs. PMID:25970683

  17. Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Xenografts with Large-cell and Small-cell Features Derived from a Single Patient’s Tumor: Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Gene Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Ana; Tzelepi, Vasiliki; Araujo, John C.; Guo, Charles C.; Liang, Shoudan; Troncoso, Patricia; Logothetis, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate is an AR-negative variant of prostate cancer found at progression in 10–20% of castrate-resistant disease. Its finding predicts a distinct clinical course and a poor prognosis. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a much rarer variant that behaves similarly to SCC. The biological mechanisms that drive these disease variants are poorly understood. METHODS Eight tumor fragments from the salvage pelvic exenteration specimen of a patient with castrate-resistant prostate carcinoma were subcutaneously implanted into 6- to 8-week-old male CB17 SCID mice. Serial tissue sections and tissue microarrays of the resulting MDA PCa 144 xenograft lines were used for histopathologic and immunohistochemical characterization of the xenografts and their tissue of origin. RNA from two representative xenograft sublines was used for gene-expression profiling. RESULTS All eight fragments formed tumors: four of the MDA PCa 144 xenograft sublines had morphologic characteristics of SCC and four, of LCNEC. All retained high fidelity to their parent tumor tissue, which remained stable through serial passages. Morphological transitions in the specimen of origin suggested LCNEC represents an intermediate step between adenocarcinoma and SCC. Over 2,500 genes were differentially expressed between the SCC (MDA PCa 144-13) and the LCNEC (MDA PCa 144-4) sublines and enriched in “Nervous System Development” Gene Ontology subtree. CONCLUSION The eight xenograft models described represent the spectrum of neuroendocrine carcinomas in prostate cancer and will be valuable preclinical tools to study the pathogenesis of and therapy targets for this increasingly recognized subset of lethal prostate cancer. PMID:21456067

  18. One isoform of Arg/Abl2 tyrosine kinase is nuclear and the other seven cytosolic isoforms differently modulate cell morphology, motility and the cytoskeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Cristina; Torsello, Barbara; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A.; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Silvia; Perego, Roberto A., E-mail: roberto.perego@unimib.it

    2013-08-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson related gene (Arg/Abl2) regulates cell migration and morphogenesis by modulating the cytoskeleton. Arg promotes actin-based cell protrusions and spreading, and inhibits cell migration by attenuating stress fiber formation and contractility via activation of the RhoA inhibitor, p190RhoGAP, and by regulating focal adhesion dynamics also via CrkII phosphorylation. Eight full-length Arg isoforms with different N- and C-termini are endogenously expressed in human cells. In this paper, the eight Arg isoforms, subcloned in the pFLAG-CMV2 vector, were transfected in COS-7 cells in order to study their subcellular distribution and role in cell morphology, migration and cytoskeletal modulation. The transfected 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution and phosphorylates CrkII in the nucleus, whilst the other isoforms are detected in the cytoplasm. The 1BLCTL, 1BSCTL, 1ASCTS isoforms were able to significantly decrease stress fibers, induce cell shrinkage and filopodia-like protrusions with a significant increase in p190RhoGAP phosphorylation. In contrast, 1ALCTL, 1ALCTS, 1ASCTL and 1BLCTS isoforms do not significantly decrease stress fibers and induce the formation of retraction tail-like protrusions. The 1BLCTL and 1ALCTL isoforms have different effects on cell migration and focal adhesions. All these data may open new perspectives to study the mechanisms of cell invasiveness. -Highlights: • Each of the eight Arg isoforms was transfected in COS-7 cells. • Only the 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution in transfected cells. • The cytoplasmic isoforms and F-actin colocalize cortically and in cell protrusions. • Arg isoforms differently phosphorylate p190RhoGAP and CrkII. • Arg isoforms differently modulate stress fibers, cell protrusions and motility.

  19. Profound morphological and functional changes of rodent Purkinje cells between the first and the second postnatal weeks: a metamorphosis?

    PubMed Central

    Dusart, Isabelle; Flamant, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Between the first and the second postnatal week, the development of rodent Purkinje cells is characterized by several profound transitions. Purkinje cells acquire their typical dendritic “espalier” tree morphology and form distal spines. During the first postnatal week, they are multi-innervated by climbing fibers and numerous collateral branches sprout from their axons, whereas from the second postnatal week, the regression of climbing fiber multi-innervation begins, and Purkinje cells become innervated by parallel fibers and inhibitory molecular layer interneurons. Furthermore, their periods of developmental cell death and ability to regenerate their axon stop and their axons become myelinated. Thus a Purkinje cell during the first postnatal week looks and functions differently from a Purkinje cell during the second postnatal week. These fundamental changes occur in parallel with a peak of circulating thyroid hormone in the mouse. All these features suggest to some extent an interesting analogy with amphibian metamorphosis. PMID:22514522

  20. SpineLab: tool for three-dimensional reconstruction of neuronal cell morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungblut, Daniel; Vlachos, Andreas; Schuldt, Gerlind; Zahn, Nadine; Deller, Thomas; Wittum, Gabriel

    2012-07-01

    SpineLab is a software tool developed for reconstructing neuronal feature skeletons from three-dimensional single- or multi-photon image stacks. These images often suffer from limited resolution and a low signal-to-noise ratio, making the extraction of morphometric information difficult. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a software tool that offers the possibility to create feature skeletons in various modes--automatically as well as with manual interaction. We have named this novel tool SpineLab. In a first step, an investigator adjusts a set of parameters for automatic analysis in an interactive manner, i.e., with online visual feedback, followed by a second step, in which the neuronal feature skeleton can be modified by hand. We validate the ability of SpineLab to reconstruct the entire dendritic tree of identified GFP-expressing neurons and evaluate the accuracy of dendritic spine detection. We report that SpineLab is capable of significantly facilitating the reconstruction of dendrites and spines. Moreover, the automatic approach appears sufficient to detect spine density changes in time-lapse imaging experiments. Taken together, we conclude that SpineLab is an ideal software tool for partially automatic reconstruction of neural cell morphology.

  1. A theoretical model of the endothelial cell morphology due to different waveforms.

    PubMed

    Sáez, P; Malvč, M; Martínez, M A

    2015-08-21

    Endothelial cells are key units in the regulatory biological process of blood vessels. They represent an interface to transmit variations on the fluid dynamic changes. They are able to adapt its cytoskeleton, by means of microtubules reorientation and F-actin reorganization, due to new mechanical environments. Moreover, they are responsible for initiating a huge cascade of biological processes, such as the release of endothelins (ET-1), in charge of the constriction of the vessel and growth factors such as TGF-? and PDGF. Although a huge efforts have been made in the experimental characterization and description of these two issues the computational modeling has not gained such an attention. In this work we study the 3D remodeling of endothelial cells based on the main features of blood flow. In particular we study how different oscillatory shear index and the time average wall shear stresses modify the endothelial cell shape. We found our model fitted the experimental works presented before in in vitro studies. We also include our model within a computational fluid dynamics simulation of a carotid artery to evaluate endothelial cell shape index which is a key predictor of atheroma plaque formation. Moreover, our approach can be coupled with models of collagen and smooth muscle cell growth, where remodeling and the associated release of chemical substance are involved. PMID:25956359

  2. Morphological studies on the harderian gland in the ostrich (Struthio camelus domesticus) on the embryonic and post-natal period.

    PubMed

    Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Go?dziewska-Har?ajczuk, K; Barszcz, K; Kowalczyk, A

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation was performed on 50 ostriches from 28th day of incubation until the 7th month of life. The morphological (morphometric, histological, histometric and histochemical) studies were conducted. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin, methyl green-pyronin Y, periodic acid-Schiff, alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale's dialyzed iron studies. The Harderian gland becomes macroscopically visible on the 28th day of incubation. It is situated in the ventronasal angle of the orbit near inter-orbital septum, between medial rectus muscle, pyramidal and ventral oblique muscles. The Harderian gland of ostrich is a tubulo-acinar gland. The acini were composed of tall conical cells which formed a small lumen and were surrounded by myoepithelial cells. These cells had a granular basophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm. Each of the lobes has a system of complex branching ducts - tertiary, secondary and primary. In the III of research group (3rd week of life), the presence of few plasma cells was demonstrated, which were located within acini and tertiary and secondary ducts, whereas the biggest concentration of plasma cells was observed in group IV of research tissue (4th month of life). The dark cells were observed first time in main ducts 72 h after hatching of nestlings (group II). The morphometric and histometric studies showed that the most intensive growth of Harderian gland occurred between the third week and the seventh month of birds' life. The histochemical study indicated the presence of neutral and acidic mucins, glycoproteins and carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides. PMID:24995381

  3. Study of interactions between cells and microbubbles in high speed centrifugation field for biomolecule delivery.

    PubMed

    He, Chuan; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Biomolecule delivery has a very wide range of applications in biology and medicine. In this study, a microbubble based delivery method was developed. In a high centrifugation field, cells deform and collide with microbubbles to induce intracellular pathways on cell membranes. As a result, biomaterials can then easily enter cells. Experimental results show that this delivery method can achieve high delivery efficiency. Simulation results showed that cells with more deformed structure experienced higher strain on cell membranes than cells with less deformed structure. The models can help explain how centrifugation affects cell membrane permeability. By controlling cell morphology and its mechanical properties, high biomolecule delivery efficiency can be achieved. PMID:25570605

  4. Flow cytometry-based enrichment for cell shape mutants identifies multiple genes that influence Helicobacter pylori morphology

    PubMed Central

    Sycuro, Laura K; Rule, Chelsea S; Petersen, Timothy W; Wyckoff, Timna J; Sessler, Tate; Nagarkar, Dilip B; Khalid, Fakhra; Pincus, Zachary; Biboy, Jacoby; Vollmer, Waldemar; Salama, Nina R

    2013-01-01

    The helical cell shape of Helicobacter pylori is highly conserved and contributes to its ability to swim through and colonize the viscous gastric mucus layer. A multi-faceted peptidoglycan (PG) modification programme involving four recently characterized peptidases and two accessory proteins is essential for maintaining H.?pylori's helicity. To expedite identification of additional shape-determining genes, we employed flow cytometry with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to enrich a transposon library for bacterial cells with altered light scattering profiles that correlate with perturbed cell morphology. After a single round of sorting, 15% of our clones exhibited a stable cell shape defect, reflecting 37-fold enrichment. Sorted clones with straight rod morphology contained insertions in known PG peptidases, as well as an insertion in csd6, which we demonstrated has ld-carboxypeptidase activity and cleaves monomeric tetrapeptides in the PG sacculus, yielding tripeptides. Other mutants had only slight changes in helicity due to insertions in genes encoding MviN/MurJ, a protein possibly involved in initiating PG synthesis, and the hypothetical protein HPG27_782. Our findings demonstrate FACS robustly detects perturbations of bacterial cell shape and identify additional PG peptide modifications associated with helical cell shape in H.?pylori. PMID:24112477

  5. Implant based differences in adverse local tissue reaction in failed total hip arthroplasties: a morphological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) is characterized by periprosthetic soft tissue inflammation composed of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and vascular changes. Multiple hip implant classes have been reported to result in ALTR, and clinical differences may represent variation in the soft tissue response at the cellular and tissue levels. The purpose of this study was to describe similarities and differences in periprosthetic tissue structure, organization, and cellular composition by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry in ALTR resulting from two common total hip arthroplasty (THA) implant classes. Methods Consecutive patients presenting with ALTR from two major hip implant classes (N?=?54 patients with Dual-Modular Neck implant; N?=?14 patients with Metal-on-Metal implant) were identified from our prospective Osteolysis Tissue Database and Repository. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, BMI, length of implantation, and serum metal ion levels were recorded. Retrieved synovial tissue morphology was graded using light microscopy and cellular composition was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results Length of implantation was shorter in the DMN group versus MoM THA group (21.3 [8.4] months versus 43.6 [13.8] months respectively; p?Morphologic examination revealed a common spectrum of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis in both groups. Macrophages were more commonly present in diffuse sheets (Grade 3) in the MoM relative to DMN group (p?=?0.016). Perivascular lymphocytes with germinal centers (Grade 4) were more common in the DMN group, which trended towards significance (p?=?0.066). Qualitative differences in corrosion product morphology were seen between the two groups. Immunohistochemistry showed features of a CD4 and GATA-3 rich lymphocyte reaction in both implants, with increased ratios of perivascular T-cell relative to B-cell markers in the DMN relative to the MoM group (p?=?0.032). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that both implant classes display common features of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis with a CD4 and GATA-3 rich inflammatory infiltrate. Qualitative differences in corrosion product appearance, macrophage morphology, and lymphocyte distributions were seen between the two implant types. Our data suggests that ALTR represents a histological spectrum with implant-based features. PMID:25242891

  6. High-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas: a clinicopathologic study of a group of tumors with heterogenous morphologic and genetic features.

    PubMed

    Sciallis, Andrew P; Bedroske, Patrick P; Schoolmeester, John K; Sukov, William R; Keeney, Gary L; Hodge, Jennelle C; Bell, Debra A

    2014-09-01

    The existence of a "high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma" category of tumors has been a controversial subject owing to, among other things, the difficulty in establishing consistent diagnostic criteria. Currently, the recommended classification for such tumors is undifferentiated uterine/endometrial sarcoma. Interest in this subject has recently increased markedly with the identification of recurrent molecular genetic abnormalities. At Mayo Clinic, a group of neoplasms has been observed that morphologically resemble, either cytologically or architecturally, classic "low-grade" endometrial stromal sarcoma but feature obvious deviations, specifically, 17 tumors with unequivocally high-grade morphology. These high-grade tumors displayed 3 morphologic themes: (1) tumors with a component that is identical to low-grade ESS that transitions abruptly into an obviously higher-grade component; (2) tumors composed exclusively of high-grade cells with uniform nuclear features but with a permeative pattern of infiltration; (3) tumors similar to the second group but with a different, yet characteristic, cytomorphology featuring enlarged round to ovoid cells (larger than those found in low-grade ESS) with smooth nuclear membranes and distinct chromatin clearing but lacking prominent nucleoli. We collected clinicopathologic data, applied immunohistochemical studies, and also tested tumors by fluorescence in situ hybridization for abnormalities in JAZF1, PHF1, YWHAE, and CCND1. Tumors from these 3 groups were found to be immunohistochemically and genetically distinct from one another. Most notable was the fact that category 3 contained all the cases that tested positive for YWHAE rearrangement, did not show any classic translocations for JAZF1, PHF1, or CCND1, often presented at a high stage, and behaved aggressively. This study demonstrates the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic heterogeneity that exists within "undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas" as currently defined and lends credence to the effort of subclassifying some tumors as truly "high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas." Our study also shows that, in the context of undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas, recognition of cytomorphologic features on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections may be used to select tumors with specific molecular genetic changes-that is, translocations involving YWHAE. Our conclusions will help further efforts towards proper sub-classification of these tumors which will aid in diagnosis and potentially affect clinical management. PMID:25133706

  7. Effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin on the morphology of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in aged rat.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-sharifabad, Mohammad; Esfandiari, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that administration of Boswellia resin, known as olibanum or Frankincense, increases memory power. It is reported that beta boswellic acid, the major component of Boswellia serrata gum resin, could enhance neurite outgrowth and branching in hippocampal neurons. We therefore studied whether Boswellia treatment produces morphological changes in the superior region of cornu ammonis (CA1) in aged rats. Sixteen male Wistar rats, 24 months of age, were randomly divided in experimental and control groups. The experimental group was orally administered Boswellia serrata gum resin (100 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks) and the control group received a similar volume of water. The Cavalieri principle was employed to estimate the volumes of CA1 hippocampal field, and a quantitative Golgi study was used to analysis of dendritic arborizations of CA1 pyramidal cells. Comparisons revealed that Boswellia-treated aged rats had greater volumes than control animals in stratum pyramidale and stratum radiatum lacunosum-moleculare. The neurons of CA1 in experimental rats had more dendritic segments (40.25 ± 4.20) than controls (30.9 ± 4.55), P = 0.001. The total dendritic length of CA1 neurons was approximately 20 % larger in the experimental group compared to control. Results also indicated that the aged rats treated with Boswellia resin had more numerical branching density in the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The results of the present study show that long-term administration of Boswellia resin can attenuate age-related dendritic regression in CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampus. PMID:24515442

  8. Studies on the evolution of ZnO morphologies in a thermohydrolysis technique and evaluation of their functional properties.

    PubMed

    Anas, S; Mangalaraja, R V; Ananthakumar, S

    2010-03-15

    The transformation of ZnO morphologies in an in situ thermohydrolysis technique using hexamethylene tetramine is studied with and without surfactants. The photocatalytic and photoluminescence properties of these morphologically tuned ZnO morphologies are studied and the results presented. In the absence of any surfactants, the HMTA assisted in situ hydrolysis resulted in microtube and multipod morphologies. The addition of nonionic [Span-80] and cationic [CTAB] surfactants transforms the morphologies to microspheres, microdiscs and nanorods. The photoluminescence analysis shows a red luminescence in nanorods and green-indigo and blue-green emissions in microtubes and other morphologies. Photocatalytic reaction efficiency in UV light follows the order microtubes>nanorods>microdiscs>microspheres>multipods. PMID:19959283

  9. Novel ceria-zirconia-yttria mesostructures: Synthesis, characterization, diffusional studies & the effects of morphology on their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova Morales, Alma Iris

    Ceria-zirconia-yttria (CZY) mixed oxides are used as catalyst supports for three-way catalysts for automotive exhaust emission control and in solid oxide fuel cells. By improving the morphology of CZY mesopores it is possible to reduce the sintering of supported noble metals and enhance overall catalyst lifetime and performance. However, limited studies have been published on the synthetic control of the morphology of CZY materials and the effects that CZY pore geometry has on catalyst operation. To create optimized CZY catalyst supports, novel mesoporous CZY oxides were synthesized via classical sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) methods, obtaining mesostructures that exhibited excellent physical and diffusional properties. This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of the factors and mechanisms that promote the creation of ordered mesoporous CZY structures via classical sol-gel and EISA approaches. Classical sol-gel methods are reaction-limited syntheses in which, for the case of CZY materials, the formation of polyoxides occurs rapidly as a result of the availability of water and hydrolyzing agents in the initial solution, yielding disordered oxide mesostructures. Alternatively, EISA is a diffusion-limited process, where the rate of oxide forming reactions is limited by the slow diffusion of water into the initial ethanolic-metal salts solution. The slow loss of ethanol by evaporation enables the condensation-polymerization of metal oxy-hydroxide species to coincide with the ordering of these oligomers around the self-organized polymer template. Thus, for the templated synthesis of mesoporous CZY materials, it is the rate of metal oxide condensation that determines the nature of the resulting oxide structure. The choice of templating technique used during CZY synthesis heavily influenced post-calcination morphologies and pore sizes, but to-date no relationships between pore morphology and catalyst performance for CZY materials was presented. For this reason, the diffusion of n-hexane in mesoporous CZY supports synthesized using a variety of templates and synthesis techniques was studied by the Zero Length Column (ZLC) method obtaining each material diffusion coefficients. Data from the ZLC method proved to be valuable in developing an understanding of the effects of pore morphology on intraparticle diffusion phenomena. The CZY oxides diffusivity values provide means of comparison of diffusional aspects that can significantly impact catalyst performance during the treatment of exhaust gases formed by combustion engines. A higher diffusivity value is expected to bring catalytic advantages for the oxide support.

  10. Persistent Effectivity of Gas Plasma-Treated, Long Time-Stored Liquid on Epithelial Cell Adhesion Capacity and Membrane Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hoentsch, Maxi; Bussiahn, René; Rebl, Henrike; Bergemann, Claudia; Eggert, Martin; Frank, Marcus; von Woedtke, Thomas; Nebe, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Research in plasma medicine includes a major interest in understanding gas plasma-cell interactions. The immediate application of gas plasma in vitro inhibits cell attachment, vitality and cell-cell contacts via the liquid. Interestingly, in our novel experiments described here we found that the liquid-mediated plasma effect is long-lasting after storage up to seven days; i. e. the liquid preserves the characteristics once induced by the argon plasma. Therefore, the complete Dulbecco's Modified Eagle cell culture medium was argon plasma-treated (atmospheric pressure, kINPen09) for 60 s, stored for several days (1, 4 and 7 d) at 37°C and added to a confluent mouse hepatocyte epithelial cell (mHepR1) monolayer. Impaired tight junction architecture as well as shortened microvilli on the cell membrane could be observed, which was accompanied by the loss of cell adhesion capacity. Online-monitoring of vital cells revealed a reduced cell respiration. Our first time-dependent analysis of plasma-treated medium revealed that temperature, hydrogen peroxide production, pH and oxygen content can be excluded as initiators of cell physiological and morphological changes. The here observed persisting biological effects in plasma-treated liquids could open new medical applications in dentistry and orthopaedics. PMID:25170906

  11. Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.A.; Sedita, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Hill, C.K. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Cancer Research Lab.); Elkind, M.M. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Biology)

    1991-01-01

    Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passage cells were irradiated in mass cultures, then cloned over feeder cells. Morphologically transformed colonies were identified 8-10 days later. Cell killing was independent of dose rate, but the yield of transformation was greater after low-dose-rate irradiations. Decreasing the neutron dose-rate from 10.3 to 0.086 cGy/min resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the yield of transformation for neutron exposures below 50 cGy, and enhancement which was consistently observed in repetitive experiments in different radiosensitive SHE cell preparations. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Predator-induced morphological defenses in marine zooplankton: a larval case study.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Dawn

    2007-04-01

    While there are numerous reports of predator-induced morphological defenses for freshwater zooplankton, freshwater larvae, and benthic marine animals, a literature search revealed no reports of predator-induced morphological defenses for marine zooplankton. Rarity of predator-induced morphological defenses in marine zooplankton would imply a difference in predation risks compared to those experienced by freshwater organisms and benthic marine adults, whereas the presence of such plasticity in defenses would imply that risks are modified by developmental responses. This study reports a predator-induced change in defenses and vulnerability of a marine planktonic larva. Specifically, when reared in the presence of zoea larvae of Cancer spp., veliger larvae of the intertidal snail Littorina scutulata developed significantly smaller shell apertures and rounder shells than did cohort veligers reared in the absence of predator cues. Pairwise predation trials demonstrated that veligers reared with caged zoeas throughout development had greater survival than predator-naive veligers during short-term exposure to zoeas. The development of predator-induced morphological defenses by some marine larvae introduces a range of testable hypotheses on developmental plasticity that reduces vulnerability of planktonic larvae and other marine zooplankton to predators. PMID:17536718

  13. Persistence of sister chromatid exchanges and in vitro morphological transformation of Syrian hamster fetal cells by chemical and physical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, N.C.; Amsbaugh, S.C.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    The induction of neoplastic cell transformation is closely associated with DNA alterations which occur shortly after carcinogen exposure. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation is a sensitive indicator of carcinogen-DNA interaction and correlates with the induction of morphological cell transformation. The persistence of lesions generating SCE produced by chemical and physical carcinogens and its relevance to the induction of morphologic transformation was evaluated in coordinated experiments with cultured Syrian hamster fetal cells (HFC). Exponentially growing HFC were exposed for 1 h to benzo(a)pyrene (BP), methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS), cis-platinum (II) diaminedichloride (cis Pt II), N-methyl-N'-nitrosourea (MNU), mitomycin C (MMC), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), N-acetoxy-2-fluorenyl-acetamide (AcAAF) or u.v. light irradiated. SCE analysis demonstrates that for a period of 48 h after carcinogen exposure, during which time the cells undergo at least four replicative cycles, DNA damage generating SCE induced by all chemical carcinogens either persisted or was partially removed, whereas u.v.-induced lesions were completely removed. An elevated SCE frequency persisted after two additional cell cycles after treatment with BP, AcAAF or MMC without increased cell lethality as compared to other carcinogens whose lesions were completely eliminated during the same period.

  14. Investigation of dynamic morphological changes of cancer cells during photoimmuno therapy (PIT) by low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Iwai, Hidenao; Magata, Yasuhiro; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2014-03-01

    We have reported a new molecular-targeted cancer phototherapy, photoimmunotherapy (PIT), which killed implanted tumors in mice without side-effects. To understand the mechanism of cell killing with PIT, three-dimentional dynamic low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (3D LC-QPM), a device developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K, was used to detect morphologic changes in cancer cells during PIT. 3T3/HER2 cells were incubated with anti-HER2 trastuzumab-IR700 (10 ?g/mL, 0.1 ?M as IR700) for 24 hours, then, three-dimensionally imaged with the LC-QPM during the exposure of two different optically filtered lights for excitation of IR700 (500-780 nm) and imaging (780-950 nm). For comparison with traditional PDT, the same experiments were performed with Photofrin (10 and 1 ?M). Serial changes in the cell membrane were readily visualized on 3D LC-QPM. 3T3/HER2 cells began to swell rapidly after exposure to 500-780 nm light excitation. The cell volume reached a maximum within 1 min after continuous exposure, and then the cells appeared to burst. This finding suggests that PIT damages the cell membrane by photo-reaction inducing an influx of water into the cell causing swelling and bursting of the cells. Interestingly, even after only 5 seconds of light exposure, the cells demonstrated swelling and bursting albeit more slowly, implying that sufficient cumulative damage occurs on the cell membrane to induce lethal damage to cells even at minimal light exposure. Similar but non-selective membrane damage was shown in PDT-treated cells Photofrin. Thus, PIT induces sufficient damage to the cell membrane within 5 seconds to induce rapid necrotic cell death which can be observed directly with 3D LC-QPM. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the biochemical mechanisms underlying PIT-induced cellular membrane damage.

  15. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)\\/C 60 heterojunction solar cells: Implication of morphology on performance and ambipolar charge collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Geiser; Bin Fan; Hadjar Benmansour; Fernando Castro; Jakob Heier; Beat Keller; Karl Emanuel Mayerhofer; Frank Nüesch; Roland Hany

    2008-01-01

    The performance of heterojunction organic solar cells is critically dependent on the morphology of the donor and acceptor components in the active film. We report results of photovoltaic devices consisting of bilayers and bulk heterojunctions using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and Buckminsterfullerene C60. White light power efficiencies of ??2.2% (bulk heterojunction) and 2.6% (bilayer) were measured after a thermal annealing step on

  16. Electrical, morphological and structural properties of RF magnetron sputtered Mo thin films for application in thin film photovoltaic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume ZoppiNeil; Neil S. Beattie; Jonathan D. Major; Robert W. Miles; Ian Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited using radio frequency magnetron sputtering, for application as a metal back contact\\u000a material in “substrate configuration” thin film solar cells. The variations of the electrical, morphological, and structural\\u000a properties of the deposited films with sputtering pressure, sputtering power and post-deposition annealing were determined.\\u000a The electrical conductivity of the Mo films was found to increase

  17. Developmental Cell, Vol. 1, 733742, December, 2001, Copyright 2001 by Cell Press ReviewMorphological Coupling in Development

    E-print Network

    Rudner, David

    Morphological Coupling in Development: Lessons from Prokaryotes receive a nucleus by coupling exit from mitosis mitosis. Movement of the dividing nucleus into the neck examples of morphological coupling in prokaryotes bacteria to the mamma- coupled to a landmark event in morphogenesis. First, lian embryo is characterized

  18. Regulation of Epithelial Cell Morphology and Functions Approaching To More In Vivo-Like by Modifying Polyethylene Glycol on Polysulfone Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Guoliang; Meng, Qin

    2012-01-01

    Cytocompatibility is critically important in design of biomaterials for application in tissue engineering. However, the currently well-accepted “cytocompatible" biomaterials are those which promote cells to sustain good attachment/spreading. The cells on such materials usually lack the self-assembled cell morphology and high cell functions as in vivo. In our view, biomaterials that can promote the ability of cells to self-assemble and demonstrate cell-specific functions would be cytocompatible. This paper examined the interaction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified polysulfone (PSf) membranes with four epithelial cell types (primary liver cells, a liver tumor cell line, and two renal tubular cell lines). Our results show that PSf membranes modified with proper PEG promoted the aggregation of both liver and renal cells, but the liver cells more easily formed aggregates than the renal tubular cells. The culture on PEG-modified PSf membranes also enhanced cell-specific functions. In particular, the cells cultured on F127 membranes with the proper PEG content mimicked the in vivo ultrastructure of liver cells or renal tubules cells and displayed the highest cell functions. Gene expression data for adhesion proteins suggest that the PEG modification impaired cell-membrane interactions and increased cell-cell interactions, thus facilitating cell self-assembly. In conclusion, PEG-modified membrane could be a cytocompatible material which regulates the morphology and functions of epithelial cells in mimicking cell performance in vivo. PMID:22558349

  19. Morphology and water permeability of red blood cells from green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Romeo, Tony; Cox, Guy C; Kuchel, Philip W

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and diffusional water permeability (P d) of red blood cells (RBCs) from green sea turtle (GST) (Chelonia mydas) are presented for the first time. The RBCs had an ellipsoidal shape with full-axis lengths (diameters): D?=?14.4 ?m; d?=?10.2 ?m; h?=?2.8 ?m. The values of P d (cm s(-1)) were 5.1?×?10(-3) at 15 °C, 5.7?×?10(-3) at 20 °C, 6.3?×?10(-3) at 25 °C, 6.8?×?10(-3) at 30 °C, and 7.9?×?10(-3) at 37 °C (i.e., significantly higher than in human RBCs in which it was measured to be 4.2?×?10(-3) at 25 °C, 5.0?×?10(-3) at 30 °C, and 6.2?×?10(-3) at 37 °C). There was a lack of inhibition of P d of GST RBCs by p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), a well-known inhibitor of the RBC water channel proteins (WCPs). The activation energy of water diffusion (E a,d) in GST RBCs was 15.0?±?1.6 kJ mol(-1) which is lower than the E a,d for human RBCs (~25 kJ mol(-1)). These results indicate that in the membrane of GST RBCs, there were no WCPs that were inhibited by the mercurial reagent, while the lipid bilayer of this membrane is unusually permeable to water. This is likely to be a phylogenetically old trait, like that found in amphibians and even the later birds, all of which have nucleated erythrocytes; and it is also likely to be a result of the animal's adaptation to a herbivorous diet (algae and seagrasses). PMID:25534259

  20. Morphologically low-grade spiradenocarcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of 19 cases with emphasis on outcome and MYB expression.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Michiel P J; Marusic, Zlatko; Hornick, Jason L; Luzar, Boštjan; Brenn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Spiradenocarcinoma is a rare skin adnexal neoplasm with potential for aggressive behavior, classified histologically into low- and high-grade tumors. Morphologically, low-grade tumors are thought to behave more favorably. Limited information is available, however, with only 18 published cases. To study their clinical behavior, histological features, and the diagnostic value of immunohistochemistry, 19 morphologically low-grade spiradenocarcinomas were retrieved and compared with 21 spiradenomas and cylindromas. H&E-stained sections were reviewed, follow-up was obtained, and immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, p53 and, MYB was performed. The tumors were solitary, measuring 0.8-7?cm (median: 2.7?cm), with a predilection for the head and neck of elderly patients (median age: 72 years; range 53-92) without gender bias. Histologically, the tumors were multinodular and located in deep dermis and subcutis. A pre-existing spiradenoma was present in all cases. The malignant component was characterized by expansile growth with loss of the dual cell population, up to moderate cytological atypia and increased mitotic activity (median: 10/10 HPF; range 1-28). Additional findings included squamoid differentiation (n=9), necrosis (n=7), and ulceration (n=5). P53 expression was variable and no significant differences were noted in the benign compared with the malignant parts of the tumors. In contrast, in the malignant components the Ki-67 proliferative index was slightly increased, and MYB expression was lost. Follow-up (median: 67 months; range: 13-132) available for 16 patients (84%) revealed a local recurrence rate of 19% but no metastases or disease-related mortality. In this large study with long-term follow-up, we demonstrate that spiradenocarcinomas with low-grade morphology pursue an indolent course, characterized by local recurrence only. Metastases and disease-related mortality appear to be exceptional. Lack of MYB expression may be useful as an additional aid in the diagnosis of these challenging tumors. PMID:25857824

  1. Morphological and autoradiographic studies on the corneal and limbal epithelium of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Góes, Rejane Maira; Barbosa, Flávia Leăo; De Faria-E-Sousa, Sidney Júlio; Haddad, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    The investigation was centered on the morphological features of the conjunctiva-cornea transition (limbus) of the rabbit eye and the proliferative behavior of its epithelium. The eyes were processed for examination with light and electron microscopy, as well as for autoradiography after intravitreal injection of [(3)H]thymidine ([(3)H]TdR). At the sites of extraocular muscle insertion, the vascularization of the stroma extended to the peripheral cornea, and the limbal epithelium was thin with its basal stratum made up by clear cuboidal cells. In between the muscle insertions, the cuboidal clear cells, as well as the stroma blood vessels, were scarce. At the light microscope level, the basement membrane was distinct in the cornea but not in the limbus or the conjunctiva. Autoradiographs demonstrated that, at the limbus, the basal cells migrated very quickly to the suprabasal region and remained there up to the 28-day interval. Labeled cells were identified in all epithelial layers of the cornea, including the basal one, at 21 and 28 days but not in the limbal basal clear cells. The rate of renewal of conjunctival epithelium was similar to that observed for the transition with scarce clear cells. The high-resolution autoradiographs demonstrated that the basal cuboidal clear limbal cells exhibit a quick renewal and that they are not label-retaining cells. These latter ones were detected all over the corneal epithelium and in the suprabasal layers of the limbus up to 28 days, in physiological conditions, without the need of stimulation by damage to the corneal epithelium. PMID:18213705

  2. Papillary renal cell carcinoma with oncocytic cells and nonoverlapping low grade nuclei: expanding the morphologic spectrum with emphasis on clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features.

    PubMed

    Kunju, Lakshmi P; Wojno, Kirk; Wolf, J Stuart; Cheng, Liang; Shah, Rajal B

    2008-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC), a morphologically and genetically distinct subtype of RCC, is morphologically separated into 2 subtypes, type 1 and 2, for prognostic purposes. Type 1 PRCC (single layer of small cells, scant pale cytoplasm) is more common and has a favorable prognosis compared with type 2 (pseudostratified high-grade nuclei, abundant eosinophilic/oncocytic cytoplasm). We report the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular data of 7 adult papillary tumors with morphological features distinct from type 1 or 2 PRCC. All tumors demonstrated predominant papillary architecture, lined by cells with oncocytic cytoplasm, and nonoverlapping low Fuhrman grade nuclei (1 or 2). Foamy macrophages were noted in 2 of 7 tumors. No case demonstrated necrosis or psammoma bodies. Most tumors (6/7) were small (mean size, 2.0 cm; range, 0.8-5.7 cm) and limited to the kidney. No tumor recurrence or metastasis was identified (median follow-up, 22 months). All tumors demonstrated trisomy for 7 and 17 by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and uniform CK 7, CD10, and alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase expression, characteristic of PRCC. These results suggest that these tumors are distinct from type 1 (owing to oncocytic cells) and type 2 (owing to low-grade nonstratified nuclei, low stage, and good outcome). Awareness of this favorable spectrum of PRCC is important to avoid its potential misinterpretation as an aggressive type 2 PRCC (owing to oncocytic cells) or rarely as an oncocytoma (owing to oncocytic cells and low-grade nuclei). Morphologic spectrum of these PRCCs emphasizes that the future prognostic model of PRCC may need to be based primarily on the nuclear characteristics, irrespective of the cytoplasmic features. PMID:17949780

  3. Morphological studies of lymphatic labyrinths in the rat mesenteric lymph node.

    PubMed

    Jia, Limin; Xie, Zunjiang; Zheng, Jinhua; Liu, Li; He, Yan; Liu, Fu; He, Yechun

    2012-08-01

    To supplement and correct the morphological features of lymphatic labyrinths (LLs) in rat mesenteric lymph node, the distribution, morphology and origin of LLs, and cellular elements in LLs, particularly the organization and integrity of the wall of LLs were examined by silver impregnation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and immunohistochemistry. LLs consisted of labyrinthine tubules and ran through not only the periphery of the deep cortical unit (DCU) but interfollicular cortex. LLs originated at the edge of the center of the DCU and of the follicle. At the site of their origin, the fibers in the wall of LL were continuous with the fibers located in the follicle and the center of DCU. The wall of LLs was a trilaminar membrane: a layer of flattened lymphatic endothelium; a layer of fibroblastic reticular cells; and amorphous substance and collagen fibers sandwiched between the above two layers. Under SEM and TEM, the whole amoeboid lymphocytes were moving through the pores in the wall of LL, which showed that lymphocytes end their journey through the paracortical cord by migrating into LLs. Immunohistochemical lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 expression was present in cells lining the LLs and intraluminal stellate cells, which may belong to the "sinus endothelial/virgultar cells." LLs are specific channels that are different from lymphatic sinuses. LL may be regarded as a special part of lymphatic vascular system in lymph nodes. We confirm that LLs are important transport pathway of lymphocytes in lymph nodes. The structural framework of LLs facilitates the migration of lymphocytes. PMID:22678756

  4. A high-frequency study of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect morphology in galaxy clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Prokhorov; S. Colafrancesco; T. Akahori; E. T. Million; S. Nagataki; K. Yoshikawa

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency, high-resolution imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is an important technique to study the complex structures of the atmospheres of merging galaxy clusters. Such observations are sensitive to the details of the electron spectrum. We show that the morphology of the SZ intensity maps in simulated galaxy clusters observed at 345, 600 and 857 GHz are significantly different because

  5. Structural, optical and morphological studies on laser ablated nanostructured WO 3 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Lethy; D. Beena; R. Vinod Kumar; V. P. Mahadevan Pillai; V. Ganesan; Vasant Sathe

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of tungsten trioxide (WO3) are prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on glass substrates at three different substrate temperatures (Ts). The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited films are systematically studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry techniques.

  6. Rocky Mountain species of Paronychia (Caryophyllaceae): A morphological, cytological, and chemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Hartman

    1974-01-01

    Data derived from a morphological, cytological, flavonoid, and greenhouse study indicate thatParonychia pulvinata (2n = 32) andP. sessiliflora (2n = 64) should be distinguished in specific rank rather than in subspecific rank as recently proposed. Additionally, new evidence\\u000a is brought to bear onP. depressa var.brevicuspis, which is shown to be synonymous withP. sessiliflora.

  7. Improved morphology and bias stress study of a naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide bottom contact field effect transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Sun; Rod Devine; Bal M. Dhar; Byung Jun Jung; K. S. See; H. E. Katz

    2009-01-01

    In this study, bottom contact OFETs with various surface treatments based on 1, 4, 5, 8-naphthalene-teracarboxylic di-imide (NTCDI) derivatives with three different fluorinated N-substituents, systematically investigated with a particular emphasis on the interplay between the morphology of the organic semiconductor films and the electrical device properties. The topography of the NTCDI bottom contact device without any surface treatment was first

  8. A study of the morphology, cytology and breeding behavior of Pennisetum ciliare

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Warner D.

    1954-01-01

    A STUDY OP THE MORPHOLOGY, CYTOLOGY, AND BREEDING BEHAVIOR OP PENNISETUM CILIARE A Dissertation By Warner D. Pisher Approved as to style and content by: (p.r /Q & y ________ _ Chairman of Committee ?....... ? - ........... ....H e ad ^ or.... Appreciation is extended to Dr. Charles LaMotte, of the Department of Biology, and to Dr. R. G. Reeves, of the Department of Genetics, A. & M. College of Texas, for en? couragement and helpful suggestions. 1 INTRODUCTION Buffelgrass, Pennisetum ciliare (L...

  9. ADAM-17 regulates endothelial cell morphology, proliferation, and in vitro angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goeoz, Pal [Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Suite 912, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)], E-mail: goozp@musc.edu; Goeoz, Monika; Baldys, Aleksander [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, SC 29425 (United States); Hoffman, Stanley [Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Suite 912, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-02-27

    Modulation of angiogenesis is a promising approach for treating a wide variety of human diseases including ischemic heart disease and cancer. In this study, we show that ADAM-17 is an important regulator of several key steps during angiogenesis. Knocking down ADAM-17 expression using lentivirus-delivered siRNA in HUVECs inhibited cell proliferation and the ability of cells to form close contact in two-dimensional cultures. Similarly, ADAM-17 depletion inhibited the ability of HUVECs to form capillary-like networks on top of three-dimensional Matrigel as well as in co-culture with fibroblasts within a three-dimensional scaffold. In mechanistic studies, both baseline and VEGF-induced MMP-2 activation and Matrigel invasion were inhibited by ADAM-17 depletion. Based on our findings we propose that ADAM-17 is part of a novel pro-angiogenic pathway leading to MMP-2 activation and vessel formation.

  10. Impact of energy alignment and morphology on the efficiency in inorganic–organic hybrid solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gruber; B. A. Stickler; G. Trimmel; F. Schürrer; K. Zojer

    2010-01-01

    Carrier transport in hybrid inorganic–organic solar cells has been studied by means of a two-dimensional drift-diffusion-based model including the generation and motion of excitons. The devices consist of a polymer serving as donor material and a semiconducting small-band gap inorganic component as acceptor material. For the first time it is taken into account that, in strong contrast to purely organic

  11. The Regulator RamA Influences cmytA Transcription and Cell Morphology of Corynebacterium ammoniagenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seok-Myung Lee; Joo-Young Lee; Kwang-Jin Park; Jun-Sung Park; Un-Hwan Ha; Younhee Kim; Heung-Shick Lee

    2010-01-01

    RamA plays a regulatory role for acetate utilization and S-layer biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Looking for any additional role, the function of RamA was analyzed in Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, which is closely related to C. glutamicum. In this study, we showed that the ?ramA mutant constructed by a markerless knockout strategy possessed increased cell surface hydrophobicity, leading to the formation\\u000a of

  12. Effects of extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on morphological and biochemical properties of human breast carcinoma cells (T47D).

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Razmin; Ahmadian, Shahin; Bolouri, Bahram; Pazhang, Yaghub; Shafiezadeh, Mahshid

    2012-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of 100 and 217 Hz extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on cell proliferation, actin reorganization, and ROS generation in a human breast carcinoma cells (T47D). Cells were exposed for 24-72 h, at 100 and 217 Hz, 0.1 mT. The treatment induced a time dependent decrease in cell growth after 72 h and revealed an increase in fluorescence intensity in cytoplasm and actin aggregations around the nucleus as detected by fluorescence microscopy. The amount of actin in T47D cells increased after 48 h exposure to 100 Hz and 24 h to 217 Hz while no changes in nuclear morphology were detected. Exposing the cells to 217 Hz for 72 h caused a dramatically increase of intracellular ROS generation while with exposure to 100 Hz it remained nearly unchanged. These results suggest that exposure to ELF-PEMF (100, 217 Hz, 0.1 mT) are able inducing an increase of actin level, its migration toward nucleus but despite of these changes and dramatically increase in ROS generation the symptoms of apoptosis were not observed. Our results support the hypothesis that cell response to EMF may only be observed at certain window effects; such as frequency and intensity of EMF parameters. PMID:22676212

  13. Influence of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole on cell viability, membrane integrity, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila cultivated in a vegetable-based broth.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of carvacrol (CAR) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) alone (at the MIC) or in combination at subinhibitory amounts (both at 1/8 MIC) on the cell viability, membrane permeability, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila INCQS 7966 (A. hydrophila) cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. CAR and CIN alone or in combination severely affected the viability of the bacteria and caused dramatic changes in the cell membrane permeability, leading to cell death, as observed by confocal laser microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images of bacterial cells exposed to CAR or CIN or the mixture of both compounds revealed severe changes in cell wall structure, rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinking of cells, condensation of cytoplasmic content, leakage of intracellular material, and cell collapse. These findings suggest that CAR and CIN alone or in combination at subinhibitory amounts could be applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in foods, particularly as sanitizing agents in vegetables. PMID:25710162

  14. The role of asbestos morphology on their cellular toxicity: an in vitro 3D Raman/Rayleigh imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Seydou; Seydou, Yao; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Harte, Etienne; Ventura, Giancarlo Della; Petibois, Cyril

    2013-11-01

    Amphiboles caused cohorts of deaths in exposed workers, leading to some of the largest class actions in the industry. Once inhaled, these inorganic fibers are thought to be both chemically and morphologically toxic, and their biopersistence in the lungs over decades lead to progressive pathologies, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. However, this exceptionally long chronicity for human pathologies suggests that chemical toxicity is certainly low, suggesting that morphological parameters could be more relevant in the pathology. Here, we developed a 3D Raman/optical imaging methodology in vitro to characterize both morphological and chemical parameters of cell/fiber interactions. We determined that lung cells could vesiculate amphiboles with length below 5 ?m or could embed those not exceeding 15 ?m in their fibrous extracellular matrix. Lung cells can thus develop defense strategies for handling the biopersistence of inorganic species, which may thus have major impact for biosafety issues related to nanomaterials. PMID:23846589

  15. Modeling morphology evolution during solvent-based fabrication of organic solar cells

    E-print Network

    Olga Wodo; Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

    2012-02-29

    Solvent-based techniques usually involve preparing dilute blends of electron-donor and electron-acceptor materials dissolved in a volatile solvent. After some form of coating onto a substrate, the solvent evaporates. An initially homogeneous mixture separates into electron-acceptor rich and electron-donor rich regions as the solvent evaporates. Depending on the specifics of the blend and processing conditions different morphologies are typically formed. Experimental evidence consistently confirms that the morphology critically affects device performance. A computational framework that can predict morphology evolution can significantly augment experimental analysis. Such a framework will also allow high throughput analysis of the large phase space of processing parameters, thus yielding insight into the process-structure-property relationships. In this paper, we formulate a computational framework to predict evolution of morphology during solvent-based fabrication of organic thin films. This is accomplished by developing a phase field-based model of evaporation-induced and substrate-induced phase-separation in ternary systems. This formulation allows all the important physical phenomena affecting morphology evolution during fabrication to be naturally incorporated. We discuss the various numerical and computational challenges associated with a three dimensional, finite-element based, massively parallel implementation of this framework. This formulation allows, for the first time, to model 3D morphology evolution over large time spans on device scale domains. We illustrate this framework by investigating and quantifying the effect of various process and system variables on morphology evolution. We explore ways to control the morphology evolution by investigating different evaporation rates, blend ratios and interaction parameters between components.

  16. Genotoxicity and morphological changes induced by the alkaloid monocrotaline, extracted from Crotalaria retusa, in a model of glial cells.

    PubMed

    Silva-Neto, J P; Barreto, R A; Pitanga, B P S; Souza, C S; Silva, V D; Silva, A R; Velozo, E S; Cunha, S D; Batatinha, M J M; Tardy, M; Ribeiro, C S O; Costa, M F D; El-Bachá, R S; Costa, S L

    2010-01-01

    Plants of Crotalaria genus (Leguminosae) present large amounts of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) and cause intoxication to animals and humans. Therefore, we investigated the MCT-induced cytotoxicity, morphological changes, and oxidative and genotoxic damages to glial cells, using the human glioblastoma cell line GL-15 as a model. The comet test showed that 24h exposure to 1-500microM MCT and 500microM dehydromonocrotaline (DHMC) caused significant increases in cell DNA damage index, which reached 42-64% and 53%, respectively. Cells exposed to 100-500microM MCT also featured a contracted cytoplasm presenting thin cellular processes and vimentin destabilisation. Conversely, exposure of GL-15 cells to low concentrations of MCT (1-10microM) clearly induced megalocytosis. Moreover, MCT also induced down regulation of MAPs, especially at the lower concentrations adopted (1-10microM). Apoptosis was also evidenced in cells treated with 100-500microM MCT, and a later cytotoxicity was only observed after 6 days of exposure to 500microM MCT. The data obtained provide support for heterogenic and multipotential effects of MCT on GL-15 cells, either interfering on cell growth and cytoskeletal protein expression, or inducing DNA damage and apoptosis and suggest that the response of glial cells to this alkaloid might be related to the neurological signs observed after Crotalaria intoxication. PMID:19615397

  17. Automated quantitative analysis of 3D morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in human red blood cells stored in different periods.

    PubMed

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu; Lee, Yeon H; Javidi, Bahram; Boss, Daniel; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-12-16

    Quantitative phase (QP) images of red blood cells (RBCs), which are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy, can provide quantitative information about three-dimensional (3D) morphology of human RBCs and the characteristic properties such as mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH surface density (MCHSD). In this paper, we investigate modifications of the 3D morphology and MCH in RBCs induced by the period of storage time for the purpose of classification of RBCs with different periods of storage by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy. The classification of RBCs based on the duration of storage is highly relevant because a long storage of blood before transfusion may alter the functionality of RBCs and, therefore, cause complications in patients. To analyze any changes in the 3D morphology and MCH of RBCs due to storage, we use data sets from RBC samples stored for 8, 13, 16, 23, 27, 30, 34, 37, 40, 47, and 57 days, respectively. The data sets consist of more than 3,300 blood cells in eleven classes, with more than 300 blood cells per class. The classes indicate the storage period of RBCs and are listed in chronological order. Using the RBCs donated by healthy persons, the off-axis digital holographic microscopy reconstructs several quantitative phase images of RBC samples stored for eleven different periods. We employ marker-controlled watershed transform to remove the background in the RBC quantitative phase images obtained by the off-axis digital holographic microscopy. More than 300 single RBCs are extracted from the segmented quantitative phase images for each class. Such a large number of RBC samples enable us to obtain statistical distributions of the characteristic properties of RBCs after a specific period of storage. Experimental results show that the 3D morphology of the RBCs, in contrast to MCH, is essentially related to the aging of the RBCs. PMID:24514667

  18. What difference exists in the pancreas of mammals with sanguivorous diet? A morphological, stereological and immunohistochemical study of the pancreatic islets of the hematophagous bat Diphylla ecaudata.

    PubMed

    Machado-Santos, Clarice; Aquino, Júlio César Fraulob; Mikalauka, Jefferson Simanas; Abidu-Figueiredo, Marcelo; Mendes, Rosa Maria Marcos; Sales, Armando

    2013-05-10

    Diphylla ecaudata is a vampire bat that mainly feeds on the blood of birds. This highly specialized diet - hematophagy - is accompanied by a series of morphological changes in the gastro-entero-pancreatic system, since the distribution and relative proportions of different pancreatic endocrine cell types can vary between species due to different physiological conditions and eating habits. The aim of this study was to examine for the first time the pancreas of the vampire bat D. ecaudata using morphological, stereological and immunohistochemical techniques. The pancreas of the D. ecaudata has an exocrine acinar portion in which the highest concentration of pancreatic islets is scattered. These pancreatic islets have irregular size and a mean diameter of 56.94 ?m. The total number of islets in the pancreas was 23,900, with a volumetric density of 4.1%. Insulin-immunoreactive (IR) cells were located in the central pancreatic islet region and had the largest density (54.8%). Glucagon-IR cells were located mainly in the peripheral mantle region (16.2%), along with somatostatin-IR (SS) cells (14.3%). Cells immunoreactive to insulin, glucagon and somatostatin were also observed to have spread in isolated places in the exocrine pancreas. In the connective tissue near the pancreatic ducts, a high concentration was identified of insulin-IR cells and a low concentration of glucagon-IR and somatostatin-IR cells. These results indicate that although the pancreas of D. ecaudata has morphological similarities with that of other mammals, it has a differentiated islet structure, because there were a large number of islets and different volumetric densities of ?, ? and ? cells. PMID:23500834

  19. The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Achievement among Young Chinese-Speaking English Language Learners: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Katie; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Luo, Yang C.; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the development of morphological awareness and its contribution to vocabulary and reading comprehension among young Chinese-speaking English language learners (ELLs). We focused on two aspects of morphological awareness: derivational awareness and compound awareness. Participants included 46 kindergarteners (younger…

  20. Modelling the impact of river morphology on nitrogen retention—A case study of the Weisse Elster River (Germany)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dierk Wagenschein; Michael Rode

    2008-01-01

    Denitrification is an important sink of nitrogen in riverine systems and mainly linked to interstitial sediments and hence to river morphology. Studies which quantify this relationship are rare. In this paper we analyse the effect of river morphology on nitrogen load of the 4th order river Weisse Elster (Germany). A modified version of the river water quality model WASP5 was

  1. A study of intestinal function and morphology in nonspecific ulcerative colitis in acute phase and remission in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Chakravarti; A. K. Sehgal; R. N. Chakravarti; P. N. Chnuttani

    1973-01-01

    Smallintestinal functions and villous morphology were studied in 32 cases of nonspecific ulcerative colitis—22 in acute phase and 10 in remission. In the acute phase, mild steatorrhea was detected in 7 of 22 cases and abnormald-xylose excretion in 8 of 18 cases. Significant morphologic changes in intestinal mucosa were present in 6 of 17 cases in the acute phase. Radiologically,

  2. A difference imaging technique for monitoring real-time changes in morphology within the cell, tissue, and organism spatial domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLamore, E. S.; Stensberg, M.; Yale, G.; Ochoa-Acuna, H.; Sepulveda, M.; Sun, X.; Akkus, O.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    Image subtraction has been an extremely useful tool for capturing subtle changes in pixel intensity with extremely high temporal resolution, and has been used for decades in the astronomy and metal corrosion fields. However, to date, image subtraction has not been used as a mainstream technique for investigating morphological changes in cells, tissues, or whole organisms. We introduce a user-friendly differential imaging technique for monitoring real time (~msec) changes in morphology within the micrometer to millimeter spatial scale. The technique is demonstrated by measuring morphological changes morphology for biomedical (bone stress), agricultural (crop root elongation), and environmental (zooplankton ecotoxicology) applications. Subtle changes in growth that would typically only be observed by highly skilled experts are easily resolved via image subtraction and the use of convolution kernels. When coupled with techniques characterizing real time biochemical transport (e.g., respiration, ion/substrate transport), physiology can be directly quantified with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Because of the ease of use, this technique can be readily applied to any field of science concerned with bridging the gap between form and function.

  3. Swelling and morphology of the skin layer of polyamide composite membranes: an atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Freger, Viatcheslav

    2004-06-01

    The paper introduces a new methodology for studying polyamide composite membranes for reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) in liquid environments. The methodology is based on atomic force microscopy of the active layer, which had been separated from the support and placed on a solid substrate. The approach was employed to determine the thickness, interfacial morphology, and dimensional changes in solution (swelling) of polyamide films. The face (active) and back (facing the support) surfaces of the RO films appeared morphologically similar, in agreement with the recently proposed model of skin formation. Measured thickness and swelling data in conjunction with the intrinsic permeability of the membranes suggest that the selective barrier in RO membrane constitutes only a fraction of the polyamide skin, whereas NF membranes behave as nearly uniform films. For NF membranes, there was reasonable correlation between the changes in the swelling and in the permeability of the membrane and the salinity and pH of the feed. PMID:15224751

  4. Alterations in the morphology of ganglion cell dendrites in the adult rat retina after optic nerve transection and grafting of peripheral nerve segments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Thanos

    1988-01-01

    Transected ganglion cell axons from the adult retina are capable of reinnervating their central targets by growing into transplanted peripheral nerve (PN) segments. Injury of the optic nerve causes various metabolic and morphological changes in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) perikarya and in the dendrites. The present work examined the dendritic trees of those ganglion cells surviving axotomy and of

  5. Effects of the morphology of nanostructured ZnO and interface modification on the device configuration and charge transport of ZnO/polymer hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ruankham, Pipat; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Sagawa, Takashi

    2013-06-28

    In an organic-based solar cell, the short exciton diffusion length of organic materials requires effective donor-acceptor heterojunction at the nanoscale. In this work, hybrid inorganic/polymer solar cells based on ZnO nanostructures and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are constructed to study the effects of ZnO morphologies and wettability of the surface on the P3HT infiltration ability and charge transport mechanisms. The P3HT infiltrates the ZnO nanorod (NR) more remarkably than ZnO nanoparticle (NP) substrates. Although surface modification with indoline D205 dye molecules improves the wettability (viz. enlarges the contact angle) of NP surface, the P3HT infiltration distance decreases in comparison with the pristine NP case. This leads to relatively low short-circuit current density (Jsc) of the NP devices in comparison with that of the NR devices, even though the surface area of NP layers is larger than that of NR ones. Moreover, surface modification with squaraine dye onto the NR surface shows more significant improvement in Jsc than the NP case. This is due to the well-aligned morphology of the NRs, which facilitates dye modification, P3HT infiltration, and charge transport processes. These indicate that the NRs are more qualified as electron accepting substrates and transport pathway in hybrid solar cells than NPs. PMID:23446342

  6. A novel framework for white blood cell segmentation based on stepwise rules and morphological features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim, Ja-Won; Park, Junoh; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Ko, ByoungChul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2011-03-01

    This study proposes a new white blood cell (WBC) segmentation method using region merging scheme and GVF (Gradient Vector Flow) snake. WBC segmentation consists of two schemes; nuclei segmentation and cytoplasm segmentation. For nuclei segmentation, we create a probability map using probability density function estimated from samples of WBC's nuclei and crop the sub-images to include nucleus by using the fact that nuclei have salient color against background and red blood cells. Then, mean-shift clustering is performed for region segmentation and merging rules are applied to merge particle clusters to nucleus. For cytoplasm segmentation, a hybrid approach is proposed that combines the spatial characteristics of cytoplasm and GVF snakes to delineate the boundary of the region of interest. Unlike previous algorithms, the main contribution of this study is to improve the accuracy of WBC segmentation and reduce the computational time by cropping sub-images and applying different segmentation rules according to the parts of cell. The evaluation of proposed method was performed on five WBC types and it showed that the proposed algorithm produced accurate segmentation results in most types of WBCs.

  7. Automated imaging system for fast quantitation of neurons, cell morphology and neurite morphometry in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Victor; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Watkins, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitation of neurons using stereologic approaches reduces bias and systematic error, but is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Accurate methods for quantifying neurons in vitro are lacking; conventional methodologies are limited in reliability and application. The morphological properties of the soma and neurites are a key aspect of neuronal phenotype and function, but the assays commonly used in such evaluations are beset with several methodological drawbacks. Herein we describe automated techniques to quantify the number and morphology of neurons (or any cell type, e.g., astrocytes) and their processes with high speed and accuracy. Neuronal quantification from brain tissue using a motorized stage system yielded results that were statistically comparable to those generated by stereology. The approach was then adapted for in vitro neuron and neurite outgrowth quantification. To determine the utility of our methods, rotenone was used as a neurotoxicant leading to morphological changes in neurons and cell death, astrocytic activation, and loss of neurites. Importantly, our technique counted about 8 times as many neurons in less than 5–10% of the time taken by manual stereological analysis. PMID:23220621

  8. Morphological and molecular analysis calls for a reappraisal of the red rain cells of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Burchell, Mark J; Hogg, Stuart I

    2014-02-01

    Early studies on the coloured particles that fell as red rain over southern India identified them as unicellular eukaryotes such as members of the red algae or fungi; however, the results of the present investigation are not consistent with this designation. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have demonstrated significant differences in the ultrastructure when compared with representative species from these other groups. Most notably, the red rain cells show no evidence of typical eukaryotic internal structures such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, comparisons based on elemental composition using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, as well as Raman spectral signatures demonstrate significant dissimilarities in their molecular composition. The identity and origins of the red rain cells remain an enigma; however, our findings are more consistent with an unidentified prokaryote, and thus suggest that previous attempts at their identification should be reappraised. PMID:24071812

  9. Influence of Organic Solvents on Catalytic Behaviors and Cell Morphology of Whole-Cell Biocatalysts for Synthesis of 5?-Arabinocytosine Laurate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meiyan; Wu, Hui; Lian, Yan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lai, Furao; Zhao, Guanglei

    2014-01-01

    A whole-cell based method was developed for the regioselective synthesis of arabinocytosine laurate. Among the seven kinds of bacteria strains tested in the acylation reaction, Pseudomonas fluorescens gave the highest productivity and a higher 5?-regioselectivity than 99%. Compared with pure organic solvents, the use of organic solvent mixtures greatly promoted the yield of the whole-cell catalyzed reaction, but showed little influence on the 5?-regioselectivity. Of all the tested solvent mixtures, the best reaction result was found in isopropyl ether/pyridine followed by isopentanol/pyridine. However, the whole-cells showed much lower thermostability in isopropyl ether/pyridine than in THF-pyridine. To better understand the toxic effects of the organic solvents on P. fluorescens whole-cells and growing cells were further examined. Significant influences of organic solvents on the biomass of the cells were found, which differed depending on the type of solvents used. SEM analysis visually revealed the changes in the surface morphology of whole-cells and growing cells cultured in media containing various organic solvents, in terms of surface smoothness, bulges and changed cell sizes. Results demonstrated that organic toxicity to cell structure played an important role in whole-cell mediated catalysis. PMID:25136983

  10. Analysis of the morphologic changes of Monascus sp. J101 cells cocultured with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Hae Suh; Chul Soo Shin

    2000-01-01

    Changes in cell life cycle and intracellular structure of Monascus sp. J101 by coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Cocultured Monascus cells showed accelerated cell growth and reproduction. Production of asexual and sexual spores was used as an efficient method of cell proliferation. Formation of meiotic (sexual) spores was more frequently observed in the cocultured Monascus cells. The interior structure

  11. Controlling yield and morphology for gold nanorods in a seed-mediated synthesis method for cell imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-Yan Qin; Tao Fu; Zhijun Ning; Hans Ĺgren; Hjalmar Brismar; Sailing He

    2010-01-01

    Designed experiments are carried out to systematically study the effects of silver ions on morphology and yield of gold nanorods synthesized via a seed-mediated method. Gold nanorods synthesized with different silver ions and CTAB concentrations were characterized by absorption spectroscopy and TEM. The shape and yield of gold nanorods were effectively controlled by adjusting the concentration ratio of CTAB and

  12. Metastasis suppressor NME1 regulates melanoma cell morphology, self-adhesion and motility via induction of fibronectin expression.

    PubMed

    Novak, Marián; Leonard, Mary Kathryn; Yang, Xiuwei H; Kowluru, Anjan; Belkin, Alexey M; Kaetzel, David M

    2015-06-01

    Expression of the metastasis suppressor NME1 in melanoma is associated with reduced cellular motility and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Herein, we report a novel mechanism through which NME1 controls melanoma cell morphology via upregulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin. Expression of NME1 strongly suppressed cell motility in melanoma cell lines 1205LU and M14. The resulting sedentary phenotype was associated with a more flattened appearance and marked increases in actin stress fibre and focal adhesion formation. NME1-induced focal adhesions were colocalized with dense deposits of fibronectin, which were absent or minimal in the corresponding NME1-deficient parental lines. NME1 was a strong inducer of fibronectin mRNA and protein expression, shown with reciprocal approaches of forced NME1 expression and shRNA-mediated knock-down. Increased synthesis and ECM deposition of fibronectin was necessary for NME1-induced cell spreading, as knock-down of fibronectin opposed the effects of NME1 on cell morphology. Fibronectin knock-down also reversed the ability of NME1 to promote aggregation when cells were plated on a non-adherent substratum. Similarly, inhibiting activation of the fibronectin receptor integrin ?4?1 with an anti-?4 antibody reversed the motility-suppressing effect of NME1. A positive correlation was observed between NME1 and fibronectin mRNA in clinical biopsies of normal skin, benign nevi and primary melanomas, but not in metastatic forms, suggesting the NME1/fibronectin axis represents a barrier to melanoma progression. In summary, these findings indicate fibronectin is an important effector of the motility-suppressing function of NME1 in melanoma cells. PMID:25808322

  13. Metastasis Suppressor NME1 Regulates Melanoma Cell Morphology, Self-Adhesion and Motility via Induction of Fibronectin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Marián; Leonard, M. Katie; Yang, Xiuwei H.; Kowluru, Anjan; Belkin, Alexey M.; Kaetzel, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the metastasis suppressor NME1 in melanoma is associated with reduced cellular motility and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Herein we report a novel mechanism through which NME1 controls melanoma cell morphology via up-regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin. Expression of NME1 strongly suppressed cell motility in melanoma cell lines 1205LU and M14. The resulting sedentary phenotype was associated with a more flattened appearance, and marked increases in actin stress fiber and focal adhesion formation. NME1-induced focal adhesions were co-localized with dense deposits of fibronectin, which were absent or minimal in the corresponding NME1-deficient parental lines. NME1 was a strong inducer of fibronectin mRNA and protein expression, shown with reciprocal approaches of forced NME1 expression and shRNA-mediated knockdown. Increased synthesis and ECM deposition of fibronectin was necessary for NME1-induced cell spreading, as knockdown of fibronectin opposed the effects of NME1 on cell morphology. Fibronectin knockdown also reversed the ability of NME1 to promote aggregation when cells were plated on a non-adherent substratum. Similarly, inhibiting activation of the fibronectin receptor integrin ?4?1 with an anti-?4 antibody reversed the motility-suppressing effect of NME1. A positive correlation was observed between NME1 and fibronectin mRNA in clinical biopsies of normal skin, benign nevi and primary melanomas, but not in metastatic forms, suggesting the NME1/fibronectin axis represents a barrier to melanoma progression. In summary, these findings indicate fibronectin is an important effector of the motility-suppressing function of NME1 in melanoma cells. PMID:25808322

  14. Morphology of the European species of the aphid genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae) - A SEM comparative and integrative study.

    PubMed

    Kanturski, Mariusz; Karcz, Jagna; Wieczorek, Karina

    2015-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods were used for the first time to elucidate the external morphology of the European species of the genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae), a representative genus of the conifer-feeding aphids tribe Eulachnini. We examined and compared the external morphology of apterous and alate viviparous females from the parthenogenetic generation as well as oviparous females and alate males belonging to the sexual generation. FE-SEM images based on HMDS and cryo-SEM preparation techniques revealed better image quality than the CPD technique in regard to surface tension and morphological signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of depressions, drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Three morphologically different species groups "agilis", "brevipilosus" and "cembrae" were proposed due to the differences in head, antennae, legs and dorsal chaetotaxy as well as dorsal sclerotization. The most characteristic features and differences of representatives of these groups are presented and discussed. PMID:26021259

  15. Involvement of endogenous ceramide in the inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of morphologic differentiation in response to all-trans-retinoic acid in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kraveka, Jacqueline M; Li, Li; Bielawski, Jacek; Obeid, Lina M; Ogretmen, Besim

    2003-11-15

    In this study, we examined the role of endogenous ceramide in the inhibition of telomerase and induction of morphologic differentiation in response to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in the SK-N-SH and SK-N-AS human neuroblastoma cell lines. The results showed that ATRA inhibited the activity of telomerase significantly in a time- and dose-dependent manner, as determined by telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). The inhibition of telomerase by ATRA was maximum (about 50-80% of untreated controls) at 5-10 microM for 4-8 days. Treatment of cells with ATRA (5 microM) also resulted in the inhibition of growth by about 30-70% after 4 and 8 days of treatment, respectively, which was measured by trypan blue exclusion method. Measurement of accumulation of endogenous ceramide by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) showed that treatment of cells with ATRA resulted in increased levels of mainly C24:0 and C24:1 ceramides at days 2, 4, and 8, respectively. Also, treatment of cells with ATRA in the presence of myriocin blocked the accumulation of ceramide significantly, and more importantly, presence of myriocin partially prevented the inhibition of telomerase. Mechanistically, inhibition of telomerase by endogenous ceramide in response to ATRA treatment involves, at least in part, down-regulation of the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA, as determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, in these cells. In addition, the modulation of telomerase activity by ATRA correlated with the induction of morphologic differentiation, which was also blocked by myriocin, as determined by extension of neurites using phase-contrast microscopy. These results, therefore, reveal an important effect of ATRA on telomerase inhibition and induction of morphologic differentiation in human neuroblastoma cells. These data also demonstrate that endogenous ceramide is one of the upstream regulators of telomerase activity in human neuroblastoma cells in response to ATRA. PMID:14592454

  16. Interleukin-4 induces foreign body giant cells from human monocytes/macrophages. Differential lymphokine regulation of macrophage fusion leads to morphological variants of multinucleated giant cells.

    PubMed Central

    McNally, A. K.; Anderson, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-4 induced the formation of foreign body-type giant multinucleated cells from human monocyte-derived macrophages, an effect that was optimized with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-3, dependent on the concentration of interleukin-4, and specifically prevented by anti-interleukin-4. Very large foreign body giant cells and, predominantly, giant cell syncytia with randomly arranged nuclei and extensive cytoplasmic spreading (285 +/- 121 nuclei and 1.151 +/- 0.303 mm2 per syncytium) were consistently obtained. Under otherwise identical culture conditions, relatively much smaller Langhans-type giant cells with circularly arranged nuclei were induced with a previously described combination of interferon-gamma plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-3 (16 +/- 6 nuclei and 0.033 +/- 0.013 mm2 per giant cell); their formation was prevented by anti-interferon-gamma but not by anti-interleukin-4. Similar rates of macrophage fusion were obtained in both culture systems (72 +/- 5% and 74 +/- 6%, respectively), but these two morphological variants did not occur simultaneously or form from one another within the 10-day culture period. These findings demonstrate that interleukin-4 is a potent human macrophage fusion factor and that differential regulation of macrophage fusion by interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma may lead to morphological variants of multinucleated giant cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7485411

  17. Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

  18. A high-frequency study of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect morphology in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, D. A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Akahori, T.; Million, E. T.; Nagataki, S.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2011-09-01

    High-frequency, high-resolution imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is an important technique to study the complex structures of the atmospheres of merging galaxy clusters. Such observations are sensitive to the details of the electron spectrum. We show that the morphology of the SZ intensity maps in simulated galaxy clusters observed at 345, 600 and 857 GHz are significantly different because of SZ relativistic corrections. These differences can be revealed by high-resolution imaging instruments. We calculate relativistically corrected SZ intensity maps of a simulated, massive, merging galaxy cluster and of the massive, merging clusters 1E0657-558 (the Bullet cluster) and Abell 2219. The morphologies of the SZ intensity maps are remarkably different between 345 and 857 GHz for each merging cluster. We show that high-resolution imaging observations of the SZ intensity maps at these frequencies, obtainable with the LABOCA and HERSCHEL-SPIRE instruments, allow to fully exploit the astrophysical relevance of the predicted SZ morphological effect.

  19. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan

    2014-09-01

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  20. Non-invasive study of Octopus vulgaris arm morphology using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Laura; Ponte, Giovanna; Mazzolai, Barbara; Laschi, Cecilia; Fiorito, Graziano

    2011-11-15

    Octopus arms are extremely dexterous structures. The special arrangements of the muscle fibers and nerve cord allow a rich variety of complex and fine movements under neural control. Historically, the arm structure has been investigated using traditional comparative morphological ex vivo analysis. Here, we employed ultrasound imaging, for the first time, to explore in vivo the arms of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris. Sonographic examination (linear transducer, 18 MHz) was carried out in anesthetized animals along the three anatomical planes: transverse, sagittal and horizontal. Images of the arm were comparable to the corresponding histological sections. We were able, in a non-invasive way, to measure the dimensions of the arm and its internal structures such as muscle bundles and neural components. In addition, we evaluated echo intensity signals as an expression of the difference in the muscular organization of the tissues examined (i.e. transverse versus longitudinal muscles), finding different reflectivity based on different arrangements of fibers and their intimate relationship with other tissues. In contrast to classical preparative procedures, ultrasound imaging can provide rapid, destruction-free access to morphological data from numerous specimens, thus extending the range of techniques available for comparative studies of invertebrate morphology. PMID:22031736

  1. Morphological study of the lingual papillae of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, J F; Barbosa, M; De Paz, F J

    2008-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of giant pandas, there are few descriptions of their morphology and even fewer of their microscopic anatomy and the ultrastructure of their organs. In this study of the complete tongue of an adult male giant panda, we describe the morphology of its lingual surface, the different types of papillae, their characteristics and topographic distribution. It was seen that there are four main types of lingual papillae: filiform, conical, fungiform and vallate. There was no sign of foliate papillae, tuberculum intermolare or sublingua. Papilla distribution was not limited to the dorsum of the tongue, but was also seen on the anterior and ventral surfaces of the tongue. In the anterior third of the midline there is a smooth area with no papillae at all. Morphology of the microgrooves and pores is similar to that observed in other mammals. The papillae share characteristics encountered in Carnivora and herbivorous species of mammals. A narrow bamboo-based diet and specialized manner of eating have together resulted in modification of the tongue of a carnivoran, giving it some characteristics typical of an herbivore. PMID:18254792

  2. Morphological study of the Al Ti ohmic contact to p-type SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohney, S. E.; Hull, B. A.; Lin, J. Y.; Crofton, J.

    2002-05-01

    The composition 70 wt.% Al was recently reported to provide low resistance Al-Ti ohmic contacts with excellent electrical uniformity on p-type SiC. Using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, an investigation of the surface morphology and edge definition of the annealed contacts was conducted, and the morphology of the buried metal/semiconductor interface was examined by etching away the contact metallization and imaging the freshly exposed SiC surface. This information provides guidance on the suitability of the contact for devices with small feature sizes and shallow p-type epilayers. Patterned contacts exhibited good edge definition, a root-mean-square surface roughness of 11 nm, and a root-mean-square interfacial roughness of 12 nm. The deepest observed penetration of the metallization into the SiC was 65 nm, and the lateral length scale of the morphological features at the buried metal/semiconductor interface was sufficiently small compared to the active area of the contact to allow good contact-to-contact reproducibility. The interfacial reactions and ohmic contact formation mechanism are considered from the point of view of the materials characterization study presented here and the binary Al-Ti and quaternary Al-C-Si-Ti phase diagrams.

  3. Structure and morphology of an organic/inorganic multilayer stack: An x-ray reflectivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, Alfred; Fladischer, Stefanie; Mitsche, Stefan; Flesch, Heinz-Georg; Moser, Armin; Novak, Jiri; Smilgies, Detlef M.; Kraker, Elke; Lamprecht, Bernhard; Haase, Anja; Grogger, Werner; Resel, Roland

    2011-12-01

    The internal morphology and crystallographic properties of a complete organic thin film multilayer stack are characterized via x-ray scattering techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy. The stack consists of the three organic layers - copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc), perylene tetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI), and aluminum-tris(8-hydroxychinolin) (Alq3) - sandwiched between an optically semitransparent gold layer and a top silver electrode. The interface roughness progress is determined by the x-ray reflectivity, which is confirmed by the surface roughness determination via AFM. The crystallographic properties are characterized via x-ray diffraction. The CuPc layer is highly crystalline with preferentially oriented crystallites but forms a rough interface (?RMS = 5.5 nm) toward the PTCBI layer. The PTCBI layer grows with randomly distributed crystallites in a worm-like morphology with an interface roughness of ?RMS = 6.4 nm toward the Alq3 layer. The amorphous Alq3 layer acts as smoothing layer and reduces the roughness ?RMS to 5.8 nm. Within this study we demonstrate the applicability of x-ray reflectivity in characterizing the interface morphology of an organic multilayer stack device.

  4. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan [Bioprocess Group, Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup ?1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  5. The study of thermal and gross morphologic properties of polyglycolic acid upon annealing and degradation treatments.

    PubMed

    Chu, C C; Browning, A

    1988-08-01

    The objective of this study is to alter the fiber morphology of a linear aliphatic polyester, polyglycolic acid, by annealing treatment and to examine the changes of its degradation properties. The annealing was done at 150 degrees C, 170 degrees C, and 190 degrees C, and the specimens were annealed in four different strained conditions, freely hung, 0, 1, and 10%. After annealing treatments, the specimens were subject to in vitro hydrolytic degradation by immersing them in phosphate-buffer solution of pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C for up to 28 days. The thermal properties and gross morphology of the specimens were obtained. It was found that annealing treatments resulted in initial higher levels of crystallinity, which, in turn, influenced the hydrolytic degradation of the fiber. Among all the annealing conditions, the freely hung specimens annealed at 190 degrees C exhibited the most pronounced annealing effect on hydrolytic degradation, and was consistent with the observed gross morphologic changes. The change in the characteristics of fiber structure (i.e., the return to the stage of less oriented conformation upon freely hung annealing) was thought to be the cause. PMID:2851009

  6. Morphological studies of the pineal gland in the common gull (Larus canus) reveal uncommon features of pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Lewçzuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Kalicki, Miroslaw; Zió?kowska, Natalia

    2012-04-01

    The avian pineal is a directly photosensory organ taking part in the organization of the circadian and seasonal rhythms. It plays an important role in regulation of many behavior and physiological phenomena including migration. The aim of the study was to investigate morphology of the pineal organ in the common gull (Larus canus). The light and electron microscopic studies were performed on the pineals of juvenile birds living in natural conditions of the Baltic Sea coast, which have been untreatably injured during strong storms in autumn and qualified for euthanasia. The investigated pineals consisted of a wide, triangular, superficially localized distal part and a narrow, elongated proximal part, attached via the choroid plexus to the intercommissural region of the diencephalon. The accessory pineal tissue was localized caudally to the choroid plexus. Based on the histological criteria, the organ was classified as the solid-follicular type. Two types of cells of fotoreceptory line were distinguished: rudimentary-receptor pinealocytes and secretory pinealocytes. Both types of cells were characterized by unusual features, which have been not previously described in avian pinealocytes: the presence of paracrystalline structures in the basal processes and their endings, the storage of glycogen in the form of large accumulations and the arrangement of mitochondria in clusters. Further studies on other species of wild water birds dwelling in condition of cold seas are necessary to explain if the described features of pinealocytes are specific for genus Larus, family Laridae or a larger group of water birds living in similar environmental conditions. PMID:22262668

  7. Study of the Effect of Nanoparticles and Surface Morphology on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuming; Duranceau, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1) and particle back diffusion term (k2) was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion. PMID:24956946

  8. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669

  9. Neuron, Vol. 1, 791403, November, 1988, Copyright 0 1988 by Cell Press Immunological, Morphological, and

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    of the CNS such as the retina and optic nerve, many cell types and specific markers have now been identified regions of the brain. The large difference in size of cerebellar granule cells and Purkinje cells has

  10. Fabrication and characterization of photoelectrode thin films with different morphologies of TiO2 nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Mu-Jung; Chang, Ho; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Huang, Kuohsiu-David; Chen, Yu-Ling

    2011-08-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of three different morphologies of TiO2 nanoparticles to fabricate two-layer photoelectrode thin film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The four different TiO2 morphologies are titania nanotubes (Tnt), TiO2 nanoparticles (H220), TiO2 nanoparticle (SP) and commercial DP-25 nanoparticles (P-25). To prepare the thin films of the photoelectrodes, the first layer is coated by H220 TiO2 nanoparticles, and the second is coated by 3 kinds of materials optimally proportionally mixed - P25, SP and Tnt. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSCs with photoelectrodes fabricated using H220 reached 6.31%. Finally, the TiO2 nanaomaterials with four different morphologies were used to prepare a two layer photoelectrode with the structure of H220/P25-Tnt-SP which was combined with a Pt counter electrode to assemble DSSCs. These DSSCs had photoelectric conversion efficiencies of as high as 7.47%. PMID:22103219

  11. Mesoscopic simulation of cell membrane damage, morphology change and rupture by nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed Central

    Groot, R D; Rabone, K L

    2001-01-01

    A new simulation method, dissipative particle dynamics, is applied to model biological membranes. In this method, several atoms are united into a single simulation particle. The solubility and compressibility of the various liquid components are reproduced by the simulation model. When applied to a bilayer of phosphatidylethanolamine, the membrane structure obtained matches quantitatively with full atomistic simulations and with experiments reported in the literature. The method is applied to investigate the cause of cell death when bacteria are exposed to nonionic surfactants. Mixed bilayers of lipid and nonionic surfactant were studied, and the diffusion of water through the bilayer was monitored. Small transient holes are seen to appear at 40% mole-fraction C(9)E(8), which become permanent holes between 60 and 70% surfactant. When C(12)E(6) is applied, permanent holes only arise at 90% mole-fraction surfactant. Some simulations have been carried out to determine the rupture properties of mixed bilayers of phosphatidylethanolamine and C(12)E(6). These simulations indicate that the area of a pure lipid bilayer can be increased by a factor 2. The inclusion of surfactant considerably reduces both the extensibility and the maximum stress that the bilayer can withstand. This may explain why dividing cells are more at risk than static cells. PMID:11463621

  12. Bioenergetic flux, mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial morphology dynamics in AD and MCI cybrid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diana F; Selfridge, J Eva; Lu, Jianghua; E, Lezi; Roy, Nairita; Hutfles, Lewis; Burns, Jeffrey M; Michaelis, Elias K; Yan, ShiDu; Cardoso, Sandra M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2013-10-01

    Bioenergetic dysfunction occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a clinical syndrome that frequently precedes symptomatic AD. In this study, we modeled AD and MCI bioenergetic dysfunction by transferring mitochondria from MCI, AD and control subject platelets to mtDNA-depleted SH-SY5Y cells. Bioenergetic fluxes and bioenergetics-related infrastructures were characterized in the resulting cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell lines. Relative to control cybrids, AD and MCI cybrids showed changes in oxygen consumption, respiratory coupling and glucose utilization. AD and MCI cybrids had higher ADP/ATP and lower NAD+/NADH ratios. AD and MCI cybrids exhibited differences in proteins that monitor, respond to or regulate cell bioenergetic fluxes including HIF1?, PGC1?, SIRT1, AMPK, p38 MAPK and mTOR. Several endpoints suggested mitochondrial mass increased in the AD cybrid group and probably to a lesser extent in the MCI cybrid group, and that the mitochondrial fission-fusion balance shifted towards increased fission in the AD and MCI cybrids. As many of the changes we observed in AD and MCI cybrid models are also seen in AD subject brains, we conclude reduced bioenergetic function is present during very early AD, is not brain-limited and induces protean retrograde responses that likely have both adaptive and mal-adaptive consequences. PMID:23740939

  13. Effect of the interface morphology on the fill factor of plastic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Djara; J. C. Bernčde

    2005-01-01

    Organic bilayer solar cells based on a donor\\/acceptor junction of zinc-phthalocyanine\\/1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (ZnPc\\/1,4-DAAQ) were studied. The transparent conductive oxide (TCO) electrode used was either the indium tin oxide (ITO) or the zinc oxide (ZnO), also the (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) was used as conductive polymer. Two different configurations were prepared: glass\\/ITO (or ZnO)\\/ZnPc\\/1,4-DAAQ\\/Al configuration and glass\\/Al\\/1,4-DAAQ\\/ZnPc\\/PEDOT:PSS\\/ ITO (or ZnO)\\/glass configuration. From

  14. Delayed loss of spinal motoneurons after peripheral nerve injury in adult rats: a quantitative morphological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Ma; Lev N. Novikov; Mikael Wiberg; Jan-Olof Kellerth

    2001-01-01

    .   The existence of retrograde cell death in sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells after peripheral nerve injury is well\\u000a established. However, with respect to retrograde motoneuron death after peripheral nerve injury, available data are conflicting.\\u000a This may partly be due to the cell counting techniques used. In the present study, quantitative morphometric methods have\\u000a been used to analyse retrograde

  15. Premature Aging Phenotype in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors: Region-Specific Changes in Layer V Pyramidal Cell Morphology.

    PubMed

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Skaliora, Irini

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms by which aging leads to alterations in brain structure and cognitive deficits are unclear. ? deficient cholinergic system has been implicated as one of the main factors that could confer a heightened vulnerability to the aging process, and mice lacking high-affinity nicotinic receptors (?2(-/-)) have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated cognitive aging. To date, however, age-related changes in neuronal microanatomy have not been studied in these mice. In the present study, we examine the neuronal structure of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP(+)) layer V neurons in 2 cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical regions in wild-type (WT) and ?2(-/-) animals. We find that (1) substantial morphological differences exist between YFP(+) cells of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and primary visual cortex (V1), in both genotypes; (2) in WT animals, ACC cells are more susceptible to aging compared with cells in V1; and (3) ?2 deletion is associated with a regionally and temporally specific increase in vulnerability to aging. ACC cells exhibit a prematurely aged phenotype already at 4-6 months, whereas V1 cells are spared in adulthood but strongly affected in old animals. Collectively, our data reveal region-specific synergistic effects of aging and genotype and suggest distinct vulnerabilities in V1 and ACC neurons. PMID:24554727

  16. Serum-free, long-term cultures of human hepatocytes: maintenance of cell morphology, transcription factors, and liver-specific functions.

    PubMed

    Runge, D; Runge, D M; Jäger, D; Lubecki, K A; Beer Stolz, D; Karathanasis, S; Kietzmann, T; Strom, S C; Jungermann, K; Fleig, W E; Michalopoulos, G K

    2000-03-01

    Since human hepatocytes are available only in limited number, the development of a serum-free culture system for long-term cultivation of differentiated and functional hepatocytes is of great importance. Here we describe the culture of human hepatocytes in a chemically defined serum-free medium for up to 5 weeks. Cell morphology was assayed by light and electron microscopy and revealed a well-preserved cellular morphology. Marker proteins for epithelial and bile duct cells, cytokeratin (CK) 18 and 19, and liver-specific proteins, like phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-2 (PCK2) and serum proteins, were expressed. Liver-enriched transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4), cytokine and mitogen activated factors (nuclear factor kappa B) NFkappaB, and activator protein-1 (AP-1) were maintained and active for several weeks in our cultures. In summary, our serum-free culture system allows the culture of differentiated human hepatocytes for several weeks. It may serve as a model system for metabolic, pharmacologic-toxicologic studies, and studies on human pathogens under defined chemical conditions. PMID:10694475

  17. Laser-induced shockwave paired with FRET: a method to study cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Godinez, Veronica; Preece, Daryl; Shi, Linda; Khatibzadeh, Nima; Rosales, Derrick; Pan, Yijia; Lei, Lie; Wang, Yingxiao; Berns, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    Cells within the body are subject to various forces; however, the details concerning the way in which cells respond to mechanical stimuli are not well understood. We demonstrate that laser-induced shockwaves (LIS) combined with biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a promising new approach to study biological processes in single live cells. As "proof-of-concept," using a FRET biosensor, we show that in response to LIS, cells release intracellular calcium. With the parameters used, cells retain their morphology and remain viable. LIS combined with FRET permits observation of the cells immediate response to a sudden shear force. PMID:25639252

  18. Effects of tebuconazole on morphology, structure, cell wall components and trichothecene production of Fusarium culmorum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kang, Z; Huang, L; Krieg, U; Mauler-Machnik, A; Buchenauer, H

    2001-06-01

    The effects of tebuconazole, a systemic fungicide, on the morphology, structure, cell wall components and toxin production of Fusarium culmorum were investigated in vitro. Treatment was by application of four filter paper strips (0.75 cm x 5.0 cm) soaked in 20 micrograms ml-1 fungicide placed around a point inoculum in Petri dishes. Mycelial growth was strongly inhibited by fungicide treatment. Scanning electron microscopic observations showed that the fungicide caused irregular swelling and excessive branching of hyphae. The morphological changes induced by the fungicide at the ultrastructural level included considerable thickening of the hyphal cell walls, excessive septation, the formation of the incomplete septa, extensive vacuolisation, accumulation of lipid bodies and progressing necrosis or degeneration of the hyphal cytoplasm. Non-membrane inclusion bodies were often detected in the hyphal cytoplasm. Furthermore, the formation of new hyphae (daughter hyphae) inside collapsed hyphal cells was common following treatment. The daughter hyphae also displayed severe alterations such as irregular thickening of the cell walls and necrosis of the cytoplasm. Using cytochemical techniques, the labelling densities of chitin and beta-1,3-glucan in the cell walls of the fungicide-treated hyphae were more pronounced than in those of the control hyphae. Moreover, immunogold labelling with antiserum against deoxynivalenol (DON) revealed that Fusarium toxin DON was localized in the cell walls, cytoplasm, mitochondria and vacuoles of the hyphae from the control and the fungicide treatment, but the labelling density in the fungicide-treated hyphae decreased dramatically compared with the control hyphae, indicating that tebuconazole reduced Fusarium toxin production of the fungus. PMID:11407024

  19. Relationships between cytoplasmic microtubular complex, DNA synthesis and cell morphology in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (effects of age, serum deprivation, aphidicolin, cytochalasin B and colchicine).

    PubMed

    Van Gansen, P; Siebertz, B; Capone, B; Malherbe, L

    1984-01-01

    Aging, aphidicolin, serum deprivation and cytochalasin B induce a decrease in the rate of DNA synthesis, an increase in cell flattening (cell surface increase) and an extension of the cytoplasmic microtubular complex (CMTC). Age and experimental conditions affect the protein content of the cell, but there is no relationship between cell morphology and cell protein content. Serum deprivation, aphidicolin and cytochalasin B are more effective on DNA synthesis and cytoplasmic actin complex (CAC) of late than of early fibroblasts. Despite these facts, the cell morphology of late cells is fairly stable and is not affected by experimental conditions, which exert an "aging effect" upon the cell morphology in earlier cultures. Colchicine acts upon the CMTC, cell morphology and DNA synthesis at all ages of the cultures. It also induces disruption of the CAC, the intensity of the disruption depending on both the length of the treatment and the age of the culture: the sensitivity of the actin-microfilaments to colchicine increases with the mitotic age of the cells. We suggest that the microtubular integrity is needed, but not sufficient, to preserve the organization of the CAC into microfilaments. We propose a logical model comprising feedback loops between the number of the mitotic cycles, the rate of DNA synthesis, the extention rate of the plasma membranes and CMTC in normal fibroblasts. CMTC is associated, in this model, with the expression of negative or positive controls, depending on the grade of its extension (Fig. 9). PMID:6241491

  20. Morphological and cell kinetic effects of dietary manipulation during colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, D J; Jarrett, F; Boyle, P; Indran, M; Carr, K; Owen, R W; George, W D

    1987-01-01

    The effect of dietary manipulation of fat and fibre on the structural and cell kinetic characteristics of colonic mucosa was studied before and during experimental carcinogenesis in 232 male Albino Swiss rats. Carcinogen treated animals were given 12 weekly injections of azoxymethane (10 mg/kg/week). The animals were divided between four dietary groups (1) high fat, high fibre, (2) low fat, high fibre, (3) high fat, low fibre and (4) low fat, low fibre. Pathological and cell kinetic information together with details of certain faecal characteristics was collected when the animals were killed 4, 20, and 28 weeks after starting their experimental diet. Tumour induction was significantly influenced by diet. The highest risk of colorectal tumour development was found in groups fed diet 3: high fat, low fibre (p less than 0.03). In contrast, diet 2: low fat, high fibre was associated with the lowest risk. The proportion of histologically proven colonic tumours occurring in each dietary group was: diet 1-10.9%, diet 2-3.6%, diet 3-63.7%, diet 4-21.8%. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies done on selected samples indicated both dietary and azoxymethane related alterations in crypt unit integrity. The most marked surface architectural changes were seen in carcinogen treated animals maintained on diet 3 (high fat, low fibre). Stathmokinetic analysis revealed considerable intergroup variability. Both fat and fibre produced significant effects, principally during the preneoplastic phase of carcinogenesis. Faster proliferative activity tended to be found in animals at low risk of tumour induction (diet 2), slower proliferation being more characteristic of animals at high risk (p less than 0.05). The findings suggest that both topographical and cell kinetic parameters have an important relationship with promoting and protecting dietary factors during the development of colorectal cancer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3040544

  1. Morphology, biochemistry and physiology of chondrostean fish sperm: a comparative study between Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) and sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus)

    E-print Network

    Villefranche sur mer

    Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) and sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) Psenicka Martin1 , Alavi S.M. Hadi1 sturgeon species, A. baerii and A. ruthenus. METHODS: Spermatozoa morphology was studied using SEM (JSM

  2. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Schurmann, Claudia; Zhu, Gu; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wollstein, Andreas; Lao, Oscar; de Bruijne, Marleen; Ikram, M. Arfan; van der Lugt, Aad; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; Homuth, Georg; de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Daboul, Amro; Puls, Ralf; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Bevan, Liisa; Pausova, Zdenka; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wicking, Carol; Boehringer, Stefan; Spector, Timothy D.; Paus, Tomáš; Martin, Nicholas G.; Biffar, Reiner; Kayser, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes—PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1—in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications. PMID:23028347

  3. The Distribution and Morphological Characteristics of Serotonergic Cells in the Brain of Monotremes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Manger; Heidi M. Fahringer; John D. Pettigrew; Jerome M. Siegel

    2002-01-01

    The distribution and cellular morphology of serotonergic neurons in the brain of two species of monotremes are described. Three clusters of serotonergic neurons were found: a hypothalamic cluster, a cluster in the rostral brainstem and a cluster in the caudal brainstem. Those in the hypothalamus consisted of two groups, the periventricular hypothalamic organ and the infundibular recess, that were intimately

  4. Some morphological and histochemical studies on the intestinal tract of the Brazilian sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).

    PubMed

    da Mota, D L; George, L L; Pinheiro, P P; Pinheiro, N L

    1989-01-01

    The intestinal of the 3-toed sloth, Bradypus tridactylus, was studied macroscopically, with light microscope and with histochemical methods for mucosubstances. Macroscopically, the inner surface of the duodenum shows longitudinal and circular folds. There is no caecum, nor appendix. The large intestine consists of a short colon and a large rectal pouch, which has a thick wall. The mucosa of the small intestine has long leaf-shaped villi covered with columnar epithelium having a well developed striated border, and the goblet cells are scattered among the columnar cells. An association between neutral and acidic mucosubstances was detected in the goblet cells. The duodenal (Brunner's) glands are confined exclusively in the lamina propria of the duodenum. No Paneth cells were observed in the crypt lining. Argyrophil and argentaffin cells were found in the entire length of the intestine. The large intestine does not possess villi, but many goblet cells were observed in its mucosa. PMID:2759417

  5. A retrospective study of correlation of morphologic patterns, MIB1 proliferation index, and survival analysis in 134 cases of plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, Kiran; Shet, Tanuja; Epari, Sridhar; Sengar, Manju; Menon, Hari; Gujral, Sumeet

    2015-06-01

    Plasmacytoma classified into solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is characterized by infiltrate of plasma cells of diverse maturity and by their monoclonal immunoglobulin products. Both SPB and EMP represent different groups of neoplasm in terms of location, tumor progression, and overall survival rate. There is a need for features that indicate likelihood of myeloma in patients with plasmacytoma without other manifestations. This study was an attempt to study the morphologic patterns of plasmacytoma (SPB and EMP), MIB1 proliferation index, and correlation of these with clinicopathologic features and survival of the patients. The study group comprised of 134 cases of plasmacytoma (88 SPB and 46 EMP) over duration of 8 years and were graded as per Bartl's histologic grading system. Commonest site was vertebral body in SPB (36%) and upper aerodigestive tract in EMP (48%). On serum electrophoresis, overall M band was detected in 41% cases. Both SPB and EMP on histology revealed similar morphologic features. MIB1 proliferation index ranged from less than 1% to 80%. It was slightly higher in EMP in comparison with SPB (P value = .002). Seventy percent of cases, which progressed to multiple myeloma (MM) showed MIB1 labeling index more than 10%; however, it was not statistically significant in predicting the disease progression. With the median follow-up of 19 months (range, 1-99 months), 10 SPB had disease progression of which 7 converted to MM, and 3 developed EMP, with a median interval of 21 months (range, 8-75 months) for the development of MM and 3 months (range, 3-9 months) for the progression to EMP. Five-year survival for EMP varied by site, with poorest survival in brain/central nervous system EMP as compared with EMP at other sites. To conclude, grade and MIB1 proliferation index help in predicting aggressive course in plasmacytoma. PMID:25842207

  6. Ultrastructural study of thecal morphology and asexual reproduction of the "caudata" group of the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis 

    E-print Network

    Stamman, Elaine

    1976-01-01

    ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF THECAL MORPHOLOGY AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION OF THE "CAUDATA" GROUP OF THE MARINE DINOFLAGELLATE DINOPHYSIS A Thesis by ELAINE STAMMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillaent... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Diology ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF THECAL MORPHOLOGY AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION OF THE "CAUDATA" GROUP OF THE MARINE DINOFLAGFLLATE DINOPHYSI S A Thesis by ELAINE STAMMAN Approved...