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Sample records for study cell morphology

  1. [Current methods for studying the functional morphology of apud cells].

    PubMed

    Iuzhakov, V V; Ra?khlin, N T; Kvetno?, I M; Iakovleva, N D; Kurilets, E S; Manokhina, R P

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews methods for studying functional morphology of endocrine cells histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, radioautography and methods of ultrastructural verification of secretory granules. Methodological approach is illustrated by the authors' results on the influence of ionizing radiation and tumor growth on the cells of the diffuse endocrine system. PMID:8712935

  2. Live-cell imaging study of mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells irradiated

    PubMed Central

    Kanari, Yukiko; Noguchi, Miho; Kaminaga, Kiichi; Sakamoto, Yuka; Yokoya, Akinari

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that extranuclear targets in cytoplasm may have a role in mediating radiation effects in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation. We have focused mitochondria as a target of ionizing radiation, particularly heavy ions, because mitochondria are a kind of organelles existing widely in cytoplasm. They play a vitally important role of ATP formation through the operation of electron transport chain located in the membranes, and generate reactive oxygen species as a by-product in the process of ATP production. As mitochondria are fusing or dividing depended on cell cycle, their morphology is continuously changing [ 1]. Defects of these processes contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. Effects of high LET irradiation, such as heavy ion bombardment, on mitochondrial morphology, however, remain to be fully elucidated. The object of this study is to reveal effects of high LET radiation on mitochondria. We have performed preliminary test experiments using X-rays. We used NMuMG (Normal murine mammary gland)-FUCCI2 cell line [ 2]. Using the FUCCI2-expressing cells, we can distinguish G1 or S/G2/M phase cells as observed red or green fluorescence in their nucleus. We also labeled mitochondria by another fluorescence probe, Mitotracker Red. Kinetics of mitochondrial morphology was analyzed by the live-cell imaging technique using a fluorescence microscope. Mitochondrial images were captured at certain hours after irradiation, and classified them into three categories, namely tubes, intermediates and fragments (Fig. 1). We found that X-ray irradiation of cells caused mitochondrial fragmentation, and cell population with fragmented mitochondria increased with increasing dose, and also with time after irradiation (Fig. 1). Although the cells became confluent around 48 h after irradiation as indicated by the cell-nucleus color, the mitochondrial morphology was still changing. Particularly, the population of the cells with fragments showed a maximum at 96 h after irradiation when they were exposed to 8 Gy X-rays. Based on the present study, we further investigate morphological changes of mitochondria by high LET particle irradiation in future. Fig. 1.Relative fraction of cells showing each morphology for non-irradiated (control) and charectors of mitochondrial morphology. Irradiated with (1) 0Gy, (2) 6 Gy and (2) 8 Gy. The cell cycles are also shown by solid lines. (a) Mostly mitochondria look tubular. (b) Both tubular and fragment forms are observed with the same rate in a cell. (c) Mitochondria are visible as dots, and straggle in whole cytoplasm.

  3. EARLY EFFECTS OF TRIMETHYLTIN ON THE DENTATE GYRUS BASKET CELLS: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrophysiological evidence for reduction of recurrent inhibition in the dentate gyrus in animals exposed to trimethyltin (TMT) suggested alterations in the inhibitory neurons (basket cells) by TMT. The present study was designed to investigate the morphology of basket cells af...

  4. Effect of Cold Plasma on Glial Cell Morphology Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Recek, Nina; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Keidar, Michael; Cvelbar, Uros; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran; Sherman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is broadly used to study the morphology of cells. The morphological characteristics and differences of the cell membrane between normal human astrocytes and glial tumor cells are not well explored. Following treatment with cold atmospheric plasma, evaluation of the selective effect of plasma on cell viability of tumor cells is poorly understood and requires further evaluation. Using AFM we imaged morphology of glial cells before and after cold atmospheric plasma treatment. To look more closely at the effect of plasma on cell membrane, high resolution imaging was used. We report the differences between normal human astrocytes and human glioblastoma cells by considering the membrane surface details. Our data, obtained for the first time on these cells using atomic force microscopy, argue for an architectural feature on the cell membrane, i.e. brush layers, different in normal human astrocytes as compared to glioblastoma cells. The brush layer disappears from the cell membrane surface of normal E6/E7 cells and is maintained in the glioblastoma U87 cells after plasma treatment. PMID:25803024

  5. Effect of cold plasma on glial cell morphology studied by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Recek, Nina; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Keidar, Michael; Cvelbar, Uros; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran; Sherman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is broadly used to study the morphology of cells. The morphological characteristics and differences of the cell membrane between normal human astrocytes and glial tumor cells are not well explored. Following treatment with cold atmospheric plasma, evaluation of the selective effect of plasma on cell viability of tumor cells is poorly understood and requires further evaluation. Using AFM we imaged morphology of glial cells before and after cold atmospheric plasma treatment. To look more closely at the effect of plasma on cell membrane, high resolution imaging was used. We report the differences between normal human astrocytes and human glioblastoma cells by considering the membrane surface details. Our data, obtained for the first time on these cells using atomic force microscopy, argue for an architectural feature on the cell membrane, i.e. brush layers, different in normal human astrocytes as compared to glioblastoma cells. The brush layer disappears from the cell membrane surface of normal E6/E7 cells and is maintained in the glioblastoma U87 cells after plasma treatment. PMID:25803024

  6. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity study on uncoated magnetic nanoparticles: effects on cell viability, cell morphology, and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Mak, K Y; Shi, J; Koon, H K; Leung, C H; Wong, C M; Leung, C W; Mak, C S K; Chan, N M M; Zhong, W; Lin, K W; Wu, E X; Pong, P W T

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs) must be biocompatible, and a thorough knowledge on their potential cytotoxicity is crucial for their biomedical applications. However, the detailed study about the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on cell viability, cell morphology, and cellular uptake of different mammalian cells is still insufficient. In this paper, comparative cytotoxicity study of uncoated magnetite nanoparticles at different concentrations was performed on human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and immortalized normal human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (RPE). The size, structure, and magnetic behavior of the MIONPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) respectively. After 24-hour incubation with the MIONPs, the cell viability was determined by live/dead assay, the cell morphology at high magnification was observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the cellular uptake of MIONPs was measured under TEM and verified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Our results indicate that the uncoated MIONPs at a high concentration (0.40 mg/ml) were toxic to both HeLa and RPE cells. However, the cytotoxicity of uncoated MIONPs at low concentrations was cell-type specific, and RPE cells were more susceptible to these MIONPs than HeLa cells. The effects of the MIONPs on cell morphology and the nanoparticles uptake also showed different features between these two cell lines. Hence cell type should be taken into consideration in the in vitro cytotoxicity study of uncoated MIONPs. Additionally, it should be noticed that the cell morphological changes and the uptake of nanoparticles can take place even though no toxic effect of these MIONPs at low concentrations was reflected in the traditional cell viability assay. PMID:23447952

  7. Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain. PMID:24665354

  8. Dual-mode digital holographic and fluorescence microscopy for the study of morphological changes in cells under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, M. Fatih; Pache, Christophe; Parent, Jérôme; Kühn, Jonas; Egli, Marcel; Depeursinge, Christian

    2010-02-01

    A dual mode microscope is developed to study morphological evolution of mouse myoblast cells under simulated microgravity in real time. Microscope operates in Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) and widefield epifluorescence microscopy modes in a time sequential basis. DHM provides information on real time cellular morphology. EGFP transfected actin filaments in mouse myoblast cells function as the reporter for the fluorescence microscopy mode. Experimental setup is fixed in the RPM to observe microgravity induced dynamic changes in live cells. Initial results revealed two different modifications. Disorganized structures become visible in the formed lamellipodias, and proteins accumulate in the perinuclear region.

  9. Morphological variability of tumour cells in T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma. A histopathological study of 14 cases.

    PubMed

    Camilleri-Bröet, S; Molina, T; Audouin, J; Tourneau, A L; Diebold, J

    1996-11-01

    T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) is an unusual lymphoma which is difficult to diagnose. A majority of reactive T-cells and numerous histiocytes mask the few large neoplastic B-cells. Fourteen cases of TCRBCL were studied in order to identify the main histological and cytological features useful for this diagnosis. Neoplastic cells are atypical and sometimes difficult to classify. Several types are seen; they are mostly centroblasts, which represent more than 50% of the tumour cells but are sometimes multilobated, immunoblasts- or Reed-Sternberg-like cells. Interestingly, at least two, and often three, types of tumour cell are present in all the cases. Epithelioid cells and histiocytes are always found and are often numerous. Hypervascularization and fibrosis are present in the majority of cases, but without annular bands. Necrosis is absent. All tumour cells express CD20 but EMA is expressed in less than half the cases. In two cases, the association of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in one site and a TCRBCL in another suggests that TCRBCL may be considered as a peculiar pattern of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a strong stroma reaction. TCRBCL may not represent a clinicopathological entity. PMID:8972760

  10. Morphologic and immunofluorescence studies of the effect of fibroblast growth factor on the culture of guinea pig glomerular cell strains.

    PubMed Central

    Oberley, T. D.; Murphy-Ullrich, J. E.; Muth, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Glomerular cells grown in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plus calf serum showed morphologic properties different from those of cells grown in calf serum (CS) alone. Cells grown in low concentrations of CS plus FGF grew as a monolayer in which the cells were closely apposed and nondividing, since they did not form the multiple layers seen in cells grown in high concentrations of CS alone. Cells shifted from growth in FGF plus CS to growth in CS alone showed morphologic features similar to those of differentiated glomerular epithelial cells, except that the cells were larger and more flattened. Indirect immunofluorescence studied using antibodies prepared against purified fibronectin or laminin demonstrated that subcultured secondary glomerular cells grown in CS alone had no detectable fibronectin or laminin on their cell surface, while cells grown in CS plus FGF showed these proteins at regions of cell-substrate contact. The differences between cells grown in CS alone and those grown in CS plus FGF were also demonstrated by the growth of subcultured glomerular cells on purified extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, laminin, or Type IV collagen) or purified heparan sulfate. Low-density subcultured glomerular cells did not grow well on plastic alone, even in the presence of fibroblast growth factor, but grew well on plastic coated with extracellular matrix molecules. Secondary cells grown in CS alone required laminin or Type IV collagen, whereas cells grown in CS plus FGF required fibronectin or heparan sulfate. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 p134-a Figure 5 PMID:6452820

  11. Solvent polarity and nanoscale morphology in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ajith; Elsa Tom, Anju; Ison, V. V. E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in; Rao, Arun D.; Varman, K. Arul; Ranjith, K.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C. E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in; Vinayakan, R.

    2014-03-14

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated under identical experimental conditions, except by varying the solvent polarity used for spin coating the active layer components and their performance was evaluated systematically. Results showed that presence of nitrobenzene-chlorobenzene composition governs the morphology of active layer formed, which is due to the tuning of solvent polarity as well as the resulting solubility of the P3HT:PCBM blend. Trace amount of nitrobenzene favoured the formation of better organised P3HT domains, as evident from conductive AFM, tapping mode AFM and surface, and cross-sectional SEM analysis. The higher interfacial surface area thus generated produced cells with high efficiency. But, an increase in the nitrobenzene composition leads to a decrease in cell performance, which is due to the formation of an active layer with larger size polymer domain networks with poor charge separation possibility.

  12. Morphological spectrum of cyclin D1-positive mantle cell lymphoma: study of 168 cases.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Y; Suzuki, R; Matsuno, Y; Tobinai, K; Ichinohazama, R; Tamaru, J; Mizoguchi, Y; Hashimoto, Y; Yamaguchi, M; Kojima, M; Uike, N; Okamoto, M; Isoda, K; Ichimura, K; Morishima, Y; Seto, M; Suchi, T; Nakamura, S

    2001-10-01

    Immunostaining for cyclin D1 is essential for reliable diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, a small number of cyclin D1-positive lymphomas other than MCL have been encountered. Our goal was to investigate the morphological spectrum of MCL as a disease entity, based on cyclin D1 overexpression. We reviewed 181 biopsy specimens obtained from 168 cases of cyclin D1-positive MCL. Typical findings were the presence of nodular (53.9% of cases) or diffuse (46.1%) histological patterns, containing mantle zone patterns (16.8%), naked germinal centers (33.5%) and perivascular hyaline deposition (83.2%). Unusual findings of residual germinal centers with a mantle cuff (four cases) and follicular colonization (two cases) were seen. High magnification showed a monotonous proliferation of tumor cells with cytological diversity including small (3.0%), intermediate (43.1%), medium (34.1%), medium-large (13.2%) and large (6.6%) cells. Pleomorphic and blastic/blastoid variants were encountered in 9.6 and 7.2% of cases, respectively. Three cases had foci of cells of considerable size, with a moderately abundant pale cytoplasm resembling marginal zone B cells. Two cases showed an admixture of cells which appeared transformed and mimicked the histology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic leukemia. In one, neoplastic mantle zones were surrounded by sheets of mature plasma cells, resembling the plasma cell type of Castleman's disease. An admixture of areas characteristic of MCL and of other larger cells, indicating histological progression or a composite lymphoma, were observed in seven cases. In high-grade lesions of five cases, nuclear staining of cyclin D1 was rarely detected. In our experience, cyclin D1 expression was also found in nine lymphomas other than MCL (five plasma cell myelomas, three Hodgkin's disease and one anaplastic large cell lymphoma). The application of cyclin D1 staining prompted us to recognize the broad morphological spectrum of MCL. MCL can be diagnosed with the application of cyclin D1 immunostaining, if careful attention is given to architectural and cytological features. PMID:11881727

  13. Morphological study on small molecule acceptor-based organic solar cells with efficiencies beyond 7% (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei; Yan, He

    2015-10-01

    Despite the essential role of fullerenes in achieving best-performance organic solar cells (OSCs), fullerene acceptors have several drawbacks including poor light absorption, high-cost production and purification. For this reason, small molecule acceptor (SMA)-based OSCs have attracted much attention due to the easy tunability of electronic and optical properties of SMA materials. In this study, polymers with temperature dependent aggregation behaviors are combined with various small molecule acceptor materials, which lead to impressive power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.3%. The morphological and aggregation properties of the polymer:small molecule blends are studied in details. It is found that the temperature-dependent aggregation behavior of polymers allows for the processing of the polymer solutions at moderately elevated temperature, and more importantly, controlled aggregation and strong crystallization of the polymer during the film cooling and drying process. This results in a well-controlled and near-ideal polymer:small molecule morphology that is controlled by polymer aggregation during warm casting and thus insensitive to the choice of small molecules. As a result, several cases of highly efficient (PCE between 6-7.3%) SMA OSCs are achieved. The second part of this presentation will describe the morphology of a new small molecule acceptor with a unique 3D structure. The relationship between molecular structure and morphology is revealed.

  14. Recognition of nonkeratinizing morphology in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma – a prospective cohort and interobserver variability study*

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James S; Khan, Raja A; Masand, Ramya P; Chernock, Rebecca D; Zhang, Qin; Al-Naief, Nasser Said; Muller, Susan; McHugh, Jonathan B; Prasad, Manju L; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; El-Mofty, Samir K

    2013-01-01

    Aims Nonkeratinizing morphology in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (NKSCC) strongly correlates with human papillomavirus and p16 status, but as a unique diagnostic entity is not widely recognized by pathologists. We sought to prospectively examine the performance of a new histological typing system during 1 year of routine clinical practice (Aim 1) and also its reproducibility amongst six head and neck pathologists using a 40 case test set (Aim 2). Methods and Results The three histological types were: Type 1 (keratinizing), Type 2 (nonkeratinizing with maturation) and Type 3 (nonkeratinizing). For Aim 1, there were 85 cases. p16 immunohistochemistry was positive in five of the 18 (27.8%) cases classified as Type 1, 18 of the 19 (94.7%) as Type 2, and 47 of the 48 (97.9%) as Type 3. For Aim 2, agreement among pathologists on the test cases was best for types 1 and 3 (kappa values 0.62 and 0.56; P < 0.0001) and lowest for type 2 (kappa 0.35; P < 0.0001). All 21 cases classified as NK SCC (type 3) by any of the reviewers was p16 positive. Conclusions Pathologists can recognize NK SCC with good agreement, and when a pathologist classifies a tumour as NK SCC, this reliably predicts p16 positivity. PMID:22211374

  15. Morphologic and histochemical studies of bone cells from SL-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of rat bone following space flight indicate a significant reduction in new bone formation as a result of hypogravity. In the present study of animals from SL-3 flight, the cellular activity of the bone forming cells, the osteoblasts, was investigated. Measurements of alkaline and acid phosphatase, Golgi activity, secretory granule size, and lysosomal activity, all indicated very little difference between flight and flight-simulated controls. However, there was a tendency for osteoblasts in compact bone of flight animals to show a smaller cytoplasmic volume compared to non-flight controls. If, as in previous studies, a significant reduction in bone formation occurred, it could be due to a normal level of procollagen degradation within these smaller osteoblasts, resulting in less collagen secretion per cell.

  16. Isolation of Mesophyll Cells and Bundle Sheath Cells from Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Leaves and a Scanning Microscopy Study of the Internal Leaf Cell Morphology 1

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Gerald E.; Black, Clanton C.

    1971-01-01

    A technique is described for the separation of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells from Digitaria sanguinalis leaves and evidence for separation is given with light and scanning electron micrographs. Gentle grinding of fully differentiated leaves in a mortar releases mesophyll cells which are isolated on nylon nets by filtration. More extensive grinding of the remaining tissue yields bundle sheath strands which are isolated by filtration with stainless steel sieves and nylon nets. Further grinding of bundle sheath strands in a tissue homogenizer releases bundle sheath cells which are collected on nylon nets. Percentage of purity derived from cell counts and yield data on a chlorophyll basis are given. The internal leaf cell morphology is presented in scanning electron micrographs and compared with light micrographs of fully-differentiated D. sanguinalis leaves. In leaves of plants which possess the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle of photosynthesis, the relationship of leaf morphology to photosynthesis in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells is considered, and the hypothesis is presented that as atmospheric CO2 enters a leaf about 85% is fixed by the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle in the mesophyll cells and 10 to 15% is fixed by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle in the bundle sheath cells. A technique also is given for the isolation of mesophyll cells from spinach leaves. Images PMID:16657571

  17. Comparative studies on Salmonella johannesburg bacteriophages: morphology, virulence and interactions with the host cell lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Girard, R; Chaby, R

    1981-01-01

    Two long-tailed and two short-tailed bacteriophages are spontaneously released from the Salmonella johannesburg 7.58(R+) strain, and could be propagated on the susceptible strain 5.58(R-). The two long-tailed phages could be distinguished by their tail morphology, and are not adsorbed on a column of sepharose coupled to LPS (R-). The two short-tailed particles (group C of Bradley, group C1 of Ackermann) are converting phages. They are thermostable, are adsorbed on a column of sepharose-LPS, and possess an endo-glycosidase activity leading to the cleavage of the LPS of the sensitive strain. However, one of these short-tailed phages, termed phi 1(40), is a temperate phage producing small and turbid plaques, although the other one, termed phi 1(40)vir, is a virulent phage producing large and clear plaques. A polysaccharidic antigen could be coupled to these phages but the corresponding antiserum was unable to inactivate the modified bacteriophages. PMID:7034611

  18. Morphological Changes of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells after Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitor Eye Drop (Ripasudil) Administration: A Prospective Open-Label Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Naoki; Suganami, Hideki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect and safety of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, ripasudil 0.4% eye drops, on corneal endothelial cells of healthy subjects. Design Prospective, interventional case series. Methods In this study, 6 healthy subjects were administered ripasudil 0.4% in the right eye twice daily for 1 week. Morphological changes and corneal endothelial cell density were examined by noncontact and contact specular microscopy. Central corneal thickness and corneal volume of 5 mm-diameter area of center cornea were analyzed by Pentacam Scheimpflug topography. All the above measurements were conducted in both eyes before administration, 1.5 and 6 hours after the initial administration on day 0; and in the same manner after the final administration on day 7. Results By noncontact specular microscopy, indistinct cell borders with pseudo guttae were observed, but by contact specular microscopy, morphological changes of corneal endothelial cells were mild and pseudo guttae was not observed after single and repeated administration of ripasudil in all subjects. These changes resolved prior to the next administration, and corneal endothelial cell density, central corneal thickness and corneal volume were not changed throughout the study period. Conclusion Transient morphological changes of corneal endothelial cells such as indistinct cell borders with pseudo guttae were observed by noncontact specular microscopy in healthy subjects after ripasudil administration. Corneal edema was not observed and corneal endothelial cell density did not decrease after 1 week repetitive administration. These morphological changes were reversible and corneal endothelial cell morphology returned to normal prior to the next administration. Trial Registration JAPIC Clinical Trials Information 142705 PMID:26367375

  19. Structural, Morphological, and Electron Transport Studies of Annealing Dependent In2O3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S.; Abdullah, H.; Shaari, S.; Muchtar, A.; Asshari, I.

    2015-01-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films annealed at various annealing temperatures were prepared by using spin-coating method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The objective of this research is to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in In2O3 thin films by finding the optimum annealing temperature and also to study the reason for high and low performance in the annealed In2O3 thin films. The structural and morphological characteristics of In2O3 thin films were studied via XRD patterns, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), EDX sampling, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The annealing treatment modified the nanostructures of the In2O3 thin films viewed through FESEM images. The In2O3-450°C-based DSSC exhibited better photovoltaic performance than the other annealed thin films of 1.54%. The electron properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit. The In2O3-450°C thin films provide larger diffusion rate, low recombination effect, and longer electron lifetime, thus enhancing the performance of DSSC. PMID:26146652

  20. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: A two-dimensional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.

  1. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 70 cases with emphasis on its wide morphologic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chia-Sui; Cornejo, Kristine M; Ulbright, Thomas M; Young, Robert H

    2015-09-01

    The clinical and pathologic features of 70 juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) of the testis are presented. The patients were from 30 weeks gestational age to 10 years old; 60 of 67 (90%) whose ages are known to us were 6 months old or younger. Sixty-two underwent gonadectomy, 6 wedge excision, and 2 only biopsy. Twenty-six tumors were left sided and 22 right sided. Six occurred in an undescended testis and 2 in dysgenetic gonads. The most common presentation was a testicular mass (65%), followed by an "enlarging testis" (25%). Six of 14 patients in whom it was measured had "elevated" serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP), likely physiologically, and 1 had gynecomastia. The tumors measured 0.5 to 5 cm (mean, 1.7 cm; median, 1.5 cm) and were most commonly well circumscribed and typically yellow-tan; approximately 2/3 had a cystic component, whereas 1/3 were entirely solid. Microscopic examination typically showed a lobular growth, punctuated in 67 cases by variably sized and shaped follicles containing material that was basophilic (21%), eosinophilic (44%), or of both characters (35%); 3 lacked follicles. In nonfollicular areas, the tumor cells typically grew diffusely but occasionally had a corded arrangement (26%) or reticular appearance (29%). The stroma was either fibrous or fibromyxoid; hemorrhage associated with hemosiderin-laden macrophages was focally seen in 16%. The tumor cells were mostly small to medium sized with round to oval nuclei containing inconspicuous nucleoli and moderate to abundant, but occasionally scant, pale to lightly eosinophilic, sometimes vacuolated, cytoplasm; nuclear grooves were infrequent (6%). Focal columnar morphology was seen in 27% of the tumors. Mitoses were plentiful in 37%, and apoptosis was prominent in 46%. Intratubular tumor was seen in 43% and entrapped seminiferous tubules in 70%. Lymphovascular invasion was present in 2 cases, rete testis involvement in 4, and necrosis in 1. Rare features/patterns included: regressed tumor with hyalinization and prominent blood vessels (13%), papillary growth (4%), basaloid morphology (1%), spindle cell predominance (1%), microcystic foci (1%), adult granulosa cell-like (1%) patterns, and hyaline globules (1%). Inhibin (16/18), calretinin (8/9), WT1 (6/7), FOXL2 (12/12), SF-1 (12/12), and SOX9 (6/11) were positive, whereas SALL4 and glypican-3 were consistently negative in the neoplastic granulosa cells. Only 1 of 10 tumors was focally positive for ?-fetoprotein. JGCT is a rare neoplasm with a wide morphologic spectrum that also occurs rarely in undescended testes and dysgenetic gonads. The solid and reticular patterns may pose diagnostic challenges, but the lobular appearance and follicular differentiation are characteristic. Immunohistochemical stains may aid in its distinction from other tumors of young male individuals, particularly yolk sac tumor, a neoplasm that peaks at a somewhat later age. Twenty-four patients with follow-up, including 4 of 6 patients treated with wedge resection/biopsy, had no evidence of disease (2 to 348 mo; mean, 83 mo; median, 61 mo). One additional patient was alive at 260 months, but the disease status is unknown. The benign clinical course of all cases of JGCT with follow-up, despite often frequent mitotic activity, supports testis sparing surgery when technically feasible. PMID:26076062

  2. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  3. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin Hydrogels Cultured with HepG2 Cells as a 3D Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscato, Stefania; Ronca, Francesca; Campani, Daniela; Danti, Serena

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models represent fundamental tools for the comprehension of cellular phenomena both for normal and cancerous tissues. Indeed, the microenvironment affects the cellular behavior as well as the response to drugs. In this study, we performed a morphological analysis on a hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, grown for 24 days inside a bioartificial hydrogel composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and gelatin (G) to model a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 3D. Morphological features of PVA/G hydrogels were investigated, resulting to mimic the trabecular structure of liver parenchyma. A histologic analysis comparing the 3D models with HepG2 cell monolayers and tumor specimens was performed. In the 3D setting, HepG2 cells were viable and formed large cellular aggregates showing different morphotypes with zonal distribution. Furthermore, ?-actin and ?5?1 integrin revealed a morphotype-related expression; in particular, the frontline cells were characterized by a strong immunopositivity on a side border of their membrane, thus suggesting the formation of lamellipodia-like structures apt for migration. Based on these results, we propose PVA/G hydrogels as valuable substrates to develop a long term 3D HCC model that can be used to investigate important aspects of tumor biology related to migration phenomena. PMID:25590431

  4. Electron microscopic study of the morphological changes of gastric mucous cell induced by Helicobacter pylori in human gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ogata, T; Araki, K

    1996-04-01

    Specimens from 8 cases of human gastric ulcers infected with H. pylori, 3 cases of gastric ulcers without H. pylori infection and mucosal specimens infected with H. pylori from 3 cases of early gastric cancers obtained at surgery were studied by transmission electron microscopy. In the surrounding epithelium of the ulcer, when present, the bacteria were preferentially located at the luminal side of the apical junctional complexes. This was accompanied by dome-like bulging of the apical cytoplasm, but the epithelial continuity was maintained. A consistent finding was the apocrine-like release of the apical cytoplasm into the lumen. In addition, there were cells with marked apical protrusions and cells with dissolution of mucous granules. Degenerative changes, such as cellular edema, vacuole formation and disruption of cell membrane were also observed. The cells which had shed their apical mucous area appeared to degenerate causing massive cell exfoliation and formation of denuded lamina propria. Similar changes of the surface mucous cells were observed in the mucosal specimens infected with H. pylori obtained from early gastric cancers, but such cell pathology was scarce in samples of the gastric ulcers without H. pylori infection. In some ulcers infected with H. pylori, the bacteria were also observed on the surface of the regenerating epithelial cells at the ulcer base. These findings suggest that H. pylori infection is an important factor in the development of gastric ulcers and in the prevention or delay in ulcer healing. PMID:8964050

  5. A novel mechanotactic 3D modeling of cell morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaleddin Mousavi, Seyed; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    Cell morphology plays a critical role in many biological processes, such as cell migration, tissue development, wound healing and tumor growth. Recent investigations demonstrate that, among other stimuli, cells adapt their shapes according to their substrate stiffness. Until now, the development of this process has not been clear. Therefore, in this work, a new three-dimensional (3D) computational model for cell morphology has been developed. This model is based on a previous cell migration model presented by the same authors. The new model considers that during cell-substrate interaction, cell shape is governed by internal cell deformation, which leads to an accurate prediction of the cell shape according to the mechanical characteristic of its surrounding micro-environment. To study this phenomenon, the model has been applied to different numerical cases. The obtained results, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental works, indicate that cell morphology not only depends on substrate stiffness but also on the substrate boundary conditions. A cell located within an unconstrained soft substrate (several kPa) with uniform stiffness is unable to adhere to its substrate or to send out pseudopodia. When the substrate stiffness increases to tens of kPa (intermediate and rigid substrates), the cell can adequately adhere to its substrate. Subsequently, as the traction forces exerted by the cell increase, the cell elongates and its shape changes. Within very stiff (hard) substrates, the cell cannot penetrate into its substrate or send out pseudopodia. On the other hand, a cell is found to be more elongated within substrates with a constrained surface. However, this elongation decreases when the cell approaches it. It can be concluded that the higher the net traction force, the greater the cell elongation, the larger the cell membrane area, and the less random the cell alignment.

  6. Systematic investigation of structural and morphological studies on doped TiO2 nanoparticles for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugadoss, G.; Jayavel, R.; Rajesh Kumar, M.

    2014-12-01

    Optical, structural and thermal properties of the doped with different ions (transition metals, other metals or post transition metals, non-metals, alkali metals and lanthanides) in TiO2 nanocrystals were investigated. The doped nanoparticles were synthesized by modified chemical method. Ethanol-deionised water mixer (20:1) was used as solvent for synthesize of the undoped and doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Systematic studies on structural and morphological changes by thermal treatment on TiO2 were examined. It has been observed that with Eu and Al doping TiO2, the phase transition temperature for anatase to rutile phase increased. Blue and red shifting absorptions were observed for doped TiO2 in visible region. Among the dopant, significant blue shift was obtained for Cu, Cd, Ag, Y, Ce and In doped TiO2 and red shift was obtained for Zr, Sm, Al, Na, S, Fe, Ni, Eu and Gd doped TiO2 nanoparticles.

  7. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200?±?50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200?±?50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations. PMID:24872797

  8. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 ?g/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 ?g/mL) or lower (20 ?g/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 ?g/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  9. Relationships among cell morphology, intrinsic cell stiffness and cell-substrate interactions.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Martin Y M; Yangben, Yanzi; Lin, Nancy J; Zhong, Julia L; Yang, Li

    2013-12-01

    Cell modulus (stiffness) is a critical cell property that is important in normal cell functions and increasingly associated with disease states, yet most methods to characterize modulus may skew results. Here we show strong evidence indicating that the fundamental nature of free energies associated with cell/substrate interactions regulates adherent cell morphology and can be used to deduce cell modulus. These results are based on a mathematical model of biophysics and confirmed by the measured morphology of normal and cancerous liver cells adhered on a substrate. Cells select their final morphology by minimizing the total free energy in the cell/substrate system. The key mechanism by which substrate stiffness influences cell morphology is the energy tradeoff between the stabilizing influence of the cell-substrate interfacial adhesive energy and the destabilizing influence of the total elastic energies in the system. Using these findings, we establish a noninvasive methodology to determine the intrinsic modulus of cells by observing global changes in cell morphology in response to substrate stiffness. We also highlight the importance of selecting a relevant morphological index, cell roundness, that reflects the interchange between forms of energy governing cell morphology. Thus, cell-substrate interactions can be rationalized by the underlying biophysics, and cell modulus is easily measured. PMID:24075411

  10. Organochlorines and metals induce changes in the mitochondria-rich cells of fish gills: an integrative field study involving chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M N; Paulino, M G; Sakuragui, M M; Ramos, C A; Pereira, C D S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H

    2013-01-15

    Through integrating chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on the gill mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in two fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, collected from five sites (FU10, FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50) in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and zinc as well as organochlorine (aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and metolachlor) contamination at all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Copper, chrome, iron and zinc were detected in the gills of both species, and aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide were detected in the gills of fish from all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Fish collected at FU20, FU30 and FU50 exhibited numerous alterations in the surface architecture of their pavement cells and MRCs. The surface MRC density and MRC fractional area were lower in fish from FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50 than in those from the reference site (FU10) in the winter, and some variability between the sites was observed in the summer. The organochlorine contamination at FU20 and FU50 was associated with variable changes in the MRCs and inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, especially in P. maculatus. At FU30, the alterations in the MRCs were associated with the contaminants present, especially metals. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a positive association between the biological responses of both species and environmental contamination, indicating that under realistic conditions, a mixture of organochlorines and metals affected the MRCs by inhibiting NKA activity and inducing morphological changes, which may cause an ionic imbalance. PMID:23220410

  11. Morphological and ultrastructural characterization of sea urchin immune cells.

    PubMed

    Deveci, Remziye; ?ener, Ecem; ?zzeto?lu, Sava?

    2015-05-01

    The free circulating coelomocytes in the coelomic cavity of echinoderms are considered to be immune effectors by phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity, and by the production of antimicrobial agents. Although echinoderms (especially sea urchin embryo) have been used as a model organisms in biology, no uniform criteria exist for classification of coelomocytes in echinoderms, and few studies have reported about the biological functions of their coelomocytes. Hence, we study the coelomocytes in the echinoid sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, and describe their morphological and ultrastructural features using light and transmission electron microscopes. We classify the coelomocytes of P. lividus into red spherule and colorless spherule cells, small cells, vibratile cells, and phagocytic cells; petaloid and filopodial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing ultrastructural details of the coelomocytes of P. lividus. PMID:25645676

  12. The elasmobranch spiracular organ. I. Morphological studies.

    PubMed

    Barry, M A; Hall, D H; Bennett, M V

    1988-05-01

    The spiracular organ is a lateral line derived receptor associated with the first gill cleft (spiracle). Its functional morphology was studied in the little skate, Raja erinacea, and a shark, the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis, with light and electron microscopy. The spiracular organ is a tube (skate) or pouch (shark) with a single pore opening into the spiracle. The lumen is lined with patches of sensory hair cells, and filled with a gelatinous cupula. In the little skate, hair cells form synapses with afferents but apparently not with efferent fibers. In both species, the spiracular organs are deformed by flexion of the hyomandibular cartilage at its articulation with the cranium. The hyomandibula is a suspensory element of the jaws; hyomandibular flexion results in jaw protrusion. The little skate spiracular organ is anchored at one end to the cranium and at the other to the hyomandibula so that it is stretched or relaxed during hyomandibular extension and flexion, respectively. In Mustelus, the effects of hyomandibular flexion on the spiracular organ are mediated indirectly by the superior post-spiracular ligament which inserts on the distal end of the hyomandibula. Deformation of the dogfish shark cupula during hyomandibular movement was observed. In the little skate, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy, there is a measurable deflection of the hair cell ciliary bundles from spiracular organs fixed with the hyomandibula in the flexed relative to the extended positions. In both species, hyomandibula flexion should result in hair cell depolarization, and sensory afferent excitation, based on the direction of the observed (skate) or expected (shark) deflection of hair cell cilia. PMID:3385671

  13. Morphological changes in human melanoma cells following irradiation with thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Barkla, D.H.; Allen, B.J.; Brown, J.K.; Mountford, M.; Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M. )

    1989-07-01

    Morphological changes in two human melanoma cell lines, MM96 and MM418, following irradiation with thermal neutrons, were studied using light and electron microscopy. The results show that the response of human malignant melanoma cells to neutron irradiation is both cell line dependent and dose dependent, and that in any given cell line, some cells are more resistant to irradiation than others, thus demonstrating heterogeneity in respect to radiosensitivity. Cells repopulating MM96 flasks after irradiation were morphologically similar to the cells of origin whereas in MM418 flasks cells differentiated into five morphologically distinct subgroups and showed increased melanization. The results also show that radiation causes distinctive morphological patterns of damage although ultrastructural changes unique to the high LET particles released from boron 10 neutron capture are yet to be identified.

  14. Freezing behavior of adherent neuron-like cells and morphological change and viability of post-thaw cells.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of nerve cells forming a neuronal network has largely been neglected, despite the fact that the cryopreservation of nerve cells benefits the study of cells in the areas of medicine and poison screening. Freezing of nerve cells is also attractive for studying cell morphology because of the characteristic long, thread-like neurites extending from the cell body. In the present study, freezing of neuron-like cells adhering to the substrate (differentiated PC12 cells), in physiological saline, was investigated in order to understand the fundamental freezing and thawing characteristics of nerve cells with neurites. The microscopic freezing behavior of cells under different cooling rates was observed. Next, the post-thaw morphological changes in the cells, including the cytoskeleton, were investigated and post-thaw cell viability was evaluated by dye exclusion using propidium iodide. Two categories of morphological changes, beading and shortening of the neurites, were found and quantified. Also, the morphological changes of neurites due to osmotic stress from sodium chloride were studied to gain a better understanding of causation. The results showed that morphological changes and cell death were promoted with a decrease in end temperature during freezing. PMID:25645578

  15. Developmental mechanisms that regulate retinal ganglion cell dendritic morphology

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ning

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental features of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is that dendrites of individual RGCs are confined to one or a few narrow strata within the inner plexiform layer (IPL), and each RGC synapses only with a small group of presynaptic bipolar and amacrine cells with axons/dendrites ramified in the same strata to process distinct visual features. The underlying mechanisms which control the development of this laminar-restricted distribution pattern of RGC dendrites have been extensively studied, and it is still an open question whether the dendritic pattern of RGCs is determined by molecular cues or by activity-dependent refinement. Accumulating evidence suggests that both molecular cues and activity-dependent refinement might regulate RGC dendrites in a cell subtype-specific manner. However, identification of morphological subtypes of RGCs before they have achieved their mature dendritic pattern is a major challenge in the study of RGC dendritic development. This problem is now being circumvented through the use of molecular markers in genetically engineered mouse lines to identify RGC subsets early during development. Another unanswered fundamental question in the study of activity-dependent refinement of RGC dendrites is how changes in synaptic activity lead to the changes in dendritic morphology. Recent studies have started to shed light on the molecular basis of activity-dependent dendritic refinement of RGCs by showing that some molecular cascades control the cytoskeleton reorganization of RGCs. PMID:21542137

  16. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory.

    PubMed

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4???0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells. PMID:26581407

  17. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4???0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells.

  18. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4???0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells. PMID:26581407

  19. Plasma cell morphology in multiple myeloma and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Ribourtout, B; Zandecki, M

    2015-06-01

    Normal and reactive plasma cells (PC) are easy to ascertain on human bone marrow films, due to their small mature-appearing nucleus and large cytoplasm, the latter usually deep blue after Giemsa staining. Cytoplasm is filled with long strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum and one large Golgi apparatus (paranuclear hof), demonstrating that PC are dedicated mainly to protein synthesis and excretion (immunoglobulin). Deregulation of the genome may induce clonal expansion of one PC that will lead to immunoglobulin overproduction and eventually to one among the so-called PC neoplasms. In multiple myeloma (MM), the number of PC is over 10% in most patients studied. Changes in the morphology of myeloma PC may be inconspicuous as compared to normal PC (30-50% patients). In other instances PC show one or several morphological changes. One is related to low amount of cytoplasm, defining lymphoplasmacytoid myeloma (10-15% patients). In other cases (40-50% patients), named immature myeloma cases, nuclear-cytoplasmic asynchrony is observed: presence of one nucleolus, finely dispersed chromatin and/or irregular nuclear contour contrast with a still large and blue (mature) cytoplasm. A peculiar morphological change, corresponding to the presence of very immature PC named plasmablasts, is observed in 10-15% cases. Several prognostic morphological classifications have been published, as mature myeloma is related to favorable outcome and immature myeloma, peculiarly plasmablastic myeloma, is related to dismal prognosis. However, such classifications are no longer included in current prognostic schemes. Changes related to the nucleus are very rare in monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). In contrast, anomalies related to the cytoplasm of PC, including color (flaming cells), round inclusions (Mott cells, Russell bodies), Auer rod-like or crystalline inclusions, are reported in myeloma cases as well as in MGUS and at times in reactive disorders. They do not correspond to malignant changes of PC but are related to abnormal synthesis, trafficking, or excretion of the immunoglobulin that is stored in excess within the cytoplasm. Occurrence of crystalline inclusions within PC may be the first anomaly leading to the diagnosis of adult Fanconi syndrome. After a historical perspective, the authors report on the various morphological aspects of PC that may occur in multiple myeloma and related disorders, and discuss about their clinical and pathophysiological significance. Today, morphological identification and accurate determination of % PC within bone marrow remain ancillary criteria for the diagnosis of MM and help for the diagnosis of rare renal disorders. PMID:25899140

  20. [Study on morphology and anatomy of Akebia trifoliate seeds].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Ri; Li, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Hong-Ran; Li, Jun-De; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-12-01

    Akebia trifoliate has been reported to have many pharmacological activities and the roots, petioles and seeds are used to different symptoms. However, the structure and anatomy of its seeds was almost not reported until now. In the present study, we investigated the morphological characters of the fruit and seed, and the anatomical characters of the testa, micropyle, embryo and endosperm, which could provide evidences for the study on classification, identification and application of A. trifoliate. Our results showed that the testa of A. trifoliate consisted of an epidermic cell layer, the sclerenchyma cells layer, the parenchyma cells layer and an innermost pigment layer. At the micropylar region, the outermost epidermal cells were specialized the white caruncle-like structure and the testa included a lot of lignified tissues. Endosperm comprises two layer cells. Outermost yellowish-brown layer cells contains lots of fat droplets, and innermost white layer cells contains lots of aleurone grains and crystalloids. PMID:25911805

  1. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhouli; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-?-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-?-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-?-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry. PMID:26295574

  2. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ying; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhouli; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-?-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-?-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-?-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry. PMID:26295574

  3. Variations in cell morphology in the canine cruciate ligament complex.

    PubMed

    Smith, K D; Vaughan-Thomas, A; Spiller, D G; Clegg, P D; Innes, J F; Comerford, E J

    2012-08-01

    Cell morphology may reflect the mechanical environment of tissues and influence tissue physiology and response to injury. Normal cruciate ligaments (CLs) from disease-free stifle joints were harvested from dog breeds with a high (Labrador retriever) and low (Greyhound) risk of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Antibodies against the cytoskeletal components vimentin and alpha tubulin were used to analyse cell morphology; nuclei were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and images were collected using conventional and confocal microscopy. Both cranial and caudal CLs contained cells of heterogenous morphologies. Cells were arranged between collagen bundles and frequently had cytoplasmic processes. Some of these processes were long (type A cells), others were shorter, thicker and more branched (type B cells), and some had no processes (type C cells). Processes were frequently shown to contact other cells, extending longitudinally and transversely through the CLs. Cells with longer processes had fusiform nuclei, and those with no processes had rounded nuclei and were more frequent in the mid-substance of both CLs. Cells with long processes were more commonly noted in the CLs of the Greyhound. As contact between cells may facilitate direct communication, variances in cell morphology between breeds at a differing risk of CCL rupture may reflect differences in CL physiology. PMID:22465617

  4. Temporal, Spatial, and Morphologic Features of Hair Cell Regeneration in

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    regeneration in chicks after a single gentamicin injection. New hair cells are first identifiable days after gentamicin, in the base, and the emergence and maturation of regenerating hair cells spreads, and ribosomal RNA confirms this morphologic progression. Examination of sister cells born at 3 days post-gentamicin

  5. Quantifying morphological features of actin cytoskeletal filaments in plant cells based on mathematical morphology.

    PubMed

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Hikino, Kazumi; Nishimura, Mikio; Mano, Shoji

    2016-01-21

    By quantifying the morphological properties of biological structures, we can better evaluate complex shapes and detect subtle morphological changes in organisms. In this paper, we propose a shape analysis method based on morphological image processing, and apply it to image analysis of actin cytoskeletal filaments in root hair cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. In plant cells, the actin cytoskeletal filaments have critical roles in various cellular processes such as vesicle trafficking and organelle motility. The dynamics of vesicles and organelles in plant cells depend on actin cytoskeletal filaments, regulating cell division and cell enlargement. To better understand the actin-dependent organelle motility, we attempted to quantify the organization of actin filaments in the root hair cells of the root hair defective 3 (rhd3) mutant. RHD3 is involved in actin organization, and its defect has been reported to affect the dynamics of various vesicles and organelles. We measured three shape features of the actin filaments in wild-type and mutant plants. One feature (thickness) was depicted on a grayscale; the others (describing the complexity of the filament network patterns in two-dimensional space) were depicted as binary features. The morphological phenotypes of the cytoskeletal filaments clearly differed between wild-type and mutant. Subtle variations of filament morphology among the mutants were detected and statistically quantified. PMID:26551157

  6. Nanoparticle Induced Cell Magneto-Rotation: Monitoring Morphology, Stress and Drug Sensitivity of a Suspended Single Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Elbez, Remy; McNaughton, Brandon H.; Patel, Lalit; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-01-01

    Single cell analysis has allowed critical discoveries in drug testing, immunobiology and stem cell research. In addition, a change from two to three dimensional growth conditions radically affects cell behavior. This already resulted in new observations on gene expression and communication networks and in better predictions of cell responses to their environment. However, it is still difficult to study the size and shape of single cells that are freely suspended, where morphological changes are highly significant. Described here is a new method for quantitative real time monitoring of cell size and morphology, on single live suspended cancer cells, unconfined in three dimensions. The precision is comparable to that of the best optical microscopes, but, in contrast, there is no need for confining the cell to the imaging plane. The here first introduced cell magnetorotation (CM) method is made possible by nanoparticle induced cell magnetization. By using a rotating magnetic field, the magnetically labeled cell is actively rotated, and the rotational period is measured in real-time. A change in morphology induces a change in the rotational period of the suspended cell (e.g. when the cell gets bigger it rotates slower). The ability to monitor, in real time, cell swelling or death, at the single cell level, is demonstrated. This method could thus be used for multiplexed real time single cell morphology analysis, with implications for drug testing, drug discovery, genomics and three-dimensional culturing. PMID:22180784

  7. Breast Cancer Cell Line Aggregate Morphology Does Not Predict Invasive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ziperstein, Michelle J.; Guzman, Asja; Kaufman, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    To invade and metastasize to distant loci, breast cancer cells must breach the layer of basement membrane surrounding the tumor and then invade through the dense collagen I-rich extracellular environment of breast tissue. Previous studies have shown that breast cancer cell aggregate morphology in basement membrane extract correlated with cell invasive capacity in some contexts. Moreover, cell lines from the same aggregate morphological class exhibited similarities in gene expression patterns. To further assess the capacity of cell and aggregate morphology to predict invasive capacity in physiologically relevant environments, six cell lines with varied cell aggregate morphologies were assessed in a variety of assays including a 3D multicellular invasion assay that recapitulates cell-cell and cell-environment contacts as they exist in vivo in the context of the primary breast tumor. Migratory and invasive capacities as measured through a 2D gap assay and a 3D spheroid invasion assay reveal that breast cancer cell aggregate morphology alone is insufficient to predict migratory speed in 2D or invasive capacity in 3D. Correlations between the 3D spheroid invasion assay and gene expression profiles suggest this assay as an inexpensive functional method to predict breast cancer invasive capacity. PMID:26418047

  8. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. PMID:26150354

  9. Neuronize: a tool for building realistic neuronal cell morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Juan P.; Mata, Susana; Bayona, Sofia; Pastor, Luis; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a tool, Neuronize, for building realistic three-dimensional models of neuronal cells from the morphological information extracted through computer-aided tracing applications. Neuronize consists of a set of methods designed to build 3D neural meshes that approximate the cell membrane at different resolution levels, allowing a balance to be reached between the complexity and the quality of the final model. The main contribution of the present study is the proposal of a novel approach to build a realistic and accurate 3D shape of the soma from the incomplete information stored in the digitally traced neuron, which usually consists of a 2D cell body contour. This technique is based on the deformation of an initial shape driven by the position and thickness of the first order dendrites. The addition of a set of spines along the dendrites completes the model, building a final 3D neuronal cell suitable for its visualization in a wide range of 3D environments. PMID:23761740

  10. A Study of the Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Morphology of Nafion Ionomer Dispersion for Use in the Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng; Zou, Zhiqing; Khatun, Sufia; Akins, Daniel; Adam, Yara; Suarez, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation in heat-treated Nafion ionomer dispersion and 117 membrane are investigated by 1H and 19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra, spin-lattice relaxation time, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. Results demonstrate that heat-treatment affects the average Nafion particle size in aqueous dispersions. Measurements on heat-treated Nafion 117 membrane show changes in the 1H isotropic chemical shift and no significant changes in ionic conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of prepared cathode catalyst layer containing the heat-treated dispersions reveals that the surface of the electrode with the catalyst ink that has been pretreated at ca. 80 °C exhibits a compact and uniform morphology. The decrease of Nafion ionomer's size results in better contact between catalyst particles and electrolyte, higher electrochemically active surface area, as well as significant improvement in the DMFC's performance, as verified by electrochemical analysis and single cell evaluation. PMID:24958431

  11. A Study of the Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Morphology of Nafion Ionomer Dispersion for Use in the Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng; Zou, Zhiqing; Khatun, Sufia; Akins, Daniel; Adam, Yara; Suarez, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation in heat-treated Nafion ionomer dispersion and 117 membrane are investigated by 1H and 19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra, spin-lattice relaxation time, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. Results demonstrate that heat-treatment affects the average Nafion particle size in aqueous dispersions. Measurements on heat-treated Nafion 117 membrane show changes in the 1H isotropic chemical shift and no significant changes in ionic conductivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of prepared cathode catalyst layer containing the heat-treated dispersions reveals that the surface of the electrode with the catalyst ink that has been pretreated at ca. 80 °C exhibits a compact and uniform morphology. The decrease of Nafion ionomer’s size results in better contact between catalyst particles and electrolyte, higher electrochemically active surface area, as well as significant improvement in the DMFC’s performance, as verified by electrochemical analysis and single cell evaluation. PMID:24958431

  12. Effects of risedronate on the morphology and viability of gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    KIM, BO-BAE; KO, YOUNGKYUNG; PARK, JUN-BEOM

    2015-01-01

    Risedronate has been used for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal and corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of risedronate on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from the gingiva. Stem cells derived from the gingiva were grown in the presence of risedronate at concentrations that ranged from 1 to 10 µM. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope, and cell proliferation was analyzed with a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) on days 2, 4 and 7. The untreated control group showed a spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like morphology. The shapes of the cells treated with 1 and 5 µM risedronate were similar to that of the control group on day 2. However, morphology of the 10 µM group markedly differed from that of the control group. The shapes of the cells in the 1, 5 and 10 µM groups were rounder, and pronounced alterations when compared with the untreated control group were noted in all groups on day 7. The cultures growing in the presence of risedronate showed decreased CCK-8 values on day 7. In conclusion, risedronate produced notable alterations in the morphology of the cells and reduced the viability of gingival mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:26623028

  13. Correlating cell morphology and stochastic gene expression using fluorescence spectroscopy and GPU-enabled image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Douglas; Shapiro, Evan; Perillo, Evan; Werner, James

    2014-03-01

    Biological processes at the microscopic level appear stochastic, requiring precise measurement and analytical techniques to determine the nature of the underlying regulatory networks. Single-molecule, single-cell studies of gene expression have provided insights into how cells respond to external stimuli. Recent work has suggested that macroscopic cell properties, such as cell morphology, are correlated with gene expression. Here we present single-cell studies of a signal-activated gene network: Interleukin 4 (IL4) RNA production in rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells during the allergic response. We fluorescently label individual IL4 RNA transcripts in populations of RBL cells, subject to varying external stimuli. A custom super-resolution microscope is used to measure the number of fluorescent labeled IL4 transcripts in populations of RBL cells on a cell-by-cell basis. To test the hypothesis that cell morphology is connected genotype, we analyze white light images of RBL cells and cross-reference cell morphology with IL4 RNA levels. We find that the activation of RBL cells, determined by white-light imaging, is well correlated with IL4 mRNA expression.

  14. Physical explanation of coupled cell-cell rotational behavior and interfacial morphology: a particle dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Leong, Fong Yew

    2013-11-19

    Previous studies have reported persistent rotational behavior between adherent cell-cell pairs cultured on micropatterned substrates, and this rotation is often accompanied by a sigmoidal deflection of the cell-cell interface. Interestingly, the cell-cell rotation runs in the opposite reference frame from what could be expected of single cell locomotion. Specifically, the rotation of the cell pair consists of each individual cell protruding from the inwardly regressive arm of the cell-cell interface, and retracting from the other outwardly protrusive arm. To this author's knowledge, the cause of this elusive behavior has not yet been clarified. Here, we propose a physical model based on particle dynamics, accounting for actomyosin forcing, viscous dissipation, and cortical tension. The results show that a correlation in actomyosin force vectors leads to both persistent rotational behavior and interfacial deflection in a simulated cell cluster. Significantly, the model, without any artificial cues, spontaneously and consistently reproduces the same rotational reference frame as experimentally observed. Further analyses show that the interfacial deflection depends predominantly on cortical tension, whereas the cluster rotation depends predominantly on actomyosin forcing. Together, these results corroborate the hypothesis that both rotational and morphological phenomena are, in fact, physically coupled by an intracellular torque of a common origin. PMID:24268142

  15. Very Small Embryonic- Like stem cells (VSELs) are present in adult murine organs: ImageStream based morphological analysis and distribution studies

    PubMed Central

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.; Kucia, Magdalena; Wu, Wan; Klich, Izabela; Lillard, James W.; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we purified a population of CXCR4+/Oct-4+/SSEA-1+/Sca-1+/Lin-/CD45- Very Small Embryonic-Like stem cells (VSELs) from adult murine bone marrow (BM). After employing flow cytometry, ImageStream analysis, confocal microscopy, and real time RT-PCR, we report that similar cells could be also identified and isolated from several organs in adult mice. The highest total numbers of Oct-4+ VSELs were found in the brain, kidneys, muscles, pancreas, and BM. These observations support our hypothesis that a population of very primitive cells expressing germ line/epiblast markers (Oct-4, SSEA-1) is deposited early during embryogenesis in various organs and survives into adulthood. Further studies are needed to determine whether these cells, after being isolated from various adult human organs similarly to their murine BM-derived counterparts, are endowed with pluripotent stem cell properties. PMID:18951465

  16. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species. PMID:25205560

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIAL AND LEYDIG CELLS OF THE TURKEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike mammals, there is little fundamental information about spermatogenesis in birds. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphology, histochemistry, and lectin affinity of the seminiferous epithelial cells and Leydig cells in the pre-pubertal (8- to I5-wk old) and adult (40-to 44-wk old) do...

  18. Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma With Borderline Features of Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: Combined Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Cytogenetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Gupta, Nilesh S; Eble, John N; Rogers, Craig G; Michalowski, Susan; Zhang, Shaobo; Wang, Mingsheng; Grignon, David J; Cheng, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is increasingly recognized as a distinct tumor with unique morphology, immunohistochemistry, and cytogenetics. Histopathology often mimics clear cell renal cell carcinoma; however, metastasis has not been reported, emphasizing the clinical value of recognizing these likely nonaggressive tumors. We studied tumors with borderline morphology of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, utilizing immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization or karyotyping. Tumors from 22 patients (ages 33 to 82 y) were analyzed. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma-like morphology varied from 10% to 90% of the tumor (median 25%). Sources of resemblance included: branched glands (95%), nuclear alignment (68%), small papillary tufts (32%), focal branching papillae (27%), and prominent papillary structures (9%). Carbonic anhydrase IX uniformly revealed diffuse positivity. Staining for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) was focal (64%) or negative (18%) in most tumors (82%); however, >50% labeling was present in 4 (18%). Reactivity for both CD10 and ?-methyl-acyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR) was usually present (median 80% and 60% of cells). Seven tumors showed reactivity for high-molecular weight keratin (32%). Chromosome 3p loss was confirmed in 15 tumors (68%), including 4/7 with labeling for high-molecular weight keratin or >50% reactivity for CK7. A discordant immunohistochemical pattern typically correlates with loss of material from chromosome 3p in tumors with incomplete morphology of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, supporting classification as clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Diffuse labeling for CK7 can uncommonly be observed in clear cell renal cell carcinomas confirmed to have chromosome 3p loss, although these do not exhibit the expected staining pattern of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, including positivity for CD10 and AMACR. PMID:26457355

  19. Unraveling the Role of Morphology on Organic Solar Cell Performance

    E-print Network

    Biswajit Ray; Pradeep R. Nair; Muhammad A. Alam

    2010-11-03

    Polymer based organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology offers a relatively inexpensive option for solar energy conversion provided its efficiency increases beyond the current level (6-7%) along with significant improvements in operational lifetime. The critical aspect of such solar cells is the complex morphology of distributed bulk heterojunctions, which plays the central role in the conversion of photo-generated excitons to electron-hole pairs. However, the fabrication conditions that can produce the optimal morphology are still unknown due to the lack of quantitative understanding of the effects of process variables on the cell morphology. In this article, we develop a unique process-device co-simulation framework based on phase-field model for phase separation coupled with self-consistent drift-diffusion transport to quantitatively explore the effects of the process conditions (e.g., annealing temperature, mixing ratio, anneal duration) on the organic solar cell performance. Our results explain experimentally observed trends of open circuit voltage and short circuit current that would otherwise be deemed anomalous from the perspective of conventional solar cells. In addition to providing an optimization framework for OPV technology, our morphology-aware modeling approach is ideally suited for a wide class of problems involving porous materials, block co-polymers, polymer colloids, OLED devices etc.

  20. Differences in Morphology and Traction Generation of Cell Lines Representing Different Stages of Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poellmann, Michael J; Estrada, Jonathan B; Boudou, Thomas; Berent, Zachary T; Franck, Christian; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J

    2015-12-01

    Osteogenesis is the process by which mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to osteoblasts and form bone. The morphology and root mean squared (RMS) traction of four cell types representing different stages of osteogenesis were quantified. Undifferentiated D1, differentiated D1, MC3T3-E1, and MLO-A5 cell types were evaluated using both automated image analysis of cells stained for F-actin and by traction force microscopy (TFM). Undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell lines were small, spindly, and exerted low traction, while differentiated osteoblasts were large, had multiple processes, and exerted higher traction. Size, shape, and traction all correlated with the differentiation stage. Thus, cell morphology evolved and RMS traction increased with differentiation. The results provide a foundation for further work with these cell lines to study the mechanobiology of bone formation. PMID:26501398

  1. A Study of Unbalanced Morphological Understanding: Morphological Land Use Patterns Analysis of U.S. Megaregions 

    E-print Network

    Ko, Youngho

    2012-07-16

    Problem: This study identifies some issues in the definitions of US megaregions which have strongly emphasized functional relationships without considering morphological characteristics. An extensive review of the literature ...

  2. A Statistical Study of Microwave Flare Morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzatzakis, V.; Nindos, A.; Alissandrakis, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    This study has been motivated by the detection of a small number of optically thin microwave bursts with maximum emission near the loop top, which is contrary to the prediction of isotropic gyrosynchrotron models. Using Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) high-spatial-resolution images at 17 and 34 GHz, we study the morphology at the radio peak of 104 flares that occurred relatively close to the limb. Using data from the Nobeyama Polarimeter we were able to determine whether the 17- and 34-GHz emissions came from optically thin or thick sources. We identified single-loop events, taking into account supplementary information from EUV and soft X-ray (SXR) images. We found optically thin emission from the top of the loop in 36% of single-loop events. In agreement with standard models, in this sample 46% and 18% of the events showed optically thin emission from the footpoints and optically thick emission from the entire loop, respectively. The derived percentage of events with gyrosynchrotron emission from isotropic populations of energetic electrons is possibly an upper limit. This point is illustrated by the analysis of an optically thin event that shows footpoint emission during the rise phase and loop-top emission during the decay phase. A model that takes into account both anisotropies in the distribution function of nonthermal electrons and time evolution can reproduce the observed transition from footpoint to loop-top morphology, if electrons with pitch-angle anisotropy are injected near one of the footpoints.

  3. Effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of human cancer cells investigated by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, LianQing; Xi, Ning; Wang, YueChao; Xiao, XiuBin; Zhang, WeiJing

    2015-09-01

    Cell mechanics plays an important role in cellular physiological activities. Recent studies have shown that cellular mechanical properties are novel biomarkers for indicating the cell states. In this article, temperature-controllable atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to quantitatively investigate the effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of human cancer cells. First, AFM indenting experiments were performed on six types of human cells to investigate the changes of cellular Young's modulus at different temperatures and the results showed that the mechanical responses to the changes of temperature were variable for different types of cancer cells. Second, AFM imaging experiments were performed to observe the morphological changes in living cells at different temperatures and the results showed the significant changes of cell morphology caused by the alterations of temperature. Finally, by co-culturing human cancer cells with human immune cells, the mechanical and morphological changes in cancer cells were investigated. The results showed that the co-culture of cancer cells and immune cells could cause the distinct mechanical changes in cancer cells, but no significant morphological differences were observed. The experimental results improved our understanding of the effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of cancer cells. PMID:26354505

  4. Tendon cell outgrowth rates and morphology associated with kevlar-49.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Gordon, K E

    1988-12-01

    A rat tendon cell model was used to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of kevlar-49. The cell response to kevlar was compared to carbon AS-4 and nylon sutures. Three trials were run and cell growth rates were statistically similar for all the materials tested. A separate experiment was conducted in which the same fiber materials were placed in the same Petri dish. Again, the rates were similar for each material. Finally, the cells were observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the three classic cell morphologies associated with this tendon cell model were observed. Also, cellular attachment to the fiber and cellular encapsulation of the fiber were identical for the three materials tested. Kevlar-49 proved to be comparable to carbon AS4 and nylon sutures in terms of cellular response and cell outgrowth rates. PMID:3235468

  5. Three-Dimensional Numerical Model of Cell Morphology during Migration in Multi-Signaling Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Cell Migration associated with cell shape changes are of central importance in many biological processes ranging from morphogenesis to metastatic cancer cells. Cell movement is a result of cyclic changes of cell morphology due to effective forces on cell body, leading to periodic fluctuations of the cell length and cell membrane area. It is well-known that the cell can be guided by different effective stimuli such as mechanotaxis, thermotaxis, chemotaxis and/or electrotaxis. Regulation of intracellular mechanics and cell’s physical interaction with its substrate rely on control of cell shape during cell migration. In this notion, it is essential to understand how each natural or external stimulus may affect the cell behavior. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) computational model is here developed to analyze a free mode of cell shape changes during migration in a multi-signaling micro-environment. This model is based on previous models that are presented by the same authors to study cell migration with a constant spherical cell shape in a multi-signaling substrates and mechanotaxis effect on cell morphology. Using the finite element discrete methodology, the cell is represented by a group of finite elements. The cell motion is modeled by equilibrium of effective forces on cell body such as traction, protrusion, electrostatic and drag forces, where the cell traction force is a function of the cell internal deformations. To study cell behavior in the presence of different stimuli, the model has been employed in different numerical cases. Our findings, which are qualitatively consistent with well-known related experimental observations, indicate that adding a new stimulus to the cell substrate pushes the cell to migrate more directionally in more elongated form towards the more effective stimuli. For instance, the presence of thermotaxis, chemotaxis and electrotaxis can further move the cell centroid towards the corresponding stimulus, respectively, diminishing the mechanotaxis effect. Besides, the stronger stimulus imposes a greater cell elongation and more cell membrane area. The present model not only provides new insights into cell morphology in a multi-signaling micro-environment but also enables us to investigate in more precise way the cell migration in the presence of different stimuli. PMID:25822332

  6. Similar morphological and molecular signatures shared by female and male germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenhai; Wang, Hu; Wu, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The existence of mammalian female germline stem cells (FGSCs) indicates that mammalian ovaries possess germline stem cells analogous to testis, and continue to produce gametes postnatally, which provides new insights into female fertility. In this study, we compared the morphological and molecular characteristics between FGSCs and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) by analysis of morphology, immunofluorescence, alkaline phosphatase activity assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and microarray hybridization. The results demonstrated that the morphology and growth patterns of FGSCs are similar to those of SSCs. Microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles of FGSCs and SSCs showed similar signatures in the transcriptome level. A list of 853 co-highly expressed genes (CEG) in female and male germline stem cells may be responsible for the morphological and molecular similarity. We constructed a continuous network of the CEG based on I2D protein-protein interaction database by breadth first search. From the network, we could observe the interactions of the CEG may be responsible for maintaining the properties of germline stem cells. This study was the first attempt to compare morphological and molecular characteristics between FGSCs and SSCs. These findings would provide some clues for further research on mammalian FGSCs. PMID:24993338

  7. Formulation strategies for optimizing the morphology of polymeric bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: a brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongsaysy, Uyxing; Bassani, Dario M.; Servant, Laurent; Pavageau, Bertrand; Wantz, Guillaume; Aziz, Hany

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells represent one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy with a low fabrication cost. Control over BHJ morphology is one of the key factors in obtaining high-efficiency devices. This review focuses on formulation strategies for optimizing the BHJ morphology. We address how solvent choice and the introduction of processing additives affect the morphology. We also review a number of recent studies concerning prediction methods that utilize the Hansen solubility parameters to develop efficient solvent systems.

  8. Investigation of cell morphology by the TRUImagE digital holographic microscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Oi Choo; Qu, Weijuan; Chai, Kim Kheong; Asundi, Anand

    2012-06-01

    We report the development of the Three-dimensional Real-time Uninvasive Imaging and Evaluation (TRUImagE) system based on digital holographic microscopy to study the morphological changes in cells undergoing photodynamic therapyinduced cell death. The optical system, based on the Michelson interferometer and configured in transmission mode, and the sample holder incorporating a stage incubator have been developed for monitoring various tumorigenic cell samples without the use of markers. Off-axis digital holograms were recorded with a CCD sensor and numerically reconstructed to provide quantitative phase imaging and 3D morphology of the cells in real time. The system was used to continuously monitor and study, at different time points, the changes in cells after incubation with the photosensitizer followed by activation by the appropriate light dose. Results obtained from the TRUImagE system and biochemical assays will be given.

  9. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  10. Differential diagnosis of L26-positive, CD15-negative Hodgkin's disease and large B-cell lymphoma with a high content of reactive T-cells: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D T; Diamond, L W; Hansmann, M L; Fischer, R

    1996-01-01

    B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with a marked preponderance of reactive T cells, so-called T-cell rich B-cell lymphomas (TCRBCLs), can be morphologically confused with Hodgkin's disease (HD). To establish helpful distinguishing features in paraffin sections, 10 cases of L26-positive, CD15-negative HD and 10 cases of TCRBCL were compared; 4 cases of HD had morphologic features of the nodular lymphocyte predominant (LP) type. Nine of 10 cases of HD contained fewer than 20 mitoses/20 high power fields (hpf) and only 1 had pericapsular involvement. In contrast, 9 of 10 TCRBCL had greater than 20 mitoses/20 hpf and 7 had perinodal infiltration. HDLP was easily distinguished from TCRBCL by the expanded dendritic meshworks outlining the L & H nodules and the high content of CD57-positive lymphocytes. The remaining 6 cases of non-LP L26-positive HD had a relatively distinctive immunostaining pattern, with absence of CD45 and discordant reactivity for L26 and Ki-B5 in Reed-Sternberg cells and variants. Only 3 cases of TCRBCL had a similar CD45 and L26/Ki-B5 immunostaining pattern, and these could be distinguished by demonstrable cytoplasmic light-chain restriction. These results show that evaluation of the mitotic count, pericapsular involvement, and immunohistochemical staining patterns for Ki-M4p, CD57, L26/Ki-B5, and CD45 can help to discriminate TCRBCL from L26-positive HD when only fixed material is available. PMID:8878732

  11. Human neural progenitors express functional lysophospholipid receptors that regulate cell growth and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jillian H; Mumaw, Jennifer; Machacek, David W; Sturkie, Carla; Callihan, Phillip; Stice, Steve L; Hooks, Shelley B

    2008-01-01

    Background Lysophospholipids regulate the morphology and growth of neurons, neural cell lines, and neural progenitors. A stable human neural progenitor cell line is not currently available in which to study the role of lysophospholipids in human neural development. We recently established a stable, adherent human embryonic stem cell-derived neuroepithelial (hES-NEP) cell line which recapitulates morphological and phenotypic features of neural progenitor cells isolated from fetal tissue. The goal of this study was to determine if hES-NEP cells express functional lysophospholipid receptors, and if activation of these receptors mediates cellular responses critical for neural development. Results Our results demonstrate that Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) and Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors are functionally expressed in hES-NEP cells and are coupled to multiple cellular signaling pathways. We have shown that transcript levels for S1P1 receptor increased significantly in the transition from embryonic stem cell to hES-NEP. hES-NEP cells express LPA and S1P receptors coupled to Gi/o G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase and to Gq-like phospholipase C activity. LPA and S1P also induce p44/42 ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation in these cells and stimulate cell proliferation via Gi/o coupled receptors in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)- and ERK-dependent pathway. In contrast, LPA and S1P stimulate transient cell rounding and aggregation that is independent of EGFR and ERK, but dependent on the Rho effector p160 ROCK. Conclusion Thus, lysophospholipids regulate neural progenitor growth and morphology through distinct mechanisms. These findings establish human ES cell-derived NEP cells as a model system for studying the role of lysophospholipids in neural progenitors. PMID:19077254

  12. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haruk, Alexander M.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design. PMID:26110382

  13. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Haruk, Alexander M; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design. PMID:26110382

  14. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100??s) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1??s) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors. PMID:26596248

  15. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Jill W; Latouche, Eduardo L; Sano, Michael B; Rossmeisl, John H; Davalos, Rafael V; Verbridge, Scott S

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100??s) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1??s) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors. PMID:26596248

  16. Morphological studies of the vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstroem, B.

    1973-01-01

    The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve, and caliber spectra of the myelinated fibers in the vestibular nerve branches were studied in individuals of varying ages. It was found that the peripheral endings of the vestibular nerve form a complicated pattern inside the vestibular sensory epithelia. A detailed description of the sensory cells and their surface organelles is included.

  17. An Unbiased Cell Morphology–Based Screen for New, Biologically Active Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We have implemented an unbiased cell morphology–based screen to identify small-molecule modulators of cellular processes using the Cytometrix (TM) automated imaging and analysis system. This assay format provides unbiased analysis of morphological effects induced by small molecules by capturing phenotypic readouts of most known classes of pharmacological agents and has the potential to read out pathways for which little is known. Four human-cancer cell lines and one noncancerous primary cell type were treated with 107 small molecules comprising four different protein kinase–inhibitor scaffolds. Cellular phenotypes induced by each compound were quantified by multivariate statistical analysis of the morphology, staining intensity, and spatial attributes of the cellular nuclei, microtubules, and Golgi compartments. Principal component analysis was used to identify inhibitors of cellular components not targeted by known protein kinase inhibitors. Here we focus on a hydroxyl-substituted analog (hydroxy-PP) of the known Src-family kinase inhibitor PP2 because it induced cell-specific morphological features distinct from all known kinase inhibitors in the collection. We used affinity purification to identify a target of hydroxy-PP, carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), a short-chain dehydrogenase-reductase. We solved the X-ray crystal structure of the CBR1/hydroxy-PP complex to 1.24 Å resolution. Structure-based design of more potent and selective CBR1 inhibitors provided probes for analyzing the biological function of CBR1 in A549 cells. These studies revealed a previously unknown function for CBR1 in serum-withdrawal-induced apoptosis. Further studies indicate CBR1 inhibitors may enhance the effectiveness of anticancer anthracyclines. Morphology-based screening of diverse cancer cell types has provided a method for discovering potent new small-molecule probes for cell biological studies and anticancer drug candidates. PMID:15799708

  18. Role of transport performance on neuron cell morphology

    E-print Network

    E. Louis C. Degli Esposti Boschi G. J. Ortega E. Fernandez

    2005-10-05

    The compartmental model is a basic tool for studying signal propagation in neurons, and, if the model parameters are adequately defined, it can also be of help in the study of electrical or fluid transport. Here we show that the input resistance, in different networks which simulate the passive properties of neurons, is the result of an interplay between the relevant conductances, morphology and size. These results suggest that neurons must grow in such a way that facilitates the current flow. We propose that power consumption is an important factor by which neurons attain their final morphological appearance.

  19. Filopodial morphology correlates to the capture efficiency of primary T-cells on nanohole arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Gil-Sung; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Park, No-Won; Lee, Mi-Ri; Lee, Myung Kyu; Fan, Rong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Nanostructured surfaces emerge as a new class of material for capture and separation of cell populations including primary immune cells and disseminating rare tumor cells, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Although it has been speculated that nanoscale topological structures on cell surface are involved in the cell capture process, there are no studies that systematically analyze the relation between cell surface structures and the capture efficiency. Here we report on the first mechanistic study by quantifying the morphological parameters of cell surface nanoprotrusions, including filopodia, lamellipodia, and microvilli in the early stage of cell capture (< 20 min) in correlation to the efficiency of separating primary T lymphocytes. This was conducted by using a set of nanohole arrays (NHAs) with varying hole and pitch sizes. Our results showed that the formation of filopodia (e.g., width of filopodia and the average number of the filopodial filaments per cell) depends on the feature size of the nanostructures and the cell separation efficiency is strongly correlated to the number of filopodial fibers, suggesting a possible role of early stage mechanosensing and cell spreading in determining the efficiency of cell capture. In contrast, the length of filopodial filaments was less significantly correlated to the cell capture efficiency and the nanostructure dimensions of the NHAs. This is the first mechanistic study on nanostructure-based immune cell capture and provides new insights to not only the biology of cell-nanomaterial interaction but also the design of new rare cell capture technologies with improved efficiency and specificity. PMID:24749397

  20. Evaluation of the effects of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, SU-HYEON; LEE, JI-EUN; KIM, BO-BAE; KO, YOUNGKYUNG; PARK, JUN-BEOM

    2015-01-01

    Cimicifugae Rhizoma is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat various diseases in Korea, China and Japan. Cimicifugae Rhizoma is primarily derived from Cimicifuga heracleifolia Komarov or Cimicifuga foetida Linnaeus. Cimicifugae Rhizoma has been used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic remedy. The present study was performed to evaluate the extracts of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from gingiva. Stem cells derived from gingiva were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at final concentrations that ranged from 0.001 to 1,000 µg/ml. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope and the analysis of cell proliferation was performed using a Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Under an optical microscope, the control cells exhibited a spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like morphology. The shapes of the cells in the groups treated with 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml Cimicifugae Rhizoma were similar to the shapes in the control group. Significant alterations in morphology were noted in the 100 and 1,000 µg/ml groups when compared with the control group. The cells in the 100 and 1,000 µg/ml groups were rounder, and fewer cells were present. The cultures that were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at a concentration of 0.001 µg/ml on day 1 had an increased CCK-8 value. The cultures grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at a concentration of 10 µg/ml on day 7 had a reduced CCK-8 value. Within the limits of this study, Cimicifugae Rhizoma influenced the viability of stem cells derived from the gingiva, and its direct application onto oral tissues may have adverse effects at high concentrations. The concentration and application time of Cimicifugae Rhizoma should be meticulously controlled to obtain optimal results. PMID:26622366

  1. Morphology-based prediction of osteogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Agata, Hideki; Kagami, Hideaki; Shiono, Hirofumi; Kiyota, Yasujiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) are widely used cell source for clinical bone regeneration. Achieving the greatest therapeutic effect is dependent on the osteogenic differentiation potential of the stem cells to be implanted. However, there are still no practical methods to characterize such potential non-invasively or previously. Monitoring cellular morphology is a practical and non-invasive approach for evaluating osteogenic potential. Unfortunately, such image-based approaches had been historically qualitative and requiring experienced interpretation. By combining the non-invasive attributes of microscopy with the latest technology allowing higher throughput and quantitative imaging metrics, we studied the applicability of morphometric features to quantitatively predict cellular osteogenic potential. We applied computational machine learning, combining cell morphology features with their corresponding biochemical osteogenic assay results, to develop prediction model of osteogenic differentiation. Using a dataset of 9,990 images automatically acquired by BioStation CT during osteogenic differentiation culture of hBMSCs, 666 morphometric features were extracted as parameters. Two commonly used osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were measured experimentally, and used as the true biological differentiation status to validate the prediction accuracy. Using time-course morphological features throughout differentiation culture, the prediction results highly correlated with the experimentally defined differentiation marker values (R>0.89 for both marker predictions). The clinical applicability of our morphology-based prediction was further examined with two scenarios: one using only historical cell images and the other using both historical images together with the patient's own cell images to predict a new patient's cellular potential. The prediction accuracy was found to be greatly enhanced by incorporation of patients' own cell features in the modeling, indicating the practical strategy for clinical usage. Consequently, our results provide strong evidence for the feasibility of using a quantitative time series of phase-contrast cellular morphology for non-invasive cell quality prediction in regenerative medicine. PMID:23437049

  2. Variable Cell Morphology Approach for Individual-Based Modeling of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Storck, Tomas; Picioreanu, Cristian; Virdis, Bernardino; Batstone, Damien J.

    2014-01-01

    An individual-based, mass-spring modeling framework has been developed to investigate the effect of cell properties on the structure of biofilms and microbial aggregates through Lagrangian modeling. Key features that distinguish this model are variable cell morphology described by a collection of particles connected by springs and a mechanical representation of deformable intracellular, intercellular, and cell-substratum links. A first case study describes the colony formation of a rod-shaped species on a planar substratum. This case shows the importance of mechanical interactions in a community of growing and dividing rod-shaped cells (i.e., bacilli). Cell-substratum links promote formation of mounds as opposed to single-layer biofilms, whereas filial links affect the roundness of the biofilm. A second case study describes the formation of flocs and development of external filaments in a mixed-culture activated sludge community. It is shown by modeling that distinct cell-cell links, microbial morphology, and growth kinetics can lead to excessive filamentous proliferation and interfloc bridging, possible causes for detrimental sludge bulking. This methodology has been extended to more advanced microbial morphologies such as filament branching and proves to be a very powerful tool in determining how fundamental controlling mechanisms determine diverse microbial colony architectures. PMID:24806936

  3. Monitoring cell morphology during necrosis and apoptosis by quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnano, Martina; Calabuig, Alejandro; Grilli, Simonetta; Miccio, Lisa; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Cellular morphology changes and volume alterations play significant roles in many biological processes and they are mirrors of cell functions. In this paper, we propose the Digital Holographic microscope (DH) as a non-invasive imaging technique for a rapid and accurate extraction of morphological information related to cell death. In particular, we investigate the morphological variations that occur during necrosis and apoptosis. The study of necrosis is extremely important because it is often associated with unwarranted loss of cells in human pathologies such as ischemia, trauma, and some forms of neurodegeneration; therefore, a better elucidation in terms of cell morphological changes could pave the way for new treatments. Also, apoptosis is extremely important because it's involved in cancer, both in its formation and in medical treatments. Because the inability to initiate apoptosis enhances tumour formation, current cancer treatments target this pathway. Within this framework, we have developed a transmission off-axis DH apparatus integrated with a micro incubator for investigation of living cells in a temperature and CO2 controlled environment. We employ DH to analyse the necrosis cell death induced by laser light (wavelength 473 nm, light power 4 mW). We have chosen as cellular model NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts because their adhesive features such as morphological changes, and the time needed to adhere and spread have been well characterized in the literature. We have monitored cell volume changes and morphological alterations in real time in order to study the necrosis process accurately and quantitatively. Cell volume changes were evaluated from the measured phase changes of light transmitted through cells. Our digital holographic experiments showed that after exposure of cells to laser light for 90-120 min., they swell and then take on a balloon-like shape until the plasma membrane ruptures and finally the cell volume decreases. Furthermore, we present a preliminary study on the variation of morphological parameters in case of cell apoptosis induced by exposure to 10 ?M cadmium chloride. We employ the same cell line, monitoring the process for 18 hours. In the vast group of environmental pollutants, the toxic heavy metal cadmium is considered a likely candidate as a causative agent of several types of cancers. Widely distributed and used in industry, and with a broad range of target organs and a long half-life (10-30 years) in the human body, this element has been long known for its multiple adverse effects on human health, through occupational or environmental exposure. In apoptosis, we measure cell volume decrease and cell shrinking. Both data of apoptosis and necrosis were analysed by means of a Sigmoidal Statistical Distribution function, which allows several quantitative data to be established, such as swelling and cell death time, flux of intracellular material from inside to outside the cell, initial and final volume versus time. In addition, we can quantitatively study the cytoplasmatic granularity that occurs during necrosis. As a future application, DH could be employed as a non-invasive and label-free method to distinguish between apoptosis and necrosis in terms of morphological parameters.

  4. Morphology, drug release, antibacterial, cell proliferation, and histology studies of chamomile-loaded wound dressing mats based on electrospun nanofibrous poly(?-caprolactone)/polystyrene blends.

    PubMed

    Motealleh, Behrooz; Zahedi, Payam; Rezaeian, Iraj; Moghimi, Morvarid; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Zarandi, Mohammad Amin

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, it has been tried to achieve optimum conditions for electrospun poly(?-caprolactone)/polystyrene (PCL/PS) nanofibrous samples as active wound dressings containing chamomile via D-optimal design approach. In this work, systematic in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out by drug release rate, antibacterial and antifungal evaluations, cell culture, and rat wound model along with histology observation. The optimized samples were prepared under the following electrospinning conditions: PCL/PS ratio (65/35), PCL concentration 9%(w/v), PS concentration 14%(w/v), distance between the syringe needle tip and the collector 15.5 cm, applied voltage 18 kV, and solution flow rate 0.46 mL h(-1) . The FE-SEM micrographs showed electrospun PCL/PS (65/35) nanofibrous sample containing 15% chamomile had a minimum average diameter (?175 nm) compared to the neat samples (?268 nm). The drug released resulted in a gradual and high amount of chamomile from the optimized PCL/PS nanofibrous sample (?70%) in respect to PCL and PS nanofibers after 48 h. This claim was also confirmed by antibacterial and antifungal evaluations in which an inhibitory zone with a diameter of about 7.6 mm was formed. The rat wound model results also indicated that the samples loaded with 15% chamomile extract were remarkably capable to heal the wounds up to 99?±?0.5% after 14 days post-treatment periods. The adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells and their viability on the optimized samples were confirmed by MTT analysis. Also, the electrospun nanofibrous mats based on PCL/PS (65/35) showed a high efficiency in the wound closure and healing process compared to the reference sample, PCL/PS nanofibers without chamomile. Finally, the histology analysis revealed that the formation of epithelial tissues, the lack of necrosis and collagen fibers accumulation in the dermis tissues for the above optimized samples. PMID:24259351

  5. Hormonal and morphological study of the pituitaries in reeler mice.

    PubMed

    Lombardero, Matilde; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva; Salazar, Ignacio

    2007-06-01

    Reelin is a neuronal glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in brain layer formation during prenatal development. The reeler mutant mouse lacks Reelin, leading to abnormalities in the neuronal layering of cerebral cortex and cerebellum, producing ataxia, tremor and abnormal locomotion. Reeler mice are reported to have growth retardation and most of them are sterile or unable to bring up their newborns. Since the brain is one of the main regulator of pituitary hormone secretion and no information was reported regarding pituitary function and structure in these mutant mice, we studied pituitary endocrine activity and morphology in reeler mice. Mice were classified in three groups as reeler homozygote (RHM), reeler heterozygote (RHT) or control (CO). Pituitary hormone blood levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Animals and their pituitaries were weighted and pituitaries were studied by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results showed statistically significant differences in body weight and in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) blood levels between the three groups. In contrast, growth hormone (GH) blood levels showed a high individual variation and no decrease in reeler groups compared with CO. Morphological studies revealed no differences in pituitary cell types except that somatotrophs appeared to be slightly smaller in RHM and RHT. Although it seems that pituitary hypofunction is not responsible for growth retardation, more studies are needed to obtain a deeper insight into the endocrine status of these mutant mice to elucidate the cause of their low body weight and reproductive behaviour. PMID:17504446

  6. Intratumoral morphologic and molecular heterogeneity of rhabdoid renal cell carcinoma: challenges for personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh R; Murugan, Paari; Patel, Lalit R; Voicu, Horatiu; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Wani, Khalida; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G; Creighton, Chad J; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Broaddus, Russell R; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Czerniak, Bogdan; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Sircar, Kanishka

    2015-09-01

    Rhabdoid histology in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma may also be influenced by molecular alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between histologic features and salient molecular changes in rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. We macrodissected the rhabdoid and clear-cell epithelioid components from 12 cases of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. We assessed cancer-related mutations from eight cases using a clinical next-generation exome-sequencing platform. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (n=8) and non-rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) was assessed by RNA-seq and gene expression microarray. VHL (63%) showed identical mutations in all regions from the same tumor. BAP1 (38%) and PBRM1 (13%) mutations were identified in the rhabdoid but not in the epithelioid component and were mutually exclusive in 3/3 cases and 1 case, respectively. SETD2 (63%) mutations were discordant between different histologic regions in 2/5 cases, with mutations called only in the epithelioid and rhabdoid components, respectively. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma was distinct from advanced-stage and high-grade clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. The diverse histologic components of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, however, showed a similar transcriptomic program, including a similar prognostic gene expression signature. Rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is transcriptomically distinct and shows a high rate of SETD2 and BAP1 mutations and a low rate of PBRM1 mutations. Driver mutations in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma are often discordant across different morphologic regions, whereas the gene expression program is relatively stable. Molecular profiling of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma may improve by assessing for gene expression and sampling tumor foci from different histologic regions. PMID:26111976

  7. Cell-Substrate Interactions Feedback to Direct Cell Migration along or against Morphological Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Girish; Ho, Chia-Chi; Co, Carlos C.

    2015-01-01

    In response to external stimuli, cells polarize morphologically into teardrop shapes prior to moving in the direction of their blunt leading edge through lamellipodia extension and retraction of the rear tip. This textbook description of cell migration implies that the initial polarization sets the direction of cell migration. Using microfabrication techniques to control cell morphologies and the direction of migration without gradients, we demonstrate that after polarization, lamelipodia extension and attachment can feedback to change and even reverse the initial morphological polarization. Cells do indeed migrate faster in the direction of their morphologically polarization. However, feedback from subsequent lamellipodia extension and attachment can be so powerful as to induce cells to reverse and migrate against their initial polarization, albeit at a slower speed. Constitutively active mutants of RhoA show that RhoA stimulates cell motility when cells are guided either along or against their initial polarization. Cdc42 activation and inhibition, which results in loss of directional motility during chemotaxis, only reduces the speed of migration without altering the directionality of migration on the micropatterns. These results reveal significant differences between substrate directed cell migration and that induced by chemotactic gradients. PMID:26186588

  8. Cell-Substrate Interactions Feedback to Direct Cell Migration along or against Morphological Polarization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girish; Ho, Chia-Chi; Co, Carlos C

    2015-01-01

    In response to external stimuli, cells polarize morphologically into teardrop shapes prior to moving in the direction of their blunt leading edge through lamellipodia extension and retraction of the rear tip. This textbook description of cell migration implies that the initial polarization sets the direction of cell migration. Using microfabrication techniques to control cell morphologies and the direction of migration without gradients, we demonstrate that after polarization, lamelipodia extension and attachment can feedback to change and even reverse the initial morphological polarization. Cells do indeed migrate faster in the direction of their morphologically polarization. However, feedback from subsequent lamellipodia extension and attachment can be so powerful as to induce cells to reverse and migrate against their initial polarization, albeit at a slower speed. Constitutively active mutants of RhoA show that RhoA stimulates cell motility when cells are guided either along or against their initial polarization. Cdc42 activation and inhibition, which results in loss of directional motility during chemotaxis, only reduces the speed of migration without altering the directionality of migration on the micropatterns. These results reveal significant differences between substrate directed cell migration and that induced by chemotactic gradients. PMID:26186588

  9. Influence of curvature on the morphology of brain microvascular endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Mao; Yang, Zhen; Wong, Andrew; Searson, Peter; Searson Group Team

    2013-03-01

    There are hundreds or thousands of endothelial cells around the perimeter of a single artery or vein, and hence an individual cell experiences little curvature. In contrast, a single endothelial cell may wrap around itself to form the lumen of a brain capillary. Curvature plays a key role in many biological, chemical and physical processes, however, its role in dictating the morphology and polarization of brain capillary endothelial cells has not been investigated. We hypothesize that curvature and shear flow play a key role in determining the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have developed the ``rod'' assay to study the influence of curvature on the morphology of confluent monolayers of endothelial cells. In this assay cells are plated onto glass rods pulled down to the desired diameter in the range from 5 - 500 ?m and coated with collagen. We show that curvature has a significant influence on the morphology of endothelial cells and may have an important role in blood-brain barrier function.

  10. Effects of xenobiotics on fish tissues: morphological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Current applications of light and electron microscopy to investigations of changes in various tissues from fish exposed to xenobiotics have been reviewed. Emphasis has been placed on two types of contaminants, petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorobiphenyls, as examples of important xenobiotics found in the marine environment. Although the data are fragmentary because of the small number of studies, they clearly contribute new and valuable information to an understanding of the impact of these contaminants on the olfactory organ, liver, lens, and intestine from several species of fish. The morphological aspects of damage to the olfactory organs of fish exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons included hyperplasia and attenuation of the chemosensory cilia. In the liver of fish exposed to chlorobiphenyls, one of the most evident cellular anomalies was whorls of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum appeared proliferated and its cisternae were dilated. Changes in the amount of lipid stored in the hepatocytes have been observed in fish exposed to both petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorobiphenyls. Some hydrocarbons affected eye tissues. Structural alterations that occurred during hydration of lens fiber cells and cataract formation were elucidated. A synopsis of the morphological changes in the intestine of fish exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons alone, chlorobiphenyls alone, and the combined contaminants is presented. All three groups of contaminant-exposed fish have subcellular inclusions that are distinctly abnormal. Recommendations for future studies include the need for further characterization of the range of normal tissue structure, comparative studies of additional species, and multiple contaminant exposures.

  11. Modifications in astrocyte morphology and calcium signaling induced by a brain capillary endothelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Elizabeth J

    2002-04-15

    Astrocytes extend specialized endfoot processes to perisynaptic and perivascular regions, and thus are positioned to mediate the bidirectional flow of metabolic, ionic, and other transmissive substances between neurons and the blood stream. While mutual structural and functional interactions between neurons and astrocytes have been documented, less is known about the interactions between astrocytes and cerebrovascular cells. For example, although the ability of astrocytes to induce structural and functional changes in endothelial cells is established, the reciprocity of brain endothelial cells to induce changes in astrocytes is undetermined. This issue is addressed in the present study. Changes in primary cultures of neonatal mouse cortical astrocytes were investigated following their coculture with mouse brain capillary endothelial (bEnd3) cells. The presence of bEnd3 cells altered the morphology of astrocytes by transforming them from confluent monolayers into networks of elongated multicellular columns. These columns did not occur when either bEnd3 cells or astrocytes were cocultured with other cell types, suggesting that astrocytes undergo specific morphological consequences when placed in close proximity to brain endothelial cells. In addition to these structural changes, the pharmacological profile of astrocytes was modified by coculture with bEnd3 cells. Astrocytes in the cocultures showed an increased Ca2+ responsiveness to bradykinin and glutamate, but no change in responsiveness to ATP, as compared to controls. Coculturing the astrocytes with a neuronal cell line resulted in increased responsiveness of the glial responses to glutamate but not to bradykinin. These studies indicate that brain endothelial cells induce changes in astrocyte morphology and pharmacology. PMID:11948807

  12. Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Qiu; Zhu, Jin; Shu, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiuying; Yin, Li; He, Yeqin; Packard, Jerome; Gaffney, Janet S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At…

  13. Human aortic endothelial cell morphology influenced by topography of porous silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Formentín, Pilar; Catalán, Úrsula; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Alba, Maria; Baranowska, Malgorzata; Solà, Rosa; Pallarès, Josep; Marsal, Lluís F

    2015-10-01

    Porous silicon has received much attention because of its optical properties and for its usefulness in cell-based biosensing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications. Surface properties of the biomaterial are associated with cell adhesion and with proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The present article analyzes the behavior of human aortic endothelial cells in macro- and nanoporous collagen-modified porous silicon samples. On both substrates, cells are well adhered and numerous. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to study the effects of porosity on the morphology of the cells. On macroporous silicon, filopodia is not observed but the cell spreads on the surface, increasing the lamellipodia surface which penetrates the macropore. On nanoporous silicon, multiple filopodia were found to branch out from the cell body. These results demonstrate that the pore size plays a key role in controlling the morphology and growth rate of human aortic endothelial cells, and that these forms of silicon can be used to control cell development in tissue engineering as well as in basic cell biology research. PMID:26017716

  14. Single cell growth rate and morphological dynamics revealing an "opportunistic" persistence.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Qiu, Yong; Glidle, Andrew; Cooper, Jon; Shi, HanChang; Yin, HuaBing

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria persistence is a well-known phenomenon, where a small fraction of cells in an isogenic population are able to survive high doses of antibiotic treatment. Since the persistence is often associated with single cell behaviour, the ability to study the dynamic response of individual cells to antibiotics is critical. In this work, we developed a gradient microfluidic system that enables long-term tracking of single cell morphology under a wide range of inhibitor concentrations. From time-lapse images, we calculated bacterial growth rates based on the variations in cell mass and in cell number. Using E. coli and Comamonas denitrificans to amoxicillin inhibition as model systems, we found the IC50 determined via both methods are in a good agreement. Importantly, the growth rates together with morphological dynamics of individual cells has led to the discovery of a new form of persistence to amoxicillin. Normal cells that are sensitive to amoxicillin gain persistence or recover from the killing process, if they have had an opportunity to utilise the cytoplasm released from lysed cells close-by. We term this acquired persistence in normal growing cells "opportunistic persistence". This finding might shed new insights into biofilm resistance and the effect of antibiotics on environmental microbes. PMID:24733150

  15. Organic solar cells: An overview focusing on active layer morphology Travis L. Benanti & D. Venkataraman*

    E-print Network

    Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

    Review Organic solar cells: An overview focusing on active layer morphology Travis L. Benanti & D/acceptor blend, morphology, photovoltaic devices, plastic solar cells, thin films Abstract Solar cells heterojunction concept. This review provides an overview of organic solar cells. Topics covered include: a brief

  16. Experimental Modeling of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy. An Experimental Morphological Study.

    PubMed

    Khoroshilova-Maslova, I P; Leparskaya, N L; Nabieva, M M; Andreeva, L D

    2015-05-01

    A model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy induced by simultaneous intravitreal injection of recombinant IL-1? and platelet concentrate is created and its main morphological manifestations are studied on Chinchilla rabbits. The model reflects pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy: epiretinal membrane with the formation of retinal plication, traction detachment of the retina; moderate inflammatory reaction in the uveal tract, in the optic nerve infundibulum, in the vitreous body; intact structural elements of the retina, dissociation of the retinal pigmented epithelium cells with their subsequent migration. The model is adequate to the clinical picture of proliferative vitreoretinopathy in humans, which recommends it for experimental studies of the efficiency of drug therapy and prevention of this disease. PMID:26033599

  17. CdTe solar cells: Electronic and morphological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, John J.; Albright, Scot; Kaydanov, Victor; Ribelin, Rosine; Woods, Lawrence M.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.

    1997-02-01

    CdTe solar cells have been produced with record efficiency and excellent stability from a low cost manufacturing line. Efficiency of 14.7% has been attained by standard manufacturing film deposition processes on soda lime glass. Modules were produced that have 10.5% active area efficiency. Long term testing of modules have shown degradation rates of less than 0.5%/year. These improvements have been linked to changes in CdTe morphology produced by recrystallization time/temperature profiles.

  18. Aluminium oxide nanoparticles induced morphological changes, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in Chinook salmon (CHSE-214) cells.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Koigoora; Mahajan, Amit; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando Costa; Venkateswara Rao, Janapala

    2015-10-01

    Aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 NPs) are increasingly used in diverse applications that has raised concern about their safety. Recent studies suggested that Al2 O3 NPs induced oxidative stress may be the cause of toxicity in algae, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Caenorhabditis elegans and Danio rerio. However, there is paucity on the toxicity of Al2 O3 NPs on fish cell lines. The current study was aimed to investigate Al2 O3 NPs induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and morphological abnormality of Chinnok salmon cells (CHSE-214). A dose-dependent decline in cell viability was observed in CHSE-214 cells exposed to Al2 O3 NPs. Oxidative stress induced by Al2 O3 NPs in CHSE-214 cells has resulted in the significant reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. However, a significant increase in glutathione sulfo-transferase and lipid peroxidation was observed in CHSE-214 cells exposed to Al2 O3 NPs in a dose-dependent manner. Significant morphological changes in CHSE-214 cells were observed when exposed to Al2 O3 NPs at 6, 12 and 24?h. The cells started to detach and appear spherical at 6?h followed by loss of cellular contents resulting in the shrinking of the cells. At 24?h, the cells started to disintegrate and resulted in cell death. Our data demonstrate that Al2 O3 NPs induce cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner in CHSE-214 cells. Thus, our current work may serve as a base-line study for future evaluation of toxicity studies using CHSE-214 cells. PMID:25875951

  19. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  20. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays. PMID:25717323

  1. Bone marrow stromal cell adhesion and morphology on micro- and sub-micropatterned titanium.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Aaron F; De Howitt, Natalie; Gott, Shannon C; Miller, Christopher; Rao, Masaru P; Liu, Huinan

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion and morphology of bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSCs) on bulk titanium (Ti) substrates with precisely-patterned surfaces consisting of groove-based gratings with groove widths ranging from 50 micro m down to 0.5 micro m (500 nm). Although it is well known that certain surface patterning enhances osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions, past studies on cell-pattern interactions reported in the literature have heavily relied on surface patterning on materials with limited clinical relevance for orthopedic applications, such as polymeric substrates. The clinical need for improving osseointegration and juxtaposed bone formation around load-bearing Ti implants motivated this in vitro study. BMSCs were selected as model cells due to their important role in bone regeneration. The results showed significantly greater BMSC adhesion density and more favorable cell morphology on sub-micropatterned gratings when compared with larger micropatterned gratings and non-patterned control surfaces after both 24 hr and 72 hr cultures. We observed increasing cellular alignment and elongation with decreasing feature size. We also identified two distinctive cellular morphologies: Type I-Attached and spread cells that elongated along the pattern axes; and Type II-Superficially adhered round cells. Sub-micropatterned gratings demonstrated significantly greater Type I cell density than the non-patterned control, and lower Type II cell density than the larger micropatterned gratings. Collectively, these results suggest potential for rationally designing nano-scale surface topography on Ti implants to improve osseointegration. PMID:24734518

  2. Effects of Lithium Niobate Polarization on Cell Adhesion and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Marchesano, Valentina; Gennari, Oriella; Mecozzi, Laura; Grilli, Simonetta; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-08-19

    Understanding how the interfacial effects influence cell adhesion and morphology is of fundamental interest for controlling function, growth, and movement of cells in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the influence of surface charges is well-known but still controversial, especially when new functional materials and methods are introduced. Here, the influence of the spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) on the adhesion properties of fibroblast cells is investigated. The spontaneous polarization of LN has one of the largest known magnitudes at room temperature (?78 ?C/cm(2)), and its orientation can be patterned easily by an external voltage, this motivating highly the investigation of its interaction with cells. Immunofluorescence and migration assays show strong evidence that the surface polarity regulates the adhesion functions, with enhanced spreading of the cytoskeleton on the negative face. The results suggest the potential of LN as a platform for investigating the role of charges on cellular processes, thus favoring new strategies in fabricating those biocompatible constructs used for tissue engineering. In fact, the orientation of the high-magnitude polarization can be patterned easily and, in combination with piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and photorefractive properties, may open the route to more sophisticated charge templates for modulating the cell response. PMID:26222955

  3. Automated Cell-by-Cell Tissue Imaging and Single-Cell Analysis for Targeted Morphologies by Laser Ablation

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    Morphologies by Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Hang Li, Brian K. Smith, Bindesh ablation in LABSI-MS can sample individual cells in their native environment [13, 14]. Using this method, cell-by-cell molecular imaging of metabolites in plant epidermal tissue was demonstrated [15]. Imaging

  4. Identification of morphological differences between avian influenza A viruses grown in chicken and duck cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Mubarak, Firas; Daly, Janet; Christie, Denise; Fountain, Donna; Dunham, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Although wild ducks are considered to be the major reservoirs for most influenza A virus subtypes, they are typically resistant to the effects of the infection. In contrast, certain influenza viruses may be highly pathogenic in other avian hosts such as chickens and turkeys, causing severe illness and death. Following in vitro infection of chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts (CEF and DEF) with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses, duck cells die more rapidly and produce fewer infectious virions than chicken cells. In the current study, the morphology of viruses produced from CEF and DEF cells infected with low pathogenic avian H2N3 was examined. Transmission electron microscopy showed that viruses budding from duck cells were elongated, while chicken cells produced mostly spherical virions; similar differences were observed in viral supernatants. Sequencing of the influenza genome of chicken- and duck-derived H2N3 LPAI revealed no differences, implicating host cell determinants as responsible for differences in virus morphology. Both DEF and CEF cells produced filamentous virions of equine H3N8 (where virus morphology is determined by the matrix gene). DEF cells produced filamentous or short filament virions of equine H3N8 and avian H2N3, respectively, even after actin disruption with cytochalasin D. These findings suggest that cellular factors other than actin are responsible for the formation of filamentous virions in DEF cells. The formation of elongated virions in duck cells may account for the reduced number of infectious virions produced and could have implications for virus transmission or maintenance in the reservoir host. PMID:25613009

  5. Cell morphology, ultrastructure, and calcification pattern of Oocardium stratum, a peculiar lotic desmid.

    PubMed

    Rott, E; Holzinger, A; Gesierich, D; Kofler, W; Sanders, D

    2010-07-01

    Cell morphology and ultrastructure of the desmid Oocardium stratum and its habitat conditions in two limestone-precipitating spring habitats in the Alps were studied. In spite of specific cell geometry, we found ultrastructural features (nucleus with nucleolus, Golgi apparatus, chloroplast structure, lipid bodies, cell wall texture) closely related to other desmids. The type of the mucilage pore apparatus perforating in high densities extended areas of the cell wall of Oocardium is of the Cosmarium type. Oocardium contrasts to Cosmarium by a peculiar bilateral cell geometry (lateral sphenoid shape) which is combined with a dislocated nucleus. Although the cell features of Oocardium did not differ between the two habitats, different calcification types (rhombohedral calcite versus fascicular-fibrous calcite) and calcification intensities were recorded. The spatial positioning and extension of the Oocardium niches differed considerably between the two springs in spite of high CO(2) oversaturation at both sites. PMID:19455279

  6. Putative role of border cells in generating spontaneous morphological activity within Kölliker's organ.

    PubMed

    Dayaratne, M W Nishani; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M; Lipski, Janusz; Thorne, Peter R

    2015-12-01

    Kölliker's organ is a transient epithelial structure, comprising a major part of the organ of Corti during pre-hearing stages of development. The auditory system is spontaneously active during development, which serves to retain and refine neural connections. Kölliker's organ is considered a key candidate for generating such spontaneous activity, most likely through purinergic (P2 receptor) signalling and inner hair cell (IHC) activation. Associated with the spontaneous neural activity, ATP released locally by epithelial cells induces rhythmic morphological changes within Kölliker's organ, the purpose of which is not understood. These changes are accompanied by a shift in cellular refractive index, allowing optical detection of this activity in real-time. Using this principle, we investigated the origin of spontaneous morphological activity within Kölliker's organ. Apical turns of Wistar rat cochleae (P9-11) were dissected, and the purinergic involvement was studied following acute tissue exposure to a P2 receptor agonist (ATP?S) and antagonist (suramin). ATP?S induced a sustained darkening throughout Kölliker's organ, reversed by suramin. This effect was most pronounced in the region closest to the inner hair cells, which also displayed the highest frequency of intrinsic morphological events. Additionally, suramin alone induced swelling of this region, suggesting a tight regulation of cell volume by ATP-mediated mechanisms. Histological analysis of cochlear tissues demonstrates the most profound volume changes in the border cell region immediately adjacent to the IHCs. Together, these results underline the role of purinergic signalling in initiating morphological events within Kölliker's organ, and suggest a key involvement of border cells surrounding IHCs in regulating this spontaneous activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26119178

  7. Computational study of actin morphology and rheology

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taeyoon, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    The cytoskeletal network consisting mainly of actin and actin binding proteins is highly dynamic, provides structural integrity to cells, and plays a central role in a wide range of mechanical and biological functions such ...

  8. Morphology evolution in high-performance polymer solar cells processed from nonhalogenated solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Wanzhu; Liu, Peng; Jin, Yaocheng; Xue, Qifan; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P.; Huang, Fei; Yip, Hin -Lap; Cao, Yong

    2015-05-26

    A new processing protocol based on non-halogenated solvent and additive is developed to produce polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies better than those processed from commonly used halogenated solvent-additive pair. Morphology studies show that good performance correlates with a finely distributed nanomorphology with a well-defined polymer fibril network structure, which leads to balanced charge transport in device operation.

  9. Studying femtosecond-laser hyperdoping by controlling surface morphology

    E-print Network

    Winkler, Mark T.

    We study the fundamental properties of femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) hyperdoping by developing techniques to control the surface morphology following laser irradiation. By decoupling the formation of surface roughness from ...

  10. NOTCH2 signaling confers immature morphology and aggressiveness in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, YOSHIHIRO; OSANAI, MAKOTO; LEE, GANG-HONG

    2015-01-01

    The NOTCH family of membranous receptors plays key roles during development and carcinogenesis. Since NOTCH2, yet not NOTCH1 has been shown essential for murine hepatogenesis, NOTCH2 rather than NOTCH1 may be more relevant to human hepatocarcinogenesis; however, no previous studies have supported this hypothesis. We therefore assessed the role of NOTCH2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by immunohistochemistry and cell culture. Immunohistochemically, 19% of primary HCCs showed nuclear staining for NOTCH2, indicating activated NOTCH2 signaling. NOTCH2-positive HCCs were on average in more advanced clinical stages, and exhibited more immature cellular morphology, i.e. higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios and nuclear densities. Such features were not evident in NOTCH1-positive HCCs. In human HCC cell lines, abundant NOTCH2 expression was associated with anaplasia, represented by loss of E-cadherin. When NOTCH2 signaling was stably downregulated in HLF cells, an anaplastic HCC cell line, the cells were attenuated in potential for in vitro invasiveness and migration, as well as in vivo tumorigenicity accompanied by histological maturation. Generally, inverse results were obtained for a differentiated HCC cell line, Huh7, manipulated to overexpress activated NOTCH2. These findings suggested that the NOTCH2 signaling may confer aggressive behavior and immature morphology in human HCC cells. PMID:26252838

  11. Morphological Analysis of Cells by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Kim, Hee-Dae; Park, Chanhyuk; Park, Taeyoung; Kim, Jaewan; Choi, Young Jin; Kim, Yong-Sang; Lee, Kun Ho; Kang, Chi Jung

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study is to identify geometrical differences in the boundary structure of cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A variety of cancer tissues have been demonstrated to possess their own structural identities defined as fractal dimensions when they are grown in vivo. Fractal structure is clearly characterized by recursive self-similarity over scales suggesting that the fractal geometry of cancer could be applicable to cells as well as to tissues. However, the fractal geometry of cancer in a single cell has not been elucidated. Here we investigate the fractal structure of several different cell lines established from normal and cancer tissues using SEM. The data from SEM imaging allowed us to determine the fine boundary structure of human breast cells including MCF10A (normal cell line), MCF7 (weakly invasive cell line), and MDA-MB231 (highly invasive cell line). A box-counting analysis of cell boundaries extracted from the SEM images revealed that each cell line has a diagnostic inclination toward a fractal structure although it is not much different from each other.

  12. Thin films of Type 1 collagen for cell by cell analysis of morphology and tenascin-C promoter activity

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Kurt J; Elliott, John T; Tona, Alex; McDaniel, Dennis; Plant, Anne L

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of highly reproducible and spatiallyhomogeneous thin film matrices permits automated microscopy and quantitative determination of the response of hundreds of cells in a population. Using thin films of extracellular matrix proteins, we have quantified, on a cell-by-cell basis, phenotypic parameters of cells on different extracellular matrices. We have quantitatively examined the relationship between fibroblast morphology and activation of the promoter for the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C using a tenascin-C promoter-based GFP reporter construct. Results We find that when considering the average response from the population of cells, cell area correlates with tenascin-C promoter activity as has been previously suggested; however cell-by-cell analysis suggests that cell area and promoter activity are not tightly correlated within individual cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates how quantitative cell-by-cell analysis, facilitated by the use of thin films of extracellular matrix proteins, can provide insight into the relationship between phenotypic parameters. PMID:16519810

  13. Morphologic Features of ALK-negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas With DUSP22 Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    King, Rebecca L; Dao, Linda N; McPhail, Ellen D; Jaffe, Elaine S; Said, Jonathan; Swerdlow, Steven H; Sattler, Christopher A; Ketterling, Rhett P; Sidhu, Jagmohan S; Hsi, Eric D; Karikehalli, Shridevi; Jiang, Liuyan; Gibson, Sarah E; Ondrejka, Sarah L; Nicolae, Alina; Macon, William R; Dasari, Surendra; Parrilla Castellar, Edgardo; Feldman, Andrew L

    2016-01-01

    Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) are classified into ALK-positive and ALK-negative types. We recently reported that ALK-negative ALCLs are genetically heterogenous. The largest subset, representing 30% of cases, had rearrangements of the DUSP22 locus. These cases had favorable outcomes similar to ALK-positive ALCL, and superior to other ALK-negative ALCLs. Here, we examined the morphologic features of these cases in more detail. First, we conducted blinded review of hematoxylin and eosin slides of 108 ALCLs from our previous study, scoring cases for the presence of 3 histologic patterns and 5 cell types. Cases then were unblinded and re-reviewed to understand these features further. DUSP22-rearranged ALCLs were more likely than other ALK-negative ALCLs to have so-called doughnut cells (23% vs. 5%; P=0.039), less likely to have pleomorphic cells (23% vs. 49%; P=0.042), and nearly always (95%) had areas with sheet-like growth (common pattern). To examine the reproducibility of these findings, we conducted blinded review of hematoxylin and eosin slides of 46 additional ALK-negative ALCLs using a 0 to 3 scoring system to predict likelihood of DUSP22 rearrangement, the results of which correlated strongly with subsequent findings by fluorescence in situ hybridization (P<0.0001). Although all ALCLs share certain morphologic features, ALCLs with DUSP22 rearrangements show significant differences from other ALK-negative ALCLs, typically showing sheets of hallmark cells with doughnut cells and few large pleomorphic cells. These morphologic findings and our previous outcome data suggest that ALK-positive ALCLs and DUSP22-rearranged ALCLs represent prototypical ALCLs, whereas ALCLs lacking rearrangements of both DUSP22 and ALK require further study. PMID:26379151

  14. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell migration is important to vascular wall regeneration following injury or stress. However, the mechanism(s) governing this response is not well understood. The microgravity environment of space may complicate the response of these cells to injury. To date, there are no reports in this area. We examined how bovine aortic (BAEC) and pulmonary (BPEC) endothelial cells respond to denudation injury under hypergravity (HGrav) and simulated microgravity (MGrav), using image analysis. In 10% FBS, the migration of confluent BAEC and BPEC into the denuded area was not affected by HGrav or MGrav. However, in low FBS (0.5%), signficantly retarded migration under MGrav, and increased migration under HGrav was found. MGrav also decreased the migration of postconfluent BPEC while HGrav showed no difference. Both MGrav and HGrav strongly decreased the migration of postconfluent BAEC. Also, both cell lines showed significant morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. These studies indicate that endothelial cell function is affected by changes in gravity.

  15. Biocompatible mesoporous silica nanoparticles with different morphologies for animal cell membrane penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Trewyn, B.; Nieweg, J.; Zhao, Y,; Lin, V.

    2007-11-24

    Two MCM-41 type, fluorescein-labeled mesoporous silica nanomaterials (MSNs) consisting of spherical and tube-shaped particles were synthesized and characterized. Both materials have hexagonally arranged mesopores with high surface area (>950 m{sup 2}/g) and a narrow distribution of pore diameters. The cellular uptake efficiency and kinetics of both MSNs were measured in a cancer cell line (CHO) and a noncancerous cell line (fibroblasts) by flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy. The correlation between the particle morphology and aggregation of MSNs to the effectiveness of cellular uptake was investigated. We envision that our study on the morphology dependent endocytosis of MSNs would lead to future developments of efficient transmembrane nanodevices for intracellular sensing and gene/drug delivery.

  16. Advanced image processing and modeling system for the analysis of cell micrographs in morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing; Reme, Ch.; Stucki, Peter

    1993-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of cell-level structures is attracting substantial attention in biomedical studies. This paper presents an advanced digital image processing and modelling system for the automatic analysis of cell micrographs in morphology. For reference, photoreceptors of the rat retina are used. The system implements a new index-based quantitative method developed for the evaluation of light induced lesions in retinal Rod Outer Segments (ROS). The automatic determination of indexes greatly simplifies the description of such damages and permits the statistical analysis of morphological data. A three dimensional synthetic model of retinal ROS was built to interactively simulate the damage mechanisms. The methods reported in this paper are implemented on a graphics super-workstation hardware platform that allows the interactive development of algorithms and procedures through quasi-instant visual feedback.

  17. A Comparison between Growth Morphology of "Eutectic" Cells/Dendrites and Single-Phase Cells/Dendrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2003-01-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) intermetallic and ceramic-based eutectic alloys with an in-situ composite microstructure containing finely distributed, long aspect ratio, fiber, or plate reinforcements are being seriously examined for several advanced aero-propulsion applications. In designing these alloys, additional solutes need to be added to the base eutectic composition in order to improve heir high-temperature strength, and provide for adequate toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. Solute addition, however, promotes instability at the planar liquid-solid interface resulting in the formation of two-phase eutectic "colonies." Because morphology of eutectic colonies is very similar to the single-phase cells and dendrites, the stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka has been extended to describe their formation. Onset of their formation shows a good agreement with this approach; however, unlike the single-phase cells and dendrites, there is limited examination of their growth speed dependence of spacing, morphology, and spatial distribution. The purpose of this study is to compare the growth speed dependence of the morphology, spacing, and spatial distribution of eutectic cells and dendrites with that for the single-phase cells and dendrites.

  18. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation. PMID:25929521

  19. Morphology and photoluminescence study of titania nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Memesa, Mine; Lenz, Sebastian; Emmerling, Sebastian G J; Nett, Sebastian; Perlich, Jan; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Gutmann, Jochen S

    2011-06-01

    Titania nanoparticles are prepared by sol-gel chemistry with a poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate triblock copolymer acting as the templating agent. The sol-gel components-hydrochloric acid, titanium tetraisopropoxide, and triblock copolymer-are varied to investigate their effect on the resulting titania morphology. An increased titania precursor or polymer content yields smaller primary titania structures. Microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, which are analyzed with a unified fit model, reveal information about the titania structure sizes. These small structures could not be observed via the used microscopy techniques. The interplay among the sol-gel components via our triblock copolymer results in different sized titania nanoparticles with higher packing densities. Smaller sized titania particles, (?13-20 nm in diameter) in the range of exciton diffusion length, are formed by 2% by weight polymer and show good crystallinity with less surface defects and high oxygen vacancies. PMID:21765580

  20. A new live-cell reporter strategy to simultaneously monitor mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hodneland Nilsson, Linn Iren; Nitschke Pettersen, Ina Katrine; Nikolaisen, Julie; Micklem, David; Avsnes Dale, Hege; Vatne Røsland, Gro; Lorens, James; Tronstad, Karl Johan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in mitochondrial amount and shape are intimately linked to maintenance of cell homeostasis via adaptation of vital functions. Here, we developed a new live-cell reporter strategy to simultaneously monitor mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology. This was achieved by making a genetic reporter construct where a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), controls expression of mitochondria targeted green fluorescent protein (mitoGFP). HeLa cells with the reporter construct demonstrated inducible expression of mitoGFP upon activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) with AICAR. We established stable reporter cells where the mitoGFP reporter activity corresponded with mitochondrial biogenesis both in magnitude and kinetics, as confirmed by biochemical markers and confocal microscopy. Quantitative 3D image analysis confirmed accordant increase in mitochondrial biomass, in addition to filament/network promoting and protecting effects on mitochondrial morphology, after treatment with AICAR. The level of mitoGFP reversed upon removal of AICAR, in parallel with decrease in mtDNA. In summary, we here present a new GFP-based genetic reporter strategy to study mitochondrial regulation and dynamics in living cells. This combinatorial reporter concept can readily be transferred to other cell models and contexts to address specific physiological mechanisms. PMID:26596249

  1. Unilateral cryptorchidism induces morphological changes of testes and hyperplasia of Sertoli cells in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Joon Ho; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Jung, Hyo Young; Choi, Jung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is one of the most common genital defects in dogs. This study investigated the effects of abdominal cryptorchidism on morphology, cell proliferation, and Sertoli cell condition in a dog with spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the abdominal right testis and the scrotal left testis. Significant reductions in numbers of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the cryptorchid testis. The size of the epididymal duct was smaller than that of the control testis. Based on Ki67 immunohistochemistry, the proliferative activity of spermatogonia and spermatocytes was significantly decreased in the cryptorchid testis. However, proliferative activity was increased in the epididymal duct. Based on GATA-4 immunohistochemistry, Sertoli cells were relatively resistant to cryptorchidism, and the proliferative activity of Sertoli cells was markedly increased in the cryptorchid testis than in the control testis. These results suggest that spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism causes morphological defects in spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the testis and changes the size of the efferent ductule of the epididymis. In addition, spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism increases proliferative activity of Sertoli cells, which may be a predisposing factor for Sertoli cell cancer in cryptorchid testes. PMID:25628730

  2. Primary Esophageal Extranasal NK/T Cell Lymphoma With Biphasic Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zi-Yin; Cao, Qing-Hua; Liu, Fang; Lu, Xiao-Fang; Li, Shu-Rong; Li, Chang-Zhao; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of esophageal extranasal NK/T cell lymphoma with biphasic morphologic features revealed by a deep large piecemeal biopsy. A 40-year-old man present with pharyngalgia, dysphagia, recurrent fever, and 5-kg weight loss for 8 months. Endoscopy demonstrated progressing longitudinal ulcers and mucosal bridges along the esophagus. The first and second biopsies obtained superficial mucosa with scattered bland-looking small lymphocytes. A subsequent large piecemeal snare abscission for biopsy showed atypical lymphoid cells infiltrating into the deep lamina propria and muscularis mucosae, whereas the superficial lamina propria was highly edematous with scant small lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that both underlying atypical cells and superficial small lymphocytes were neoplastic, sharing an identical immunophenotype: positive for CD2, CD3, CD43, CD8, CD56, TIA-1 and granzyme B. Epstein-Barr virus–encoded small RNAs were found in both cells. The histologic findings were diagnostic of primary esophageal extranasal NK/T cell lymphoma. However, the patient developed bone marrow depression during chemotherapy and died of massive cerebral hemorrhage after the first cycle of chemotherapy. Primary esophageal extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma nasal type is extremely rare. We show the biphasic morphology of this disease, which highlights the importance of deep biopsy for accurate diagnosis. PMID:26181557

  3. A new live-cell reporter strategy to simultaneously monitor mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology.

    PubMed

    Hodneland Nilsson, Linn Iren; Nitschke Pettersen, Ina Katrine; Nikolaisen, Julie; Micklem, David; Avsnes Dale, Hege; Vatne Røsland, Gro; Lorens, James; Tronstad, Karl Johan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in mitochondrial amount and shape are intimately linked to maintenance of cell homeostasis via adaptation of vital functions. Here, we developed a new live-cell reporter strategy to simultaneously monitor mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology. This was achieved by making a genetic reporter construct where a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), controls expression of mitochondria targeted green fluorescent protein (mitoGFP). HeLa cells with the reporter construct demonstrated inducible expression of mitoGFP upon activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) with AICAR. We established stable reporter cells where the mitoGFP reporter activity corresponded with mitochondrial biogenesis both in magnitude and kinetics, as confirmed by biochemical markers and confocal microscopy. Quantitative 3D image analysis confirmed accordant increase in mitochondrial biomass, in addition to filament/network promoting and protecting effects on mitochondrial morphology, after treatment with AICAR. The level of mitoGFP reversed upon removal of AICAR, in parallel with decrease in mtDNA. In summary, we here present a new GFP-based genetic reporter strategy to study mitochondrial regulation and dynamics in living cells. This combinatorial reporter concept can readily be transferred to other cell models and contexts to address specific physiological mechanisms. PMID:26596249

  4. Morphologic, immunologic, enzymehistochemical and chromosomal analysis of a cell line derived from Hodgkin's disease. Evidence for a B-cell origin of Sternberg-Reed cells.

    PubMed

    Poppema, S; De Jong, B; Atmosoerodjo, J; Idenburg, V; Visser, L; De Ley, L

    1985-02-15

    Cell lines derived from Hodgkin's disease may provide a clue to the nature of Sternberg-Reed cells. In the current study, the establishment of an Epstein-Barr-virus-negative lymphoblastoid cell line, derived from the pleural fluid of a patient with the nodular sclerosis type of Hodgkin's disease, is described. The morphologic and immunologic cell marker findings indicate that this cell line is derived from Sternberg-Reed cells. The immunologic findings and a chromosomal analysis are in agreement with a B-lymphocyte origin of these cultured cells. Extrapolation of the results to Hodgkin's disease in vivo would indicate that Hodgkin's disease, like most non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, is the result of B-cell proliferation. PMID:3881158

  5. Morphological Variability and Distinct Protein Profiles of Cultured and Endosymbiotic Symbiodinium cells Isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Weng, Li-Chi; Lin, I-Ping; Camargo, Eddie; Tzen, Jason T C; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lin, Mong-Rong; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2015-01-01

    Symbiodinium is a dinoflagellate that plays an important role in the physiology of the symbiotic relationships of Cnidarians such as corals and sea anemones. However, it is very difficult to cultivate free-living dinoflagellates after being isolated from the host, as they are very sensitive to environmental changes. How these symbiont cells are supported by the host tissue is still unclear. This study investigated the characteristics of Symbiodinium cells, particularly with respect to the morphological variability and distinct protein profiles of both cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium which were freshly isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella. The response of the cellular morphology of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells kept under a 12?h L:12?h D cycle to different temperatures was measured. Cellular proliferation was investigated by measuring the growth pattern of Symbiodinium cells, the results of which indicated that the growth was significantly reduced in response to the extreme temperatures. Proteomic analysis of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells revealed twelve novel proteins that putatively included transcription translation factors, photosystem proteins, and proteins associated with energy and lipid metabolism, as well as defense response. The results of this study will bring more understandings to the mechanisms governing the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates. PMID:26481560

  6. Morphological Variability and Distinct Protein Profiles of Cultured and Endosymbiotic Symbiodinium cells Isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella

    PubMed Central

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Weng, Li-Chi; Lin, I-Ping; Camargo, Eddie; Tzen, Jason T. C.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lin, Mong-Rong; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2015-01-01

    Symbiodinium is a dinoflagellate that plays an important role in the physiology of the symbiotic relationships of Cnidarians such as corals and sea anemones. However, it is very difficult to cultivate free-living dinoflagellates after being isolated from the host, as they are very sensitive to environmental changes. How these symbiont cells are supported by the host tissue is still unclear. This study investigated the characteristics of Symbiodinium cells, particularly with respect to the morphological variability and distinct protein profiles of both cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium which were freshly isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella. The response of the cellular morphology of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells kept under a 12?h L:12?h D cycle to different temperatures was measured. Cellular proliferation was investigated by measuring the growth pattern of Symbiodinium cells, the results of which indicated that the growth was significantly reduced in response to the extreme temperatures. Proteomic analysis of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells revealed twelve novel proteins that putatively included transcription translation factors, photosystem proteins, and proteins associated with energy and lipid metabolism, as well as defense response. The results of this study will bring more understandings to the mechanisms governing the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates. PMID:26481560

  7. Morphological Variability and Distinct Protein Profiles of Cultured and Endosymbiotic Symbiodinium cells Isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Weng, Li-Chi; Lin, I.-Ping; Camargo, Eddie; Tzen, Jason T. C.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lin, Mong-Rong; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2015-10-01

    Symbiodinium is a dinoflagellate that plays an important role in the physiology of the symbiotic relationships of Cnidarians such as corals and sea anemones. However, it is very difficult to cultivate free-living dinoflagellates after being isolated from the host, as they are very sensitive to environmental changes. How these symbiont cells are supported by the host tissue is still unclear. This study investigated the characteristics of Symbiodinium cells, particularly with respect to the morphological variability and distinct protein profiles of both cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium which were freshly isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella. The response of the cellular morphology of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells kept under a 12?h L:12?h D cycle to different temperatures was measured. Cellular proliferation was investigated by measuring the growth pattern of Symbiodinium cells, the results of which indicated that the growth was significantly reduced in response to the extreme temperatures. Proteomic analysis of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells revealed twelve novel proteins that putatively included transcription translation factors, photosystem proteins, and proteins associated with energy and lipid metabolism, as well as defense response. The results of this study will bring more understandings to the mechanisms governing the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates.

  8. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pinto, Angélica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mário J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences. PMID:24143045

  9. ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3HIOT1/2 CL8 CELLS.

    Studies of defined mixtures of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have identified three major categories of interacti...

  10. Morphology and chirality control self-assembly of sickle hemoglobin inside red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuejin; Lei, Huan; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle cells exhibit abnormal morphology and membrane mechanics in the deoxygenated state due to the polymerization of the interior sickle hemoglobin (HbS). In this study, the dynamics of self-assembly behavior of HbS in solution and corresponding induced cell morphologies have been investigated by dissipative particle dynamics approach. A coarse-grained HbS model, which contains hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles, is constructed to match the structural properties and physical description (including crowding effects) of HbS. The hydrophobic interactions are shown to be necessary with chirality being the main driver for the formation of HbS fibers. In the absence of chain chirality, only the self-assembled small aggregates are observed whereas self-assembled elongated step-like bundle microstructures appear when we consider the chain chirality. Several typical cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes), induced by the growth of HbS fibers, are revealed and their deviations from the biconcave shape are quantified by the asphericity and elliptical shape factors.

  11. Identification of a nuclear-localized nuclease from wheat cells undergoing programmed cell death that is able to trigger DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology on nuclei from human cells

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Fernando; Cejudo, Francisco J.

    2006-01-01

    PCD (programmed cell death) in plants presents important morphological and biochemical differences compared with apoptosis in animal cells. This raises the question of whether PCD arose independently or from a common ancestor in plants and animals. In the present study we describe a cell-free system, using wheat grain nucellar cells undergoing PCD, to analyse nucleus dismantling, the final stage of PCD. We have identified a Ca2+/Mg2+ nuclease and a serine protease localized to the nucleus of dying nucellar cells. Nuclear extracts from nucellar cells undergoing PCD triggered DNA fragmentation and other apoptotic morphology in nuclei from different plant tissues. Inhibition of the serine protease did not affect DNA laddering. Furthermore, we show that the nuclear extracts from plant cells triggered DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology in nuclei from human cells. The inhibition of the nucleolytic activity with Zn2+ or EDTA blocked the morphological changes of the nucleus. Moreover, nuclear extracts from apoptotic human cells triggered DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology in nuclei from plant cells. These results show that degradation of the nucleus is morphologically and biochemically similar in plant and animal cells. The implication of this finding on the origin of PCD in plants and animals is discussed. PMID:16613587

  12. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  13. The dynamics of morphological changes in the pyloric endocrine cells of rats with uremia.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Azzadin, A; Malla, H

    2002-01-01

    Disturbances in renal homeostatic function lead to changes in endocrine cell secretory activity. The aim of this study was the histomorphological estimation of dependence of gastric APUD system cell morphology and function on the time after subtotal nephrectomy in Wistar rats. Fragments of gastric pylorus were collected 1. 2, 4, and 6 weeks after nephrectomy. Paraffin sections were stained with H+E and by silver impregnation. Immunohistochemical reactions with the use of specific antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), synaptophysin (SPh). somatostatin (ST), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were also performed. Immunoreactivity of the examined substances in the pyloric mucosa in the first week after nephrectomy was lower than in the control group. However, in the following time intervals, endocrine cells showed stronger immunostaining in comparison with the control rats. The results suggest that chronic renal failure can modulate secretory activity of APUD system cells. PMID:12056633

  14. UV-C pre-adaptation of Salmonella: effect on cell morphology and membrane fatty acids composition.

    PubMed

    Maâlej, Lobna; Chatti, Abdelwaheb; Khefacha, Sana; Salma, Kloula; Gottardi, David; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Maria Elizabetta; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2014-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiations (UV-C) on the fatty acids composition of three serovars of Salmonella: S. typhimurium, S. hadar and S. zanzibar. Results obtained show that UV-C treatment increases significantly (P ? 0.05) the percentage of cyclic fatty acids. The atomic force microscopy was used to study the morphology and cell surface of irradiated strains. Results show that UV-C rays induce morphological changes and alter the bacterial cell surface (presence of grooves and irregularities). PMID:24092393

  15. Stem cell isolation by a morphology-based selection method in postnatal mouse ovary

    PubMed Central

    Parvari, Soraya; Abbasi, Niloufar; Malek, Valliollah Gerayeli; Amidi, Fardin; Aval, Fereydoon Sargolzaei; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Izadyar, Fariburz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An increasing body of evidence has emerged regarding the existence and function of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs); however, their female counterparts are the subject of extensive debate. Theoretically, ovarian germ stem cells (GSCs) have to reside in the murine ovary to support and replenish the follicle pool during the reproductive life span. Recently, various methods have been recruited to isolate and describe aspects of ovarian GSCs, but newer and more convenient strategies in isolation are still growing. Herein, a morphology-based method was used to isolate GSCs. Material and methods A cell suspension of mouse neonatal ovaries was cultured. Colonies of GSCs were harvested mechanically and cultivated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Alkaline phosphatase activity was assessed to verify stemness features of cells in colonies. Expression of germ and stem cell specific genes (Oct-4, Nanog, Fragilis, C-kit, Dazl, and Mvh) was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunofluorescence of Oct4, Dazl, Mvh, and SSEA-1 was also performed. Results Small colonies without a clear border appeared during the first 4 days of culture, and the size of colonies increased rapidly. Cells in colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that Oct-4, Fragilis, C-kit, Nanog, Mvh, and Dazl were expressed in colony-forming cells. Immunofluorescence revealed a positive signal for Oct4, Dazl, Mvh, and SSEA-1 in colonies as well. Conclusions The applicability of morphological selection for isolation of GSCs was verified. This method is easier and more economical than other techniques. The availability of ovarian stem cells can motivate further studies in development of oocyte and cell-based therapies. PMID:26170863

  16. Morphologic changes in rat urothelial cells during carcinogenesis. I. Histologic and cytologic changes

    SciTech Connect

    King, E.B.; Vanderlaan, M.; Jensen, R.H.; Kromhout, L.K.; Hoffman, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The methods of either image or flow cytometry applied to developing bladder tumors in rats requires satisfactory cell samples and a system for cell classification that is related to the lesions from which the cells are derived. Seven- to eight-week-old male Fisher 344 rats were fed 0.05% of the carcinogen N-butyl-4-N-hydroxybutylnitrosamine (BBN) in drinking water for 10 wk and then returned to tap water. Animals were killed at 14, 26, 34, 45 and 62 wk after the start of carcinogen feeding. Overnight urines were collected before killing; urine sediments were Papanicolaou stained and evaluated. Histological features were hyperplasia at 14 wk, followed by slowly progressing papillary transitional cell tumors that eventually led to invasive carcinoma and were similar to those reported for this animal model. Treated animals had cytologic features of repair at 14 and 26 wk and neoplastic features at 45 and 62 wk. Both reparative and neoplastic changes were found at 34 wk. Cells were much more numerous in urines from treated rats (> 1000 per sample) than in urines from controls (< 1000 per sample). Although exfoliated cells in urine samples were generally of poor quality, as many as 11% of cells were adequately preserved. Dissociated bladder cells provided an optimal sample representative of the lesions from which they were derived; cells were of excellent quality for detailed morphologic and quantitative studies.

  17. Nonperturbative imaging of nucleoid morphology in live bacterial cells during an antimicrobial peptide attack.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Somenath; Choi, Heejun; Rangarajan, Nambirajan; Barns, Kenneth J; Bratton, Benjamin P; Weisshaar, James C

    2014-08-01

    Studies of time-dependent drug and environmental effects on single, live bacterial cells would benefit significantly from a permeable, nonperturbative, long-lived fluorescent stain specific to the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA). The ideal stain would not affect cell growth rate or nucleoid morphology and dynamics, even during laser illumination for hundreds of camera frames. In this study, time-dependent, single-cell fluorescence imaging with laser excitation and a sensitive electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) camera critically tested the utility of "dead-cell stains" (SYTOX orange and SYTOX green) and "live-cell stains" (DRAQ5 and SYTO 61) and also 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Surprisingly, the dead-cell stains were nearly ideal for imaging live Escherichia coli, while the live-cell stains and DAPI caused nucleoid expansion and, in some cases, cell permeabilization and the halting of growth. SYTOX orange performed well for both the Gram-negative E. coli and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. In an initial application, we used two-color fluorescence imaging to show that the antimicrobial peptide cecropin A destroyed nucleoid-ribosome segregation over 20 min after permeabilization of the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane, reminiscent of the long-term effects of the drug rifampin. In contrast, the human cathelicidin LL-37, while similar to cecropin A in structure, length, charge, and the ability to permeabilize bacterial membranes, had no observable effect on nucleoid-ribosome segregation. Possible underlying causes are suggested. PMID:24907320

  18. Induction of Neuronal Morphology in the 661W Cone Photoreceptor Cell Line with Staurosporine

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alex F.; Crowe, Megan E.; Lieven, Christopher J.; Levin, Leonard A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose RGC-5 cells undergo differentiation into a neuronal phenotype with low concentrations of staurosporine. Although the RGC-5 cell line was initially thought to be of retinal ganglion cell origin, recent evidence suggests that the RGC-5 line could have been the result of contamination with 661W mouse cone photoreceptor cells. This raised the possibility that a cone photoreceptor cell line could be multipotent and could be differentiated to a neuronal phenotype. Methods 661W and RGC-5 cells, non-neuronal retinal astrocytes, retinal endothelial cells, retinal pericytes, M21 melanoma cells, K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, and Daudi Burkitt lymphoma cells, were differentiated with staurosporine. The resulting morphology was quantitated using NeuronJ with respect to neurite counts and topology. Results Treatment with staurosporine induced similar-appearing morphological differentiation in both 661W and RGC-5 cells. The following measures were not significantly different between 661W and RGC-5 cells: number of neurites per cell, total neurite field length, number of neurite branch points, and cell viability. Neuronal-like differentiation was not observed in the other cell lines tested. Conclusions 661W and RGC-5 cells have virtually identical and distinctive morphology when differentiated with low concentrations of staurosporine. This result demonstrates that a retinal neuronal precursor cell with cone photoreceptor lineage can be differentiated to express a neuronal morphology. PMID:26684837

  19. Identification, localization and morphology of APUD cells in gastroenteropancreatic system of stomach-containing teleosts.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qian-Sheng; Fang, Zhi-Ping; Huang, Feng-Jie

    2000-12-01

    AIM:To identify the type localization and morphology of APUD endocrine cells in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system of stomach-containing teleosts, and study APUD endocrine system in the stomach, intestine and pancreas of fish species.METHODS:Two kinds of immunocytochemical (ICC) techniques of the streptavidin biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) and streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method were used. The identification, localization and morphology of APUD endocrine cells scattered in the mucosa of digestive tract, intermuscular nerve plexus and glandular body of northern snakehead (Channa argus), ricefield eel (Monopterus albus), yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), mandarinfish (Siniperca chuatsi), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides),oriental sheatfish (Silurus asotus), freshwater pomfret (Colossoma brachypomum) and nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica) were investigated with 8 kinds of antisera.RESULTS:The positive reaction of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) immunoreactive endocrine (IRE) cells was found in the digestive tract and glandular body of 8 fish species in different degree.Only a few gastrin (GAS)-IRE cells were seen in C.argus,M.albusand P.fulvidraco. Glucagon (GLU)IRE cells were not found in the digestive tract and glandular body but existed in pancreatic island of most fish species. The positive reaction of growth hormone (GH)IRE cells was found only in pancreatic island of S. Chuatsi and S. Asotus, no positive reaction in the other 6 fish species. Somatostatin (SOM), calcitonin (CAL), neurofilament (NF) and insulin (INS)-IRE cells in the stomach, intestine and pancreas of 8 kinds of fish were different in distribution and types. The distribution of all 8 APUD cells was the most in gastrointestinal epithelium mucosa and then in digestive glands. The positive reaction of SOM and 5-HT-IRE cells was found in intermuscular nerve plexus of intestine of P.fulvidraco and S.chuatsi. Only GH-IRE cells were densely scattered in the pancreatic islands of S.chuatsi and S. asotus, and odd distribution in the pancreas of S. asotus.SOM-IRE cells were distributed in the pancreatic islands of S. asotus, C. Brachypomumand T. nilotica. There were INS-IRE cells in the pancreatic islands of S. chuatsi and S. asolus. Eight kinds of APUD cells had longer cell body and cytoplasmic process when they were located in the gastrointestinal epithelium, and had shorter cell body and cytoplasmic process in the gastric gland, and irregular shape in the esophagus and pancreatic island.CONCLUSION:Eight kinds of IRE cells were identified in the GEP system of stomach-containing teleosts. These endocrine cells were scattered in gastrointestinal mucosa, intermuscular nerve plexus, gland body, pancreatic gland and islands under APUD system. CAL and GH-IRE cells in the pancreatic islands of fishes showed functional diversity for these two hormones. Their morphological feature provides evidence of endocrine-paracrine and endocrine-exocrine acting mode. This research can morphologically prove that the GEP endocrine system of fish (the lowest vertebrate) is almost the same as of mammal and human. PMID:11819706

  20. Acquisition of L2 English Morphology: A Family Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanyin; Widyastuti, Ima

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the status of morphology in the L2 English of three members of a family from Indonesia (parents and their 5-year-old daughter) who have lived, studied or worked in Australia for a year. The investigation is contextualized against various learning settings in which the informants have learned English: formal instruction in…

  1. Adaptation-dependent plasticity of rod bipolar cell axon terminal morphology in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Behrens, U D; Kasten, P; Wagner, H J

    1998-11-01

    We chose synaptic terminals of rat rod bipolar cells as a model system to study activity-related changes in the overall morphology and the fine structure of synaptic sites. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with three-dimensional reconstruction and electron microscopy, we examined the effect of light and dark adaptation on axon terminals identified by protein kinase C (PKC) immunoreactivity. Rod bipolar cell axon terminals consisted of 2-3 polymorphic boutons situated close to the ganglion cell layer and a single ovoid swelling located more distally. Both components of the terminal complex showed adaptation-dependent differences in the distribution of PKC immunoreactivity and in their morphology. In light-adapted rod bipolar cell axon terminals, PKC immunoreactivity was homogeneously distributed throughout the cytoplasm, whereas terminals from dark-adapted animals showed PKC immunoreactivity preferentially localised in the submembrane compartment and a reduced staining of the more central cytoplasm. In three-dimensional reconstructions of optical sections and at the ultrastructural level, the shape of light-adapted axon terminals was round and smooth and exhibited more convexly curved synaptic membranes. In contrast, dark-adapted terminals had irregular contours, numerous dimples and a concave synaptic curvature. No spinules of bipolar cell terminals were observed in dark-adapted material. These observations are discussed in the context of activity-related morphological plasticity of central nervous system synapses and of the functions of PKC in the cycle of vesicle fusion and retrieval at the tonically active ribbon synapses of the rod bipolar axon terminal. PMID:9799440

  2. Cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(lactic acid) using endothermic chemical foaming agent.

    PubMed

    Matuana, Laurent M; Faruk, Omar; Diaz, Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was foamed with an endothermic chemical foaming agent (CFA) through an extrusion process. The effects of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed on the cellular structures, void fraction, and cell-population density of foamed PLA were investigated. The apparent melt viscosity of PLA was measured to understand the effect of melt index on the cell morphology of foamed PLA samples. The void fraction was strongly dependent on the PLA melt index. It increased with increasing melt index, reaching a maximum value, after which it decreased. Melt index showed no significant effect on the cell-population density of foamed samples within the narrow range studied. A gas containment limit was observed in PLA foamed with CFA. Both the void fraction and cell-population density increased with an initial increase in CFA content, reached a maximum value, and then decreased as CFA content continued to increase. The processing speed also affected the morphology of PLA foams. The void fraction reached a maximum value as the extruder's screw speed increased to 40 rpm and a further increase in the processing speed tended to reduce the void fraction of foamed samples. By contrast, cell-population density increased one order of magnitude by increasing the screw speed from 20 to 120 rpm. The experimental results indicate that a homogeneous and finer cellular morphology could be successfully achieved in PLA foamed in an extrusion process with a proper combination of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed. PMID:19615893

  3. Lithium intercalation studies of petroleum cokes of different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. D.; Derwin, D. J.; Zaleski, P.; Song, X.; Kinoshita, K.

    Petroleum cokes with different morphologies are studied in lithium intercalation experiments. Several types of calcined petroleum cokes with varying microstructures and surface morphologies are heat treated at temperatures approaching 2800°C. The physical and structural properties are studied by multi-point N 2 gas adsorption analysis, particle size measurements, electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Changes in the properties of materials during heat treatment are significant. The effects of the coke structures and heat treatment conditions on their electrochemical lithium intercalation behavior will be discussed.

  4. Morphological Criteria of Cell Differentiation Stages in Experimental Hepatocarcinoma and Evaluation of Antitumor Drug Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bgatova, N P; Omel'yanchuk, L V; Pozhidaeva, A A; Semeshin, V F; Lykov, A P; Poveshchenko, O V; Makarova, O P; Rachkovskaya, L N; Borodin, Yu I; Konenkov, V I

    2015-11-01

    Structural polymorphism of 5 cell differentiation stages of hepatocarcinoma-29 from ascitic fluid is detected and the morphological criteria for identification of these stages are defined on the base of optic and electron microscopy findings, cytofluorometry, and DNA cytometry. The percentage of cells at differentiation stages 4 and 5 in the tumor structure increases after hepatocarcinoma cell inoculation into the hip. Injection of a cell cycle-modulating substance to animals with tumor growth shifts the proportion of cells with various differentiation stages. The morphological criteria of 5 stages of hepatocarcinoma-29 cell differentiation can be used for prospective drug testing. PMID:26593417

  5. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  6. Mapping the Complex Morphology of Cell Interactions with Nanowire Substrates Using FIB-SEM

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mikkel R. B.; ?opaci?ska, Joanna; Schmidt, Michael S.; Skolimowski, Maciej; Abeille, Fabien; Qvortrup, Klaus; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Using high resolution focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we study the details of cell-nanostructure interactions using serial block face imaging. 3T3 Fibroblast cellular monolayers are cultured on flat glass as a control surface and on two types of nanostructured scaffold substrates made from silicon black (Nanograss) with low- and high nanowire density. After culturing for 72 hours the cells were fixed, heavy metal stained, embedded in resin, and processed with FIB-SEM block face imaging without removing the substrate. The sample preparation procedure, image acquisition and image post-processing were specifically optimised for cellular monolayers cultured on nanostructured substrates. Cells display a wide range of interactions with the nanostructures depending on the surface morphology, but also greatly varying from one cell to another on the same substrate, illustrating a wide phenotypic variability. Depending on the substrate and cell, we observe that cells could for instance: break the nanowires and engulf them, flatten the nanowires or simply reside on top of them. Given the complexity of interactions, we have categorised our observations and created an overview map. The results demonstrate that detailed nanoscale resolution images are required to begin understanding the wide variety of individual cells’ interactions with a structured substrate. The map will provide a framework for light microscopy studies of such interactions indicating what modes of interactions must be considered. PMID:23326412

  7. Toward bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with thermally stable active layer morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinaletti, Ilaria; Kesters, Jurgen; Bertho, Sabine; Conings, Bert; Piersimoni, Fortunato; D'Haen, Jan; Lutsen, Laurence; Nesladek, Milos; Van Mele, Bruno; Van Assche, Guy; Vandewal, Koen; Salleo, Alberto; Vanderzande, Dirk; Maes, Wouter; Manca, Jean V.

    2014-01-01

    When state-of-the-art bulk heterojunction organic solar cells with ideal morphology are exposed to prolonged storage or operation at elevated temperatures, a thermally induced disruption of the active layer blend can occur, in the form of a separation of donor and acceptor domains, leading to diminished photovoltaic performance. Toward the long-term use of organic solar cells in real-life conditions, an important challenge is, therefore, the development of devices with a thermally stable active layer morphology. Several routes are being explored, ranging from the use of high glass transition temperature, cross-linkable and/or side-chain functionalized donor and acceptor materials, to light-induced dimerization of the fullerene acceptor. A better fundamental understanding of the nature and underlying mechanisms of the phase separation and stabilization effects has been obtained through a variety of analytical, thermal analysis, and electro-optical techniques. Accelerated aging systems have been used to study the degradation kinetics of bulk heterojunction solar cells in situ at various temperatures to obtain aging models predicting solar cell lifetime. The following contribution gives an overview of the current insights regarding the intrinsic thermally induced aging effects and the proposed solutions, illustrated by examples of our own research groups.

  8. Mycophenolic acid reverses TGF beta-induced cell motility, collagen matrix contraction and cell morphology in vitro.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Darinka Todorova; Brandhorst, Gunnar; Koch, Christian; Schultze, Frank Christian; Eberle, Christoph; Walson, Philip D; Oellerich, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate functional and molecular effects of mycophenolic acid (MPA) on non-lymphatic, kidney epithelial cells treated with transforming growth factor (TGF). MPA effects were studied using HK2 cells incubated with EGF and TGF. The reversibility of these effects was verified using guanosine and 8-aminoguanosine. The following assays were applied: cell proliferation, viability, collagen matrix contraction, scratch wound closure, spindle index, FACS with anti-CD29 and anti-CD326, promoter demethylation of RAS protein activator like 1 (RASAL1), as well as gene expression of RASAL1, integrin 1ß (ITGB1) (CD29) and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCam) (CD326). Cell proliferation was inhibited by increasing concentrations of MPA, whereas neither apoptosis nor cytotoxicity was detected. Stimulation with EGF and/or TGF led to a significant collagen matrix contraction that was successfully inhibited by MPA. In addition, scratch wound closure was inhibited by incubation with TGF alone or with EGF. Under the same conditions, cell morphology (spindle shape) and molecular phenotype (ITGB1(High) EpCam(Low) /ITGB1(Low) EpCam(High) ) were both significantly changed, suggesting an epithelial to mesenchymal transformation. Cell morphology and motility, as well as molecular phenotype, were reversible after MPA treatment with TGF transformation in both presence/absence of EGF, thereby suggesting a correlation with the previously described antifibrotic effects of MPA. Dysregulation of TGF signal transduction appears to be related to progression of fibrosis. A TGF-transformed kidney epithelial cell line derived from human proximal tubules was used to study whether the immunosuppressive drug: MPA possesses any functional or molecular antifibrotic effects. Functional and morphological in vitro changes induced by both the TGF and epithelial-growth-factor were reversible by treatment with MPA. An inhibitory effect of MPA on the TGF pathway appears to be responsible for the previously described antifibrotic effects of the MPA in the COL4A3-deficient mouse model of renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26449633

  9. Morphological Characterization of Bushy Cells and Their Inputs in the Laboratory Mouse (Mus musculus) Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Amanda M.; Connelly, Catherine J.; Graham, Heather; Ryugo, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Spherical and globular bushy cells of the AVCN receive huge auditory nerve endings specialized for high fidelity neural transmission in response to acoustic events. Recent studies in mice and other rodent species suggest that the distinction between bushy cell subtypes is not always straightforward. We conducted a systematic investigation of mouse bushy cells along the rostral-caudal axis in an effort to understand the morphological variation that gives rise to reported response properties in mice. We combined quantitative light and electron microscopy to investigate variations in cell morphology, immunostaining, and the distribution of primary and non-primary synaptic inputs along the rostral-caudal axis. Overall, large regional differences in bushy cell characteristics were not found; however, rostral bushy cells received a different complement of axosomatic input compared to caudal bushy cells. The percentage of primary auditory nerve terminals was larger in caudal AVCN, whereas non-primary excitatory and inhibitory inputs were more common in rostral AVCN. Other ultrastructural characteristics of primary auditory nerve inputs were similar across the rostral and caudal AVCN. Cross sectional area, postsynaptic density length and curvature, and mitochondrial volume fraction were similar for axosomatic auditory nerve terminals, although rostral auditory nerve terminals contained a greater concentration of synaptic vesicles near the postsynaptic densities. These data demonstrate regional differences in synaptic organization of inputs to mouse bushy cells rather than the morphological characteristic of the cells themselves. PMID:23991186

  10. Phenotypic, Morphological and Adhesive Differences of Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Cultured on Murine versus Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Doreen; Friedrichs, Jens; Ritter, Steffi; Käubler, Theresa; Werner, Carsten; Bornhäuser, Martin; Corbeil, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Xenogenic transplantation models have been developed to study human hematopoiesis in immunocompromised murine recipients. They still have limitations and therefore it is important to delineate all players within the bone marrow that could account for species-specific differences. Here, we evaluated the proliferative capacity, morphological and physical characteristics of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) after co-culture on murine or human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). After seven days, human CD34+CD133– HSPCs expanded to similar extents on both feeder layers while cellular subsets comprising primitive CD34+CD133+ and CD133+CD34– phenotypes are reduced fivefold on murine MSCs. The number of migrating HSPCs was also reduced on murine cells suggesting that MSC adhesion influences cellular polarization of HSPC. We used atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy to quantify their adhesive interactions. We found threefold higher detachment forces of human HSPCs from murine MSCs compared to human ones. This difference is related to the N-cadherin expression level on murine MSCs since its knockdown abolished their differential adhesion properties with human HSPCs. Our observations highlight phenotypic, morphological and adhesive differences of human HSPCs when cultured on murine or human MSCs, which raise some caution in data interpretation when xenogenic transplantation models are used. PMID:26498381

  11. Automated cell-by-cell tissue imaging and single-cell analysis for targeted morphologies by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang; Smith, Brian K; Shrestha, Bindesh; Márk, László; Vertes, Akos

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an emerging technology for the mapping of molecular distributions in tissues. In most of the existing studies, imaging is performed by sampling on a predefined rectangular grid that does not reflect the natural cellular pattern of the tissue. Delivering laser pulses by a sharpened optical fiber in laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry (MS) has enabled the direct analysis of single cells and subcellular compartments. Cell-by-cell imaging had been demonstrated using LAESI-MS, where individual cells were manually selected to serve as natural pixels for tissue imaging. Here we describe a protocol for a novel cell-by-cell LAESI imaging approach that automates cell recognition and addressing for systematic ablation of individual cells. Cell types with particular morphologies can also be selected for analysis. First, the cells are recognized as objects in a microscope image. The coordinates of their centroids are used by a stage-control program to sequentially position the cells under the optical fiber tip for laser ablation. This approach increases the image acquisition efficiency and stability, and enables the investigation of extended or selected tissue areas. In the LAESI process, the ablation events result in mass spectra that represent the metabolite levels in the ablated cells. Peak intensities of selected ions are used to represent the metabolite distributions in the tissue with single-cell resolution. PMID:25361672

  12. Sperm Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) Regulates Fibroblast Cell Growth, Morphology, Migration and Ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Mukherjee, Abir; Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Ling; Teves, Maria E.; Li, Hongfei; Nambiar, Shanti; Henderson, Scott C.; Horwitz, Alan R.; Strauss III, Jerome F.; Fang, Xianjun; Zhang, Zhibing

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian Spag6 is the orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, which encodes a protein localized in the axoneme central apparatus, and regulates flagella/cilia motility. Most Spag6-deficient mice are smaller in size than their littermates. Because SPAG6 decorates microtubules, we hypothesized that SPAG6 has other roles related to microtubule function besides regulating flagellar/cilia motility. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from Spag6-deficient and wild-type embryos for these studies. Both primary and immortalized Spag6-deficient MEFs proliferated at a much slower rate than the wild-type MEFs, and they had a larger surface area. Re-expression of SPAG6 in the Spag6-deficient MEFs rescued the abnormal cell morphology. Spag6-deficient MEFs were less motile than wild-type MEFs, as shown by both chemotactic analysis and wound-healing assays. Spag6-deficient MEFs also showed reduced adhesion associated with a non-polarized F-actin distribution. Multiple centrosomes were observed in the Spag6-deficient MEF cultures. The percentage of cells with primary cilia was significantly reduced compared to the wild-type MEFs, and some Spag6-deficient MEFs developed multiple cilia. Furthermore, SPAG6 selectively increased expression of acetylated tubulin, a microtubule stability marker. The Spag6-deficient MEFs were more sensitive to paclitaxel, a microtubule stabilizer. Our studies reveal new roles for SPAG6 in modulation of cell morphology, proliferation, migration, and ciliogenesis. PMID:26585507

  13. Sperm Associated Antigen 6 (SPAG6) Regulates Fibroblast Cell Growth, Morphology, Migration and Ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Mukherjee, Abir; Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Ling; Teves, Maria E; Li, Hongfei; Nambiar, Shanti; Henderson, Scott C; Horwitz, Alan R; Strauss Iii, Jerome F; Fang, Xianjun; Zhang, Zhibing

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian Spag6 is the orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, which encodes a protein localized in the axoneme central apparatus, and regulates flagella/cilia motility. Most Spag6-deficient mice are smaller in size than their littermates. Because SPAG6 decorates microtubules, we hypothesized that SPAG6 has other roles related to microtubule function besides regulating flagellar/cilia motility. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from Spag6-deficient and wild-type embryos for these studies. Both primary and immortalized Spag6-deficient MEFs proliferated at a much slower rate than the wild-type MEFs, and they had a larger surface area. Re-expression of SPAG6 in the Spag6-deficient MEFs rescued the abnormal cell morphology. Spag6-deficient MEFs were less motile than wild-type MEFs, as shown by both chemotactic analysis and wound-healing assays. Spag6-deficient MEFs also showed reduced adhesion associated with a non-polarized F-actin distribution. Multiple centrosomes were observed in the Spag6-deficient MEF cultures. The percentage of cells with primary cilia was significantly reduced compared to the wild-type MEFs, and some Spag6-deficient MEFs developed multiple cilia. Furthermore, SPAG6 selectively increased expression of acetylated tubulin, a microtubule stability marker. The Spag6-deficient MEFs were more sensitive to paclitaxel, a microtubule stabilizer. Our studies reveal new roles for SPAG6 in modulation of cell morphology, proliferation, migration, and ciliogenesis. PMID:26585507

  14. Black carbon refractive index and morphology: a Laboratory study

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Black carbon refractive index and morphology: a Laboratory study Dan M. Peters1 , Roy G. Grainger1 state that has a strong effect on black carbon absorption [4],[6]; as well as the UK Chemistry Aerosol effects. Bond, [1] summarize the aspects of black carbon that are unknown or uncertain and affect our

  15. Effect of microfabricated microgroove-surface devices on the morphology of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangkai; Aoyama, Tomoki; Yasuda, Takashi; Oike, Makoto; Ito, Akira; Tajino, Junichi; Nagai, Momoko; Fujioka, Rune; Iijima, Hirotaka; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Kakinuma, Norihiro; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The surface of a material that is in contact with cells is known to affect cell morphology and function. To develop an appropriate surface for tendon engineering, we used zigzag microgroove surfaces, which are similar to the tenocyte microenvironment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of microgroove surfaces with different ridge angles (RAs), ridge lengths (RLs), ridge widths (RWs), and groove widths (GWs) on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) shape. Dishes with microgroove surfaces were fabricated using cyclic olefin polymer by injection-compression molding. The other parameters were fixed, and effects of different RAs (180 - 30 °), RLs (5 - 500 ?m), RWs (5 - 500 ?m), and GWs (5 - 500 ?m) were examined. Changes in the zigzag shape of the cell due to different RAs, RLs, RWs, and GWs were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Cytoskeletal changes were investigated using Phalloidin immunofluorescence staining. As observed by optical microscopy, MSCs changed to a zigzag shape in response to microgroove surfaces with different ridge and groove properties. . As observed by scanning electron microscopy, the cell shape changed at turns in the microgroove surface. Phalloidin immunofluorescence staining indicated that F-actin, not only in cell filopodia but also inside the cell body, changed orientation to conform to the microgrooves. In conclusion, the use of zigzag microgroove surfaces microfabricated by injection-compression molding demonstrated the property of MSCs to alter their shapes to fit the surface. PMID:26573821

  16. DIFFERENCES IN MORPHOLOGICAL AND CELL WALL TRAITS OF ALFALFA PLANTS SELECTED FOR DIVERGENT STEM IN VITRO FIBER DIGESTIBILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared alfalfa clones identified as either low or high rapid (16 h), or low or high potential (96 h) stem in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD) for stem fiber, cell wall, and morphology traits. Five clones of each selection group were grown in replicated field plots at...

  17. Primary CNS T-cell Lymphomas: A Clinical, Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Analysis.

    PubMed

    Menon, Madhu P; Nicolae, Alina; Meeker, Hillary; Raffeld, Mark; Xi, Liqiang; Jegalian, Armin G; Miller, Douglas C; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas are relatively rare with the most common subtype being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Primary CNS T-cell lymphomas (PCNSTL) account for <5% of CNS lymphomas. We report the clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular characteristics of 18 PCNSTLs. Fifteen cases were classified as peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, 2 of which were of ?? T-cell derivation and 1 was TCR silent; there was 1 anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive and 2 anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative. Median age was 58.5 years (range, 21 to 81 y), with an M:F ratio of 11:7. Imaging results showed that 15 patients had supratentorial lesions. Regardless of subtype, necrosis and perivascular cuffing of tumor cells were frequently observed (11/18 cases). CD3 was positive in all cases but 1; 10/17 were CD8-positive, and 5/17 were CD4-positive. Most cases studied had a cytotoxic phenotype with expression of TIA1 (13/15) and granzyme-B (9/13). Polymerase chain reaction analysis of T-cell receptor ? rearrangement confirmed a T-cell clone in 14 cases with adequate DNA quality. Next-generation sequencing showed somatic mutations in 36% of cases studied; 2 had >1 mutation, and none showed overlapping mutations. These included mutations in DNMT3A, KRAS, JAK3, STAT3, STAT5B, GNB1, and TET2 genes, genes implicated previously in other T-cell neoplasms. The outcome was heterogenous; 2 patients are alive without disease, 4 are alive with disease, and 6 died of disease. In conclusion, PCNSTLs are histologically and genomically heterogenous with frequent phenotypic aberrancy and a cytotoxic phenotype in most cases. PMID:26379152

  18. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 ; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Qiang; Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie; Lian, Qing-Quan; Deng, Hai-Teng; Ge, Ren-Shan; The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  19. Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nossol, Constanze; Barta-Böszörményi, Anicò; Kahlert, Stefan; Zuschratter, Werner; Faber-Zuschratter, Heidi; Reinhardt, Nicole; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Wimmers, Klaus; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef

    2015-01-01

    The pig shows genetical and physiological resemblance to human, which predestines it as an experimental animal model especially for mucosal physiology. Therefore, the intestinal epithelial cell lines 1 and J2 (IPEC-1, IPEC-J2) - spontaneously immortalised cell lines from the porcine intestine - are important tools for studying intestinal function. A microarray (GeneChip Porcine Genome Array) was performed to compare the genome wide gene expression of IPECs. Different significantly up-regulated pathways were identified, like “lysosome”, “pathways in cancer”, “regulation of actin cytoskeleton” and “oxidative phosphorylation” in IPEC-J2 in comparison to IPEC-1. On the other hand, “spliceosome”, “ribosome”, “RNA-degradation” and “tight junction” are significantly down-regulated pathways in IPEC-J2 in comparison to IPEC-1. Examined pathways were followed up by functional analyses. ATP-, oxygen, glucose and lactate-measurement provide evidence for up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in IPEC-J2. These cells seem to be more active in their metabolism than IPEC-1 cells due to a significant higher ATP-content as well as a higher O2- and glucose-consumption. The down-regulated pathway “ribosome” was followed up by measurement of RNA- and protein content. In summary, IPEC-J2 is a morphologically and functionally more differentiated cell line in comparison to IPEC-1. In addition, IPEC-J2 cells are a preferential tool for in vitro studies with the focus on metabolism. PMID:26147118

  20. EFFECTS OF VISUAL DEPRIVATION ON MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS IN THE CAT'S

    E-print Network

    Hubel, David

    . The reduction in intensity of a light beam passing through the eyelid, measured with a photoelectric cellEFFECTS OF VISUAL DEPRIVATION ON MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS IN THE CAT'S LATERAL GENICULATE, but such experiments require some knowledge of normal function. During the last 10 years single-cell responses have

  1. The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Volker

    1 The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells Stefan D.a.j.janssen@tue.nl #12;2 Abstract: The efficiency of polymer solar cells critically depends on the intimacy of mixing and quantitative correlation between solar cell performance, photophysical data and the three

  2. Morphological Differences between Circulating Tumor Cells from Prostate Cancer Patients and Cultured

    E-print Network

    Ma, Hongshen

    Morphological Differences between Circulating Tumor Cells from Prostate Cancer Patients and Cultured Prostate Cancer Cells Sunyoung Park1 , Richard R. Ang1 , Simon P. Duffy1,2 , Jenny Bazov3 , Kim N resistant prostate cancer and cultured prostate cancer cells in order to establish whether the latter

  3. Inhibiting farnesylation reverses the nuclear morphology defect in a HeLa cell model for

    E-print Network

    Gelb, Michael

    Inhibiting farnesylation reverses the nuclear morphology defect in a HeLa cell model for Hutchinson hypothesis, we find that expression in HeLa cells of GFP­progerin or an uncleavable form of prelamin Michaelis* *Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205

  4. AUTOMATIC QUANTIFICATION OF IN VITRO ENDOTHELIAL CELL NETWORKS USING MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Angulo,Jesús

    frequently used angiogenesis assays is the culture of endothelial cells on a reconstituted basement membrane morphological pa- rameters to evaluate the characteristics of the cell culture. KEY WORDS biomedical image diseases (psoriasis, diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis) [7]. Endothelial cells play a central role

  5. Displaced GAD65 amacrine cells of the guinea pig retina are morphologically diverse

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Displaced GAD65 amacrine cells of the guinea pig retina are morphologically diverse YEN-HONG KAO cell types, we filled about 200 amacrine neurons in the ganglion cell layer of the guinea pig visual, Displaced amacrine, Guinea pig Introduction Amacrine somas form a continuous tier at the inner margin

  6. Morphological Study of the Accommodative Apparatus in the Monkey Eye

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Mari; Inoue, Kenichi; Senoo, Haruki; Takada, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    For more than a century there has been debate concerning the mechanism of accommodation—whether the lens capsule or lens material itself determines the functional relationship between ciliary muscle contractility and lens deformation during refractive adaptation. This morphological study in monkey eyes investigates the composition and distribution of several connective tissue components in the accommodative apparatus relaying muscle force to lens organization. Elastin distributes on the marginal surface of the ciliary process. A zonule is composed of fibrillin produced by epithelial cells of the process. In the progress of extension over the posterior chamber, fibrils unite into strands and possess longitudinal plasticity. By induction of the elastin network, strands extend in a concentric direction covering the equatorial region of the capsule. Upon tethering to the lens, the strand ramifies into fibrils, penetrating deeply close to the epithelial layer of the lens and binding with the collagen of the intercellular spaces. Tight linkage of the zonule with the capsule transmits precise contractility. Inside the lens, the cortical layer's elastic connective tissue network forms widely spaced lamellae of crystalline fibers. In contrast, the central nuclear lamellae are tightly opposed. The accumulation of lamellae is greater in the anterior cortex than in the posterior, yielding a more variable anterior chamber depth in the visual axis. The plasticity of the zonule and connective tissue distribution inside the lens produces an adjustable configuration. Thus, tight linkage between the dynamism of the capsule with interaction of the lenticular flexibility provides a novel understanding of accommodation. Anat Rec, 298:630–636, 2015. PMID:25403484

  7. Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P. E.; Camacho-Díaz, B. H.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

  8. Morphology of human embryonic kidney cells in culture after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Kunze, M. E.; Williams, K.; Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.; Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of human embyronic kidney cells to differentiate into small epithelioid, large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated morphological cell types following space flight is examined. Kidney cells exposed to 1 day at 1 g, then 1 day in orbit, and a 12 minute passage through the electrophoretic separator are compared with control cultures. The data reveal that 70 percent of small epithelioid, 16 percent of large epithelioid, 9 percent of dome-forming, and 5 percent of fenestrated cells formed in the space exposed cells; the distributions correlate well with control data. The formation of domed cells from cells cultured from low electrophoretic mobility fractions and small epithelioid cells from high mobility fractions is unaffected by space flight conditions. It is concluded that storage under microgravity conditions does not influence the morphological differentiation of human embryonic kidney cells in low-passage culture.

  9. Sensory cells determine afferent terminal morphology in cross-innervated electroreceptor organs: implications for hair cells.

    PubMed

    Zakon, H; Lu, Y; Weisleder, P

    1998-04-01

    Type I and type II hair cells of the vestibular system are innervated by afferents that form calyceal and bouton terminals, respectively. These cannot be experimentally cross-innervated in the inner ear to determine how they influence each other. However, analogous organs are accessible for transplantation and cross-innervation in the brown ghost electric fish. These fish possess three types of electroreceptor organs. Of these, the sensory receptors of the type I tuberous organ are S-100- and parvalbumin-positive with a calbindin-positive afferent that forms a large calyx around the organ. Neither the sensory receptors nor the afferents of the ampullary organs label with these antibodies, and the afferent branches form a single large bouton beneath each receptor cell. In controls, when cut ampullary afferents reinnervate transplanted ampullary organs, they have characteristic calbindin-negative terminals with large boutons. When type I tuberous afferents reinnervate ampullary organs, receptor cells remain S-100- and parvalbumin-negative, and the tuberous afferents still express calbindin. The nerve terminals, however, make large ampullary-like boutons on the receptor cells. These results suggest that (1) afferent terminal morphology is dictated by the receptor organ; (2) expression of calbindin by the afferent is not suppressed by innervation of the incorrect end organ; (3) ampullary organs generate ampullary receptor cells although innervated by tuberous afferents; and (4) ampullary receptor cells can be trophically supported by tuberous afferents. PMID:9502817

  10. Action potential propagation through embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells in culture. I. Influence of the cell morphology on propagation properties.

    PubMed

    Lüscher, C; Streit, J; Quadroni, R; Lüscher, H R

    1994-08-01

    1. In this and the companion paper the reliability of action potential (AP) propagation through dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells was investigated. Experimental data were collected from DRG cells of embryonic rat slice cultures of the spinal cord. A field stimulation electrode was used to elicit an AP in the axon. The propagated AP or, in case of conduction block, its electronic residue (ER), was measured intracellularly in the soma of the DRG cell. 2. The morphological and electrophysiological data combined with published data from voltage-clamp studies were taken to implement a compartmental computer model, which allows a precise description of the propagating AP and the channel kinetics at any point along the axon. 3. The safety factor for conduction was found to be low. Thus failures of AP invasion of the DRG cell soma could occur at sites of impedance mismatch when a hyperpolarizing current was applied, a second stimulus felt into the relative refractory period of the first, or when the axon was repetitively stimulated. 4. The ERs of the failed APs had discrete amplitude levels, suggesting that the failures were always caused at the same site along the axon. These sites of low safety factor were found to be the branch point in the unipolar DRG cell and the entrance of the stem piece into the soma in both cell types, the bipolar as well as the unipolar. 5. A systematic comparison of bipolar and unipolar DRG cells showed that the AP conduction through the latter is more reliable. For large cell bodies, the unipolar configuration is needed for save conduction. 6. Conduction through unipolar DRG cells is faster than through bipolar cells because the electrical load of the soma is masked by the high-resistive stem piece. The length of this stem piece is correlated inversely to the delay caused at the branch point, as the electrical load of the soma is more efficiently masked by a long stem piece. PMID:7983524

  11. Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lensink, Saskia E.; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual language control (BLC) is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an event-related potential (ERP) study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch) and L2 (English). Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block. PMID:25566022

  12. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Many of the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system during space flight may originate from the dysfunction of basic biological mechanisms caused by microgravity. The weightlessness affects the system when blood and other fluids move to the upper body causing the heart to enlarge to handle the increased blood flow to the upper extremities and decrease circulating volume. Increase arterial pressure triggers baroreceptors which signal the brain to adjust heart rate. Hemodynarnic studies indicate that the microgravity-induced headward fluid redistribution results in various cardiovascular changes such as; alteration of vascular permeability resulting in lipid accumulation in the lumen of the vasculature and degeneration of the the vascular wall, capillary alteration with extensive endothelial invagination. Achieving a true microgravity environment in ground based studies for prolonged periods is virtually impossible. The application of vector-averaged gravity to mammalian cells using horizontal clinostat produces alterations of cellular behavior similar to those observed in microgravity. Similarly, the low shear, horizontally rotating bioreactor (originally designed by NASA) also duplicates several properties of microgravity. Additionally, increasing gravity, i.e., hypcrgravity is easily achieved. Hypergravity has been found to increase the proliferation of several different cell lines (e.g., chick embryo fibroblasts) while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. The effect of altered gravity on cells maybe similar to those of other physical forces, i.e. shear stress. Previous studies examining laminar flow and shear stress on endothelial cells found that the cells elongate, orient with the direction of flow, and reorganize their F-actin structure, with concomitant increase in cell stiffness. These studies suggest that alterations in the gravity environment will change the behavior of most cells, including vascular cells. However, few studies have been directed at assessing the effect of altered gravitational field on vascular cell fiction and metabolism, Using image analysis we examined how bovine aortic endothelial cells altered their morphological characteristics and their response to a denudation injury when cells were subjected to simulated microgravity and hypergravity.

  13. Morphological and histochemical studies on the parotid gland of Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis.

    PubMed

    Sirigu, P; Gross, S A; Di Dio, L J; Allen, D J; Perra, M T

    1984-01-01

    The parotid gland of Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis follows the same anatomical pattern of Rodentia since no peculiar morphological and histochemical features were found in the present study that differentiate it from homologous glands in other rodents. It consists of serous secreting components and intralobular ducts that demonstrate no sexual dimorphism. Histochemical studies reveal that the glandular cells of the Praomys' parotid gland contain no acid mucosubstance, but that material of a neutral glycoprotein nature can be found in the secreting cells of acini, epithelium of the ducts, and the ductal lumina. PMID:6083776

  14. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths WG van Doorn*,1

    E-print Network

    Dangl, Jeff

    . Just as animal cells engage several mechanisms leading to death, the road to cell demise in plants can may account for the differences between the mechanisms of plant and animal cell death. It is therefore appropriate to assess the relevance of animal cell death nomenclature1 to plants. At present

  15. Tuning perovskite morphology by polymer additive for high efficiency solar cell.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Chu, Cheng-Ya; Huang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Wen; Chang, Shuang-Yuan; Chen, Chien-An; Chao, Chi-Yang; Su, Wei-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Solution processable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell is a very promising new technology for low cost renewable energy. One of the most common cell structures is FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/spiro-OMeTAD/Au. The main issues of this type of solar cell are the poor coverage and morphology control of the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx film on TiO2. For the first time, we demonstrate that the problems can be easily resolved by using a polymer additive in perovskite precursor solution during the film formation process. A 25% increase in power conversion efficiency at a value of 13.2% is achieved by adding 1 wt % of poly(ethylene glycol) in the perovskite layer using a 150 °C processed TiO2 nanoparticle layer. The morphology of this new perovskite was carefully studied by SEM, XRD, and AFM. The results reveal that the additive controls the size and aggregation of perovskite crystals and helps the formation of smooth film over TiO2 completely. Thus, the Voc and Jsc are greatly increased for a high efficiency solar cell. The amount of additive is optimized at 1 wt % due to its insulating characteristics. This research provides a facile way to fabricate a high efficiency perovskite solar cell by the low temperature solution process (<150 °C), which has the advancement of conserving energy over the traditional high temperature sintering TiO2 compact layer device. PMID:25679316

  16. The surface morphology of the midgut cells of Rhodnius prolixus Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) during blood digestion.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, P F; Downe, A E

    1986-12-01

    The surface morphology of the midgut cells of Rhodnius prolixus is examined using scanning electron microscopy. Before feeding, the microvilli are devoid of any extracellular structures and can be observed in both fracture faces and surface views. By 3 days after feeding, patches of extracellular membrane layers are observed on the surface of the midgut cells and by 7 days the extracellular membrane layers form an incomplete sheet overlying the microvilli, such that the microvilli are no longer visible in surface view. At 15 days after the blood meal the membrane layers are well developed in the intestine forming a continuous sheet, while in the crop the layers are not as completely developed. The results complement previous studies on the midgut ultrastructure of R. prolixus. The extracellular membrane layers are thought to function as a peritrophic membrane, allowing the spatial separation of digestive processes. PMID:2882663

  17. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-09-09

    In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

  18. Morphological characteristics and identification of islet-like cells derived from rat adipose-derived stem cells cocultured with pancreas adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hefei, Wang; Yu, Ren; Haiqing, Wu; Xiao, Wang; Jingyuan, Wang; Dongjun, Liu

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes is a significant public health problem that can be treated with insulin therapy; however, therapies designed to cure diabetes are limited. The goal of the current study was to assess the potential for curative treatment of diabetes using adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). To achieve this goal, the differentiation of rat ADSCs into pancreatic islet-like cells induced by coculture with pancreatic adult stem cells (PASCs) was characterized. Differentiation of ADSCs into islet-like cells induced by coculturing was determined morphologically, as well as by the assessment of islet cell markers using dithizone staining, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, qPCR, and western blotting. The results showed that ADSCs formed islet-like round cell masses after coculture with PASCs. These differentiated cells were shown to be positive for islet cell markers, including dithizone incorporation; PDX1, CK19 and Nestin by immunohistochemistry, and insulin, PDX1 and glucagon expression by RT-PCR. Differentiated ADSCs induced by coculturing also expressed insulin at the mRNA and protein level, with the level of insulin mRNA expression in cocultured ADSCs being 0.05 times greater than that of PASCs (P?cells by coculture with PASCs; thus these cells can be used for transplantation, providing a theoretical foundation for the treatment of diabetes using this approach. PMID:25262665

  19. Single-cell morphological data reveals signaling network architecture

    E-print Network

    Nir, Oaz

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis, the migration of cancer cells from the primary site of tumorigenesis and the subsequent invasion of secondary tissues, causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. To spread, metastatic cells dramatically rearrange ...

  20. Ultra-structural morphology of long-term cultivated white adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Varga, Ivan; Miko, Michal; Oravcová, Lenka; Ba?kayová, Tatiana; Koller, Ján; Danišovi?, ?uboš

    2015-12-01

    White adipose tissue was long perceived as a passive lipid storage depot but it is now considered as an active and important endocrine organ. It also harbours not only adipocytes and vascular cells but also a wide array of immunologically active cells, including macrophages and lymphocytes, which may induce obesity-related inflammation. Recently, adipose tissue has been reported as a source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with wide use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Their relatively non-complicated procurement and collection (often performed as liposuction during aesthetic surgery) and grand plasticity support this idea even more. We focused our research on exploring the issues of isolation and long-term cultivation of mesenchymal stem cells obtained from adipose tissue. Ultra-structural morphology of the cells cultivated in vitro has been studied and analysed in several cultivation time periods and following serial passages-up to 30 passages. In the first passages they had ultra-structural characteristics of cells with high proteosynthetic activity. Within the cytoplasm, big number of small lipid droplets and between them, sparsely placed, small and inconspicuous, electron-dense, lamellar bodies, which resembled myelin figures were observed. The cells from the later passages contained high number of lamellar electron-dense structures, which filled out almost the entire cytoplasm. In between, mitochondria were often found. These bodies were sometimes small and resembled myelin figures, but several of them reached huge dimensions (more than 1 µm) and their lamellar structure was not distinguishable. We did not have an answer to the question about their function, but they probably represented the evidence of active metabolism of lipids present in the cytoplasm of these cells or represented residual bodies, which arise after the breakdown of cellular organelles, notably mitochondria during long-term cultivation. PMID:26093679

  1. The use of optical coherence tomography for morphological study of scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Veksler, B A; Kuz'min, V L; Kobzev, E D; Meglinski, I V

    2012-05-31

    Aimed at possible widening of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) field of application, an attempt is made to use OCT in tissue engineering and cell transplantology as a tool for morphological studies of substrate materials by the example of scaffolds. By means of the traditional fibreoptical OCT scheme the images of inner structure of scaffolds are obtained, and simultaneously the spatial distribution of the intralipid flow velocity is reconstructed using the Doppler OCT. It is shown that combined use of traditional OCT and Doppler OCT schemes allows revealing the regions of the scaffold demonstrating optimal effect of shear stress, which is a key factor of cell growth.

  2. Perturbation of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis affects mitochondrial morphology and cell-cycle progression in

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    in the mammalian host form a single tube with few short cristae and there is no functional Krebs cycle. DuringPerturbation of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis affects mitochondrial morphology and cell-cycle-down of ET. Interference with phospholipid synthesis also impaired normal cell-cycle progression. ET RNAi led

  3. Morphologic categorization of cell death induced by mild hyperthermia and comparison with death induced by ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, D.J.; Harmon, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the morphological categorization of cell death, results of two in vivo studies on the cell death induced by mild hyperthermia in rat small intestine and mouse mastocytoma, and a comparison of the cell death induced by hyperthermia, radiation and cytotoxic drugs. Two distinct forms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis, can be recognized on morphologic grounds. Apoptosis appears to be a process of active cellular self-destruction to which a biologically meaningful role can usually be attributed, whereas necrosis is a passive degenerative phenomenon that results from irreversible cellular injury. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies showed that lower body hyperthermia (43 degrees C for 30 min) induced only apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, and of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. In the mastocytoma, hyperthermia (43 degrees C for 15 min) produced widespread tumor necrosis and also enhanced apoptosis of tumor cells. Ionizing radiation and cytotoxic drugs are also known to induce apoptosis in a variety of tissues. It is attractive to speculate that DNA damage by each agent is the common event which triggers the same process of active cellular self-destruction that characteristically effects selective cell deletion in normal tissue homeostasis.

  4. DCLK1 Marks a Morphologically Distinct Subpopulation of Cells with Stem Cell Properties in Pre-invasive Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jennifer M.; Alsina, Janivette; Rasheed, Zeshaan A.; McAllister, Florencia M.; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Plentz, Ruben; Zhang, Hao; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Matsui, William; Maitra, Anirban; Leach, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims As in other tumor types, progression of pancreatic cancer may require a functionally unique population of cancer stem cells. Although such cells have been identified in many invasive cancers, is not clear whether they emerge during early or late stages of tumorigenesis. Using mouse models and human pancreatic cancer cell lines, we investigated whether pre-invasive pancreatic neoplasia contains a subpopulation of cells with distinct morphologies and cancer stem cell-like properties. Methods Pancreatic tissue samples were collected from the KCPdx1, KPCPdx1, and KCiMist1 mouse models of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and analyzed by confocal and electron microscopy, lineage tracing, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Subpopulations of human PDAC cells were similarly analyzed and also used in cDNA microarray analyses. Results The microtubule regulator DCLK1 marked a morphologically distinct and functionally unique population of pancreatic cancer-initiating cells. These cells displayed morphologic and molecular features of gastrointestinal tuft cells. Cells that expressed DCLK1 also expressed high levels of ATAT1, HES1, HEY1, IGF1R, and ABL1, and manipulation of these pathways in PDAC cell lines inhibited their clonogenic potential. Pharmacologic inhibition of ?–secretase activity reduced the abundance of these cells in murine PanIN, in a manner that correlated with inhibition of PanIN progression. Conclusions Human PDAC cells and pancreatic neoplasms in mice contain morphologically and functionally distinct subpopulations that have cancer stem cell-like properties. These populations can be identified at the earliest stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis, and provide new cellular and molecular targets for pancreatic cancer treatment and/or chemoprevention. PMID:24096005

  5. Characterization of a novel canine T-cell line established from a spontaneously occurring aggressive T-cell lymphoma with large granular cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Bonnefont-Rebeix, Catherine; Fournel-Fleury, Corinne; Ponce, Frédérique; Belluco, Sara; Watrelot, Dorothée; Bouteille, Sylvie E; Rapiteau, Sylvie; Razanajaona-Doll, Diane; Pin, Jean-Jacques; Leroux, Caroline; Marchal, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Dogs with lymphoma are established as good model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma studies. Canine cell lines derived from lymphomas may be valuable tools for testing new therapeutic drugs. In this context, we established a canine T-cell line, PER-VAS, from a primary aggressive T-cell lymphoma with large granular morphology. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a stable immunophenotype: PER-VAS cells were positively labelled for CD5, CD45, MHC II and TLR3, and were negative for CD3, CD4 and CD8 expression. Although unstable along the culture process, IL-17 and MMP12 proteins were detectable as late as at passages 280 and 325i.e. respectively 24 and 29 months post isolation. At passage 325, PER-VAS cells maintained the expression of IL-17, CD3, CD56, IFN? and TNF? mRNAs as shown by RT-PCR analysis. Stable rearrangement of the TCR? gene has been evidenced by PCR. PER-VAS cells have a high proliferation index with a doubling time of 16.5h and were tumorigenic in Nude mice. Compared to the canine cell lines already reported, PER-VAS cells display an original expression pattern, close to NKT cells, which makes them valuable tools for in vitro comparative research on lymphomas. PMID:26345430

  6. The nucleation of iron on dense wustite: A morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moujahid, S. El; Rist, A.

    1988-10-01

    Dense wustite was reduced at temperatures from 430 to 1100 °C in CO-A, CO-CO2, H2-A, and H2-H2O mixtures. Most of the experiments were conducted on a hot stage microscope, providing a clear record of the sequence of events. The morphology of phases was further studied on the optical and the scanning electron microscopes. Two types of nuclei were identified: (1) dense nuclei, ranging from regular whiskers to simple protrusions, around which flat bases develop to form a protective film, and (2) porous nuclei with lenticular shapes, which remain level with the sample surface as they grow (both radially and into the wustite) to form a porous layer. Mild gases and moderate temperatures favor dense iron, whereas strong gases and extreme temperatures (either low or high) favor porous iron. The domains of the two types are represented in morphology maps. They overlap in transition zones where mixed nuclei are found; in this case the porous nuclei appear later than the dense ones but they grow much faster. The morphology maps support the view that sponge iron in iron ore reduction does not originate from porous iron nuclei but develops as a maze of dense iron growths. Experiments with cold-worked and annealed samples indicate that dislocations are essential to the growth of whiskers.

  7. Fibrocartilage tissue engineering: the role of the stress environment on cell morphology and matrix expression.

    PubMed

    Thomopoulos, Stavros; Das, Rosalina; Birman, Victor; Smith, Lester; Ku, Katherine; Elson, Elliott L; Pryse, Kenneth M; Marquez, Juan Pablo; Genin, Guy M

    2011-04-01

    Although much is known about the effects of uniaxial mechanical loading on fibrocartilage development, the stress fields to which fibrocartilaginous regions are subjected to during development are mutiaxial. That fibrocartilage develops at tendon-to-bone attachments and in compressive regions of tendons is well established. However, the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the stresses needed for the development of fibrocartilage is not known. Here, we developed and applied an in vitro system to determine whether fibrocartilage can develop under a state of periodic hydrostatic tension in which only a single principal component of stress is compressive. This question is vital to efforts to mechanically guide morphogenesis and matrix expression in engineered tissue replacements. Mesenchymal stromal cells in a 3D culture were exposed to compressive and tensile stresses as a result of an external tensile hydrostatic stress field. The stress field was characterized through mechanical modeling. Tensile cyclic stresses promoted spindle-shaped cells, upregulation of scleraxis and type one collagen, and cell alignment with the direction of tension. Cells experiencing a single compressive stress component exhibited rounded cell morphology and random cell orientation. No difference in mRNA expression of the genes Sox9 and aggrecan was observed when comparing tensile and compressive regions unless the medium was supplemented with the chondrogenic factor transforming growth factor beta3. In that case, Sox9 was upregulated under static loading conditions and aggrecan was upregulated under cyclic loading conditions. In conclusion, the fibrous component of fibrocartilage could be generated using only mechanical cues, but generation of the cartilaginous component of fibrocartilage required biologic factors in addition to mechanical cues. These studies support the hypothesis that the 3D stress environment influences cell activity and gene expression in fibrocartilage development. PMID:21091338

  8. Fibrocartilage Tissue Engineering: The Role of the Stress Environment on Cell Morphology and Matrix Expression

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rosalina; Birman, Victor; Smith, Lester; Ku, Katherine; Elson, Elliott L.; Pryse, Kenneth M.; Marquez, Juan Pablo; Genin, Guy M.

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the effects of uniaxial mechanical loading on fibrocartilage development, the stress fields to which fibrocartilaginous regions are subjected to during development are mutiaxial. That fibrocartilage develops at tendon-to-bone attachments and in compressive regions of tendons is well established. However, the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the stresses needed for the development of fibrocartilage is not known. Here, we developed and applied an in vitro system to determine whether fibrocartilage can develop under a state of periodic hydrostatic tension in which only a single principal component of stress is compressive. This question is vital to efforts to mechanically guide morphogenesis and matrix expression in engineered tissue replacements. Mesenchymal stromal cells in a 3D culture were exposed to compressive and tensile stresses as a result of an external tensile hydrostatic stress field. The stress field was characterized through mechanical modeling. Tensile cyclic stresses promoted spindle-shaped cells, upregulation of scleraxis and type one collagen, and cell alignment with the direction of tension. Cells experiencing a single compressive stress component exhibited rounded cell morphology and random cell orientation. No difference in mRNA expression of the genes Sox9 and aggrecan was observed when comparing tensile and compressive regions unless the medium was supplemented with the chondrogenic factor transforming growth factor beta3. In that case, Sox9 was upregulated under static loading conditions and aggrecan was upregulated under cyclic loading conditions. In conclusion, the fibrous component of fibrocartilage could be generated using only mechanical cues, but generation of the cartilaginous component of fibrocartilage required biologic factors in addition to mechanical cues. These studies support the hypothesis that the 3D stress environment influences cell activity and gene expression in fibrocartilage development. PMID:21091338

  9. Altered terminal Schwann cell morphology precedes denervation in SOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Dario I; Seburn, Kevin L; Pinter, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    In mice that express SOD1 mutations found in human motor neuron disease, degeneration begins in the periphery for reasons that remain unknown. At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) have an intimate relationship with motor terminals and are believed to help maintain the integrity of the motor terminal. Recent evidence indicates that TSCs in some SOD1 mice exhibit abnormal functional properties, but other aspects of possible TSC involvement remain unknown. In this study, an analysis of TSC morphology and number was performed in relation to NMJ innervation status in mice which express the G93A SOD1 mutation. At P30, all NMJs of the fast medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle were fully innervated by a single motor axon but 50% of NMJs lacked TSC cell bodies and were instead covered by the processes of Schwann cells with cell bodies located on the preterminal axons. NMJs in P30 slow soleus muscles were also fully innervated by single motor axons and only 5% of NMJs lacked a TSC cell body. At P60, about 25% of MG NMJs were denervated and lacked labeling for TSCs while about 60% of innervated NMJs lacked TSC cell bodies. In contrast, 96% of P60 soleus NMJs were innervated while 9% of innervated NMJs lacked TSC cell bodies. The pattern of TSC abnormalities found at P30 thus correlates with the pattern of denervation found at P60. Evidence from mice that express the G85R SOD1 mutation indicate that TSC abnormalities are not unique for mice that express G93A SOD1 mutations. These results add to an emerging understanding that TSCs may play a role in motor terminal degeneration and denervation in animal models of motor neuron disease. PMID:26416261

  10. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of ?-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells. PMID:25305245

  11. Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    El-Schich, Zahra; Mölder, Anna; Tassidis, Helena; Härkönen, Pirkko; Falck Miniotis, Maria; Gjörloff Wingren, Anette

    2015-03-01

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds. PMID:25637284

  12. Investigation of cell morphology for disease diagnostics via high content screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatau, Shyam

    2013-03-01

    Ninety percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by metastatic disease, i.e. the spreading of a subset of cells from a primary tumor in an organ to distal sites in other organs. Understanding this progression from localized to metastatic disease is essential for further developing effective therapeutic and treatment strategies. However, despite research efforts, no distinct genetic, epigenetic, or proteomic signature of cancer metastasis has been identified so far. Metastasis is a physical event: through invasion and migration through the dense, tortuous stromal matrix, intravasation, shear forces of blood flow, successful re-attachment to blood vessel walls, migration, the colonization of a distal site, and, finally, reactivation following dormancy, metastatic cells may share precise physical properties. Cell morphology is the most direct physical property that can be measured. In this work, we develop a high throughput cell phenotyping process and investigate the morphological signature of primary tumor cells and liver metastatic pancreatic cancer cells.

  13. Current morphologic criteria perform poorly in identifying hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome-associated uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Alsolami, Sana; El-Bahrawy, Mona; Kalloger, Steve E; AlDaoud, Nagla; Pathak, Tilak B; Chung, Catherine T; Cheung, Catherine T; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tomlinson, Ian P; Pollard, Patrick J; Gilks, C Blake; McCluggage, W Glenn; Clarke, Blaise A

    2014-11-01

    The contemporary oncologic pathology report conveys diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and hereditary predisposition information. Each component may be premised on a morphologic feature or a biomarker. Clinical validity and reproducibility are paramount as is standardization of reporting and clinical response to ensure individualization of patient care. Regarding hereditary predisposition, morphology-based genetic referral systems in some instances have eclipsed genealogy-based systems, for example, cell type in ovarian cancer and BRCA screening. In other instances such as Lynch syndrome, morphology-based schemas supplement clinical schemas and there is an emerging standard of care for reflex biomarker testing. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome predisposes patients to uterine and cutaneous leiomyomas (LMs) and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Several authors have emphasized the role pathologists may play in identifying this syndrome by recognizing the morphologic characteristics of syndromic uterine LMs and RCCs. Recently immunohistochemical overexpression of S-(2-succinyl) cysteine (2SC) has been demonstrated as a robust biomarker of mutation status in tumors from HLRCC patients. In this blinded control-cohort study we demonstrate that the proposed morphologic criteria used to identify uterine LMs in HLRCC syndrome are largely irreproducible among pathologists and lack sufficient robustness to serve as a trigger to triage cases for 2SC immunohistochemistry or patients for further family/personal history inquiry. Although refinement of morphologic criteria can be considered, in view of the availability of a clinically robust biomarker, consideration should be given to reflex testing of uterine LMs with an appropriate age cut off or in the setting of a suspicious family history. PMID:25272294

  14. Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Yun; Santbergen, Rudi; Jäger, Klaus; Sever, Martin; Kr?, Janez; Topi?, Marko; Hänni, Simon; Zhang, Chao; Heidt, Anna; Meier, Matthias; van Swaaij, René A C M M; Zeman, Miro

    2014-12-24

    Thin-film silicon solar cells are often deposited on textured ZnO substrates. The solar-cell performance is strongly correlated to the substrate morphology, as this morphology determines light scattering, defective-region formation, and crystalline growth of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H). Our objective is to gain deeper insight in these correlations using the slope distribution, rms roughness (?(rms)) and correlation length (lc) of textured substrates. A wide range of surface morphologies was obtained by Ar plasma treatment and wet etching of textured and flat-as-deposited ZnO substrates. The ?(rms), lc and slope distribution were deduced from AFM scans. Especially, the slope distribution of substrates was represented in an efficient way that light scattering and film growth direction can be more directly estimated at the same time. We observed that besides a high ?(rms), a high slope angle is beneficial to obtain high haze and scattering of light at larger angles, resulting in higher short-circuit current density of nc-Si:H solar cells. However, a high slope angle can also promote the creation of defective regions in nc-Si:H films grown on the substrate. It is also found that the crystalline fraction of nc-Si:H solar cells has a stronger correlation with the slope distributions than with ?(rms) of substrates. In this study, we successfully correlate all these observations with the solar-cell performance by using the slope distribution of substrates. PMID:25418361

  15. Morphological study and comprehensive cellular constituents of milky spots in the human omentum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiu-Yang; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Geng, Xia-Fei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze morphological features of omental milky spots (MS). Method: Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry technique were used to study the omental MS of gastric cancer (GC) patients and rectal cancer (RC) patients. We focused on morphological features of MS and conducted quantitative analysis on the cells number and cellular constituents. Differences in MS parameters between GC and RC were also analyzed. Results: Various shapes of MS were mainly round, oval, irregular form in the adipose and perivascular annular. The median MS perimeter was 2752 (range 817~7753) computer-based pixels. The median value of immune cells in one MS was 141 (43~650), comprising T lymphocytes (46.1%), B lymphocytes (28.4%), macrophages (12.4%) and other immune cells (13.1%). Relatively high density of vessels in MS could be calculated by micro-vessel density (MVD) as 4 (0~13). The median value of mesothelial cells loosely arranged in the surface layer was 5 (0~51). There were no significant differences in MS perimeter, MVD, the number of mesothelial cells, total immune cells, T lymphocytes and macrophages between GC and RC (P>0.05), while the number of MS B lymphocytes in RC was significantly higher than that in GC (P<0.001). Conclusion: MS are primary immune tissues in the omentum and structural bases for development and progression of peritoneal dissemination of GC and RC. Analyzing the morphology and cellular constituents could help understanding the mechanism of peritoneal metastasis. PMID:26722479

  16. Imaging Nuclear Morphology and Organization in Cleared Plant Tissues Treated with Cell Cycle Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    de Souza Junior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of root cells through chemical treatment can generate a large number of cells blocked in specific cell cycle phases. In plants, this approach can be employed for cell suspension cultures and plant seedlings. To identify plant cells in the course of the cell cycle, especially during mitosis in meristematic tissues, chemical inhibitors can be used to block cell cycle progression. Herein, we present a simplified and easy-to-apply protocol to visualize mitotic figures, nuclei morphology, and organization in whole Arabidopsis root apexes. The procedure is based on tissue clearing, and fluorescent staining of nuclear DNA with DAPI. The protocol allows carrying out bulk analysis of nuclei and cell cycle phases in root cells and will be valuable to investigate mutants like overexpressing lines of genes disturbing the plant cell cycle. PMID:26659954

  17. Fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein, is required for normal nuclear morphology and cellular growth in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mohammed Abdullahel; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Ma, Nan; Takata, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Masami; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi . E-mail: kfukui@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-24

    Fibrillarin is a key small nucleolar protein in eukaryotes, which has an important role in pre-rRNA processing during ribosomal biogenesis. Though several functions of fibrillarin are known, its function during the cell cycle is still unknown. In this study, we confirmed the dynamic localization of fibrillarin during the cell cycle of HeLa cells and also performed functional studies by using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNAi technique. We observed that depletion of fibrillarin has almost no effect on the nucleolar structure. However, fibrillarin-depleted cells showed abnormal nuclear morphology. Moreover, fibrillarin depletion resulted in the reduction of the cellular growth and modest accumulation of cells with 4n DNA content. Our data suggest that fibrillarin would play a critical role in the maintenance of nuclear shape and cellular growth.

  18. Spectral and morphological study of galaxies with UV excess. VI

    SciTech Connect

    Kazaryan, M.A.; Kazaryan, E.S.

    1985-11-01

    Results are given of a spectral and morphological study of galaxies Nos. 73, 125, and 229. The masses are determined of the gaseous components of these galaxies. It is established that galaxy No. 73 is a type Sy 2 galaxy, and in its physical properties it resembles the Sy 2 type galaxies Markaryan 744 and 1066. In some of its physical properties galaxy No. 125 is similar to galaxy No. 73, but it is evidently at a later stage of development than the latter. The results show that these galaxies differ from one another both in their physical properties and in their external structure.

  19. Effects of tachyplesin on the morphology and ultrastructure of human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi Fu; Ou-Yang, Gao Liang; Li, Chang You; Hong, Shui Gen

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823 after being treated with tachyplesin. METHODS: Tachyplesin was isolated from acid extracts of Chinese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus) hemocytes. BGC-823 cells and the cells treated with 2.0 mg/L tachyplesin were examined respectively under light microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: BGC-823 cells had undergone the restorational alteration in morphology and ultrastructure after tachyplesin treatment. The changes were as follows: the shape of cells was unanimous, the volume enlarged and cells turned to be flat and spread, the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio lessened and nuclear shape became rather regular, the number of nucleolus reduced and its volume lessened, heter-chromatin decreased while euchromatin increased in nucleus. In the cytoplasm, mitochondria grew in number with consistent structure relatively, Golgi complex turned to be typical and well-developed, rough endoplasmic reticulum increased and polyribosome decreased. The microvilli at cellular surface were rare and the filopodia reduced while lamellipodia increased at the cell edge. CONCLUSION: Tachyplesin could alter the malignant morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of human gastric carcinoma cells effectively and have a certain inducing differen-tiation effect on human gastric carcinoma cells. PMID:11819673

  20. Microelectronics In Nerve Cells: Dendritic Morphology and Information Processing

    E-print Network

    Poggio, T.

    1981-10-01

    The electrical properties of the different anatomical types of retinal ganglion cells in the cat were calculated on the basis of passive cable theory from measurements made on histological material provided by Boycott ...

  1. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2013-06-10

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions—which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. -- Highlights: • We analyse the impact of ECM components on cell behaviour in vitro. • We compare five different cell types, using the same culture conditions. • The ECM significantly guides all cell responses. • Cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand-priority ranking. • This gives insight in tissue formation and is essential for biomedical applications.

  2. Controlled thickness and morphology for highly efficient inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Jun; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dong, Hua; Xia, Bin; Yuan, Fang; Jiao, Bo; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihang; Hou, Xun

    2015-06-01

    Recently, inverted planar heterojunction (PHJ) perovskite solar cells have been developed rapidly by numerous preparations and relative optimizations. Sequential solution deposition is easy to manipulate but it is difficult to control the thickness and morphology of perovskite films. In this article, we report an improved sequential deposition, named twice dipping-vapor solution deposition (TD-VSD) technology, to accurately achieve superior perovskite films. It is demonstrated that the morphology of perovskite films depended on the substrate temperatures as well as the dipping times. The resulting solar cells showed the power conversion efficiency as high as 11.77% based on the ideal thickness and morphology. This work provides a simple but effective fabrication to well control the perovskite films and enhance the power conversion efficiency for inverted PHJ solar cells.Recently, inverted planar heterojunction (PHJ) perovskite solar cells have been developed rapidly by numerous preparations and relative optimizations. Sequential solution deposition is easy to manipulate but it is difficult to control the thickness and morphology of perovskite films. In this article, we report an improved sequential deposition, named twice dipping-vapor solution deposition (TD-VSD) technology, to accurately achieve superior perovskite films. It is demonstrated that the morphology of perovskite films depended on the substrate temperatures as well as the dipping times. The resulting solar cells showed the power conversion efficiency as high as 11.77% based on the ideal thickness and morphology. This work provides a simple but effective fabrication to well control the perovskite films and enhance the power conversion efficiency for inverted PHJ solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01988e

  3. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  4. Coupling actin flow, adhesion, and morphology in a computational cell motility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells crawl by means of the coordinated spatiotemporal dynamics of an active polymer gel, consisting of actin, myosin and regulators thereof. Motility is necessarily coupled to shape, as the force generating mechanisms such as polymerization-based protrusions interact with the elasticity of the cell membrane and thereby determine the cell morphology. We have introduced a ``phase-field'' model of crawling cells, utilizing a mathematical approach originally developed for morphology problems arising in the field of liquid-solid phase transitions. Our model can be used to explain the pattern of traction forces applied to the substrate as well as some recent observations concerning oscillatory instabilities of cells moving on one-dimensional fiber tracks.

  5. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  6. Morphological and Compositional (S)TEM Analysis of Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisnivesky-Rocca-Rivarola, F.; Davis, N. J. L. K.; Bohm, M.; Ducati, C.

    2015-10-01

    Quantum confinement of charge carriers in semiconductor nanocrystals produces optical and electronic properties that have the potential to enhance the power conversion efficiency of solar cells. One of these properties is the efficient formation of more than one electron-hole pair from a single absorbed photon, in a process called multiple exciton generation (MEG). In this work we studied the morphology of nanocrystal multilayers of PbSe treated with CdCl2 using complementary imaging and spectroscopy techniques to characterise the chemical composition and morphology of full MEG devices made with PbSe nanorods (NRs). IN the scanning TEM (STEM), plan view images and chemical maps were obtained of the nanocrystal layers, which allowed for the analysis of crystal structure and orientation, as well as size distribution and aspect ratio. These results were complemented by cross-sectional images of full devices, which allowed accessing the structure of each layer that composes the device, including the nanorod packing in the active nanocrystal layer.

  7. Morphological development of thick-tufted layer v pyramidal cells in the rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Romand, Sandrine; Wang, Yun; Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Markram, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer V pyramidal (TTL5) neuron is a key neuron providing output from the neocortex. Although it has been extensively studied, principles governing its dendritic and axonal arborization during development are still not fully quantified. Using 3-D model neurons reconstructed from biocytin-labeled cells in the rat somatosensory cortex, this study provides a detailed morphological analysis of TTL5 cells at postnatal day (P) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 60. Three developmental periods were revealed, which were characterized by distinct growing rates and properties of alterations in different compartments. From P7 to P14, almost all compartments grew fast, and filopodia-like segments along apical dendrite disappeared; From P14 to P21, the growth was localized on specified segments of each compartment, and the densities of spines and boutons were significantly increased; From P21 to P60, the number of basal dendritic segments was significantly increased at specified branch orders, and some basal and oblique dendritic segments were lengthened or thickened. Development changes were therefore seen in two modes: the fast overall growth during the first period and the slow localized growth (thickening mainly on intermediates or lengthening mainly on terminals) at the subsequent stages. The lengthening may be accompanied by the retraction on different segments. These results reveal a differential regulation in the arborization of neuronal compartments during development, supporting the notion of functional compartmental development. This quantification provides new insight into the potential value of the TTL5 morphology for information processing, and for other purposes as well. PMID:21369363

  8. Morphological study of Salicornieae (Chenopodiaceae) native to Iran.

    PubMed

    Zare, Golshan; Keshavarzi, Maryam

    2007-03-15

    The tribe Salicornieae Dum. belonging to the subfamily Salicornioideae Kostel (Chenopodiaceae Vent.) includes halophyte plants. These 5 genera and 6 species are distributed in different habitats of Iran. Members of this tribe have reduced vegetative parts, scale like leaves and articulated stems. In this study quantitative and qualitative morphological characters for 46 accessions of Salicornieae were evaluated. Vegetative characters are not sufficient to distinguish these taxa. Our results indicated that vegetative form, globular buds, plant color, stem base disarticulation and presence of node at the base of inflorescence are diagnostic character in this tribe. Besides floral arrangement in inflorescences, bracts shape, color and shape of seeds are important key features in members of Salicornieae in Iran. Seed coat ornamentations and its hairs and color are found to be helpful in distinguishing these taxa. Quantitative characters show variation too, but as they were not significant, they can not help to resolve the taxonomic problems of this tribe in Iran. Based on studied morphological characters, an identification key for members of this tribe in Iran is provided. PMID:19069878

  9. Morphological studies of resonances in plasmonic metasurfaces for SPR sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelek, Jakub; Kwiecien, Pavel; Richter, Ivan; Homola, Ji?í

    2015-05-01

    We investigate selected periodic arrays of nanostructures inspired by metasurfaces originally used in metamaterial structures and evaluate their potential for surface plasmon resonance applicable in sensing. Building blocks including rectangles, cut wires, crosses, fishnets, split ring resonators were ordered on suitable substrates and their reflection (R), transmission (T), and loss energy (L) spectra were calculated. The numerical studies were performed using our efficient in-house two-dimensional rigorous coupled-wave analysis technique. Our technique incorporates all the key improvements of the method available, taking into account both proper Fourier factorization rules, adaptive spatial resolution techniques, as well as structural symmetries. Using the R, T, and L spectra, we investigated spectral sensitivity of SPR and calculated the respective SPR sensor characteristics, such as figures of merit (FOM), enabling direct comparison of various structural morphologies for potential sensing applications. Also, optimization of the structures in terms of FOM has been performed to identify the most promising candidates. Additionally, to allow for interpretation of spectral resonant features and the interplay of individual and surface lattice resonances, we were gradually changing the morphology of individual building blocks from one type of element to another one. We believe that this study will bring insight into plasmonic behavior of nanostructured metasurfaces and will further benefit research into SPR biosensors.

  10. Continuous morphology and growth monitoring of different cell types in a single culture using quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Wibbeling, Jana; Kastl, Lena; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2015-05-01

    The minimally-invasive quantitative observation of different cell types in a single culture is of particular interest for the analysis of the impact of pharmaceuticals, pathogens or toxins on different cellular phenotypes under identical measurement conditions and to analyze interactions between different cellular specimens. Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), provides high resolution detection of optical path length changes that is suitable for quantitative tomographic imaging and stain-free minimally-invasive live cell analysis. Due to low light intensities for object illumination, QPM minimizes the interaction with the sample and thus is in particular suitable for long term time-lapse investigations on cells in which for example morphology alterations due to toxins, drugs or genetic modifications are studied. We analyzed the feasibility of QPM, for the analysis of mixed cell cultures and explored if quantitative phase images provide sufficient information to distinguish between different cell types and to extract cell specific parameters. For the experiments quantitative phase imaging with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) was utilized. Mixed cell cultures with different cell types were continuously observed with quantitative DHM phase contrast up to 35 h. The obtained series of quantitative phase images were evaluated by adapted image segmentation algorithms. From the segmented quantitative phase images the area covered by the cells, the cellular dry mass as well as the mean cell thickness and volume were determined and used as parameters to quantify the reliability of data acquisition. The obtained results demonstrate that it is possible to characterize the growth of cell types with different morphology features separately in a single cell culture. This prospects new application fields of quantitative phase imaging in drug and toxicity testing in vitro.

  11. Organic solar cells: a rigorous model of the donor-acceptor interface for various bulk heterojunction morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raba, Adam; Leroy, Yann; Cordan, Anne-Sophie

    2014-02-01

    Theoretical studies of organic solar cells are mostly based on one dimensional models. Despite their accuracy to reproduce most of the experimental trends, they intrinsically cannot correctly integrate the effects of morphology in cells based on a bulk heterojunction structure. Therefore, accounting for these effects requires the development of two dimensional models, in which donor and acceptor domains are explicitly distinct. In this context, we propose an analytical approach, which focuses on the description of the interface between the two domains. Assuming pinned charge transfer states, we rigorously derive the corresponding boundary conditions and explore the differences between this model and other existing models in the literature for various morphologies of the active layer. On one hand, all tested models are equivalent for an ideal interdigitated bulk heterojunction solar cell with a planar donor-acceptor interface, but divergences between the models rise for small sizes of the donor domain. On the other hand, we carried out a comparison on a less ideal case of cell, with a rough interface between the two domains. Simulations with such cells exhibit distinct behaviors for each model. We conclude that the boundary condition for the interface between the materials is of great importance for the study of solar cells with a non-planar interface. The model must account initially for the roughness of the interface.

  12. Carbon Availability Affects Diurnally Controlled Processes and Cell Morphology of Cyanothece 51142

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Jana; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142. PMID:23457634

  13. A mathematical morphology approach to cell shape analysis

    E-print Network

    Angulo,Jesús

    with pathological situations, e.g., useful in cancer diagnosis, in cell- based screening of new active molecules operations of erosion and dilation can be com- posed together to yield a new set of operators having content toxicity biosensor, three examples of toxic concentration. Right, pattern spectra, PS(f, n

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, G A

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  15. Morphological, magnetic and electronic structural studies of nanostructured spinel ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, Marcos; Moura Prata, Daniela

    The scope of this thesis includes study of structural, magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructured ferrites with different morphology/geometries (e.g. core/shell and hollow nanoparticles), and non-stroichiomteric thin-films. In the case of core/shell, shell composition is varied and spin glass (SG) features due to the thick amorphous shells are explored. Exchange Bias (EB) for core/shell (ferromagnetic/SG) nanoparticles namely X33Fe 67/XFe67O4 (X = Co, Ni, Fe) is presented. Limitations in the synthesis of various other alloys by inert gas condensation (IGC) due to the difference in the melting points are discussed. The existence of SG phase in these nanoparticles with CoFe2O4 shell results in the enhancement in EB. This is attributed to the large bulk anisotropy constant of the shell compared to other spinel cubic ferrites. Both dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements revealed a SG like transition which occurs at unusually large spin freezing temperature (TF ˜ 175K). The SG nature of the transition is also confirmed by the field dependence of the freezing temperature (TF(H)) following the well-known Almeida-Thouless (AT) line, deltaT F ˜ H2/3. Particles exhibit a large exchange bias (HEB ˜ 1357Oe) arising from the core-shell (ferromagnetic-SG) coupling. The unusually high SG transition temperature and large exchange bias effects are attributed to a combination of several factors including the thickness of the amorphous oxide shell and large values of the exchange and anisotropy constants associated with the CoFe2O 4 shell. In another extreme case of disordered spin systems, we synthesized NPs with hollow morphology with intentional choice of material namely NiFe 2O4 (CoFe2O4) which has lowest (highest) bulk anisotropy constant among the spinel ferrites. The hollow NPs are synthesized by self-templating process utilizing coupled interfacial chemical reactions and Kirkendall effect between the core (X33Fe67) and the shell (XFe2O4) of the core/shell structure is described. Reaction temperature and time dependent structural and morphological transformations are presented in detail. NiFe2O4 hollow particles show lack of saturation, enhancement in EB and inverse trend in the blocking temperature as a function of particles size. These are explained as being due to stabilized spin disorder and surface anisotropy. Unlike solid NPs, hollow NPs are polycrystalline. Electronic structure studies are performed by photoemission which reveals that CoFe2O4 particles with hollow morphology have higher degree of inversion compared to solid NPs. Electronic structure in comparison with magnetic studies reveal that particles exhibit uncompensated spins unlike bulk where Neel's collinear spin alignment is expected. For CoFe2O 4, both morphologies show lack of saturation up to 7T of applied field and magnetic irreversibility exists up to 7T of cooling fields for the entire temperature range (10 to 300K). These effects are explained in terms of temperature dependent large bulk anisotropy constant of CoFe2O4. Strong influence of uncompensated spins for particles with hollow morphology is characterized by cooling the sample in large fields, up to (˜9T). Magnitude of horizontal shift is more than three times larger compared to that of particles with solid morphology. 11% vertical shift for particles with hollow morphology is observed, whereas solid particles do not show corresponding shift. Finally, off-stoichiometric NiFe2O4 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at low pressures and relatively high substrate temperatures were studied. Details of electronic structure of the films are presented and compared with stoichiometric bulk counterpart. Significant amount of oxygen vacancies and enhanced cationic inversion for non-stoichiometric thin films is observed. Films show spin glass features which are contrary to the usual ferrimagnetic response of the bulk nickel ferrite and spin freezing temperature which lies above room temperature in low fields (cooling field ˜ 0.1T). Interestingly, an exceptionally large exchange bi

  16. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiri, Azadeh; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batool; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mardani, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  17. Distribution and localization of abnormally expressed OPTN proteins in RGC5 retinal ganglion cells and their effects on subcellular morphology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z R; Jiang, F G; Chen, F

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the distributions of abnormally expressed optineurin (OPTN) proteins in retinal ganglion cells (RGC5s) of transgenic rats and their effects on subcellular morphological structures. Green fluorescent protein labeled EGFP wild-type (OPTNWT), E50K mutant type (OPTNE50K), and OPTN siRNA (si-OPTN) eukaryotic expression plasmids were constructed and transfected into RGC5s. Intracellular structures were labeled with organelle specific fluorescent dyes. Construct localization and cell morphologies were visualized by confocal fluorescence microscopy. OPTNWT was observed to be distributed as fine punctate fluorescent particles in the cytoplasm around the nucleus, along with exhibiting nuclear expression. OPTNE50K exhibited similar distribution but with non-uniform fluorescence particle size. si-OPTN distribution was similar to that of EGFP: uniform across the cytoplasm and nucleus. Compared with the negative control group, OPTNWT, and OPTNE50K and to a lesser degree pEGFP-transfected cells exhibited fracture and loss of myofilament proteins and mitochondrial swelling and cytoplasmic accumulation, along with abnormal lysosomal distribution and increased volume, and Golgi fragmentation. However, si- OPTN transfected cells exhibited no significant damage. Therefore, we demonstrated that the E50K mutation disrupts the uniformity of OPTN protein distribution upon exogenous overexpression. Furthermore, these results suggested that si-OPTN transfection, and thus potentially OPTN knockdown, did not impact subcellular morphology of RGC5 cells, whereas transfection, especially when combined with wild-type or mutant OPTN expression, led to substantial abnormalities in subcellular morphological structures. These findings lay a foundation for further research into the function of the OPTN protein. PMID:26505356

  18. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of Nanostructured TiO2 Morphologies on Photovoltaic Properties.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Taro; Shen, Qing

    2012-07-19

    There is a great deal of interest in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) fabricated with nanostructured TiO2 electrodes. Many different dye molecules have been designed and synthesized to achieve high photovoltaic conversion efficiency. Recently, as an alternative to organic dyes, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been studied for their light-harvesting capability compared with other sensitizers. Accordingly, an attractive configuration to exploit these fascinating properties of semiconductor QDs is the quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) due to their high photoactivity, process realization, and low cost of production. The morphology of TiO2 electrodes included with surface orientation is important for satisfactory assembly of QDSCs in order to improve the efficiency. Breakthroughs allowing an increase in efficiency will advance on two areas of electrode morphology control, namely, (A) TiO2 nanotube electrodes and (B) inverse opal TiO2 electrodes. PMID:26292009

  19. Morphological responses of mitochondria-rich cells to hypersaline environment in the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus.

    PubMed

    Itoki, Naoko; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Masahiro; Takeda, Tatsusuke; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2012-07-01

    A population of the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus, was found to inhabit mudflat that remained uncovered by tide for more than 20 days in some neap tides. During these prolonged emersion periods, P. minutus retreated into burrows containing little water, with a highest recorded salinity of 84 ± 7.4 psu (practical salinity unit). To explore the mechanical basis for this salinity tolerance in P. minutus, we determined the densities of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in the inner and outer opercula and the pectoral fin skin, in comparison with P. takita, [corrected] from an adjacent lower intertidal habitat, and studied morphological responses of MRCs to exposure to freshwater (FW), and 100% (34-35 psu) and 200% seawater (SW). Periophthalmus minutus showed a higher density of MRCs in the inner operculum (3365 ± 821 cells mm(-2)) than in the pectoral fin skin (1428 ± 161) or the outer operculum (1100 ± 986), all of which were higher than the MRC densities in p. takita. [corrected]. No mortality occurred in 100% or 200% SW, but half of the fish died within four days in FW. Neither 200% SW nor FW exposure affected MRC density. Transfer to 200% SW doubled MRC size after 9-14 days with no change in the proportion of MRCs with apical pits or plasma sodium concentration. In contrast, transfer to FW resulted in a rapid closing of pits and a significant reduction in plasma sodium concentration. These results suggest that P. minutus has evolved morphological and physiological mechanisms to withstand hypersaline conditions that they may encounter in their habitat. PMID:22775253

  20. Cytokines profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells morphology in Rett and autistic patients.

    PubMed

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Franco; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Montagner, Giulia; Waldon, PhiAnh; Hayek, Joussef; Gambari, Roberto; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A potential role for immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been well established. However, immunological features of Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder closely related to autism, have not been well addressed yet. By using multiplex Luminex technology, a panel of 27 cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in serum from 10 RTT patients with confirmed diagnosis of MECP2 mutation (typical RTT), 12 children affected by classic autistic disorder and 8 control subjects. The cytokine/chemokine gene expression was assessed by real time PCR on mRNA of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of PBMCs was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-9, IL-13 were detected in RTT compared to control subjects, and IL-15 shows a trend toward the upregulation in RTT. In addition, IL-1? and VEGF were the only down-regulated cytokines in autistic patients with respect to RTT. No difference in cytokine/chemokine profile between autistic and control groups was detected. These data were also confirmed by ELISA real time PCR. At the ultrastructural level, the most severe morphological abnormalities were observed in mitochondria of both RTT and autistic PBMCs. In conclusion, our study shows a deregulated cytokine/chemokine profile together with morphologically altered immune cells in RTT. Such abnormalities were not quite as evident in autistic subjects. These findings indicate a possible role of immune dysfunction in RTT making the clinical features of this pathology related also to the immunology aspects, suggesting, therefore, novel possible therapeutic interventions for this disorder. PMID:26471937

  1. Sublethal Concentrations of Carbapenems Alter Cell Morphology and Genomic Expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Van Laar, Tricia A.; Chen, Tsute; You, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is normally associated with pneumonia in patients with weakened immune systems. However, it is also a prevalent nosocomial infectious agent that can be found in infected surgical sites and combat wounds. Many of these clinical strains display multidrug resistance. We have worked with a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae that was initially isolated from a wound of an injured soldier. This strain demonstrated resistance to many commonly used antibiotics but sensitivity to carbapenems. This isolate was capable of forming biofilms in vitro, contributing to its increased antibiotic resistance and impaired clearance. We were interested in determining how sublethal concentrations of carbapenem treatment specifically affect K. pneumoniae biofilms both in morphology and in genomic expression. Scanning electron microscopy showed striking morphological differences between untreated and treated biofilms, including rounding, blebbing, and dimpling of treated cells. Comparative transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology identified a large number of open reading frames (ORFs) differentially regulated in response to carbapenem treatment at 2 and 24 h. ORFs upregulated with carbapenem treatment included genes involved in resistance, as well as those coding for antiporters and autoinducers. ORFs downregulated included those coding for metal transporters, membrane biosynthesis proteins, and motility proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR validated the general trend of some of these differentially regulated ORFs. Treatment of K. pneumoniae biofilms with sublethal concentrations of carbapenems induced a wide range of phenotypic and gene expression changes. This study reveals some of the mechanisms underlying how sublethal amounts of carbapenems could affect the overall fitness and pathogenic potential of K. pneumoniae biofilm cells. PMID:25583711

  2. EVALUATION OF BENZO[C]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF BENZO[c]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T?CL8 CELLS

    Abstract The morphological cell transforming activities of three dihydrodiols of benzo[c]chrysene (B[c]C), trans-B[c]C-7,8-diol, trans-B[c]C-9...

  3. Morphology, properties, and performance of electrodeposited n-CdSe in liquid junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkiewicz, M.; Ling, I.; Parsons, W.S.

    1982-09-01

    The authors describe the mechanisms for galvanostatic electrodeposition of CdSe in terms of competition between chemical reactions that lead to Se formation and electrochemical reduction of Se as polyselenide, at the interfaces between selenium and selenide. This mechanism leads to a cauliflower morphology for the resulting film. This morphology is ideal for a photoanode in the liquid junction solar cell configuration, and the authors describe the performance of such an electrode. In spite of the unique morphology, solid-state properties of the film can be evaluated and the methodology for these evaluations is presented. The performance of the liquid junction solar cells is limited by the dark current and the dielectric properties of the material. The authors also describe the effects of metal ions such as Zn/sup +2/, Ru/sup +3/, and Ga/sup +3/ on the various electrode properties.

  4. MicroRNA-181c targets Bcl-2 and regulates mitochondrial morphology in myocardial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjiang; Li, Jing; Chi, Hongjie; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Cai, Jun; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism for the development of heart failure. Mitochondria are central to the execution of apoptosis in the intrinsic pathway. The main regulator of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is Bcl-2 family which includes pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or inducing mRNA degradation. It has been proposed that microRNAs play critical roles in the cardiovascular physiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has found that microRNA-181c, a miRNA expressed in the myocardial cells, plays an important role in the development of heart failure. With bioinformatics analysis, we predicted that miR-181c could target the 3? untranslated region of Bcl-2, one of the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Thus, we have suggested that miR-181c was involved in regulation of Bcl-2. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System. Cultured myocardial cells were transfected with the mimic or inhibitor of miR-181c. We found that the level of miR-181c was inversely correlated with the Bcl-2 protein level and that transfection of myocardial cells with the mimic or inhibitor of miR-181c resulted in significant changes in the levels of caspases, Bcl-2 and cytochrome C in these cells. The increased level of Bcl-2 caused by the decrease in miR-181c protected mitochondrial morphology from the tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. PMID:25898913

  5. Morphologic study of posterior articular depression in Schatzker IV fractures.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qilin; Hu, Chengfang; Xu, Yafeng; Wang, Dan; Luo, Congfeng

    2015-02-01

    The Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures is widely accepted. Type IV fractures are medial tibial plateau fractures that are either split off as a wedge fragment or depressed and comminuted. Posterior articular surface depression in Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures can be seen as a unique variant that increases the difficulty of reduction of the articular surface. Its morphologic characteristics have not been fully studied, and the incidence is sometimes underestimated. The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphologic characteristics of posterior articular depression in Schatzker type IV fractures based on computed tomography measurements. From January 2009 to December 2011, the medical records, including digital radiologic data, of all patients treated for tibial plateau fracture at the authors' institution were retrospectively analyzed. Articular surface depression deeper than 5 mm was the criterion for study inclusion. The depression depth, precise location of the articular depression center, surface area percentage, and distance of the fracture gap to the depression center were calculated. One hundred fifteen cases of Schatzker type IV fracture were retrieved, and a total of 47.83% (55 of 115) cases had posterior articular surface depression. The average depth of the depressed articular surface was 12.41 mm, the surface area percentage was 20.15% of the entire tibial plateau, and the gap distance from the medial direction was 41.40 mm, 2.8 times longer than that from the posterior direction, which was 14.91 mm. Posterior articular surface depression occurs in nearly half of Schatzker type IV fractures, and the posterior approach provides more direct access to the depression than the medial approach. PMID:25665117

  6. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Jin-A

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  7. Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atay, Safinur; Gercel-Taylor, Cicek; Kesimer, Mehmet; Taylor, Douglas D.

    2011-05-01

    Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

  8. Morphologic Changes in the Pineal Parenchyma Cells of Rats Exposed to Continuous Light or Darkness

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    Morphologic Changes in the Pineal Parenchyma Cells of Rats Exposed to Continuous Light or Darkness,Belmont, Massachusetts ONSIDERABLE evidence exists which suggests an antigonadotrophic function for the mammalian pineal, adrenal and pituitary, whereas chronic administration of an aqueous pineal extract counteracts

  9. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors

    PubMed Central

    Khater, M.M.; Issa, Y.M.; Hassib, H.B.; Mohammed, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 ?mol L?1 for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01–10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes. PMID:26257944

  10. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  11. The acetabular point: a morphological and ontogenetic study

    PubMed Central

    RISSECH, C.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; MALGOSA, A.

    2001-01-01

    The acetabular point was analysed by studying human pelvic bones from 326 individuals ranging from newborns to age 97 y. The bones were categorised into 3 groups according to the degree of fusion for the 3 elements of the pelvis: nonfused (59), semifused (5) and fused (262). The acetabular point in immature pelvic bones is clearly represented by the point of the fusion lines for each bony element at the level of the acetabular fossa. In adult pelvic bones the acetabular fossa has an irregular clover-leaf shape, the superior lobe being smaller than the anterior and posterior lobes. Cross-sectional analysis of acetabular morphology suggested that the acetabular point in adult pelvic bones is always represented by the indentation between the superior and the anterior lobes of the acetabular fossa. PMID:11465866

  12. Hybrid morphology dependence of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A nanocrystal thin-film solar cell operating on an exciton splitting pattern requires a highly efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and transportation of separated charges. A hybrid bulk-heterojunction (HBH) nanostructure providing a large contact area and interpenetrated charge channels is favorable to an inorganic nanocrystal solar cell with high performance. For this freshly appeared structure, here in this work, we have firstly explored the influence of hybrid morphology on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells with variation in CdSe nanoparticle morphology. Quantum dot (QD) or nanotetrapod (NT)-shaped CdSe nanocrystals have been employed together with CdTe NTs to construct different hybrid structures. The solar cells with the two different hybrid active layers show obvious difference in photovoltaic performance. The hybrid structure with densely packed and continuously interpenetrated two phases generates superior morphological and electrical properties for more efficient inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which could be readily realized in the NTs:QDs hybrid. This proved strategy is applicable and promising in designing other highly efficient inorganic hybrid solar cells. PMID:25386107

  13. Three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells by using low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Kakuno, Yumi; Goto, Kentaro; Fukami, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Norikazu; Iwai, Hidenao; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing need for non-invasive imaging techniques in the field of stem cell research. Label-free techniques are the best choice for assessment of stem cells because the cells remain intact after imaging and can be used for further studies such as differentiation induction. To develop a high-resolution label-free imaging system, we have been working on a low-coherence quantitative phase microscope (LC-QPM). LC-QPM is a Linnik-type interference microscope equipped with nanometer-resolution optical-path-length control and capable of obtaining three-dimensional volumetric images. The lateral and vertical resolutions of our system are respectively 0.5 and 0.93 ?m and this performance allows capturing sub-cellular morphological features of live cells without labeling. Utilizing LC-QPM, we reported on three-dimensional imaging of membrane fluctuations, dynamics of filopodia, and motions of intracellular organelles. In this presentation, we report three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells). Two groups of monolayer hiPS cell cultures were prepared so that one group was cultured in a suitable culture medium that kept the cells undifferentiated, and the other group was cultured in a medium supplemented with retinoic acid, which forces the stem cells to differentiate. The volumetric images of the 2 groups show distinctive differences, especially in surface roughness. We believe that our LC-QPM system will prove useful in assessing many other stem cell conditions.

  14. Morphological and cytogenetic characterization and N-myc oncogene analysis of a newly established neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Nojima, T; Abe, S; Furuta, Y; Nagashima, K; Alam, A F; Takada, N; Sasaki, F; Hata, Y

    1991-07-01

    A permanent cell line established from a xenograft of neuroblastoma which occurred in a 5-year-old girl was investigated for its morphological and biological characteristics. The cultured cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Microscopically, each tumor consisted of small round to polygonal cells with irregular nuclei and prominent nucleoli, corresponding to the features of the primary and xenografted tumor cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed that both the transplanted tumor cells and the cultured cells contained scanty microtubules and dense-core neurosecretory granules. Chromosome analysis of this cell line showed monosomy for chromosomes 1, 10, 19 and X, and structural rearrangements involving chromosomes 8, 17 and 20, in addition to numerous double minutes. The N-myc oncogene was found to be amplified 40- to 80-fold in the transplanted and cultured tumor cells, as well as in the primary tumor cells. In situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled uridine-triphosphate N-myc RNA probe detected abundant mRNA in the tumor cells. This neuroblastoma line may become a valuable in vitro experimental model system for studies aimed at better characterization of neuroblastoma. PMID:1755317

  15. The cells of the rabbit meniscus: their arrangement, interrelationship, morphological variations and cytoarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    HELLIO LE GRAVERAND, MARIE-PIERRE; OU, YONGCHUNG; SCHIELD-YEE, TERESA; BARCLAY, LEONA; HART, DAVID; NATSUME, TAKASHI; RATTNER, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    Four major morphologically distinct classes of cells were identified within the adult rabbit meniscus using antibodies to cytoskeletal proteins. Two classes of cell were present in the fibrocartilage region of the meniscus. These meniscal cells exhibited long cellular processes that extended from the cell body. A third cell type found in the inner hyaline-like region of the meniscus had a rounded form and lacked projections. A fourth cell type with a fusiform shape and no cytoplasmic projections was found along the superficial regions of the meniscus. Using a monoclonal antibody to connexin 43, numerous gap junctions were observed in the fibrocartilage region, whereas none were seen in cells either from the hyaline-like or the superficial zones of the meniscus. The majority of the cells within the meniscus exhibited other specific features such as primary cilia and 2 centrosomes. The placement of the meniscal cell subtypes as well as their morphology and architecture support the supposition that their specific characteristics underlie the ability of the meniscus to respond to different types of environmental mechanical loads. PMID:11430692

  16. Effect of warfarin on cell kinetics, epithelial morphology and tumour incidence in induced colorectal cancer in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Goeting, N; Trotter, G A; Cooke, T; Kirkham, N; Taylor, I

    1985-01-01

    The effect of low dose warfarin and high dose warfarin on epithelial cell kinetics (as determined by stathmokinetic techniques), and preneoplastic morphological changes was studied during azoxymethane induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Warfarin, at either low or high dose, had no effect on crypt cell production rate (CCPR) at any time interval whereas tumour incidence in both low dose warfarin and high dose warfarin groups was significantly reduced. Morphological changes were observed using scanning electron microscopy, which by conventional histology were shown to be adenoma precursors. In the control group the number of microadenomas increased with time after starting azoxymethane. In warfarin treated animals, the number of microadenomas also increased with time, but the actual incidence was reduced when compared with controls. These results suggest that the effects of warfarin on tumour development is unrelated to its anticoagulant effect, because increased dose did not result in greater tumour reduction. Furthermore, there was no overall change in CCPR when warfarin was administered. Warfarin may exert a specific effect, by preventing neoplastic change in cells which have undergone morphologically undetectable changes associated with early carcinogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:4018647

  17. Morphological and functional changes of mitochondria in apoptotic esophageal carcinoma cells induced by arsenic trioxide

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhong-Ying; Shen, Jian; Li, Qiao-Shan; Chen, Cai-Yun; Chen, Jiong-Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate that mitochondrial morphological and functional changes are an important intermediate link in the course of apoptosis in esophageal carcinoma cells induced by As2O3. METHODS: The esophageal carcinoma cell line SHEEC1, established in our laboratory, was cultured in 199 growth medium, supplemented with 100 mL·L-1 calf serum and 3 ?mol·L-1 As2O3 ( the same below). After 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h of drug adding, the SHEEC1 cells were collected for light-and electron-microscopic examination. The mitochondria were labeled by Rhodamine fluorescence probe and the fluorescence intensity of the mitochondria was measured by flow cytometer and cytofluorimetric analysis. Further, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP, ?? m) change was also calculated. RESULTS: The mitochondrial morphological change after adding As2O3 could be divided into three stages. In the early-stage (2-6 h) after adding As2O3, an adaptive proliferation of mitochondria appeared; in the mid-stage (6-12 h) a degenerative change was observed; and in the late-stage (12-24 h) the mitochondria swelled with outer membrane broken down and then cells death with apoptotic changes of nucleus. The functional change of the mitochondria indicated by fluorescent intensity, which reflected the MTP status of mitochondria, was in accordance with morphological change of the mitochondria. The fluorescent intensity increased at early-stage, declined in mid-stage and decreased to the lowest in the late-stage. 24 h after As2O3 adding, the cell nucleus showed typical apoptotic changes. CONCLUSION: Under the inducement of As2O3, the early apoptotic changes of SHEEC1 cells were the apparent morphological and functional changes of mitochondria, afterwards the nucleus changes followed. It is considered that changes of mitochondria are an important intermediate link in the course of apoptosis of esophageal carcinoma cells induced by As2O3. PMID:11833066

  18. Phenotypic and Morphological Properties of Germinal Center Dark Zone Cxcl12-Expressing Reticular Cells.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Lauren B; Bannard, Oliver; Ludewig, Burkhard; Nagasawa, Takashi; Cyster, Jason G

    2015-11-15

    The germinal center (GC) is divided into a dark zone (DZ) and a light zone (LZ). GC B cells must cycle between these zones to achieve efficient Ab affinity maturation. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are well characterized for their role in supporting B cell Ag encounter in primary follicles and in the GC LZ. However, the properties of stromal cells supporting B cells in the DZ are relatively unexplored. Recent work identified a novel stromal population of Cxcl12-expressing reticular cells (CRCs) in murine GC DZs. In this article, we report that CRCs have diverse morphologies, appearing in open and closed networks, with variable distribution in lymphoid tissue GCs. CRCs are also present in splenic and peripheral lymph node primary follicles. Real-time two-photon microscopy of Peyer's patch GCs demonstrates B cells moving in close association with CRC processes. CRCs are gp38(+) with low to undetectable expression of FDC markers, but CRC-like cells in the DZ are lineage marked, along with FDCs and fibroblastic reticular cells, by CD21-Cre- and Ccl19-Cre-directed fluorescent reporters. In contrast to FDCs, CRCs do not demonstrate dependence on lymphotoxin or TNF for chemokine expression or network morphology. CRC distribution in the DZ does require CXCR4 signaling, which is necessary for GC B cells to access the DZ and likely to interact with CRC processes. Our findings establish CRCs as a major stromal cell type in the GC DZ and suggest that CRCs support critical activities of GC B cells in the DZ niche through Cxcl12 expression and direct cell-cell interactions. PMID:26453751

  19. Expanded Morphological Paradigm of Polymeric Solar Cells: Contributions by Soft X-ray Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, Harald

    2014-03-01

    The complex three dimensional morphology of polymeric/organic donor:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells and the structure of the discrete and recently inferred dispersed interfaces are critical to performance, yet have been very difficult to study due to a paucity of adequate characterization methods. Recently developed soft X-ray microscopy and scattering tools and methods can provide new avenues and contribute substantially to infer the number of phases present in a device, determine the minimum fullerene content in mixed domains and to provide a quantitative statistical measurement of the composition variations and size distribution. This contributed to the realization that mixed domains are prevalent and rather than just being detrimental can have important beneficial contributions for charge generation and charge transport as such mixed domains represent a special form of hierarchical structures (E.g.). Furthermore, polarized x-ray scattering can reveal preferential orientation of the donor polymer/small molecule (edge-on or face-on) relative to the fullerene aggregate interface. Such ordering has previously not been observed nor controlled in fullerene-based solar cells and is shown here to be a critical factor for high performance in a number of systems. Work supported by DOE, OS, BES, MSE (DE-FG02-98ER45737).

  20. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensionalassays correlate with their profiles of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Genee Y.; Myers, Connie A.; Neve, RichardM.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Spellman, Paul T.; Lorenz, Katrin; Lee, Eva H.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, MinaJ.

    2007-01-31

    3D cell cultures are rapidly becoming the method of choice for the physiologically relevant modeling of many aspects of non-malignant and malignant cell behavior ex vivo. Nevertheless, only a limited number of distinct cell types have been evaluated in this assay to date. Here we report the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles and 3D cell culture phenotypes of a substantial panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Each cell line adopts a colony morphology of one of four main classes in 3D culture. These morphologies reflect, at least in part, the underlying gene expression profile and protein expression patterns of the cell lines, and distinct morphologies were also associated with tumor cell invasiveness and with cell lines originating from metastases. We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even tumor cells are cultured in 3D microenvironments.

  1. Nanoporous gold membranes: From morphological control to fuel cell catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi

    Porous noble metals are particularly attractive for scientific research and industrial applications such as catalysis, sensing, and filtration. In this thesis, I will discuss the fabrication, characterization, and application of a new class of porous metals, called nanoporous metals (NPM). NPM is made during selective dissolution (also called dealloying) of reactive components (e.g., silver) from multi-component alloys (e.g., Ag/Au alloy). Commercially available white gold leaf (Ag65Au35) can, for example, be etched into nanoporous gold (NPG) membrane by simply floating the leaf on concentrated nitric acid for periods of a few minutes. NPG leaf adopts a single crystal porous structure within individual grains. The microstructure of NPG, such as the pore size, is tunable between a few nanometers to sub-micron length scale by either thermal annealing or post-treatment in nitric acid for extended period of time. A new gas-liquid-solid interface electroless plating technique is developed to uniformly cover the NPG surface with other metals, such as silver and platinum. This technique allows new opportunities of making functionalized nanostructures. We show that a combination of silver plating and dealloying can be used to make multimodal porous metals, which are expected to have application in sensing field. Electroless platinum plating onto NPG shows very usual growth mode. TEM observation indicates that the platinum layer on NPG surface takes a novel form of layer-islanding growth (Stranski-Krastanov growth). Annealing the Pt/NPG composite smoothens the Pt islands and forms a 1 nm coherent Pt layer on the NPG backbone, possibly with dislocation formation at the Pt/Au interface. Furthermore, it was found that we could dissolve the gold away in aqueous gold etchant, leaving behind the 1 nm-thick Pt shell, a structure we call nanotubular mesoporous platinum (NMP). Pt plated NPG has a series of unique structural properties, such as high active surface area, thermally stable, low Pt usage, and better tolerance to CO poisoning. We incorporated it as a membrane electrode into a working proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Preliminary results show that Pt/NPG has very good fuel cell performance at a very low platinum loading.

  2. Cellular Differentiation in Moss Protonemata: A Morphological and Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Pressel, Silvia; Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies of protonemal morphogenesis in mosses have focused on the cytoskeletal basis of tip growth and the production of asexual propagules. This study provides the first comprehensive description of the differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids, which share the same cytology, and the roles of the cytoskeleton in organelle shaping and spatial arrangement. Methods Light and electron microscope observations were carried out on in vitro cultured and wild protonemata from over 200 moss species. Oryzalin and cytochalasin D were used to investigate the role of the cytoskeleton in the cytological organization of fully differentiated protonemal cells; time-lapse photography was employed to monitor organelle positions. Key Results The onset of differentiation in initially highly vacuolate subapical cells is marked by the appearance of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles with crystalline inclusions, closely followed by an increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The tonoplast disintegrates and the original vacuole is replaced by a population of vesicles and small vacuoles originating de novo from RER. The cytoplasm then becomes distributed throughout the cell lumen, an event closely followed by the appearance of endoplasmic microtubules (MTs) in association with sheets of ER, stacks of vesicles that subsequently disperse, elongate mitochondria and chloroplasts and long tubular extensions at both poles of the nucleus. The production of large vesicles by previously inactive dictysomes coincides with the deposition of additional cell wall layers. At maturity, the numbers of endoplasmic microtubules decline, dictyosomes become inactive and the ER is predominantly smooth. Fully developed cells remain largely unaffected by cytochalasin; oryzalin elicits profound cytological changes. Both inhibitors elicit the formation of giant plastids. The plastids and other organelles in fully developed cells are largely stationary. Conclusions Differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids involves a remarkable series of cytological changes, some of which closely recall major events in sieve element ontogeny in tracheophytes. The cytology of fully differentiated cells is remarkably similar to that of moss food-conducting cells and, in both, is dependent on an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. The disappearance of the major vacuolar apparatus is probably related to the function of caulonema and rhizoids in solute transport. Failure of fully differentiated caulonema and rhizoid cells to regenerate is attributed to a combination of endo-reduplication and irreversible tonoplast fragmentation. The formation of giant plastids, most likely by fusion, following both oryzalin and cytochalasin treatments, suggests key roles for both microtubules and microfilaments in the spatial arrangement and replication of plastids. PMID:18508779

  3. Epigenetic reprogramming by tumor-derived EZH2 gain-of-function mutations promotes aggressive 3D cell morphologies and enhances melanoma tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Barsotti, Anthony M.; Ryskin, Michael; Zhong, Wenyan; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Giannakou, Andreas; Loreth, Christine; Diesl, Veronica; Follettie, Maximillian; Golas, Jonathan; Lee, Michelle; Nichols, Timothy; Fan, Conglin; Li, Gang; Dann, Stephen; Fantin, Valeria R.; Arndt, Kim; Verhelle, Dominique; Rollins, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to genetic alterations, cancer cells are characterized by myriad epigenetic changes. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that is over-expressed and mutated in cancer. The EZH2 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations first identified in lymphomas have recently been reported in melanoma (~2%) but remain uncharacterized. We expressed multiple EZH2 GOF mutations in the A375 metastatic skin melanoma cell line and observed both increased H3K27me3 and dramatic changes in 3D culture morphology. In these cells, prominent morphological changes were accompanied by a decrease in cell contractility and an increase in collective cell migration. At the molecular level, we observed significant alteration of the axonal guidance pathway, a pathway intricately involved in the regulation of cell shape and motility. Furthermore, the aggressive 3D morphology of EZH2 GOF-expressing melanoma cells (both endogenous and ectopic) was attenuated by EZH2 catalytic inhibition. Finally, A375 cells expressing exogenous EZH2 GOF mutants formed larger tumors than control cells in mouse xenograft studies. This study not only demonstrates the first functional characterization of EZH2 GOF mutants in non-hematopoietic cells, but also provides a rationale for EZH2 catalytic inhibition in melanoma. PMID:25671303

  4. Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Markus J; Mackenzie, Natalia C; Dumstrei, Karin; Nakkrasae, La-Iad; Stebler, Jürg; Raz, Erez

    2008-01-01

    Background Zebrafish germ cells contain granular-like structures, organized around the cell nucleus. These structures share common features with polar granules in Drosophila, germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others. Little is known about the structure of these granules as well as their segregation in mitosis during early germ-cell development. Results Using transgenic fish expressing a fluorescently labeled novel component of Zebrafish germ cell granules termed Granulito, we followed the morphology and distribution of the granules. We show that whereas these granules initially exhibit a wide size variation, by the end of the first day of development they become a homogeneous population of medium size granules. We investigated this resizing event and demonstrated the role of microtubules and the minus-end microtubule dependent motor protein Dynein in the process. Last, we show that the function of the germ cell granule resident protein the Tudor domain containing protein-7 (Tdrd7) is required for determination of granule morphology and number. Conclusion Our results suggest that Zebrafish germ cell granules undergo a transformation process, which involves germ cell specific proteins as well as the microtubular network. PMID:18507824

  5. Effect of lentivirus-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MA, XUEXIAO; LIN, YAZHOU; YANG, KUN; YUE, BIN; XIANG, HONGFEI; CHEN, BOHUA

    2015-01-01

    Lower back pain is a common concern, and 40% of all cases involve the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). However, the excessive apoptosis of disc cells plays an important role in IVD degeneration, particularly in the nucleus pulposus (NP). Thus, anti-apoptotic gene therapy to attenuate or reverse the degenerative process within the NP is being developed. Survivin is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) and has been extensively investigated in cancer cells. However, little is known of the effects of survivin transfection on NP cells derived from degenerative human disc. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lentivirus (LV)-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of NP cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro. NP cells were transfected with LV-mediated survivin. Subsequently, cell morphology was observed and the survivin mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and by measuring caspase-3 activity. The results revealed that the morphology of the NP cells derived from degenerative human disc transfected with LV-mediated survivin was significantly altered as evidenced by cytomorphosis, the reduction of the cytoplasm and cell shrinkage. Following transfection, survivin gene expression significantly increased in the transfected cells and subsequent generation cells; however, no significant differences in the cell apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity were observed. We found that transfection of the survivin gene into NP cells led to the stable expression of survivin and induced marked changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, no significant anti-apoptotic effects were observed following LV-mediated survivin transfection. Overall, our findings demonstrate that LV carrying surviving may be used to successfully enforce the expression of survivin in NP cells. However, cell morphology was evidently altered, whereas the apoptotic rate did not decrease. Comprehensive studies on the feasibility of using survivin in gene therapy in an aim to attenuate disc degeneration are warranted. Further research on the mechanisms responsible for the changes in cell morphology and cell function are also required. PMID:26017192

  6. DMPS reverts morphologic and mitochondrial damage in OK cells exposed to toxic concentrations of HgCl2.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy E; Cruz-Vega, Delia E; Balderas-Rentería, Isaías; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2007-05-01

    Mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) is a highly toxic compound, which can cause nephrotoxic damage. In the present study effects of HgCl(2) on mitochondria integrity and energy metabolism, as well as antidotal effects of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) were investigated in the opossum kidney derived cell line (OK). OK cell monolayers were incubated during 0, 1, 3, 6, and 9 h in serum-free culture medium containing 15 microM HgCl(2), either in the absence or in the presence of 60 microM DMPS in a 1:4 ratio. Intracellular ATP content, MTT reduction, and HSP70/HSP90 induction were studied; confocal, transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy studies were also performed. For confocal analysis, a mitochondrial selective probe (MitoTracker Red CMXH2Ros) was used. Antioxidant activity of DMPS was also studied by the scavenging of the free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) technique. A decrease of ATP content, an impaired ability to reduce tetrazolium, and dramatic changes on cellular and mitochondrial morphology, and energetic levels were found after either 6 or 9 h of HgCl(2) exposure. Increased expression of HSP90 and HSP70 were also seen. When OK cells were co-incubated with HgCl(2) and DMPS, cellular morphology, viability, intracellular ATP, and mitochondrial membrane potential were partially restored; a protective effect on mitochondrial morphology was also seen. DMPS also showed potent antioxidant activity in vitro. Mitochondrial protection could be the cellular mechanism mediated by DMPS in OK cells exposed to a toxic concentration of HgCl(2). PMID:17131097

  7. Morphologic characterization and distribution of endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Soares, Ítalo Augusto da Costa; Fonseca, Cláudio César; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the morphology and distribution of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of the opossum D. aurita were collected, processed, and submitted for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy. The tunics of the large intestine of D. aurita presented morphological characteristics that have already been described for eutherian mammals. The morphometric data showed that the inner circular layer of all portions and regions analyzed is thicker relative to the longitudinal layer, and these layers in the rectum are thicker compared to the cecum and ascending colon. The majority of mucus-secreting cells have acid and neutral mucins, suggesting that the production of mucus is mixed. The number of these cells increases in the region of the cecum toward the rectum. Important findings include the occurrence of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in all segments of the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the presence of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita). PMID:23810437

  8. Vertical and lateral morphology effects on solar cell performance for a thiophene–quinoxaline copolymer:PC 70BM blend

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hansson, Rickard; Ericsson, Leif K. E.; Holmes, Natalie P.; Rysz, Jakub; Opitz, Andreas; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Wang, Ergang; Barr, Matthew G.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Zhou, Xiaojing; et al

    2015-02-13

    The distribution of electron donor and acceptor in the active layer is known to strongly influence the electrical performance of polymer solar cells for most of the high performance polymer:fullerene systems. The formulation of the solution from which the active layer is spincoated plays an important role in the quest for morphology control. We have studied how the choice of solvent and the use of small amounts of a low vapour pressure additive in the coating solution influence the film morphology and the solar cell performance for blends of poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1) and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). We havemore »investigated the lateral morphology using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), the vertical morphology using dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (d-SIMS) and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), and the surface composition using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The lateral phase-separated domains observed in films spincoated from single solvents, increase in size with increasing solvent vapour pressure and decreasing PC70BM solubility, but are not observed when 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) is added. A strongly TQ1-enriched surface layer is formed in all TQ1:PC70BM blend films and rationalized by surface energy differences. The photocurrent and power conversion efficiency strongly increased upon the addition of CN, while the leakage current decreased by one to two orders of magnitude. The higher photocurrent correlates with the finer lateral structure and stronger TQ1-enrichment at the interface with the electron-collecting electrode. This indicates that the charge transport and collection are not hindered by this polymer-enriched surface layer. Neither the open-circuit voltage nor the series resistance of the devices are sensitive to the differences in morphology.« less

  9. CN Morphology Studies of Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    E-print Network

    Knight, Matthew M

    2011-01-01

    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13-17,...

  10. THE K-REGION DIHYDRODIOL OF BENZO[A]PYRENE INDUCES DNA DAMAGE AND MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION IN C3H10T1/2CL8 MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS WITHOUT THE FORMATION OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The K -region dihydrodiol ofbenzo[ a ]pyrene induces DNA damage and morphological cell transformation in C3HlOTY2CL8 mouse embryo cells without the formation of detectable stable covalent DNA adducts

    Benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P) is the most thoroughly studied polycyclic aro...

  11. Quantification of Dynamic Morphological Drug Responses in 3D Organotypic Cell Cultures by Automated Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Härmä, Ville; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Happonen, Antti; Ahonen, Ilmari; Virtanen, Johannes; Siitari, Harri; Åkerfelt, Malin; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nees, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Glandular epithelial cells differentiate into complex multicellular or acinar structures, when embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix. The spectrum of different multicellular morphologies formed in 3D is a sensitive indicator for the differentiation potential of normal, non-transformed cells compared to different stages of malignant progression. In addition, single cells or cell aggregates may actively invade the matrix, utilizing epithelial, mesenchymal or mixed modes of motility. Dynamic phenotypic changes involved in 3D tumor cell invasion are sensitive to specific small-molecule inhibitors that target the actin cytoskeleton. We have used a panel of inhibitors to demonstrate the power of automated image analysis as a phenotypic or morphometric readout in cell-based assays. We introduce a streamlined stand-alone software solution that supports large-scale high-content screens, based on complex and organotypic cultures. AMIDA (Automated Morphometric Image Data Analysis) allows quantitative measurements of large numbers of images and structures, with a multitude of different spheroid shapes, sizes, and textures. AMIDA supports an automated workflow, and can be combined with quality control and statistical tools for data interpretation and visualization. We have used a representative panel of 12 prostate and breast cancer lines that display a broad spectrum of different spheroid morphologies and modes of invasion, challenged by a library of 19 direct or indirect modulators of the actin cytoskeleton which induce systematic changes in spheroid morphology and differentiation versus invasion. These results were independently validated by 2D proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility assays. We identified three drugs that primarily attenuated the invasion and formation of invasive processes in 3D, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Two of these compounds block Rac signalling, one affects cellular cAMP/cGMP accumulation. Our approach supports the growing needs for user-friendly, straightforward solutions that facilitate large-scale, cell-based 3D assays in basic research, drug discovery, and target validation. PMID:24810913

  12. Mucinous spindle and tubular renal cell carcinoma: analysis of chromosomal aberration pattern of low-grade, high-grade, and overlapping morphologic variant with papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peckova, Kvetoslava; Martinek, Petr; Sperga, Maris; Montiel, Delia Perez; Daum, Ondrej; Rotterova, Pavla; Kalusová, Kristýna; Hora, Milan; Pivovarcikova, Kristýna; Rychly, Boris; Vranic, Semir; Davidson, Whitney; Vodicka, Josef; Dubová, Magdaléna; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2015-08-01

    The chromosomal numerical aberration pattern in mucinous tubular and spindle renal cell carcinoma (MTSRCC) is referred to as variable with frequent gains and losses. The objectives of this study are to map the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations (extent and location) in a large cohort of the cases and relate these findings to the morphologic variants of MTSRCC. Fifty-four MTSRCCs with uniform morphologic pattern were selected (of 133 MTSRCCs available in our registry) and divided into 3 groups: classic low-grade MTSRCC (Fuhrman nucleolar International Society of Urological Pathology grade 2), high-grade MTSRCC (grade 3), and overlapping MTSRCC with papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) morphology. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis was applied to 16 cases in which DNA was well preserved. Four analyzable classic low-grade MTSRCCs showed multiple losses affecting chromosomes 1, 4, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 22. No chromosomal gains were found. Four analyzable cases of MTSRCC showing overlapping morphology with PRCC displayed a more variable pattern including normal chromosomal status; losses of chromosomes 1, 6, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 22; and gains of 3, 7, 16, and 17. The group of 4 high-grade MTSRCCs exhibited a more uniform chromosomal aberration pattern with losses of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22 and without any gains detected. (1) MTSRCC, both low-grade and high-grade, shows chromosomal losses (including 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22) in all analyzable cases; this seems to be the most frequent chromosomal numerical aberration in this type of RCC. (2) Cases with overlapping morphologic features (MTSRCC and PRCC) showed a more variable pattern with multiple losses and gains, including gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 (2 cases). This result is in line with previously published morphologic and immunohistochemical studies that describe the broad morphologic spectrum of MTSRCC, with changes resembling papillary RCC. (3) The diagnosis of MTSRCC in tumors with overlapping morphology (MTSRCC and PRCC) showing gains of both chromosomes 7 and 17 remains questionable. Based on our findings, we recommend that such tumors should not be classified as MTSRCC but rather as PRCC. PMID:26009022

  13. Preparation, structural and morphological studies of Ni doped titania nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamannan, B.; Mugundan, S.; Viruthagiri, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.; Praveen, P.

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different weight percentages (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) of nickel contents were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using Titanium tetra iso propoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and 2-propanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction studies show that the as prepared and annealed products show anatase structure with average particle sizes running between of 8 and 16 nm. FTIR results demonstrate the presence of strong chemical bonding at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the nickel doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The non linear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  14. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin

    2013-11-27

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  15. Preparation, structural and morphological studies of Ni doped titania nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rajamannan, B; Mugundan, S; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N; Gobi, R; Praveen, P

    2014-07-15

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different weight percentages (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) of nickel contents were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using Titanium tetra iso propoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and 2-propanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction studies show that the as prepared and annealed products show anatase structure with average particle sizes running between of 8 and 16 nm. FTIR results demonstrate the presence of strong chemical bonding at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the nickel doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The non linear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP). PMID:24667428

  16. Morphological Study of Palatal Rugae in a Sudanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Hamid, Awrad

    2015-01-01

    Palatal rugae patterns have unique characteristics and have been proposed as an alternative method to establish identity when other means, such as fingerprints and dental records, are not attainable. This study was conducted to determine the morphological characteristics of palatine rugae and to assess the existence of side asymmetry in them in Sudanese Arabs. It also assesses the possibility of determining sex using logistic regression. One hundred dental casts for 50 males and 50 females aged between 18 and 23 were studied for palatal rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, as well as sexual dimorphism and side symmetry. The most predominant rugae were primary, and the most prevalent shapes in both sexes were wavy, curved, and straight forms. The predominant orientation was forward. Side asymmetry existed more in the orientations than in the shapes, but no side asymmetry was recorded in the dimensions. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, except for forward-directed rugae (P < 0.037). A predictive value of 60% was obtained in assigning sex using dimensions and orientations and of 58% using shapes alone. Therefore, the palatal rugae are not recommended for assigning sex effectively among Sudanese Arabs unless it is the only means available. PMID:25737723

  17. Effect of heat stress on the porcine small intestine: a morphological and gene expression study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Yin, Peng; Liu, Fenghua; Cheng, Guilin; Guo, Kaijun; Lu, An; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Luan, Weili; Xu, Jianqin

    2010-05-01

    With the presence of global warming, the occurrence of extreme heat is becoming more common, especially during the summer, increasing pig susceptibility to severe heat stress. The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in morphology and gene expression in the pig small intestine in response to heat stress. Forty eight Chinese experimental mini pigs (Sus scrofa) were subjected to 40 degrees C for 5h each day for 10 successive days. Pigs were euthanized at 1, 3, 6, and 10 days after heat treatment and sections of the small intestine epithelial tissue were excised for morphological examination and microarray analyses. After heat treatment, the pig rectal temperature, the body surface temperature and serum cortisol levels were all significantly increased. The duodenum and jejunum displayed significant damage, most severe after 3 days of treatment. Microarray analysis found 93 genes to be up-regulated and 110 genes to be down-regulated in response to heat stress. Subsequent bioinformatic analysis (including gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis) revealed the genes altered in response to heat stress related to unfolded protein, regulation of translation initiation, regulation of cell proliferation, cell migration and antioxidant regulation. Heat stress caused significant damage to the pig small intestine and altered gene expression in the pig jejunum. The results of the bioinformatic analysis from the present study will be beneficial to further investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in heat stress-induced damage in the pig small intestine. PMID:20096800

  18. Device and morphological engineering of organic solar cells for enhanced charge transport and photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Nirmal; Khatiwada, Devendra; Dubey, Ashish; Qiao, Qiquan

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated polymers are potential materials for photovoltaic applications due to their high absorption coefficient, mechanical flexibility, and solution-based processing for low-cost solar cells. A bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure made of donor-acceptor composite can lead to high charge transfer and power conversion efficiency. Active layer morphology is a key factor for device performance. Film formation processes (e.g., spray-coating, spin-coating, and dip-coating), post-treatment (e.g., annealing and UV ozone treatment), and use of additives are typically used to engineer the morphology, which optimizes physical properties, such as molecular configuration, miscibility, lateral and vertical phase separation. We will review electronic donor-acceptor interactions in conjugated polymer composites, the effect of processing parameters and morphology on solar cell performance, and charge carrier transport in polymer solar cells. This review provides the basis for selection of different processing conditions for optimized nanomorphology of active layers and reduced bimolecular recombination to enhance open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor of BHJ solar cells.

  19. Morphology favors an endothelial cell pathway for longitudinal conduction within arterioles.

    PubMed

    Haas, T L; Duling, B R

    1997-03-01

    We examined the morphological parameters of arteriolar endothelial and smooth muscle cell dimensions and gap junctional surface areas to obtain an indication of the coupling capacity of each cell type. Silver nitrate staining was utilized to define cell borders of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in arterioles of several vascular beds from two species. From video images of silver-stained arterioles, the mean endothelial cell length of hamster cheek pouch arterioles (diameter 20 to 110 microns) was found to be 141 +/- 2 microns. Mean endothelial cell width was 7 +/- 0.2 microns in the same arterioles. Mean smooth muscle cell length in hamster cheek pouch arterioles of diameter 80 to 150 microns was 66 +/- 3 microns, with an average cell width of 8 +/- 0.2 microns. Dimensions of both endothelial and smooth muscle cells varied moderately with arteriole size and tissue type, but no general trends were seen. Based on the measured dimensions and the specific orientation of cell types within the arteriole, it was calculated that in hamster cheek pouch arterioles (60 microns diameter), 6 or 7 endothelial cell lengths would constitute a 1-mm segment of vessel, whereas approximately 140 smooth muscle cell widths would be required to span the same length. Estimates of connexin43 gap junctional plaque surface areas in each cell type suggest that endothelial cell junctional surface area is approximately eight times that of smooth muscle cells. Thus, combined measurement of cell dimensions and orientation with estimates of junctional plaque density leads to the conclusion that the endothelial cell layer forms a more permissive pathway for longitudinal conduction of signals through the blood vessel. PMID:9143542

  20. Lectin-mediated effects on bone resorption in vitro: a morphological and functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Popoff, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Lectins have been used to study the structure and function of a variety of cells and tissues. The authors used 4 different lectins, concanavalin A (con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soybean agglutinin (SBA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) as in vitro biological probes to study the osteoclast, a multinucleated bone cell that is widely accepted as the primary effector cell responsible for normal bone resorption. They evaluated the effects of each of these lectins on osteoclastic bone resorbing activity and then examined mechanisms that may be responsible for the activation and/or inhibition of osteoclastic activity. Using con A and hemocyanin, a marker molecule used to visualize cell-bound con A via scanning electron microscopy, they demonstrated that osteoclasts have specific con A binding sites on their cell surface. They conducted a series of /sup 45/Ca bone release assays demonstrating that con A has a dose-dependent biphasic effect on bone resorption; stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at higher concentrations. The findings suggest that the specificity of lectin binding to cell surface receptors may play an important role in the induction of altered cell function. Recently, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system have been proposed as surrogates of less readily available osteoclasts. They used a macrophage-devitalized bone culture system to evaluate the effects of con A and SBA on the attachment of macrophages to bone and their subsequent functional activity. The results showed that con A, but not SBA, alters the morphology and function of macrophages on a devitalized bone surface. The results support the hypothesis that certain, specific saccharides regulate the interaction between macrophages and bone.

  1. CN MORPHOLOGY STUDIES OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2011-06-15

    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September, the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December, the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January, the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13 to 17, 17.2 hr from September 10 to 13, 18.2 hr from October 12 to 19, and 18.7 hr from October 31 to November 7. We conducted Monte Carlo jet modeling to constrain the pole orientation and locations of the active regions based on the observed morphology. Our preliminary, self-consistent pole solution has an obliquity of 10{sup 0} relative to the comet's orbital plane (i.e., it is centered near R.A. = 257{sup 0} and decl. = +67{sup 0} with an uncertainty around this position of about 15{sup 0}) and has two mid-latitude sources, one in each hemisphere.

  2. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions. PMID:26098633

  3. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its birth until the time of collection and to extract selected chambers for further studies. The variation in chamber number during the sampling period (in this study limited at 15 months) will allow the estimation of the mean chamber building rate for each investigated species. However, a number of morphological aberrations within the population can be observed: often multiple proloculi are present; their orientation to the equatorial plane (or planes) respectively the spatial position of the foramina between proloculus (or proloculi) to the reniform deuteroloculi, the geometry of septa and septula and their variation trough ontogeny and several other ontogenetic variation need further attention. Many new insights into the biology of living and fossil LBF will be obtained when the three dimensional morphology of the complete foraminiferal shell is raised to the population level.

  4. Calmodulin inhibition regulates morphological and functional changes related to the actin cytoskeleton in pure microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Melinda; Dulka, Karolina; Gulya, Karoly

    2016-01-01

    The roles of calmodulin (CaM), a multifunctional intracellular calcium receptor protein, as concerns selected morphological and functional characteristics of pure microglial cells derived from mixed primary cultures from embryonal forebrains of rats, were investigated through use of the CaM antagonists calmidazolium (CALMID) and trifluoperazine (TFP). The intracellular localization of the CaM protein relative to phalloidin, a bicyclic heptapeptide that binds only to filamentous actin, and the ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), a microglia-specific actin-binding protein, was determined by immunocytochemistry, with quantitative analysis by immunoblotting. In unchallenged and untreated (control) microglia, high concentrations of CaM protein were found mainly perinuclearly in ameboid microglia, while the cell cortex had a smaller CaM content that diminished progressively deeper into the branches in the ramified microglia. The amounts and intracellular distributions of both Iba1 and CaM proteins were altered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in activated microglia. CALMID and TFP exerted different, sometimes opposing, effects on many morphological, cytoskeletal and functional characteristics of the microglial cells. They affected the CaM and Iba1 protein expressions and their intracellular localizations differently, inhibited cell proliferation, viability and fluid-phase phagocytosis to different degrees both in unchallenged and in LPS-treated (immunologically challenged) cells, and differentially affected the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the microglial cell cortex, influencing lamellipodia, filopodia and podosome formation. In summary, these CaM antagonists altered different aspects of filamentous actin-based cell morphology and related functions with variable efficacy, which could be important in deciphering the roles of CaM in regulating microglial functions in health and disease. PMID:26551061

  5. The morphology of perinecrotic tumor cell nuclei in glioblastomas shows a significant relationship with survival time.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Reinhold; Franz, Kea; Schlote, Wolfgang; Schneider, Berthold

    2006-09-01

    A deeper knowledge about histopathological criteria with a significant impact on the prognosis of patients with glioblastomas is worthwhile, since these patients may show a considerable difference in the time of survival. Investigation of the morphology of perinecrotic tumor cell nuclei is a promising approach, because the expression of specific molecules in these cells has been associated with a more aggressive behaviour of the tumors. In our series of patients with documented clinical course, 11 patients had a survival of at least 24 months and we compared this group with a group of 10 patients with maximum survival of 12 months. Digital microscopic image analysis was performed in paraffin sections from the primary surgical specimen. Three hundred perinecrotic tumor cell nuclei per case and 300 nuclei per case from tumor cells lying more distant from the tumor necroses ('distant zone' nuclei) were measured. The ratio for the numerical nuclear density between both types of nuclei was significantly larger in cases with short survival indicating a more pronounced nuclear density of perinecrotic nuclei in relation to the 'distant zone' nuclei in these tumors. In cases with long survival, on the contrary, perinecrotic tumor cells exhibited an only slightly larger numerical density compared with 'distant zone' nuclei. Mean values and standard deviations from parameters of nuclear shape (Fourier-amplitudes) had significantly smaller values in short-time survivors indicating a tendency towards a more circular nuclear shape with less pronounced intratumoral variation in that group. Based on the morphometric results, all cases could be correctly reclassified as short- or long-time survivors by means of cross-validated discriminant analysis. In conclusion, the results confirm significant morphological differences between tumors from patients with short and with long survival regarding morphology of both types of tumor cell nuclei. It seems likely, that histomorphometry of tumor cell nuclei could be a promising approach for the assessment of the individual prognosis of patients with glioblastomas. PMID:16865255

  6. Computational image analysis of colony and nuclear morphology to evaluate human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Kazuaki; Saitoh, Noriko; Goldberg, Ilya G; Sakamoto, Chiyomi; Yasuda, Yoko; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive evaluation of cell reprogramming by advanced image analysis is required to maintain the quality of cells intended for regenerative medicine. Here, we constructed living and unlabelled colony image libraries of various human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines for supervised machine learning pattern recognition to accurately distinguish bona fide iPSCs from improperly reprogrammed cells. Furthermore, we found that image features for efficient discrimination reside in cellular components. In fact, extensive analysis of nuclear morphologies revealed dynamic and characteristic signatures, including the linear form of the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML)-defined structure in iPSCs, which was reversed to a regular sphere upon differentiation. Our data revealed that iPSCs have a markedly different overall nuclear architecture that may contribute to highly accurate discrimination based on the cell reprogramming status. PMID:25385348

  7. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect

    Poindl, M. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  8. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  9. Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in binary mixtures: DPD study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2014-11-01

    Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in a binary mixture of good and bad solvents are studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations drawing on a characteristic example of polyisoprene natural rubber in an acetone-benzene mixture. A coarse-grained DPD model of this system is built based on the experimental data in the literature. We focus on the transformation of dense, collapsed brush in bad solvent (acetone) to expanded brush solvated in good solvent (benzene) as the concentration of benzene increases. Compared to a sharp globule-to-coil transition observed in individual tethered chains, the collapsed-to-expanded transformation in brushes is found to be gradual without a prominent transition point. The transformation becomes more leveled as the brush density increases. At low densities, the collapsed brush is highly inhomogeneous and patterned into bunches composed of neighboring chains due to favorable polymer-polymer interaction. At high densities, the brush is expanded even in bad solvent due to steric restrictions. In addition, we considered a model system similar to the PINR-acetone-benzene system, but with the interactions between the solvent components worsened to the limit of miscibility. Enhanced contrast between good and bad solvents facilitates absorption of the good solvent by the brush, shifting the collapsed-to-expanded transformation to lower concentrations of good solvent. This effect is especially pronounced for higher brush densities. PMID:25295697

  10. Morphologic and phenotypic changes of human neuroblastoma cells in culture induced by cytosine arabinoside

    SciTech Connect

    Ponzoni, M.; Lanciotti, M.; Melodia, A.; Casalaro, A.; Cornaglia-Ferraris, P. )

    1989-03-01

    The effects of cytosine-arabinoside (ARA-C) on the growth and phenotypic expression of a new human neuroblastoma (NB) cell line (GI-ME-N) have been extensively tested. Low doses of ARA-C allowing more than 90% cell viability induce morphological differentiation and growth inhibition. Differentiated cells were larger and flattened with elongated dendritic processes; such cells appeared within 48 hours after a dose of ARA-C as low as 0.1 {mu}g/ml. The new morphological aspect reached the maximum expression after 5-6 days of culture being independent from the addition of extra drug to the culture. A decrease in ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation was also observed within 24 hours and the cell growth was completely inhibited on the sixth day. Moreover, ARA-C strongly inhibited anchorage-independent growth in soft agar assay. Membrane immunofluorescence showed several dramatic changes in NB-specific antigen expression after 5 days of treatment with ARA-C. At the same time ARA-C also modulated cytoskeletal proteins and slightly increased catecholamine expression. These findings suggest that noncytotoxic doses of ARA-C do promote the differentiation of GI-ME-N neuroblastoma cells associated with reduced expression of the malignant phenotype.

  11. Comparisons of cell culture medium using distribution of morphological features in microdevice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Enomoto, Junko; Ikeda, Yurika; Honda, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Junji; Kato, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    As the number of available cell types grows, it becomes necessary to develop more effective ways to optimize the cell-culture medium for each cell line and culture condition. However, because of the vast number of parameters that must be decided, such as the combination of components, optimization is both laborious and costly. Microdevices are a cost-effective way to perform such evaluations because they use only a small volume of media and enable high-throughput analyses. However, assays performed in microdevices are themselves minimized, and each assay unit (well/chamber) commonly contains an insufficient number of cells for comprehensive evaluations such as gene-expression or flow-cytometry analyses. To address this issue, we introduced image-based analysis in conjunction with microdevice assays; this approach allows quantification of every cell in each assay unit. To quantitatively profile differences in cellular behaviors in a microdevice under different culture media conditions, we developed a non-staining image-based analysis method that utilizes cellular morphology. Our approach combines the structural advantages of microdevices, which can increase the stability of images, and the quantitative advantages of an image-based cell evaluation technique that utilizes time-course population change in several morphological features. Our results demonstrate that cellular changes due to small alterations in the concentration of serum in medium or differences in the basal medium can be profiled using only microscopic images. PMID:26149718

  12. A novel biointerface that suppresses cell morphological changes by scavenging excess reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yutaka; Yoshinari, Tomoki; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-09-01

    During cell cultivation on conventional culture dishes, various events results in strong stresses that lead to the production of bioactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide. These reactive species cause variable damage to cells and stimulate cellular responses. Here, we report the design of a novel biocompatible surface that decreases stress by not only morphologically modifying the dish surface by using poly(ethylene glycol) tethered chains, but also actively scavenging oxidative stress by using our novel nitroxide radical-containing polymer. A block copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl)aminomethylstyrene] (PEG-b-PMNT) was used to coat the surface of a dish. Differentiation of undifferentiated human leukemia (HL-60) cells was found to be suppressed on the polymer-coated dish. Notably, HL-60 cell cultivation caused apoptosis under high-density conditions, while spontaneous apoptosis was suppressed in cells plated on the PEG-b-PMNT-modified surface, because a healthy mitochondrial membrane potential was maintained. In contrast, low molecular weight antioxidants did not have apparent effects on the maintenance of mitochondria. We attribute this to the lack of cellular internalization of our immobilized polymer and selective scavenging of excessive ROS generated outside of cells. These results demonstrate the utility of our novel biocompatible material for actively scavenging ROS and thus maintaining cellular morphology. PMID:25691268

  13. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025?h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B.?subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B.?subtilis?sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006?h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions. PMID:25367190

  14. Spatiotemporal quantification of subcellular ATP levels in a single HeLa cell during changes in morphology

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rika; Hotta, Kohji; Oka, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative relationship between change in cell shape and ATP consumption is an unsolved problem in cell biology. In this study, a simultaneous imaging and image processing analysis allowed us to observe and quantify these relationships under physiological conditions, for the first time. We focused on two marginal regions of cells: the microtubule-rich ‘lamella’ and the actin-rich ‘peripheral structure’. Simultaneous imaging and correlation analysis revealed that microtubule dynamics cause lamellar shape change accompanying an increase in ATP level. Also, image processing and spatiotemporal quantification enabled to visualize a chronological change of the relationships between the protrusion length and ATP levels, and it suggested they are influencing each other. Furthermore, inhibition of microtubule dynamics diminished motility in the peripheral structure and the range of fluctuation of ATP level in the lamella. This work clearly demonstrates that cellular motility and morphology are regulated by ATP-related cooperative function between microtubule and actin dynamics. PMID:26575097

  15. Apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells of cattle: morphological features and clearance by homologous phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Carou, María Clara; Cruzans, Paula Romina; Maruri, Alejandro; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Lombardo, Daniel Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is involved in many physiological processes of the ovary, such as recruitment of prenatal germ cells, follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteolysis. Based on the need for the involvement of phagocytic cells to achieve apoptosis clearance and that follicular atresia is triggered by weak apoptotic stimuli, we postulate that granulosa cells engullng apoptotic corpses (ACs) must carry out this macrophagic process. Since apoptosis was early defined in terms of morphological aspects, here we describe apoptosis induced by a GnRH analog (leuprolide acetate, LA) at histological level on bovine granulosa cells (primary culture, CPGB, and an established cell line, BGC-1). We observed two main types of apoptosis. In type A, the whole cell or most of it is compacted into a single large AC that is then engulfed by neighboring cells or simply detached. In type B, small portions of cells, either with or without nuclear material, become ACs that are also phagocytosed. Apoptosis and homologous phagocytosis were confirmed by TUNEL and immunocytochemistry for Bax and active caspase 3. Induction of apoptosis was significant in BGC-1 cells treated for 24 h with 100 nM LA. CPGB cells showed two types of response with different doses of LA. Fetal calf serum was necessary to find apoptosis induced by LA. PMID:25511683

  16. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Jin-A

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. PMID:23742895

  17. Morphological and morphometric characterization of direct transdifferentiation of support cells into hair cells in ototoxin-exposed neonatal utricular explants.

    PubMed

    Werner, Mimmi; Van De Water, Thomas R; Hammarsten, Peter; Arnoldsson, Göran; Berggren, Diana

    2015-03-01

    We have studied aminoglycoside-induced vestibular hair-cell renewal using long-term culture of utricular macula explants from 4-day-old rats. Explanted utricles were exposed to 1 mM of gentamicin for 48 h, during 2nd and 3rd days in vitro (DIV), and then recovering in unsupplemented medium. Utricles were harvested at specified time points from the 2nd through the 28th DIV. The cellular events that occurred within hair cell epithelia during the culture period were documented from serial sectioned specimens. Vestibular hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs) were systematically counted using light microscopy (LM) with the assistance of morphometric software. Ultrastructural observations were made from selected specimens with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After 7 DIV, i.e. four days after gentamicin exposure, the density of HCs was 11% of the number of HCs observed in non-gentamicin-exposed control explants. At 28 DIV the HC density was 61% of the number of HCs observed in the control group explant specimens. Simultaneously with this increase in HCs there was a corresponding decline in the number of SCs within the epithelium. The proportion of HCs in relation to SCs increased significantly in the gentamicin-exposed explant group during the 5th to the 28th DIV period of culture. There were no significant differences in the volume estimations of the gentamicin-exposed and the control group explants during the observed period of culture. Morphological observations showed that gentamicin exposure induced extensive loss of HCs within the epithelial layer, which retained their intact apical and basal linings. At 7 to 14 DIV (i.e. 3-11 days after gentamicin exposure) a pseudostratified epithelium with multiple layers of disorganized cells was observed. At 21 DIV new HCs were observed that also possessed features resembling SCs. After 28 DIV a new luminal layer of HCs with several layers of SCs located more basally characterized the gentamicin-exposed epithelium. No mitoses were observed within the epithelial layer of any explants. Our conclusion is that direct transdifferentiation of SCs into HCs was the only process contributing to the renewal of HCs after gentamicin exposure in these explants of vestibular inner ear epithelia obtained from the labyrinths of 4-day-old rats. PMID:25576788

  18. Identification and quantitation of morphological cell types in electrophoretically separated human embryonic kidney cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, K. B.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Four major cell types were identified by phase microscopy in early passage human embryonic kidney cell cultures. They are small and large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated cells. Fibroblasts are also present in some explants. The percent of each cell type changes with passage number as any given culture grows. As a general rule, the fraction of small epithelioid cells increases, while the fraction of fenestrated cells, always small, decreases further. When fibroblasts are present, they always increase in percentage of the total cell population. Electrophoretic separation of early passage cells showed that the domed cells have the highest electrophoretic mobility, fibroblasts have an intermediate high mobility, small epithelioid cells have a low mobility, broadly distributed, and fenestrated cells have the lowest mobility. All cell types were broadly distributed among electrophoretic subfractions, which were never pure but only enriched with respect to a given cell type.

  19. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  20. Expression of orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR174 in CHO cells induced morphological changes and proliferation delay via increasing intracellular cAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Sugita, Kazuya; Yamamura, Chiaki; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Norihisa; School of Pharmacy, Ristumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of GPR174 in CHO cells induces morphological changes and proliferation delay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These are due to increase in intracellular cAMP concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysophosphatidylserine was identified to stimulate GPR174 leading to activate ACase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potencies of fatty acid moiety on LysoPS were oleoyl Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To stearoyl > palmitoyl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that GPR174 is a lysophosphatidylserine receptor. -- Abstract: We established cell lines that stably express orphan GPCR GPR174 using CHO cells, and studied physiological and pharmacological features of the receptor. GPR174-expressing cells showed cell-cell adhesion with localization of actin filaments to cell membrane, and revealed significant delay of cell proliferation. Since the morphological changes of GPR174-cells were very similar to mock CHO cells treated with cholera toxin, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP. The results showed the concentration was significantly elevated in GPR174-cells. By measuring intracellular cAMP concentration in GPR174-cells, we screened lipids and nucleotides to identify ligands for GPR174. We found that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) stimulated increase in intracellular cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, phosphorylation of Erk was elevated by LysoPS in GPR174 cells. These LysoPS responses were inhibited by NF449, an inhibitor of G{alpha}{sub s} protein. These results suggested that GPR174 was a putative LysoPS receptor conjugating with G{alpha}{sub s}, and its expression induced morphological changes in CHO cells by constitutively activating adenylyl cycles accompanied with cell conjunctions and delay of proliferation.

  1. Correlating cell morphology and osteoid mineralization relative to strain profile for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Wood, M A; Yang, Y; Baas, E; Meredith, D O; Richards, R G; Kuiper, J H; El Haj, A J

    2008-08-01

    A number of bone tissue engineering strategies use porous three-dimensional scaffolds in combination with bioreactor regimes. The ability to understand cell behaviour relative to strain profile will allow for the effects of mechanical conditioning in bone tissue engineering to be realized and optimized. We have designed a model system to investigate the effects of strain profile on bone cell behaviour. This simplified model has been designed with a view to providing insight into the types of strain distribution occurring across a single pore of a scaffold subjected to perfusion-compression conditioning. Local strains were calculated at the surface of the pore model using finite-element analysis. Scanning electron microscopy was used in secondary electron mode to identify cell morphology within the pore relative to local strains, while backscattered electron detection in combination with X-ray microanalysis was used to identify calcium deposition. Morphology was altered according to the level of strain experienced by bone cells, where cells subjected to compressive strains (up to 0.61%) appeared extremely rounded while those experiencing zero and tensile strain (up to 0.81%) were well spread. Osteoid mineralization was similarly shown to be dose dependent with respect to substrate strain within the pore model, with the highest level of calcium deposition identified in the intermediate zones of tension/compression. PMID:18077245

  2. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: An elicited production study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Brandt, Temre H.; Henry, Maya L.; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

  3. Bot1p is required for mitochondrial translation, respiratory function, and normal cell morphology in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Wiley, David J; Catanuto, Paola; Fontanesi, Flavia; Rios, Carmen; Sanchez, Natalie; Barrientos, Antoni; Verde, Fulvia

    2008-04-01

    Maintenance of cell morphology is essential for normal cell function. For eukaryotic cells, a growing body of recent evidence highlights a close interdependence between mitochondrial function, the cytoskeleton, and cell cycle control mechanisms; however, the molecular details of this interconnection are still not completely understood. We have identified a novel protein, Bot1p, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The bot1 gene is essential for cell viability. bot1Delta mutant cells expressing lower levels of Bot1p display altered cell size and cell morphology and a disrupted actin cytoskeleton. Bot1p localizes to the mitochondria in live cells and cofractionates with purified mitochondrial ribosomes. Reduced levels of Bot1p lead to mitochondrial fragmentation, decreased mitochondrial protein translation, and a corresponding decrease in cell respiration. Overexpression of Bot1p results in cell cycle delay, with increased cell size and cell length and enhanced cell respiration rate. Our results show that Bot1p has a novel function in the control of cell respiration by acting on the mitochondrial protein synthesis machinery. Our observations also indicate that in fission yeast, alterations of mitochondrial function are linked to changes in cell cycle and cell morphology control mechanisms. PMID:18245278

  4. Morphological control in polymer solar cells using low-boiling-point solvent additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.

    In the global search for clean, renewable energy sources, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have recently been given much attention. Popular modern-day OPVs are made from solution-processible, carbon-based polymers (e.g. the model poly(3-hexylthiophene) that are intimately blended with fullerene derivatives (e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) to form what is known as the dispersed bulk-heterojunction (BHJ). This BHJ architecture has produced some of the most efficient OPVs to date, with reports closing in on 10% power conversion efficiency. To push efficiencies further into double digits, many groups have identified the BHJ nanomorphology---that is, the phase separations and grain sizes within the polymer: fullerene composite---as a key aspect in need of control and improvement. As a result, many methods, including thermal annealing, slow-drying (solvent) annealing, vapor annealing, and solvent additives, have been developed and studied to promote BHJ self-organization. Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in BHJ OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated.

  5. Biochemical and morphological changes in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by treatment of rats with p-Nonylphenol

    PubMed Central

    Abnosi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojafar, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In previous investigations, we have shown para-nonylphenol (p-NP) caused significant reduction of proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. In this study, we first treat the rats with p-NP, then carried out the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs. Materials and Methods: Proliferation property of cells was evaluated with the help of MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Differentiation property was evaluated with quantitative alizarin red assay, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as intracellular calcium content. In addition; morphological study, TUNEL test, activated caspase assay, and comet assay were performed to evaluate the mechanism of the cell death. Results: The results showed significant reduction in the colony-forming-ability and population-doubling-number of extracted cells when compared to control ones. In addition, it was revealed that the p-NP treatment of rats caused significant reduction in nuclear diameter, cytoplasm shrinkage, and induction of caspase-dependent-apoptosis. Also there was significant reduction in ALP activity, intracellular calcium content, and intracellular matrix following osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion: As MSCs are the cellular back up for bone remodeling and repair, we suggest more investigations to be conducted regarding the correlation between the increasing number of patients suffering from osteoporosis and p-NP toxicity. Also, we strongly recommend WHO and local health organization to prevent industries of using p-NP in formulation of industrial products which may cause changes in proliferation and differentiation properties of stem cells. PMID:26019793

  6. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  7. Developmental alterations of the C. elegans male anal depressor morphology and function require sex-specific cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; René García, L

    2015-02-01

    We studied the Caenorhabditis elegans anal depressor development in larval males and hermaphrodites to address how a differentiated cell sex-specifically changes its morphology prior to adulthood. In both sexes, the larval anal depressor muscle is used for defecation behavior. However in the adult males, the muscle's sarcomere is reorganized to facilitate copulation. To address when the changes occur in the anal depressor, we used YFP:actin to monitor, and mutant analysis, laser-ablation and transgenic feminization to perturb the cell's morphological dynamics. In L1 and L2 stage larva, the muscle of both sexes has similar sarcomere morphology, but the hermaphrodite sex-determination system promotes more growth. The male anal depressor begins to change in the L3 stage, first by retracting its muscle arm from the neurons of the defecation circuit. Then the muscle's ventral region develops a slit that demarcates an anterior and posterior domain. This demarcation is not dependent on the anal depressor's intrinsic genetic sex, but is influenced by extrinsic interactions with the developing male sex muscles. However, subsequent changes are dependent on the cell's sex. In the L4 stage, the anterior domain first disassembles the dorsal-ventral sarcomere region and develops filopodia that elongates anteriorly towards the spicule muscles. Later, the posterior domain dissembles the remnants of its sarcomere, but still retains a vestigial attachment to the ventral body wall. Finally, the anterior domain attaches to the sex muscles, and then reassembles an anterior-posteriorly oriented sarcomere. Our work identifies key steps in the dimorphic re-sculpting of the anal depressor that are regulated by genetic sex and by cell-cell signaling. PMID:25498482

  8. The Morphological and Molecular Changes of Brain Cells Exposed to Direct Current Electric Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Simon J.; Lagacé, Marie; St-Amour, Isabelle; Arsenault, Dany; Cisbani, Giulia; Chabrat, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; Lévesque, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The application of low-intensity direct current electric fields has been experimentally used in the clinic to treat a number of brain disorders, predominantly using transcranial direct current stimulation approaches. However, the cellular and molecular changes induced by such treatment remain largely unknown. Methods: Here, we tested various intensities of direct current electric fields (0, 25, 50, and 100V/m) in a well-controlled in vitro environment in order to investigate the responses of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes to this type of stimulation. This included morphological assessments of the cells, viability, as well as shape and fiber outgrowth relative to the orientation of the direct current electric field. We also undertook enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western immunoblotting to identify which molecular pathways were affected by direct current electric fields. Results: In response to direct current electric field, neurons developed an elongated cell body shape with neurite outgrowth that was associated with a significant increase in growth associated protein-43. Fetal midbrain dopaminergic explants grown in a collagen gel matrix also showed a reorientation of their neurites towards the cathode. BV2 microglial cells adopted distinct morphological changes with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but these were dependent on whether they had already been activated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, astrocytes displayed elongated cell bodies with cellular filopodia that were oriented perpendicularly to the direct current electric field. Conclusion: We show that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help us to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of direct current electric field. PMID:25522422

  9. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  10. Vision Research 38 (1998) 33453352 Morphology of P and M retinal ganglion cells of the bush baby

    E-print Network

    Casagrande, Vivien

    1998-01-01

    Vision Research 38 (1998) 3345­3352 Morphology of P and M retinal ganglion cells of the bush baby strepsirhine, the greater bush baby Otolemur. The retinal ganglion cells were labeled with the lipophilic tracer DiI and the results show that bush babies have P/midget and M/parasol cells similar to those found

  11. Striking differences in morphology exist between the red blood cells of mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates.

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Striking differences in morphology exist between the red blood cells of mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. One of the most notable differences is that mammalian red blood cells lose their nuclei before entering the blood, whereas non-mammalian red blood cells remain nucleated throughout their circulatory

  12. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8mg/l of washing soda for 192h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges. PMID:26313128

  13. Morphology and ultrastructure of Interfilum and Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) with special reference to cell division and thallus formation

    PubMed Central

    MIKHAILYUK, TATIANA; HOLZINGER, ANDREAS; MASSALSKI, ANDRZEJ; KARSTEN, ULF

    2015-01-01

    Representatives of the closely related genera, Interfilum and Klebsormidium, are characterized by unicells, dyads or packets in Interfilum and contrasting uniseriate filaments in Klebsormidium. According to the literature, these distinct thallus forms originate by different types of cell division, sporulation (cytogony) versus vegetative cell division (cytotomy), but investigations of their morphology and ultrastructure show a high degree of similarity. Cell walls of both genera are characterized by triangular spaces between cell walls of neighbouring cells and the parental wall or central space among the walls of a cell packet, exfoliations and projections of the parental wall and cap-like and H-like fragments of the cell wall. In both genera, each cell has its individual cell wall and it also has part of the common parental wall or its remnants. Therefore, vegetative cells of Interfilum and Klebsormidium probably divide by the same type of cell division (sporulation-like). Various strains representing different species of the two genera are characterized by differences in cell wall ultrastructure, particularly the level of preservation, rupture or gelatinization of the parental wall surrounding the daughter cells. The differing morphologies of representatives of various lineages result from features of the parental wall during cell separation and detachment. Cell division in three planes (usual in Interfilum and a rare event in Klebsormidium) takes place in spherical or short cylindrical cells, with the chloroplast positioned perpendicularly or obliquely to the filament (dyad) axis. The morphological differences are mainly a consequence of differing fates of the parental wall after cell division and detachment. The development of different morphologies within the two genera mostly depends on characters such as the shape of cells, texture of cell walls, mechanical interactions between cells and the influence of environmental conditions. PMID:26504365

  14. Morphology and dynamic scaling analysis of cell colonies with linear growth fronts.

    PubMed

    Huergo, M A C; Pasquale, M A; Bolzán, A E; Arvia, A J; González, P H

    2010-09-01

    The growth of linear cell colony fronts is investigated from the morphology of cell monolayer colonies, the cell size and shape distribution, the front displacement velocity, and the dynamic scaling analysis of front roughness fluctuations. At the early growth stages, colony patterns consist of rather ordered compact domains of small cells, whereas at advanced stages, an uneven distribution of cells sets in, and some large cells and cells exhibiting large filopodia are produced. Colony front profiles exhibit overhangs and behave as fractals with the dimension D(F)=1.25±0.05. The colony fronts shift at 0.22±0.02??m ?min(-1) average constant linear velocity and their roughness (w) increases with time (t). Dynamic scaling analysis of experimental and overhang-corrected growth profile data shows that w versus system width l log-log plots collapse to a single curve when l exceeds a certain threshold value l(o), a width corresponding to the average diameter of few cells. Then, the influence of overhangs on the roughness dynamics becomes negligible, and a growth exponent ?=0.33±0.02 is derived. From the structure factor analysis of overhang-corrected profiles, a global roughness exponent ?(s)=0.50±0.05 is obtained. For l>200??m, this set of exponents fulfills the Family-Vicsek relationship. It is consistent with the predictions of the continuous Kardar-Parisi-Zhang model. PMID:21230104

  15. Epithelial cell morphology and adhesion on diamond films deposited and chemically modified by plasma processes.

    PubMed

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Ukraintsev, Egor; Krátká, Marie; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, Frantisek; Mandys, Vaclav

    2014-09-01

    The authors show that nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with a linear antenna delivery system are well compatible with epithelial cells (5637 human bladder carcinoma) and significantly improve the cell adhesion compared to reference glass substrates. This is attributed to better adhesion of adsorbed layers to diamond as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) beneath the cells. Moreover, the cell morphology can be adjusted by appropriate surface treatment of diamond by using hydrogen and oxygen plasma. Cell bodies, cytoplasmic rims, and filopodia were characterized by Peakforce AFM. Oxidized NCD films perform better than other substrates under all conditions (96% of cells adhered well). A thin adsorbed layer formed from culture medium and supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) covered the diamond surface and played an important role in the cell adhesion. Nevertheless, 50-100 nm large aggregates formed from the RPMI medium without FBS facilitated cell adhesion also on hydrophobic hydrogenated NCD (increase from 23% to 61%). The authors discuss applicability for biomedical uses. PMID:25280853

  16. Consecutive Morphology Controlling Operations for Highly Reproducible Mesostructured Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongzhen; Chen, Wei; Yue, Youfeng; Liu, Jian; Bi, Enbing; Yang, Xudong; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan

    2015-09-23

    Perovskite solar cells have shown high photovoltaic performance but suffer from low reproducibility, which is mainly caused by low uniformity of the active perovskite layer in the devices. The nonuniform perovskites further limit the fabrication of large size solar cells. In this work, we control the morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 on a mesoporous TiO2 substrate by employing consecutive antisolvent dripping and solvent-vapor fumigation during spin coating of the precursor solution. The solvent-vapor treatment is found to enhance the perovskite pore filling and increase the uniformity of CH3NH3PbI3 in the porous scaffold layer but slightly decrease the uniformity of the perovskite capping layer. An additional antisolvent dripping is employed to recover the uniform perovskite capping layer. Such consecutive morphology controlling operations lead to highly uniform perovskite in both porous and capping layers. By using the optimized perovskite deposition procedure, the reproducibility of mesostructured solar cells was greatly improved such that a total of 40 devices showed an average efficiency of 15.3% with a very small standard deviation of 0.32. Moreover, a high efficiency of 14.9% was achieved on a large-size cell with a working area of 1.02 cm(2). PMID:26317144

  17. The Influence of Genome and Cell Size on Brain Morphology in Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Roth, Gerhard; Walkowiak, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    In amphibians, nerve cell size is highly correlated with genome size, and increases in genome and cell size cause a retardation of the rate of development of nervous (as well as nonnervous) tissue leading to secondary simplification. This yields an inverse relationship between genome and cell size on the one hand and morphological complexity of the tectum mesencephali as the main visual center, the size of the torus semicircularis as the main auditory center, the size of the amphibian papilla as an important peripheral auditory structure, and the size of the cerebellum as a major sensorimotor center. Nervous structures developing later (e.g., torus and cerebellum) are more affected by secondary simplification than those that develop earlier (e.g., the tectum). This effect is more prominent in salamanders and caecilians than in frogs owing to larger genome and cells sizes in the former two taxa. We hypothesize that because of intragenomic evolutionary processes, important differences in brain morphology can arise independently of specific environmental selection. PMID:26261281

  18. A Fraction of CD133+ CNE2 Cells Is Made of Giant Cancer Cells with Morphological Evidence of Asymmetric Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qingping; Zhang, Qianbing; Wang, Shuang; Xie, Siming; Fang, Weiyi; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jinsong; Yao, Kaitai

    2015-01-01

    CD133 has been suggested as a broad-spectrum marker for cancer stem cells(CSCs). The present study investigated the expression of CD133 in biopsy tissues of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), NPC cell lines and the immortalized cell line NP69 by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. CD133+ cancer cells were isolated using magnetic-activated cell sorting technology. The study demonstrated that CD133+ cells are rare in NPC tissues and cell lines and that their self-renewal and proliferation abilities are stronger than those of CD133- cells and suggested that CD133+ NPC cells have characteristics of cancer stem cells. We further observed CD133+ cancer cells using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Generally, CD133+ cells are small, regular and round with small microvilli. On the other hand, CD133- cells are more polymorphic and larger with long micromicrovilli. Additionally, in some fields, several giant cancer cells (GCCs) in the CD133+ cell group were identified under the light microscope. Most of them were polynuclear cells. Under the scanning electron microscope, we found indefinite regular small bodies on the surface of or surrounding the giant cancer cells, some of which appeared to be creeping out the parental cells. This phenomenon was not observed in the CD133- cell groups. Through comparison with descriptions of apoptotic bodies in the literature and from the results of the acridine orange test, we propose that some of the small bodies are daughter cells of the GCCs. This phenomenon is a mode of division of cancer cells called neosis, or budding, which is a form of reproduction for simple organisms. Budding is satisfied with the rapid speed of tumor development. GCCs could be isolated by CD133 beads because the daughter cells have stem-cell characteristics and express stem-cell markers. PMID:26535065

  19. Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P.; Camacho-Díaz, B.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

  20. SDF-1? and LPA modulate microglia potassium channels through rho gtpases to regulate cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Muessel, Michelle J; Harry, G Jean; Armstrong, David L; Storey, Nina M

    2013-10-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, which are important therapeutic targets for regulating the inflammatory responses particularly neurodegeneration in the aging human brain. The activation, chemotaxis and migration of microglia are regulated through G-protein coupled receptors by chemokines such as stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1? and bioactive lysophospholipids such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Potassium channels play important roles in microglial function and cell fate decisions; however, the regulation of microglial potassium channels has not been fully elucidated. Here we show reciprocal action of SDF-1? and LPA, on potassium currents through Kir2.1 channels in primary murine microglia. The potassium channel modulation is mediated by the same small GTPases, Rac and Rho that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. SDF-1? rapidly increased the Kir2.1 current amplitude and cell spreading. These effects were mimicked by dialysing the cells with constitutively active Rac1 protein, and they were blocked by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) with wortmannin. In contrast, LPA and constitutively active RhoA decreased the Kir2.1 currents and stimulated cell contraction. Thus, SDF-1? and LPA regulate both the actin cytoskeleton and the Kir2.1 potassium channels through the same Rho GTPase signaling pathways. The inhibition of Kir2.1 with chloroethylclonidine produced cell contraction independently of chemokine action. This suggests that potassium channels are essential for the morphological phenotype and functioning of microglia. In conclusion, the small GTPases, Rac and Rho, modulate Kir2.1 channels and block of Kir2.1 channels causes changes in microglia morphology. PMID:23893870

  1. Morphology and Immunoreactivity of Retrogradely Double-Labeled Ganglion Cells in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Samuel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the specificity and reliability of a retrograde double-labeling technique that was recently established for identification of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) and to characterize the morphology of displaced (d)GCs (dGs). Methods. A mixture of the gap-junction–impermeable dye Lucifer yellow (LY) and the permeable dye neurobiotin (NB) was applied to the optic nerve stump for retrograde labeling of GCs and the cells coupled with them. A confocal microscope was adopted for morphologic observation. Results. GCs were identified by LY labeling, and they were all clearly labeled by NB. Cells coupled to GCs contained a weak NB signal but no LY. LY and NB revealed axon bundles, somas and dendrites of GCs. The retrogradely identified GCs numbered approximately 50,000 per retina, and they constituted 44% of the total neurons in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Somas of retrogradely identified dGs were usually negative for glycine, ChAT (choline acetyltransferase), bNOS (brain-type nitric oxidase), GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), and glial markers, and occasionally, they were weakly GABA-positive. dGs averaged 760 per retina and composed 1.7% of total GCs. Sixteen morphologic subtypes of dGs were encountered, three of which were distinct from known GCs. dGs sent dendrites to either sublaminas of the IPL, mostly sublamina a. Conclusions. The retrograde labeling is reliable for identification of GCs. dGs participate in ON and OFF light pathways but favor the OFF pathway. ChAT, bNOS, glycine, and GAD remain reliable AC markers in the GCL. GCs may couple to GABAergic ACs, and the gap junctions likely pass NB and GABA. PMID:21482641

  2. CD45+ and CD45- lymphocyte populations identified by flow cytometry from dogs with lymphoma exhibit similar morphology and the same clonal (B cell or T cell) lineage.

    PubMed

    Fogle, J E; Tarigo, J L; Thalheim, L; Williams, L E; English, L B; Suter, S E

    2015-12-15

    Flow cytometric analysis of canine lymphoma sometimes demonstrates a mixed population of CD45+ and CD45- lymphocytes. Recently, indolent forms of canine lymphoma have been described which are associated with the loss of CD45 expression, warranting further investigation of the role of CD45 in canine lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to compare morphology and assess clonal origin between CD45+ and CD45- lymphocyte populations identified by flow cytometry in confirmed cases of canine B- and T-cell lymphoma. Our hypothesis was that the CD45- population of lymphocytes represented a phenotypic variant of the CD45+ population. Fifteen client-owned dogs with lymphoma and distinct CD45+ and CD45- lymphocyte populations identified by flow cytometry were identified for a blinded, prospective assessment of morphology and clonal origin (B cell or T cell) between populations of sorted CD45+ and CD45- cells. Lymphocytes were isolated from 11 dogs for paired cytologic evaluation. In 10/11 dogs, the CD45+ and CD45- samples were similar (95% C.I., 0.301-1.00). DNA was harvested from sorted populations of CD45+ and CD45- cells from 12/15 dogs and PARR analysis produced amplicons of identical size from both populations, indicating that 100% (12/12) were of the same lineage, B cell or T cell (95% C.I., 0.757-1.00). Collectively, our data suggests that the CD45- population identified in dogs with lymphoma represents a phenotypic variant of the CD45+ population. PMID:26553299

  3. Thyroid hormone action: induction of morphological changes and protein secretion in astroglial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gavaret, J M; Toru-Delbauffe, D; Baghdassarian-Chalaye, D; Pomerance, M; Pierre, M

    1991-01-15

    The effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on cell morphology and protein secretion were examined in astrocytes cultured in a chemically defined medium devoid of other hormones and growth factors. The flat polygonal astrocytic cells treated with T3 (1-50 nM) and maintained in non-renewed medium cultures were progressively transformed into process-bearing cells. These changes were initially observed 3 days after the end of T3 treatment and accounted for more than 50% of the cells 7-8 days thereafter. The proteins secreted by the T3-stimulated cells were analyzed on SDS-PAGE after cell labeling for 4.5 h with [35S]methionine. The effect of T3 on protein secretion was dose-dependent. Half-maximal stimulation was reached with 0.2-0.5 nM hormone and the proteins of 46, 59, 67, 78, 85 and 140 kDa were over-secreted (greater than 300% of control). These results were only obtained when the cell medium was not renewed after T3 treatment. PMID:2015653

  4. The nanoscale morphology of new types of solar cells based on solution-processed small-molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herath, Nuradhika; Lauter, Valeria; Browning, Jim

    2014-03-01

    Organic electronics have become promising alternatives for the today's energy demand, owing to their low cost fabrication processes, ability to performance under low light, and flexibility. Solution processed small molecule (SM)- fullerene based solar cell devices have been subjected to number of studies recently with significant progress of power conversion efficiency (PCE). The bulk hetero junction (BHJ) consisting SM-fullerene blend is the most critical part of the solar cell device as nano-to-meso-scale morphology of BHJ plays a significant role in the device performances and properties. In this study we investigate the morphological structure of a device constructed from solution processed SM-molecule p - DTS(FBTTh2)2 with fullerene PC70BM BHJ blend using neutron reflectometry (NR). Here we present the scattering length density changes of PC70BM concentration along the film depth and the history dependence of the BHJ device by taking the measurements as-cast as thermally annealed (150 °C). This research was conducted at Spallation Neutron Source and at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is sponsored at ORNL by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Inflectional Morphology in Cri du Chat Syndrome--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined morphological skills in a girl with cri du chat syndrome, addressing three questions: (1) To what extent does the subject inflect words? (2) To what extent are words inflected correctly? (3) To what extent do the inflected words reflect productive morphological rules, and to what extent can they be considered to be…

  6. Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths

    E-print Network

    Bier, Martin

    in the visible and near-IR regions and cell morphology has been demonstrated by nu- merous studies,3­7 which laid array of biological cells, human blood cells attract active research interests because of their impor- tant roles in the metabolism and immune systems of the hu- man body. B cells are one of two major types

  7. Structural and surface morphological study of Ni doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawal, H. A.; Dole, B. N.

    2014-04-01

    Samples of Zn1-xNixS (x=0.00, 0.04, 0.08) nanoparticles were synthesized by using the co-precipitation method at room temperature. Structural parameters were investigated by X - ray diffraction (XRD), it reveals that all samples of Ni doped ZnS exhibit the cubic structure with no additional impurity phase. The average crystallite size of all samples is in the range of 2.70 to 2.90 nm. The lattice parameters, X - ray density, volume of unit cell and grain size were calculated using XRD data. It is found that the lattice parameter increases with increasing Ni concentration. Surface morphology of samples was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). From this study it is concluded that samples exhibit cubic morphology. Chemical compositions of Ni doped and pure ZnS samples were detected using EDAX spectra. It is confirmed from EDAX that Ni substitute into ZnS lattice.

  8. Influence of Zn incorporation in CdS: Structural and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Fu, M.; Mitra, P.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, cadmium zinc sulfide (CdxZn1-xS) alloy compounds have been paid much attention in the fields of opto-electronics, particularly in photovoltaic devices. In this report, the structural, morphological and optical properties of Cdx Zn1-x S films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), which is a very attractive method for low-cost and large-area solar cell applications, has been presented. The as-grown layers were characterized using XRD, EDAX, FESEM, TEM and UV-vis spectrophotometers. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and SAED measurement reveals a dominant cubic structure with a minor hexagonal phase for high zinc content films. EDAX analysis shows nearly stoichiometric films with cadmium excess. Close packed and less dissociated surface morphology was observed in the Cdx Zn1-x S ternary thin films with lower Zn2+ content than the higher Zn2+ content one. Agglomeration of nanocrystals for high zinc content films results in enhanced absorption. The mean grain size of Cd0.5 Zn0.5 S calculated from TEM image is ~15 nm. Optical absorption study exhibits a distinct blue shift in band gap energy with enhancement of zinc content in the film.

  9. A rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test based on single-cell morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Mincheol; Kim, Eun-Geun; Lee, Ji Soo; Lee, Seungok; Joo, Seik; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Eui-Chong; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Hee Chan; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2014-12-17

    A rapid antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) is desperately needed in clinical settings for fast and appropriate antibiotic administration. Traditional ASTs, which rely on cell culture, are not suitable for urgent cases of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance owing to their relatively long test times. We describe a novel AST called single-cell morphological analysis (SCMA) that can determine antimicrobial susceptibility by automatically analyzing and categorizing morphological changes in single bacterial cells under various antimicrobial conditions. The SCMA was tested with four Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standard bacterial strains and 189 clinical samples, including extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci from hospitals. The results were compared with the gold standard broth microdilution test. The SCMA results were obtained in less than 4 hours, with 91.5% categorical agreement and 6.51% minor, 2.56% major, and 1.49% very major discrepancies. Thus, SCMA provides rapid and accurate antimicrobial susceptibility data that satisfy the recommended performance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25520395

  10. Multiple mechanisms determine ER network morphology during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Songyu; Romano, Fabian B.; Field, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    In metazoans the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) changes during the cell cycle, with the nuclear envelope (NE) disassembling and reassembling during mitosis and the peripheral ER undergoing extensive remodeling. Here we address how ER morphology is generated during the cell cycle using crude and fractionated Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We show that in interphase the ER is concentrated at the microtubule (MT)-organizing center by dynein and is spread by outward extension of ER tubules through their association with plus ends of growing MTs. Fusion of membranes into an ER network is dependent on the guanosine triphosphatase atlastin (ATL). NE assembly requires fusion by both ATL and ER-soluble N-ethyl-maleimide–sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. In mitotic extracts, the ER converts into a network of sheets connected by ER tubules and loses most of its interactions with MTs. Together, these results indicate that fusion of ER membranes by ATL and interaction of ER with growing MT ends and dynein cooperate to generate distinct ER morphologies during the cell cycle. PMID:24297752

  11. Morphological and histological characteristics of mammary dysplasias occurring in cell dissociation-derived murine mammary outgrowths

    SciTech Connect

    Ethier, S.P.; Adams, L.M.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    The morphological and histological characteristics of ductal dysplasias that were observed in mammary outgrowths derived from monodispersed mammary cells of carcinogen-treated mice are described. Mammary outgrowths were derived by injecting either 10(4) or 10(5) enzymatically dissociated mammary cells, obtained from control or carcinogen-treated BALB/c mice, into gland-free mammary fat pads of syngeneic hosts. The mammary dysplasias observed varied considerably in morphological and histological characteristics. The majority of the lesions were ductal in origin and were associated with epithelial hyperplasia which ranged from mild hyperplasia, in which only a few extra layers of epithelium were present, to severe hyperplasia, in which the ducts and end buds were occluded and distended with epithelial cells. In addition, papillary and lobular lesions were observed which were also associated with varying degrees of hyperplasia. The range of mammary dysplasias observed in these outgrowths closely resembles that of lesions associated with the pathogenesis of mammary carcinoma in mice, rats, and humans.

  12. Mechanical stimuli differentially control stem cell behavior: morphology, proliferation, and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Timothy M.; Chew, Douglas W.; Nieponice, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has demonstrated applications in vascular regenerative medicine. Although blood vessels exist in a mechanically dynamic environment, there has been no rigorous, systematic analysis of mechanical stimulation on stem cell differentiation. We hypothesize that mechanical stimuli, relevant to the vasculature, can differentiate MSCs toward smooth muscle (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs). This was tested using a unique experimental platform to differentially apply various mechanical stimuli in parallel. Three forces, cyclic stretch, cyclic pressure, and laminar shear stress, were applied independently to mimic several vascular physiologic conditions. Experiments were conducted using subconfluent MSCs for 5 days and demonstrated significant effects on morphology and proliferation depending upon the type, magnitude, frequency, and duration of applied stimulation. We have defined thresholds of cyclic stretch that potentiate SMC protein expression, but did not find EC protein expression under any condition tested. However, a second set of experiments performed at confluence and aimed to elicit the temporal gene expression response of a select magnitude of each stimulus revealed that EC gene expression can be increased with cyclic pressure and shear stress in a cell-contact-dependent manner. Further, these MSCs also appear to express genes from multiple lineages simultaneously which may warrant further investigation into post-transcriptional mechanisms for controlling protein expression. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic examination of the effects of mechanical stimulation on MSCs and has implications for the understanding of stem cell biology, as well as potential bioreactor designs for tissue engineering and cell therapy applications. PMID:21253809

  13. Nasal seromucinous hamartoma (microglandular adenosis of the nose): a morphological and molecular study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini-Spaltro, Andrea; Morandi, Luca; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Cavazza, Alberto; Brisigotti, Massimo; Damiani, Stefania; Jain, Sanjiv; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2010-12-01

    Five cases of nasal seromucinous hamartoma were studied and their clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular data are reported. The patients, three females and two males, ranged in age from 49 to 66 years (mean 56 year, SD ± 7.91). All lesions were located in the nasal cavity. In four cases where follow-up was obtained, no recurrence was evident. In all cases, numerous small seromucinous tubules, embedded in a cellular stroma, were present in the lamina propria. Tubules were lined by one layer of cuboidal cells which displayed luminal phenotype positive for lysozyme and EMA in four, and S100 protein in all cases. Collagen IV and laminin positive basal lamina outlined the tubules which lacked basal cells. Stromal spindle cells present among tubules were immunoreactive for calponin in all cases and for alpha-smooth muscle actin in four cases. DNA mutation analysis of mitochondrial D-loop region was performed by direct sequencing in order to verify the mutation rate of these lesions. The tubules of the five seromucinous hamartomas showed a higher mutation rate especially in heteroplasmy (0.52% homoplasmy, 2.02% heteroplasmy) in comparison to normal seromucinous glands which exhibited a lower mutation frequency (0.83%). This is considered a sign of a low cellular proliferation rate consistent with a benign process. It is concluded that nasal seromucinous hamartomas are benign glandular proliferations that may resemble microglandular adenosis of the breast. Their distinction from benign and malignant mimics is discussed. PMID:20922408

  14. Experimental pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat plus oxygen in rats: a morphologic and biochemical sequential study.

    PubMed

    Selman, M; Montaño, M; Ramos, C; Barrios, R; Pérez-Tamayo, R

    1989-04-01

    Changes in lung structure and collagen metabolism were studied at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks in a model of pulmonary fibrosis induced in rats with paraquat plus hyperoxia. Morphologic examination of the lungs revealed that the earliest lesions consisted of severe and irreversible endothelial and alveolar epithelial cell damage. Afterward, an inflammatory process took place, initially dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and then by mononuclear cells, but with the constant presence of granulocytes. From the fourth week on there were fibroblast proliferation and a moderate increase of mast cells. In the early stages alveolitis was focal, but from the second week the lungs were diffusely affected with severe distortion of the architecture. Collagen content was moderately increased in the first 2 weeks and then showed a progressive increment until the end of the experiment. Collagen synthesis was significantly elevated from the fourth week, coinciding with interstitial fibroblast proliferation, although there were some animals that showed increased collagen production from the first week. Collagenolytic activity occurred in 3 stages: at 2 weeks there was increased collagen degradation, at 3, 4, and 6 weeks the values showed a trimodal behavior, and at 8 weeks almost all experimental rats presented an important decrease of collagenolysis. Thus, the development of lung fibrosis was associated first with increased rates of collagen synthesis and later with a decrease of collagen degradation. PMID:2707380

  15. he plant cell wall plays a vital role in controlling the shape of individual cells and, therefore, in determining the morphology

    E-print Network

    Braam, Janet

    T he plant cell wall plays a vital role in controlling the shape of individual cells and, therefore, xyloglucan endotransglycosylases (XETs). Discovery of XETs The plant cell wall is a complex network, in determining the morphology of the plant as a whole. The presence of a wall is one of the fundamental

  16. Light scatter characteristics of blast cells in acute myeloid leukaemia: association with morphology and immunophenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Vidriales, M B; Orfao, A; López-Berges, M C; González, M; López-Macedo, A; García, M A; Galende, J; San Miguel, J F

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To analyse the forward scatter/side scatter (FSC/SSC) distribution of acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) blast cells in order to assess whether it correlates with their morphology, immunophenotype, and clinical and biological disease characteristics. METHODS--FSC/SSC patterns were established upon taking into account the localisation of the residual T lymphocytes in the FSC/SSC dot plot as an internal biological standard. One hundred and seventy one newly diagnosed AML patients were analysed and five different FSC/SSC patterns were established. These five patterns could be grouped into two major categories taking into account the FSC/SSC distribution of normal cells in a bone marrow aspirate: immature patterns (1 and 2) and mature patterns (3, 4, and 5). These FSC/SSC patterns were correlated with different clinical and biological characteristics of AML patients. RESULTS--No significant associations were detected in relation to the clinical and haematological disease characteristics and the prognosis of these patients. By contrast there was a significant correlation between the FSC/SSC pattern of the AML blast cells and the FAB classification. An increased reactivity for the antigens associated with myeloid differentiation such as CD13, CD33, CD11b, CD15, CD14, CD4, CD56, and/or CD16 was detected among cases showing a mature FSC/SSC pattern (3, 4, and 5), both in the whole series and even within each of the FAB AML subtypes. By contrast, the reactivity for the CD34 precursor cell associated antigen was higher among those cases displaying an immature FSC/SSC pattern, this being observed even within each FAB subgroup. CONCLUSIONS--The FSC/SSC pattern distribution of AML blast cells not only provides an additional objective and reproductible system for the classification of these leukaemias but it may also represent a connection between the FAB morphological groups and the immunophenotypic classification of AML patients. Images PMID:7629293

  17. Influence of PH3 exposure on silicon substrate morphology in the MOVPE growth of III-V on silicon multijunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Tabarés, E.; García, I.; Martín, D.; Rey-Stolle, I.

    2013-11-01

    Dual-junction solar cells formed by a GaAsP or GaInP top cell and a silicon bottom cell seem to be attractive candidates to materialize the long sought-for integration of III-V materials on silicon for photovoltaic applications. One of the first issues to be considered in the development of this structure will be the strategy to create the silicon emitter of the bottom subcell. In this study, we explore the possibility of forming the silicon emitter by phosphorus diffusion (i.e. exposing the wafer to PH3 in a MOVPE reactor) and still obtain good surface morphologies to achieve a successful III-V heteroepitaxy as occurs in conventional III-V on germanium solar cell technology. Consequently, we explore the parameter space (PH3 partial pressure, time and temperature) that is needed to create optimized emitter designs and assess the impact of such treatments on surface morphology using atomic force microscopy. Although a strong degradation of surface morphology caused by prolonged exposure of silicon to PH3 is corroborated, it is also shown that subsequent anneals under H2 can recover silicon surface morphology and minimize its RMS roughness and the presence of pits and spikes.

  18. Streptomyces natalensis programmed cell death and morphological differentiation are dependent on oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Beites, Tiago; Oliveira, Paulo; Rioseras, Beatriz; Pires, Sílvia D. S.; Oliveira, Rute; Tamagnini, Paula; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Manteca, Ángel; Mendes, Marta V.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces are aerobic Gram-positive bacteria characterized by a complex life cycle that includes hyphae differentiation and spore formation. Morphological differentiation is triggered by stressful conditions and takes place in a pro-oxidant environment, which sets the basis for an involvement of the oxidative stress response in this cellular process. Characterization of the phenotypic traits of Streptomyces natalensis ?katA1 (mono-functional catalase) and ?catR (Fur-like repressor of katA1 expression) strains in solid medium revealed that both mutants had an impaired morphological development process. The sub-lethal oxidative stress caused by the absence of KatA1 resulted in the formation of a highly proliferative and undifferentiated vegetative mycelium, whereas de-repression of CatR regulon, from which KatA1 is the only known representative, resulted in the formation of scarce aerial mycelium. Both mutant strains had the transcription of genes associated with aerial mycelium formation and biosynthesis of the hyphae hydrophobic layer down-regulated. The first round of the programmed cell death (PCD) was inhibited in both strains which caused the prevalence of the transient primary mycelium (MI) over secondary mycelium (MII). Our data shows that the first round of PCD and morphological differentiation in S. natalensis is dependent on oxidative stress in the right amount at the right time. PMID:26256439

  19. Hair cell morphology and innervation in the basilar papilla of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Fischer, F P

    1998-07-01

    The emu, being a member of the rather primitive bird group of the palaeognathid Ratitae, may reveal primitives features of the avian basilar papilla. There are, however, no qualitative differences with the papillae of other birds such as the chicken or the starling. There are only quantitative differences in the continuous morphological gradients (such as hair cell height, stereovillar height) from neural to abneural, and from the base to the apex of the papilla. Only few (about two in the emu) afferent terminals and on average one efferent fiber contact each hair cell. Along the abneural edge, there is a population of hair cells that lack afferent innervation (short hair cells), suggesting that their function must lie in the papilla itself. There is thus a general pattern in the structures of the avian basilar papilla. In detail, however, a number of primitive characters were observed in the emu, as compared to advanced birds such as the starling and the barn owl. The hair cells are very densely packed and comparatively tall (up to 40 microm in the apex). This anatomy correlates well with the good lower-frequency hearing (see Köppl and Manley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101 (1997) 1574 1584). The afferent nerve fibers contacting the hair cells within the basilar papilla are rather thick, and there are a large number of afferent fibers that contact more than one hair cell. The zone of hair cells without afferent innervation (short hair cells) along the abneural edge of the basilar papilla is rather narrow in the emu. PMID:9682814

  20. Phosphatidylethanolamine is required for normal cell morphology and cytokinesis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Gulis, Galina; Hinz, Haylee; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Marcus, Stevan

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the contributions of phosphatidylethanolamine to the growth and morphogenesis of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we have characterized three predicted genes in this organism, designated psd1, psd2, and psd3, encoding phosphatidylserine decarboxylases, which catalyze the conversion of phosphatidylserine to phosphatidylethanolamine in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. S. pombe mutants carrying deletions in any one or two psd genes are viable in complex rich medium and synthetic defined minimal medium. However, mutants carrying deletions in all three psd genes (psd1-3Delta mutants) grow slowly in rich medium and are inviable in minimal medium, indicating that the psd1 to psd3 gene products share overlapping essential cellular functions. Supplementation of growth media with ethanolamine, which can be converted to phosphatidylethanolamine by the Kennedy pathway, restores growth to psd1-3Delta cells in minimal medium, indicating that phosphatidylethanolamine is essential for S. pombe cell growth. psd1-3Delta cells produce lower levels of phosphatidylethanolamine than wild-type cells, even in medium supplemented with ethanolamine, indicating that the Kennedy pathway can only partially compensate for the loss of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity in S. pombe. psd1-3Delta cells appear morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type S. pombe cells in medium supplemented with ethanolamine, but when cultured in nonsupplemented medium, they produce high frequencies of abnormally shaped cells as well as cells exhibiting severe septation defects, including multiple, mispositioned, deformed, and misoriented septa. Our results demonstrate that phosphatidylethanolamine is essential for cell growth and for normal cytokinesis and cellular morphogenesis in S. pombe, and they illustrate the usefulness of this model eukaryote for investigating potentially conserved biological and molecular functions of phosphatidylethanolamine. PMID:19286980

  1. Synergistic Effects of Morphological Control and Complementary Absorption in Efficient All-Small-Molecule Ternary-Blend Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Farahat, Mahmoud E; Patra, Dhananjaya; Lee, Chih-Hao; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2015-10-14

    In this study, we combined two small-molecule donors-a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based small molecule (SMD) and a benzodithiophene-based molecule (BDT6T)-with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) to form ternary blend solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of the binary SMD:PC61BM bulk heterojunction solar cell improved from 4.57 to 6.28% after adding an appropriate amount BDT6T as a guest. We attribute this 37% improvement in device performance to the complementary absorption behavior of BDT6T and SMD, as evidenced by the increase in the short circuit current. After addition of BDT6T to form the ternary blend, the crystallinity and morphology of the active layer were enhanced. For example, the features observed in the ternary active layers were finer than those in the binary blends. This means that BDT6T as a third component in the ternary blend has effective role on both the absorption and the morphology. In addition, adding BDT6T to form the ternary blend also led to an increase in the open-circuit voltage. Our findings suggest that the preparation of such simple all-small-molecule ternary blends can be an effective means of improving the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. PMID:26389528

  2. Black silicon SERS substrate: effect of surface morphology on SERS detection and application of single algal cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu-Luen; Juang, Yi-Je

    2014-03-15

    In this study, we have investigated the effect of the surface morphology of the black silicon substrate on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and explored its application of single algal cell detection. By adjusting the O2 and SF6 flow rates in the cryogenic plasma etching process, different surface morphologies of the black silicon substrate was produced without performing the lithographic process. It was found the Raman signals were better enhanced as the tip density of the black silicon substrate increased. In addition, as the thickness of the deposited gold layer increased, the SERS effect increased as well, which could be owing to the generation of more hot spots by bridging individual silicon tips through deposition of gold layer. For the black silicon substrate with tip density of 30 tips/?m(2) and covered by 400 nm deposited gold layer, the detection limit of 10 fM R6G solution concentration with uniform SERS effect across the substrate was achieved. Furthermore, detection of individual algal cell (Chlorella vulgaris) was performed at the SERS substrate as fabricated and the Raman signals of carotenoid and lipid were substantially enhanced. PMID:24121206

  3. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  4. Morphological characterization and conservation of bovine spermatogenic cells by refrigeration at 4°C and freezing using different cryoprotective molecules.

    PubMed

    Martins, C F; Silva, A E D Feliciano; Dode, M N; Rumpf, R; Cumpa, H C B; Silva, C G; Pivato, I

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were study a practical method to characterize bovine spermatogenic cells and test the efficiency cells conservation by refrigeration at 4°C and cryopreservation in different solutions using two cooling curves. Cellular identification was performing by analysis of shape, size and morphology, associated with nucleus positioning and nuclear-cytoplasm ratio (NCR). Cellular samples were kept at 4°C for a period of 96 h in refrigeration solution and every 24h plasma membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated. Cryopreservation of cells was carried out using solutions containing 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide, 5% Dimethylformamide, 7% Glycerol and 7% Ethylene glycol, using a controlled and non-controlled cooling curve. Results of cellular characterization demonstrated that spermatocytes II presented a cylindrical shape, NCR of 1:1.5 and diameter ranging from 14.5 to 17.5 ?m. Round spermatids presented diameter ranging from 7.6 to 13.4 ?m, acrosomal cap and NCR of 1:2. Elongation and elongated spermatids showed to marked divergence in shape. There was a daily significant loss of viability of cooled cells until third day of storage, however they presented 72.77±5.16% viability after 4 days of storage at 4°C. There was no difference among the cryoprotectant solutions and cooling curves. In conclusion we demonstrated that association of microscopes and staining was a practical method to identify bovine spermatogenic cells. Furthermore, refrigeration at 4°C is an important strategy to preserve over 70% of viable cells after 4 days and cryopreservation, regardless of cryoprotectant solution or cooling curve used, can maintain over 50% of cells viable. PMID:26049113

  5. CRISPR/Cas9n-Mediated Deletion of the Snail 1Gene (SNAI1) Reveals Its Role in Regulating Cell Morphology, Cell-Cell Interactions, and Gene Expression in Ovarian Cancer (RMG-1) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Misako; Sato, Masahiro; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Snail1 is a transcription factor that induces the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, epithelial cells lose their junctions, reorganize their cytoskeletons, and reprogram gene expression. Although Snail1 is a prominent repressor of E-cadherin transcription, its precise roles in each of the phenomena of EMT are not completely understood, particularly in cytoskeletal changes. Previous studies have employed gene knockdown systems to determine the functions of Snail1. However, incomplete protein knockdown is often associated with these systems, which may cause incorrect interpretation of the data. To more precisely evaluate the functions of Snail1, we generated a stable cell line with a targeted ablation of Snail1 (Snail1 KO) by using the CRISPR/Cas9n system. Snail1 KO cells show increased cell–cell adhesion, decreased cell–substrate adhesion and cell migration, changes to their cytoskeletal organization that include few stress fibers and abundant cortical actin, and upregulation of epithelial marker genes such as E-cadherin, occludin, and claudin-1. However, morphological changes were induced by treatment of Snail1 KO cells with TGF-beta. Other transcription factors that induce EMT were also induced by treatment with TGF-beta. The precise deletion of Snail1 by the CRISPR/Cas9n system provides clear evidence that loss of Snail1 causes changes in the actin cytoskeleton, decreases cell–substrate adhesion, and increases cell–cell adhesion. Treatment of RMG1 cells with TGF-beta suggests redundancy among the transcription factors that induce EMT. PMID:26161782

  6. Charge Generation Dynamics in Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells: Influence of Polymer Packing and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Bhoj R; Lee, Changyeon; Younts, Robert; Lee, Wonho; Danilov, Evgeny; Kim, Bumjoon J; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2015-12-23

    All-polymer solar cells exhibit rapid progress in power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 2 to 7.7% over the past few years. While this improvement is primarily attributed to efficient charge transport and balanced mobility between the carriers, not much is known about the charge generation dynamics in these systems. Here we measured exciton relaxation and charge separation dynamics using ultrafast spectroscopy in polymer/polymer blends with different molecular packing and morphology. These measurements indicate that preferential face-on configuration with intermixed nanomorphology increases the charge generation efficiency. In fact, there is a direct quantitative correlation between the free charge population in the ultrafast time scales and the external quantum efficiency, suggesting not only the transport but also charge generation is key for the design of high performance all polymer solar cells. PMID:26630116

  7. Low-boiling-point solvent additives can also enable morphological control in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.; Carr, John A.; Chen, Yuqing; Bose, Sayantan; Nalwa, Kanwar S.; Petrich, Jacob W.; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2013-11-02

    Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in bulk-heterojunction OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological and physiological development of vestibular hair cells in the organ-cultured otocyst of the chick.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, B H; Stahl, L M; Fuchs, P A

    1993-01-01

    The inner ear of the embryonic chick forms an oval-shaped sac or otocyst, on Embryonic Day 3, which contains presumptive sensory and support cells. After 3 weeks in organ culture the otocyst had sensory epithelia with an average of 325 +/- 41 hair cells. Using light and transmission electron microscopy most of these cells were identified morphologically as type II vestibular hair cells. Whole-cell tight-seal recordings, using potassium chloride-filled micropipetes, showed that mature cultured hair cells had four different types of K+ currents. These included: a voltage-gated delayed rectifier K+ current (IK), an inactivating K+ current (IA), a calcium-dependent K+ current (IK(Ca)), and a K+ inward rectifier (IIR). These currents were similar to those recorded from cristae ampullares cells isolated from 2- to 3-week-old posthatched chicks. We also determined the timing of K+ current acquisition in vitro. Initially, recordings showed that cells isolated from Embryonic Day 3 otocysts had no voltage-dependent outward currents at physiological membrane potentials. Eventually, K+ currents were acquired in the order of: IK and IIR after 9 days, IA after 12 days, and IK(Ca) after 17 days in vitro. In addition, recordings using cesium chloride-filled micropipetes showed that there were two types of inward currents that were elicited in response to membrane depolarizations. These two currents included a rapidly activating, noninactivating Ca2+ current and a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current. Both currents were elicited in hair cells grown in vitro for 13 days. Although INa was previously unreported in avians, both INa and ICa were also represented in hair cells isolated from the cristae ampullares of the posthatched chick. These results indicate that hair cells can acquire voltage-gated currents in vitro which are qualitatively similar to ionic currents found in crista ampullaris cells that differentiate in vivo. Thus, this organ culture system provides a means to study regulation of ionic currents in developing hair cells. PMID:8416829

  9. Biochemical and morphological changes in endothelial cells in response to hypoxic interstitial edema

    PubMed Central

    Botto, Laura; Beretta, Egidio; Daffara, Rossella; Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Palestini, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Background A correlation between interstial pulmonary matrix disorganization and lung cellular response was recently documented in cardiogenic interstitial edema as changes in the signal-cellular transduction platforms (lipid microdomains: caveoale and lipid rafts). These findings led to hypothesize a specific "sensing" function by lung cells resulting from a perturbation in cell-matrix interaction. We reason that the cell-matrix interaction may differ between the cardiogenic and the hypoxic type of lung edema due to the observed difference in the sequential degradation of matrix proteoglycans (PGs) family. In cardiogenic edema a major fragmentation of high molecular weight PGs of the interfibrillar matrix was found, while in hypoxia the fragmentation process mostly involved the PGs of the basement membrane controlling microvascular permeability. Based on these considerations, we aim to describe potential differences in the lung cellular response to the two types of edema. Methods We analysed the composition of plasma membrane and of lipid microdomains in lung tissue samples from anesthetized rabbits exposed to mild hypoxia (12 % O2 for 3–5 h) causing interstitial lung edema. Lipid analysis was performed by chromatographic techniques, while protein analysis by electrophoresis and Western blotting. Lipid peroxidation was assessed on total plasma membranes by a colorimetric assay (Bioxytech LPO-586, OxisResearch). Plasma membrane fluidity was also assessed by fluorescence. Lipid microdomains were isolated by discontinuous sucrose gradient. We also performed a morphometric analysis on lung cell shape on TEM images from lung tissue specimen. Results After hypoxia, phospholipids content in plasma membranes remained unchanged while the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio increased significantly by about 9% causing a decrease in membrane fluidity. No significant increase in lipid peroxidation was detected. Analysis of lipid microdomains showed a decrease of caveolin-1 and AQP1 (markers of caveolae), and an increase in CD55 (marker of lipid rafts). Morphometry showed a significant decrease in endothelial cell volume, a marked increase in the cell surface/volume ratio and a decrease in caveolar density; epithelial cells did not show morphological changes. Conclusion The biochemical, signaling and morphological changes observed in lung endothelial cell exposed to hypoxia are opposite to those previously described in cardiogenic edema, suggesting a differential cellular response to either type of edema. PMID:16412226

  10. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  11. An Essential Tyrosine Phosphatase Homolog Regulates Cell Separation, Outer Membrane Integrity, and Morphology in Caulobacter crescentus ? †

    PubMed Central

    Shapland, Elaine B.; Reisinger, Sarah J.; Bajwa, Amrita K.; Ryan, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Although reversible phosphorylation on tyrosine residues regulates the activity of many eukaryotic proteins, there are few examples of this type of regulation in bacteria. We have identified the first essential tyrosine phosphatase homolog in a bacterium, Caulobacter crescentusCtpA. ctpAmutants with altered active-site residues are nonviable, and depletion of CtpA yields chains of cells with blebbed outer membranes, linked by unresolved peptidoglycan. CtpA overexpression reduces cell curvature in a manner similar to deleting the intermediate filament protein crescentin, but it does not disrupt crescentin localization or membrane attachment. Although it has no obvious signal sequence or transmembrane-spanning domains, CtpA associates with the Caulobacterinner membrane. Immunolocalization experiments suggest that CtpA accumulates at the division site during the last quarter of the cell cycle. We propose that CtpA dephosphorylates one or more proteins involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis or remodeling, which in turn affect cell separation, cell envelope integrity, and vibrioid morphology. PMID:21705597

  12. Regulation of mitochondrial morphology and cell cycle by microRNA-214 targeting Mitofusin2.

    PubMed

    Bucha, Sudha; Mukhopadhyay, Debashis; Bhattacharyya, Nitai Pada

    2015-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the increase in CAG repeats beyond 36 at the exon1 of the gene Huntingtin (HTT). Among the various dysfunctions of biological processes in HD, transcription deregulation due to abnormalities in actions of transcription factors has been considered to be one of the important pathological conditions. In addition, deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been described in HD. Earlier, expression of microRNA-214 (miR-214) has been shown to increase in HD cell models and target HTT gene; the expression of the later being inversely correlated to that of miR-214. In the present communication, we observed that the expressions of several HTT co-expressed genes are modulated by exogenous expression of miR-214 or by its mutant. Among several HTT co-expressed genes, MFN2 was shown to be the direct target of miR-214. Exogenous expression of miR-214, repressed the expression of MFN2, increased the distribution of fragmented mitochondria and altered the distribution of cells in different phases of cell cycle. In summary, we have shown that increased expression of miR-214 observed in HD cell model could target MFN2, altered mitochondrial morphology and deregulated cell cycle. Inhibition of miR-214 could be a possible target of intervention in HD pathogenesis. PMID:26307536

  13. The Cell Polarity Scaffold Lethal Giant Larvae Regulates Synapse Morphology and Function Jon Staples and Kendal Broadie

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    The Cell Polarity Scaffold Lethal Giant Larvae Regulates Synapse Morphology and Function Jon Staples and Kendal Broadie Department of Biological Sciences, Kennedy Center for Research on Human #12;1 SUMMARY Lethal Giant Larvae (LGL) is a cytosolic cell polarity scaffold whose loss dominantly

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION AND CHROMOSOME DAMAGE BY AMSACRINE IN C3H/10T(1/2) CLONE 8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological transformation, cell survival, chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were measured in C3H/101/2CL8 cells after 24 hour exposure to amsacrine. A weak but dose-related increase in the percentage of dishes containing transformed foci occurred. As previously reported ...

  15. Electrical dual-sensing method for real-time quantitative monitoring of cell-secreted MMP-9 and cellular morphology during migration process.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong Binh; Nguyen, Phuong Diem; Baek, Changyoon; Min, Junhong

    2016-03-15

    MMP-9 (92kDa gelatinease), which is member of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) family, plays a crucial role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix (ECM) by degrading the major components of ECM that lead to tumor cell invasion and metastasis through the basement membrane. Our study presents the on-chip dual-sensing device for rapid detection of cell-secreted MMP-9 and corresponding cell morphology changes in real-time domain. The device consists of 2 sensing platforms (both are interdigitated array microelectrodes - IDAMs) within 1 common fluidic chamber: one detects the cell morphology responses via Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) technique, meanwhile the other records the cleavage effect between cell-secreted MMP-9 and the surface immobilized peptide via the capacitance-based sensing method. Thanks to the selectivity of designed peptide, this approach allows the rapid and specific detection of MMP-9. In comparison with gold standard ELISA assay, the detection time was significantly reduced from over 4h to within 30min with the wide detection range from 10pM to 10nM. Finally, this study provides the novel model for MMP-9 protease direct detection from living cell and new insights in multi-purpose detection of cancer associated enzyme and cell migration behavior. PMID:26485177

  16. Concentric Magnetic Structures for Magnetophoretic Bead Collection, Cell Trapping and Analysis of Cell Morphological Changes Caused by Local Magnetic Forces

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Concentric magnetic structures (ring and square) with domain wall (DW) pinning geometry are designed for biological manipulation. Magnetic beads collection was firstly demonstrated to analyse the local magnetic field generated by DWs and the effective regions to capture magnetic targets of size 1 ?m. Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are magnetically labeled by internalizing poly (styrene sulfonic acid) stabilized magnetic nanoparticles (PSS-MNPs) and then are selectively trapped by head-to-tail DWs (HH DWs) or tail-to-tail DWs (TT DWs) to be arranged into linear shape or cross shape. The morphologies and the nuclear geometry of the cells growing on two kinds of concentric magnetic structures are shown to be distinctive. The intracellular magnetic forces generated by the local magnetic field of DWs are found to influence the behaviour of cells. PMID:26270332

  17. The morphology of apoptosis and necrosis of fat cells after photodynamic treatment at a constant temperature in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Orlova, Tatyana G.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy with temperature control is a new approach for treatment of obesity and cellulite. Cell death can occur under the action of various physical, chemical and biological factors. Depending on the inductor, this is apoptosis or necrosis. These two forms of cell death differ on the biochemical and morphological levels. Biochemical changes occur quickly enough and it raises difficulties of their detection. One of the morphological characteristics of apoptosis is a decrease (contraction) of cells, and necrosis - an increase in the size of the cell (swelling). This attribute simply determined visually using a digital microscope. The program was designed using LabVEIW media, which allowed us to develop the software for providing interaction with the measuring and control equipment, data collection, processing and displaying the information and results of calculations and simulations for the individual cells and ensembles of cells, and, in general, to automate process.

  18. Effect of axonal micro-tubules on the morphology of retinal nerve fibers studied by second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyungsik; Danias, John

    2012-11-01

    Many studies suggest that the degradation of microtubules in the retinal ganglion cells may be an early event in the progression of glaucoma. Because reflectance and birefringence of the retinal nerve fibers arise primarily from microtubules, the optical properties have been intensively studied for early detection of the disease. We previously reported a novel nonlinear optical signal from axonal microtubules for visualizing the retinal nerve fibers, namely second-harmonic generation (SHG). We demonstrate the use of axonal SHG to investigate the effect of microtubules on the morphology of the retinal nerve fiber bundles. Time-lapse SHG imaging of ex vivo rat retinal flat mounts was performed during pharmacological treatment of nocodazole, and the intensity of axonal SHG and the changes in nerve fiber bundle morphology were monitored. We found that the microtubule disruption does not lead to immediate modification in the morphology of the nerve fibers. Our results indicate that microtubular SHG may provide a useful means for sensitive detection of axonal injuries. Since the intrinsic radiation depends on the regular architecture of the cytoskeleton element as maintained by active cellular regulations, the intensity of signal reflects the health of the retinal ganglion cell axons.

  19. Experiment K-7-28: Lung Morphology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; Kaplansky, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    There are no previous studies investigating the effect of microgravity exposure during spaceflight on lung tissue. We examined the ultrastructure of the left lungs of 5 Czechoslovakian Wistar rats flown on the 13 day, 19+ hr. Cosmos 2044 mission, and compared them to 5 vivarium and 5 synchronous controls at 1-g conditions, and 5 rats exposed to 14 days of tail-suspension. Within 10 minutes of sacrifice by decapitation, the lungs were removed and immersed in 3% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (total osmolarity of the fixative: 560 mOsm; pH = 7.4). The tissue stored at 5 C was transported to our laboratory where it was processed for light and electron microscopy. No significant perivascular cuffing caused by interstitial edema was present in the tissue samples. Some of the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control rats showed alveolar edema, while vivarium controls did not. The pulmonary capillaries appeared to be more congested in the flight animals than in the other groups. This could be related to the increased hematocrit due to the microgravity exposure. In all 5 flight, 4 tail-suspended, and 3 synchronous rats, red blood cells (RBC) were present in the alveolar spaces. The RBC were either suspended free in the alveoli or observed lining the alveolar wall. The frequency of RBC lining the alveolar walls appeared greater in the dorsal (gravity non-dependent) than in ventral (gravity dependent) regions of the lung in these three animal groups. In 3 of the vivarium controls, a few RBC were found in the alveolar spaces. Intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles were observed in the flight, tail-suspended and synchronous animals, but not in the vivarium controls. The formation of intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles has been previously associated with pulmonary hypertension induced by high altitude exposure and mitral stenosis. In conclusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and alveolar edema of unknown origin occurred to a greater extent in the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control animals, and in the dorsal regions of the lung when compared to the vivarium controls. The etiology of these changes, which are possibly due to an increase in pulmonary vascular pressure, requires further investigation.

  20. Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-10-01

    A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode.A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and equipment details, solar cell fabrication protocol, electrolyte spreading time measurement details, XPS spectra, electronic study, film adhesion test detailed analysis and field emission results. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32082g

  1. Toward high-content screening of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells.

    PubMed

    Iannetti, Eligio F; Willems, Peter H G M; Pellegrini, Mina; Beyrath, Julien; Smeitink, Jan A M; Blanchet, Lionel; Koopman, Werner J H

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria are double membrane organelles involved in various key cellular processes. Governed by dedicated protein machinery, mitochondria move and continuously fuse and divide. These "mitochondrial dynamics" are bi-directionally linked to mitochondrial and cell functional state in space and time. Due to the action of the electron transport chain (ETC), the mitochondrial inner membrane displays a inside-negative membrane potential (??). The latter is considered a functional readout of mitochondrial "health" and required to sustain normal mitochondrial ATP production and mitochondrial fusion. During the last decade, live-cell microscopy strategies were developed for simultaneous quantification of ?? and mitochondrial morphology. This revealed that ETC dysfunction, changes in ?? and aberrations in mitochondrial structure often occur in parallel, suggesting they are linked potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss how combining high-content and high-throughput strategies can be used for analysis of genetic and/or drug-induced effects at the level of individual organelles, cells and cell populations. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies. PMID:25668473

  2. A comparative study of the morphology of flow and spin coated P3HT:PCBM films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapa, Jose; Karim, Alamgir

    2013-03-01

    Polymer solar cells are attractive due to the possibility of using cheaper materials and processing techniques for mass production of solar panels. Previous methods of fabricating polymer solar cells are suitable in laboratory conditions but are not scalable for industrial production. In this study, thin films of the photoactive blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were prepared by flow coating, which is suitable for industrial manufacturing of solar cells. P3HT:PCBM blends were cast from different solvents, and the morphology of flow coated and spin coated films was compared. The surface morphology and optical properties of P3HT:PCBM films were characterized with optical microscopy, AFM, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The degree of P3HT order was higher in flow coated films, as compared to spin coated films. Films flow coated using chloroform solutions had a higher thermal stability and an enhanced degree of phase separation as compared to spin coated films. Flow coated films from chlorobenzene solutions had a lower thermal stability and a smaller length scale of phase separation. This study demonstrates that flow coating is a suitable alternative technique for fabricating polymer solar cells. Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract DE- AC02-98CH10886

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Zuurmond, T.; Louw, G.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the endocrine, biochemical, and haematological derangements as well as pancreatic and histological changes of the bonemarrow in the primate following external fractionated subtotal marrow irradiation without bonemarrow reconstitution. The irradiation was administered in preparation for pancreatic transplantation. Two groups of animals (ten in each group) received 800 rad (8 Gy) and 1000 rad (10 Gy) respectively over 4 to 5 weeks. A maximum of 200 rads (2 Gy) were administered weekly as photons from a 6 MV linear accelerator. During irradiation the animals remained normoglycaemic in the presence of transiently elevated liver enzymes and serum amylase values, which returned to normal on completion of the irradiation. Insulin release was significantly reduced in both groups during irradiation and was associated with minimally decreased K-values in the presence of mild glucose intolerance. Pancreatic light morphologic changes included structural changes of both exocrine and endocrine elements and included necrosis of the islet cells and acinar tissue. Islet histology demonstrated striking cytocavitary network changes of alpha and beta cells, including degranulation, vacuolization, mitochondrial destruction, and an increase in lysosomes. A hypoplastic bonemarrow ranging from moderate to severe was observed in all irradiated recipients. Near total fractionated body irradiation in the primate is therefore associated with elevated liver enzymes, pancytopenia, transient hyperamylasaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, a varying degree of pancreatitis, and bonemarrow hypoplasia.

  4. Study of the formed elements in MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION

    E-print Network

    #12;9/10/2013 2 NUCLEUS Three Components Chromatin Nuclear Envelope Nucleoli CYTOPLASMA ORGANELLES cristae Cell Power house, makes ATP #12;9/10/2013 4 LYSOSOMES Membrane bound sacs Hydrolytic enzymes INDIRECT-ACTING GROWTH FACTORS Il-1 #12;9/10/2013 11 NEGATIVE REGULATORS Interferons & TGF- ­ Suppresses

  5. Correlation between blend morphology and recombination dynamics in additive-added P3HT:PCBM solar cells.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Ankur; Wu, Bo; Salim, Teddy; Lam, Yeng Ming; Sum, Tze Chien

    2015-10-21

    The addition of a small amount of high boiling point solvent in organic donor/acceptor blends to control their morphology is a viable approach to enhance the power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. Herein, through transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) correlated with physical characterizations and device studies, we investigate the effects of a family of thiol-based additives (i.e., 1,5-pentanedithiol (PDT), 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT) and 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT)) in P3HT:PCBM blend films in a bid to establish a morphology-function-charge dynamics relationship with their photovoltaic performances. The performance of solar cell devices (?HDT = 2.8%, ?ODT = 2.8%, ?PDT = 1.7%) is related to the additive-induced phase separation and the degree of ordering of P3HT. TAS uncovers a more efficient initial exciton and polaron generation in the additive-treated blend samples compared to the non-additive treated control sample. HDT and ODT-added blends exhibit decay dynamics and performances similar to those of the thermally annealed samples. However, the PDT-added blend exhibits a strong trap-assisted recombination in the subsequent nanosecond-microsecond timescales. We attribute this to the loss of charge carriers in the larger isolated P3HT domains due to the lack of percolation paths to the electrode. Our findings illustrate that understanding the complex interplay of the crystalline order, intermixed phases and percolation pathways is key to optimizing the performance of thermal-annealing free, additive-treated organic solar cells. PMID:26377255

  6. Analysis of morphological changes as a key method in studying psychiatric animal models.

    PubMed

    von Bohlen und Halbach, Oliver

    2013-10-01

    A major interest in the analysis of animal models of psychiatric diseases is their underlying cellular pathology and to gain information regarding whether pharmacological treatments, genetic differences or an altered environment exert an impact upon the brain morphology or on the morphology or activity of single neurones. In this review, several key methods will be introduced that allow the analysis of morphological changes that are frequently observed in psychiatric animal models. An overview of the techniques that enable dendritic arborisation, alterations in dendritic spines and changes in fibre densities to be analysed are described. Moreover, methods for the analysis of adult neurogenesis and neurodegeneration and for the analysis of neuronal activity in fixed brain tissue are described. An important step during the analysis of morphological changes is the estimation of the number of stained cells. Since conventional cell counting methods have several limitations, two different approaches that permit an estimate of the number of stained cells within three-dimensional tissue are also discussed. PMID:23334194

  7. Morphological Study of Soft Palate by Using Computed Tomography–A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Nairita; Vijayvargiya, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Background Soft palate is an important part of oro-naso-pharyngeal apparatus. The morphometric assessment of soft palate is well-performed on computed tomography (CT). Aim To evaluate the morphology of soft palate in healthy individuals by using Computed tomography. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 300 healthy voluntary participants who were subjected to CT scan (sagittal view) of head and neck region. The measurements of antero-posterior and supero-inferior length of soft palate were performed by using Syngo CT 2009E software. Statistical Analysis The statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS software version 16 and test applied were one-way ANOVA, independent t-test, chi-square and Karl Pearson’s co-relation coefficient. Results The participant’s age ranged from 18-80 years with mean of 39.51±14.64. The study had equal number of males (n=150) and females (n=150). Out of six shapes of soft palate, Butt type (38.7%) was the commonest. The morphology of soft palate in different age groups was statistically not significant (p>0.05). The total mean of antero-posterior length (30.31±3.39 mm) of soft palate was more than supero-inferior length (10.72±1.71 mm). The mean of antero-posterior length in males (30.69±3.42 mm) was more than females (29.92±3.32 mm); which was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean of supero-inferior length in males (10.67±1.78 mm) was less than females (10.78+1.64 mm), which was statistically not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion CT scan is an important diagnostic aid for studying the accurate morphology of soft palate. PMID:26436052

  8. Phase separation in thermal systems: LB study and morphological characterization

    E-print Network

    Yanbiao Gan; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li

    2011-06-10

    We investigate thermal and isothermal symmetric liquid-vapor separations via a FFT-Thermal Lattice Boltzmann (FFT-TLB) model. Structure factor, domain size and Minkowski functionals are employed to characterize the density and velocity fields as well as to understand the configurations and the kinetic processes. Compared with the isothermal phase separation, the freedom in temperature prolongs the Spinodal Decomposition (SD) stage and induces different rheological and morphological behaviors in the thermal system. After the transient procedure, both the thermal and isothermal separations show power-law scalings in domain growth; while the exponent for thermal system is lower than that for isothermal system. With respect to the density of field, the isothermal system presents more likely bicontinuous configurations with narrower interfaces, while the thermal system presents more likely configurations with scattered bubbles. Heat creation, conduction and lower interfacial stresses are main reasons for the differences in thermal system. Different from the case with isothermal phase separation, the release of latent heat causes the changing of local temperature which results in new local mechanical balance. When the Prandtl number becomes smaller, the system approaches thermodynamical equilibrium more quickly. The increasing of mean temperature makes lower the interfacial stress in the following way: $\\sigma=\\sigma_{0}[(T_{c}-T)/(T_{c}-T_{0})]^{3/2}$, where $T_{c}$ is the critical temperature and $\\sigma_{0}$ is the interfacial stress at a reference temperature $T_{0}$, which is the main reason for lower growth exponent in thermal case.

  9. Global analysis of fungal morphology exposes mechanisms of host cell escape

    PubMed Central

    O’Meara, Teresa R.; Veri, Amanda O.; Ketela, Troy; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry; Cowen, Leah E.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental transitions between single-cell yeast and multicellular filaments underpin virulence of diverse fungal pathogens. For the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, filamentation is thought to be required for immune cell escape via induction of an inflammatory programmed cell death. Here we perform a genome-scale analysis of C. albicans morphogenesis and identify 102 negative morphogenetic regulators and 872 positive regulators, highlighting key roles for ergosterol biosynthesis and N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate that C. albicans filamentation is not required for escape from host immune cells; instead, macrophage pyroptosis is driven by fungal cell-wall remodelling and exposure of glycosylated proteins in response to the macrophage phagosome. The capacity of killed, previously phagocytized cells to drive macrophage lysis is also observed with the distantly related fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. This study provides a global view of morphogenetic circuitry governing a key virulence trait, and illuminates a new mechanism by which fungi trigger host cell death. PMID:25824284

  10. Morphologic analysis correlates with gene expression changes in cultured F344 rat mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Crosby, L M; Hyder, K S; DeAngelo, A B; Kepler, T B; Gaskill, B; Benavides, G R; Yoon, L; Morgan, K T

    2000-12-15

    The gene expression pattern of mesothelial cells in vitro was determined after 4 or 12 h exposure to the rat mesothelial, kidney, and thyroid carcinogen and oxidative stressor potassium bromate (KBrO(3)). Gene expression changes observed using cDNA arrays indicated oxidative stress, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis in treated immortalized rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. Increases occurred in oxidative stress responsive genes HO-1, QR, HSP70, GADD45, GADD153, p21(WAF1/CIP16), GST's, GAPDH, TPX, and GPX-1(0); transcriptional regulators c-jun, c-fos, jun B, c-myc, and IkappaB; protein repair components Rdelta, RC10-II, C3, RC-7, HR6B ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and ubiquitin; DNA repair components PCNA, msh2, and O-6 methylguanine DNA methyltransferase; lipid peroxide excision enzyme PLA2; and apoptogenic components TNFalpha, iNOS1 and FasL. Decreases occurred in bcl-2 (antiapoptotic), bax alpha, bad, and bok (proapoptotic) and cell cycle control elements (cyclins). Cyclin G and p14ink4b (which inhibit entry into cell cycle) were increased. Numerous signal transduction, cell membrane transport, membrane-associated receptor, and fatty acid biosynthesis and repair components were altered. Morphologic endpoints examined were number of mitotic figures, number of apoptotic cells, and antibody-specific localization of HO-1 (which demonstrated increased HO-1 protein expression). PCR analysis confirmed HO-1, p21(waf1/cip1), HSP70, GPX1, GADD45, QR, mdr1, PGHS, and cyclin D1 changes. A model for KBrO(3)-induced carcinogenicity in the F344 rat mesothelium is proposed, whereby KBrO(3) generates a redox signal that activates p53 and results in transcriptional activation of oxidative stress and repair genes, dysregulation of growth control, and imperfect DNA repair leading to carcinogenesis. PMID:11133343

  11. [The morphological and karyological characteristics of MDCK and vero (B) cells cultures on plant hydrolyzate-based nutrient media].

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, G R; Mazurkova, N A; Podchernyaeva, R Ya; Ryabchikova, E I; Troshkova, G P; Shishkina, L N

    2011-01-01

    MDCK and Vero (B) cell cultures were propagated during 10 passages in the experimental nutrient media containing the soybean powder hydrolyzate prepared using trypsin and bromelain enzymes and the rice powder hydrolysate prepared with trypsin and in the control DMEM and SFM4 MegaVir media. The karyological, morphological, and proliferative characteristics of continuous cultures were examined and compared. The experimental media supplied with 3% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Gibco, U.S.A.) showed high growth-enhancing properties and failed to affect their morphology. After propagated during 10 passages in the experimental media preserved a stable karyotype. MDCK cell cultures in the nutrient media based on rice and soybean powder hydrolyzates low (2%) in FBS caused no substantial changes in the proliferation indices and morphological and karyological characteristics of cell cultures. PMID:21545033

  12. Effects of. gamma. -interferon on the growth, morphology, and membrane and cytoskeletal proteins expression of LAN-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Parodi, M.T.; Cornaglia-Ferraris, P.; Ponzoni, M. )

    1989-12-01

    The effects of {gamma}-interferon ({gamma}-IFN) on the growth, morphology, and phenotypic expression of the human neuroblastoma (NB) cell line, LAN-1, have been extensively tested. Low doses of {gamma}-IFN allowing more than 90% cell viability induce morphological differentiation and growth inhibition. Cells exposed to {gamma}-IFN significantly decreased their growth rate, became smaller and poligonal, and sprouted long cellular processes with varicosities along their course, typical of the neurites seen in differentiated NB cells; morphological changes appeared within 48 hours of culture with 1,000 U/ml {gamma}-IFN. The new morphological aspect reached the maximum expression after 6 days of culture, becoming more evident when fresh drug was added after 2 days of culture. A decrease in ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation was also observed within 24 hours; cell growth was completely inhibited at the 6th day. These findings suggest that noncytotoxic doses of {gamma}-IFN do promote the differentiation of LAN-1 neuroblastoma cells which is associated with the reduced expression of the malignant phenotype.

  13. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  14. N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE AND 4-(METHYLNITROSAMINO)-1-(3-PYRIDYL)-1-BUTANONE INDUCED MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF CH3/10T1/2CL8 CELLS EXPRESSING HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450 2A6

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transfection of specific genes into cells capable of expressing chemically-induced morphological cell transformation provides a valuable approach to study the mechanisms of action of carcinogens. uman cytochrome P450 isozyme, CYP2A6, has been successfully expressed from a retrovi...

  15. Egestion of asbestos fibers in Tetrahymena results in early morphological abnormalities. A step in the induction of heterogeneous cell lines?

    PubMed

    Hjelm, K K

    1989-01-01

    In Tetrahymena populations exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers, many cells develop morphological abnormalities within 1-2 hours. The abnormalities are mainly large or small protrusions or indentations, or flattened parts of the cell surface and most often located in the posterior part of the cell. They are formed repeatedly in all cells but are also continuously repaired so that the fraction of cells affected represents an equilibrium between these two processes. Their formation is connected with egestion of the large bundles of fibers formed by phagocytosis. Such effects of egestion of fibers do not seem to have been reported previously. Egestion of a bundle of fibers is much slower than for other types of undigestible residues. In contrast to normal exocytosis occurring invariably at the cytoproct, egestion of asbestos often occurs in the posterior part of the cell outside the cytoproct. To my knowledge this is the first reported case of either very slow or extra-cytoproctal egestion in Tetrahymena. Cells with large abnormalities have a greater tendency to develop into "early heterogeneous" cells than the average abnormal cell. Some of these give rise to hereditarily stable heterogeneous cell lines of Tetrahymena. The morphological abnormalities are probably caused by mechanical action of the crocidolite fibers resulting in local damage of the cytoskeletal elements responsible for normal cell shape. The heterogenous cell lines may arise when cellular structures carrying non-genic cytotactically inherited information are modified. The relevance of these ideas to the induction of cancer by asbestos is briefly discussed. PMID:2553916

  16. Red blood cells in Rett syndrome: oxidative stress, morphological changes and altered membrane organization.

    PubMed

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the erythrocyte as a previously unrecognized target cell in Rett syndrome, a rare (1:10 000 females) and devastating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a single gene (i.e. MeCP2, CDKL5, or rarely FOXG1). In particular, we focus on morphological changes, membrane oxidative damage, altered membrane fatty acid profile, and aberrant skeletal organization in erythrocytes from patients with typical Rett syndrome and MeCP2 gene mutations. The beneficial effects of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are also summarized for this condition to be considered as a 'model' condition for autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26040005

  17. Hydrogen bonding in bulk heterojunction solar cells: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zeyun; Sun, Kuan; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Ji, Shaomin; Jones, David J.; Wong, Wallace W. H.

    2014-07-01

    Small molecules with dithieno[3,2-b2',3'-d]thiophene as central building block and octyl cyanoacetate and octyl cyanoacetamide as different terminal building blocks have been designed and synthesized. The amide containing small molecule can form intermolecular hydrogen bonding between N-H...O = C of the amide group. The photovoltaic properties and active layer morphologies of the two molecules in bulk heterojunction solar cells are compared to study the influence of hydrogen bonding on the active layer morphology. New methanofullerene compound containing amide group has also been synthesized and compared with conventional fullerene electron acceptors.

  18. Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Exhibits Morphologic Overlap With Malignant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, John; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Bredella, Miriam A; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Nielsen, G Petur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign neoplasm characterized by an abundance of osteoclastic giant cells that are induced by the neoplastic mononuclear cells; the latter express high levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?-B ligand (RANKL). Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor, which is clinically used to treat GCT, leads to a marked alteration in the histologic appearance of the tumor with giant cell depletion and new bone deposition, leading to substantial histologic overlap with other primary tumors of bone. Most significantly, denosumab-treated GCT (tGCT) with abundant bone deposition may mimic de novo osteosarcoma, or GCT that has undergone malignant transformation. To histologically characterize tGCT, we identified 9 cases of GCT biopsied or resected after denosumab treatment. tGCT cases included 16 specimens from 9 patients including 6 female and 3 male individuals aged 16 to 47 (median 32) years. Duration of treatment varied from 2 to 55 months. We compared these tumors with malignant neoplasms arising in GCTs (n=9). The histology of tGCT was variable but appeared to relate to the length of therapy. All tGCTs showed marked giant cell depletion. Early lesions were highly cellular, and the combination of cellularity, atypia, and haphazard bone deposition caused the lesion to resemble high-grade osteosarcoma. Unlike de novo high-grade osteosarcoma or malignancies arising in GCT, however, tGCT showed less severe atypia, reduced mitotic activity, and lack of infiltrative growth pattern. Tumor in patients on prolonged therapy showed decreased cellularity and abundant new bone, deposited as broad, rounded cords or long, curvilinear arrays. The latter morphology was reminiscent of low-grade central osteosarcoma, but, unlike low-grade central osteosarcoma, tGCT was negative for MDM2 and again lacked an infiltrative growth pattern. Overall, tGCT may have a wide range of morphologic appearances. Because the treated tumors bear little resemblance to their pretreatment counterparts, careful attention to the history of denosumab administration is crucial to avoid a misdiagnosis with an important impact on therapy. Unlike malignant GCTs, tGCTs lack significant nuclear atypia, mitotic activity, and infiltration of preexisting bone, but instead show a unique pattern of intralesional bone deposition. PMID:26414220

  19. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells

    PubMed Central

    ?lusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; G?ombik, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogus?awa; Kubera, Marta; Laso?, W?adys?aw; Popio?ek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Mika, Joanna; W?dzony, Krzysztof; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression) as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test), the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive) in 3-month-old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1?, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-?, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4) and beneficial (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)) phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1–2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like) disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-18, TNF-? and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats. Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood. PMID:25814933

  20. Morphology and dynamics of piercement structures: an integrated laboratory and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Gisler, Galen R.; Haug, Øystein T.

    2013-04-01

    Piercement structures are numerous in many geological settings, including pockmarks, mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, maar-diatreme volcanoes, volcanic conduits in stratovolcanoes, and kimberlite volcanoes. These piercement structures exhibit various shapes, from sub-vertical pipes piercing through the country rock to open and wide conduits, such as volcanic craters resulting from volcanic explosions (e.g., Mount Pinatubo). In this contribution, we present an integrated laboratory/numerical study to constrain the dynamics of piercement structures and unravel the processes that control their morphology. The laboratory experiments consist of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a pack of cohesive fine-grained granular material, at the bottom of which a volume V t of pressurized air is injected at high velocity. As a result of air injection, a piercement structure develops through the medium, and its morphology and evolution is monitored with an ultra-fast camera. We varied systematically the thickness of the model h and the injection pressure P , and show that two morphologies of piercement structures develop: vertical and V-shaped conduits. In a phase diagram with h and P as horizontal and vertical axes, respectively, the two morphologies group into two distinct domains separated by a transition line of critical slope P-h. This phase diagram shows that vertical conduits form for high P /low h, whereas V-shaped conduits form for low P /high h. 2D numerical simulations are performed using Sage, a finite volume hydrocode developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. We ran simulations and varied systematically the input pressure P and the strength of the country rock T . Our simulations produced three types of piercement structures: vertical, sub-horizontal and V-shaped conduits. In a phase diagram with T and P as horizontal and vertical axes, respectively, the three morphologies group into distinct domains separated by transition lines of critical slopes P-T . Vertical conduits form for high P /low T , whereas V-shaped conduits form for low P /high T . Sub-horizontal conduits form at intermediate values of P and T . Stress maps computed from the simulations show that the V-shaped/sub-horizontal and vertical conduits do not correspond to the same dynamics. Vertical conduits form when the country rock behaves in a plastic manner, i.e. like unconsolidated rock. In contrast, V-shaped and horizontal conduits form when the country rock behaves mostly in an elastic manner, and the conduit corresponds to a fracture-like feature. The close similarities between our laboratory and numerical results allow us to define a new dimensionless parameter, the energy density Ie = V tP-h3T , which corresponds to the ratio between the input energy and the potential energy for fracturing of the country rock. Our results show that Ie is a primary controlling factor for the dynamics of piercement structures: when Ie is small, the country rock remains competent, and the piercement proceeds like fracturing, leading to V-shaped or horizontal conduits. In contrast, when Ie is large, the country rock looses its competence and behaves like unconsolidated rock, and the piercement structure develops vertically.

  1. Anodization parameters influencing the morphology and electrical properties of TiO2 nanotubes for living cell interfacing and investigations.

    PubMed

    Khudhair, D; Bhatti, A; Li, Y; Hamedani, H Amani; Garmestani, H; Hodgson, P; Nahavandi, S

    2016-02-01

    Nanotube structures have attracted tremendous attention in recent years in many applications. Among such nanotube structures, titania nanotubes (TiO2) have received paramount attention in the medical domain due to their unique properties, represented by high corrosion resistance, good mechanical properties, high specific surface area, as well as great cell proliferation, adhesion and mineralization. Although lot of research has been reported in developing optimized titanium nanotube structures for different medical applications, however there is a lack of unified literature source that could provide information about the key parameters and experimental conditions required to develop such optimized structure. This paper addresses this gap, by focussing on the fabrication of TiO2 nanotubes through anodization process on both pure titanium and titanium alloys substrates to exploit the biocompatibility and electrical conductivity aspects, critical factors for many medical applications from implants to in-vivo and in-vitro living cell studies. It is shown that the morphology of TiO2 directly impacts the biocompatibility aspects of the titanium in terms of cell proliferation, adhesion and mineralization. Similarly, TiO2 nanotube wall thickness of 30-40nm has shown to exhibit improved electrical behaviour, a critical factor in brain mapping and behaviour investigations if such nanotubes are employed as micro-nano-electrodes. PMID:26652471

  2. Morphology study of progesterone polymorphs prepared by polymer-induced heteronucleation (PIHn).

    PubMed

    Araya-Sibaja, Andrea M A; Fandaruff, Cinira; Campos, Carlos E M; Soldi, Valdir; Cardoso, Simone G; Cuffini, Silvia L

    2013-01-01

    In this article, morphology of progesterone polymorphs prepared by polymer-induced heteronucleation (PIHn) technique was studied. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose(HPMC), such as dextran T-500 and gelatin G-9382, polyisoprene (PI), and acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer (NBR) were used as substrates. The crystallizations were performed by solvent evaporation at room temperature from 0.5, 10, and 40 mg/ml solutions in chloroform and acetone. Progesterone polymorphs were identified by X-ray diffraction. Differential scanning calorimetry and total attenuated reflectance infrared spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques in the identification. Depending on the polymeric matrix and the concentration used, form 1, form 2, or mixture of both polymorphs were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy pictures evidenced difference in morphology and in homogeneity of the two progesterone polymorphs. These polymorphs prepared by PIHn, did not present a distinctive morphology that allows identifying polymorph by its crystal habit. Hence, polymeric matrix induced the crystallization, affecting polymorphism and morphology. PMID:23034679

  3. Morphological changes of cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat jejunal mucosa at different ages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Li, Jian; Li, Qing; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Xiang-Lin

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the changes of cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat jejunal epithelium at different ages. METHODS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis of the jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia from birth to postnatal 12th month were observed using immunocytochemistry (ICC), and TUNEL method. The height of villus, the thickness of muscle layer and the number of goblet cells in jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia were measured by BeiHang analytic software and analyzed by STAT. RESULTS: (1) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells of jejunal glandulous recess were found and increased in number from birth to the postnatal 3rd month. The number of PCNA positive cells peaked in the postnatal 3rd month, and decreased from then on. (2) The number of apoptotic cells also peaked in the postnatal 3rd month, showing a similar trend to that of the PCNA positive cells. (3) The height of jejunal villus increased after birth, peaked in the postnatal 3rd month and decreased from then on. The jejunal muscle layer became thicker in the postnatal 3rd week and the postnatal 12th month. The number of goblet cells of the jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia had a linear correlation with age. CONCLUSION: (1) PCNA positive cells are distributed in the jejunal glandulous recess. (2) Apoptotic cell number peaks in the postnatal 3rd month, indicating that cell proliferation and apoptosis are developed with the formation of digestive metabolism as rat grows to maturity. (3) The thickness of jejunal muscle layer increases to a maximum in the postnatal 3rd week, which may be related to the change in diet from milk to solid food. (4) The number of goblet cells increases rapidly in the postnatal 3rd week, probably due to ingestion of solid food. PMID:12970906

  4. Morphological stability of an interface between two non-Newtonian fluids moving in a Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Martyushev, L M; Birzina, A I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the morphological stability of an interface in the case of the displacement of one non-Newtonian fluid by another non-Newtonian fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell has been considered. Both fluids have been described by the two-parameter Ostwald-de Waele power-law model. The nonzero viscosity of the displacing fluid has been taken into account. A generalized Darcy's law for the system under consideration, as well as an equation for the determination of the critical size of morphological stability with respect to harmonic perturbations (linear analysis), has been derived. Morphological phase diagrams have been constructed, and the region of the parameters in which nonequilibrium reentrant morphological transitions are possible has been revealed. PMID:25679705

  5. Naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-based bulk heterojunction solar cells: how molecular structure influences nanoscale morphology and photovoltaic properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Cheon, Ye Rim; Back, Jang Yeol; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung; Park, Chan Eon

    2014-11-10

    Organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on a series of three naphtho[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (NDT) derivatives blended with phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester were studied. These three derivatives, which have NDT units with various thiophene-chain lengths, were employed as the donor polymers. The influence of their molecular structures on the correlation between their solar-cell performances and their degree of crystallization was assessed. The grazing-incidence angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy results showed that the three derivatives exhibit three distinct nanoscale morphologies. We correlated these morphologies with the device physics by determining the J-V characteristics and the hole and electron mobilities of the devices. On the basis of our results, we propose new rules for the design of future generations of NDT-based polymers for use in bulk heterojunction solar cells. PMID:25145537

  6. The aneurysmal arteriovenous fistula - morphological study and assessment of clinical implications. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kenneth R; Gallagher, Maeve; Ross, Rose; Severn, Alison; Nagy, Janos; Cochrane, Lynda; Griffiths, Gareth D

    2015-10-01

    Aneurysmal dilation of arteriovenous fistulae used for haemodialysis is a recognised complication but its clinical significance is a contentious issue. Our aims were to describe aneurysmal fistulae morphologically and clinically.Sixty patients underwent duplex scanning to measure the maximum diameter and skin thickness of their fistula. Haemodialysis function and bleeding risk were assessed clinically.The 75th percentile of maximum diameter was 2.05?cm. In addition to conventional diameter measurement, we describe a novel volume measurement technique which may be of value. No relationship was found between maximum diameter or volume and function, skin thickness or bleeding.Some studies define aneurysm at 2?cm (75th percentile); however, this definition and other arbitrary definitions lack clinical significance. This work suggests that fistula dilation should be considered together with clinical issues when determining the clinical significance of an aneurysm. Our finding that haemodialysis function, skin thickness and bleeding were not associated with diameter needs further study. PMID:25355811

  7. Multimodal label-free growth and morphology characterization of different cell types in a single culture with quantitative digital holographic phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Wibbeling, Jana; Kastl, Lena; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2015-03-01

    For the analysis of the impact of pharmaceuticals or pathogens on different cellular phenotypes under identical measurement conditions and to analyze interactions between different cellular specimens a minimally-invasive quantitative observation of different cell types in a single culture is of particular interest. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM), a var-iant of quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), provides high resolution detection of optical path length changes that is suitable for stain-free minimally-invasive live cell analysis. Due to low light intensities for object illumination, QPM minimizes the interaction with the sample and has been demonstrated in particular to be suitable for long-term time-lapse investigations, e.g., for the detection of cell morphology alterations due to drugs and toxins. Furthermore, QPM has been demonstrated to be a versatile tool for the quantification of cellular growth and motility. Thus, we studied the feasibility of QPM for the analysis of mixed cell cultures and explored if quantitative phase images provide sufficient information to distinguish between different cell types and to extract cell specific parameters. For the experiments quantitative phase imaging with DHM was utilized. Mixed cell cultures with different cell types were observed with quantitative DHM phase contrast up to 35 h. The obtained series of quantitative phase images were evaluated by adapted algorithms for image segmentation. From the segmented images the area covered by the cells, the cellular dry mass and the mean cell thickness were calculated and used in the further analysis as parameters to quantify the reliability of the measurement principle. The obtained results demonstrate that it is possible to characterize the growth of cell types with different mor-phology features separately in a single culture.

  8. Adipose progenitor cells reside among the mature adipocytes: morphological research using an organotypic culture system.

    PubMed

    Anayama, Hisashi; Fukuda, Ryo; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-11-01

    The precise localization and biological characteristics of the adipose progenitor cells are still a focus of debate. In this study, the localization of the adipose progenitor cells was determined using an organotypic culture system of adipose tissue slices. The tissue slices of subcutaneous white adipose tissue from rats were placed on a porous membrane and cultured at the interface between air and the culture medium for up to 5 days with or without adipogenic stimulation. The structure of adipose tissue components was sufficiently preserved during the culture and, following adipogenic stimulation with insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, numerous multilocular adipocytes appeared in the interstitium among the mature adipocytes. Histomorphological 3-D observation using confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of small mesenchymal cells containing little or no fat residing in the perivascular region and on the mature adipocytes and differentiation from the pre-existing mesenchymal cells to multilocular adipocytes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that these cells were initially present within the fibronectin-positive extracellular matrix (ECM). The adipose differentiation of the mesenchymal cells was confirmed by the enhanced expression of C/EBP-? suggesting adipose differentiation and the concurrent advent of CD105-expressing mesenchymal cells within the interstitium of the mature adipocytes. Based on the above, the mesenchymal cells embedded in the ECM around the mature adipocytes were confirmed to be responsible for adipogenesis because the transition of the mesenchymal cells to the stem state contributed to the increase in the number of adipocytes in rat adipose tissue. PMID:26095163

  9. Imageability and Transparency in Morphological Awareness: A Study of How Third-Grade Children Made Lemonade from Lemon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological awareness has been established as important to literacy success, and as such, it is critical to study factors affecting children's performance on measures of this skill. Morphological transparency, or the clarity of the sound and letter pattern relationship between base words and their associated morphological forms, has been found…

  10. Study of the morphology of the three-phase contact line and its evolution by morphological examination after droplet evaporation of aqueous polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Cunfu; Zhao, Jiang; Zhu, Yingxi

    2008-08-01

    The local morphology and its evolution of an air-liquid-solid three-phase contact line was studied on the homogeneous surfaces of homopolymer of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the nanostructured surface of diblock copolymer of PS- b-PMMA by the approach of the morphological study of the residual solid after droplet evaporation of water-soluble polymers such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(acrylic acid). The observation by atomic force microscopy discovered the stripelike "button-and-ribbon" structure of the precipitated polymer solute along the moving direction of the contact line. On the surface of PS- b-PMMA, the morphology of PVP has a close correlation with the nanostructure of PS- b-PMMA. The results exhibit the local morphology of the contact line and its evolution, revealing its pinning and depinning processes on the nanometer scale. PMID:18582133

  11. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-quare test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC. PMID:25567613

  12. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  13. Pleiotropic effect of sigE over-expression on cell morphology, photosynthesis and hydrogen production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Takashi; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Iijima, Hiroko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Tanaka, Kan; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Saito, Kazuki; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-11-01

    Over-expression of sigE, a gene encoding an RNA polymerase sigma factor in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, is known to activate sugar catabolism and bioplastic production. In this study, we investigated the effects of sigE over-expression on cell morphology, photosynthesis and hydrogen production in this cyanobacterium. Transmission electron and scanning probe microscopic analyses revealed that sigE over-expression increased the cell size, possibly as a result of aberrant cell division. Over-expression of sigE reduced respiration and photosynthesis activities via changes in gene expression and chlorophyll fluorescence. Hydrogen production under micro-oxic conditions is enhanced in sigE over-expressing cells. Despite these pleiotropic phenotypes, the sigE over-expressing strain showed normal cell viability under both nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions. These results provide insights into the inter-relationship among metabolism, cell morphology, photosynthesis and hydrogen production in this unicellular cyanobacterium. PMID:23941239

  14. Peculiarity of Two Thermodynamically-Stable Morphologies and Their Impact on the Efficiency of Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Nuradhika; Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong K.; Zhu, Jiahua; Kumar, Rajeev; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Browning, James F.; Xiao, Kai; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran; Smith, Sean; Lauter, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Structural characteristics of the active layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices play a critical role in charge generation, separation and transport. Here we report on morphology and structural control of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM films by means of thermal annealing and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent additive processing, and correlate it to the device performance. By combining surface imaging with nanoscale depth-sensitive neutron reflectometry (NR) and X-ray diffraction, three-dimensional morphologies of the films are reconstituted with information extending length scales from nanometers to microns. DIO promotes the formation of a well-mixed donor-acceptor vertical phase morphology with a large population of small p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 nanocrystals arranged in an elongated domain network of the film, thereby enhancing the device performance. In contrast, films without DIO exhibit three-sublayer vertical phase morphology with phase separation in agglomerated domains. Our findings are supported by thermodynamic description based on the Flory-Huggins theory with quantitative evaluation of pairwise interaction parameters that explain the morphological changes resulting from thermal and solvent treatments. Our study reveals that vertical phase morphology of small-molecule based OPVs is significantly different from polymer-based systems. The significant enhancement of morphology and information obtained from theoretical modeling may aid in developing an optimized morphology to enhance device performance for OPVs. PMID:26315070

  15. Peculiarity of Two Thermodynamically-Stable Morphologies and Their Impact on the Efficiency of Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herath, Nuradhika; Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong K.; Zhu, Jiahua; Kumar, Rajeev; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Browning, James F.; Xiao, Kai; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran; Smith, Sean; Lauter, Valeria

    2015-08-01

    Structural characteristics of the active layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices play a critical role in charge generation, separation and transport. Here we report on morphology and structural control of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM films by means of thermal annealing and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent additive processing, and correlate it to the device performance. By combining surface imaging with nanoscale depth-sensitive neutron reflectometry (NR) and X-ray diffraction, three-dimensional morphologies of the films are reconstituted with information extending length scales from nanometers to microns. DIO promotes the formation of a well-mixed donor-acceptor vertical phase morphology with a large population of small p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 nanocrystals arranged in an elongated domain network of the film, thereby enhancing the device performance. In contrast, films without DIO exhibit three-sublayer vertical phase morphology with phase separation in agglomerated domains. Our findings are supported by thermodynamic description based on the Flory-Huggins theory with quantitative evaluation of pairwise interaction parameters that explain the morphological changes resulting from thermal and solvent treatments. Our study reveals that vertical phase morphology of small-molecule based OPVs is significantly different from polymer-based systems. The significant enhancement of morphology and information obtained from theoretical modeling may aid in developing an optimized morphology to enhance device performance for OPVs.

  16. Peculiarity of Two Thermodynamically-Stable Morphologies and Their Impact on the Efficiency of Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Herath, Nuradhika; Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong K; Zhu, Jiahua; Kumar, Rajeev; Ivanov, Ilia N; Sumpter, Bobby G; Browning, James F; Xiao, Kai; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran; Smith, Sean; Lauter, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Structural characteristics of the active layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices play a critical role in charge generation, separation and transport. Here we report on morphology and structural control of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM films by means of thermal annealing and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent additive processing, and correlate it to the device performance. By combining surface imaging with nanoscale depth-sensitive neutron reflectometry (NR) and X-ray diffraction, three-dimensional morphologies of the films are reconstituted with information extending length scales from nanometers to microns. DIO promotes the formation of a well-mixed donor-acceptor vertical phase morphology with a large population of small p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 nanocrystals arranged in an elongated domain network of the film, thereby enhancing the device performance. In contrast, films without DIO exhibit three-sublayer vertical phase morphology with phase separation in agglomerated domains. Our findings are supported by thermodynamic description based on the Flory-Huggins theory with quantitative evaluation of pairwise interaction parameters that explain the morphological changes resulting from thermal and solvent treatments. Our study reveals that vertical phase morphology of small-molecule based OPVs is significantly different from polymer-based systems. The significant enhancement of morphology and information obtained from theoretical modeling may aid in developing an optimized morphology to enhance device performance for OPVs. PMID:26315070

  17. INTRODUCTION Researchers have long studied morphological adaptations that allow

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    macroalgae to survive the hydrodynamic forces imposed by breaking waves (e.g. Delf, 1932; Koehl, 1986 characteristic that has been thoroughly explored in these studies is flexibility. By being flexible, macroalgae fleshy macroalgae probably evolved from fleshy (flexible) ancestors, adaptive hypotheses are difficult

  18. Study of laser uncaging induced morphological alteration of rat cortical neurites using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Tu, Chunlong; Liang, Yitao; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Xuesong

    2015-09-30

    Activity-dependent structural remodeling is an important aspect of neuronal plasticity. In the previous researches, neuronal structure variations resulting from external interventions were detected by the imaging instruments such as the fluorescence microscopy, the scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and the laser confocal microscopy. In this article, a new platform which combined the photochemical stimulation with atomic force microscopy (AFM) was set up to detect the activity-dependent structural remodeling. In the experiments, the cortical neurites on the glass coverslips were stimulated by locally uncaged glutamate under the ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses, and a calcium-related structural collapse of neurites (about 250 nm height decrease) was observed by an AFM. This was the first attempt to combine the laser uncaging with AFM in living cell researches. With the advantages of highly localized stimulation (<5 ?m), super resolution imaging (<3.8 nm), and convenient platform building, this system was suitable for the quantitative observation of the neuron mechanical property variations and morphological alterations modified by neural activities under different photochemical stimulations, which would be helpful for studying physiological and pathological mechanisms of structural and functional changes induced by the biomolecule acting. PMID:26149288

  19. In-Depth Understanding of the Morphology-Performance Relationship in Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Cheng, Yi-Bing; McNeill, Christopher R

    2015-07-01

    It is well-established that thermal annealing optimizes the morphology and improves the efficiency of P3HT-based organic solar cells, but the effects of different cooling rates after annealing are not well understood. In this paper, we use a model system based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to examine the relationship between morphology and device performance for annealing before (preannealing) and after (postannealing) the application of the electrode, with different cooling rates and in different device architectures. In the conventional structure, postannealing is confirmed to significantly enhance efficiency. The device prepared with a slow cooling rate (3.6%) shows a higher average power conversion efficiency than that prepared with a fast cooling rate (3.3%). The microstructural changes underlying this 10% increase in device performance and further effects of cooling rate, pre- and postannealing, and device architecture are comprehensively examined with a combination of synchrotron-based techniques, including grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The best device in the conventional architecture (postannealed with slow cooling rate) shows a more face-on orientation and narrower orientational distribution of P3HT crystallites. In addition, postannealing leads to PCBM diffusion toward the blend/top electrode interface. The enrichment of PCBM at the blend/top electrode interface plays a positive role in aiding electron collection at the electrode in the conventional structure, but it has a negative effect on the performance of the inverted structure, where hole collection at the top electrode instead is required. For this reason, in an inverted structure, preannealed films with slow cooling exhibit the best photovoltaic performance. PMID:26020455

  20. Oxidized-LDL induce morphological changes and increase stiffness of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chouinard, Julie A.; Grenier, Guillaume; Khalil, Abdelouahed; Vermette, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) play a critical role in endothelial injury contributing to the age-related physio-pathological process of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of native LDL and ox-LDL on the mechanical properties of living human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements. The contribution of filamentous actin (F-actin) and vimentin on cytoskeletal network organization were also examined by fluorescence microscopy. Our results revealed that ox-LDL had an impact on the HUVEC shape by interfering with F-actin and vimentin while native LDL showed no effect. AFM colloidal force measurements on living individual HUVEC were successfully used to measure stiffness of cells exposed to native and ox-LDL. AFM results demonstrated that the cell body became significantly stiffer when cells were exposed for 24 h to ox-LDL while cells exposed for 24 h to native LDL displayed similar rigidity to that of the control cells. Young's moduli of LDL-exposed HUVEC were calculated using two models. This study thus provides quantitative evidence on biomechanical mechanisms related to endothelial cell dysfunction and may give new insight on strategies aiming to protect endothelial function in atherosclerosis.

  1. EFFECT OF 12-0-TETRADECANOYLPHORBOL-13-ACETATE ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND GROWTH OF C3H/10TL/2 MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the morphology and growth properties of C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 cells were examined. The morphology of these cells was changed within 30 min following treatment with 0.1 micrograms of TPA pe...

  2. Expression-level dependent perturbation of cell proteostasis and nuclear morphology by aggregation-prone polyglutamine proteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng; Williamson, Neil; Boschetti, Chiara; Ellis, Tom; Yoshimi, Tatsuya; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2015-09-01

    We describe a gene expression system for use in mammalian cells that yields reproducible, inducible gene expression that can be modulated within the physiological range. A synthetic promoter library was generated from which representatives were selected that gave weak, intermediate-strength or strong promoter activity. Each promoter resulted in a tight expression range when used to drive single-copy reporter genes integrated at the same genome location in stable cell lines, in contrast to the broad range of expression typical of transiently transfected cells. To test this new expression system in neurodegenerative disease models, we used each promoter type to generate cell lines carrying single-copy genes encoding polyglutamine-containing proteins. Expression over a period of up to three months resulted in a proportion of cells developing juxtanuclear aggresomes whose rate of formation, penetrance, and morphology were expression-level dependent. At the highest expression levels, fibrillar aggregates deposit close to the nuclear envelope, indicating that cell proteostasis is overwhelmed by misfolded protein species. We also observed expression-level dependent, abnormal nuclear morphology in cells containing aggresomes, with up to ?80% of cells affected. This system constitutes a valuable tool in gene regulation at different levels and allows the quantitative assessment of gene expression effects when developing disease models or investigating cell function through the introduction of gene constructs. PMID:25854808

  3. A Study of Supernova Remnants with Center-Filled X-Ray Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed study entails use of archival data, primarily from past and active X-ray observatories, to study the properties of a class of supernova remnants (SNRs) which display a centrally-bright X-ray morphology. Several models which have been proposed to explain the morphology are being investigated for comparisons with measured characteristics of several remnants: nonthermal emission from a central synchrotron nebula; thermal emission enhanced by slow evaporation of cool clouds in the hot SNR interior; and relic thermal emission from the SNR interior after the remnant has entered the radiative phase of evolution, thus causing the shell emission to cease.

  4. Cytogenetic analysis of 46 pleomorphic soft tissue sarcomas and correlation with morphologic and clinical features: a report of the CHAMP Study Group. Chromosomes and MorPhology.

    PubMed

    Mertens, F; Fletcher, C D; Dal Cin, P; De Wever, I; Mandahl, N; Mitelman, F; Rosai, J; Rydholm, A; Sciot, R; Tallini, G; Van den Berghe, H; Vanni, R; Willén, H

    1998-05-01

    With the aim of identifying objective cytogenetic-morphologic correlations, we evaluated 46 pleomorphic soft tissue sarcomas (mainly diagnosed originally as malignant fibrous histiocytomas) with clonal chromosome aberrations both cytogenetically and morphologically as part of an international collaborative study. By detailed histopathologic examination, most cases could be categorized into specific tumor types. Eight sarcomas were diagnosed as lipogenic (4 pleomorphic, 1 combined pleomorphic and myxoid/round cell, and 3 dedifferentiated liposarcomas), 19 as myogenic [11 leiomyosarcomas, 1 rhabdomyosarcoma, 4 myosarcomas not otherwise specified (NOS), and 3 probable myosarcomas NOS], 8 as myxofibrosarcomas, 1 as a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, 1 as malignant mesenchymoma, 1 as extraskeletal osteosarcoma, I as sarcoma resembling proliferative fasciitis, and 7 as pleomorphic sarcomas NOS. In a three-grade system, 10 tumors were grade 2 and 36 were grade 3. The majority had highly complex karyotypes. A total of 24 recurrent abnormalities (defined by their presence in at least five cases) were detected: ring chromosomes, homogeneously staining regions (hsr) and/or double minute chromosomes (dmin), and structural rearrangement of 22 different chromosome bands or regions. The frequency and distribution of the recurrent karyotypic features were uneven. Grade 3 tumors displayed, on average, more aberrations per case than did grade 2 tumors. Nine of the selected abnormalities, including hsr/dmin and rearrangements of 19p13 and 19q13, were found only among the high-grade tumors. When the tumors were subdivided according to lineage of differentiation, the highest frequency of aberrations was seen in pleomorphic sarcomas NOS, followed by myxofibrosarcomas, myogenic sarcomas, and lipogenic sarcomas. None of the selected rearrangements was, however, specific for any of these subgroups. The sole consistent cytogenetic-morphologic association was that all three dedifferentiated liposarcomas had multiple abnormal clones, at least one of which contained supernumerary ring chromosomes. Due mainly to karyotype complexity, it therefore seems unlikely that cytogenetic analysis can assist in the differential diagnostic subclassification of pleomorphic sarcomas, nor was there any clear-cut indication that the karyotypic picture could be used to predict clinical outcome. Although the mean number of recurrent chromosome aberrations was almost twice as high in sarcomas that gave rise to metastases as among those that did not, no particular aberration was restricted to either of the two subgroups. PMID:9591630

  5. Localized movement and morphology of UBF1-positive nucleolar regions are changed by ?-irradiation in G2 phase of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dmitry V; Stixová, Lenka; Sehnalová, Petra; Legartová, So?a; Suchánková, Jana; Šimara, Pavel; Kozubek, Stanislav; Matula, Pavel; Skalníková, Magdalena; Raška, Ivan; Bártová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus is a well-organized site of ribosomal gene transcription. Moreover, many DNA repair pathway proteins, including ATM, ATR kinases, MRE11, PARP1 and Ku70/80, localize to the nucleolus (Moore et al., 2011 ). We analyzed the consequences of DNA damage in nucleoli following ultraviolet A (UVA), C (UVC), or ?-irradiation in order to test whether and how radiation-mediated genome injury affects local motion and morphology of nucleoli. Because exposure to radiation sources can induce changes in the pattern of UBF1-positive nucleolar regions, we visualized nucleoli in living cells by GFP-UBF1 expression for subsequent morphological analyses and local motion studies. UVA radiation, but not 5 Gy of ?-rays, induced apoptosis as analyzed by an advanced computational method. In non-apoptotic cells, we observed that ?-radiation caused nucleolar re-positioning over time and changed several morphological parameters, including the size of the nucleolus and the area of individual UBF1-positive foci. Radiation-induced nucleoli re-arrangement was observed particularly in G2 phase of the cell cycle, indicating repair of ribosomal genes in G2 phase and implying that nucleoli are less stable, thus sensitive to radiation, in G2 phase. PMID:26208041

  6. Morphological study of the prostate gland in viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) during periods of maximal and minimal reproductive activity.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Maximiliano; Aguilera-Merlo, Claudia; Cruceño, Albana; Fogal, Teresa; Mohamed, Fabian

    2015-11-01

    The viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) is a rodent with photoperiod-dependent seasonal reproduction. The aim of this work was to study the morphological variations of the prostate during periods of maximal (summer, long photoperiod) and minimal (winter, short photoperiod) reproductive activity. Prostates of adult male viscachas were studied by light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry for androgen receptor, and morphometric analysis. The prostate consisted of two regions: peripheral and central. The peripheral zone exhibited large adenomeres with a small number of folds and lined with a pseudostratified epithelium. The central zone had small adenomeres with pseudostratified epithelium and the mucosa showed numerous folds. The morphology of both zones showed variations during periods of maximal and minimal reproductive activity. The prostate weight, prostate-somatic index, luminal diameter of adenomeres, epithelial height and major nuclear diameter decreased during the period of minimal reproductive activity. Principal cells showed variations in their shape, size and ultrastructural characteristics during the period of minimal reproductive activity in comparison with the active period. The androgen receptor expression in epithelial and fibromuscular stromal cells was different between the studied periods. Our results suggest a reduced secretory activity of viscacha prostate during the period of minimal reproductive activity. Thus, the morphological variations observed in both the central and peripheral zones of the viscacha prostate agree with the results previously obtained in the gonads of this rodent of photoperiod-dependent reproduction. Additionally, the variations observed in the androgen receptors suggest a direct effect of the circulating testosterone on the gland. Anat Rec, 298:1919-1931, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26290122

  7. Controllable Grain Morphology of Perovskite Absorber Film by Molecular Self-Assembly toward Efficient Solar Cell Exceeding 17%.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhe; Fan, Jiandong; Li, Jiangwei; Mai, Yaohua; Wang, Liduo

    2015-08-19

    The highly developed crystallization process with respect to perovskite thin films is favorable for efficient solar cells. Here, an innovative intermolecular self-assembly approach was employed to retard the crystallization of PbI2 in dimethylformamide (DMF) by additional solvent of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was proved to be capable of coordinating with PbI2 by coordinate covalent bond. The obtained PbI2(DMSO)x (0 ? x ? 1.86) complexes tend to be closely packed by means of intermolecular self-assembly. Afterward, an intramolecular exchange of DMSO with CH3NH3I (MAI) enabled the complexes to deform their shape and finally to reorganize to be an ultraflat and dense thin film of CH3NH3PbI3. The controllable grain morphology of perovskite thin film allows obtaining a power conversion efficiency (PCE) above 17% and a stabilized power output above 16% within 240 s by controlling DMSO species in the complex-precursor system (CPS). The present study gives a reproductive and facile strategy toward high quality of perovskite thin films and efficient solar cells. PMID:26247096

  8. Time resolved strain dependent morphological study of electrically conducting nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Mateus, Artur; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and reliable method is introduced to understand the network behaviour of nano-fillers in a polymeric matrix under uniaxial strain coupled with small angle x-ray scattering measurements. The nanoparticles (carbon nanotubes) are conductive and the particles form a percolating network that becomes apparent source of electrical conduction and consequently the samples behave as a bulk conductor. Polyurethane based nanocomposites containing 2% w/w multiwall carbon nanotubes are studied. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite was (3.28×10-5s/m).The sample was able to be extended to an extension ratio of 1.7 before fracture. A slight variation in the electrical conductivity is observed under uniaxial strain which we attribute to the disturbance of conductive pathways. Further, this work is coupled with in- situ time resolved small angle x-ray scattering measurements using a synchrotron beam line to enable its measurements to be made during the deformation cycle. We use a multiscale structure to model the small angle x-ray data. The results of the analysis are interpreted as the presence of aggregates which would also go some way towards understanding why there is no alignment of the carbon nanotubes.

  9. Glucose Stimulation Induces Dynamic Change of Mitochondrial Morphology to Promote Insulin Secretion in the Insulinoma Cell Line INS-1E

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, Bong Sook; Lee, Hakjoo; Jin, Zheng-Gen; Yoon, Yisang

    2013-01-01

    Fission and fusion of mitochondrial tubules are the major processes regulating mitochondrial morphology. However, the physiological significance of mitochondrial shape change is poorly understood. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic ?-cells requires mitochondrial ATP production which evokes Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane depolarization, triggering insulin vesicle exocytosis. Therefore, GSIS reflects mitochondrial function and can be used for evaluating functional changes associated with morphological alterations of mitochondria. Using the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1E, we found that glucose stimulation induced rapid mitochondrial shortening and recovery. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission through expression of the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A eliminated this dynamic mitochondrial shape change and, importantly, blocked GSIS. We found that abolishing mitochondrial morphology change in glucose stimulation increased the mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak, and thus significantly diminished the mitochondrial ATP producing capacity in response to glucose stimulation. These results demonstrate that dynamic change of mitochondrial morphology is a previously unrecognized component for metabolism-secretion coupling of pancreatic ?-cells by participating in efficient ATP production in response to elevated glucose levels. PMID:23565276

  10. Lithium D-cell study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Size, P.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this contract is to evaluate parametrically the effects of various factors including the electrolyte type, electrolyte concentration, depolarizer type, and cell configuration on lithium cell electrical performance and safety. This effort shall allow for the selection and optimization of cell design for future NASA applications while maintaining close ties with WGL's continuous improvements in manufacturing processes and lithium cell design. Taguchi experimental design techniques are employed in this task, and allow for a maximum amount of information to be obtained while requiring significantly less cells than if a full factorial design were employed. Acceptance testing for this task is modeled after the NASA Document EP5-83-025, Revision C, for cell weights, OCV's and load voltages. The performance attributes that are studied in this effort are fresh capacity and start-up characteristics evaluated at two rates and two temperatures, shelf-life characteristics including start-up and capacity retention, and iterative microcalorimetry measurements. Abuse testing includes forced over discharge at two rates with and without diode protection, temperature tolerance testing, and shorting tests at three rates with the measurement of heat generated during shorting conditions.

  11. Nuclear morphometric and morphological analysis of exfoliated buccal and tongue dorsum cells in type-1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Battal, Fatih; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ermis, Bahri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type 1 that results from immunologically mediated damage to the ?-cells in the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be associated with salivary gland dysfunction and alterations in the oral epithelial cells. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes in buccal and tongue dorsum epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method in type 1 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: We performed light microscopic analysis of the buccal and tongue dorsum smears in thirty type 1 diabetic patients and thirty healthy individuals. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou method for cytological examination and nuclear morphometric analysis. In each case, the mean nuclear area, perimeter, length, breadth, and roundness factor were evaluated in each smear using the image analysis software (Q Win, Leica™). Results: The nuclear area, length, breadth, and perimeters were significantly higher in the diabetic group from tongue dorsum smear than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In the cytological examination, karyorrhexis-karyolysis-karyopyknosis, binucleation, nuclear membrane irregularity, cytoplasmic polymorphism, perinuclear halo were observed in oral smears with type 1 diabetic patients. Binucleation (P = 0.002) and nuclear membrane irregularity (P = 0.024) were significantly more common in buccal smears of diabetic group. Furthermore, the sensitivity of buccal mucosa was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: The light microscopic and nuclear morphometric study indicates that type 1 diabetes can produce morphological and nuclear morphometric changes in the oral mucosa that are noticeable with exfoliative cytology. PMID:25538382

  12. Morphologic changes in rat urothelial cells during carcinogenesis. II. Image cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.T.; Vanderlaan, M.; Kromhout, L.; Jensen, R.; Grover, A.; King, E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved early detection of neoplasia by screening of urothelial cells requires an understanding of the features distinguishing normal and neoplastic cell populations. The authors have begun a program of study based upon a rate model system for the controlled observation of early-stage lesions produced by the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)- nitrosamine. Cells dissociated directly from normal and malignant urothelium were characterized by conventional cytopathology techniques and by quantitative microscopy (for nuclear texture and nuclear and cytoplasmic size, shape, and stain content) to derive a comprehensive picture of bladder tumor development. By following the changes that occur in the dissociated urothelial cells the authors have found that the nuclear area, total nuclear stain, nuclear shape, and the nuclear chromatin change significantly over a 48-wk interval as the lesions progress toward malignancy. 24 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  13. One isoform of Arg/Abl2 tyrosine kinase is nuclear and the other seven cytosolic isoforms differently modulate cell morphology, motility and the cytoskeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Cristina; Torsello, Barbara; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A.; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Silvia; Perego, Roberto A.

    2013-08-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson related gene (Arg/Abl2) regulates cell migration and morphogenesis by modulating the cytoskeleton. Arg promotes actin-based cell protrusions and spreading, and inhibits cell migration by attenuating stress fiber formation and contractility via activation of the RhoA inhibitor, p190RhoGAP, and by regulating focal adhesion dynamics also via CrkII phosphorylation. Eight full-length Arg isoforms with different N- and C-termini are endogenously expressed in human cells. In this paper, the eight Arg isoforms, subcloned in the pFLAG-CMV2 vector, were transfected in COS-7 cells in order to study their subcellular distribution and role in cell morphology, migration and cytoskeletal modulation. The transfected 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution and phosphorylates CrkII in the nucleus, whilst the other isoforms are detected in the cytoplasm. The 1BLCTL, 1BSCTL, 1ASCTS isoforms were able to significantly decrease stress fibers, induce cell shrinkage and filopodia-like protrusions with a significant increase in p190RhoGAP phosphorylation. In contrast, 1ALCTL, 1ALCTS, 1ASCTL and 1BLCTS isoforms do not significantly decrease stress fibers and induce the formation of retraction tail-like protrusions. The 1BLCTL and 1ALCTL isoforms have different effects on cell migration and focal adhesions. All these data may open new perspectives to study the mechanisms of cell invasiveness. -Highlights: • Each of the eight Arg isoforms was transfected in COS-7 cells. • Only the 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution in transfected cells. • The cytoplasmic isoforms and F-actin colocalize cortically and in cell protrusions. • Arg isoforms differently phosphorylate p190RhoGAP and CrkII. • Arg isoforms differently modulate stress fibers, cell protrusions and motility.

  14. A theoretical model of the endothelial cell morphology due to different waveforms.

    PubMed

    Sáez, P; Malvè, M; Martínez, M A

    2015-08-21

    Endothelial cells are key units in the regulatory biological process of blood vessels. They represent an interface to transmit variations on the fluid dynamic changes. They are able to adapt its cytoskeleton, by means of microtubules reorientation and F-actin reorganization, due to new mechanical environments. Moreover, they are responsible for initiating a huge cascade of biological processes, such as the release of endothelins (ET-1), in charge of the constriction of the vessel and growth factors such as TGF-? and PDGF. Although a huge efforts have been made in the experimental characterization and description of these two issues the computational modeling has not gained such an attention. In this work we study the 3D remodeling of endothelial cells based on the main features of blood flow. In particular we study how different oscillatory shear index and the time average wall shear stresses modify the endothelial cell shape. We found our model fitted the experimental works presented before in in vitro studies. We also include our model within a computational fluid dynamics simulation of a carotid artery to evaluate endothelial cell shape index which is a key predictor of atheroma plaque formation. Moreover, our approach can be coupled with models of collagen and smooth muscle cell growth, where remodeling and the associated release of chemical substance are involved. PMID:25956359

  15. Profound morphological and functional changes of rodent Purkinje cells between the first and the second postnatal weeks: a metamorphosis?

    PubMed Central

    Dusart, Isabelle; Flamant, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Between the first and the second postnatal week, the development of rodent Purkinje cells is characterized by several profound transitions. Purkinje cells acquire their typical dendritic “espalier” tree morphology and form distal spines. During the first postnatal week, they are multi-innervated by climbing fibers and numerous collateral branches sprout from their axons, whereas from the second postnatal week, the regression of climbing fiber multi-innervation begins, and Purkinje cells become innervated by parallel fibers and inhibitory molecular layer interneurons. Furthermore, their periods of developmental cell death and ability to regenerate their axon stop and their axons become myelinated. Thus a Purkinje cell during the first postnatal week looks and functions differently from a Purkinje cell during the second postnatal week. These fundamental changes occur in parallel with a peak of circulating thyroid hormone in the mouse. All these features suggest to some extent an interesting analogy with amphibian metamorphosis. PMID:22514522

  16. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    E-print Network

    Lee, SangYun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified including the mean refractive index, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  17. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward selective differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to neural like cells.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Hoda; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Wu, Chia-Yu; Kaviani, Saeid; Soleimani, Masoud; Abassi, Naghmeh; Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neuron cells has great potential in therapy of damaged nerve tissue. It has been shown that three-dimensional biomaterials have great ability to up regulate the expression of neuronal proteins. In this study, O2 plasma technology was used to enhance hydrophilicity of poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) toward selective differentiation of MSCs into neural cells. Random and aligned PCL nanofibers scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning method and their physicochemical and mechanical properties were carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle, and tensile measurements. Contact angle studies of PCL and plasma treated PCL (p-PCL) nanofibers revealed significant change on the surface properties PCL nanofibers from the view point of hydrophilicity. Physiochemical studies revealed that p-PCL nanofibers were extremely hydrophilic compared with untreated PCL nanofibers which were highly hydrophobic and nonabsorbent to water. Differentiation of MSCs were carried out by inducing growth factors including basic fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor, and brain derived growth factor, NT3, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 media. Differentiated MSCs on nanofibrous scaffold were examined by immunofluorescence assay and was found to express the neuronal proteins; ?-tubulin III and Map2, on day 15 after cell culture. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that p-PCL nanofibrous scaffold could upregulate expression of Map-2 and downregulate expression of Nestin genes in nerve cells differentiated from MSCs. This study indicates that mesenchymal stem cell cultured on nanofibrous scaffold have potential differentiation to neuronal cells on and could apply in nerve tissue repair. PMID:25203786

  18. Orientation and Morphology of Calcite Nucleated under Floating Monolayers: A Magnesium-ion-enhanced Nucleation Study

    SciTech Connect

    B Stripe; A Uysal; P Dutta

    2011-12-31

    We have studied the biomimetic growth of calcium carbonate crystals under floating monolayer templates, in the presence of Mg ions, using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and SEM imaging. Crystals grown under sulfate monolayers nucleate from the (0 0 1) plane with and without Mg ions, while undergoing substantial changes in morphology. Crystals grown under alcohol monolayers nucleate from the (1 0 4) plane in the presence of Mg. X-ray data do not detect orientation in crystals grown under acid monolayers, but at higher Mg concentrations the resulting morphologies are indicative of template-nucleated growth. These results suggest that Mg provides living organisms a way to enhance the orientation and control the morphology of acid-templated crystals.

  19. Morphology, structure and magnetic study of permalloy films electroplated on silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamrani, S.; Guittoum, A.; Schäfer, R.; Hemmous, M.; Neu, V.; Pofahl, S.; Hadjersi, T.; Benbrahim, N.

    2015-12-01

    We report the effect of deposition potential on the morphology, structure and magnetic properties of Ni80Fe20 (Permalloy: Py) deposits, elaborated by electrochemical process onto silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The morphology of SiNWs and Py/SiNWs were performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal the formation of SiNWs and clearly show a change in the morphology with the deposition potential. The analysis of X-ray diffraction spectra shows a change in the texture with the deposition potential. The grain size, the lattice parameter and the strain were studied as a function of the deposition potentials. From hysteresis loops, we have shown that the magnetization easy axis is the plane of the samples.

  20. Beach morphology monitoring in the Elwha River Littoral Cell, 2004-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathon A.; George, Douglas A.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Eshleman, Jodi; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Kaminsky, George M.; Schwartz, Andrew K.; Bierne, Matt

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Elwha River Littoral Cell, starting in 2004. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology collaborated in the data collection with the support of the local Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe. Beach monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data by using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). The monitoring program was designed to characterize the littoral system of the Elwha River before the scheduled removal of two large dams in 2012. A primary objective of this work is to quantitatively describe the topography and bathymetry of the Elwha River littoral system so that the effects of dam removal may be quantified. Sediment inputs following dam removal are hypothesized to result in (A) larger amounts of fine sediment grain-sizes entering the littoral system and, (B) a reduction or reversal of coastal erosion.

  1. Intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated Sertoli cells restores muscle morphology and performance in dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Chiappalupi, Sara; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Madaro, Luca; Fallarino, Francesca; Nicoletti, Carmine; Calvitti, Mario; Arato, Iva; Falabella, Giulia; Salvadori, Laura; Di Meo, Antonio; Bufalari, Antonello; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Calafiore, Riccardo; Donato, Rosario; Sorci, Guglielmo

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease characterized by progressive muscle degeneration leading to impaired locomotion, respiratory failure and premature death. In DMD patients, inflammatory events secondary to dystrophin mutation play a major role in the progression of the pathology. Sertoli cells (SeC) have been largely used to protect xenogeneic engraftments or induce trophic effects thanks to their ability to secrete trophic, antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory factors. Here we have purified SeC from specific pathogen-free (SPF)-certified neonatal pigs, and embedded them into clinical grade alginate microcapsules. We show that a single intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated SPF SeC (SeC-MC) in an experimental model of DMD can rescue muscle morphology and performance in the absence of pharmacologic immunosuppressive treatments. Once i.p. injected, SeC-MC act as a drug delivery system that modulates the inflammatory response in muscle tissue, and upregulates the expression of the dystrophin paralogue, utrophin in muscles through systemic release of heregulin-?1, thus promoting sarcolemma stability. Analyses performed five months after single injection show high biocompatibility and long-term efficacy of SeC-MC. Our results might open new avenues for the treatment of patients with DMD and related diseases. PMID:26523508

  2. LASER CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE STUDY OF DENTAL MORPHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Jernvall, Jukka

    LASER CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE STUDY OF DENTAL MORPHOLOGY be transferred to geographic information systems (GIS) as well as interpreted by surface rendering computer parameters using geographic information systems (GIS). We then present a laser confocal microscopy technique

  3. Computational study of boron nitride nanotube synthesis: How catalyst morphology stabilizes the boron nitride bond

    E-print Network

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Computational study of boron nitride nanotube synthesis: How catalyst morphology stabilizes the boron nitride bond S. Riikonen,1 A. S. Foster,1,2 A. V. Krasheninnikov,1,3 and R. M. Nieminen1,* 1 COMP methods for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes work much worse than for their carbon counterparts, we

  4. Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) larval midgut and salivary gland morphology: Light and electron microscopy studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology of Hessian fly larval (first instar) midgut and salivary gland tissue is described by light and transmission electron microscopy. These data serve as the basis for future research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of wheat resistance to Hessian fly. Future studies include (1) a co...

  5. The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis): A Reptilian Model for Laboratory Studies of Reproductive Morphology and Behavior

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis): A Reptilian Model for Laboratory Studies of Reproductive Morphology and Behavior Matthew B. Lovern, Melissa M. Holmes, and Juli Wade Abstract The green anole (Anolis naturally occurring variation in performance at multiple levels within a single animal model. Green anoles

  6. The Development of Past Tense Morphology in L2 Spanish. Studies in Bilingualism 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaberry, M. Rafael

    The general objective of this study is the investigation of some of the cognitive processes underlying adult second language acquisition through the analysis of the development of morphological markers of temporality in the acquisition of Spanish as a second language (L2) among native English speakers. It is argued that analysis of data on the…

  7. Unit 1201: A Historical Study of English Phonology, Morphology, and Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This unit for grade 12 is concerned with both the methods and purposes of the historical study of phonology, morphology, and syntax in the English language. The introduction to the unit illustrates language change in Old, Middle, and Modern English versions of "The Prodigal Son" and examines the causes of current language changes as preparation…

  8. Novel electron tomographic methods to study the morphology of keratin filament networks

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Volker

    1 Novel electron tomographic methods to study the morphology of keratin filament networks Running head: Tomography of keratin filament networks Michaela Sailer1 , Katharina Höhn1 , Sebastian Lück2.walther@uni-ulm.de Key words: Keratin (intermediate) filaments, SEM tomography, STEM tomography, pan- creas, keratin

  9. Studies of crack dynamics in clay soil I. Experimental methods, results, and morphological quantification

    E-print Network

    Hoffmann, Heiko

    Studies of crack dynamics in clay soil I. Experimental methods, results, and morphological geometric measures which provide a quantitative description of crack patterns at the soil surface including Minkowski functions. Additionally, we measured the distribution of angles within the crack network

  10. Morphological and immunohistochemical study of testicular capsule and peritubular tissue of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Ozegbe, P C; Aire, T A; Madekurozwa, M-C; Soley, J T

    2008-04-01

    The testicular capsule and peritubular boundary tissue of the emu and ostrich, as typical representatives of ratite birds, were studied in sexually mature and active birds. The testicular capsule was much thicker (578.1+/-73.4 microm for the free surface of the ostrich testis, and 176.2+/-57.5 microm for the emu) than those of members of the Galloanserae. The cellular composition of both testicular capsule and peritubular tissue was similar generally to that of members of the previously studied Galloanserae and of mammals. The tunica albuginea of the testicular capsule mainly comprised smooth-muscle-like or myoid cells mostly running in one direction and occurring in one main mass. Unlike the Galloanserae, the tunica albuginea contained more collagen fibres than smooth muscle cells, especially in the ostrich. Peritubular tissue was similarly composed of smooth-muscle-like cells distributed in several layers. Actin microfilaments and desmin and vimentin intermediate filaments were variably immunoexpressed in these two tissue types in both birds, with a clear dichotomy in the peritubular tissue. Thus, taken together with studies of some members of the Galloanserae, avian testes clearly contain a morphological mechanism that is represented partly by the smooth muscle cells of the testicular capsule and peritubular tissue for transporting the testicular fluid, which is usually copious in birds, and its cellular content from the testis into the excurrent duct system; this mechanism is similar to that found in mammals. PMID:18236082

  11. Frequent FOS Gene Rearrangements in Epithelioid Hemangioma: A Molecular Study of 58 Cases With Morphologic Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Krausz, Thomas; Dickson, Brendan C; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2015-10-01

    Epithelioid hemangioma (EH) is a unique benign vasoformative tumor composed of epithelioid endothelial cells. Although a small subset of EHs with atypical features harbor ZFP36-FOSB fusions, no additional genetic abnormalities have been found to date in the remaining cases. On the basis of a novel FOS-LMNA gene fusion identified by RNA sequencing in an index case of a skeletal EH with typical morphology, we sought to investigate the prevalence of FOS rearrangement in a large cohort of EHs. Thus 57 additional EH cases lacking FOSB rearrangements were studied for FOS gene abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and results were correlated with morphologic appearance and clinical presentation. The EHs were subclassified as typical (n=25), cellular (n=21), and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) (n=12) variants. The ALHE was defined as an EH with a vascular "blow-out" pattern associated with a variable degree of inflammation. There were 17 (29%) cases bearing FOS gene rearrangements among 58 cases tested, including 12 male and 5 female patients, with a mean age of 42 years. Most FOS-rearranged EHs occurred in the bone (10) and soft tissue (6), whereas only 1 case was cutaneous. The predominant anatomic site was the extremity (12), followed by trunk (3), head and neck (1), and penis (1). The incidence of FOS rearrangement was significantly higher in bone (59%, P=0.006) and lower in head and neck (5%, P=0.009). Twelve of the FOS-rearranged cases were cellular EH (P=0.001) associated with moderate mitotic activity (2 to 5/10 HPF) and milder inflammatory background. All 12 ALHE cases lacked FOS gene abnormalities, suggesting different pathogenesis. In conclusion, FOS rearrangement was present in a third of EHs across different locations and histologic variants; however, it was more prevalent in cellular EH and intraosseous lesions, compared with those in skin, soft tissue, and head and neck. This genetic abnormality can be useful in challenging cases, to distinguish cellular EHs from malignant epithelioid vascular tumors. These results also suggest that dysregulation of the FOS family of transcription factors through chromosomal translocation is as a key event in the tumorigenesis of EH except for the ALHE variant. PMID:26135557

  12. 3D simulation of morphological effect on reflectance of Si3N4 sub-wavelength structures for silicon solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the reflectance property of the cylinder, right circular cone, and square pyramid shapes of silicon nitride (Si3N4) subwavelength structure (SWS) with respect to different designing parameters. In terms of three critical factors, the reflectance for physical characteristics of wavelength dependence, the reflected power density for real power reflection applied on solar cell, and the normalized reflectance (reflected power density/incident power density) for real reflectance applied on solar cell, a full three-dimensional finite element simulation is performed and discussed for the aforementioned three morphologies. The result of this study shows that the pyramid shape of SWS possesses the best reflectance property in the optical region from 400 to 1000 nm which is useful for silicon solar cell applications. PMID:22444686

  13. Variations of morphology of activated sludge flocs studied at full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Klepacz-Smó?ka, Anna; Andrzejczak, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Digital image analysis has been intensively developed over the last two decades including its application to describe morphology of activated sludge flocs. However, only few studies concerned the variation of flocs morphology with respect to the operational conditions, particularly oxido-reductive conditions, in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In this work, morphology of activated sludge flocs was monitored over one year in two different full-scale WWTPs. The main aim of this study was to find the relationship between the operational parameters and morphology of sludge flocs. Simultaneously, the variations in floc size along activated sludge chamber were studied with respect to the oxido-reductive conditions. It was found that the sludge loading rate was one of the most important operational parameters influencing floc size. It was estimated that its values higher than 0.1?kg?BOD5?kg?TS(-1)?d(-1) contributed to the decrease in floc size. Also, the oxido-reductive conditions influenced the floc size. It was statistically proved that flocs from the anaerobic zone were usually smaller than flocs from the anoxic or aerobic zones. Distribution of floc size in a full-scale WWTP usually could be described by a log-normal model. PMID:25363823

  14. Immortalized Liver Endothelial Cells: A Cell Culture Model for Studies of Motility and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huebert, Robert C.; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Liebl, Ann F.; Huang, Bing Q.; Splinter, Patrick L.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Urrutia, Raul A.; Shah, Vijay H.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) are a unique subpopulation of fenestrated endothelial cells lining the hepatic sinusoids and comprising the majority of endothelial cells within the liver. HSEC cells play important roles in blood clearance, vascular tone, and immunity, but also undergo pathologic changes contributing to fibrosis, angiogenesis, and portal hypertension. There are few cell culture models for in vitro studies of motility and angiogenesis since primary cells are time-consuming to isolate, limited in number, and often lack features of pathologic vasculature. The aim of this study was to generate an immortalized cell line derived from HSEC that mimics pathologic vasculature and allows detailed molecular interventions to be pursued. HSEC were isolated from mouse liver using CD31-based immunomagnetic separation, immortalized with SV40 large T antigen, and sub-cloned based on their ability to endocytose acetylated low density lipoprotein (AcLDL). The resulting cell line, transformed sinusoidal endothelial cells (TSEC), maintains an endothelial phenotype as well as some HSEC-specific features. This is evidenced by typical microscopic features of endothelia, including formation of lamellipodia and filopodia and a cobblestone morphology of cell monolayers. Electron microscopy demonstrated maintenance of a limited number of fenestrae organized in sieve plates. TSEC express numerous endothelia-specific markers including CD31 and von Willebrand's factor as detected by PCR array, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence. Functionally, TSEC maintain a number of key endothelial features including migration in response to angiogenic factors, formation of vascular tubes, endocytosis of AcLDL, and remodelling of extracellular matrix. Their phenotype most closely resembles the pathologic neovasculature associated with chronic liver disease in which cells become proliferative, defenestrated, and angiogenic. Importantly, the cells can be transduced efficiently with viral vectors. TSEC should provide a reproducible cell culture model for high-throughput in vitro studies pertaining to a broad range of liver endothelial cell functions, but likely broader endothelial cell biology as well. PMID:20644520

  15. Morphological, molecular and functional differences of adult bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rats of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Mantovani, Cristina; Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea; Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea ; Raimondo, Stefania; Haneef, Maryam S.; Geuna, Stefano; Terenghi, Giorgio; Shawcross, Susan G.; Wiberg, Mikael; Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umea University, Umea

    2012-10-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials, and play important roles in regenerative medicine. However, their use may be limited by senescence or age of the donor, leading to changes in stem cell functionality. We investigated morphological, molecular and functional differences between bone marrow-derived (MSC) and adipose-derived (ASC) stem cells isolated from neonatal, young and old rats compared to Schwann cells from the same animals. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, proliferation assays, western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate expression of senescence markers. Undifferentiated and differentiated ASC and MSC from animals of different ages expressed Notch-2 at similar levels; protein-38 and protein-53 were present in all groups of cells with a trend towards increased levels in cells from older animals compared to those from neonatal and young rats. Following co-culture with adult neuronal cells, dMSC and dASC from animals of all ages elicited robust neurite outgrowth. Mitotracker{sup Registered-Sign} staining was consistent with ultrastructural changes seen in the mitochondria of cells from old rats, indicative of senescence. In conclusion, this study showed that although the cells from aged animals expressed markers of senescence, aged MSC and ASC differentiated into SC-like cells still retain potential to support axon regeneration. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aged MSC and ASC differentiated into Schwann-like cells support axon regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 expression does not appreciably influence the biology of Schwann or stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch 2 expression was similar in cells derived from animals of different ages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation rates of dMSC varied little over time or with animal age.

  16. Persistent Effectivity of Gas Plasma-Treated, Long Time-Stored Liquid on Epithelial Cell Adhesion Capacity and Membrane Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hoentsch, Maxi; Bussiahn, René; Rebl, Henrike; Bergemann, Claudia; Eggert, Martin; Frank, Marcus; von Woedtke, Thomas; Nebe, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Research in plasma medicine includes a major interest in understanding gas plasma-cell interactions. The immediate application of gas plasma in vitro inhibits cell attachment, vitality and cell-cell contacts via the liquid. Interestingly, in our novel experiments described here we found that the liquid-mediated plasma effect is long-lasting after storage up to seven days; i. e. the liquid preserves the characteristics once induced by the argon plasma. Therefore, the complete Dulbecco's Modified Eagle cell culture medium was argon plasma-treated (atmospheric pressure, kINPen09) for 60 s, stored for several days (1, 4 and 7 d) at 37°C and added to a confluent mouse hepatocyte epithelial cell (mHepR1) monolayer. Impaired tight junction architecture as well as shortened microvilli on the cell membrane could be observed, which was accompanied by the loss of cell adhesion capacity. Online-monitoring of vital cells revealed a reduced cell respiration. Our first time-dependent analysis of plasma-treated medium revealed that temperature, hydrogen peroxide production, pH and oxygen content can be excluded as initiators of cell physiological and morphological changes. The here observed persisting biological effects in plasma-treated liquids could open new medical applications in dentistry and orthopaedics. PMID:25170906

  17. Persistent effectivity of gas plasma-treated, long time-stored liquid on epithelial cell adhesion capacity and membrane morphology.

    PubMed

    Hoentsch, Maxi; Bussiahn, René; Rebl, Henrike; Bergemann, Claudia; Eggert, Martin; Frank, Marcus; von Woedtke, Thomas; Nebe, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Research in plasma medicine includes a major interest in understanding gas plasma-cell interactions. The immediate application of gas plasma in vitro inhibits cell attachment, vitality and cell-cell contacts via the liquid. Interestingly, in our novel experiments described here we found that the liquid-mediated plasma effect is long-lasting after storage up to seven days; i. e. the liquid preserves the characteristics once induced by the argon plasma. Therefore, the complete Dulbecco's Modified Eagle cell culture medium was argon plasma-treated (atmospheric pressure, kINPen09) for 60 s, stored for several days (1, 4 and 7 d) at 37°C and added to a confluent mouse hepatocyte epithelial cell (mHepR1) monolayer. Impaired tight junction architecture as well as shortened microvilli on the cell membrane could be observed, which was accompanied by the loss of cell adhesion capacity. Online-monitoring of vital cells revealed a reduced cell respiration. Our first time-dependent analysis of plasma-treated medium revealed that temperature, hydrogen peroxide production, pH and oxygen content can be excluded as initiators of cell physiological and morphological changes. The here observed persisting biological effects in plasma-treated liquids could open new medical applications in dentistry and orthopaedics. PMID:25170906

  18. Preparation of three-layered porous PLA/PEG scaffold: relationship between morphology, mechanical behavior and cell permeability.

    PubMed

    Scaffaro, R; Lopresti, F; Botta, L; Rigogliuso, S; Ghersi, G

    2016-02-01

    Interface tissue engineering (ITE) is used to repair or regenerate interface living tissue such as for instance bone and cartilage. This kind of tissues present natural different properties from a biological and mechanical point of view. With the aim to imitating the natural gradient occurring in the bone-cartilage tissue, several technologies and methods have been proposed over recent years in order to develop polymeric functionally graded scaffolds (FGS). In this study three-layered scaffolds with a pore size gradient were developed by melt mixing polylactic acid (PLA) and two water-soluble porogen agents: sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Pore dimensions were controlled by NaCl granulometry while PEG solvation created a micropores network within the devices. Scaffolds were characterized from a morphological and mechanical point of view in order to find a correlation between the preparation method, the pore architecture and compressive mechanical behavior. Biological tests were also performed in order to study the effect of pore size gradient on the permeation of different cell lines in co-culture. To imitate the physiological work condition, compressive tests were also performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37°C. The presented preparation method permitted to prepare three-layered scaffolds with high control of porosity and pore size distribution. Furthermore mechanical behaviors were found to be strongly affected by pore architecture of tested devices as well as the permeation of osteoblast and fibroblast in-vitro. PMID:26410761

  19. Effects of Nano-CeO2 with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Ai, Wenchao; Zhai, Yanwu; Li, Haishan; Zhou, Kebin; Chen, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) have been reported to cause damage and apoptosis in human primary hepatocytes. Here, we compared the toxicity of three types of nano-CeO2 with different nanocrystal morphologies (cube-, octahedron-, and rod-like crystals) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The cells were treated with the nano-CeO2 at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 ?g/mL). The crystal structure, size and morphology of nano-CeO2 were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was detected using the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller method. The cellular morphological and internal structure were observed by microscopy; apoptotic alterations were measured using flow cytometry; nuclear DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in HepG2 cells were measured using high content screening technology. The scavenging ability of hydroxyl free radicals and the redox properties of the nano-CeO2 were measured by square-wave voltammetry and temperature-programmed-reduction methods. All three types of nano-CeO2 entered the HepG2 cells, localized in the lysosome and cytoplasm, altered cellular shape, and caused cytotoxicity. The nano-CeO2 with smaller specific surface areas induced more apoptosis, caused an increase in MMP, ROS and GSH, and lowered the cell’s ability to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidants. In this work, our data demonstrated that compared with cube-like and octahedron-like nano-CeO2, the rod-like nano-CeO2 has lowest toxicity to HepG2 cells owing to its larger specific surface areas. PMID:26404340

  20. Investigation of dynamic morphological changes of cancer cells during photoimmuno therapy (PIT) by low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Iwai, Hidenao; Magata, Yasuhiro; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2014-03-01

    We have reported a new molecular-targeted cancer phototherapy, photoimmunotherapy (PIT), which killed implanted tumors in mice without side-effects. To understand the mechanism of cell killing with PIT, three-dimentional dynamic low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (3D LC-QPM), a device developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K, was used to detect morphologic changes in cancer cells during PIT. 3T3/HER2 cells were incubated with anti-HER2 trastuzumab-IR700 (10 ?g/mL, 0.1 ?M as IR700) for 24 hours, then, three-dimensionally imaged with the LC-QPM during the exposure of two different optically filtered lights for excitation of IR700 (500-780 nm) and imaging (780-950 nm). For comparison with traditional PDT, the same experiments were performed with Photofrin (10 and 1 ?M). Serial changes in the cell membrane were readily visualized on 3D LC-QPM. 3T3/HER2 cells began to swell rapidly after exposure to 500-780 nm light excitation. The cell volume reached a maximum within 1 min after continuous exposure, and then the cells appeared to burst. This finding suggests that PIT damages the cell membrane by photo-reaction inducing an influx of water into the cell causing swelling and bursting of the cells. Interestingly, even after only 5 seconds of light exposure, the cells demonstrated swelling and bursting albeit more slowly, implying that sufficient cumulative damage occurs on the cell membrane to induce lethal damage to cells even at minimal light exposure. Similar but non-selective membrane damage was shown in PDT-treated cells Photofrin. Thus, PIT induces sufficient damage to the cell membrane within 5 seconds to induce rapid necrotic cell death which can be observed directly with 3D LC-QPM. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the biochemical mechanisms underlying PIT-induced cellular membrane damage.

  1. Lysobacter enzymogenes uses two distinct cell-cell signaling systems for differential regulation of secondary-metabolite biosynthesis and colony morphology.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guoliang; Wang, Yulan; Liu, Yiru; Xu, Feifei; He, Ya-Wen; Du, Liangcheng; Venturi, Vittorio; Fan, Jiaqin; Hu, Baishi; Liu, Fengquan

    2013-11-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium that is emerging as a potentially novel biological control agent and a new source of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as the heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and photoprotective polyene pigments. Thus far, the regulatory mechanism(s) for biosynthesis of these bioactive secondary metabolites remains largely unknown in L. enzymogenes. In the present study, the diffusible signal factor (DSF) and diffusible factor (DF)-mediated cell-cell signaling systems were identified for the first time from L. enzymogenes. The results show that both Rpf/DSF and DF signaling systems played critical roles in modulating HSAF biosynthesis in L. enzymogenes. Rpf/DSF signaling and DF signaling played negative and positive effects in polyene pigment production, respectively, with DF playing a more important role in regulating this phenotype. Interestingly, only Rpf/DSF, but not the DF signaling system, regulated colony morphology of L. enzymgenes. Both Rpf/DSF and DF signaling systems were involved in the modulation of expression of genes with diverse functions in L. enzymogenes, and their own regulons exhibited only a few loci that were regulated by both systems. These findings unveil for the first time new roles of the Rpf/DSF and DF signaling systems in secondary metabolite biosynthesis of L. enzymogenes. PMID:23974132

  2. Lysobacter enzymogenes Uses Two Distinct Cell-Cell Signaling Systems for Differential Regulation of Secondary-Metabolite Biosynthesis and Colony Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Guoliang; Wang, Yulan; Liu, Yiru; Xu, Feifei; He, Ya-Wen; Du, Liangcheng; Venturi, Vittorio; Fan, Jiaqin; Hu, Baishi

    2013-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium that is emerging as a potentially novel biological control agent and a new source of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as the heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and photoprotective polyene pigments. Thus far, the regulatory mechanism(s) for biosynthesis of these bioactive secondary metabolites remains largely unknown in L. enzymogenes. In the present study, the diffusible signal factor (DSF) and diffusible factor (DF)-mediated cell-cell signaling systems were identified for the first time from L. enzymogenes. The results show that both Rpf/DSF and DF signaling systems played critical roles in modulating HSAF biosynthesis in L. enzymogenes. Rpf/DSF signaling and DF signaling played negative and positive effects in polyene pigment production, respectively, with DF playing a more important role in regulating this phenotype. Interestingly, only Rpf/DSF, but not the DF signaling system, regulated colony morphology of L. enzymgenes. Both Rpf/DSF and DF signaling systems were involved in the modulation of expression of genes with diverse functions in L. enzymogenes, and their own regulons exhibited only a few loci that were regulated by both systems. These findings unveil for the first time new roles of the Rpf/DSF and DF signaling systems in secondary metabolite biosynthesis of L. enzymogenes. PMID:23974132

  3. MitoLoc: A method for the simultaneous quantification mitochondrial network morphology and membrane potential in single cells

    E-print Network

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Hartl, Johannes; Butler, Richard; Ralser, Markus

    2015-07-13

    of mitochondrial membrane potential in parallel to detect morphological changes in mitochondrial networks. AC CE PT ED M AN US CR IP T ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 2 Introduction Mitochondria are central metabolic organelles for eukaryotic cells... ). This central role requires mitochondria to constantly adapt to changes in cellular physiology. The presence of a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) constituted by the electron transport chain is the main determinant of organelle functionality (Dimroth et...

  4. Novel ceria-zirconia-yttria mesostructures: Synthesis, characterization, diffusional studies & the effects of morphology on their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova Morales, Alma Iris

    Ceria-zirconia-yttria (CZY) mixed oxides are used as catalyst supports for three-way catalysts for automotive exhaust emission control and in solid oxide fuel cells. By improving the morphology of CZY mesopores it is possible to reduce the sintering of supported noble metals and enhance overall catalyst lifetime and performance. However, limited studies have been published on the synthetic control of the morphology of CZY materials and the effects that CZY pore geometry has on catalyst operation. To create optimized CZY catalyst supports, novel mesoporous CZY oxides were synthesized via classical sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) methods, obtaining mesostructures that exhibited excellent physical and diffusional properties. This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of the factors and mechanisms that promote the creation of ordered mesoporous CZY structures via classical sol-gel and EISA approaches. Classical sol-gel methods are reaction-limited syntheses in which, for the case of CZY materials, the formation of polyoxides occurs rapidly as a result of the availability of water and hydrolyzing agents in the initial solution, yielding disordered oxide mesostructures. Alternatively, EISA is a diffusion-limited process, where the rate of oxide forming reactions is limited by the slow diffusion of water into the initial ethanolic-metal salts solution. The slow loss of ethanol by evaporation enables the condensation-polymerization of metal oxy-hydroxide species to coincide with the ordering of these oligomers around the self-organized polymer template. Thus, for the templated synthesis of mesoporous CZY materials, it is the rate of metal oxide condensation that determines the nature of the resulting oxide structure. The choice of templating technique used during CZY synthesis heavily influenced post-calcination morphologies and pore sizes, but to-date no relationships between pore morphology and catalyst performance for CZY materials was presented. For this reason, the diffusion of n-hexane in mesoporous CZY supports synthesized using a variety of templates and synthesis techniques was studied by the Zero Length Column (ZLC) method obtaining each material diffusion coefficients. Data from the ZLC method proved to be valuable in developing an understanding of the effects of pore morphology on intraparticle diffusion phenomena. The CZY oxides diffusivity values provide means of comparison of diffusional aspects that can significantly impact catalyst performance during the treatment of exhaust gases formed by combustion engines. A higher diffusivity value is expected to bring catalytic advantages for the oxide support.

  5. Morphology and water permeability of red blood cells from green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Romeo, Tony; Cox, Guy C; Kuchel, Philip W

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and diffusional water permeability (P d) of red blood cells (RBCs) from green sea turtle (GST) (Chelonia mydas) are presented for the first time. The RBCs had an ellipsoidal shape with full-axis lengths (diameters): D?=?14.4 ?m; d?=?10.2 ?m; h?=?2.8 ?m. The values of P d (cm s(-1)) were 5.1?×?10(-3) at 15 °C, 5.7?×?10(-3) at 20 °C, 6.3?×?10(-3) at 25 °C, 6.8?×?10(-3) at 30 °C, and 7.9?×?10(-3) at 37 °C (i.e., significantly higher than in human RBCs in which it was measured to be 4.2?×?10(-3) at 25 °C, 5.0?×?10(-3) at 30 °C, and 6.2?×?10(-3) at 37 °C). There was a lack of inhibition of P d of GST RBCs by p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), a well-known inhibitor of the RBC water channel proteins (WCPs). The activation energy of water diffusion (E a,d) in GST RBCs was 15.0?±?1.6 kJ mol(-1) which is lower than the E a,d for human RBCs (~25 kJ mol(-1)). These results indicate that in the membrane of GST RBCs, there were no WCPs that were inhibited by the mercurial reagent, while the lipid bilayer of this membrane is unusually permeable to water. This is likely to be a phylogenetically old trait, like that found in amphibians and even the later birds, all of which have nucleated erythrocytes; and it is also likely to be a result of the animal's adaptation to a herbivorous diet (algae and seagrasses). PMID:25534259

  6. From 2D slices to 3D volumes: image based reconstruction and morphological characterization of hippocampal cells on charged and uncharged surfaces using FIB/SEM serial sectioning.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Franziska; Kühbacher, Markus; Gross, Ulrich; Kyriakopoulos, Antonius; Schubert, Helmut; Zehbe, Rolf

    2011-03-01

    3D imaging at a subcellular resolution is a powerful tool in the life sciences to investigate cells and their interactions with native tissues or artificial objects. While a tomographic experimental setup achieving a sufficient structural resolution can be established with either X-rays or electrons, the use of electrons is usually limited to very thin samples in transmission electron microscopy due to the poor penetration depths of electrons. The combination of a serial sectioning approach and scanning electron microscopy in state of the art dual beam experimental setups therefore offers a means to image highly resolved spatial details using a focused ion beam for slicing and an electron beam for imaging. The advantage of this technique over X-ray ?CT or X-ray microscopy attributes to the fact that absorption is not a limiting factor in imaging and therefore even strong absorbing structures can be spatially reconstructed with a much higher possible resolution. This approach was used in this study to elucidate the effect of an electric potential on the morphology of cells from a hippocampal cell line (HT22) deposited on gold microelectrodes. While cells cultivated on two different controls (gold and polymer substrates) did show the expected stretched morphology, cells on both the anode and the cathode differed significantly. Cells deposited on the anode part of the electrode exhibited the most extreme deviation, being almost spherical and showed signs of chromatin condensation possibly indicating cell death. Furthermore, EDX was used as supplemental methodology for combined chemical and structural analyses. PMID:21353151

  7. Effects of Nano-CeO? with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Ai, Wenchao; Zhai, Yanwu; Li, Haishan; Zhou, Kebin; Chen, Huiming

    2015-09-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO?) have been reported to cause damage and apoptosis in human primary hepatocytes. Here, we compared the toxicity of three types of nano-CeO? with different nanocrystal morphologies (cube-, octahedron-, and rod-like crystals) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The cells were treated with the nano-CeO? at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 ?g/mL). The crystal structure, size and morphology of nano-CeO? were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was detected using the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller method. The cellular morphological and internal structure were observed by microscopy; apoptotic alterations were measured using flow cytometry; nuclear DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in HepG2 cells were measured using high content screening technology. The scavenging ability of hydroxyl free radicals and the redox properties of the nano-CeO? were measured by square-wave voltammetry and temperature-programmed-reduction methods. All three types of nano-CeO? entered the HepG2 cells, localized in the lysosome and cytoplasm, altered cellular shape, and caused cytotoxicity. The nano-CeO? with smaller specific surface areas induced more apoptosis, caused an increase in MMP, ROS and GSH, and lowered the cell's ability to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidants. In this work, our data demonstrated that compared with cube-like and octahedron-like nano-CeO?, the rod-like nano-CeO? has lowest toxicity to HepG2 cells owing to its larger specific surface areas. PMID:26404340

  8. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  9. Adsorption and morphology transition of surfactants on hydrophobic surfaces: a lattice Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fengxian; Zhang, Xianren; Wang, Wenchuan; Dong, Wei

    2006-12-19

    In this work, we first show that there are only five independent interchange parameters in the surfactant-solvent-interface system in Larson's model, and then adsorption and morphology transition of surfactants on hydrophobic surfaces are studied by extensive lattice Monte Carlo simulations. In our simulations, we found that there exist six adsorbed morphologies: (1) premature admicelle, (2) hemisphere, (3) hemisphere-hemicylinder mixture, (4) wormlike hemicylinder, (5) perforated monolayer, and (6) monolayer. The surface morphologies and the amount of adsorption on hydrophobic surfaces are found to be affected obviously by two interchange parameters. One is the attractive interaction between tail groups and surface (chiTS), and the other is the solubility of head groups in bulk (chiHW). Phase diagrams in chiHW versus chiTS planes for surfactants with different hydrophobicities (chiTW) and for surfactants with different molecular structures are determined in this work, from which the transitions of surface morphologies and adsorption behaviors are discussed. PMID:17154606

  10. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Joginder; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P.

    2015-08-01

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential -1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (?) and strain (?) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In3+ and Sb3+ ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  11. ADAM-17 regulates endothelial cell morphology, proliferation, and in vitro angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goeoz, Pal Goeoz, Monika; Baldys, Aleksander; Hoffman, Stanley

    2009-02-27

    Modulation of angiogenesis is a promising approach for treating a wide variety of human diseases including ischemic heart disease and cancer. In this study, we show that ADAM-17 is an important regulator of several key steps during angiogenesis. Knocking down ADAM-17 expression using lentivirus-delivered siRNA in HUVECs inhibited cell proliferation and the ability of cells to form close contact in two-dimensional cultures. Similarly, ADAM-17 depletion inhibited the ability of HUVECs to form capillary-like networks on top of three-dimensional Matrigel as well as in co-culture with fibroblasts within a three-dimensional scaffold. In mechanistic studies, both baseline and VEGF-induced MMP-2 activation and Matrigel invasion were inhibited by ADAM-17 depletion. Based on our findings we propose that ADAM-17 is part of a novel pro-angiogenic pathway leading to MMP-2 activation and vessel formation.

  12. [Effect of fluid shear stress on the cellular morphology and tight junction of laryngeal squamous carcinoma Hep2 cells].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fating; Yin, Hongmei; Liu, Shuangfeng; Shen, Yang; Hong, Jinyong; Xia, Qing; Liu, Xiaocheng

    2015-02-01

    This paper is aimed to investigate the effect of fluid shear stress on the tight junction of laryngeal squamous carcinoma (Hep2) cells and to explore the potential molecular mechanism. Hep2 cells were selected and subjected to the fluid shear stress of 1.4 dyn/cm2 for different time, respectively. The morphological changes of Hep2 cells under shear stress were observed using inverted microscope. The cell-cell junctions were examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The expressions of tight junction proteins (including Occludin, Claudin-5 and ZO-1) and the distribution of Claudin-5 were examined by Western blot assay and laser scanning confocal microscope, respectively. The results indicated that Hep2 cells turned to spindle-like shapes after exposed to shear stress, and showed the trend of the recovering to original shapes when the shear stress was cancelled. The cell-cell junctions were tight under the shear flow condition, and the permeability was reduced under the condition of 1.4 dyn/cm shear flow. The expressions of tight junction proteins were enhanced with increased duration of shear flow, but reduced after removing shear flow. The result of Claudin-5 expression by immufluorescence assay was consistent with that by Western blot. The Claudin-5 mainly distributed in the cytoplasm under static condition, while it located at the intercellular after shear flow stimulation, and it appeared intercellular and cytoplasm after stopping shear flow stimulation. Therefore, it can be concluded that shear stress changes the morphology of laryngeal squamous carcinoma Hep2 cells, and upregulates the tight junction. PMID:25997275

  13. The distribution and morphological characteristics of catecholaminergic cells in the brain of monotremes as revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manger, P R; Fahringer, H M; Pettigrew, J D; Siegel, J M

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes the distribution and cellular morphology of catecholaminergic neurons in the CNS of two species of monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry was used to visualize these neurons. The standard A1-A17, C1-C3 nomenclature was used for expediency, but the neuroanatomical names of the various nuclei have also been given. Monotremes exhibit catecholaminergic neurons in the diencephalon (A11, A12, A13, A14, A15), midbrain (A8, A9, A10), rostral rhombencephalon (A5, A6, A7), and medulla (A1, A2, C1, C2). The subdivisions of these neurons are in general agreement with those of other mammals, and indeed other amniotes. Apart from minor differences, those being a lack of A4, A3, and C3 groups, the catecholaminergic system of monotremes is very similar to that of other mammals. Catecholaminergic neurons outside these nuclei, such as those reported for other mammals, were not numerous with occasional cells observed in the striatum. It seems unlikely that differences in the sleep phenomenology of monotremes, as compared to other mammals, can be explained by these differences. The similarity of this system across mammalian and amniote species underlines the evolutionary conservatism of the catecholaminergic system. PMID:12476055

  14. Cryptococcal Phospholipase B1 Is Required for Intracellular Proliferation and Control of Titan Cell Morphology during Macrophage Infection

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert J.; Li, Zhongming; Hughes, William S.; Djordjevic, Julianne T.; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a leading cause of fungal-infection-related fatalities, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Several virulence factors are known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cryptococcal infections, including the enzyme phospholipase B1 (Plb1). Compared to other well-studied Cryptococcus neoformans virulence factors such as the polysaccharide capsule and melanin production, very little is known about the contribution of Plb1 to cryptococcal virulence. Phospholipase B1 is a phospholipid-modifying enzyme that has been implicated in multiple stages of cryptococcal pathogenesis, including initiation and persistence of pulmonary infection and dissemination to the central nervous system, but the underlying reason for these phenotypes remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that a ?plb1 knockout strain of C. neoformans has a profound defect in intracellular growth within host macrophages. This defect is due to a combination of a 50% decrease in proliferation and a 2-fold increase in cryptococcal killing within the phagosome. In addition, we show for the first time that the ?plb1 strain undergoes a morphological change during in vitro and in vivo intracellular infection, resulting in a subpopulation of very large titan cells, which may arise as a result of the attenuated mutant's inability to cope within the macrophage. PMID:25605772

  15. Cryptococcal phospholipase B1 is required for intracellular proliferation and control of titan cell morphology during macrophage infection.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert J; Li, Zhongming; Hughes, William S; Djordjevic, Julianne T; Nielsen, Kirsten; May, Robin C

    2015-04-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a leading cause of fungal-infection-related fatalities, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Several virulence factors are known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cryptococcal infections, including the enzyme phospholipase B1 (Plb1). Compared to other well-studied Cryptococcus neoformans virulence factors such as the polysaccharide capsule and melanin production, very little is known about the contribution of Plb1 to cryptococcal virulence. Phospholipase B1 is a phospholipid-modifying enzyme that has been implicated in multiple stages of cryptococcal pathogenesis, including initiation and persistence of pulmonary infection and dissemination to the central nervous system, but the underlying reason for these phenotypes remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that a ?plb1 knockout strain of C. neoformans has a profound defect in intracellular growth within host macrophages. This defect is due to a combination of a 50% decrease in proliferation and a 2-fold increase in cryptococcal killing within the phagosome. In addition, we show for the first time that the ?plb1 strain undergoes a morphological change during in vitro and in vivo intracellular infection, resulting in a subpopulation of very large titan cells, which may arise as a result of the attenuated mutant's inability to cope within the macrophage. PMID:25605772

  16. Influence of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole on cell viability, membrane integrity, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila cultivated in a vegetable-based broth.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of carvacrol (CAR) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) alone (at the MIC) or in combination at subinhibitory amounts (both at 1/8 MIC) on the cell viability, membrane permeability, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila INCQS 7966 (A. hydrophila) cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. CAR and CIN alone or in combination severely affected the viability of the bacteria and caused dramatic changes in the cell membrane permeability, leading to cell death, as observed by confocal laser microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images of bacterial cells exposed to CAR or CIN or the mixture of both compounds revealed severe changes in cell wall structure, rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinking of cells, condensation of cytoplasmic content, leakage of intracellular material, and cell collapse. These findings suggest that CAR and CIN alone or in combination at subinhibitory amounts could be applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in foods, particularly as sanitizing agents in vegetables. PMID:25710162

  17. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Solarska-?ciuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Gli?ska, S?awa; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Lucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Kv?toslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-28

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100?g/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24?g/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells. PMID:25451571

  18. Neuron, Vol. 43, 809822, September 16, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press Development of Morphological Diversity

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    of Morphological Diversity of Dendrites in Drosophila by the BTB-Zinc Finger Protein Abrupt spikes, and coincidence birth till maturation, and such analyses that Abrupt (Ab), a BTB-zinc finger protein, is ex- have

  19. Performance Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on TiO2 Thick Mesoporous Photoanodes by Morphological Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Reza; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2015-10-27

    This study is an attempt to give an account of the preparation of mesoporous TiO2 thick templated films of nonsimilar pore architecture and their use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Highly crystallized mesoporous titania thick templated films with four different morphologies including hexagonal, wormlike, cubic, and gridlike mesostructure, have been successfully synthesized through an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) route followed by layer-by-layer deposition. Stabilization, followed by each coating, and calcinations, carried out after every five layers, were used to produce crack-free thick films. These mesoporous templated titanium dioxide samples were characterized by TEM, XRD, SEM, BET, and UV-vis measurements and used as a photoelectrode material in DSSCs. The mesostructured films with a thickness of about 7 ?m demonstrated better performance in comparison to nanocrystalline TiO2 films (NC-TiO2) at a film thickness of 13 ?m as the most typical films utilized in DSSCs. The findings reveal that a surfactant/Ti ratio change undergone for developing cubic mesostructures can enhance the crystallinity and roughness factor and therefore increase the energy conversion efficiency of DSSC. The cell performances derived from these mesofilms were enhanced compared to the efficiencies reported thus far. The best photovoltaic performance of 8.73% came from DSSC using the cubic mesoporous TiO2 photoelectrode with the following properties: open circuit voltage of 743 mV, short circuit photocurrent density of 16.35 mA/cm(2), and fill factor of 0.72. PMID:26421504

  20. CRB3A Controls the Morphology and Cohesion of Cancer Cells through Ehm2/p114RhoGEF-Dependent Signaling.

    PubMed

    Loie, Elise; Charrier, Lucie E; Sollier, Kévin; Masson, Jean-Yves; Laprise, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The transmembrane protein CRB3A controls epithelial cell polarization. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of CRB3A function is essential as this protein prevents the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which contributes to tumor progression. To investigate the functional impact of altered CRB3A expression in cancer cells, we expressed CRB3A in HeLa cells, which are devoid of endogenous CRB3A. While control HeLa cells display a patchy F-actin distribution, CRB3A-expressing cells form a circumferential actomyosin belt. This reorganization of the cytoskeleton is accompanied by a transition from an ameboid cell shape to an epithelial-cell-like morphology. In addition, CRB3A increases the cohesion of HeLa cells. To perform these functions, CRB3A recruits p114RhoGEF and its activator Ehm2 to the cell periphery using both functional motifs of its cytoplasmic tail and increases RhoA activation levels. ROCK1 and ROCK2 (ROCK1/2), which are critical effectors of RhoA, are also essential to modulate the cytoskeleton and cell shape downstream of CRB3A. Overall, our study highlights novel roles for CRB3A and deciphers the signaling pathway conferring to CRB3A the ability to fulfill these functions. Thereby, our data will facilitate further investigation of CRB3A functions and increase our understanding of the cellular defects associated with the loss of CRB3A expression in cancer cells. PMID:26217016

  1. Isolation, primary culture, morphological and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in gynecological cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kolostova, Katarina; Spicka, Jan; Matkowski, Rafal; Bobek, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the study was to implement a new workflow for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) characterization that would allow the analysis of CTCs on a cytomorphological and molecular level in patients with diagnosed gynecological cancer. Our findings may be useful in future cancer patient management. The study introduces a size-based enrichment (MetaCell®) method for the separation of viable CTCs, followed by CTCs culturing in vitro and gene expression characterization. It is based on the observation of CTCs and DTCs (Disseminated Tumor Cells) in several case studies of ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer by means of cytomorphology and gene expression profiling. The viability of the enriched CTCs was estimated using vital and lethal fluorescence nuclear staining. This type of staining may be predictive for the success rate of subsequent CTC growth in vitro. To identify CTCs in the enriched CTC fraction, cytomorphological evaluations based on vital fluorescence staining were followed by gene expression analysis of tumor-associated (TA) genes. Cytokeratin expression (KRT7, KRT19) was analyzed in combination with MUC1, MUC16, CD24, CD44 and ALDH1. Gene expression analysis has shown that short-term in vitro culture enhanced the differentiation process of the captured CTCs growing on a membrane. On the other hand, redundant white blood cells captured on the membrane were eliminated during a short-term culture. The most frequently elevated genes in ovarian cancer (serous type) are EPCAM, KRT19 and MUC1. It has been demonstrated that CTC presence revealed by cytomorphological evaluation may be usefully complemented by TA-gene expression analysis, to increase the sensitivity of the analysis. PMID:26328005

  2. Modeling morphology evolution during solvent-based fabrication of organic solar cells

    E-print Network

    Olga Wodo; Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

    2012-02-29

    Solvent-based techniques usually involve preparing dilute blends of electron-donor and electron-acceptor materials dissolved in a volatile solvent. After some form of coating onto a substrate, the solvent evaporates. An initially homogeneous mixture separates into electron-acceptor rich and electron-donor rich regions as the solvent evaporates. Depending on the specifics of the blend and processing conditions different morphologies are typically formed. Experimental evidence consistently confirms that the morphology critically affects device performance. A computational framework that can predict morphology evolution can significantly augment experimental analysis. Such a framework will also allow high throughput analysis of the large phase space of processing parameters, thus yielding insight into the process-structure-property relationships. In this paper, we formulate a computational framework to predict evolution of morphology during solvent-based fabrication of organic thin films. This is accomplished by developing a phase field-based model of evaporation-induced and substrate-induced phase-separation in ternary systems. This formulation allows all the important physical phenomena affecting morphology evolution during fabrication to be naturally incorporated. We discuss the various numerical and computational challenges associated with a three dimensional, finite-element based, massively parallel implementation of this framework. This formulation allows, for the first time, to model 3D morphology evolution over large time spans on device scale domains. We illustrate this framework by investigating and quantifying the effect of various process and system variables on morphology evolution. We explore ways to control the morphology evolution by investigating different evaporation rates, blend ratios and interaction parameters between components.

  3. Automated quantitative analysis of 3D morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in human red blood cells stored in different periods.

    PubMed

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu; Lee, Yeon H; Javidi, Bahram; Boss, Daniel; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-12-16

    Quantitative phase (QP) images of red blood cells (RBCs), which are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy, can provide quantitative information about three-dimensional (3D) morphology of human RBCs and the characteristic properties such as mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH surface density (MCHSD). In this paper, we investigate modifications of the 3D morphology and MCH in RBCs induced by the period of storage time for the purpose of classification of RBCs with different periods of storage by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy. The classification of RBCs based on the duration of storage is highly relevant because a long storage of blood before transfusion may alter the functionality of RBCs and, therefore, cause complications in patients. To analyze any changes in the 3D morphology and MCH of RBCs due to storage, we use data sets from RBC samples stored for 8, 13, 16, 23, 27, 30, 34, 37, 40, 47, and 57 days, respectively. The data sets consist of more than 3,300 blood cells in eleven classes, with more than 300 blood cells per class. The classes indicate the storage period of RBCs and are listed in chronological order. Using the RBCs donated by healthy persons, the off-axis digital holographic microscopy reconstructs several quantitative phase images of RBC samples stored for eleven different periods. We employ marker-controlled watershed transform to remove the background in the RBC quantitative phase images obtained by the off-axis digital holographic microscopy. More than 300 single RBCs are extracted from the segmented quantitative phase images for each class. Such a large number of RBC samples enable us to obtain statistical distributions of the characteristic properties of RBCs after a specific period of storage. Experimental results show that the 3D morphology of the RBCs, in contrast to MCH, is essentially related to the aging of the RBCs. PMID:24514667

  4. Studies on methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, L. K.

    A fuel cell using methanol dissolved in 6 N KOH solution with (Fe(III) and Al(III)) and without treated graphite cathode at ambient temperature (25°C) was studied for the following parameters: (a) current-voltage behaviour at ambient temperature; (b) voltage drop with time; (c) methanol concentration as a function of time; (d) carbon dioxide generation as a function of time; (e) effect of catalyst on the performance of the cell. The OCV of the cell was 0.273, 0.850 and 1.4 V, while current density was 0.5, 4.52 and 17.2 Am -2 with untreated and treated (Fe(III) and Al(III)) graphite electrode, respectively. The highest current density was 180 Am -2 at 0.3 V and 540 Am -2 at 1.04 V for Fe(III) and Al(III), respectively. Polarisation was found to be higher in Al(III) than Fe(III)-treated graphite electrode due to the low heat of adsorption of Al(III) [406 kJ mol -1 vs. 518 kJ mol -1 for Fe(III)]. The catalytic oxidation of methanol in terms of electrical energy output shows efficiency of about 78% for Al(III) and 80% for Fe(III)-treated graphite electrode.

  5. Influence of USP laser radiation on cell morphology: HaCat and MG-63 cell lines for bone and soft tissue modelling in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Joerg; Schelle, Florian; Beier, Imke; Bourauel, Christoph; Frentzen, Matthias; Kraus, Dominik

    Due to the high intensities of USP laser radiation, the interaction with matter is always attended with a plasma formation. Therefore the surrounding tissue can be influenced by heat generation and additional light emission from the UV up to the near and mid infrared. In dentistry it is of importance that the treatment of bone and soft tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, with a USP laser should not cause any kind of morphological changes on the cell level leading to a delayed wound healing or cell mutation. HaCaT keratinocyte cells were used for epidermal (soft tissue) and MG-63 osteoblast-like cells for hard tissue (bone) modelling. Cell growing was realized on glas cover slips. Irradiation was carried out with a USP Nd:YVO4 laser having a center wavelength at 1064 nm. Based on the pulse duration of 8 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 500 kHz the laser emits an average power of 9 W. For efficiency testing of cell removal on glas cover slips, 1, 5, 25, 50 and 75 repetitions of the scanning pattern (scan loops) were used. Heat distribution during laser irradiation was measured with an infrared camera system. Subsequently haematoxylin staining and SEM investigations were used to analyse the morphological changes. Differences of cell removal efficiency were observed with repetitions <=25. Irradiated areas with repetitions >=50 were cell-free. Additionally, repetitions >=25 showed side effects for both cell lines. Cell destruction in both cell lines could be verified using the haematoxylin staining and the SEM pictures.

  6. Morphological and molecular analysis calls for a reappraisal of the red rain cells of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Burchell, Mark J; Hogg, Stuart I

    2014-02-01

    Early studies on the coloured particles that fell as red rain over southern India identified them as unicellular eukaryotes such as members of the red algae or fungi; however, the results of the present investigation are not consistent with this designation. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have demonstrated significant differences in the ultrastructure when compared with representative species from these other groups. Most notably, the red rain cells show no evidence of typical eukaryotic internal structures such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, comparisons based on elemental composition using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, as well as Raman spectral signatures demonstrate significant dissimilarities in their molecular composition. The identity and origins of the red rain cells remain an enigma; however, our findings are more consistent with an unidentified prokaryote, and thus suggest that previous attempts at their identification should be reappraised. PMID:24071812

  7. What difference exists in the pancreas of mammals with sanguivorous diet? A morphological, stereological and immunohistochemical study of the pancreatic islets of the hematophagous bat Diphylla ecaudata.

    PubMed

    Machado-Santos, Clarice; Aquino, Júlio César Fraulob; Mikalauka, Jefferson Simanas; Abidu-Figueiredo, Marcelo; Mendes, Rosa Maria Marcos; Sales, Armando

    2013-05-10

    Diphylla ecaudata is a vampire bat that mainly feeds on the blood of birds. This highly specialized diet - hematophagy - is accompanied by a series of morphological changes in the gastro-entero-pancreatic system, since the distribution and relative proportions of different pancreatic endocrine cell types can vary between species due to different physiological conditions and eating habits. The aim of this study was to examine for the first time the pancreas of the vampire bat D. ecaudata using morphological, stereological and immunohistochemical techniques. The pancreas of the D. ecaudata has an exocrine acinar portion in which the highest concentration of pancreatic islets is scattered. These pancreatic islets have irregular size and a mean diameter of 56.94 ?m. The total number of islets in the pancreas was 23,900, with a volumetric density of 4.1%. Insulin-immunoreactive (IR) cells were located in the central pancreatic islet region and had the largest density (54.8%). Glucagon-IR cells were located mainly in the peripheral mantle region (16.2%), along with somatostatin-IR (SS) cells (14.3%). Cells immunoreactive to insulin, glucagon and somatostatin were also observed to have spread in isolated places in the exocrine pancreas. In the connective tissue near the pancreatic ducts, a high concentration was identified of insulin-IR cells and a low concentration of glucagon-IR and somatostatin-IR cells. These results indicate that although the pancreas of D. ecaudata has morphological similarities with that of other mammals, it has a differentiated islet structure, because there were a large number of islets and different volumetric densities of ?, ? and ? cells. PMID:23500834

  8. Characterization of lipid droplets in steroidogenic MLTC-1 Leydig cells: Protein profiles and the morphological change induced by hormone stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Fujikawa, Noriyuki; Nimura, Satomi; Tokuoka, Yutaro; Tsuda, Sonoka; Aiuchi, Toshihiro; Kato, Rina; Obama, Takashi; Itabe, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are functional subcellular organelles involved in multiple intracellular processes. LDs are found in nearly all types of eukaryotic cells, but their properties are highly variable in different types of tissues. Steroidogenic cells synthesize steroid hormones de novo from the cholesterol deposited in cytosolic LDs. However, the roles of LD proteins in steroidogenesis under pituitary hormone stimulation have not been well elucidated. The protein profile of isolated LDs from the mouse Leydig tumor cell line MLTC-1 was distinct from that of hepatic cells or macrophages. By proteomic analysis of the components using mass spectrometry, two enzymes for steroidogenesis, 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3?HSD1) and 17 ?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 11 (17?HSD11), were identified in two strong bands in the LD fractions. The LD fraction of MLTC-1 cells also included CYP11A1 and CYP17, suggesting that the LDs contain all the enzymes needed for testosterone synthesis. The steroidogenesis in Leydig cells is activated by luteinizing hormone through a PKA-dependent pathway. Stimulation of MLTC-1 cells with luteinizing hormone or 8-bromo-cAMP caused drastic changes in the morphology of the LDs in the MLTC-1 cells. Upon stimulation, large perinuclear LDs are turned into much smaller LDs and dispersed throughout the cytosol. These results raise the possibility that LDs are involved in a regulatory pathway of steroidogenesis, not just by serving as a storage depot for cholesterol esters, but also by providing enzymes and generating sites for enzymatic activity. PMID:26143378

  9. Laser-induced shockwave paired with FRET: a method to study cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Godinez, Veronica; Preece, Daryl; Shi, Linda; Khatibzadeh, Nima; Rosales, Derrick; Pan, Yijia; Lei, Lie; Wang, Yingxiao; Berns, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    Cells within the body are subject to various forces; however, the details concerning the way in which cells respond to mechanical stimuli are not well understood. We demonstrate that laser-induced shockwaves (LIS) combined with biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a promising new approach to study biological processes in single live cells. As "proof-of-concept," using a FRET biosensor, we show that in response to LIS, cells release intracellular calcium. With the parameters used, cells retain their morphology and remain viable. LIS combined with FRET permits observation of the cells immediate response to a sudden shear force. PMID:25639252

  10. Laser-Induced Shockwave Paired with FRET: A Method to Study Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    GOMEZ-GODINEZ, VERONICA; PREECE, DARYL; SHI, LINDA; KHATIBZADEH, NIMA; ROSALES, DERRICK; PAN, YIJIA; LEI, LIE; WANG, YINGXIAO; BERNS, MICHAEL W.

    2015-01-01

    Cells within the body are subject to various forces; however, the details concerning the way in which cells respond to mechanical stimuli are not well understood. We demonstrate that laser-induced shockwaves (LIS) combined with biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a promising new approach to study biological processes in single live cells. As “proof-of-concept,” using a FRET biosensor, we show that in response to LIS, cells release intracellular calcium. With the parameters used, cells retain their morphology and remain viable. LIS combined with FRET permits observation of the cells immediate response to a sudden shear force. PMID:25639252

  11. MitoLoc: A method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial network morphology and membrane potential in single cells

    PubMed Central

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Hartl, Johannes; Butler, Richard; Ralser, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria assemble into flexible networks. Here we present a simple method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential and network morphology that is based on computational co-localisation analysis of differentially imported fluorescent marker proteins. Established in, but not restricted to, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MitoLoc reproducibly measures changes in membrane potential induced by the uncoupling agent CCCP, by oxidative stress, in respiratory deficient cells, and in ?fzo1, ?ref2, and ?dnm1 mutants that possess fission and fusion defects. In combination with super-resolution images, MitoLoc uses 3D reconstruction to calculate six geometrical classifiers which differentiate network morphologies in ?fzo1, ?ref2, and ?dnm1 mutants, under oxidative stress and in cells lacking mtDNA, even when the network is fragmented to a similar extent. We find that mitochondrial fission and a decline in membrane potential do regularly, but not necessarily, co-occur. MitoLoc hence simplifies the measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential in parallel to detect morphological changes in mitochondrial networks. Marker plasmid open-source software as well as the mathematical procedures are made openly available. PMID:26184437

  12. Bi-Sn alloy catalyst for simultaneous morphology and doping control of silicon nanowires in radial junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhongwei; Lu, Jiawen; Qian, Shengyi; M