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  1. Decrease of CD4-lymphocytes and apoptosis of CD14-monocytes are characteristic alterations in sepsis caused by ventilator-associated pneumonia: results from an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to investigate changes of the immune response between sepsis due to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and sepsis due to other types of infections. Methods Peripheral venous blood was sampled from 68 patients with sepsis within 24 hours of diagnosis; 36 suffered from VAP; 32 from other nosocomial infections, all well-matched for severity, age and sex. Blood monocytes were isolated and cultured with/without purified endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Estimation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cultures' supernatants was done by an enzyme immunoassay. Flow cytometry was used to determine subpopulations of mononuclear cells and apoptosis. To mimic pathogenesis of VAP, mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were progressively stimulated with increased inocula of pathogens; apoptosis was determined. Results In patients with VAP, the absolute number of CD3(+)/CD4(+) lymphocytes was significantly lower (P = 0.034) and apoptosis of isolated monocytes was increased (P = 0.007) compared to other infections. TNFα and IL-6 production from LPS-stimulated monocytes was lower in patients with VAP-related sepsis than with sepsis due to other infections. Apoptosis of monocytes was induced after in vitro stimulation of mononuclear cells by a mechanism mimicking VAP. Conclusions Decrease of CD4-lymphocytes and immunoparalysis of monocytes are characteristic alterations of sepsis arising in the field of VAP. PMID:19883512

  2. The suppressive effects of monocytes in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, L A; MacSween, J M

    1981-01-01

    The response of isolated T cells to autologous non-T mononuclear cells is called the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). The responding T cells show immunological memory and specificity. This reaction was present in all thirty normal individuals tested. Since the AMLR in the absence of evidence of in vivo excessive lymphoproliferation must somehow be controlled, we have studied the interactions of enriched T cells, B cells and monocytes in culture as possible means of regulation of this reaction. Increased rate of [3H] thymidine incorporation by T lymphocytes were observed when they were cultured with mitomycin-treated autologous non-T cells. This was increased when the stimulating cells were enriched for B lymphocytes and was significantly decreased when the stimulating cells were enriched for monocytes. Addition of monocyte-enriched cells to B-enriched cells in a 1:1 ratio, significantly suppressed the AMLR (P- less than 0.01). Equivalent numbers of monocytes did not suppress T-cell responses to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Monocyte-enriched cells were separated from stimulating B-enriched cells by nucleopore (0.6 mu) or dialysis tubing (0.12 mu) in Marbrook chambers. Soluble products released from monocyte-enriched cells also suppressed the AMLR. The significance of the AMLR in vivo is uncertain but it may be important in immunoregulation, monocytes playing an important role. PMID:6459291

  3. Prognostic Significance of Systemic Inflammation-Based Lymphocyte- Monocyte Ratio in Patients with Lung Cancer: Based on a Large Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pingping; Shen, Hongchang; Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Qi; Du, Jiajun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates cancer-related inflammatory biomarkers show great promise for predicting the outcome of cancer patients. The lymphocyte- monocyte ratio (LMR) was demonstrated to be independent prognostic factor mainly in hematologic tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of LMR in operable lung cancer. We retrospectively enrolled a large cohort of patients with primary lung cancer who underwent complete resection at our institution from 2006 to 2011. Inflammatory biomarkers including lymphocyte count and monocyte count were collected from routinely performed preoperative blood tests and the LMR was calculated. Survival analyses were calculated for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 1453 patients were enrolled in the study. The LMR was significantly associated with OS and DFS in multivariate analyses of the whole cohort (HR?=?1.522, 95% CI: 1.2751.816 for OS, and HR?=?1.338, 95% CI: 1.1521.556 for DFS). Univariate subgroup analyses disclosed that the prognostic value was limited to patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR: 1.824, 95% CI: 1.5202.190), in contrast to patients with small cell lung cancer (HR: 1.718, 95% CI: 0.9463.122). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that LMR was still an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC. LMR can be considered as a useful independent prognostic marker in patients with NSCLC after complete resection. This will provide a reliable and convenient biomarker to stratify high risk of death in patients with operable NSCLC. PMID:25275631

  4. Monocyte Stabilin-1 Suppresses the Activation of Th1 Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Palani, Senthil; Elima, Kati; Ekholm, Eeva; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Salmi, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the putative functions of stabilin-1 in blood monocytes. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of several proinflammatory genes in the stabilin-1(high) monocytes when compared with stabilin-1(low) monocytes. When cocultured with stabilin-1(high) monocytes, IFN-? synthesis by T cells was diminished in Ag-recall assays. Knockdown of stabilin-1 in monocytes increased the synthesis of several proinflammatory molecules, including TNF-?, and supported high IFN-? and low IL-4 and IL-5 production by T cells in Ag-specific stimulation assays. Anti-stabilin-1 Ab treatment also led to increased IFN-? synthesis in the recall assays. In clinical settings, the expression of stabilin-1 was diminished on blood monocytes and tissue macrophages under proinflammatory conditions. These data define stabilin-1 as a new immunosuppressive molecule and suggest that stabilin-1(high) monocytes may dampen proinflammatory reactions in vivo. PMID:26608916

  5. Distinct Transcriptional and Anti-Mycobacterial Profiles of Peripheral Blood Monocytes Dependent on the Ratio of Monocytes: Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Fletcher, Helen A.; Tanner, Rachel; O'Shea, Matthew K.; McShane, Helen; Fairfax, Benjamin P.; Knight, Julian C.; Hill, Adrian V.S.

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of monocytes and lymphocytes (ML ratio) in peripheral blood is associated with tuberculosis and malaria disease risk and cancer and cardiovascular disease outcomes. We studied anti-mycobacterial function and the transcriptome of monocytes in relation to the ML ratio. Mycobacterial growth inhibition assays of whole or sorted blood were performed and mycobacteria were enumerated by liquid culture. Transcriptomes of unstimulated CD14 + monocytes isolated by magnetic bead sorting were characterised by microarray. Transcript expression was tested for association with ML ratio calculated from leucocyte differential counts by linear regression. The ML ratio was associated with mycobacterial growth in vitro (β = 2.23, SE 0.91, p = 0.02). Using sorted monocytes and lymphocytes, in vivo ML ratio (% variance explained R2 = 11%, p = 0.02) dominated over in vitro ratios (R2 = 5%, p = 0.10) in explaining mycobacterial growth. Expression of 906 genes was associated with the ML ratio and 53 with monocyte count alone. ML-ratio associated genes were enriched for type-I and -II interferon signalling (p = 1.2 × 10− 8), and for genes under transcriptional control of IRF1, IRF2, RUNX1, RELA and ESRRB. The ML-ratio-associated gene set was enriched in TB disease (3.11-fold, 95% CI: 2.28–4.19, p = 5.7 × 10− 12) and other inflammatory diseases including atopy, HIV, IBD and SLE. The ML ratio is associated with distinct transcriptional and anti-mycobacterial profiles of monocytes that may explain the disease associations of the ML ratio. PMID:26870787

  6. The monocytic population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia shows altered composition and deregulation of genes involved in phagocytosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Rossana; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Fiorcari, Stefania; Bertoncelli, Linda; Martinelli, Silvia; Guarnotta, Carla; Castelli, Ilaria; Deaglio, Silvia; Debbia, Giulia; De Biasi, Sara; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Zucchini, Patrizia; Narni, Franco; Tripodo, Claudio; Luppi, Mario; Cossarizza, Andrea; Marasca, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Macrophages reside in tissues infiltrated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells and the extent of infiltration is associated with adverse prognostic factors. We studied blood monocyte population by flow cytometry and whole-genome microarrays. A mixed lymphocyte reaction was performed to evaluate proliferation of T cells in contact with monocytes from patients and normal donors. Migration and gene modulation in normal monocytes cultured with CLL cells were also evaluated. The absolute number of monocytes increased in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients compared to the number in normal controls (792 86 cells/?L versus 485 46 cells/?L, P=0.003). Higher numbers of non-classical CD14(+)CD16(++) and Tie-2-expressing monocytes were also detected in patients. Furthermore, we performed a gene expression analysis of monocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, showing up-regulation of RAP1GAP and down-regulation of tubulins and CDC42EP3, which would be expected to result in impairment of phagocytosis. We also detected gene alterations such as down-regulation of PTGR2, a reductase able to inactivate prostaglandin E2, indicating immunosuppressive activity. Accordingly, the proliferation of T cells in contact with monocytes from patients was inhibited compared to that of cells in contact with monocytes from normal controls. Finally, normal monocytes in vitro increased migration and up-regulated CD16, RAP1GAP, IL-10, IL-8, MMP9 and down-regulated PTGR2 in response to leukemic cells or conditioned media. In conclusion, altered composition and deregulation of genes involved in phagocytosis and inflammation were found in blood monocytes obtained from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, suggesting that leukemia-mediated "education" of immune elements may also include the establishment of a skewed phenotype in the monocyte/macrophage population. PMID:23349302

  7. Differential Activation of Human Monocytes and Lymphocytes by Distinct Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Magalhes, Lusa M. D.; Viana, Agostinho; Chiari, Egler; Galvo, Lcia M. C.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi strains are currently classified into six discrete typing units (DTUs) named TcI to VI. It is known that these DTUs have different geographical distribution, as well as biological features. TcI and TcII are major DTUs found in patients from northern and southern Latin America, respectively. Our hypothesis is that upon infection of human peripheral blood cells, Y strain (Tc II) and Col cl1.7 (Tc I), cause distinct immunological changes, which might influence the clinical course of Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the infectivity of CFSE-stained trypomastigotes of Col cl1.7 and Y strain in human monocytes for 15 and 72 hours, and determined the immunological profile of lymphocytes and monocytes exposed to the different isolates using multiparameter flow cytometry. Our results showed a similar percentage and intensity of monocyte infection by Y and Col cl1.7. We also observed an increased expression of CD80 and CD86 by monocytes infected with Col cl1.7, but not Y strain. IL-10 was significantly higher in monocytes infected with Col cl1.7, as compared to Y strain. Moreover, infection with Col cl1.7, but not Y strain, led to an increased expression of IL-17 by CD8+ T cells. On the other hand, we observed a positive correlation between the expression of TNF-alpha and granzyme A only after infection with Y strain. Conclusion/Significance Our study shows that while Col cl1.7 induces higher monocyte activation and, at the same time, production of IL-10, infection with Y strain leads to a lower monocyte activation but higher inflammatory profile. These results show that TcI and TcII have a distinct immunological impact on human cells during early infection, which might influence disease progression. PMID:26147698

  8. A proinflammatory peptide from Helicobacter pylori activates monocytes to induce lymphocyte dysfunction and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Betten, ?sa; Bylund, Johan; Cristophe, Thierry; Boulay, Franois; Romero, Ana; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Dahlgren, Claes

    2001-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, which is characterized by a dense mucosal infiltration by inflammatory cells such as monocytes/macrophages. H. pyloriinduced inflammation is a risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, but the mechanisms involved in H. pyloriassociated carcinogenesis are poorly understood. A cecropin-like H. pylori peptide, Hp(2-20), was found to be a monocyte chemoattractant and activated the monocyte NADPH-oxidase to produce oxygen radicals. The receptors mediating monocyte activation were identified as FPRL1 and the monocyte-specific orphan receptor FPRL2. Hp(2-20)activated monocytes inhibited lymphocytes with antitumor properties, such as CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells and CD3?+ T cells. The changes observed in NK cells and T cells a reduced antitumor cytotoxicity, downregulation of CD3? expression, and apoptosis were mediated by Hp(2-20)induced oxygen radicals. Histamine, a gastric mucosal constituent, rescued NK cells and T cells from inhibition and apoptosis by suppressing Hp(2-20)induced oxygen radical formation. We conclude that H. pylori expression of this monocyte-activating peptide contributes to its ability to attract and activate monocytes and reduces the function and viability of antineoplastic lymphocytes. These novel mechanisms may be subject to local, histaminergic regulation in the gastric mucosa. PMID:11602630

  9. GST-M1 is transcribed moreso than AKR7A2 in AFB?-exposed human monocytes and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Abbas; Mehrzad, Jalil; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Bassami, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and aldo-keto reductases (AKR) are key aflatoxin (AF)-detoxifying enzymes. In this study, the expression of GST-M1, GST-T1, AKR-7A2, and AKR-7A3 genes in human monocytes and lymphocytes was analyzed after in vitro exposure to 10 or 100?ng AFB1/ml for 2?h. Unlike in pilot studies that showed that all four examined genes were present in HepG2 cells, in lymphocytes and monocytes, only GST-M1 and AKR-7A2 were detected. In fact, the induced expression of both GST-M1 and AKR-7A2 genes in human monocytes was moreso than that seen in AFB1-exposed lymphocytes. In addition, analyses of the effects of the exposures on cell cycle status were performed as, in cells lacking adequate detoxification capacities, it would be expected the cells would arrest at checkpoints in the cell cycle or progress to apoptotic/necrotic states. The results here indicated that only the high dose of AFB1 led to a change in cell cycle profiles and only in the monocytes (i.e. cells in S phase were significantly reduced). In general, the results here strongly suggest that human immune cell lineages appear to be able to increase their expression of AFB1-detoxifying enzymes (albeit to differing degrees) and, as a result, are able to counter potential toxicities from AFB1 and (likely) its metabolites. PMID:25027672

  10. B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Gurin, Coralie; Vilar, Jos; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sbastien; Mallat, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6Chi monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cellselective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24037091

  11. Lymphocyte and monocyte flow cytometry immunophenotyping as a diagnostic tool in uncharacteristic inflammatory disorders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with uncharacteristic inflammatory symptoms such as long-standing fatigue or pain, or a prolonged fever, constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of the present study was to determine if an extended immunophenotyping of lymphocytes and monocytes including activation markers can define disease-specific patterns, and thus provide valuable diagnostic information for these patients. Methods Whole blood from patients with gram-negative bacteraemia, neuroborreliosis, tuberculosis, acute mononucleosis, influenza or a mixed connective tissue disorders, as diagnosed by routine culture and serology techniques was analysed for lymphocyte and monocyte cell surface markers using a no-wash, no-lyse protocol for multi-colour flow cytometry method. The immunophenotyping included the activation markers HLA-DR and CD40. Plasma levels of soluble TNF alpha receptors were analysed by ELISA. Results An informative pattern was obtained by combining two of the analysed parameters: (i), the fractions of HLA-DR-expressing CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, respectively, and (ii), the level of CD40 on CD14+ CD16- monocytes. Patients infected with gram-negative bacteria or EBV showed a marked increase in monocyte CD40, while this effect was less pronounced for tuberculosis, borrelia and influenza. The bacterial agents could be distinguished from the viral agents by the T cell result; CD4+ T cells reacting in bacterial infection, and the CD8+ T cells dominating for the viruses. Patients with mixed connective tissue disorders also showed increased activation, but with similar engagement of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Analysis of soluble TNF alpha receptors was less informative due to a large inter-individual variation. Conclusion Immunophenotyping including the combination of the fractions of HLA-DR expressing T cell subpopulations with the level of CD40 on monocytes produces an informative pattern, differentiating between infections of bacterial and viral origin. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of these parameters revealed the novel finding of characteristic patterns indicating a subacute bacterial infection, such as borreliosis or tuberculosis, or a mixed connective tissue disorder. The employed flow cytometric method is suitable for clinical diagnostic laboratories, and may help in the assessment of patients with uncharacteristic inflammatory symptoms. PMID:20626864

  12. Infused autograft lymphocyte to monocyte ratio predicts survival in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Porrata, Luis F; Inwards, David J; Ansell, Stephen M; Micallef, Ivana N; Johnston, Patrick B; Hogan, William J; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2015-01-01

    The infused autograft lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (A-LMR) as a surrogate marker of host immunity (ie, absolute lymphocyte count) and CD14+ HLA-DRlow/neg immunosuppressive monocytes (ie, absolute monocyte count) is a prognostic factor for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT). Thus, we set out to investigate if A-LMR can also affect survival post-APHSCT in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. From 1994 to 2012, 183 patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent APHSCT were studied. The patients were randomly divided into a training set (n=122) and a validation set (n=61). The receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve identified an A-LMR ?1 as the best cut-off value and validated by the k-fold cross-validation in the training set. Multivariate analysis showed A-LMR to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in the training set. Patients with an A-LMR ?1.0 experienced a superior overall survival (OS) versus patients with an A-LMR <1.0 (median OS not reached versus 40.4 months, 5-year OS rates of 86% [95% CI 7293] versus 43% [95% CI 2858], P<0.0001, respectively) in the training set. In the validation set, an A-LMR ?1 showed a median OS of not reached versus 41.4 months for an A-LMR <1, 5-year OS rates of 90% (95% CI 7397) versus 48% (95% CI 2868; P<0.0001). A-LMR provides a platform to engineer an autograft versus tumor effect to improve clinical outcomes in patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing APHSCT. PMID:25674021

  13. Monocyte function in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holm, G; Bjrkholm, M; Johansson, B; Mellstedt, H; Lindemalm, C

    1982-01-01

    Monocyte functions were studied in 16 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 11 untreated and five in unmaintained complete remission. Eleven untreated patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 21 healthy persons were used as controls. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood and enriched to greater than 90%. Lymphoma monocytes showed normal ability to lyse human RBC coated with anti-D IgG antibodies as evaluated by a 51Cr-release assay. The ability of monocytes to augment or suppress concanavalin A stimulation of lymphocytes purified to greater than 98% was studied by incubation of a number of lymphocytes with increasing amounts of purified monocytes. The incorporation of 14C-thymidine was potentiated by a factor of 10 in the presence of equal amounts of monocytes. There was no difference between monocytes from Hodgkin, non-Hodgkin or healthy controls to augment patients' autologous or normal lymphocytes. Patient monocytes also suppressed the response at the same monocyte-lymphocyte ratio as normal monocytes. Stimulation of patient lymphocytes without the addition of monocytes was usually lower than that of normal control lymphocytes. The difference between patient and control lymphocyte stimulation was preserved in the presence of monocytes. It is concluded that monocytes from patients with active Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have normal helper and suppressor effects on patient or normal lymphocytes stimulated by Con A and normal antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. PMID:7094420

  14. Defective monocyte production of, and T lymphocyte response to, interleukin-1 in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Alcocer-Varela, J; Laffon, A; Alarcn-Segovia, D

    1984-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a monocyte product with diverse amplifying effects on immune cell reactions. We have studied 16 untreated SLE patients to determine the production of IL-1 by their monocytes under the stimulus of E. Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and measured by the capacity of their supernatants to augment normal autologous mixed lymphocyte cultures (AMLR) or to replace accessory cells in Con A-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes. Concurrently, we studied the response of T lymphocytes from these same patients to IL-1 by its capacity to increase the percentage of stable E rosette forming cells and by the enhancement of T cell proliferation in AMLR. Monocytes from SLE patients produced significantly less IL-1 activity than those of age matched controls, regardless of the stimulus (LPS or PMA), as well as of the indicator system. All patients with active disease and seven of the 10 patients with inactive disease had decreased production of IL-1 activity as determined by at least one method. Response of T lymphocytes from SLE patients to IL-1 produced by normal monocytes was also found decreased as compared to normals. This defect was more marked in the T cells from patients with active than in those of patients with inactive disease. These findings indicate that the immunoregulatory disturbance that SLE patients have encompasses monocytes as well as T and B lymphocytes and suggest that the defect is either multicentric or originates in the stem cell. PMID:6229371

  15. Cytomegalovirus infects human lymphocytes and monocytes: virus expression is restricted to immediate-early gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, G P; Schrier, R D; Oldstone, M B

    1984-01-01

    In this investigation, we studied the ability of human cytomegalovirus to infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With monoclonal antibody technology, we demonstrated that cytomegalovirus could infect human lymphocytes of T- and B-cell lineage, natural killer cells, and monocytes. Furthermore, virus expression was limited to the synthesis of immediate-early cytomegalovirus polypeptides. These peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not produce infectious virus, nor were mature virions visualized by electron microscopy. This abortive infection of mononuclear cells was most convincingly shown with stocks of cytomegalovirus that had been recently isolated from infected patients and passaged minimally in fibroblasts. This argues for an increased lymphotropic effect of some isolates of cytomegalovirus, compared to strains of virus that are extensively adapted to growth in fibroblasts. Furthermore, immunocompetent cells that were shown to be abortively infected with cytomegalovirus lost selected differentiated functions. Images PMID:6091137

  16. Immunogenetic analysis of cellular interactions governing the recruitment of T lymphocytes and monocytes in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced immunopathology

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, P.C.; Ceredig, R.; Allan, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    The Lyt2+ class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted virus-immune T cells that induce murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) are targeted onto radiation-resistant cells in the central nervous system of virus-infected mice. The use of appropriate bone marrow radiation chimeras as LCM virus-infected, (immunosuppressed recipients for immune T-cell transfer has established that, though bone marrow-derived cells can stimulate virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in spleen, they do not reconstitute the barrier to T-cell recruitment from blood to cerebrospinal fluid. This is true for chimeras made up to 8 months previously, even though the inflammatory monocytes and macrophages in such chimeras are all of donor bone marrow origin. Radiation-resistant cells in the spleens of these chimeras are also still able to further stimulate virus-immune CTL. There is no requirement for H-2 compatibility between virus-immune T lymphocytes and secondarily recruited monocytes, or T cells of an inappropriate specificity. The key event in LCM immunopathology may thus be localization of T cells to the antigen-presenting endothelium in brain, leading to the secretion of mediators that promote the nonspecific recruitment of monocytes and other T cells.

  17. Association between lymphocyte and monocyte subsets and cognition in children with HIV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assesses the relationships between lymphocyte and monocyte subsets and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-infected Thai children without advanced HIV disease. Findings Sixty-seven ART-naive Thai children with CD4 between 15-24% underwent cognitive testing by Weschler intelligence scale and had 13 cell subsets performed by flow cytometry including naive, memory and activated subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, activated and perivascular monocytes and B cells. Regression modelling with log10 cell count and cell percentage transformation was performed. Median age (IQR) was 9 (710) years, 33% were male, CDC stages N:A:B were 1:67:31%, median CD4% and count (IQR) were 21 (1824)%, 597 (424801) cells/mm3 and HIV RNA (IQR) was 4.6 (4.1-4.9) log10 copies/ml. Most (82%) lived at home, 45% had a biological parent as their primary caregiver, and 26 (49%) had low family income. The mean (SD) scores were 75 (13) for full scale IQ (FIQ), 73 (12) for verbal IQ (VIQ) and 80 (14) for performance IQ (PIQ). Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed significant negative associations between B cell counts and FIQ, VIQ and PIQ (p?lymphocyte subsets and neurocognitive development. PMID:24450991

  18. Use of the Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Song; Zhang, Jiahua; Wu, Jingyang; Teng, Weiping; Liu, Lei; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the leading cause of blindness in adults. DR pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, but inflammation is widely accepted to play an important role. Emerging evidence suggests that the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are novel potential markers of inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to evaluate the associations between DR and the PLR, MLR, and NLR. Patients and Methods: We performed a case-control study involving 247 patients with T2DM. The patients were divided into three groups: 125 control subjects with T2DM, 63 diabetic subjects with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 59 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Results: The mean PLR and NLR were significantly higher in patients with DR compared with patients without DR (p < 0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). The mean MLR in the NPDR group was higher than that of patients without DR, but there were no significant differences among the three groups (p = 0.07). Logistic regression showed that the MLR was an independent risk factor for DR (odds ratio [OR]: 54.574, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7081099.907). Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, use of the MLR as an indicator for DR diagnosis was projected to be 2.25, and yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 47.1% and 69.6%, respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.581 (95% CI: 0.5100.653). Conclusions: The PLR and NLR are significantly increased in the setting of DR. After correcting for possible confounding factors, the MLR was found to be a risk factor for DR. Although the MLR may be pathophysiologically and clinically relevant in DR, its predictive ability was limited. PMID:26308022

  19. HIV infection of monocytes inhibits the T-lymphocyte proliferative response to recall antigens, via production of eicosanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, P; Kazazi, F; Biti, R; Sorrell, T C; Cunningham, A L

    1992-01-01

    Human monocytes infected in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) soon after adherence to plastic substrate demonstrated a significantly decreased ability to restimulate autologous immune T-lymphocyte proliferation after exposure to soluble (tetanus toxoid) and particulate [herpes simplex virus (HSV)] antigen. Incubation with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (2-5 microM), prevented inhibition of antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. The inhibitory activity was identified in ultrafiltrates containing the low molecular weight fraction (less than 3000 MW) of supernatants from HIV-infected monocyte cultures. This activity was significantly and markedly reduced in similar ultrafiltrates prepared from indomethacin-treated cultures. Increased concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were detected in ultrafiltrates from HIV-infected monocyte cultures compared with uninfected cultures and cultures preincubated with indomethacin. Ultrafiltrates were inhibitory when added during the presentation of antigen to T lymphocytes but not when removed from monocyte cultures prior to the addition of lymphocytes. In addition, ultrafiltrates inhibited antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferation to the same extent. These data indicate that cyclo-oxygenase products of arachidonic acid, including PGE2, are produced in excess by HIV-infected monocytes and that PGE2 and perhaps other cyclo-oxygenase products are implicated in the inhibition of antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation via a direct effect on T lymphocytes. PMID:1572689

  20. Prognostic significance of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Kimura, Kenjiro; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic significance of the lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who received palliative chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 104 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who underwent palliative chemotherapy were enrolled. The LMR was calculated from blood samples by dividing the absolute lymphocyte count by the absolute monocyte count. Pre-treatment LMR values were measured within one week before the initiation of chemotherapy, while post-treatment LMR values were measured eight weeks after the initiation of chemotherapy. RESULTS: The median pre-treatment LMR was 4.16 (range: 0.58-14.06). We set 3.38 as the cut-off level based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. Based on the cut-off level of 3.38, 66 patients were classified into the high pre-treatment LMR group and 38 patients were classified into the low pre-treatment LMR group. The low pre-treatment LMR group had a significantly worse overall survival rate (P = 0.0011). Moreover, patients who demonstrated low pre-treatment LMR and normalization after treatment exhibited a better overall survival rate than the patients with low pre-treatment and post-treatment LMR values. CONCLUSION: The lymphocyte to monocyte ratio is a useful prognostic marker in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who receive palliative chemotherapy. PMID:26379401

  1. [B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and monocytes: possible role in autoimmune diseases with a particular reference to rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Quartuccio, L; Fabris, M; Ferraccioli, G

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a new member of the TNF family, BLyS, was identified. This protein, synthesized by myeloid cell lines, specifically interacts with B lymphocytes and increases their life-span. BLyS was studied in the murine models of some autoimmune diseases and it was demonstrated that it has a key role in the B lymphocyte system homeostasis and in the relation between chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Analysis of BLyS plasma levels in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Sjogren's Syndrome and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) has shown that BLyS is higher in a group of patients than in the controls. In RA, BLyS correlates with the disease activity, in particular, with the swollen joints count; so, at least part of the chronic rheumatoid synovitis could be the epiphenomenon of the B cells activation driven by monocyte-macrophage population. More studies are necessary to understand the role of BLyS in the interaction between the monocyte and the B lymphocyte in some autoimmune disease and the possible usefulness of this cytokine as a diagnostic or prognostic marker and/or therapeutic target. PMID:15470519

  2. Absolute monocyte and lymphocyte count prognostic score for patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Wan Kyu; Jeong, Da Wun; Chang, Hye Jung; Won, Kyu Yeoun; Choi, Sung Il; Kim, Se Hyun; Chun, Sung Wook; Oh, Young Lim; Lee, Tae Hwa; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Ki Hyung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To measure the prognostic significance of absolute monocyte count/absolute lymphocyte count prognostic score (AMLPS) in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the combination of absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as prognostic variables in a cohort of 299 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2013 and were followed at a single institution. Both AMC and ALC were dichotomized into two groups using cut-off points determined by receiving operator characteristic curve analysis. An AMLPS was generated, which stratified patients into three risk groups: low risk (both low AMC and high ALC), intermediate risk (either high AMC or low ALC), and high risk (both high AMC and low ALC). The primary objective of the study was to validate the impact of AMLPS on both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), and the second objective was to assess the AMLPS as an independent prognostic factor for survival in comparison with known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Using data from the entire cohort, the most discriminative cut-off values of AMC and ALC selected on the receiver operating characteristic curve were 672.4/?L and 1734/?L for DFS and OS. AMLPS risk groups included 158 (52.8%) patients in the low-risk, 128 (42.8%) in the intermediate-risk, and 13 (4.3%) in the high-risk group. With a median follow-up of 37.2 mo (range: 1.7-91.4 mo), five-year DFS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 83.4%, 78.7%, and 19.8%, respectively. And five-year OS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89.3%, 81.1%, and 14.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis performed with patient- and tumor-related factors, we identified AMLPS, age, and pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage as the most valuable prognostic factors impacting DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: AMLPS identified patients with a poor DFS and OS, and it was independent of age, pathologic stage, and various inflammatory markers. PMID:25759535

  3. Peripheral blood lymphocyte to monocyte ratio identifies high-risk adult patients with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Hua; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Lin, Tong-Yu; Lu, Yue

    2015-10-01

    Adult sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare subtype of lymphoma. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) in a cohort of 62 patients. Using LMR <2.6 as the optimal cutoff point, 24 patients (38.7%) had LMR <2.6. The complete response rates in high-LMR group and low-LMR group were 90.9 and 65.0%, respectively (P?=?0.019). At a median follow-up time of 41months, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rates were 76 and 80%, respectively. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was found that the presence of bone marrow infiltration and low LMR were independently adverse prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. In the whole group, the addition of rituximab to treatment did not benefit patients significantly in PFS and OS. In subgroup analysis, in patients with high LMR, addition of rituximab can significantly improve survival outcomes (P?=?0.046). In conclusion, we firstly found that low LMR (<2.60) was an independently adverse prognostic factor in adult patients with sporadic BL. Intensive chemotherapy could cure the majority of patients in our study, and the pretreatment LMR might predict the value of rituximab in this age population. PMID:26082333

  4. Unique pattern of interleukin 2 receptor expression by lymphocytes in response to anti-LEU 4: relationship to monocyte accessory cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, H.E.; John, J.K.

    1986-03-05

    The relationship between early interleukin 2 receptor (IL2R) expression and subsequent DNA synthesis by mitogen-stimulated human mononuclear cells (MC) was studied. For serial dilutions of a given mitogen, the percentage of lymphocytes expressing IL2R after 1 day of culture was plotted vs /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation on day 3, and the IL2R value associated with 50,000 counts per minute (IL2R-50K) determined. A mean IL2R-50K value of 7 characterized PHA, Con A, and OKT3 responses, while a higher value of 29 characterized anti-Leu 4 (L4) responses. As tested on OKT3 and L4 systems, exogenous IL2 did not alter IL2R-50K values. Because OKT3 and L4 both recognize the lymphocyte CD3 antigen, but react with different monocyte Fc receptors, the role of monocytes in producing elevated L4 IL2R-50K values was explored. MC from healthy L4 nonresponders (NR), induced to proliferate by L4 in the presence of responder (R) monocytes, also yielded an elevated mean IL2R-50K value of 31. In contrast, direct stimulation of R-MC, NR-MC, or NR-MC plus R monocytes by L4-coated sepharose beads produced mean IL2R-50K values of 12 or 13. These findings suggest that crosslinking of lymphocyte-bound soluble L4 by R monocytes leads to uniquely elevated pattern of lymphocyte IL2R expression. Crosslinking mediated by L4-beads, however, leads to a more conventional pattern of IL2R expression, even though R monocytes may be present.

  5. Monocyte and Lymphocyte Activation in Bipolar Disorder: A New Piece in the Puzzle of Immune Dysfunction in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Natlia Pessoa; Assis, Frankcinia; Vieira, rica Leandro Marciano; Soares, Jair C; Bauer, Moises Evandro; Teixeira,, Antnio Lcio

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study tested the hypothesis that the low-grade inflammation presented in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with expansion of activated T cells, and this activated state may be due to a lack of peripheral regulatory cells. Methods: Specifically, we investigated the distribution of monocytes and lymphocyte subsets, and investigated Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in plasma by flow cytometry. Twenty-one BD type I patients and 21 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited for this study. Results: BD patients had increased proportions of monocytes (CD14+). Regarding lymphocyte populations, BD patients presented reduced proportions of T cells (CD3+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+). BD patients also exhibited a higher percentage of activated T CD4+CD25+ cells, and a lower percentage of IL-10 expressing Treg cells. Conclusions: Our data shed some light into the underlying mechanisms involved with the chronic low-grade inflammatory profile described in BD patients. PMID:25539506

  6. Desialylation of T lymphocytes overcomes the monocyte dependency of pokeweed mitogen-induced T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Gallart, T; Angel de la Fuente, M; Josep Barceló, J; Alberola-Ila, J; Lozano, F

    1997-01-01

    Activation of T lymphocytes by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) is strictly monocyte (Mo)-dependent and results in T-cell mitogenesis and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion, coupled with an inability to utilize IL-2 due to an impaired expression of functional IL-2 receptor (IL-2R). Such IL-2R impairment could arise in PWM-activated T cells themselves or, alternatively, be the result of Mo-derived influences, as it is known that PWM binds Mo strongly and does not or poorly binds lymphocytes, and Mo becomes rapidly destroyed in PWM-stimulated cultures of blood mononuclear cells or T cells plus Mo. The present study investigated these possibilities. The results show for the first time that desialylation of T lymphocytes strongly increases their PWM-binding capacity and, in addition, overcomes the Mo requirement for PWM to induce T-cell mitogenesis and IL-2 secretion. Such secreted IL-2 levels were even higher that those found in cultures of Mo-dependent PWM-activated T lymphocytes but similarly to the latter, PWM-activated desialylated purified T lymphocytes exhibited negligible high-affinity IL-2 binding capacity and an inability to utilize the IL-2 they produced. These effects were not due to desialylation itself, as indicated by data obtained with peanut agglutinin, a lectin that becomes strongly reactive with desialylated T lymphocytes. The data clearly indicate the existence of PWM-related events capable of impairing the expression of functional IL-2R without affecting IL-2 secretion, and indicate that such events are due to mechanisms arising at the level of PWM-activated T cells themselves. Images Figure 3 PMID:9038713

  7. In Vitro-Stimulated IL-6 Monocyte Secretion and In Vivo Peripheral Blood T Lymphocyte Activation Uniquely Predicted 15-Year Survival in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aarstad, Helene Hersvik; Vintermyr, Olav Karsten; Ulvestad, Elling; Kross, Kenneth; Heimdal, John Helge; Aarstad, Hans Jorgen

    2015-01-01

    The study was performed in order to determine whether peripheral blood monocyte in vitro function, and lymphocyte in vivo activation at diagnosis, was associated with HPV tumor infection status and 15-year survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Sixty-five patients from a consecutive cohort of newly diagnosed HNSCCs, together with 18 control patients, were included in the study. Monocyte responsiveness was assessed by measuring monocyte in vitro interleukin (IL)-6 secretions after 24 hours of LPS stimulation in cultures with a serum-free medium. T lymphocyte activation was determined as the fraction of CD71-positive cells on CD3-positive cells by flow cytometry, whereas HPV infection was determined by PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue. Disease-specific survivals and overall survivals were determined 15 years following inclusion. HPV-positive HNSCC patients had a lower monocyte LPS-stimulated IL-6 response. A high LPS-stimulated monocyte IL-6 response predicted a decreased survival rate (P=0.019). A high percentage of CD71-positive T lymphocytes also predicted an impaired prognosis (P=0.021). The predictive power of IL-6 monocyte LPS-stimulated responses was retained when adjusted for age, gender and TNM stage of the patients. The monocyte and T lymphocyte survival predictions were independent of each other. The survival was particularly low with a combined high activated monocyte and T lymphocyte status. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 secretion and the percentage of CD71-positive T lymphocytes both uniquely predicted survival independent of HPV infection status. It is postulated that the natural and adaptive immune systems are separately and additionally linked to the clinical aggressiveness of HNSCCs. PMID:26079381

  8. The Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Predicts Patient Survival and Aggressiveness of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Wan Kyu; Chang, Hye Jung; Kwon, Sang Hoon; Koh, Suk Bong; Kim, Young Ok; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Hong-Bae; Lee, Ji Young; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hyung; Chang, Ik Jin; Kim, Heung Yeol; Chang, Suk Choo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To measure the prognostic value of the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: We retrospectively examined the LMR as a prognosticator in a cohort of 234 patients with EOC who underwent surgical resection. Patients were categorized into two different groups based on the LMR (LMR-low and LMR-high) using cut-off values determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of the LMR on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and to validate the LMR as an independent predictor of survival. Results: Using the data collected from the whole cohort, the optimized LMR cut-off value selected on the ROC curve was 2.07 for both PFS and OS. The LMR-low and LMR-high groups included 48 (20.5%) and 186 patients (79.5%), respectively. The 5-year PFS rates in the LMR-low and LMR-high groups were 40.0 and 62.5% (P < 0.0001), respectively, and the 5-year OS rates in these two groups were 42.2 and 67.2% (P < 0.0001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, we identified age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, and cancer antigen 125 levels to be the strongest valuable prognostic factors affecting PFS (P = 0.0421, P = 0.0012, and P = 0.0313, respectively) and age, FIGO stage, and the LMR as the most valuable prognostic factors predicting OS (P = 0.0064, P = 0.0029, and P = 0.0293, respectively). Conclusion: The LMR is an independent prognostic factor affecting the survival of patients with EOC. PMID:26918042

  9. Dietary supplementation with purified citrus limonin glucoside does not alter ex vivo functions of circulating T lymphocytes or monocytes in overweight/obese human adults.

    PubMed

    Zunino, Susan J; Storms, David H; Freytag, Tammy L; Adkins, Yuriko C; Bonnel, Ellen L; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Breksa, Andrew P; Manners, Gary D; Mackey, Bruce E; Kelley, Darshan S

    2016-01-01

    Overweight/obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and impairs both innate and adaptive immune responses. Limonoids found in citrus fruits decreased cell proliferation and inflammation in animal studies. We hypothesized that limonin glucoside (LG) supplementation in vivo will decrease the ex vivo proliferation of T cells and the production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes and T cells. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, 10 overweight/obese human subjects were served purified LG or placebo drinks for 56 days each to determine the effects of LG on immune cell functions. The percentage of CD14+CD36+ cells in whole blood was analyzed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and activated with CD3 plus CD28 antibodies (T-lymphocyte activation) or lipopolysaccharide (monocyte activation). Interferon ?, tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured in supernatants from activated T cells. Supernatants from activated monocytes were analyzed for the production of tumor necrosis factor ?, IL-1?, and IL-6. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were prestained with PKH dye and activated with CD3 plus CD28 antibodies to determine the proliferative responses of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes by flow cytometry. No differences were observed for CD14+CD36+ monocyte populations, T-cell proliferation, or the production of T cell and monocyte cytokines between the 2 treatments. Thus, LG supplementation in vivo did not affect ex vivo functions of T cells and monocytes, whereas it decreased several circulating markers of hepatic inflammation as we previously reported. PMID:26773778

  10. Pre-operative lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio as a predictor of overall survival in patients suffering from osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Fang, Xuan-Cheng; Ding, Zhen; Sun, Ze-Gan; Sun, Li-Ming; Wang, Yi-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory markers have been proposed to predict clinical outcomes in many types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) on clinical prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. This study collected 327 patients who underwent surgical treatment for osteosarcoma during the period 20062010. LMR was calculated from pre-operative peripheral blood cells counts. The optimal cut-off value of LMR was determined based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) was plotted using the KaplanMeier method and evaluated by the log-rank test. A predictive model was established to predict clinical prognosis for OS, and the predictive accuracy of this model was determined by concordance index (c-index). Our results showed that young age, elevated alkaline phosphatase, metastasis at diagnosis, chemotherapy, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly associated with LMR. Low LMR was associated with shorter OS and EFS (P<0.001), and was an independent predictor of both OS and EFS (HR=1.72, 95% CI=1.142.60, P=0.010; HR=1.89, 95% CI=1.322.57, P=0.009). The nomogram performed well in the prediction of overall survival in patients with osteosarcoma (c-index 0.630). In conclusion, low pre-operative LMR is associated with a poor prognosis in patients suffering from osteosarcoma. A prospective study is warranted for further validation of our results. PMID:26380812

  11. Primary human alveolar epithelial cells can elicit the transendothelial migration of CD14+ monocytes and CD3+ lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eghtesad, M; Jackson, H E; Cunningham, A C

    2001-01-01

    The ability of freshly isolated primary human alveolar epithelial cells (type II pneumocytes) to induce leucocyte migration across an endothelial monolayer was investigated. Three-way factorial analysis of variance (anova) demonstrated that resting alveolar endothelial cells (AEC) could produce detectable quantities of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), which was upregulated in response to tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Interferon-? (IFN-?) had no significant effect on this process. TNF-? and IFN-? both induced AEC to provoke migration of CD14+ monocytes and CD3+ lymphocytes across endothelium. IFN-? and TNF-? synergized in their ability to induce production of T lymphocyte, but not monocyte, chemoattractants from AEC. Leucocyte transendothelial migration was inhibited by anti-MCP-1 neutralizing antibody and by heparin, a polyanionic glycosaminoglycan (GAG). These data suggest that human AEC play a role in the multiple mechanisms that facilitate monocyte and T lymphocyte migration into the alveolar compartment of the lung under homeostasis and inflammatory conditions. One of these mechanisms is mediated via constitutive MCP-1 production by alveolar epithelial cells, which is upregulated by TNF-?. PMID:11260320

  12. PD-L1 blockade improves survival in experimental sepsis by inhibiting lymphocyte apoptosis and reversing monocyte dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Lymphocyte apoptosis and monocyte dysfunction play a pivotal role in sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Programmed death-1 (PD1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) exert inhibitory function by regulating the balance among T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. PD-1 deficiency or blockade has been shown to improve survival in murine sepsis. However, PD-L1 and PD-1 differ in their expression patterns and the role of PD-L1 in sepsis-induced immunosuppression is still unknown. Methods Sepsis was induced in adult C57BL/6 male mice via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression on peripheral T cells, B cells and monocytes were measured 24 hours after CLP or sham surgery. Additionally, the effects of anti-PD-L1 antibody on lymphocyte number, apoptosis of spleen and thymus, activities of caspase-8 and caspase-9, cytokine production, bacterial clearance, and survival were determined. Results Expression of PD-1 on T cells, B cells and monocytes and PD-L1 on B cells and monocytes were up-regulated in septic animals compared to sham-operated controls. PD-L1 blockade significantly improved survival of CLP mice. Anti-PD-L1 antibody administration prevented sepsis-induced depletion of lymphocytes, increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 production, decreased IL-10 production, and enhanced bacterial clearance. Conclusions PD-L1 blockade exerts a protective effect on sepsis at least partly by inhibiting lymphocyte apoptosis and reversing monocyte dysfunction. Anti-PD-L1 antibody administration may be a promising therapeutic strategy for sepsis-induced immunosuppression. PMID:21118528

  13. VCS parameters of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes may indicate local bacterial infection in cancer patients who accepted cytotoxic chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, N; Liu, L; Li, D; Zeng, Q; Song, X

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections increased greatly in cancer patients who accepted cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. VCS parameters of neutrophils were reported to be an indicator for acute bacterial infection accompanied by increased WBC counts. Here we explored the possibility of VCS parameters of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in indicating the local bacterial infection in cancer patients. A total of 310 cancer patients and 90 healthy controls were retrospectively analyzed, and 190 of them were diagnosed as acute local bacterial infection. The VCS parameters acquired from a Beckman Coulter LH750 haematology analyzer were investigated to determine which VCS parameters could indicate local bacterial infection in cancer patients with leucopenia caused by cytotoxic agents. VCS parameters of cancer patients were significantly affected by infection. For diagnosing bacterial infection of cancer patients, the best single indicator was mean monocyte light scatter (MMS) with a sensitivity of 95.12% and a specificity of 58.82% and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.792. A combination of the following five parameters: mean neutrophil volume (MNV), MMS, mean lymphocyte conductivity (MLC), mean lymphocyte light scatter (MLS) and neutrophil volume distribution width (NDW) could provide a better index in diagnosing bacterial infection than any single parameter (sensitivity 75.8%, specificity 64.72%, AUC 0.763). Taking WBC counts into consideration, VCS parameters could better indicate bacterial infection for cancer patients with abnormal WBC level than that with normal WBC level. Aside from neutrophils, the VCS of monocytes and lymphocytes were also ideal indicators for bacterial infection. The combination of VCS parameters could increase the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis of cancer patients. PMID:26563897

  14. An Elevated Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio Predicts Favorable Response and Prognosis in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Guo-Wei; Wang, Lei; Chen, Sheng; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Zuo, Wen-Jia; Wu, Jiong; Hu, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is a standard treatment option for locally advanced breast cancer. However, the lack of an efficient method to predict treatment response and patient prognosis hampers the clinical evaluation of patient eligibility for NCT. An elevated lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) has been reported to be associated with a favorable prognosis for certain hematologic malignancies and for nasopharyngeal carcinoma; however, this association has not been investigated in breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether pre-NCT LMR analysis could predict the prognosis of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Methods A retrospective cohort of 542 locally advanced breast cancer patients (T3/T4 and/or N2/N3 disease) receiving NCT followed by radical surgery was recruited between May 2002 and August 2011 at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Counts for pre-NCT peripheral absolute lymphocytes and monocytes were obtained and used to calculate the LMR. Results Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that higher LMR levels (?4.25) were significantly associated with favorable DFS (P?=?0.009 and P?=?0.011, respectively). Additionally, univariate analysis revealed that a higher lymphocyte count (?1.5109/L) showed borderline significance for improved DFS (P?=?0.054), while a lower monocyte count (<0.4109/L) was associated with a significantly better DFS (P?=?0.010). Conclusions An elevated pre-NCT peripheral LMR level was a significantly favorable factor for locally advanced breast cancer patient prognosis. This easily obtained variable may serve as a valuable marker to predict the outcomes of locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:25372468

  15. The lymphocyte/monocyte ratio predicts poor clinical outcome and improves the predictive accuracy in patients with soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Szkandera, Joanna; Gerger, Armin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Absenger, Gudrun; Stotz, Michael; Friesenbichler, Joerg; Trajanoski, Slave; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Eberhard, Katharina; Leithner, Andreas; Pichler, Martin

    2014-07-15

    Increasing evidence indicates the involvement of inflammation and coagulation in cancer progression and metastases. Inflammatory biomarkers hold great promise for improving the predictive ability of existing prognostic tools in cancer patients. In the present study, we investigated several inflammatory indices with regard to their prognostic relevance for predicting clinical outcome in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients. Three hundred and forty STS patients were divided into a training set (n?=?170) and a validation set (n?=?170). Besides well-established clinico-pathological prognostic factors, we evaluated the prognostic value of the neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, the lymphocyte/monocyte (L/M) ratio and the platelet/lymphocyte (P/L) ratio using Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate as well as multivariate Cox regression models. Additionally, we developed a nomogram by supplementing the L/M ratio to the well-established Kattan nomogram and evaluated the predictive accuracy of this novel nomogram by applying calibration and Harrell's concordance index (c-index). In multivariate analysis, a low L/M ratio was significantly associated with decreased CSS and DFS (HR?=?0.41, 95% CI?=?0.18-0.97, p?=?0.043; HR?=?0.39, 95% CI?=?0.16-0.91, p?=?0.031, respectively) in the training set. Using the validation set for confirmation, we found also in multivariate analysis an independent value for CSS (HR?=?0.33, 95% CI?=?0.12-0.90, p?=?0.03) and for DFS (HR?=?0.36, 95% CI?=?0.16-0.79, p?=?0.01). The estimated c-index was 0.74 using the original Kattan nomogram and 0.78 when the L/M ratio was added. Our study reports for the first time that the pre-operative L/M ratio represents a novel independent prognostic factor for prediction the clinical outcome in STS patients. This easily determinable biomarker might be helpful in improved individual risk assessment. PMID:24347236

  16. Presence and Localization of Three Lactic Acid Transporters (MCT1, ?2, and ?4) in Separated Human Granulocytes, Lymphocytes, and Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Merezhinskaya, Natalya; Ogunwuyi, Sunday A.; Mullick, Florabel G.; Fishbein, William N.

    2004-01-01

    We fractionated leukocytes from three donors into >90% pure samples of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes and tested them for transcriptional and translational expression of three physiologically-proven lactate transporters, monocarboxylate transporter 1(MCT1), MCT2, and MCT4, using RT-PCR and affinity-purified rabbit antibody (Ab) to the C-terminal segment of each human MCT. Transcripts of all three MCTs were identified in each leukocyte fraction by RT-PCR and proven by sequencing of fragments extracted after isolation on agarose gels. Transporter protein of the appropriate size was demonstrated for each of the monocarboxylate transporters MCTs in lymphocytes and monocytes by Western blot, while lower-molecular-weight bands were found in granulocytes and are presumed to be degraded forms, because they were blocked by antibody-antigen (Ab-Ag) preincubation. IHC demonstrated all three MCTs in methanol-fixed droplets of all three leukocyte fractions; stain was abolished on omission of the primary Ab. Plasmalemmal staining occurred with all MCTs in all leukocyte fractions. Because the Km for lactate increases approximately fivefold at each step, with MCT2<1<4, leukocytes must use the full range of lactate binding to survive in acidic and hypoxic environments. Except for MCT4 in lymphocytes, all the MCTs also stained leukocyte cytoplasm, often with distinct granularity. Nuclear membrane staining was also seen with MCT1 and MCT2, while platelet plasmalemma stained only with MCT2. PMID:15505343

  17. The recombinant 65-kD heat shock protein of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin/M. tuberculosis is a target molecule for CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes that lyse human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ottenhoff, T H; Ab, B K; Van Embden, J D; Thole, J E; Kiessling, R

    1988-11-01

    Since little is known about Tc cells in the human immune response to intracellular parasites, we have studied the role of Tc cells in response to M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Donors whose PBMC responded to BCG, purified protein derivative (PPD), and the recombinant 65-kD heat shock protein (HSP) of BCG generated BCG/PPD-specific CD4+ effector T lymphocytes that lysed PPD as well as recombinant 65-kD-pulsed monocytes. Nonpulsed or irrelevant antigen-pulsed target cells were lysed to a much lower but still significant extent. PPD-stimulated effector lymphocytes of a recombinant 65-kD nonresponder lysed PPD but not recombinant 65-kD-pulsed monocytes. Recombinant 65-kD-educated effector lymphocytes lysed both recombinant 65-kD- and PPD-pulsed monocytes. In addition, these effector cells efficiently lysed nonpulsed target cells. These results demonstrate that in recombinant 65-kD responders, the recombinant 65-kD HSP of BCG is an immunodominant target as well as a triggering molecule for BCG/PPD-specific CD4+ cytotoxic T cells that lyse autologous monocytes. The implications of these findings with respect to the role of the 65-kD HSP in autoimmunity are discussed. PMID:2903217

  18. Prognostic value of peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Shu; Li, Bao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Although accumulating evidence suggests peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) could act as a prognosis predictor in various tumors, the prognostic value of LMR still remains controversial. We carried out this meta-analysis to evaluate the association of pretreatment LMR with survival outcomes in patients with solid tumors. Methods Eligible studies were collected and extracted by searching PubMed and Embase databases up to June 3, 2015. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to assess the prognostic value of LMR quantitatively. Results Eighteen studies with a total of 8,377 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Our findings indicated that elevated pre-treatment LMR predicted a significantly favorable overall survival (HR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.53–0.67) and disease-free survival (HR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.68–0.80) in solid tumor patients. Subgroup analyses revealed that enhanced LMR was significantly associated with favorable overall survival in patients with digestive system cancers (HR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.49–0.81), urinary tract tumors (HR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.52–0.84), lung cancer (HR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.54–0.72), and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (HR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.43–0.57). Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that enhanced LMR may indicate a favorable prognosis in patients with solid tumors. PMID:26730202

  19. IL-12 producing monocytes and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha producing T-lymphocytes are increased in placentas infected by Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Fievet, Nadine; Doucour, Souleymane; Ngom, Mamadou; Andrieu, Muriel; Mathieu, Jean-Franois; Gaye, Alioune; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Deloron, Philippe

    2007-06-01

    Placental Plasmodium falciparum sequestration is associated with dysregulated immune function. Placental inflammatory responses via IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha are implicated in functional damage. However, they are needed during placental infection to control asexual stage parasites. To test the hypothesis that placental immunomodulation associated with malaria disturbs cytokine secretion differently in monocytes and lymphocytes, we have determined the proportion of monocytes and/or lymphocytes secreting IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and IL-12. Intervillous and peripheral blood monocyte (CD14+) and lymphocyte (CD3/CD4+; CD3/CD8+) cytokine production was compared between 17 P. falciparum-infected and 12 non-infected Senegalese women. After culture with phorbolmyristate acetate/ionomycin (PMA/iono), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE), the intracellular expression of cytokines in lymphocytes (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha) and monocytes (IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha), was detected. In response to IE, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells produced IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha at similar rates in both compartments. In response to PMA/iono, the frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells producing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were similar in both compartments, but increased in P. falciparum-infected placentas. In response to LPS or IE, IL-12 secreting monocytes were increased in infected women, while the frequency of TNF-alpha secreting monocytes was decreased compared to that in non-infected placenta. The monocyte IL-12 response is not impaired in infected women. IL-12 is an important factor for inducing IFN-gamma in T-cells. Thus, IL-12 and IFN-alpha responses may synergistically allow a protective immune response in placental malaria. TNF-alpha production by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells is up-regulated in P. falciparum-infected placentas, suggesting that T-cells actively participate to inflammatory responses. PMID:17194481

  20. Lymphocyte subpopulations of workers in a plant producing plastic materials (preliminary study).

    PubMed

    Boscolo, P; Di Gioacchino, M; Cervone, M; Di Giacomo, F; Bavazzano, P; Giuliano, G

    1995-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 31 men working in a plant producing plastic materials in relation with control groups of similar age and smoking habit. 8 workers (group A) were exposed to solvents (mainly methylethylketone and dimethylformamide), 8 men (group B) to dust containing particles of calcium carbonate, polyvinylchloride, phtalates, unsaturated oils, paraffin wax, iron oxides, titanium bioxides, barium, zinc and lead and 15 men (group C), working in the same department as group B, were studied after a period of 16 months during which lead chromate was employed in the preparation of colors. The lymphocyte subpopulations were normal in group A, while in B there was a significant increase of HLA-DR + cells (monocytes, B and activated T lymphocytes). In group C, T helper/inducer lymphocytes (mainly CD4(+)-CD45RO- "virgin" lymphocytes), CD19+ B lymphocytes, CD3-HLADR+ and CD3-CD25+ (activated B lymphocytes and monocytes) were significantly reduced without changes of serum IgM, IgG and IgA. Highly significant correlation was found between B lymphocytes (reduced in the workers about 40%) and CD4(+)-CD45R0+ "memory" lymphocytes (reduced about 20%). Moreover, blood lead (correlated with urinary chromium) showed a highly significant negative correlation with the B lymphocytes. This study demonstrates that combined exposure to toxic agents produces specific modifications in the lymphocyte subsets without changes in immunoglobulins and confirms the results of previous researches showing that the exposure to lead or chromate induces reduction of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. PMID:8940654

  1. Peripheral blood lymphocyte/monocyte ratio as a useful prognostic factor in dogs with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving chemoimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Marconato, Laura; Martini, Valeria; Stefanello, Damiano; Moretti, Pierangelo; Ferrari, Roberta; Comazzi, Stefano; Laganga, Paola; Riondato, Fulvio; Aresu, Luca

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most frequent canine lymphoid neoplasm. Despite treatment, the majority of dogs with DLBCL experience tumour relapse and consequently die, so practical models to characterise dogs with a poor prognosis are needed. This study examined whether the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) can predict outcome in dogs with newly diagnosed DLBCL with regard to time-to-progression (TTP) and lymphoma specific survival (LSS). A retrospective study analysed the prognostic significance of LMR obtained at diagnosis by flow cytometry (based on morphological properties and CD45 expression) in 51 dogs that underwent complete staging and received the same treatment, comprising multi-agent chemotherapy and administration of an autologous vaccine. Dogs with an LMR???1.2 (30% of all cases) were found to have significantly shorter TTP and LSS, and it was concluded that LMR was a useful independent prognostic indicator with biological relevance in dogs with DLBCL treated with chemoimmunotherapy. PMID:26403958

  2. A Low Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio Predicts Unfavorable Prognosis in Pathological T3N0 Rectal Cancer Patients Following Total Mesorectal Excision.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Lu-Ning; You, Kai-Yun; Huang, Rong; Yu, Xin; Ding, Pei-Rong; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment option for stage II and III rectal cancer. However, for pT3N0 rectal cancer patients who receive upfront TME, the lack of an efficient method to predict their prognosis hampers postoperative treatment. A low lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis for certain malignancies; however, this association has not been investigated in rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether LMR can predict the prognosis of pT3N0 rectal cancer patients following TME. Rectal cancer patients who received radical TME without preoperative treatment between June 2004 and Nov. 2011 at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Counts for pre-surgery peripheral absolute lymphocytes and monocytes were obtained and used to calculate the LMR. A retrospective cohort of 280 pT3N0 rectal cancer patients who received TME was recruited. Significantly worse disease-free survival can be observed in patients with lower LMR levels (<3.78) using univariate and multivariate analyses (P=0.01 and P=0.015, respectively). Subgroup analysis in patients with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and LMR <3.78 exhibited an accumulated 5-year disease failure rate of approximately 40%, whereas patients with normal CEA regardless of LMR and patients with LMR ?3.78 exhibited accumulated 5-year disease failure rates of only approximately 15%. Low pre-surgery peripheral LMR was significantly unfavorable for pT3N0 rectal cancer patient prognosis, especially in patients with elevated CEA. This easily obtained variable might serve as a valuable marker to predict the outcomes of pT3N0 rectal cancer and indicate appropriate postoperative management. PMID:26078791

  3. Respective roles and interactions of T-lymphocyte and PGE2-mediated monocyte suppressive activities in human newborns and mothers at the time of delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Mamas, S.; Dray, F.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-06-01

    Recently the concept of a poorly functional humoral immune response in the newborn was proposed. Data have been presented indicating that the impaired newborn B cell maturation, as shown in vitro in a pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell maturation system, is due both to an immaturity of lymphocyte subsets and to an increased suppressive T activity. In the present work, we present evidence that there exists a predominance of a naturally occurring T lymphocyte suppressive activity in the cord blood in that the removal of the suppressive activity by irradiation allows a normal maturation of newborn B cells. Such normal maturation of newborn B cells can also be obtained using mixed cultures of adult T cells and newborn B cells. Newborn suppressor T cells belong to both EA gamma (+) and EA gamma (-) fractions, and it is not known whether these two groups do or do not belong to different subsets. The PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activity does not play any role in the suppression observed in newborns since newborn monocytes are poorly suppressive and since they produce a smaller amount of PGE2 than adult monocytes. Some observations suggest, on the contrary, that the suppressive T lymphocytes can regulate the level of the PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activity. It should be noticed that similar observations about T lymphocyte and PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activities have been made at the same time using mothers' cells. These observations suggest the possibility that such changes in B cell immune regulation may result from an interaction between maternal and fetal lymphoid cells.

  4. The Peripheral Blood Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio Is Superior to the Lymphocyte-To-Monocyte Ratio for Predicting the Long-Term Survival of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaping; Zhang, Xiaolan; Chen, Kai; Su, Fengxi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The peripheral hematologic parameters of patients can be prognostic for many malignant tumors, including breast cancer, although their value has not been investigated among the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods A retrospective cohort of 1570 operable breast cancer patients was recruited between January 2000 and December 2010. The counts of peripheral neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets were collected and applied to calculate the NLR and the LMR. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to assess the relationship of the NLR and the LMR with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in all patients and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Results Univariate analysis revealed that lower NLR (?2.0) and higher LMR (>4.8) were significantly associated with superior DFS in all patients (NLR, P = 0.005; LMR, P = 0.041) and in TNBC patients (NLR, p = 0.007; LMR, P = 0.011). However, multivariate analysis revealed that only lower NLR was a significant independent predictor of superior DFS and OS in all breast cancer patients (DFS, HR = 1.50 95% CI: 1.141.97, P = 0.004; OS, HR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.072.49, P = 0.022) and in TNBC patients (DFS, HR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.235.42, P = 0.012; OS, HR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.088.61, P = 0.035). Both univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that neither the NLR nor the LMR significantly predicted DFS and OS among the patients with other molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Conclusions A higher pretreatment peripheral NLR significantly and independently indicated a poor prognosis for breast cancer and TNBC, and this measurement exhibited greater prognostic value than a lower LMR. The NLR was not a prognostic factor for other breast cancer subtypes. PMID:26580962

  5. The association between the ratio of monocytes:lymphocytes at age 3 months and risk of tuberculosis (TB) in the first two years of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic studies revived a hypothesis suggested by historical studies in rabbits that the ratio of peripheral blood monocytes to lymphocytes (ML) is associated with risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. Recent data confirmed the hypothesis in cattle and in adults infected with HIV. Methods We tested this hypothesis in 1,336 infants (540 HIV-infected, 796 HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU)) prospectively followed in a randomized controlled trial of isoniazid prophylaxis in Southern Africa, the IMPAACT P1041 study. We modeled the relationship between ML ratio at enrollment (91 to 120 days after birth) and TB disease or death in HIV-infected children and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, TB disease or death in HEU children within 96 weeks (with 12 week window) of randomization. Infants were followed-up prospectively and routinely assessed for MTB exposure and outcomes. Cox proportional hazards models allowing for non-linear associations were used; in all cases linear models were the most parsimonious. Results Increasing ML ratio at baseline was significantly associated with TB disease/death within two years (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.17 per unit increase in ML ratio; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.34; P = 0.03). Neither monocyte count nor lymphocyte counts alone were associated with TB disease. The association was not statistically dissimilar between HIV infected and HEU children. Baseline ML ratio was associated with composite endpoints of TB disease and death and/or TB infection. It was strongest when restricted to probable and definite TB disease (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.89; P = 0.006). Therefore, per 0.1 unit increase in the ML ratio at three to four months of age, the hazard of probable or definite TB disease before two years was increased by roughly 4% (95% CI 1.7% to 6.6%). Conclusion Elevated ML ratio at three- to four-months old is associated with increased hazards of TB disease before two years among children in Southern Africa. While significant, the modest effect size suggests that the ML ratio plays a modest role in predicting TB disease-free survival; its utility may, therefore, be limited to combination with existing tools to stratify TB risk, or to inform underlying pathophysiologic determinants of TB disease. PMID:25034889

  6. [IMPACT OF VARIOUS MULTIPLICITY OF INFECTION OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS ON PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS INDUCTION IN CULTURED CELL LINES OF LYMPHOCYTIC AND MONOCYTIC ORIGIN (JURKAT, NC-37, THP-1 AND U-937)].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, T D; Danilenko, D M; Ilyinskaya, E V; Smirnova, S S; Eropkin, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The severity of disease caused by influenza A infection depends not only on biological characteristics of the virus but also on the number of viral particles than penetrate the body. T- and B-lymphocytes as well as monocytes (macrophages) play a key role in the development of cell-based and humoral immunity as well as influenza virus elimination from the body. The present study describes the effect of influenza A virus infection on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human cultured cell lines of T-, B-lymphocytic and monocytic origin infected with various multiplicity of infection (moi). Low moi of the virus stimulated cell proliferation; maximal effect has been registered 3-4 days after infection. But the fate of T-cells, B-cells and monocytes after initial infection was different: Jurkat cells continued intense proliferation while proliferation of NC-37, THP-1 and U-937 cells lowered. Prolonged (for 3 passages) cultivation of Jurkat, NC-37 and U-937 cell lines has shown that infection of these cell lines not only with low but also with medium and high moi also leads to stimulation of proliferation. Using a variety of methods for the detection of viral reproduction has clearly shown that infection of non-permissive human T-, B-cells and monocytes with influenza A virus leads to latent infection. So, low moi interferes with normal formation of viral particles, which in turn might stimulate cell proliferation and then be followed by induction of apoptosis. Antiviral drags rimantadine and ribavirin suppressed virus-induced cell proliferation; at the same time, induction of apoptosis was suppressed only by rimantadine and was enhanced by ribavirin. The data obtained provide strong support for the role of influenza A virus in the observed effects. PMID:26591065

  7. Predictive value of pretreatment inflammation-based prognostic scores (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio) for invasive bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Andrew; Hellawell, Giles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inflammation-based prognostic scores including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) are associated with oncologic outcomes in diverse malignancies. We evaluated the predictive value of pretreatment prognostic scores in differentiating nonmuscle invasive (NMIBC) and muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Materials and Methods Consecutive transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) cases from January 2011 to December 2013 were analysed retrospectively. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics and prognostic scores results were recorded. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to determine prognostic score cutoffs. Univariate and multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between variables and MIBC. Results A total of 226 patients were included, with 175 and 51 having NMIBC (stages Ta and T1) and MIBC (stage T2+) groups, respectively. Median age was 75 years and 174 patients were male. The NLR cutoff was 3.89 and had the greatest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.710, followed by LMR (cutoff<1.7; AUC, 0.650) and PLR (cutoff>218; AUC, 0.642). Full blood count samples were taken a median of 12 days prior to TURBT surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified tumour grade G3 (odds ration [OR], 32.848; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.818-109.902; p=0.000), tumour size?3 cm (OR, 3.353; 95% CI, 1.347-8.345; p=0.009) and NLR?3.89 (OR, 8.244; 95% CI, 2.488-27.316; p=0.001) as independent predictors of MIBC. Conclusions NLR may provide a simple, cost-effective and easily measured marker for MIBC. It can be performed at the time of diagnostic flexible cystoscopy, thereby assisting in the planning of further treatment. PMID:26568792

  8. Prognostic role of peripheral blood lymphocyte/monocyte ratio at diagnosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Baochai; Chen, Cuie; Qian, Yan; Feng, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of the absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio (ALC/AMC ratio) at diagnosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we performed a meta-analysis of published studies that provided survival information with reference to the ALC/AMC ratio at diagnosis. Nine studies covering a total of 4198 subjects were included in this analysis. The summary hazard ratios of low ALC/AMC ratio for overall survival were 2.00 (p = 0.000) in the population that received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and 1.12 (p = 0.479) in the population that received CHOP. The corresponding ratios for event-free survival and progression-free survival were 1.93 (p = 0.000) and 2.31 (p = 0.000) in the population that received R-CHOP. These results may justify risk-adapted therapeutic strategies for patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP to account for the ALC/AMC ratio at diagnosis. PMID:25686648

  9. Evidence for the involvement of monocyte-derived toxic oxygen metabolites in the lymphocyte dysfunction of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Deshazo, R D; Ewel, C; Londono, S; Metzger, Z; Hoffeld, J T; Oppenheim, J J

    1981-01-01

    This study was performed to see if adherent cell-derived toxic oxygen metabolites contribute to the suppression of mononuclear cell blastogenic responses in Hodgkin's disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 10 patients with Hodgkin's disease were stimulated in culture with the mitogen PHA in the presence of the prostaglandin inhibitor indomethacin and the antioxidants catalase or vitamin E. Patient lymphocytes showed significant increases in PHA-induced proliferation at all PHA doses when cultured with indomethacin. Further augmentation of lymphocyte proliferation was achieved with the addition of catalase or vitamin E to indomethacin in the culture system. The increases in proliferation seen on culture with these agents were greatest in patients with more depressed initial PHA responses. When adherent cells were removed before culture, the agents no longer facilitated increases in proliferation. These data suggest that abnormal lymphocyte proliferative responses seen in Hodgkin's disease may result in part from the excessive production of toxic oxygen metabolites as well as prostaglandins by adherent cell populations. PMID:7337972

  10. An Elevated Peripheral Blood Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Primary Pulmonary Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Long, Wen; Li, Peng-fei; Lin, Yong-bin; Liang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare type of non-small cell lung cancer. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the data from 74 consecutive patients with pulmonary LELC and investigated the prognostic value of pretreatment monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR). The cut-off value determined by ROC curve for MLR was 0.262. According to this cut-off value, 36 (48.6%) patients had lower MLR value (<0.262) at diagnosis. There was no significant correlation between MLR level and gender, age, smoking history, stage, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level. The 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year OS rate were 86%, 72%, and 61%, respectively; the 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year PFS rate were 71%, 63%, and 49%, respectively. In univariate analysis, advanced stage, elevated LDH level, and higher MLR value (> = 0.262) were significantly associated with poor OS and PFS. In a multivariate Cox regression model that included stage, LDH and MLR level, all of these three factors were found to be independent prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. In patients who received radical surgery, MLR level remained significantly correlated with OS and PFS. In conclusion, we firstly demonstrated that pretreatment MLR can be used as a useful independent prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary LELC, and might guide us to optimize the treatment strategies. However, due to the relatively rarity of this disease and the limitation of a retrospective study, further prospective studies performed in multicenter are necessary to validate the prognostic value of MLR in pulmonary LELC. PMID:25950432

  11. Circulating monocytes: an appropriate model for bone-related study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Deng, H-W; Shen, H

    2015-11-01

    Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) are an important source of precursors of osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells and the cytokines produced by PBMs that have profound effects on osteoclast differentiation, activation, and apoptosis. So PBMs represent a highly valuable and unique working cell model for bone-related study. Finding an appropriate working cell model for clinical and (epi-)genomic studies of human skeletal disorders is a challenge. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) can give rise to osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells. Particularly, PBMs provide the sole source of osteoclast precursors for adult peripheral skeleton where the bone marrow is normally hematopoietically inactive. PBMs can secrete potent pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which are important for osteoclast differentiation, activation, and apoptosis. Reduced production of PBM cytokines represents a major mechanism for the inhibitory effects of sex hormones on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Abnormalities in PBMs have been linked to various skeletal disorders/traits, strongly supporting for the biological relevance of PBMs with bone metabolism and disorders. Here, we briefly review the origin and further differentiation of PBMs. In particular, we discuss the close relationship between PBMs and osteoclasts, and highlight the utility of PBMs in study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying various skeletal disorders. PMID:26194495

  12. Studies on the metabolism of triphenylphosphate by carboxylesterases and human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Paxman, D.G. III.

    1988-01-01

    Resin workers exposed to triphenylphosphate (TPP), an organophosphate (OP) flame retardant and plasticizer, had a decreased expression of carboxylesterase (CBE) activity in their peripheral blood monocytes. The mechanisms of CBE inhibition by TPP were investigated using purified hog liver CBE and intact human monocytes. TPP inactivated hog liver CBE in a time and dose dependent manner, and this inhibition was partially reversed by alkaline phosphatase (AP). Analysis of ({sup 14}C)TPP metabolites from the enzymatic reaction by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GM-C) identified phenol as the hydrolytic metabolite of TPP. Human monocytes cultured with ({sup 14}C)TPP also released phenol. In addition to phenol, several phenol metabolites, such as catechol, hydroquinone, 2,2 biphenol and 4,4 biphenol were also generated by monocytes. An identical pattern of these metabolites was also formed from monocytes incubated with radiolabelled phenol. This cellular degradation of TPP was inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), but not observed in neutrophil or lymphocyte cultures. Activation of monocytes with gamma interferon (IFN-g), f-Met-Leu-Phe, and serum treated zymosan (STZ) enhanced the levels of phenolic metabolites and, further, shifted the metabolism of TPP towards the formation of the biphenolic metabolites.

  13. Induction of Th17 Lymphocytes and Treg Cells by Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Capetillo, Lizbeth; Hernndez-Castro, Berenice; Monsivis-Urenda, Adriana; Alvarez-Quiroga, Crisol; Layseca-Espinosa, Esther; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Baranda, Lourdes; Urzainqui, Ana; Snchez-Madrid, Francisco; Gonzlez-Amaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have a key role in the regulation of immune response. We herein explored, in patients with inflammatory diseases, the role of monocyte derived DC's (mo-DCs) on the generation of Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Peripheral blood was obtained from thirty-five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), twelve with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and twenty healthy subjects. Mo-DCs were generated under standard (IL-4/GM-CSF) or tolerogenic (IL-4/GM-CSF plus recombinant P-selectin or PD-1 or IL-10) conditions, and their ability to induce Th17 and Treg lymphocytes was tested. We detected that mo-DCs from patients with RA showed an enhanced release of IL-6 and IL-23 as well as an increased capability to induce Th17 cells. Although mo-DCs from SLE patients also released high levels of IL-6/IL-23, it did not show an increased ability to induce Th17 lymphocytes. In addition, mo-DCs, from patients with RA and SLE generated under the engagement of PSGL-1, showed a defective capability to induce Foxp3+ Treg cells. A similar phenomenon was observed in SLE, when DC's cells were generated under PDL-1 engagement. Our data indicate that DCs from patients with rheumatic inflammatory disease show an aberrant function that may have an important role in the pathogenesis of these conditions. PMID:24288552

  14. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Torpey, D.J. III

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

  15. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: very long-chain fatty acid metabolism is severely impaired in monocytes but not in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Weber, Franziska D; Wiesinger, Christoph; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Regelsberger, Günther; Einwich, Angelika; Weber, Willi H A; Köhler, Wolfgang; Stockinger, Hannes; Berger, Johannes

    2014-05-15

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, encoding a member of the peroxisomal ABC transporter family. The ABCD1 protein transports CoA-activated very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) into peroxisomes for degradation via β-oxidation. In the severest form, X-ALD patients suffer from inflammatory demyelination of the brain. As the extent of the metabolic defect in the main immune cells is unknown, we explored their phenotypes concerning mRNA expression pattern of the three peroxisomal ABC transporters, VLCFA accumulation and peroxisomal β-oxidation. In controls, ABCD1 expression was high in monocytes, intermediate in B cells and low in T cells; ABCD2 expression was extremely low in monocytes, intermediate in B cells and highest in T cells; ABCD3 mRNA was equally distributed. In X-ALD patients, the expression patterns remained unaltered; accordingly, monocytes, which lack compensatory VLCFA transport by ABCD2, displayed the severest biochemical phenotype with a 6-fold accumulation of C26:0 and a striking 70% reduction in peroxisomal β-oxidation activity. In contrast, VLCFA metabolism was close to control values in B cells and T cells, supporting the hypothesis that sufficient ABCD2 is present to compensate for ABCD1 deficiency. Thus, the vulnerability of the main immune cell types is highly variable in X-ALD. Based on these results, we propose that in X-ALD the halt of inflammation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation relies particularly on the replacement of the monocyte lineage. Additionally, these findings support the concept that ABCD2 is a target for pharmacological induction as an alternative therapeutic strategy. PMID:24363066

  16. Allergy or Tolerance: Reduced Inflammatory Cytokine Response and Concomitant IL-10 Production of Lymphocytes and Monocytes in Symptom-Free Titanium Dental Implant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter; Wollenberg, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to titanium (Ti) are very rare. Thus, we assessed the proinflammatory response and also potential tolerance favoring in vitro reactivity of human blood lymphocytes and monocytes (PBMC) to Ti in healthy individuals (14 without, 6 with complication-free dental Ti implants). The proliferation index (SI) in lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and production of cytokines linked to innate immune response (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF?) or immune regulation (IL-10) were assessed in response to TiO2 particles or Ti discs. In both groups, the Ti-LTT reactivity was not enhanced (e.g., SI < 3). The control antigen tetanus toxoid (TT) gave adequate reactivity (median SI individuals without/with implant: 20.6 5.97/19.58 2.99). Individuals without implant showed higher cytokine response to Ti materials than individuals with symptom-free implants; for example, TiO2 rutile particle induced increase of IL-1? 70.27-fold/8.49-fold versus control medium culture. PBMC of 5 of the 6 individuals with complication-free Ti implants showed an ex vivo ongoing production of IL-10 (mean 4.18 2.98?pg/mL)-but none of the 14 controls showed such IL-10 production. Thus in vitro IL-1?-, IL-6-, and TNF-? production reflects normal unspecific immune response to Ti. This might be reduced by production of tolerogenic IL-10 in individuals with symptom-free Ti dental implants. PMID:24106709

  17. Ultrastructural studies on dengue virus type 2 infection of cultured human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera, Jesus A; Hernandez, Juan Pablo; Valero, Nereida; Espina, Luz Marina; Aez, German J

    2005-01-01

    Background Early interaction of dengue virus and monocyte/macrophages could be an important feature for virus dissemination after its initial entry via the mosquito vector. Since ultrastructural analysis of this interaction has not been reported, dengue type 2 (DEN2) virus-infected human monocyte cultures were studied at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours after infection. Results Typical dengue particles and fuzzy coated viral particles were 35 to 42 nm and 74 to 85 nm respectively. Viruses were engulfed by phagocytosis and macropicnocytosis leading to huge vacuoles and phagosomes inside the monocytes. Interaction of monocytes with DEN2 virus induced apoptosis, characterized by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, cellular shrinkage, blebbing and budding phenomena and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by neighboring monocytes. This finding was confirmed by TUNEL. Ultrastructural features associated to DEN2 virus replication were not observed. Conclusion These data suggest that clearance of the virus by monocytes and cellular death are the main features during the initial interaction of DEN2 virus and monocytes and this could be important in the rapid elimination of the virus after infection by mosquito vector. PMID:15801983

  18. Interaction studies reveal specific recognition of an anti-inflammatory polyphosphorhydrazone dendrimer by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ledall, Jrmy; Fruchon, Sverine; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Turrin, Cdric-Olivier; Blanzat, Muriel; Poupot, Rmy

    2015-11-14

    Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes. PMID:26335052

  19. Phosphatidylcholine metabolism is altered in a monocyte-derived macrophage model of Gaucher disease but not in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Trajkovic-Bodennec, Selena; Bodennec, Jacques; Futerman, Anthony H

    2004-01-01

    Gaucher disease is caused by defective activity of acid-beta-glucosidase (GlcCerase), resulting in accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) mainly in macrophages. We now demonstrate that secondary biochemical pathways regulating levels of phospholipid metabolism are altered in a Gaucher disease macrophage model. Upon treatment of macrophages with the GlcCerase inhibitor, conduritol-B-epoxide, phosphatidylcholine (PC) labeling with the metabolic precursor, [methyl-14C]choline, was elevated after 6 or 12 days in macrophages but not in lymphocytes. These changes correlated with increases in the cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio and with levels of [3H]GlcCer accumulation. Moreover, metabolic labeling with L-[3-3H]serine and L-[methyl-3H]methionine demonstrated that PC synthesis via the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine is also increased in CBE-treated macrophages. Since PC is a major structural component of biological membranes and the source of various second messengers, we suggest that changes in its metabolism in macrophages may be relevant for understanding Gaucher disease pathology. PMID:15223015

  20. Intracellular cytokine production by Th1/Th2 lymphocytes and monocytes of children with symptomatic transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy (THI) and selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD)

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, D; Baran, J; Webster, A D B; Zembala, M

    2002-01-01

    Intracellular expression of several cytokines was assessed in lymphocytes and monocytes of children with transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy (THI) and selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD). THI was characterized by an increased frequency of CD3+/CD4+ lymphocytes expressing tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), TNF-? and interleukin 10 (IL-10), while in SIgAD elevated numbers of these cells containing TNF-? and interferon ? (IFN-?) were observed. No changes in the number of CD4+ T cells expressing IL-4 in both diseases were noted. The proportion of CD33+ monocytes containing TNF-? both in THI and SIgAD was unchanged. The secretion of IL-12 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with THI and SIgAD was significantly elevated and associated with an increased frequency of IL-12 expressing monocytes in THI but not in SIgAD. IL-18 secretion was slightly, but not significantly, elevated in both diseases. Intracellular Th1 and Th2 type cytokines within CD3+/CD4+ lymphocytes were also determined in the normal blood donors that showed high or low production of IgG and IgA in vitro. In low producers of IgG an increased proportion of CD3+/CD4+ cells expressing TNF-? and IFN-? was found, while in low IgA responders only elevated TNF-? positive CD3+/CD4+ cells were observed. These results suggest that THI and SIgAD may represent diseases with an excessive Th1 type response that is associated with an up-regulation of IL-12 secretion and, at least in THI, elevated numbers of monocytes expressing intracellular IL-12. Up-regulation of IL-12 may be the essential factor in the patomechanism(s) of these diseases as already described in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). PMID:11966768

  1. Cyclic dinucleotides modulate human T-cell response through monocyte cell death.

    PubMed

    Tosolini, Marie; Pont, Frdric; Verhoeyen, Els; Fourni, Jean-Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides, a class of microbial messengers, have been recently identified in bacteria, but their activity in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we have studied the function of cyclic dinucleotides in humans. We found that c-di-AMP and cGAMP, two adenosine-based cyclic dinucleotides, activated T lymphocytes in an unusual manner through monocyte cell death. c-di-AMP and cGAMP induced the selective apoptosis of human monocytes, and T lymphocytes were activated by the direct contact with these dying monocytes. The ensuing T-cell response comprised cell-cycle exit, phenotypic maturation into effector memory cells and proliferation arrest, but not cell death. This quiescence was transient since T cells remained fully responsive to further restimulation. Together, our results depict a novel activation pattern for human T lymphocytes: a transient quiescence induced by c-di-AMP- or cGAMP-primed apoptotic monocytes. PMID:26460927

  2. Interaction studies reveal specific recognition of an anti-inflammatory polyphosphorhydrazone dendrimer by human monocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledall, Jérémy; Fruchon, Séverine; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Blanzat, Muriel; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-10-01

    Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes.Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03884g

  3. Altered monocyte activation markers in Tourettes syndrome: a casecontrol study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infections and immunological processes are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of Tourettes syndrome (TS). To determine possible common underlying immunological mechanisms, we focused on innate immunity and studied markers of inflammation, monocytes, and monocyte-derived cytokines. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we used current methods to determine the number of monocytes and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in 46 children, adolescents, and adult patients suffering from TS and in 43 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble CD14 (sCD14), IL1-receptor antagonist (IL1-ra), and serum neopterin were detected by immunoassays. Results We found that CRP and neopterin levels and the number of monocytes were significantly higher in TS patients than in healthy controls. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, sIL1-ra, and sCD14 were significantly lower in TS patients. All measured values were within normal ranges and often close to detection limits. Conclusions The present results point to a monocyte dysregulation in TS. This possible dysbalance in innate immunity could predispose to infections or autoimmune reactions. PMID:22471395

  4. Cannabidiol induced a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect between freshly isolated and precultured human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Ying; Chang, An-Chi; Wang, Chia-Chi; Kuo, Fu-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ya; Liu, Der-Zen; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2010-08-01

    It has been documented that cannabidiol (CBD) induced apoptosis in a variety of transformed cells, including lymphocytic and monocytic leukemias. In contrast, a differential sensitivity between normal lymphocytes and monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis has been reported. The present study investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD on human peripheral monocytes that were either freshly isolated or precultured for 72h. CBD markedly enhanced apoptosis of freshly isolated monocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas precultured monocytes were insensitive. By comparison, both cells were sensitive to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. CBD significantly diminished the cellular thiols and glutathione in freshly isolated monocytes. The apoptosis induced by CBD was abrogated in the presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a precursor of glutathione. In addition, precultured monocytes contained a significantly greater level of glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) compared to the freshly isolated cells. The HO-1 competitive inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin partially but significantly restored the sensitivity of precultured monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrated a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect of CBD between precultured and freshly isolated monocytes, which was closely associated with the cellular level of glutathione and the antioxidative capability of the cells. PMID:20471992

  5. Cannabidiol induced a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect between freshly isolated and precultured human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hsin-Ying; Chang, An-Chi; Wang, Chia-Chi; Kuo, Fu-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ya; Liu, Der-Zen; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2010-08-01

    It has been documented that cannabidiol (CBD) induced apoptosis in a variety of transformed cells, including lymphocytic and monocytic leukemias. In contrast, a differential sensitivity between normal lymphocytes and monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis has been reported. The present study investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD on human peripheral monocytes that were either freshly isolated or precultured for 72 h. CBD markedly enhanced apoptosis of freshly isolated monocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas precultured monocytes were insensitive. By comparison, both cells were sensitive to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. CBD significantly diminished the cellular thiols and glutathione in freshly isolated monocytes. The apoptosis induced by CBD was abrogated in the presence of N-acetyl-{sub L}-cysteine, a precursor of glutathione. In addition, precultured monocytes contained a significantly greater level of glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) compared to the freshly isolated cells. The HO-1 competitive inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin partially but significantly restored the sensitivity of precultured monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrated a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect of CBD between precultured and freshly isolated monocytes, which was closely associated with the cellular level of glutathione and the antioxidative capability of the cells.

  6. Impact of Human Granulocyte and Monocyte Isolation Procedures on Functional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lu; Somasundaram, Rajesh; Nederhof, Rosa F.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Faber, Klaas Nico; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the first lines of defense against infection is the activation of the innate immune system. It is becoming clear that autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease, may be caused by disturbed innate immunity, and relating granulocyte and monocyte functions to the patient genotype has become an important part of contemporary research. Although it is essential to move this field forward, a systematic study comparing the efficacy and suitability for functional studies of the various available protocols for the isolation of these immune cells has not been performed. Here, we compare human granulocyte functionality under three enrichment protocols: (i) Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, (ii) anti-CD15 antibody-conjugated microbeads (positive selection), and (iii) Polymorphoprep. Primary monocytes were isolated in parallel using (i) anti-CD14 magnetic microbeads, (ii) non-monocyte depletion by antibody-conjugated magnetic microbeads (negative selection), (iii) RosetteSep antibody cocktail, and (iv) the classical adherence protocol. The best results in terms of purity and cell functionality were obtained with positive selection by magnetic microbeads for both human granulocytes and monocytes. Whereas phagocytosis of Escherichia coli bacteria was identical in all isolation procedures tested, the granulocyte respiratory burst was higher in positively selected cells. In addition, different granulocyte enrichment procedures affect cell surface receptor expression to different extents. In toto, we propose that positive selection of granulocytes and monocytes be adopted as the procedure of choice for studies of human granulocyte and monocyte functions but caution investigators to be aware of possible alterations in cell phenotypes with different isolation procedures. PMID:22552601

  7. Studies on the accessory requirement for T lymphocyte activation by concanavalin A.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R B; Whelan, A; Feighery, C

    1986-01-01

    In this study we have examined the interactions between accessory cells (AC) and T cells in response to Con A. Highly purified peripheral blood T cells and AC exposed to a variety of treatments were used. We found that untreated AC provided optimal help for T cell proliferation and this was not mediated by soluble factors since whole cells could not be replaced with supernatants from activated AC. Furthermore, cycloheximide-treated AC were able to supply the accessory signal although unable to elaborate soluble activation factors. To find out more about the accessory signal, we examined the ability of monocytes mildly fixed with glutaraldehyde to supply help. These cells were completely unable to perform as AC, although they were viable and had unaltered surface antigen expression. They could not secrete activation factors, but this alone could not explain their inability to supply help because this function was not restored with the addition of soluble activation factors. This indicated that AC-T cell contact was of prime importance to accessory function. To investigate the possibility that AC work by cross-linking structures on the lymphocyte surface, we attempted to substitute for the soluble Con A plus AC with Con A bound to the surface of erythrocytes. Comparable stimulation was observed, suggesting that the cross-linking of Con A-bound structures on the lymphocyte surface generates the accessory signal. PMID:3100115

  8. Lymphocyte Migration into Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ley, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but the recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to atherosclerotic lesions is not as well studied as that of monocytes. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of lymphocyte subsets in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and discuss chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in lymphocyte homing to atherosclerotic lesions. We review evidence for involvement of the chemokines CCL5, CCL19, CCL21, CXCL10, CXCL16 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in lymphocyte homing in atherosclerosis. Also, we review the role of their receptors CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR6, CXCR2/CXCR4 and the role of the L-selectin in mouse models of atherosclerosis. PMID:25301842

  9. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, R. A.; Bernard, S. M.; Bird, C. C.; Darwin, C. M.; O'Brien, C.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; McKinney, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, immune perturbation demonstrated by excessive previous skin diseases and phenylbutazone use, and viral involvement shown by links with infectious diseases and multiple sclerosis. PMID:3304389

  10. Expansion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes is related to acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xin-Quan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hong-Ai; Yuan, Ning; Hou, Pei-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Qiang; Wu, Tuo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Objective: Aim to investigate the proportion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes and understand the pathogenesis of this monocyte subset in acute leukemia. Methods: Flow cytometry was utilized to study the phenotype expression of CD14+CD16+ monocytes and CD3+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood derived from patients with acute leukemia. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software. Results: The proportion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes including both intermediate and non-classical monocytes, increased significantly in patients with acute leukemia and changed negatively or positively according to the disease process. Meanwhile, the proportion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes was inversely correlated with absolute number of CD4+ T lymphocytes, ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells, and positively correlated with the proportion of neutrophil granulocytes. Conclusions: The proportion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes (especially the intermediate subpopulation) is related to the progression of acute leukemia, and the expansion of this monocyte subset could indicate the severity of the disease. PMID:26550139

  11. Altered T Lymphocyte Proliferation upon Lipopolysaccharide Challenge Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Poujol, Fanny; Monneret, Guillaume; Pachot, Alexandre; Textoris, Julien; Venet, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Context Sepsis is characterized by the development of adaptive immune cell alterations, which intensity and duration are associated with increased risk of health-care associated infections and mortality. However, pathophysiological mechanisms leading to such lymphocyte dysfunctions are not completely understood, although both intrinsic lymphocyte alterations and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) dysfunctions are most likely involved. Study The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS, mimicking initial Gram negative bacterial challenge) could directly impact lymphocyte function after sepsis. Therefore, we explored ex-vivo the effect of LPS priming on human T lymphocyte proliferation induced by different stimuli. Results We showed that LPS priming of PBMCs reduced T cell proliferative response and altered IFN? secretion after stimulation with OKT3 but not with phytohaemagglutinin or anti-CD2/CD3/CD28-coated beads stimulations. Interestingly only LPS priming of monocytes led to decreased T cell proliferative response as opposed to LPS priming of lymphocytes. Importantly, LPS priming was associated with reduced expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and CD64 on monocytes but not with the modification of CD3, CTLA4, PD-1 and CD28 expressions on lymphocytes. Finally, IFN? stimulation restored monocytes accessory functions and T cell proliferative response to OKT3. Conclusion We conclude that LPS priming does not directly impact lymphocyte functions but reduces APCs capacity to activate T cells. This recapitulates ex vivo indirect mechanisms participating in sepsis-induced lymphocyte alterations and suggests that monocyte-targeting immunoadjuvant therapies in sepsis may also help to improve adaptive immune dysfunctions. Direct mechanisms impacting lymphocytes being also at play during sepsis, the respective parts of direct versus indirect sepsis-induced lymphocyte alterations remain to be evaluated in clinic. PMID:26642057

  12. Mitogenic signal transduction in T lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.; Bechler, B.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Criswell, S. B.; Joller, H.; Joller, P.; Hunzinger, E.; Muller, O.

    1993-01-01

    The activation by concanavalin A Con A of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in the presence of monocytes as accessory cells was investigated in cultures exposed to microgravity conditions in Spacelab. Activation of T cells was measured as incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-gamma, and expression of IL-2 receptors. Whereas, as discovered in earlier experiments, the activation of resuspended T cells is strongly inhibited, activation of cells attached to microcarrier beads is more than doubled in microgravity. The results suggest that the depression of the activation in resuspended cells may be attributed to a malfunction of monocytes acting as accessory cells. In fact, although the ultrastructure of resuspended monocytes is not altered in microgravity, the secretion of IL-1 is strongly inhibited. Our data suggest that (1) IL-2 is produced independently of IL-1, (2) IL-1 production is triggered only when monocytes (and lymphocytes?) adhere to microcarriers, (3) the expression of IL-2 receptors depends on IL-1, and (4) provided sufficient IL-1 is available, activation is enhanced in microgravity. Finally, cultures of resuspended PBLs and monocytes in microgravity constitute a complete and natural system in which monocytes are not operational. This may be useful for studies of the role of accessory cells and cell-cell interactions in T lymphocyte activation.

  13. Stimulation of Subpopulations of Human Lymphocytes by a Vaccine Strain of Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Trnvik, Arne; Holm, Stig E.

    1978-01-01

    When purified T lymphocytes from individuals vaccinated with a viable, attenuated strain of Francisella tularensis were incubated in vitro in the presence of heat-killed bacteria or a membrane preparation of the vaccine strain, they were stimulated to form blast cells and to synthesize deoxyribonucleic acid. The blast cells had the characteristics of T cells, being devoid of surface immunoglobulin and able to form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. The stimulation occurred only when monocytes were present. A lymphocyte preparation enriched in B lymphocytes did not respond to the heat-killed bacteria or to the membrane preparation. In a stimulated mononuclear leukocyte preparation, about 70% of the blast cells formed rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, and 10 to 20% of them had surface immunoglobulin. The results show that there is an enlarged population of specifically committed T lymphocytes after tularemia vaccination. It is suggested that the lymphocyte stimulation test measures mainly T-lymphocyte reactivity when membranes or whole bacteria of F. tularensis LVS are used as antigen, and that the stimulation of human T lymphocytes by whole bacteria or bacterial membranes is completely monocyte or macrophage dependent. The present experimental procedure may provide a model for study of antigen-induced stimulation of human lymphocytes under controlled conditions. The technique used gave a reproducible, extremely purified preparation of T lymphocytes and a preparation of monocytes especially suitable for microcultures. PMID:307538

  14. Genotoxicity study in lymphocytes of offset printing workers.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Hseyin; Yilmaz, Serkan; Celik, Mustafa; Yzba?ioglu, Deniz; Unal, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    The potential cytogenetic damage in offset printing workers was evaluated using sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) as biomarkers in peripheral lymphocytes of 26 volunteers (14 workers, 12 controls). The CA, SCE and MN frequency of offset printing workers was significantly higher than in their controls. The replication index (RI) was not affected while the mitotic index (MI) was affected most in the workers. It can be concluded from this study that chronic occupational exposure to printing dyes and thinner may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among offset printing workers. PMID:16158391

  15. Retrospective Single Center Study of Granulocyte Monocyte Adsorption Apheresis Treatment in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Edfors, Kajsa; Sthlberg, Dagny; Sderman, Charlotte

    2016-02-01

    Patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have elevated and activated myeloid leukocytes, which infiltrate the intestinal mucosa. A significant proportion of IBD patients do not respond adequately to conventional treatment regimes. Studies have suggested that treatment with granulocyte monocyte apheresis (GMA) could be a safe and efficacious alternative for these patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of granulocyte/monocyte apheresis in patients with IBD in a retrospective cohort study, conducted from a single center in Stockholm. Clinical details from consecutive apheresis treated patients were retrospectively reviewed from 2004 to 2012. A total of 37 patients were included, 23 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 14 with Crohn's disease (CD). Clinical response was seen in 11 patients (30%) and complete remission in 11 patients (30%). The remission rate was higher in UC patients compared to CD patients, 39% (N = 9) and 14% (N = 2) respectively. A total of 9 patients experienced adverse events. Most frequently reported was headache (N = 4). GMA seems to be a valuable adjuvant treatment regime in the care of patients with refractory IBD. PMID:26841133

  16. Gene expression studies of a human monocyte cell line identify dissimilarities between differently manufactured glatiramoids

    PubMed Central

    Kolitz, Sarah; Hasson, Tal; Towfic, Fadi; Funt, Jason M.; Bakshi, Shlomo; Fowler, Kevin D.; Laifenfeld, Daphna; Grinspan, Augusto; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Birnberg, Tal; Schwartz, Rivka; Komlosh, Arthur; Hayardeny, Liat; Ladkani, David; Hayden, Michael R.; Zeskind, Benjamin; Grossman, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Glatiramer Acetate (GA) has provided safe and effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients for two decades. It acts as an antigen, yet the precise mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, and no validated pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic biomarkers exist. In order to better characterize GA’s biological impact, genome-wide expression studies were conducted with a human monocyte (THP-1) cell line. Consistent with previous literature, branded GA upregulated anti-inflammatory markers (e.g. IL10), and modulated multiple immune-related pathways. Despite some similarities, significant differences were observed between expression profiles induced by branded GA and Probioglat, a differently-manufactured glatiramoid purported to be a generic GA. Key results were verified using qRT-PCR. Genes (e.g. CCL5, adj. p < 4.1 × 10−5) critically involved in pro-inflammatory pathways (e.g. response to lipopolysaccharide, adj. p = 8.7 × 10−4) were significantly induced by Probioglat compared with branded GA. Key genes were also tested and confirmed at the protein level, and in primary human monocytes. These observations suggest differential biological impact by the two glatiramoids and warrant further investigation. PMID:25998228

  17. Gene expression studies of a human monocyte cell line identify dissimilarities between differently manufactured glatiramoids.

    PubMed

    Kolitz, Sarah; Hasson, Tal; Towfic, Fadi; Funt, Jason M; Bakshi, Shlomo; Fowler, Kevin D; Laifenfeld, Daphna; Grinspan, Augusto; Artyomov, Maxim N; Birnberg, Tal; Schwartz, Rivka; Komlosh, Arthur; Hayardeny, Liat; Ladkani, David; Hayden, Michael R; Zeskind, Benjamin; Grossman, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Glatiramer Acetate (GA) has provided safe and effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients for two decades. It acts as an antigen, yet the precise mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, and no validated pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic biomarkers exist. In order to better characterize GA's biological impact, genome-wide expression studies were conducted with a human monocyte (THP-1) cell line. Consistent with previous literature, branded GA upregulated anti-inflammatory markers (e.g. IL10), and modulated multiple immune-related pathways. Despite some similarities, significant differences were observed between expression profiles induced by branded GA and Probioglat, a differently-manufactured glatiramoid purported to be a generic GA. Key results were verified using qRT-PCR. Genes (e.g. CCL5, adj. p < 4.1 10(-5)) critically involved in pro-inflammatory pathways (e.g. response to lipopolysaccharide, adj. p = 8.7 10(-4)) were significantly induced by Probioglat compared with branded GA. Key genes were also tested and confirmed at the protein level, and in primary human monocytes. These observations suggest differential biological impact by the two glatiramoids and warrant further investigation. PMID:25998228

  18. Study of the infection of human blood derived monocyte/macrophages with hepatitis C virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Caussin-Schwemling, C; Schmitt, C; Stoll-Keller, F

    2001-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is essentially hepatotropic, but clinical observations based on quasispecies composition in different compartments or on viral RNA detection in cells suggest that the virus is able to infect and persist in cells other than liver cells. It was shown previously that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are permissive to HCV replication in vitro but at a very low rate. Since different viruses associated with chronic infections are known to persist in monocyte/macrophages, it is important to determine whether these mononuclear blood cells are susceptible preferentially to HCV. In order to study HCV interaction with monocytes/macrophages, these cells were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and incubated with HCV genotype 1b positive sera. The detection by RT-PCR of the positive- and negative-strand RNA in the cells at different times and the increase in the amount of intracellular viral RNA measured by the branched DNA assay suggest that monocyte/macrophages can support HCV RNA replication. The rate, however, is very low. The analysis of hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) nucleotide sequences indicated that some minor variant present in the inoculum might display a specific tropism for the monocytes/macrophages. These results provide evidence that human monocytes/macrophages might represent a reservoir for HCV. This cell tropism may be a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C. PMID:11505438

  19. Monocyte/macrophage trafficking in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalitis: lessons from human and nonhuman primate studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Bell, Christie; Croul, Sidney; Lewis, Mark; Rappaport, Jay

    2008-08-01

    Here the authors discuss evidence in human and animal models supporting two opposing views regarding the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the central nervous system (CNS): (1) HIV infection in the CNS is a compartmentalized infection, with the virus-infected macrophages entering the CNS early, infecting resident microglia and astrocytes, and achieving a state of latency with evolution toward a fulminant CNS infection late in the course of disease; or alternatively, (2) events in the periphery lead to altered monocyte/macrophage (MPhi) homeostasis, with increased CNS invasion of infected and/or uninfected MPhis. Here the authors have reevaluated evidence presented in the favor of the latter model, with a discussion of phenotypic characteristics distinguishing normal resident microglia with those accumulating in HIV encephalitis (HIVE). CD163 is normally expressed by perivascular MPhi s but not resident microglia in normal CNS of humans and rhesus macaques. In agreement with other studies, the authors demonstrate expression of CD163 by brain MPhi s in HIVE and simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (SIVE). CNS tissues from HIV-sero positive individuals with HIVE or HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) were also examined. In HIVE, the authors further demonstrate colocalization of CD163 and CD16 (Fcgamma III recptor) gene expression, the latter marker associated with HIV infection of monocyte in vivo and permissivity of infection. Indeed, CD163(+) MPhis and microglia are often productively infected in HIVE CNS. In SIV infected rhesus macaques, CD163(+) cells accumulate perivascularly, within nodular lesions and the parenchyma in animals with encephalitis. Likewise, parenchymal microglia and perivascular MPhi s are CD163(+) in HIVE. In contrast to HIVE, CD163(+)perivascular and parenchymal MPhi s in HIV-associated PML were only associated with areas of demyelinating lesions. Interestingly, SIV-infected rhesus macaques whose viral burden was predominantly at 1 x 10(6) copies/ml or greater developed encephalitis. To further investigate the relationship between CD163(+)/CD16(+) MPhis/microglia in the CNS and altered homeostasis in the periphery, the authors performed flow-cytometric analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The results demonstrate an increase in the percent frequency of CD163(+)/CD16(+) monocytes in animals with detectable virus that correlated significantly with increased viral burden and CD4(+) T-cell decline. These results suggest the importance of this monocyte subset in HIV/SIV CNS disease, and also in the immune pathogenesis of lentiviral infection. The authors further discuss the potential role of CD163(+)/CD16(+) monocyte/MPhi subset expansion, altered myeloid homeostasis, and potential consequences for immune polarization and suppression. The results and discussion here suggest new avenues for the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapeutics and vaccine design. PMID:18780233

  20. Characteristics of lipopolysaccharide interaction with human peripheral-blood monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, S J; Savage, N; Mitchell, D

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between radioiodinated lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 (125I-LPS) and human peripheral-blood monocytes was studied. The association of 125I-LPS with monocytes at 37 degrees C appeared to depend on binding to the cell membrane with subsequent internalization of the molecule, and was not saturable with time (up to 2 h) or 125I-LPS concentration (up to 10 micrograms/ml). There was no apparent difference in the behaviour of unlabelled LPS and 125I-LPS with respect to monocyte association. 125I-LPS association with monocytes was inhibited by LPS and O-polysaccharide from E. coli 0111:B4 and Salmonella typhi 0901, but not by lipid A or polymyxin B. We propose that the mechanism of human monocyte stimulation by LPS involves polysaccharide-dependent binding to the cell membrane followed by internalization of the LPS molecule. We were unable to demonstrate a specific LPS receptor such as that found on murine B-lymphocytes. PMID:3911946

  1. Optimal macroculture method for studying mitogenic stimulation of turkey lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tessler, J; Page, L A

    1978-01-01

    This report describes a method for culturing turkey lymphocytes in disposable, unwashed glass test tubes with Morton closures and for recovering lymphocytes on fiber glass filters with a cell harvester made of common laboratory equipment for assay of mitogenic stimulation. Optimal conditions for culture were established. PMID:352493

  2. Prion protein induced signaling cascades in monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, Bjarne; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia; Vassallo, Neville; Herms, Jochen; Kretzschmar, Hans A. . E-mail: Hans.Kretzschmar@med.uni-muenchen.de

    2006-02-03

    Prion proteins play a central role in transmission and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}), whose physiological function remains elusive, is anchored to the surface of a variety of cell types including neurons and cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this study, we investigated the response of a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line to exposure with PrP{sup C} fusion proteins synthesized with a human Fc-tag. PrP{sup C} fusion proteins showed an attachment to the surface of monocyte/macrophages in nanomolar concentrations. This was accompanied by an increase of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation as a result of activated signaling pathways. Detailed investigations exhibited activation of downstream pathways through a stimulation with PrP fusion proteins, which include phosphorylation of ERK{sub 1,2} and Akt kinase. Macrophages opsonize and present antigenic structures, contact lymphocytes, and deliver cytokines. The findings reported here may become the basis of understanding the molecular function of PrP{sup C} in monocytes and macrophages.

  3. Preliminary studies on the synthesis of alpha2-macroglobulin by human lymphocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tunstall, Anita M.; James, K.

    1974-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation studies with antisera to alpha2-macroglobulin (α2M) were undertaken on the supernatants and extracts of human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in serum free medium containing [14C]glutamine. These studies revealed that an appreciable amount of the [14C]glutamine was recovered in the α2M precipitate, suggesting that this protein was synthesized by lymphocytes. PMID:4143252

  4. Specific Role of Each Human Leukocyte Type in Viral Infections I. Monocyte as Host Cell for Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Robert; Wheelock, E. Frederick

    1967-01-01

    Each major leukocyte type of the peripheral blood of healthy donors was studied in vitro for its ability to support vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. Purified cultures of each white blood cell type were prepared by the selective adsorption and elution of cells from silicone-treated glass beads. It was found that monocytes and macrophages (derived from the rapid transformation of monocytes in vitro) were the principal host cells for VSV replication. Interferon added to mixed leukocyte cultures, prior to virus inoculation, reduced virus yields and prevented destruction of macrophages. Cultures of small lymphocytes, containing no detectable monocytes or macrophages, produced amounts of virus equivalent to 1% of that produced in leukocyte cultures which contained 7% monocytes. Small lymphocytes did not undergo demonstrable cytopathic alterations in virus-infected cultures. VSV neither replicated nor produced cytopathic effects in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Images PMID:4316248

  5. Separation of monocytes from whole human blood.

    PubMed

    Graham, John M

    2002-06-01

    Human peripheral blood monocytes are isolated by flotation from whole blood through a single low-density barrier prepared from OptiPrep at 4 degrees C. The separation from lymphocytes depends on the more rapid rate of flotation of the monocytes because of their slightly lower density and larger size. The method works optimally only with fresh (within 2 h of drawing) EDTA-anticoagulated blood. Preliminary evidence suggests that this technique may be applicable to blood from rats. PMID:12806136

  6. The ARIC Carotid MRI Study of Blood Cellular Markers: An Inverse Association of Monocyte Myeloperoxidase Content With Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matijevic (Aleksic), Nena; Wu, Kenneth K.; Nidkarni, Nivedita; Heiss, Gerardo; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association of blood monocyte and platelet activation markers with the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in a multicenter study of atherosclerosis among African American and Caucasian patients. Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells was performed in 1791 participants (209 cases with PAD and 1582 noncases) from the cross-sectional Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Carotid Magnetic Resonance Imaging ([MRI] ARIC Carotid MRI) Study to assess platelet glycoproteins IIb and IIIa, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, plateletleukocyte aggregates, monocyte lipopolysaccharide receptor, toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and myeloperoxidase. Multivariate regression analyses evaluated the association of cellular markers with the risk of PAD. After adjusting for age, race, and gender, platelet CD40L, and monocyte myeloperoxidase (mMPO) levels were significantly lower (P < .001), and monocyte TLR-4 levels were higher (P = .03) in patients with PAD. With additional adjustments for conventional risk factors, mMPO remained inversely and independently associated with the risk of PAD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P = .01). PMID:21406422

  7. Glutamine May Repress the Weak LPS and Enhance the Strong Heat Shock Induction of Monocyte and Lymphocyte HSP72 Proteins but May Not Modulate the HSP72 mRNA in Patients with Sepsis or Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Briassouli, Efrossini; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Goukos, Dimitris; Routsi, Christina; Nanas, Serafim; Vardas, Kostas; Apostolou, Kleovoulos; Kanariou, Maria; Daikos, George; Briassoulis, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or heat shock (HS) induction of heat shock protein-72 (HSP72) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with severe sepsis (SS) or trauma-related systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), compared to healthy individuals (H); we also investigated any pre- or posttreatment modulating glutamine (Gln) effect. Methods. SS (11), SIRS (10), and H (19) PBMCs were incubated with 1 μg/mL LPS or 43°HS. Gln 10 mM was either added 1 h before or 1 h after induction or was not added at all. We measured monocyte (m), lymphocyte (l), mRNA HSP72, HSP72 polymorphisms, interleukins (ILs), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cortisol levels. Results. Baseline lHSP72 was higher in SS (p < 0.03), and mHSP72 in SIRS (p < 0.02), compared to H. Only HS induced l/mHSP72/mRNA HSP72; LPS induced IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and MCP-1. Induced mRNA was related to l/mHSP72, and was related negatively to cytokines. Intracellular l/mHSP72/HSP72 mRNA was related to serum ILs, not being influenced by cortisol, illness severity, and HSP72 polymorphisms. Gln did not induce mRNA in any group but modified l/mHSP72 after LPS/HS induction unpredictably. Conclusions. HSP72 mRNA and l/mHSP72 are higher among critically ill patients, further induced by HS, not by LPS. HSP72 proteins and HSP72 mRNA are related to serum ILs and are negatively related to supernatant cytokines, not being influenced by HSP72 polymorphisms, cortisol, or illness severity. Gln may depress l/mHSP72 after LPS exposure and enhance them after HS induction, but it may not affect early induced HSP72 mRNA. PMID:26550577

  8. Phenotypic and functional characterization of macrophages with therapeutic potential generated from human cirrhotic monocytes in a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Joanna K.; Mackinnon, Alison C.; Wojtacha, Dvina; Pope, Caroline; Fraser, Alasdair R.; Burgoyne, Paul; Bailey, Laura; Pass, Chloe; Atkinson, Anne; Mcgowan, Neil W.A.; Manson, Lynn; Turner, Mark L.; Campbell, John D.M.; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Background aims Macrophages have complex roles in the liver. The aim of this study was to compare profiles of human monocyte-derived macrophages between controls and cirrhotic patients, to determine whether chronic inflammation affects precursor number or the phenotype, with the eventual aim to develop a cell therapy for cirrhosis. Methods Infusion of human macrophages in a murine liver fibrosis model demonstrated a decrease in markers of liver injury (alanine transaminase, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-?, ?-smooth muscle actin, phosphatidylserine receptor) and an increase in markers of liver regeneration (matrix metalloproteinases [MMP]-9, MMP-12 and TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis). CD14+ monocytes were then isolated from controls. Monocytes were matured into macrophages for 7 days using a Good Manufacturing Practicecompatible technique. Results There was no significant difference between the mean number of CD14+ monocytes isolated from cirrhotic patients (n= 9) and controls (n= 10); 2.8 SEM 0.54 108 and 2.5 0.56 108, respectively. The mean yield of mature macrophages cultured was also not significantly different between cirrhotic patients and controls (0.9 108 0.38 108, with more than 90% viability and 0.65 108 0.16 108, respectively. Maturation to macrophages resulted in up-regulation of a number of genes (MMP-9, CCL2, interleukin [IL]-10 and TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis). A cytokine and chemokine polymerase chain reaction array, comparing the control and cirrhotic macrophages, revealed no statistically significant differences. Conclusions Macrophages can be differentiated from cirrhotic patients' apheresis-derived CD14 monocytes and develop the same pro-resolution phenotype as control macrophages, indicating their suitability for clinical therapy. PMID:26342993

  9. Study of splenic irradiation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Guiney, M.J.; Liew, K.H.; Quong, G.G.; Cooper, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to assess the effect of splenic irradiation (SI) on splenomegaly, splenic pain, anemia, and thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Twenty-two patients received 32 courses of SI. Of 31 courses of SI given for splenomegaly there were 19 responders (61%). Ten courses of SI were given for splenic pain resulting in partial relief of pain in 4 courses and complete relief in 4 courses. Only 4 of 16 courses given for anemia resulted in elevations of hemoglobin of 2 g/dL or more. Of the 14 courses of SI given for thrombocytopenia there were only 2 responses with platelet counts decreasing further in another 9 courses. The median duration of response was 14 months (range: 3-116 months). There was no dose-response relationship detected for SI in CLL. Treatment related toxicity was hematologic and secondary to leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. We recommend the use of small fraction sizes of 25 cGy to 50 cGy and close monitoring of hematological parameters. Splenic irradiation effectively palliates splenomegaly and reduces spleen size in CLL. It was of limited value in correcting anemia and thrombocytopenia in this patient population.

  10. Bariatric surgery decreases monocyte-platelet aggregates in blood: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Monica; Lieb, David C; Butcher, Matthew J; Kuhn, Norine; Galkina, Elena; Fontana, Mark; Wohlgemuth, Stephen; Nadler, Jerry L; Dobrydneva, Yuliya

    2014-08-01

    Morbid obesity is accompanied by platelet hyperactivity, leading to thrombotic events including myocardial infarction and stroke. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk in obesity. However, the effect of bariatric surgery on platelet function is largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) on prothrombotic monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs), markers of platelet activation in vivo. MPA were measured in whole blood by flow cytometry before surgery and 1 and 3months after surgery. In non-obese healthy controls, MPA level is 13??2%. MPAs are elevated in morbidly obese subjects. RYGB (n?=?12 patients) decreases MPAs 1month after surgery by a weight-independent mechanism (56??6% presurgically vs 26??8% at 1month, p?<0.01). LAGB (n?=?5 patients) has a smaller weight-dependent effect (49??8% presurgically vs 32??6% at 1month, p?>?0.05). Bariatric surgery may reduce thrombotic events by alleviation of platelet overactivity. PMID:24817373

  11. Gene expression study of monocytes/macrophages during early foreign body reaction and identification of potential precursors of myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mesure, Lindsay; De Visscher, Geofrey; Vranken, Ilse; Lebacq, An; Flameng, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Foreign body reaction (FBR), initiated by adherence of macrophages to biomaterials, is associated with several complications. Searching for mechanisms potentially useful to overcome these complications, we have established the signaling role of monocytes/macrophages in the development of FBR and the presence of CD34(+) cells that potentially differentiate into myofibroblasts. Therefore, CD68(+) cells were in vitro activated with fibrinogen and also purified from the FBR after 3 days of implantation in rats. Gene expression profiles showed a switch from monocytes and macrophages attracted by fibrinogen to activated macrophages and eventually wound-healing macrophages. The immature FBR also contained a subpopulation of CD34(+) cells, which could be differentiated into myofibroblasts. This study showed that macrophages are the clear driving force of FBR, dependent on milieu, and myofibroblast deposition and differentiation. PMID:20886081

  12. Changes of lymphocyte membrane fluidity in rheumatoid arthritis: a fluorescence polarisation study.

    PubMed Central

    Beccerica, E; Piergiacomi, G; Curatola, G; Ferretti, G

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence polarisation of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was used to study the lymphocyte membrane in rheumatoid arthritis. The increase of polarisation value in the patients (n = 27) compared with healthy controls (n = 32) suggests a decrease of membrane fluidity. Moreover, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were positively correlated with lymphocyte fluorescence polarisation values (r = 0.66 and r = 0.76 respectively). The results suggest that the changes in lymphocyte membrane fluidity could be involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:3382266

  13. Influence of dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms on circulating T lymphocytes: A pilot study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Kustrimovic, Natasa; Rasini, Emanuela; Marino, Franca

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine is a key transmitter in the neuroimmune network, acting through five dopaminergic receptors (DR): the D1-like D1 and D5 and the D2-like D2, D3 and D4. Several DR gene variants exist and may affect DR expression and activity. We assessed total lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of healthy subjects and their association with selected DR gene variants (DRD1 rs4532 and rs686, DRD5 rs6283, DRD2 rs1800497 and rs6277, DRD3 rs6280 and rs1800828, DRD4 rs747302 and 7 48-base pair VNTR). DRD1 rs4532 and rs686 and DRD5 rs6283 were associated with total lymphocytes, and with CD3+ and CD4+ (but not CD8+) T lymphocytes, while none of the D2-like DR gene variants showed any association with lymphocyte counts. An arbitrary score based on the activity of D1-like vs D2-like DR correlated with total lymphocytes, CD3+ and CD4+ T cells (but not with CD8+ T cells). The association between D1-like DR gene variants and lymphocyte count, and in particular with CD4+ (but not CD8+) T lymphocytes, may imply a functional prevalence of D1-like over D2-like DR in CD4+ T cells. This is the first study showing an influence of DR gene polymorphisms on lymphocyte count, and in particular on CD4+ T cells. Future studies should address the possible association between DR gene variants and the immune function in health and disease. The relevance of these findings for the immune effects of dopaminergic agents should be also carefully examined. PMID:26429319

  14. Upregulation and atypical expression of the CD1 molecules on monocytes in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Sloma, Ivan; Zilber, Marie-Thrse; Charron, Dominique; Girot, Robert; Tamouza, Ryad; Gelin, Catherine

    2004-11-01

    Human CD1 group I molecules CD1a, b, and c are expressed on antigen-presenting cells, notably dendritic cells, and implicated in glycolipids presentation to T lymphocytes. Expression of CD1 on monocytes is a hallmark of their activation. Because monocyte activation has been reported during steady state disease in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients, we have analyzed CD1 expression on monocytes from 45 SCA patients originating from Africa and 27 healthy control subjects. CD1 expression was detected on monocytes in the majority of SCA patients (75%), whereas it was not observed in the vast majority of the control group (70.4%). CD1b and CD1c were highly expressed in Sbeta thalassemia patients and CD1a expression was predominant in SDPunjab patients. This expression of the CD1 molecules is correlated with an increased expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II invariant chain (CD74). Finally, we have observed that the majority of SCA patients (68%) express only two or one CD1 isoforms. This study demonstrates the particular phenotype of SCA monocytes intermediate between normal resting and activated monocytes, a phenotype that could have consequences on regulation of the infection outcome. PMID:15556687

  15. Activation by mitogens and superantigens of axolotl lymphocytes: functional characterization and ontogenic study.

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, F; Tournefier, A

    1996-01-01

    Urodele amphibians have weak and slow immune responses compared to mammals and anuran amphibians. Using new culture conditions, we tested the ability of lymphocytes of a well-studied salamander, the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) to proliferate in vitro with diverse mitogenic agents. We demonstrated that the axolotl has a population of B lymphocytes that proliferate specifically and with a high stimulation index to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) known as a B-cell mitogen in mammals. This proliferative capacity is observed without significant changes throughout ontogenesis. In the presence of LPS, axolotl B lymphocytes are able to synthesize and secrete both isotopes of immunoglobulin described in this species, IgM and IgY. Moreover, a distinct lymphocyte subpopulation is able to poliferate significantly in response to the mitogens usually known as T-cell specific in mammals, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A). The activated cells are T lymphocytes, as shown by depletion experiments performed in vitro with monoclonal antibodies, and in vivo by thymectomy. Splenic T lymphocytes of young axolotls (before 10 months) do not have this functional ability, which suggests maturation and/or migration phenomena during T-cell ontogenesis in this species. Axolotl lymphocytes are able to proliferate in vitro with a significant stimulation index to staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB). These products act on mammalian lymphocytes as superantigens: in combination with products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), they bind T-cell receptors with particular V beta elements. The fact that these superantigens are able to activate lymphocytes of a primitive vertebrate suggests a striking conservation of molecular structures implied in superantigen presentation and recognition. PMID:8881761

  16. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frdrique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Frderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; Andr, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Ferm, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.3201.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.2340.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  17. Myeloperoxidase in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: Production and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Okada, Sabrina Sayori; de Oliveira, Edson Mendes; de Arajo, Tomaz Henrique; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Albuquerque, Renata Chaves; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Nakaya, Helder Imoto; Campa, Ana; Moreno, Ana Carolina Ramos

    2016-02-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important enzyme in the front-line protection against microorganisms. In peripheral blood, it is accepted that MPO is only produced by myeloid-lineage cells. Thus, MPO presence is unexpected in lymphocytes. We showed recently that B1-lymphocytes from mice have MPO. Here, we showed that subsets of human peripheral B, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes express MPO. The content of MPO in lymphocytes was very low compared to neutrophils/monocytes with a preferential distribution in the nucleus and perinuclear region. Also, we performed a MPO mRNA expression analysis from human blood cells derived from microarray raw data publicly available, showing that MPO is modulated in infectious disease. MPO was increased in CD4(+) T lymphocytes from HIV chronic infection and in CD8(+) T lymphocytes from HCV-positive patients. Our study points out MPO as a multifunctional protein due to its subcellular localization and expression modulation in lymphocytes indicating alternative unknown functions for MPO in lymphocytes. PMID:26632272

  18. Changes in Monocyte Functions of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur, I.; Simons, E.; Castro, V.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2004-01-01

    Monocyte cell numbers and functions, including phagocytosis, oxidative burst capacity, and degranulation and expression of related surface molecules, were studied in blood specimens from 25 astronauts and 9 healthy control subjects. Blood samples were obtained 10 days before a space flight, 3 hours after landing and 3 days after landing. The number of monocytes in astronauts did not change significantly among the three sample collection periods. Following space flight, the monocytes ability to phagocytize Escherichia coli, to exhibit an oxidative burst, and to degranulate was reduced as compared to monocytes from control subjects. These alterations in monocyte functions after space flight correlated with alterations in the expression of CD32 and CD64.

  19. Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus 1 replication in monocytes by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

    PubMed Central

    Skolnik, P R; Jahn, B; Wang, M Z; Rota, T R; Hirsch, M S; Krane, S M

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) expression and replication are under tight regulatory control. We demonstrate that 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3] enhances the replication of monocyte- and lymphocyte-tropic strains of HIV-1 up to 10,000-fold in monocyte cell lines, peripheral blood monocytes, and unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 is therefore one of the most potent regulators of HIV-1 replication described to date. Precursors of 1,25(OH)2D3 enhance HIV-1 replication in proportion to their affinity for the 1,25(OH)2D3 intracellular receptor, suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 influences HIV-1 replication by mechanisms involving this receptor. These studies may have important implications for the design of effective therapy of HIV-1 infection. Images PMID:1650477

  20. Orthodontic Force Induces Systemic Inflammatory Monocyte Responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, M; Kou, X; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Zhang, J; Yan, Y; Liu, F; He, D; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-09-01

    Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement are considered regional reactions. However, how systemic immune responses are involved in this regional reaction remains unclear. In this study, we explored the systemic effects of orthodontic force by focusing on the mononuclear phagocyte system. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the percentage of inflammatory monocytes, in peripheral blood and in the monocyte reservoir spleen, decreased on days 1 and 3 and then recovered on day 7 after force application. Along with the systemic decrease of inflammatory monocyte percentage, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts increased in the compression side of the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. Systemic transfusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled inflammatory monocytes showed recruitment of these monocytes to the orthodontic force compression side of periodontal tissues. These monocytes were colocalized with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that orthodontic force could upregulate the expression of pivotal monocyte chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in periodontal tissues or cultured periodontal ligament cells, which may contribute to monocyte recruitment to regional sites. These data suggest that orthodontic force induces systemic immune responses related to inflammatory monocytes and that systemic inflammatory monocytes can be recruited to periodontal tissues by orthodontic force stimulus. PMID:26130260

  1. Poor Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction Stimulatory Capacity of Leukemic B Cells of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients Despite the Presence of Ia Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Halper, James P.; Fu, Shu Man; Gottlieb, Alice B.; Winchester, Robert J.; Kunkel, Henry G.

    1979-01-01

    The human Ia-like antigens, selectively expressed on B lymphocytes, are now recognized to be closely associated with, or identical to, the gene products of the major histocompatibility complex responsible for stimulation in the mixed lymphocyte reaction. The leukemic B lymphocytes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia express these antigens very well. In the present study they were readily detected by several techniques utilizing both allo- and heteroantisera. However, the leukemic B cells from most patients were found to be extremely poor stimulating cells in the mixed lymphocyte reaction. This was particularly apparent when comparisons were made on a B-cell basis with isolated normal B lymphocytes. Leukemic cell death, abnormal kinetics of leukemic cell-mediated stimulation, and serum or cellular suppressor factors do not appear to explain these findings. Studies comparing cells from a leukemic patient with those of her HLA identical sibling and results of mixed lymphocyte reactions between normal and leukemic subjects discordant for D-region-associated Ia antigens ruled out genetic explanations for the differences observed. Experiments with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells depleted of T cells and monocytes exclude the quantitative deficiency of monocytes which is found in the peripheral blood of most leukemic patients as an explanation. The present results with chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells indicate that the mere expression of the Ia-like antigens by cell populations does not render them effective stimulators. The accumulated evidence obtained indicate that abnormalities, particularly of membrane function and metabolism, known to occur in chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes may be involved in the poor stimulatory capacity of the leukemic B cells. PMID:159311

  2. High-resolution proton NMR studies of lymphocyte extracts.

    PubMed

    Sze, D Y; Jardetzky, O

    1994-04-01

    Anatomic imaging is now a well-developed application of magnetic resonance. Greater capabilities for physiologic characterization should become possible by concomitant application of spectroscopic methods. High-resolution in vitro spectroscopy must first provide a framework upon which in vivo and diagnostic interpretation may be based. Biochemical profiles consisting of quantitation of extracted aqueous metabolites and lipids of particular cells or organs establish an in vitro glossary for what may be found in the intact cell or living subject. A large variety of amino acids, intermediary metabolites, membrane precursors, and nucleotides are detectable in extracts of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, and significant changes in intracellular concentrations have been monitored after lectin-induced activation. Corresponding changes in lipid profile have also been noted. An increasing variety of other cells and tissues are being similarly characterized. Despite its limitations, NMR analysis possesses the unique prospect of providing a noninvasive and nondestructive source of biochemical information. PMID:8069531

  3. Flow Cytometry Study of Lymphocyte Subsets in Malnourished and Well-Nourished Children with Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Njera, Oralia; Gonzlez, Cristina; Toledo, Guadalupe; Lpez, Laura; Ortiz, Roco

    2004-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is the primary cause of immune deficiency in children across the world. It has been related to changes in peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of infection and malnutrition on the proportion of peripheral-lymphocyte subsets in well-nourished non-bacterium-infected (WN), well-nourished bacterium-infected (WNI), and malnourished bacterium-infected (MNI) children by flow cytometry. A prospectively monitored cohort of 15 MNI, 12 WNI, and 17 WN children was studied. All the children were 3 years old or younger and had only bacterial infections. Results showed a significant decrease in the proportion of T CD3+ (P < 0.05 for relative and P < 0.03 for absolute values), CD4+ (P < 0.01 for relative and absolute values), and CD8+ (P < 0.05 for relative values) lymphocyte subsets in WNI children compared to the results seen with WN children. Additionally, B lymphocytes in MNI children showed significant lower values (CD20+ P < 0.02 for relative and P < 0.05 for absolute values) in relation to the results seen with WNI children. These results suggest that the decreased proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets observed in WNI children were associated with infection diseases and that the incapacity to increase the proportion of B lymphocyte was associated with malnutrition. This low proportion of B lymphocytes may be associated with the mechanisms involved in the immunodeficiency of malnourished children. PMID:15138185

  4. Therapeutic granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) for treatment refractory sarcoidosis: a pilot study of clinical effects and possible mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, H H; Muratov, V; Cederlund, K; Lundahl, J; Eklund, A; Grunewald, J

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic, inflammatory disorder, which in a proportion of patients runs a chronic progressive course despite immunosuppressive treatment. Therapeutic granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) has been shown to be an effective treatment option for other systemic inflammatory disorders, but has not yet been investigated in sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to GMA in sarcoidosis. Seven patients with sarcoidosis refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy received 10 GMA sessions. All patients underwent chest X-ray, spirometry, a Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ-SAS), blood tests and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) before treatment and at 2–4 weeks and 3 months (except bronchoscopy) after the last treatment session. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell differential counts were recorded and T cells from blood and BALF were analysed for markers of activity, differentiation and T regulatory function. Compared to baseline, five of seven patients reported an improvement in dyspnoea score. In BALF there was an increase in the percentage of macrophages and a decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and CD4+/FoxP3+ T cells. Furthermore, the decrease in BALF CD4+/FoxP3+ T cells correlated significantly with an improvement in dyspnoea score. In peripheral blood there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of CD4+/CD27− T cells and a trend towards an initial increase in the percentage of CD4+/FoxP3+ T cells, followed by a statistically significant decrease. The effects of GMA on regulatory T cells are consistent with those observed in other inflammatory disorders and could potentially translate into a clinical benefit. PMID:24773420

  5. Prognostic impact of platelet/lymphocyte and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios in patients with gastric cancer: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Gunaldi, Meral; Goksu, Sema; Erdem, Dilek; Gunduz, Seyda; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Tiken, Eda; Kahraman, Sibel; Inan, Yesim Ozdem; Genc, Tugrul Burak; Yildirim, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing amounts of evidence suggest patient-related systemic inflammatory response (SIR) as a powerful prognostic factor in cancer and applicability of SIR as a prognostic factor has been investigated. Aim: To evaluate the prognostic significance of SIR, which is among routinely analysed blood parameters in patients with all stages of gastric cancer (GC). Methods: A total of 245 patients with gastric cancer who were followed up and treated in four clinics of medical oncology were included in the study. At first admission of the patients, from routinely determined whole blood cell counts in medical oncology clinics, their neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) values were estimated and recorded before initiating chemo- or radiotherapy. A univariate non-parametric analytical method and chi-square test examined the correlation between prognostic factors, and survival rates. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Sixty-eight (27.8%) female and 177 (72.2) male patients (total n=245) were included in the study. When NLR was used as an indicator of SIR, 108 (44.1%) patients were SIR negative and 137 (55.9%) patients were SIR positive. When PLR was used as an indicator of SIR, SIR negativity and positivity were detected in 93(38%) and 152 (62%) patients, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between status of lymph node metastasis, stage of the disease and NLR (P=0.001, P=0.017). SIR determined with PLR was found to be correlated with the depth of tumor invasion and stage of the disease (P=0.016, P=0.033). A significant correlation was not detected between PLR and survival (P=0.405). Conclusion: According to our study, parameters of NLR and PLR calculated preoperatively from peripheral blood samples can be used in patients with various sizes of tumours in different disease stages. Still based on our results, NLR calculated during diagnostic workup is a parameter with a prognostic value. In addition, NLR is a determinative factor in the selection of surgical method and chemotherapeutic modalities, which also functions as a potential contributory marker in effective immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26131188

  6. Lack of prostaglandin E2-mediated monocyte suppressive activity in newborn and mothers.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, A; Durandy, A; Mamas, S; McCall, E; Dray, F; Griscelli, C

    1982-01-01

    An excess of adult blood adherent cells (monocytes) inhibits mitogen, antigen and allogeneic cell-induced lymphocyte proliferations. This inhibition is dependent on the number of the adherent monocytes in the cultures and is substantially reduced (by 60%) by indomethacin or anti-PGE2 antiserum. Newborn monocytes exert only a weak inhibitory effect and produce about eight times less PGE2 than adult monocytes. The production of PGE2 and the suppression can be induced by incubating newborn monocytes with mixed leucocyte culture supernatants. Both monocytes from mothers at the time of delivery and from newborn infants, usually exert a poor suppressive activity related to a low production of PGE2. We strongly suggest that the expression of the PGE2-mediated suppression by monocytes is under the control of activated short-lived suppressor lymphocytes. PMID:6215198

  7. Increased metallothionein gene expression, zinc, and zinc-dependent resistance to apoptosis in circulating monocytes during HIV viremia.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Andrea D; Gekonge, Bethsebah; Giri, Malavika S; Hancock, Aidan; Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Chehimi, Jihed; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Kossevkov, Andrew V; Nicols, Calen; Yousef, Malik; Mounzer, Karam; Shull, Jane; Kostman, Jay; Showe, Louise; Montaner, Luis J

    2010-09-01

    Circulating monocytes exhibit an apoptotic resistance phenotype during HIV viremia in association with increased MT expression. MTs are known to play an important role in zinc metabolism and immune function. We now show, in a cross-sectional study using peripheral monocytes, that expression of MT1 isoforms E, G, H, and X is increased significantly in circulating monocyte cells from HIV+ subjects during chronic viremic episodes as compared with uninfected subjects. This increase in expression is also observed during acute viremia following interruption of suppressive ART. Circulating monocytes from HIV+ donors were also found to have elevated zinc importer gene Zip8 expression in conjunction with elevated intracellular zinc levels in contrast to CD4(+)T-lymphocytes. In vitro HIV-1 infection studies with elutriated MDM confirm a direct relation between HIV-1 infection and increased MDM MT1 (isoform G) gene expression and increased intracellular zinc levels. A direct link between elevated zinc levels and apoptosis resistance was established using a cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, which reversed apoptosis resistance effectively in monocytes from HIV-infected to levels comparable with uninfected controls. Taken together, increases in MT gene expression and intracellular zinc levels may contribute directly to maintenance of an immune-activated monocyte by mediating an increased resistance to apoptosis during active HIV-1 viremia. PMID:20551211

  8. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Abbas, Wasim; Herbein, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host. PMID:24759213

  9. Monocyte and Macrophage Abnormalities in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Lee, Pui Y.; Reeves, Westley H.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with profound effects on multiple organ systems. In patients with SLE, the immune system is subverted to target numerous self-antigens and the ensuing inflammatory response elicits a vicious cycle of immune cell activation and tissue damage. Both genetic and environmental factors are essential for the development of this debilitating condition, although the exact cause remains unclear. Early studies on the pathogenesis of lupus centered on the adaptive immune system as lymphocyte abnormalities were thought to be primary cause of autoimmunity. In the past decade, however, this paradigm has shifted with rapid advances in the field of innate immunity. These developments have yielded important insights to how the autoimmune response in SLE is initiated and maintained. Monocytes and macrophages represent an essential arm of the innate immune system with a multitude of immunological functions including antigen presentation, phagocytosis, and cytokine production. Aberrations of monocyte / macrophage phenotype and function are increasingly recognized in SLE and animal models of the disease. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of monocyte / macrophage abnormalities in human SLE and discuss their implications for understanding the pathogenesis of lupus. PMID:20676786

  10. Separation of human monocytes from a leukocyte-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Graham, John M

    2002-06-15

    Human peripheral blood monocytes are isolated by flotation from a dense leukocyte-rich plasma (LRP) through two lower-density barriers prepared from OptiPrep. The separation from lymphocytes depends on the more rapid rate of flotation of the monocytes because of their slightly lower density and larger size. The method works optimally only with fresh (within 2 h of drawing) EDTA-anticoagulated blood. PMID:12806155

  11. Activation profile of Toll-like receptors of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wong, C K; Wong, P T Y; Tam, L S; Li, E K; Chen, D P; Lam, C W K

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease associated with aberrant activation of T and B lymphocytes for the production of inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. Animal studies of SLE have indicated that Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in the pathogenesis of murine lupus. In the present clinical study, differential protein expressions of TLR-1-9 of monocytes and different lymphocyte subsets from patients with SLE and normal control subjects were determined by flow cytometry. Results showed that the expression of intracellular TLRs (TLR-3, -8, -9) and extracellular TLRs (TLR-1, -2, -4, -5, -6) were elevated in monocytes, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes of SLE patients compared to control subjects (all P < 0.001). Moreover, cell surface expression of TLR-4 on CD4(+) T lymphocytes and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, and TLR-6 on B lymphocytes, were correlated positively with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (TLR-4 on CD4(+) T lymphocytes and CD8(+) T lymphocytes: r = 0.536, P = 0.04; r = 0.713, P = 0.003; TLR-6 in B lymphocytes: r = 0.572, P = 0.026). In concordance with the above results, there is an observable increased relative induction (%) of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12, chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, CCL5 and CXCL10 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon differential stimulation by PolyIC (TLR-3 ligand), lipopolysaccharide (TLR-4 ligand), peptidoglycan (TLR-2 ligand), flagellin (TLR-5 ligand), R837 (TLR-7 ligand) and CpG DNA (TLR-9 ligand) in SLE patients compared to controls. These results suggest that the innate immune response for extracellular pathogens and self-originated DNA plays immunopathological roles via TLR activation in SLE. PMID:19843090

  12. Autophagy Protects Monocytes from Wolbachia Heat Shock Protein 60–Induced Apoptosis and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakannan, Vijayan; Shiny, Abijit; Babu, Subash; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte dysfunction by filarial antigens has been a major mechanism underlying immune evasion following hyporesponsiveness during patent lymphatic filariasis. Recent studies have initiated a paradigm shift to comprehend the immunological interactions of Wolbachia and its antigens in inflammation, apoptosis, lymphocyte anergy, etc. Here we showed that recombinant Wolbachia heat shock protein 60 (rWmhsp60) interacts with TLR-4 and induces apoptosis in monocytes of endemic normal but not in chronic patients. Higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced after TLR-4 stimulation resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase cascade activation, which are the plausible reason for apoptosis. Furthermore, release in ROS owing to TLR-4 signaling resulted in the activation of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation which leads to inflammation and apoptosis via TNF receptor pathway following the increase in IL-6 and TNF-α level. Here for the first time, we report that in addition to apoptosis, rWmhsp60 antigen in filarial pathogenesis also induces molecular senescence in monocytes. Targeting TLR-4, therefore, presents a promising candidate for treating rWmhsp60-induced apoptosis and senescence. Strikingly, induction of autophagy by rapamycin detains TLR-4 in late endosomes and subverts TLR-4-rWmhsp60 interaction, thus protecting TLR-4–mediated apoptosis and senescence. Furthermore, rapamycin-induced monocytes were unresponsive to rWmhsp60, and activated lymphocytes following PHA stimulation. This study demonstrates that autophagy mediates the degradation of TLR-4 signaling and protects monocytes from rWmhsp60 induced apoptosis and senescence. PMID:25849993

  13. Autophagy protects monocytes from Wolbachia heat shock protein 60-induced apoptosis and senescence.

    PubMed

    Kamalakannan, Vijayan; Shiny, Abijit; Babu, Subash; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2015-04-01

    Monocyte dysfunction by filarial antigens has been a major mechanism underlying immune evasion following hyporesponsiveness during patent lymphatic filariasis. Recent studies have initiated a paradigm shift to comprehend the immunological interactions of Wolbachia and its antigens in inflammation, apoptosis, lymphocyte anergy, etc. Here we showed that recombinant Wolbachia heat shock protein 60 (rWmhsp60) interacts with TLR-4 and induces apoptosis in monocytes of endemic normal but not in chronic patients. Higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced after TLR-4 stimulation resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase cascade activation, which are the plausible reason for apoptosis. Furthermore, release in ROS owing to TLR-4 signaling resulted in the activation of NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation which leads to inflammation and apoptosis via TNF receptor pathway following the increase in IL-6 and TNF-? level. Here for the first time, we report that in addition to apoptosis, rWmhsp60 antigen in filarial pathogenesis also induces molecular senescence in monocytes. Targeting TLR-4, therefore, presents a promising candidate for treating rWmhsp60-induced apoptosis and senescence. Strikingly, induction of autophagy by rapamycin detains TLR-4 in late endosomes and subverts TLR-4-rWmhsp60 interaction, thus protecting TLR-4-mediated apoptosis and senescence. Furthermore, rapamycin-induced monocytes were unresponsive to rWmhsp60, and activated lymphocytes following PHA stimulation. This study demonstrates that autophagy mediates the degradation of TLR-4 signaling and protects monocytes from rWmhsp60 induced apoptosis and senescence. PMID:25849993

  14. Effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    LI, YONG-QIN; LIU, RUI; XUE, JIA-HONG; ZHANG, YAN; GAO, DENG-FENG; WU, XIAO-SAN; WANG, CONG-XIA; YANG, YU-BAI

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells is one of the early stages in the development of atherosclerosis. The expression of type IV collagenases, which include matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, in monocytes is hypothesized to play an important role in monocyte infiltration and transformation into foam cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression levels of type IV collagenases and their specific inhibitors in monocytes, and to investigate the roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? in this process. Monocytes were single-cultured or co-cultured with endothelial cells. The expression of the type IV collagenases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their specific inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2, in monocytes was determined by immunohistochemistry followed by image analysis. The expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be low in the single-culture monocytes, but increased significantly when the monocytes and endothelial cells were co-cultured. However, treatment with monoclonal TNF-? or IL-1? antibodies partially inhibited the upregulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the co-cultured monocytes. Expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was observed in the single monocyte culture, and a small increase in the expression levels was observed when the monocytes were co-cultured with endothelial cells. Therefore, monocyte-endothlium interactions were shown to increase the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes, resulting in the loss of balance between MMP-2 and -9 with TIMP-1 and -2. In addition, TNF-? and IL-1? were demonstrated to play important roles in this process. PMID:25574228

  15. Role of caveolin-3 in lymphocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Chinh; Stary, Creed M.; Schilling, Jan M.; Bentley, Brandon; Patel, Hemal H.; Roth, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Caveolins are structural proteins clustered in lipid-rich regions of plasma membrane involved in coordinating signal transduction in various organ systems. While caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been shown to regulate lymphocyte activation, the role of caveolin-3 (Cav-3) in immune system signaling has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that Cav-3 modulates lymphocyte activation. Main methods Lymphocyte/leukocyte subpopulations from WT and Cav-3 mice were profiled with flow cytometry. Cytokine production in quiescent and activated splenocytes from WT and Cav-3 mice was assessed with ELISA. Key findings Levels of T-cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells were not different between WT and KO mice, however KO mice had lower B-cell population-percentage. Functionally, activated lymphocytes from Cav-3 KO mice demonstrated significantly reduced expression of IL-2 compared to WT, while expression of TNF?, IL-6, and IL-10 was not different. Finally, expression of IL-17 was significantly reduced in T-helper cells from KO mice, while IFN? was not, suggesting that Cav-3 is a determinant in the development of the Th-17 subpopulation. Significance This study is the first to demonstrate that Cav-3 may be a novel participant in B-cell expression, T-cell cytokine production and activation of inflammation. PMID:25476831

  16. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-19

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma,; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is blocked prior to reverse transcription and integration in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Sonza, S; Maerz, A; Deacon, N; Meanger, J; Mills, J; Crowe, S

    1996-06-01

    Peripheral blood monocytes are resistant to productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vitro immediately after isolation. No viral cDNA (either early or late transcripts) was detected by PCR in monocytes exposed to virus on the day of isolation. In contrast, in monocytes cultured for as little as 1 day, initiated and completed reverse transcripts were readily detectable within 24 h of infection with both HIV-1(Ba-L) and primary isolates. The levels of initiated, partially completed, and completed viral DNA copies found 24 h after infection increased progressively with time in culture before infection. Unlike quiescent T lymphocytes, there appeared to be no block or delay in the integration of viral DNA into the genome of susceptible cultured monocytes. With an Alu-PCR method designed to specifically detect proviral DNA being used, integration events were found within 24 h of infection in monocytes cultured for a day or more after isolation. No integration signal was found in freshly isolated monocytes up to 7 days following exposure to the virus. Cloning and sequencing of Alu-PCR-amplified DNA confirmed integration in HIV-1-infected cultured monocytes. Our finding that in vitro replication of HIV-1 is clearly blocked prior to the initiation of reverse transcription in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes suggests that these cells may not be susceptible to infection in vivo. Further studies to clarify this possibility and the nature of the block to infection should provide useful information for treatment strategies against HIV-1. PMID:8648722

  18. Studies of T- and B-Lymphocytes in Patients with Connective Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ralph C.; DeBoard, James R.; Mellbye, Ove J.; Messner, Ronald P.; Lindstrm, Folke D.

    1973-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal subjects as well as patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and active tuberculosis were studied for the relative distribution of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (B-cells) and thymic-derived T-cells. B-cells were identified by direct immunofluorescence of surface Ig markers; T-cells were studied using rabbit antisera to pooled human fetal thymocytes absorbed with chronic lymphatic leukemia lymphocytes as a source of B-cells. In normal subjects, the sum of percentages of peripheral blood lymphocytes staining for surface Ig (B-cells) plus the percentage of cells staining with the absorbed antithymocyte antiserum closely approximated 100%. The mean value for percent B-cells among 51 normals tested was 22.9%7.1; mean T-cells value was 75.313.95%. T-cell-specific antiserum stained 18% of normal human bone marrow lymphocytes, 42.5% of lymphocytes from normal spleens, and 98% of cells obtained from thoracic duct drainage of patients with RA. Specificity of antihuman thymocyte antiserum appeared to depend on the use of living cells. When patients with RA were examined, a wide range (14-98%) of peripheral blood T-cell values was found. Values for low percentages of peripheral blood T-cells appeared to correlate to some extent with severe clinical disease. In 11 of 36 RA patients, the sum of identifiable B- plus T-cells accounted for only 34-55% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The identity of the remaining null cells could not be identified. 3 of 24 SLE patients studied showed low percentages of peripheral blood T-cells, but no correlation could be drawn between T- to B-cell ratios and clinical disease activity. Among 21 patients with active tuberculosis, one had a low value for identifiable T-cells. No significant differences from normals in range or proportion of B-cells was identified in patients with active tuberculous infection. Images PMID:4567306

  19. Transmission of donor lymphocytes in clinical lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Richter, N; Raddatz, G; Steinhoff, G; Schfers, H J; Schlitt, H J

    1994-01-01

    Passenger mononuclear cells in organ grafts are known to influence the alloimmune response to the graft. To assess their relevance in clinical lung transplantation, we studied the amount, distribution, cell types, and surface marker expression of mononuclear cells in human donor lungs. Two major compartments of mononuclear cells could be differentiated: lymph nodes containing resting T and B lymphocytes, and the lung tissue itself, containing mainly activated lymphocytes as well as monocytes/macrophages. Tissue-associated mononuclear cells make up 20-40 x 10(9) cells per lung, about 30-50% of which are lymphocytes. Tissue-associated lymphocytes are predominantly T and NK cells; most of the T cells are CD8+ CD45R0+ and express HLA-DR. Strong expression of the adhesion molecules LFA-1 and ICAM-1 is present on infiltrating cells as well as on resident cells of the organ. Moreover, the lymphocytes inside the lung tissue are functionally highly active, with a strong stimulatory as well as alloreactive potency. Thus, large numbers of allogeneic mononuclear cells and particularly large numbers of functionally active lymphocytes are obviously transmitted by human lung allografts. The immunological in vivo relevance of these cells after lung transplantation may include allostimulation and graft-versus-host activity, but also beneficial immunomodulatory effects. PMID:7865105

  20. Association of Blood Monocyte and Platelet Markers with Carotid Artery Characteristics: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Carotid MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Matijevic, N.; Wu, K.K.; Howard, A.G.; Wasserman, B.; Wang, W.Y.-W.; Folsom, A.R.; Sharrett, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells from circulating blood. Blood cell activation could play an important role in plaque formation. Methods We analyzed the relationship between blood cellular markers and quantitative measures of carotid wall components in 1,546 participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Carotid MRI Study. Carotid imaging was performed using a gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI and cellular phenotyping by flow cytometry. Results Monocyte Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 is associated with larger plaques, while CD14, myeloperoxidase, and TLR-4 associate with smaller. Platelet CD40L is associated with smaller plaques and thinner caps, while P-selectin is associated with smaller core size. Conclusions Blood cell activation is significantly associated with atherosclerotic changes of the carotid wall. PMID:21487219

  1. A new method for measuring clustering in suspension between accessory cells and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gant, V A; Shakoor, Z; Hamblin, A S

    1992-12-01

    Specifying the molecular basis and clinical significance of cluster formation between antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes will be important in many areas of immunology. In this paper we describe a novel and reproducible technique for measuring cluster formation in suspension between purified human blood monocytes and purified autologous T lymphocytes, and its application to determining the effects of recall antigens and mitogen. Blood monocytes and T lymphocytes from eight normal subjects were separately prelabelled with two different carbocyanine dyes prior to co-culture in suspension with or without antigen (PPD, SKSD) or mitogen (PHA). At 24 h the co-cultures were examined for cluster formation by ultraviolet microscopy and flow cytometry. Control experiments showed that the carbocyanine dyes were non-toxic in vitro, that cell labelling was stable for culture periods up to 120 h, and that the two dyes did not leak from cell to cell. By this technique we measured the proportion of monocytes clustering one or more T lymphocytes in the presence and absence of recall antigen or PHA. There was a close correlation between visual and flow cytometric measurement of monocyte: T lymphocyte clustering (p < 0.001) as well as a close relationship between the ability of the two recall antigens to increase the extent of clustering above baseline (p < 0.001). Antigen-increased cluster formation did not correlate with baseline clustering, unlike PHA-increased clustering, which was related to baseline levels (p = 0.02), suggesting the operation of distinct mechanisms. The method is applicable to measuring cell-cell associations in suspension during extended periods of culture, as well as for the study of agents which might modify intercellular adhesion processes. PMID:1474255

  2. Oxidative Mechanisms of Monocyte-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stephen J.; Lobuglio, Albert F.; Kessler, Howard B.

    1980-01-01

    Human monocytes stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate were able to rapidly destroy autologous erythrocyte targets. Monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity was related to phorbol myristate acetate concentration and monocyte number. Purified preparations of lymphocytes were incapable of mediating erythrocyte lysis in this system. The ability of phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes to lyse erythrocyte targets was markedly impaired by catalase or superoxide dismutase but not by heat-inactivated enzymes or albumin. Despite a simultaneous requirement for superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the cytotoxic event, a variety of hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen scavengers did not effect cytolysis. However, tryptophan significantly inhibited cytotoxicity. The myeloperoxidase inhibitor cyanide enhanced erythrocyte destruction, whereas azide reduced it modestly. The inability of cyanide to reduce cytotoxicity coupled with the protective effect of superoxide dismutase suggests that cytotoxicity is independent of the classic myeloperoxidase system. We conclude that monocytes, stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, generate superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, which together play an integral role in this cytotoxic mechanism.

  3. Gene rearrangement study for minimal residual disease monitoring in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Assumpo, Juliana Godoy; Paula, Francisco Danilo Ferreira; Xavier, Sandra Guerra; Murao, Mitiko; de Aguirre, Joaquim Caetano; Dutra, lvaro Pimenta; Lima, Eduardo Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Benigna Maria; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect markers for minimal residual disease monitoring based on conventional polymerase chain reaction for immunoglobulin, T-cell receptor rearrangements and the Sil-Tal1 deletion in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Methods Fifty-nine children with acute lymphocytic leukemia from three institutions in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were prospectively studied. Clonal rearrangements were detected by polymerase chain reaction followed by homo/heteroduplex clonality analysis in DNA samples from diagnostic bone marrow. Follow-up samples were collected on Days 14 and 28-35 of the induction phase. The Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox methods were used for survival analysis. Results Immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor rearrangements were not detected in 5/55 children screened (9.0%). For precursor-B acute lymphocytic leukemia, the most frequent rearrangement was IgH (72.7%), then TCRG (61.4%), and TCRD and IgK (47.7%); for T-acute lymphocytic leukemia, TCRG (80.0%), and TCRD and Sil-Tal deletion (20.0%) were the most common. Minimal residual disease was detected in 35% of the cases on Day 14 and in 22.5% on Day 28-35. Minimal residual disease on Day 28-35, T-acute lymphocytic leukemia, and leukocyte count above 50 x 109/L at diagnosis were bad prognostic factors for leukemia-free survival in univariate analysis. Relapse risk for minimal residual disease positive relative to minimal residual disease negative children was 8.5 times higher (95% confidence interval: 1.02-70.7). Conclusion Immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor rearrangement frequencies were similar to those reported before. Minimal residual disease is an independent prognostic factor for leukemia-free survival, even when based on a non-quantitative technique, but longer follow-ups are needed. PMID:24255617

  4. Defective antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Gercken, J; Pryjma, J; Ernst, M; Flad, H D

    1994-08-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of an in vitro infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the ability of human monocytes to present the soluble antigen tetanus toxoid to T cells. We observed that tetanus toxoid-specific T-cell proliferation was markedly reduced when monocytes were infected with large numbers (bacterium-to-monocyte ratio, 50:1) of both viable and heat-killed mycobacteria. The level of antigen-induced gamma interferon release also was decreased when M. tuberculosis-containing monocytes were used as antigen-presenting cells. However, mycobacterium-infected monocytes did not show or trigger suppressive activity, because the presence of mycobacterium-infected monocytes did not affect the T-cell response induced by tetanus toxoid-pulsed control monocytes. When M. tuberculosis-infected monocytes were fixed with paraformaldehyde, they were not able to serve as antigen-presenting cells even in the presence of untreated accessory monocytes. Moreover, the uptake of both viable and heat-killed M. tuberculosis cells reduced the expression of human leukocyte antigen DR on monocytes. With regard to accessory function, monocytes infected with large numbers of mycobacteria were less efficient as accessory cells than were control monocytes in cultures of T cells activated with pokeweed mitogen. These results indicate that infection with large numbers of M. tuberculosis cells impairs the ability of monocytes to process and/or present soluble antigen and to serve as accessory cells in T-cell activation. PMID:8039918

  5. Early Dynamics of Cerebrospinal CD14+ Monocytes and CD15+ Granulocytes in Patients after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Postl, Lukas Kurt; Bogner, Viktoria; van Griensven, Martijn; Beirer, Marc; Kanz, Karl Georg; Egginger, Christoph; Schmitt-Sody, Markus; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the analysis of neuroinflammatory mechanisms gained increasing interest. In this context certain immunocompetent cells might play an important role. Interestingly, in the actual literature there exist only a few studies focusing on the role of monocytes and granulocytes in TBI patients. In this regard it has recently reported that the choroid plexus represents an early, selective barrier for leukocytes after brain injury. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the very early dynamics of CD14+ monocytes and CD15+ granulocyte in CSF of patients following severe TBI with regard to the integrity of the BBB. Cytometric flow analysis was performed to analyze the CD14+ monocyte and CD15+ granulocyte population in CSF of TBI patients. The ratio of CSF and serum albumin as a measure for the BBB's integrity was assessed in parallel. CSF samples of patients receiving lumbar puncture for elective surgery were obtained as controls. Overall 15 patients following severe TBI were enrolled. 10 patients were examined as controls. In patients, the monocyte population as well as the granulocyte population was significantly increased within 72 hours after TBI. The BBB's integrity did not have a significant influence on the cell count in the CSF. PMID:26568661

  6. Characterization of canine monocyte-derived dendritic cells with phenotypic and functional differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Shan; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Liu, Cheng-Chi; Cheng, Chiao-Lei; Lin, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Chu, Rea-Min

    2007-01-01

    For therapeutic purposes, large numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) are essential. In this study, we used 2% autologous canine plasma, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in generating monocyte-derived DCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs. The plasma enriched the population of CD14-positive monocytes by greatly enhancing the efficiency of monocyte adherence, the proportion of adherent cells increasing from 6.6% with 10% fetal bovine serum to 15.3% with 2% autologous canine plasma. Culturing the adherent monocytes for 6 d with human GM-CSF, canine IL-4, and human Flt3L significantly increased the yield of DCs, more than 90% of which were CD14-negative. Because, in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), monocytes that were CD14-positive expressed tumor necrosis factor α much more than DCs with low levels of CD14, it is important to decrease the numbers of CD14-positive cells in generating monocyte-derived DCs. With flow cytometry and real-time reverse-transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction assays, we found that in canine immature DCs (iDCs) the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, and CD86 was high and the expression of CD80, CD83, and CD14 either low or negative. During maturation (stimulated by LPS), the expression of CD1a, CD40, CD83, and CD80 was upregulated. However, the expression of DLA class II molecules, CD11c, and CD86 was not increased in mature DCs. Incubating the iDCs with LPS decreased antigen uptake and increased the cells’ immunostimulatory capacity (assessed by the allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reaction), indicating that LPS accelerates the functional maturation of DCs. This protocol may facilitate the use of DCs in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:17695590

  7. Liver myofibroblasts regulate the phenotype and function of monocytes through soluble factors in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MIN; WANG, FENG-LAN; ZHU, JIAN-YUN; ZHENG, YU-BAO; ZHAO, QI-YI; GU, YU-RONG; ZHANG, QI; CHONG, YU-TIAN; GAO, ZHI-LIANG

    2013-01-01

    The ability of lymphocytes and macrophage-derived cytokines and chemokines to modulate the activation of stromal cells during immune responses is well-documented, but few studies have investigated whether liver myofibroblasts shape the phenotype and function of monocytes in liver disease. In the present study, Kupffer cells were demonstrated to be activated in the inflamed livers of patients with cirrhosis and be in close contact with liver myofibroblasts. The Kupffer cells from cirrhotic livers expressed significantly elevated levels of PD-L1 (also termed B7-H1), TLR4, CD80, CD32 and CD64 relative to those from normal livers. Consistent with this finding, the expression of these surface molecules was significantly upregulated in monocytes following exposure to liver myofibroblasts originating from inflamed livers. Accordingly, the liver myofibroblast-exposed monocytes exhibited a significant increase in dextran endocytosis. These data reveal that bidirectional interactions between liver myofibroblasts and Kupffer cells may function as an amplification loop to enhance inflammation further in the liver. Liver myofibroblasts are central in the pathogenesis of liver diseases and should be considered as targets for the rational design of effective immune-based anti-inflammation therapies. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that skin fibroblasts were as effective as liver myofibroblasts at inducing monocyte activation, suggesting that fibroblasts, which are numerous in the body, may represent an underrated cell population that is actively involved in immunomodulatory functions. PMID:23251256

  8. Inflammatory Monocyte Effector Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lauvau, Gregoire; Chorro, Laurent; Spaulding, Emily; Soudja, Saidi M'Homa

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes are blood-derived mononuclear phagocytic cells that traffic throughout the body and can provide rapid innate immune effector responses in response to microbial pathogen infections. Amongst blood monocytes, the most abundant subset in mice is represented by inflammatory Ly6C+ CCR2+ monocytes and is the functional equivalent of the CD14+ monocytes in humans. Herein we focus on published evidence describing the exquisite functional plasticity of these cells, and we extend this overview to their multiples roles in vivo during host immune defenses against microbial pathogen infections, as antigen-presenting cells, inflammatory cells or Trojan horse cells. PMID:25205002

  9. Immunogenetics of CD4 lymphocyte count recovery during antiretroviral therapy: An AIDS Clinical Trials Group study.

    PubMed

    Haas, David W; Geraghty, Daniel E; Andersen, Janet; Mar, Jessica; Motsinger, Alison A; D'Aquila, Richard T; Unutmaz, Derya; Benson, Constance A; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Landay, Alan

    2006-10-15

    During antiretroviral therapy, CD4 lymphocyte count increases are modest in some patients despite virologic control. We explored whether polymorphisms in genes important for T cell expansion, survival, and apoptosis are associated with the magnitude of CD4 lymphocyte count recovery during antiretroviral therapy. We studied treatment-naive individuals who achieved sustained control of plasma viremia (<400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) for at least 48 weeks after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and compared genotypes among individuals who had an increase of either <200 or > or =200 CD4 cells/mm3 from baseline. A total of 137 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across 17 genes were characterized in 873 study participants. In multivariate analyses that controlled for clinical variables, polymorphisms in genes encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), TNF- alpha , Bcl-2-interacting molecule (Bim), interleukin (IL)-15, and IL-15 receptor alpha chain (IL-15R alpha ) were associated with the magnitude of the increase in CD4 lymphocyte count, as were haplotypes in genes encoding interferon- alpha , IL-2, and IL-15R alpha (P < .05, for each). Multifactor dimensionality reduction identified a gene-gene interaction between IL-2/IL-15 receptor common beta chain and IL-2/IL-7/IL-15 receptor common gamma chain. Immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy is a complex phenotype that is influenced by multiple genetic variants. Future studies should validate these tentative associations and define underlying mechanisms. PMID:16991084

  10. Immunologic studies in two patients with persistent lymphocytic thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis, and low radioactive iodine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, I.; Gupta, M.; Hostetter, A.; Sheeler, L.; Skillern, P.; Tubbs, R.

    1984-08-01

    Two patients with persistent lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyrotoxicosis were studied. Both patients presented with severe hyperthyroidism of nine months' duration and had nontender, small thyroid glands. Uptake of radioactive iodine (131I) was consistently low. Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels remained elevated without remission until thyroidectomy. The serum thyroglobulin level was normal, but testing for microsomal antibody gave weakly positive results in one case. Thyroglobulin and thyroid stimulatory antibodies were not found. The ratio of helper to suppressor T cells was elevated in one case. Neither patient showed response to propranolol, prednisone, or iodine. Light microscopic and immunohistologic studies showed severe lymphocytic thyroiditis with formation of secondary lymphoid follicles. Lymphocytes were predominately T cells (OKT11-positive), primarily helper/inducer T cells (OKT4-positive). Hyperplastic nodules contained high immunoreactive thyroglobulin and thyroxine levels. Aberrant thymus was seen within the thyroid. These studies suggest the possibility of intrathyroidal stimulation and hydrolysis of thyroglobulin within thyroid cells and also support the hypothesis that T and B cell immunoregulatory defects are important in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  11. [Fluorescent spectral study of synthetic activity of animal blood lymphocytes under continuous gamma-irradiation].

    PubMed

    Karnaukhova, N A; Sergievich, A L; Aksenova, G E; Karnaukhov, V N

    1998-01-01

    The effect of continuous gamma-irradiation with dose rate 14.4 cGy/day on the synthetic activity of rat and rabbit blood lymphocytes stained with acridine orange was studied by fluorescent microspectrometry. The changes of the synthetic activity of blood lymphocytes, described by the parameter alpha, occurred in four main stages. The essential differences in changes of synthetic activity between rat and rabbit were observed at the first stage. In the rats, parameter alpha sharply increased, as a result of the stimulatory effect of low dose irradiation. In the rabbits, being more radiosensitive, at the first stage, parameter alpha was about control values, as a result of two opposite directed processes, stimulatory and damaging. At the fourth stage, decrease of the synthetic activity was both in the rats and in the rabbits owing to damaging effect of continuous gamma-irradiation during long time. PMID:9765674

  12. Urine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Lupus Nephritis Disease Activity: Preliminary Report of a Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Alharazy, Sabah; Kong, Norella C T; Mohd, Marlyn; Shah, Shamsul A; Ba'in, Arbaiyah; Abdul Gafor, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the urine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1) levels in patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN) at various stages of renal disease activity and to compare them to current standard markers. Methods. Patients with LN-active or inactive-had their uMCP-1 levels and standard disease activity markers measured at baseline and 2 and 4 months. Urinary parameters, renal function test, serological markers, and renal SLE disease activity index-2K (renal SLEDAI-2K) were analyzed to determine their associations with uMCP-1. Results. A hundred patients completed the study. At each visit, uMCP-1 levels (pg/mg creatinine) were significantly higher in the active group especially with relapses and were significantly associated with proteinuria and renal SLEDAI-2K. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that uMCP-1 was a potential biomarker for LN. Whereas multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only proteinuria and serum albumin and not uMCP-1 were independent predictors of LN activity. Conclusion. uMCP-1 was increased in active LN. Although uMCP-1 was not an independent predictor for LN activity, it could serve as an adjunctive marker when the clinical diagnosis of LN especially early relapse remains uncertain. Larger and longer studies are indicated. PMID:26246906

  13. Urine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Lupus Nephritis Disease Activity: Preliminary Report of a Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Alharazy, Sabah; Kong, Norella C. T.; Mohd, Marlyn; Shah, Shamsul A.; Ba'in, Arbaiyah; Abdul Gafor, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the urine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1) levels in patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN) at various stages of renal disease activity and to compare them to current standard markers. Methods. Patients with LN—active or inactive—had their uMCP-1 levels and standard disease activity markers measured at baseline and 2 and 4 months. Urinary parameters, renal function test, serological markers, and renal SLE disease activity index-2K (renal SLEDAI-2K) were analyzed to determine their associations with uMCP-1. Results. A hundred patients completed the study. At each visit, uMCP-1 levels (pg/mg creatinine) were significantly higher in the active group especially with relapses and were significantly associated with proteinuria and renal SLEDAI-2K. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that uMCP-1 was a potential biomarker for LN. Whereas multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only proteinuria and serum albumin and not uMCP-1 were independent predictors of LN activity. Conclusion. uMCP-1 was increased in active LN. Although uMCP-1 was not an independent predictor for LN activity, it could serve as an adjunctive marker when the clinical diagnosis of LN especially early relapse remains uncertain. Larger and longer studies are indicated. PMID:26246906

  14. Combined Cytogenotoxic Effects of Bee Venom and Bleomycin on Rat Lymphocytes: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M.; Khalil, Samah R.; Awad, Ashraf; AL-Ayadhi, Laila Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of bee venom (BV) and/or the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin (BLM) on healthy isolated rat lymphocytes utilizing morphometric and molecular techniques. Using the Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient centrifugation technique, lymphocytes were isolated, divided into groups, and subjected to BV and/or BLM at incubation medium concentrations of 10 or 20??g/mL respectively for 24 and 72?hrs. An MTT assay and fluorescent microscopy examinations were used to assess the cytotoxic effects. To determine the predominant type of BV and/or BLM-induced cell death, LDH release assay was employed beside quantitative expression analyses of the apoptosis-related genes (Caspase-3 and Bcl-2). The genotoxic effects of the tested compounds were evaluated via DNA fragmentation assay. The results of these assays demonstrated that BV potentiates BLM-induced cytotoxicity through increased LDH release and diminished cell viability. Nevertheless, BV significantly inhibited the BLM-induced DNA damage. The results verify that BV significantly attenuates the genotoxic effects of BLM on noncancerous isolated rat lymphocytes but does not diminish BLM cytotoxicity. PMID:24822179

  15. Comparative Study on the Effects of Ceftriaxone and Monocytes on Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Tajkey, Javad; Biglari, Alireza; Habibi Asl, Bohlol; Ramazani, Ali; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison between the efficacy of ceftriaxone and monocytes on improvement of neuron protection and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten. Spinal cord injury was performed on rats under general anesthesia using the weight dropping method. Ceftriaxone was injected intraperitoneally 200 mg/kg/day for seven days after SCI. Monocytes were injected 2 × 105 cells 4 days after SCI. Hind limb motor function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale. Corticospinal tract (CST) axons were traced by injection of biotin dextran amine (BDA) into the sensorimotor cortex. Results: There were statistically significant differences in BBB scores in ceftriaxone in comparison to both monocytes receiving and control groups. On the other hand there were statistically significant differences in axon counting in both ceftriaxone and monocytes receiving groups in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ceftriaxone improves functional recovery more effective than monocytes in rats after SCI. These results are from an experimental model and validation is required for further investigation. PMID:26236656

  16. Contribution of automated hematology analysis to the detection of apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Taga, K; Yoshida, M; Kaneko, M; Asada, M; Okada, M; Taniho, M; Tosato, G

    2000-06-15

    Automated hematology analyzers (analyzers) can provide complete blood counts and white blood cell (WBC) differentials in clinical laboratories and alert users to the presence of quantitative and qualitative cell abnormalities through cautionary flags. In this study, we applied analyzers to the screening of apoptotic cells in peripheral blood and examined the triggering capacity of cautionary flags to detect apoptotic cell populations. EDTA-anticoagulated fresh peripheral blood from patients with acute infectious mononucleosis containing atypical lymphocytes comprising 12.3 +/- 4. 0% of WBC was applied to a Beckman-Coulter MAXM A/L Retic (MAXM) analyzer. The lymphocyte cluster spread upward in VOLUME/DF1 scattergrams and the threshold lines between lymphocyte and monocyte clusters shifted upward. Flags for the number and percentage of lymphocytes, variant lymphocytes, and blast cells were generally present for samples containing atypical lymphocytes. After the blood from acute infectious mononucleosis patients was incubated for 4 h at 37 degrees C, peripheral blood smears revealed the presence of morphologically apoptotic cells comprising 9.0 +/- 4.2% of WBC and a comparable reduction of lymphocytes. On the MAXM analyzer, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared under the lymphocyte cluster in VOLUME/DF1 scattergrams. However, no specific flag was present to alert users to the presence of the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster. We conclude that visual inspection of scattergrams generated by the MAXM analyzer can be useful for the detection of apoptotic lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Cytometry (Comm. Clin. Cytometry) 42:209-214, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:10861694

  17. Effect of desmopressin on immune-mediated haemorrhagic disorders due to canine monocytic ehrlichiosis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Giudice, E; Giannetto, C; Gianesella, M

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the possible use of desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) in haemorrhagic disorders consequent to canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), three dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis, with a history of thrombocytopenia and recent bleeding, were studied. The dogs were administered desmopressin (1 ?g/kg b.w. s.c.) every 24 h on three occasions. Blood samples were collected immediately before, and after 2 and 48 h the first DDAVP administration, to assess haematological, clinical chemistry and clotting time parameters. Spontaneous bleeding stopped within 1 h after the first DDAVP injection. Buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) was shortened from 9.6 to 2.3 min within 2 h after the treatment. A statistically significant increase in platelet PLT count and fibrinogen, and a statistically significant decrease of PT and aPTT were observed after DDAVP administration. The haemorrhagic disorders caused by CME appear to be quickly corrected by DDAVP administration, giving the clinician the time necessary to administer appropriate chemotherapy. PMID:21108506

  18. Isoprinosine stimulates granulocyte chemiluminescence and inhibits monocyte chemiluminescence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Flø, R W; Naess, A; Albrektsen, G; Solberg, C O

    1994-04-01

    Isoprinosine may delay disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus infection, presumably through modulation of lymphocyte function. However, the influence of isoprinosine on phagocyte function is largely unknown. This study describes the effects of isoprinosine and azidothymidine on phagocyte chemiluminescence and migration. Incubation with isoprinosine concentrations of 250 micrograms/ml and above increased the chemiluminescence of granulocytes. Random migration of granulocytes was decreased at isoprinosine concentrations of 50 micrograms/ml and higher, but chemotaxis was not affected. Azidothymidine exerted no effect on the chemiluminescence or migration of granulocytes. For monocytes, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was reduced at isoprinosine concentrations of 250 micrograms/ml and above, whereas migration was not affected. These findings suggest that the immunomodulatory properties of isoprinosine may extend to phagocytic cells. This may be of significance in the treatment of immunodeficiency states. PMID:7516672

  19. Honeybee apisimin and plant arabinogalactans in honey costimulate monocytes.

    PubMed

    Gannabathula, Swapna; Krissansen, Geoffrey W; Skinner, Margot; Steinhorn, Gregor; Schlothauer, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Here we determined whether immunostimulatory plant-derived arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and the honeybee-derived protein apisimin are present in varieties of New Zealand honey. Apisimin is a protein of unknown function secreted from the glands of honeybees into Royal Jelly, forming a complex with apalbumin1 capable of stimulating lymphocyte proliferation. AGPs were abundant in kanuka honey with lesser amounts in manuka, kowhai and clover honeys, but absent from Royal Jelly. Apisimin was present in all honeys, as well as Royal Jelly. We report that apisimin shares with honey AGPs the ability to stimulate the release of TNF-? from blood monocytes. Further, it synergizes with AGPs to enhance the release of TNF-?, via a mechanism not involving the formation of a complex with AGPs. In summary, this study provides evidence that AGPs and apisimin are commonly present in different floral varieties of honey, and hence contribute to their immunostimulatory properties. PMID:25172680

  20. Making a difference: Monocyte Heterogeneity in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hilgendorf, Ingo; Swirski, Filip K

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes are frequently described as bone marrow-derived precursors of macrophages. Although many studies support this view, we now appreciate that monocytes neither develop exclusively in the bone marrow nor give rise to all macrophages and dendritic cells. In addition to differentiating to specific leukocyte populations, monocytes, as monocytes, are functionally and ontogenically heterogeneous. In this review we will focus on the development and activity of monocytes and their subsets in mice (Ly-6Chigh/low) and humans (CD14+/dim/− CD16+/−) in the context of atherosclerosis and its complications. PMID:22847772

  1. Radiation effects on cultured human monocytes and on monocyte-derived macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Buescher, E.S.; Gallin, J.I.

    1984-06-01

    Prior to administration, leukocyte transfusions are commonly irradiated with up to 5,000 R to eliminate lymphocytes and thereby prevent graft-versus-host disease in the recipient. It has been widely believed that phagocytes are resistant to this irradiation. In a recent report, it was noted that phagocyte oxidative metabolism was compromised during preparation of white cells for transfusion. As part of the effort to examine the basis for this inhibition of phagocyte function during white cell preparation, an assessment was made of the effects of irradiation on the long-lived monocytes that have been shown to persist at inflammatory foci posttransfusion. Human monocytes were irradiated for up to 3 min, receiving 2,500-5,000 R. This irradiation damaged human monocytes, significantly decreasing their in vitro survival for the first 3 wk of culture, and growth as assessed by two-dimensional cell size measurements during the first 2 wk of culture. Despite smaller cell size, total cell protein was significantly increased over time in irradiated cultures. Extracellular release of lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase per cell was not affected by irradiation, but extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was significantly increased after irradiation. Irradiated monocytes killed Listeria monocytogenes at a slower rate than the nonirradiated controls. Thus, the data indicate that irradiation in doses used to prevent graft-versus-host disease in leukocyte transfusion recipients has a deleterious effect on in vitro human monocyte survival and function.

  2. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1): An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Deshmane, Satish L.; Kremlev, Sergey; Amini, Shohreh

    2009-01-01

    Chemokines constitute a family of chemoattractant cytokines and are subdivided into four families on the basis of the number and spacing of the conserved cysteine residues in the N-terminus of the protein. Chemokines play a major role in selectively recruiting monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, as well as in inducing chemotaxis through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. Both CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 have been demonstrated to be induced and involved in various diseases. Migration of monocytes from the blood stream across the vascular endothelium is required for routine immunological surveillance of tissues, as well as in response to inflammation. This review will discuss these biological processes and the structure and function of CCL2. PMID:19441883

  3. Inflammatory Monocytes Recruited to the Liver within 24 Hours after Virus-Induced Inflammation Resemble Kupffer Cells but Are Functionally Distinct

    PubMed Central

    Movita, Dowty; Biesta, Paula; Kreefft, Kim; Haagmans, Bart; Zuniga, Elina; Herschke, Florence; De Jonghe, Sandra; Janssen, Harry L. A.; Gama, Lucio; Boonstra, Andre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to a scarcity of immunocompetent animal models for viral hepatitis, little is known about the early innate immune responses in the liver. In various hepatotoxic models, both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of recruited monocytes have been described. In this study, we compared the effect of liver inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with that of a persistent virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13, on early innate intrahepatic immune responses in mice. LCMV infection induces a remarkable influx of inflammatory monocytes in the liver within 24 h, accompanied by increased transcript levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in whole liver. Importantly, while a single LPS injection results in similar recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the liver, the functional properties of the infiltrating cells are dramatically different in response to LPS versus LCMV infection. In fact, intrahepatic inflammatory monocytes are skewed toward a secretory phenotype with impaired phagocytosis in LCMV-induced liver inflammation but exhibit increased endocytic capacity after LPS challenge. In contrast, F4/80high-Kupffer cells retain their steady-state endocytic functions upon LCMV infection. Strikingly, the gene expression levels of inflammatory monocytes dramatically change upon LCMV exposure and resemble those of Kupffer cells. Since inflammatory monocytes outnumber Kupffer cells 24 h after LCMV infection, it is highly likely that inflammatory monocytes contribute to the intrahepatic inflammatory response during the early phase of infection. Our findings are instrumental in understanding the early immunological events during virus-induced liver disease and point toward inflammatory monocytes as potential target cells for future treatment options in viral hepatitis. IMPORTANCE Insights into how the immune system deals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV are scarce due to the lack of adequate animal model systems. This knowledge is, however, crucial to developing new antiviral strategies aimed at eradicating these chronic infections. We model virus-host interactions during the initial phase of liver inflammation 24 h after inoculating mice with LCMV. We show that infected Kupffer cells are rapidly outnumbered by infiltrating inflammatory monocytes, which secrete proinflammatory cytokines but are less phagocytic. Nevertheless, these recruited inflammatory monocytes start to resemble Kupffer cells on a transcript level. The specificity of these cellular changes for virus-induced liver inflammation is corroborated by demonstrating opposite functions of monocytes after LPS challenge. Overall, this demonstrates the enormous functional and genetic plasticity of infiltrating monocytes and identifies them as an important target cell for future treatment regimens. PMID:25673700

  4. Characterization of the adhesion of the human monocytic cell line U937 to cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    DiCorleto, P E; de la Motte, C A

    1985-01-01

    Adhesion of blood-borne monocytes to the vascular endothelium is the first step in the infiltration of this leukocyte into the vessel wall or the interstitial space during inflammation. A significant role for the monocyte in both wound healing and atherogenesis is now well accepted. The molecular interactions involved in monocyte attachment to the endothelium are unknown. To study this phenomenon we have developed an in vitro system that uses the human monocytic tumor cell line U937 as a model for the blood-borne monocyte. 51Cr-labeled U937 cells were found to adhere with high affinity to cultured endothelial cells (ECs) from several sources. Much less binding was observed to either smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts from several species. Conditioned medium and cocultivation experiments ruled out the possibility that target cells could affect U937 cell binding by secretion of factors. Binding of U937 cells to porcine aortic ECs reached equilibrium after 30 min at 37 degrees C and 90 min at 4 degrees C with similar extent of binding at the two temperatures. Binding of U937 to the endothelium reached saturation at 9-12 U937 per porcine aortic EC (semi-confluent) with half-maximal binding at 1.5 X 10(6) U937 cells/ml. Bound cells dissociated with a half-life of 20 h at 37 degrees C. Adhesion of U937 cells was blocked by prior incubation of ECs with normal monocytes but not with platelets, lymphocytes, or neutrophils. Trypsin treatment or detergent solubilization of ECs inhibited U937 cell binding. A striking effect of EC density on monocytic cell adhesion was observed with bovine, rat, and porcine ECs. Confluent cultures of these cells exhibited negligible binding of U937, but when plated sparsely, the same cells were excellent targets for U937 cell adhesion. In addition, when confluent cultures of bovine aortic ECs were "wounded" with a cotton swab and then allowed to recover for 24 h at 37 degrees C, U937 cells were found to adhere most readily to the ECs migrating into the wound and neighboring the wound but not to ECs in the confluent monolayer away from the wound edge. These latter results may have implications for the focal adhesion of monocytes to the vessel wall in vivo. Images PMID:3988935

  5. Monocyte B7 and Sialyl Lewis X modulates the efficacy of IL-10 down-regulation of LPS-induced monocyte tissue factor in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Warnes, G; Biggerstaff, J P; Francis, J L

    1998-07-01

    Recent studies have investigated the use of anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10 (IL-10) to control the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in sepsis by down-regulation of monocyte tissue factor (MTF) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the initial phase of the disease. In vitro and in vivo human studies have shown that a minimal (<1 h) delay in IL-10 treatment significantly reduces the cytokines ability to inhibit LPS-induced MTF expression and the end products of coagulation. In this whole blood in vitro study we investigated the role of lymphocyte and platelet interactions with monocytes to up-regulate MTF expression in the presence of IL-10 in the initial phase of exposure to LPS. Individual blockade of monocyte B7 or platelet P-selectin significantly (35%) reduced MTF expression (P<0.05). IL-10 showed a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS (0.1 microg/ml) induced MTF expression, with 56% inhibition at 1 ng/ml, maximizing at 5 ng/ml IL-10 (75%; P<0.05). Simultaneous exposure to LPS and IL-10 (1 ng/ml) or addition of IL-10 1 h after LPS, with individual B7 and P-selectin blockade significantly enhanced the inhibition of MTF expression by IL-10 (P<0.05). We conclude that the efficacy of IL-10 to control DIC could be enhanced by a simultaneous B7 and P-selectin blockade. PMID:9695978

  6. Metformin Changes the Relationship between Blood Monocyte Toll-Like Receptor 4 Levels and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease—Ex Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwolak, Agnieszka; Słabczyńska, Olga; Semeniuk, Justyna; Daniluk, Jadwiga; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) contributes to the development of NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) and MetS (metabolic syndrome). It is unclear whether anti-diabetic metformin affects TLR4 expression on blood monocytes, thereby protecting or improving inflammatory parameters. Therefore, we investigated TLR4 in patients with NAFLD meeting different sets of MetS criteria and linked the results with the disease burden. Methods 70 subjects were characterized and divided into three groups: (I) healthy individuals, (II) nonobese with NAFLD and without MetS, and (III) prediabetic, obese with NAFLD and MetS. We determined the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and monocyte TLR4 levels in fresh blood as well as in blood cultures with or without metformin supplementation. Results The characteristics of the study groups revealed a significant association between NAFLD and BMI, MetS and inflammatory parameters, and TLR4. In ex vivo studies, 100 μM of metformin decreased the TLR4 level by 19.9% (II group) or by 35% (III group) as well as IL-1β and TNFα production. A stepwise multiple regression analysis highlighted a strong effect of metformin on attenuation of the link between TLR4 and NAFLD, and TNFα. Conclusion We concluded that, by attenuation of the blood monocyte TLR4 level, metformin reduced their inflammatory potential—critical after recruitment these cells into liver. However, this finding should be confirmed after in vivo metformin administration. PMID:26930651

  7. Influence of fingolimod on basic lymphocyte subsets frequencies in the peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, Julia; Czerwiec, Micha?; Siwicka-Gieroba, Dorota; Walankiewicz, Monika; Grafka, Agnieszka; Zgurski, Micha?; Surdacka, Agata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Roli?ski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Background Fingolimod is a drug administered orally to adult patients treated for relapsing remitting course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mode of action of fingolimod is based on intense S1P1 receptor stimulation and arresting lymphocytes in lymphatic organs. Objective of the research was to assess changes in the frequencies of basic lymphocyte subsets in patients treated for multiple sclerosis with the use of fingolimod. Material and methods Study group comprised of 25 previously untreated adult patients with MS. Venous blood samples were collected from each patient before and one month, three months and six months after treatment initiation. Peripheral blood lymphocyte immunophenotype was assessed with a set of monoclonal antibodies bounded to appropriate fluorochromes and flow cytometer FACSC alibur. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using Statistica 9.0 software. Results Before fingolimod administration median of lymphocyte subsets percentage in each patient was in reference range. After 1 month of treatment we noticed significant changes in frequencies of following lymphocyte subsets: NK cells 51.22% (p = 0.016), T CD4+ cells 11.58% (p = 0.01), T CD4+:T CD8+ cells ratio 0.61 (p = 0.005). After 3 and 6 months of treatment there was further increase of deviation from normal state. Conclusions The use of fingolimod is associated with profound changes in lymphocyte subsets distribution, which might bear a risk of the development of cellular immune deficiency symptoms. PMID:26648781

  8. Effect of antihypertensive treatments on insulin signalling in lympho-monocytes of essential hypertensive patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Flati, Vincenzo; Rossini, Claudia; Rufo, Anna; Porteri, Enzo; Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Petroboni, Beatrice; La Boria, Elisa; Donini, Carlotta; Pasini, Evasio; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    It was previously demonstrated that metabolic syndrome in humans is associated with an impairment of insulin signalling in circulating mononuclear cells. At least in animal models of hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) may correct alterations of insulin signalling in the skeletal muscle. In the first study, we investigated the effects of a 3-month treatment with an ARB with additional PPAR? agonist activity, telmisartan, or with a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, on insulin signalling in patients with mild-moderate essential hypertension. Insulin signalling was evaluated in mononuclear cells by isolating them through Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation and protein analysis by Western Blot. An increased expression of mTOR and of phosphorylated (active) mTOR (p-mTOR) was observed in patients treated with telmisartan, but not in those treated with nifedipine, while both treatments increased the cellular expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4). We also investigated the effects of antihypertensive treatment with two drug combinations on insulin signalling and oxidative stress. Twenty essential hypertensive patients were included in the study and treated for 4 weeks with lercanidipine. Then they were treated for 6 months with lercanidipine + enalapril or lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. An increased expression of insulin receptor, GLUT-4 and an increased activation of p70S6K1 were observed during treatment with lercanidipine + enalapril but not with lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. In conclusion, telmisartan and nifedipine are both effective in improving insulin signalling in human hypertension; however, telmisartan seems to have broader effects. The combination treatment lercanidipine + enalapril seems to be more effective than lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide in activating insulin signalling in human lympho-monocytes. PMID:24786779

  9. Elevated Monocytes in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia Diminish after Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Dania; Vasilas, Penny; Muto, Akihito; Fitzgerald, Tamara; Fancher, Tiffany; Feinstein, Aaron; Nishibe, Toshiya; Dardik, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Mononuclear cells (MNC) increase neovascularization and ulcer healing after injection into an ischemic extremity. Circulating MNC are composed of lymphocytes (85%), monocytes (15%) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC; 0.03%). We hypothesized that ischemic limbs secrete paracrine signals to recruit bone marrow-derived monocytes and EPC into the circulation, such that patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have increased circulating monocytes compared to control patients. We also hypothesized that circulating monocytes and EPC recruitment decrease after resolution of ischemia with successful revascularization. Methods We reviewed the records of all patients at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System undergoing lower extremity peripheral bypass surgery between 2002 and 2007, only including patients with both preoperative and postoperative complete blood counts with differentials. Results Patients with CLI (n=24) had elevated preoperative monocyte counts compared to control patients (n=8) (0.7530.04 vs. 0.5160.05; p=0.0046), whereas the preoperative lymphocyte counts were not significantly different. After revascularization, ischemic patients had decreased monocyte counts compared to control patients (-20% vs. +55%; p=.0003), although lymphocyte counts were unchanged in both groups. Diabetic patients also had reduced postoperative monocyte counts (-32% vs. +13%; p=0.035). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that the only factor that independently predicted reduced postoperative monocyte count was preoperative CLI (p=0.038). Conclusions Patients with CLI have increased numbers of circulating monocytes, and the monocyte number decreases with resolution of ischemia after successful revascularization. Circulating monocytes may be a clinically useful perioperative marker in patients with CLI undergoing vascular surgery. PMID:19854451

  10. Effects of environmental toxins on lymphocyte function: studies in rhesus and man

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, R. )

    1991-06-01

    The immune system is a potential target of environmental toxins. Impairment of immune function could have a disastrous effect upon the affected individual. We had the unique opportunity to study the results of a prolonged exposure to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin) in rhesus monkeys and their offspring. Subsequently, we performed similar studies on humans exposed to the nematode pesticide, Aldicarb. This report summarizes those previous studies. In the monkeys, no major deficits of the immune system were found and the animals did not have excessive numbers of infections. However, at higher doses of dietary TCDD (25 ppt), only 22% of the offspring survived to 1 year of age. Thus, the failure to demonstrate effects on the young may simply relate to the essential equivalence of the lethal to an immunosuppressive dose. In humans, exposure to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Aldicarb, was received through contaminated well water. The known exposure was for at least 1 year and could have been as long as 5 years. Various tests of the immune system, including lymphocyte subset counts, proliferative responses, total immunoglobulin levels and specific antibody responses did not reveal immunodeficiency. Increases in the numbers of CD8 positive T lymphocytes was observed. There was no evidence of any increase in clinical illness in the exposed compared with the control group.

  11. Ofatumumab in poor-prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a Phase IV, non-interventional, observational study from the European Research Initiative on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carol; Montillo, Marco; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Dimou, Maria; Bloor, Adrian; Dupuis, Jehan; Schuh, Anna; Norin, Stefan; Geisler, Christian; Hillmen, Peter; Doubek, Michael; Trn?n, Marek; Obrtlikova, Petra; Laurenti, Luca; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Smolej, Lukas; Ghia, Paolo; Cymbalista, Florence; Jaeger, Ulrich; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Stavroyianni, Niki; Carrington, Patrick; Zouabi, Hamadi; Leblond, Veronique; Gomez-Garcia, Juan C.; Rubio, Martin; Marasca, Roberto; Musuraca, Gerardo; Rigacci, Luigi; Farina, Lucia; Paolini, Rossella; Pospisilova, Sarka; Kimby, Eva; Bradley, Colm; Montserrat, Emili

    2015-01-01

    We report the largest retrospective, phase IV non-interventional, observational study of ofatumumab therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with poor-prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Total number of patients was 103; median age was 65 years (range 3985). Median number of prior lines of therapy was 4 (range 113), including, in most cases, rituximab-, fludarabine- and alemtuzumab-based regimens; 13 patients had been allografted. Of 113 adverse events, 28 (29%) were considered to be directly related to ofatumumab. Grade 34 toxicities included neutropenia (10%), thrombocytopenia (5%), anemia (3%), pneumonia (17%), and fever (3%). Two heavily pre-treated patients developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. On an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall response rate was 22% (3 complete response, 1 incomplete complete response). Median progression-free and overall survival times were 5 and 11 months, respectively. This study confirms in a daily-life setting the feasibility and acceptable toxicity of ofatumumab treatment in advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The complete response rate, however, was low. Therefore, treatment with ofatumumab should be moved to earlier phases of the disease. Ideally, this should be done in combination with other agents, as recently approved for ofatumumab plus chlorambucil as front-line treatment for patients unfit for fludarabine. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01453062. PMID:25596264

  12. Protective effect of grape seed extracts on human lymphocytes: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Lee, Kit Yee; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) possess a broad spectrum of antioxidative properties that protects various cells from free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, the genoprotective effect of GSE on human lymphocytic DNA was studied using standard and lysed cell comet assays. Lymphocytes from 5 healthy subjects were pretreated with GSE in different concentrations. The standard and lysed cell comet assays were performed on treated, untreated, challenged, and unchallenged cells in parallel. Cells were then subjected to an oxidant challenge induced with 5-min exposures to hydrogen peroxide. In the standard comet assay, GSE significantly diminished hydrogen-peroxide-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. In the lysed cell assay, however, the antioxidant effect was diminished at a higher GSE concentration. Data indicate that the cell membrane might play a role in limiting cellular access to antioxidants, which directly affects the genoprotective or potential pro-oxidant effect of antioxidants on human DNA. Using both standard and lysed cell comet assays in parallel could be a useful way to elucidate the mechanism of protection or damage by antioxidants. PMID:23537018

  13. Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K.

    2013-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are innate immune cells that reside and accumulate in the healthy and injured heart. The cells and their subsets pursue distinct functions in steady state and disease, and their tenure may range between hours to months. Some subsets are highly inflammatory, while others support tissue repair. This review discusses current concepts of lineage relationships and systems’ cross talk, highlights open questions, and describes tools for studying monocyte and macrophage subsets in the murine and human heart. PMID:23743228

  14. Molecular analyses of in vivo hprt mutations in human T-lymphocytes: IV. Studies in newborns

    SciTech Connect

    McGinniss, M.J.; Nicklas, J.A.; Albertini, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to characterize in vivo gene mutations that occur during fetal development, molecular analyses were undertaken of mutant 6-thioguanine resistant T-lymphocytes isolated from placental cord blood samples of 13 normal male newborns. These mutant T-cells were studied to define hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene structural alterations and to determine T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement patterns. Structural hprt alterations, as shown by Southern blot analyses, occurred in 85% of these mutant clones. These alterations consisted mostly of deletion of exons 2 and 3. These findings contrast with the 10-20% of gross structural alterations occurring randomly across the entire gene previously reported for T-cell mutants isolated from normal young adults. Iterative analyses of hprt structural alterations and TCR gene rearrangement patterns show that approximately one-third of the newborn derived mutants may have originated as pre- or intrathymic hprt mutations. This too contrasts with previous findings in adults where the background in vivo hprt mutations appeared to originate in postthymic T-lymphocytes.

  15. Synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes under acute and continuous gamma-irradiation -- fluorescent microspectral study.

    PubMed

    Karnaukhova, N A; Sergiyevich, L A; Aksenova GYe; Karnaukhov, V N

    1999-05-01

    The effects of different doses of acute and continuous gamma-irradiation on the synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes stained with acridine orange were studied by fluorescent microspectrometry. Male rats were exposed to acute gamma-irradiation with doses of 7.5, 4 and 3 Gy, or to continuous irradiation with dose rates of 14.4, 2.1, 1.1 and 0.43 cGy/day, respectively. The changes of the synthetic activity of blood lymphocytes occurred in three main stages after acute gamma-irradiation and in four stages under continuous irradiation. The stages reflect the processes of depression and activation of the immune system under irradiation. Essential differences between the acute and continuous effects were observed in the first stage. After acute gamma-irradiation, the synthetic activity decreased sharply, indicating the predominant contribution of the damaging effect of irradiation, whereas under continuous irradiation, as a result of the stimulatory effect of low-dose irradiation, the synthetic activity increased during the first stage. PMID:10384955

  16. [Studies of lymphocyte membrane transport of sodium in patients with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Negrusz-Kawecka, M

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate abnormalities in lymphocyte membrane sodium fluxes in patients with essential hypertension with and without familial history of hypertension and the influence of selected hypotensive drugs on these fluxes. 121 patients (pts) with positive family histories of primary hypertension (PFH) and 73 pts with negative family histories of primary hypertension (NFH) were examined. The total sodium efflux rate constant (wswc), ouabaine-sensitive (wswou) and furosemide-sensitive (wswf) were measured by the method of Heagerty et al. To examine the influence of selected hypotensive drugs on sodium fluxes wswc, wswou and wswf were measured before and after 7 days of treatment with hydrochlorothiazide (H) or propranolol (P). Wswou was decreased in 61% pts with PFH and in 19% pts with NFH, wswf was decreased in 38% pts with PFH and in 22% pts with NFH. Both, wswou and wswf, were decreased in 49% pts with PFH and only in 2.7% pts with NFH. Wswou and wswf rose significantly after 7 days of treatment with H or P only in pts with PFH and in pts with decreased wswou and wswf before treatment. These data suggest that abnormal lymphocytes membrane sodium transport often occurs in pts with PFH and has familial component. Changes in transport systems observed after 7 days treatment with H or P may contribute, at least in part, to its antihypertensive action in familial hypertension. PMID:10365594

  17. Production of C-reactive protein by human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuta, A.E.; Baum, L.L.

    1986-03-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase serum protein in humans; it is detectable at very high concentrations during infection and tissue trauma. This protein is a pentame composed of five identical, 21,500 MW subunits. CRP is detectable on the surface of approximately 4% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). CRP binds its physiological ligands in a Ca/sup + +/ dependent manner; removal of Ca/sup + +/ does not alter the expression of CRP on the lymphocyte surface. Recently, investigators in this laboratory reported substantial inhibition of natural killer cell (NK) activity with anti-CRP antibodies. The following studies were undertaken to determine the origin of surface-CRP (S-CRP) found on normal PBL. Cells were incubated in methionine-free DMEM supplemented with /sup 35/S-methionine. Cells were lysed and subjected to immunoprecipitation with anti-CRP and Staphylococcus aureus; immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Data presented here suggested that lymphocytes, in particular, LGL produce small amounts of CRP and express it on their surface. Lymphocytes do not appear to secrete CRP since no CRP could be detected in culture supernatants. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates that peripheral blood monocytes produce no detectable CRP. Present studies utilizing Northern blot analysis are underway in order to detect CRP-mRNA.

  18. Setae from Larvae of the Northern Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) Stimulate Proliferation of Human Blood Lymphocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Gran; Andersson, Margareta; Ekberg, Monica; Fagrell, Bengt; Sjberg, Jan; Bottai, Matteo; Bjrkholm, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined. PMID:25531291

  19. Setae from larvae of the northern processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) stimulate proliferation of human blood lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Holm, Gran; Andersson, Margareta; Ekberg, Monica; Fagrell, Bengt; Sjberg, Jan; Bottai, Matteo; Bjrkholm, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined. PMID:25531291

  20. Increase in expression of monocytic tissue factor (CD142) with monocytes and blood platelet activation in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Panasiuk, Anatol; Zak, Janusz; Panasiuk, Bozena; Prokopowicz, Danuta

    2007-12-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is one of the proteins that participate in hemostatic and inflammatory processes. Activated monocytes present in the liver increase expression of TF, and while accumulating in the organ they can intensify inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of TF on monocytes in advanced liver cirrhosis with regard to other activation markers. The flow cytometric analysis of TF (CD142), CD14, adhesive molecules CD11b and CD11c, costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86, and HLA-DR on monocytes was carried out in 45 patients with postalcoholic liver cirrhosis (Child Pugh B, 20 patients; Child Pugh C, 25 patients) and in 25 healthy persons. The positive correlation between monocytic TF expression and monocyte [soluble CD14 (sCD14), CD11b, monocyte aggregates] activation, the expression of costimulatory molecules on monocytes (CD40, CD80), blood platelet (soluble P-selectin, microplatelets) activation, the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, biochemical parameters of liver damage (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphate, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and bilirubin) as well as coagulation disorders were observed in the study. In conclusion, the study revealed that the activation of monocytes and blood platelets is accompanied by the elevation of monocytic TF expression in advanced liver cirrhosis. The monocytic TF is a significant link connecting clotting processes and inflammatory and immunological phenomena in liver cirrhosis. PMID:17982314

  1. Circulating CD14+ monocytes in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, Sara; Meledin, Valery; Bar, Iris; Fabricant, Jacob; Gandelman, Gera; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is an active process sharing similarities with atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation. The pathophysiology of AS is notable for three cardinal components: inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Monocytes play a role in each of these processes. The role of circulating monocytes in AS is not clear. The aim of the present study was to study an association between circulating apoptotic and non apoptotic CD14+ monocytes and AS features. Methods We assessed the number of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes in 54 patients with significant AS (aortic valve area 0.74 ± 0.27 cm2) and compared them to 33 patients with similar risk factors and no valvular disease. The level of CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. Results There was no difference in the risk factor profile and known coronary or peripheral vascular diseases between patients with AS and controls. Patients with AS exhibited increased numbers of CD14+ monocytes as compared to controls (9.9% ± 4.9% vs. 7.7% ± 3.9%, P = 0.03). CD14+ monocyte number was related to age and the presence and severity of AS. In patients with AS, both CD14+ monocytes and apoptotic monocytes were inversely related to aortic valve area. Conclusions Patients with significant AS have increased number of circulating CD14+ monocytes and there is an inverse correlation between monocyte count and aortic valve area. These findings may suggest that inflammation is operative not only in early valve injury phase, but also at later developed stages such as calcification when AS is severe. PMID:26918018

  2. Lack of autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence for autoreactive T-cell dysfunction not correlated with phenotype, karyotype, or clinical status

    SciTech Connect

    Han, T.; Bloom, M.L.; Dadey, B.; Bennett, G.; Minowada, J.; Sandberg, A.A.; Ozer, H.

    1982-11-01

    In the present study, there was a complete lack of autologous MLR between responding T cells or T subsets and unirradiated or irradiated leukemic B cells or monocytes in all 20 patients with CLL, regardless of disease status, stage, phenotype, or karyotype of the disease. The stimulating capacity of unirradiated CLL B cells and CLL monocytes or irradiated CLL B cells was significantly depressed as compared to that of respective normal B cells and monocytes in allogeneic MLR. The responding capacity of CLL T cells was also variably lower than that of normal T cells against unirradiated or irradiated normal allogeneic B cells and monocytes. The depressed allogeneic MLR between CLL B cells or CLL monocytes and normal T cells described in the present study could be explained on the basis of a defect in the stimulating antigens of leukemic B cells or monocytes. The decreased allogeneic MLR of CLL T cells might simply be explained by a defect in the responsiveness of T lymphocytes from patients with CLL. However, these speculations do not adequately explain the complete lack of autologous MLR in these patients. When irradiated CLL B cells or irradiated CLL T cells were cocultured with normal T cells and irradiated normal B cells, it was found that there was no suppressor cell activity of CLL B cells or CLL T cells on normal autologous MLR. Our data suggest that the absence or dysfunction of autoreactive T cells within the Tnon-gamma subset account for the lack of autologous MLR in patients with CLL. The possible significance of the autologous MLR, its relationship to in vivo immunoregulatory mechanisms, and the possible role of breakdown of autoimmunoregulation in the oncogenic process of certain lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases in man are discussed.

  3. Decreased Splenic CD4+ T-Lymphocytes in Apolipoprotein M Gene Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhigang; Luo, Guanghua; Feng, Yuehua; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Hongyao; Liang, Yun; Liu, Zhonghua; Shao, Peng; Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Spleen T-lymphocytes, especially CD4+ T-cells, have been demonstrated to be involved in broad immunomodulation and host-defense activity in vivo. Apolipoprotein M gene (apoM) may have an important role in the regulation of immunoprocess and inflammation, which could be hypothesized to the apoM containing sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). In the present study we demonstrate that the splenic CD4+ T-lymphocytes were obviously decreased in the apoM gene deficient (apoM−/−) mice compared to the wild type (apoM+/+). Moreover, these mice were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and it was found that even more pronounced decreasing CD4+ T-lymphocytes occurred in the spleen compared to the apoM+/+ mice. The similar phenomena were found in the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes. After administration of LPS, the hepatic mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were markedly increased; however, there were no statistical differences observed between apoM+/+ mice and apoM−/− mice. The present study demonstrated that apoM might facilitate the maintenance of CD4+ T-lymphocytes or could modify the T-lymphocytes subgroups in murine spleen, which may further explore the importance of apoM in the regulation of the host immunomodulation, although the detailed mechanism needs continuing investigation. PMID:26543853

  4. Human Brucellosis Is Characterized by an Intense Th1 Profile Associated with a Defective Monocyte Function?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrguez-Zapata, Manuel; Matas, Marlene J.; Prieto, Alfredo; Jonde, Marco A.; Monserrat, Jorge; Snchez, Lorenzo; Reyes, Eduardo; De la Hera, Antonio; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2010-01-01

    In animal models, a defective Th1 response appears to be critical in the pathogenesis of brucellosis, but the Th1 response in human brucellosis patients remains partially undefined. Peripheral blood from 24 brucellosis patients was studied before and 45 days after antibiotherapy. Twenty-four sex- and age-matched healthy donors were analyzed in parallel. Significantly increased levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p40, gamma interferon (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), but not of IL-10, in serum and/or significantly increased percentages of samples with detectable levels of these cytokines, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), were found for untreated brucellosis patients, but these levels were reduced and/or normalized after treatment. Flow cytometry studies showed that the intracytoplasmic expression of IFN-?, IL-2, and TNF-?, but not that of IL-4, by phorbol myristate-activated CD4+ CD3+ and CD8+ CD3+ T lymphocytes was significantly increased in untreated brucellosis patients and was also partially normalized after antibiotherapy. The percentage of phagocytic cells, the mean phagocytic activity per cell, and the phagocytic indices for monocytes at baseline were defective and had only partially reverted at follow-up. T lymphocytes from untreated brucellosis patients are activated in vivo and show Th1 cytokine production polarization, with strikingly high serum IFN-? levels. In spite of this Th1 environment, we found deficient effector phagocytic activity in peripheral blood monocytes. PMID:20404074

  5. In vitro generation of dendritic cells from human blood monocytes in experimental conditions compatible for in vivo cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, H; Verg, V; Baron, C; Martinache, C; Leon, A; Scholl, S; Gorin, N C; Salamero, J; Assari, S; Bernard, J; Lopez, M

    2000-04-01

    DC are professional APC that are promising adjuvants for clinical immunotherapy. Methods to generate in vitro large numbers of functional human DC using either peripheral blood monocytes or CD34+ pluripotent HPC have been developed recently. However, the various steps of their in vitro production for further clinical use need to fit good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Our study focused on setting up such a full procedure, including collection of mononuclear cells (MNC) by apheresis, separation of monocytes by elutriation, and culture of monocytes with GM-CSF + IL-13 + autologous serum (SAuto) in sterile Teflon bags. The procedure was first developed with apheresis products from 7 healthy donors. Its clinical feasibility was then tested on 7 patients with breast cancer. The characteristics of monocyte-derived DC grown with SAuto (or in some instances with a pooled AB serum) were compared with those obtained in the presence of FBS by evaluation of their phenotype, their morphology in confocal microscopy, and their capacity to phagocytize latex particles and to stimulate allogeneic (MLR) or autologous lymphocytes (antigen-presentation tests). The results obtained demonstrate that the experimental conditions we set up are easily applicable in clinical trials and lead to large numbers of well-defined SAuto-derived DC as efficient as those derived with FBS. PMID:10813531

  6. MIF inhibition reverts the gene expression profile of human melanoma cell line-induced MDSCs to normal monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Waigel, Sabine; Rendon, Beatriz E.; Lamont, Gwyneth; Richie, Jamaal; Mitchell, Robert A.; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are potently immunosuppressive innate immune cells that accumulate in advanced cancer patients and actively inhibit anti-tumor T lymphocyte responses [1]. Increased numbers of circulating MDSCs directly correlate with melanoma patient morbidity and reduced anti-tumor immune responses [2], [3]. Previous studies have revealed that monocyte-derived macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is necessary for the immune suppressive function of MDSCs in mouse models of melanoma [4], [5]. To investigate whether MIF participates in human melanoma-induced MDSC differentiation and/or suppressive function, we have established an in vitro MDSC induction model using primary, normal human monocytes co-cultured with human melanoma cell lines in the presence or absence of the MIF antagonist—4-IPP [4], [6], [7], [8], [9]. To identify potential mechanistic effectors, we have performed transcriptome analyses on cultured monocytes and on melanoma-induced MDSCs obtained from either untreated or 4-IPP-treated A375:monocyte co-cultures. Here, we present a detailed protocol, which can facilitate easy reproduction of the microarray results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE73333) published by Yaddanapudi et al. (2015) in Cancer Immunology Research [10].

  7. MIF inhibition reverts the gene expression profile of human melanoma cell line-induced MDSCs to normal monocytes.

    PubMed

    Waigel, Sabine; Rendon, Beatriz E; Lamont, Gwyneth; Richie, Jamaal; Mitchell, Robert A; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha

    2016-03-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are potently immunosuppressive innate immune cells that accumulate in advanced cancer patients and actively inhibit anti-tumor T lymphocyte responses [1]. Increased numbers of circulating MDSCs directly correlate with melanoma patient morbidity and reduced anti-tumor immune responses [2], [3]. Previous studies have revealed that monocyte-derived macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is necessary for the immune suppressive function of MDSCs in mouse models of melanoma [4], [5]. To investigate whether MIF participates in human melanoma-induced MDSC differentiation and/or suppressive function, we have established an in vitro MDSC induction model using primary, normal human monocytes co-cultured with human melanoma cell lines in the presence or absence of the MIF antagonist-4-IPP [4], [6], [7], [8], [9]. To identify potential mechanistic effectors, we have performed transcriptome analyses on cultured monocytes and on melanoma-induced MDSCs obtained from either untreated or 4-IPP-treated A375:monocyte co-cultures. Here, we present a detailed protocol, which can facilitate easy reproduction of the microarray results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE73333) published by Yaddanapudi et al. (2015) in Cancer Immunology Research [10]. PMID:26981417

  8. Lymphocytic gastritis: a newly described entity: a retrospective endoscopic and histological study.

    PubMed Central

    Haot, J; Hamichi, L; Wallez, L; Mainguet, P

    1988-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis is a histopathological entity characterised by the accumulation of small lymphocytes in the surface and foveolar epithelium. In order to investigate the correlation between endoscopy and histology in this condition, 192 observations selected on the basis of a presumed diagnosis of erosive or varioliform gastritis were reviewed. Ninety two instances corresponded to lymphocytic gastritis, while 100 did not show any particular microscopic feature and were labelled non-specific gastritis. There was a good correlation (48 of 58) between the diagnosis of the so-called varioliform gastritis and the histological evidence of lymphocytic gastritis. The correlation was even better when nodules, erosions, and enlarged folds were considered. Lymphocytic gastritis has a typical endoscopical appearance consisting of nodules, erosions, and large folds predominating in the gastric body. This contrasts with non-specific gastritis, which affects the antrum and produces erosions on a flat mucosa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3198002

  9. Immune surveillance of the lung by migrating tissue monocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodero, Mathieu P; Poupel, Lucie; Loyher, Pierre-Louis; Hamon, Pauline; Licata, Fabrice; Pessel, Charlotte; Hume, David A; Combadière, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are phagocytic effector cells in the blood and precursors of resident and inflammatory tissue macrophages. The aim of the current study was to analyse and compare their contribution to innate immune surveillance of the lung in the steady state with macrophage and dendritic cells (DC). ECFP and EGFP transgenic reporters based upon Csf1r and Cx3cr1 distinguish monocytes from resident mononuclear phagocytes. We used these transgenes to study the migratory properties of monocytes and macrophages by functional imaging on explanted lungs. Migratory monocytes were found to be either patrolling within large vessels of the lung or locating at the interface between lung capillaries and alveoli. This spatial organisation gives to monocytes the property to capture fluorescent particles derived from both vascular and airway routes. We conclude that monocytes participate in steady-state surveillance of the lung, in a way that is complementary to resident macrophages and DC, without differentiating into macrophages. PMID:26167653

  10. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the bowel in primary hypogammaglobulinaemia: study of in vivo and in vitro lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Webster, A D; Kenwright, S; Ballard, J; Shiner, M; Slavin, G; Levi, A J; Loewi, G; Asherson, G L

    1977-05-01

    In vitro and in vivo lymphocyte function was studied in six patients with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) of the bowel. Lymphocyte transformation, numbers of circulating T and B lymphocytes, and delayed hypersensitivity skin tests did not significantly differ when compared with hypogammaglobulinaemic patients without NLH. However, patients with NLH had higher jejunal juice IgM concentrations and a tendency to higher serum IgM concentrations than those without NLH. The morphological features of NLH are similar to the germinal centres of lymph nodes but more closely resemble the follicle zone of Peyer's patches. These findings suggest that NLH represents a local immune response to antigens originating in the gut lumen. PMID:873321

  11. A dose escalation feasibility study of lenalidomide for treatment of symptomatic, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Kami; Ruppert, Amy S; Browning, Rebekah; Jones, Jeffrey; Flynn, Joseph; Kefauver, Cheryl; Gao, Yue; Jiang, Yao; Rozewski, Darlene M; Poi, Ming; Phelps, Mitch A; Harper, Erica; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C; Andritsos, Leslie A

    2014-09-01

    Adequate dosing of lenalidomide in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) remains unclear. This study determined maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in relapsed CLL patients (Cohort A) and patients achieving a partial response (PR) or better to recent therapy (Cohort B). Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD was 2.5mg followed by 5.0mg continuous. In Cohort A, tumor flare grade 1-2 occurred in 15 patients (50%) and grade 3 in 1 patient (3%). Cohort A had 19 of 23 evaluable (83%) patients, 4 PR (17%) and 15 (65%) stable disease (SD), Cohort B had 6 of 7 patients (86%) with SD. Despite overall response rate not being high, many patients remained on therapy several months with SD. PMID:25082342

  12. A dose escalation feasibility study of lenalidomide for treatment of symptomatic, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Kami; Ruppert, Amy S.; Browning, Rebekah; Jones, Jeffrey; Flynn, Joseph; Kefauver, Cheryl; Gao, Yue; Jiang, Yao; Rozewski, Darlene M.; Poi, Ming; Phelps, Mitch A.; Harper, Erica; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.; Andritsos, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dosing of lenalidomide in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) remains unclear. This study determined maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in relapsed CLL patients (Cohort A) and patients achieving a partial response (PR) or better to recent therapy (Cohort B). Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD was 2.5 mg followed by 5.0 mg continuous. In Cohort A, tumor flare grade 12 occurred in 15 patients (50%) and grade 3 in 1 patient (3%). Cohort A had 19 of 23 evaluable (83%) patients, 4 PR (17%) and 15 (65%) stable disease (SD), Cohort B had 6 of 7 patients (86%) with SD. Despite overall response rate not being high, many patients remained on therapy several months with SD. PMID:25082342

  13. Lymphocyte function in untreated Hodgkin's disease: an important predictor of prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wedelin, C.; Bjrkholm, M.; Holm, G.; Ogenstad, S.; Johansson, B.; Mellstedt, H.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and twenty seven consecutive and previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) (mean age 47 years) from the Stockholm area admitted to Radiumhemmet, Karolinska Hospital, were studied. The age-matched control group consisted of 167 healthy adults. Incorporation of [14C]-dT was measured on Day 1 in unstimulated monocyte-depleted lymphocyte cultures, and on Day 3 in cultures activated by PWM, ConA and PPD, T and B cells were enumerated by surface markers. The patients had significantly decreased relative and total T-cell counts, and the lymphocyte DNA synthesis induced by mitogens and PPD was severely impaired, whilst the spontaneous DNA synthesis was significantly greater than in controls. At follow-up (mean 4 years) 40 patients have died. Deceased patients showed greater spontaneous lymphocyte activation and less response to mitogen and antigen stimulation than the survivors. The 5-year survival of patients with severe lymphocyte impairment was 20%, compared to 80% for the remainder. The lymphocyte tests added prognostic information to that from clinical staging. Disregarding the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the lymphocyte impairment, we suggest that these relatively simple immunological tests should be included in the clinical evaluation of HD patients and would guide the choice of therapy. PMID:6977367

  14. Novel function of C4a anaphylatoxin. Release from monocytes of protein which inhibits monocyte chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruta, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsubara, S.; Nagasawa, S.; Tanase, S.; Tanaka, J.; Takagi, K.; Kambara, T.

    1993-01-01

    The complement C4-derived anaphylatoxin, C4a, possesses a strong chemotaxis inhibitory capacity to blood monocytes at concentrations as low as 10(-16) mol/L. In our study, treatment with carboxypeptidase B to convert it to C4a des Arg77 decreased the inhibitory activity to less than 1/1,000. The extraordinary inhibitory capacity of C4a suggests the presence of an amplification mechanism in this inhibition. Indeed, we found that the conditioned media of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or monocyte/macrophage lineage cell lines (U937 and THP-1 cells) preincubated with 10(-16) mol/L C4a for 5 minutes or more at 37 C possessed the inhibitory capacity 100,000-fold stronger than the original activity of C4a. The monocyte-derived chemotaxis inhibitory factor seemed monocyte-specific. This cell-derived factor was sensitive to treatment with trypsin and chymotrypsin and immunologically distinct from C4a. The apparent molecular size of the monocyte factor was estimated to be approximately 20 kd by gel filtration. These results indicate that C4a anaphylatoxin induces the release from monocytes of a protein with inhibitory activity for monocyte chemotaxis. PMID:8506953

  15. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-30

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Sonja I; Skibola, Christine F; Joseph, Vijai; Camp, Nicola J; Nieters, Alexandra; Wang, Zhaoming; Cozen, Wendy; Monnereau, Alain; Wang, Sophia S; Kelly, Rachel S; Lan, Qing; Teras, Lauren R; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chung, Charles C; Yeager, Meredith; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P; Birmann, Brenda M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zhang, Yawei; Severi, Gianluca; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Burdette, Laurie; Yuenger, Jeffrey; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D; Novak, Anne J; Kay, Neil E; Liebow, Mark; Wang, Alice H; Smedby, Karin E; Adami, Hans-Olov; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Chang, Ellen T; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Jones, Brandt; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K; Weiner, George J; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Holly, Elizabeth A; Smith, Martyn T; Jackson, Rebecca D; Tinker, Lesley F; Benavente, Yolanda; Becker, Nikolaus; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Staines, Anthony; Rabe, Kari G; Achenbach, Sara J; Vachon, Celine M; Goldin, Lynn R; Strom, Sara S; Lanasa, Mark C; Spector, Logan G; Leis, Jose F; Cunningham, Julie M; Weinberg, J Brice; Morrison, Vicki A; Caporaso, Neil E; Norman, Aaron D; Linet, Martha S; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chirlaque, Mara-Dolores; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Travis, Ruth C; Giles, Graham G; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clavel, Jacqueline; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J; Spinelli, John J; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Laden, Francine; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Vajdic, Claire M; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Ferri, Giovanni M; Miligi, Lucia; Liang, Liming; Sampson, Joshua; Crouch, Simon; Park, Ju-Hyun; North, Kari E; Cox, Angela; Snowden, John A; Wright, Josh; Carracedo, Angel; Lopez-Otin, Carlos; Bea, Silvia; Salaverria, Itziar; Martin-Garcia, David; Campo, Elias; Fraumeni, Joseph F; de Sanjose, Silvia; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Cerhan, James R; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L

    2013-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified 13 loci associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted the largest meta-analysis for CLL thus far, including four GWAS with a total of 3,100 individuals with CLL (cases) and 7,667 controls. In the meta-analysis, we identified ten independent associated SNPs in nine new loci at 10q23.31 (ACTA2 or FAS (ACTA2/FAS), P=1.2210(-14)), 18q21.33 (BCL2, P=7.7610(-11)), 11p15.5 (C11orf21, P=2.1510(-10)), 4q25 (LEF1, P=4.2410(-10)), 2q33.1 (CASP10 or CASP8 (CASP10/CASP8), P=2.5010(-9)), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1, P=1.2710(-8)), 18q21.32 (PMAIP1, P=2.5110(-8)), 15q15.1 (BMF, P=2.7110(-10)) and 2p22.2 (QPCT, P=1.6810(-8)), as well as an independent signal at an established locus (2q13, ACOXL, P=2.0810(-18)). We also found evidence for two additional promising loci below genome-wide significance at 8q22.3 (ODF1, P=5.4010(-8)) and 5p15.33 (TERT, P=1.9210(-7)). Although further studies are required, the proximity of several of these loci to genes involved in apoptosis suggests a plausible underlying biological mechanism. PMID:23770605

  17. Serum and Lymphocytic Neurotrophins Profiles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Lise, Marie-Claude; Marget, Pierre; Lapeybie, Franois-Xavier; Bezanahary, Holy; Martel, Clothilde; Dumonteil, Stphanie; Sparsa, Agns; Lallou, Fabrice; Ly, Kim; Essig, Marie; Vidal, Elisabeth; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurotrophins play a central role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. However, neurotrophins can also modulate B and T cell proliferation and activation, especially via autocrine loops. We hypothesized that both serum and lymphocytic neurotrophin levels may be deregulated in systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may reflect clinical symptoms of the disease. Methods Neurotrophins in the serum (ELISA tests) and lymphocytes (flow cytometry) were measured in 26 SLE patients and 26 control subjects. Th1 (interferon-?) and Th2 (IL-10) profiles and serum concentration of BAFF were assessed by ELISA in the SLE and control subjects. Findings We have demonstrated that both NGF and BDNF serum levels are higher in SLE patients than healthy controls (p=0.003 and p<0.001), independently of Th1 or Th2 profiles. Enhanced serum NT-3 levels (p=0.003) were only found in severe lupus flares (i.e. SLEDAI ? 10) and significantly correlated with complement activation (decreased CH 50, ?=-0.28, p=0.03). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between serum NGF levels and the number of circulating T regulatory cells (?=0.48, p=0.01). In circulating B cells, production of both NGF and BDNF was greater in SLE patients than in healthy controls. In particular, the number of NGF-secreting B cells correlated with decreased complement levels (p=0.05). One month after SLE flare treatment, BDNF levels decreased; in contrast, NGF and NT-3 levels remained unchanged. Conclusion This study demonstrates that serum and B cell levels of both NGF and BDNF are increased in SLE, suggesting that the neurotrophin production pathway is deregulated in this disease. These results must be confirmed in a larger study with naive SLE patients, in order to avoid the potential confounding influence of prior immune-modulating treatments on neurotrophin levels. PMID:24223945

  18. Regulation of ICAM-1 in Cells of the Monocyte/Macrophage System in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M.; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.; Thiel, Cora S.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

  19. Regulation of ICAM-1 in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M; Glz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hrlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Unverdorben, Felix; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmnner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Buttron, Isabell; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Thiel, Cora S; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

  20. Defects in Mitochondrial Clearance Predispose Human Monocytes to Interleukin-1β Hypersecretion

    PubMed Central

    van der Burgh, Robert; Nijhuis, Lotte; Pervolaraki, Kalliopi; Compeer, Ewoud B.; Jongeneel, Lieneke H.; van Gijn, Marielle; Coffer, Paul J.; Murphy, Michael P.; Mastroberardino, Pier G.; Frenkel, Joost; Boes, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Most hereditary periodic fever syndromes are mediated by deregulated IL-1β secretion. The generation of mature IL-1β requires two signals: one that induces synthesis of inflammasome components and substrates and a second that activates inflammasomes. The mechanisms that mediate autoinflammation in mevalonate kinase deficiency, a periodic fever disease characterized by a block in isoprenoid biosynthesis, are poorly understood. In studying the effects of isoprenoid shortage on IL-1 β generation, we identified a new inflammasome activation signal that originates from defects in autophagy. We find that hypersecretion of IL-1β and IL-18 requires reactive oxygen species and is associated with an oxidized redox status of monocytes but not lymphocytes. IL-1β hypersecretion by monocytes involves decreased mitochondrial stability, release of mitochondrial content into the cytosol and attenuated autophagosomal degradation. Defective autophagy, as established by ATG7 knockdown, results in prolonged cytosolic retention of damaged mitochondria and increased IL-1β secretion. Finally, activation of autophagy in healthy but not mevalonate kinase deficiency patient cells reduces IL-1β secretion. Together, these results indicate that defective autophagy can prime monocytes for mitochondria-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, thereby contributing to hypersecretion of IL-1β in mevalonate kinase deficiency. PMID:24356959

  1. Induction of autophagy is essential for monocyte-macrophage differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Morgan, Michael J.; Chen, Kun; Choksi, Swati

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes are programmed to undergo apoptosis in the absence of stimulation. Stimuli that promote monocyte-macrophage differentiation not only cause cellular changes, but also prevent the default apoptosis of monocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that autophagy is induced when monocytes are triggered to differentiate and that the induction of autophagy is pivotal for the survival and differentiation of monocytes. We also show that inhibition of autophagy results in apoptosis of cells that are engaged in differentiation. We found that the differentiation signal releases Beclin1 from Bcl-2 by activating JNK and blocks Atg5 cleavage, both of which are critical for the induction of autophagy. Preventing autophagy induction hampers differentiation and cytokine production; therefore, autophagy is an important transition from monocyte apoptosis to differentiation. PMID:22223827

  2. Results of a phase 1 study utilizing monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with tumor RNA in children and young adults with brain cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Denise A.; Orme, Lisa M.; Neale, Alana M.; Radcliff, Fiona J.; Amor, Gerlinda M.; Maixner, Wirginia; Downie, Peter; Hassall, Timothy E.; Tang, Mimi L.K.; Ashley, David M.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a phase 1 study of 9 pediatric patients with recurrent brain tumors using monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with tumor RNA to produce antitumor vaccine (DCRNA) preparations. The objectives of this study included (1) establishing safety and feasibility and (2) measuring changes in general, antigen-specific, and tumor-specific immune responses after DCRNA. Dendritic cells were derived from freshly isolated monocytes after 7 days of culture with IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor, pulsed with autologous tumor RNA, and then cryopreserved. Patients received at least 3 vaccines, each consisting of an intravenous and an intra-dermal administration at biweekly intervals. The study showed that this method for producing and administering DCRNA from a single leukapheresis product was both feasible and safe in this pediatric brain tumor population. Immune function at the time of enrollment into the study was impaired in all patients tested. While humoral responses to recall antigens (diphtheria and tetanus) were intact in all patients, cellular responses to mitogen and recall antigens were below normal. Following DCRNA vaccine, 2 of 7 patients showed stable clinical disease and 1 of 7 showed a partial response. Two of 7 patients who were tested showed a tumor-specific immune response to DCRNA. This study showed that DCRNA vaccines are both safe and feasible in children with tumors of the central nervous system with a single leukapheresis. PMID:15279716

  3. Cryopreservation of Dendritic Cells Grown in Vitro from Monocytes for Their Future Clinical Use.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hua; Verg, Vronique; Martinache, Chantal; Leon, Anne; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Bernard, Jacky; Lopez, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells which are being used as adjuvants in tumor vaccination trials. Most clinical protocols currently include 4 to 10 weekly infusions of doses > 10(6) cells, each inoculum coming from a simple culture of blood monocytes. In the present study, several millions of dendritic cells from a single leukapheresis were produced; monocytes were isolated by elutriation and then cultured in Teflon bags in presence of 800 U/ml GM-CSF + 100 micro g/ml IL-13 + 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). The dendritic cells from this single batch were aliquoted in many doses for potential multiple infusions and cryopreserved in 10% DMSO + 2% human albumin in Teflon-kapton Fresenius bags either at -1 degrees C/min using a controlled rate freezer, or putting the bags directly in a -80 degrees C mechanical freezer without controlling the temperature rate. Six experiments were carried out. After one month of cryopreservation, the cells were thawed in a 40 degrees C water bath. Before and after freezing, cells were evaluated for immunophenotype (CD1a, CD14, CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD54, CD58, CD16, CD32, CD64 and HLA-DR) and for their capacity to stimulate allogenic (MLR) or autologous (antigen presentation tests) lymphocytes. The results demonstrated that the mean recovery rates after freezing in liquid nitrogen or at -80 degrees C were (67 +/- 14)% and (71 +/- 13)% respectively, without any significant difference between the two techniques. The immunophenotype was not modified by the freezing-thawing procedure, as well as the lymphocyte stimulating capacities. In conclusion, our study showed that substantial numbers of functional DCs can be derived from peripheral blood monocytes using Teflon bags. DCs can be cryopreserved in a good laboratory practice setting for further clinical trials with an acceptable loss of cells and without modification of their functions. PMID:12578659

  4. A longitudinal study of in vitro tests for lymphocyte function in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Percy, John S.; Davis, Paul; Russell, Anthony S.; Brisson, Estelle

    1978-01-01

    In vitro tests of lymphocyte function have been performed in 61 patients with `classical' or `definite' rheumatoid arthritis. In vitro lymphocyte function was assessed by lymphocyte transformation responses to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), Pokeweed mitogen (PWM), Candida antigen, and herpes simplex type I (HSV1). Follow up data were available after 6 months of treatment in 32 of these patients. Spontaneous lymphocyte transformation was assessed in all patients. Results obtained in patients with rheumatoid arthiritis were compared to those seen in a normal control population. Disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis was assessed using standard clinical methods. Lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed a similar degree of spontaneous transformation to that seen in normal subjects. In contrast, lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis responded less well to PHA and Candida and HSV1 antigens when compared to normal patients. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis the response to PWM was markedly enhanced compared to normals. Clinical improvement was noted in 19 of the 32 patients seen at follow up, all of whom had received gold or penicillamine therapy. The abnormal responses of PHA and PWM seen before treatment became normal in those patients who improved clinically. The responses to Candida and HSV1 antigens not only returned to normal following treatment but were increased above those seen in normal controls. A statistically significant association was seen between clinical improvement and improvement of in vitro tests of lymphocyte function. PMID:214047

  5. A longitudinal study of in vitro tests for lymphocyte function in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Percy, J S; Davis, P; Russell, A S; Brisson, E

    1978-10-01

    In vitro tests of lymphocyte function have been performed in 61 patients with ;classical' or ;definite' rheumatoid arthritis. In vitro lymphocyte function was assessed by lymphocyte transformation responses to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), Pokeweed mitogen (PWM), Candida antigen, and herpes simplex type I (HSV1). Follow up data were available after 6 months of treatment in 32 of these patients. Spontaneous lymphocyte transformation was assessed in all patients. Results obtained in patients with rheumatoid arthiritis were compared to those seen in a normal control population. Disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis was assessed using standard clinical methods. Lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed a similar degree of spontaneous transformation to that seen in normal subjects. In contrast, lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis responded less well to PHA and Candida and HSV1 antigens when compared to normal patients. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis the response to PWM was markedly enhanced compared to normals. Clinical improvement was noted in 19 of the 32 patients seen at follow up, all of whom had received gold or penicillamine therapy. The abnormal responses of PHA and PWM seen before treatment became normal in those patients who improved clinically. The responses to Candida and HSV1 antigens not only returned to normal following treatment but were increased above those seen in normal controls. A statistically significant association was seen between clinical improvement and improvement of in vitro tests of lymphocyte function. PMID:214047

  6. Allogenic induction of thromboplastin synthesis in monocytes and endothelial cells. Biphasic effect of cyclosporin A.

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, E; Gaudernack, G; Filion-Myklebust, C; Pettersen, K S; Prydz, H

    1989-01-01

    Monocytes and endothelial cells were stimulated in co-culture with allogeneic lymphocytes to produce thromboplastin (TPL). The induction was biphasic, an early response (8-24 h) was greatly augmented by cyclosporin A (CS) (0.5-5 micrograms/ml) whereas the late response (day 3-4) was inhibited. Prednisolone inhibited both responses. Both drugs inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. Interferon-gamma decreased MLC TPL activity but increased thymidine incorporation. CD4+ cells were instrumental in inducing the early TPL peak in monocytes, whereas CD8+ cells decreased the TPL effect. With endothelial cells both T cell classes were equally effective. Conditioned medium from MLC as well as from co-cultures of endothelial cells and lymphocytes induced early TPL synthesis in endothelial cells. Upon allogeneic stimulation monocytes, but not endothelial cells, produced a significant amount of F-VII, most of which was apparently undercarboxylated. PMID:2526700

  7. Therapeutic depletion of monocyte-derived cells protects from long-term axonal loss in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Monica A; Burns, Travis; Yao, Pamela; Miers, Laird; Pleasure, David; Soulika, Athena M

    2016-01-15

    Studies in multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) suggest that peripheral monocyte-derived cells (MDCs) are instrumental for disease initiation. MDCs, however, are plastic, and may exert various functions once in the central nervous system (CNS) for prolonged periods. Furthermore, the long-term effect of MDC depletion on continuing axon loss is not known. We show that long-lasting depletion of MDCs, after onset of EAE clinical deficits, is accompanied by decreased CNS infiltration by pathogenic T lymphocytes. Although this treatment does not reverse clinical disease, it prevents worsening of neurological deficits and long-term axonal loss. PMID:26711567

  8. Electron microscopic study of lymphocytes in a freshwater teleost (Pimelodus maculatus) epidermis.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S

    1983-01-01

    Small lymphocytes were identified in a freshwater teleost (Pimelodus maculatus) epidermis at the ultrastructural level. Although they were the most abundant, the medium and the large lymphocytes were also present. They were found at all levels of the epidermis, specially in small spaces between the cells of the basal layer. They appeared in contact only with filament-containing cells. Intercellular junctions, however, were never observed. They were negative to the histochemical test used to detect the present of acid phosphatase. PMID:6650847

  9. The influence of aminophylline on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes: an AFM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xun; He, Jiexiang; Liu, Mingxian; Zhou, Changren

    2014-09-01

    Although much progress has been made in the illustration of the mechanism of aminophylline (AM) treating asthma, there is no data about its effect on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes. Here, we presented atomic force spectroscopy (AFM)-based investigations at the nanoscale level to address the above fundamental biophysical questions. As increasing AM treatment time, T lymphocytes' volume nearly double increased and then decreased. The changes of nanostructural features of the cell membrane, i.e., mean height of particles, root-mean-square roughness (Rq), crack and fragment appearance, increased with AM treatment time. T lymphocytes were completely destroyed with 96-h treatment, and they existed in the form of small fragments. Analysis of force-distance curves showed that the adhesion force of cell surface decreased significantly with the increase of AM treatment time, while the cell stiffness increased firstly and then decreased. These changes were closely correlated to the characteristics and process of cell oncosis. In total, these quantitative and qualitative changes of T lymphocytes' structure and nanomechanical properties suggested that AM could induce T lymphocyte oncosis to exert anti-inflammatory effects for treating asthma. These findings provide new insights into the T lymphocyte oncosis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism and immune regulation actions of AM.

  10. Automated image analysis in the study of lymphocyte subpopulation in eosinophilic oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by the presence of eosinophils in oesophageal mucosa. Other inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells may also play an important role in this disease. The aim of this study is to compare the inflammatory pattern of the mucosa between EoE and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), using automatic image analysis in digital slides, and to assess treatment response after elimination diet and food challenge test. Methods From 2010 to 2013, 35 oesophageal biopsies from EoE and GERD patients were randomly selected. In six EoE biopsies, patients had been treated with selective food exclusion diet. Immunohistochemical study with CD3, CD20, CD4, and CD8 for lymphocyte populations, CD1a for dendritic cells, and CD117/c-kit for mast cells was performed. Slides were scanned using Leica Aperio Scanscope XT with 40× magnification. Immunohistochemical expression was quantified in 245 immunohistochemistry digital slides with Leica Aperio positive pixel count algorithm using two different approaches: whole slide analysis versus selection of a 2 mm2 hot spot area. Results Average eosinophil cell count was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the first biopsy of EoE patients before treatment (30.75 eosinophils per high power field - HPF) than in GERD patients (0.85 eosinophils/HPF) or in EoE patients after treatment with elimination diet (1.60 eosinophils/HPF). In the immunohistochemical study, manual count and automatic image analysis showed a significant increase in the number of CD3 and CD8 cells in EoE patients, compared with GERD patients. However, the increase of CD117/c-kit was only statistically significant when manual counting procedures were used. CD20 positive cell count also showed a non-statistically significant tendency to reduce after elimination diet treatment. Manual eosinophil count correlated much better with CD3 and CD8 count using hot spot approach than with a whole slide approach. Conclusions Positive pixel count algorithm can be a useful tool to quantify the immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory cells in the diagnosis and follow up of eosinophilic oesophagitis. PMID:25565117

  11. Upregulation of integrin expression on monocytes in multiple sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Simone; Franciotta, Diego; Carluccio, Silvia; Signorini, Lucia; Gastaldi, Matteo; Colombo, Elena; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Elia, Francesca; Villani, Sonia; Ferrante, Pasquale; Delbue, Serena

    2015-10-15

    Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the ?4 subunit of VLA-4 integrin that is used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Although its effects on lymphocytes have been widely described, little is known about its effects on monocytes. Here we described the effects of natalizumab treatment on peripheral blood monocytes from a small cohort of MS patients in terms of relative frequencies and surface integrin (CD49d and CD18) expression. We showed that natalizumab treatment altered the surface integrin expression on monocyte subsets in the peripheral compartment, suggesting a role for them as mediators of natalizumab effects. PMID:26439965

  12. STAT-5 is activated constitutively in T cells, B cells and monocytes from patients with primary Sjgren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pertovaara, M; Silvennoinen, O; Isomki, P

    2015-07-01

    The expression and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) have been shown to be markedly increased in the salivary gland epithelial cells of patients with primary Sjgren's syndrome (pSS). The present aim was to investigate the activation status of different STAT proteins in peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes and monocytes, and their correlations with clinical parameters in patients with pSS. To this end, PB samples were drawn from 16 patients with active pSS and 16 healthy blood donors, and the phosphorylation of STAT-1, -3, -4, -5 and -6 proteins was studied in T cells, B cells and monocytes using multi-colour flow cytometry. In addition, mRNA expression of STAT molecules in PB mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied with quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Basal phosphorylation of STAT-5 was found to be significantly higher in PB T cells, B cells and monocytes in patients with pSS than in healthy controls. The expression of STAT-5 mRNA was not increased in PBMC. pSTAT-5 levels in B cells and monocytes showed a significant correlation with serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels and anti-SSB antibody titres. Constitutive STAT-5 activation in monocytes and CD4(+) T cells was associated with purpura. There were no major differences in the activation of other STATs between pSS patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, STAT-5 is activated constitutively in PB leucocytes in patients with pSS, and basal STAT-5 phosphorylation seems to associate with hypergammaglobulinaemia, anti-SSB antibody production and purpura. PMID:25736842

  13. Elevated HMGB1-related interleukin-6 is associated with dynamic responses of monocytes in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jin-Cheng; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Lin, Dong-Zi; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Liu, Gan-Bin; Kong, Bin; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2015-01-01

    There were limited studies assessing the role of HMGB1 in TB infection. In this prospective study, we aimed to assess the levels of HMGB1 in plasma or sputum from active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB) patients positive for Mtb culture test, and to evaluate its relationship with inflammatory cytokines and innate immune cells. A total of 36 sputum Mtb culture positive APTB patients and 32 healthy volunteers (HV) were included. Differentiated THP-1 cells were treated for 6, 12 and 24 hrs with BCG at a multiplicity of infection of 10. The absolute values and percentages of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were detected by an automatic blood analyzer. Levels of HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-? in plasma, sputum, or cell culture supernatant were measured by ELISA. The blood levels of HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-?, the absolute values of WBC, monocytes and neutrophils, and the percentage of monocytes were significant higher in APTB patients than those in HV groups (P<0.05). The sputum levels of HMGB1, IL-10, and TNF-? were also significantly higher in APTB patients than those in HV groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, plasma level of HMGB1, IL-6, and IL-10 in APTB patients were positively correlated with those in sputum (P<0.05), respectively. IL-6 was positively correlated with HMGB1 both in plasma and sputum of APTB patients (P<0.05). HMGB1 and IL-6 is positively correlated with the absolute number of monocytes in APTB patients (P<0.05). BCG induced HMGB1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-? production effectively in PMA-treated THP-1 cells. HMGB1 may be used as an attractive biomarker for APTB diagnosis and prognosis and may reflect the inflammatory status of monocytes in patients with APTB. PMID:25973018

  14. Study of response of thymic and submaxillary lymph node lymphocytes to administration of lead by different routes.

    PubMed

    Teijn, Csar; Blanco, Mara Dolores; Romero, Carlos Santiago; Beneit, Juan Vicente; Villarino, Antonio Luis; Guerrero, Sandra; Olmo, Rosa

    2010-06-01

    A number of studies have reported that heavy metals are not only toxic for the organism but they may modulate immune responses. In the current study, the effect of 4-week administration of 200 ppm of PbAc(2), using different routes of administration (orally and intraperitoneal injection), on lymphatic organs was evaluated. In the thymus, the number of lymphocyte cells and the cellularity diminished significantly for both routes of treatment. Regarding the submaxillary lymph nodes, no significant variations took place. Cell-mediated immune response is commonly evaluated by cell proliferation assays. Mitogens are known to induce a vigorous proliferative response in lymphoid cells from mammals. An increase in the proliferation of T lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A and the proliferation of B lymphocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharides was found in thymus for both routes of administration, whereas in the lymph nodes, there was a decrease in proliferation of T lymphocytes. Furthermore, lead administration by intraperitoneal route caused an effect on B and T lymphocyte subpopulations. Thus, there was an increase in B+ cells and a decrease in T+ cells. Regarding CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, there were only variations, concretely a drop in both subpopulations, in lymph nodes when lead was administered intraperitoneally. It is important to emphasize that an increase in apoptosis was found in this tissue. At the histological level, evident alterations were described in thymus both for the oral and for the intraperitoneal route. Therefore, it is possible to show that lead administered by both routes generated effects on an immunological level. PMID:19756406

  15. Immunophenotypic characterisation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1: clinical study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Perniola, Roberto; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Rosatelli, Maria Cristina; Pitotti, Elena; Accogli, Elisa; De Rinaldis, Corrado

    2005-02-01

    Autoimmune endocrinopathies are characterised by an increased number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) expressing activation/ memory markers on their surface. The aim of this study was to determine whether a similar finding could be detected in a group of 11 paediatric and young adult patients suffering from autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS1), also called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), as very few data have previously been reported in this field. The control group was made up of 11 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Fifteen lymphocyte subsets were compared, in terms of percentage and absolute number, and statistical analysis was performed by the Mann-Whitney test. Measurement of T (CD3+), B (CD19+), natural killer (NK, CD3-CD16/56+), CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes showed that patients with APS1 had a higher percentage and absolute count of T lymphocytes: this was entirely due to the statistically larger CD3+CD4+ fraction. Patients with APS1 also had slightly fewer B and NK lymphocytes, but the difference was negligible. Comparison of CD4+ subpopulations bearing activation and naive/memory antigens (marked by CD69, CD25, anti-HLA-DR, CD45RA and CD45RO) showed that patients with APS1 had generally larger percentages and absolute counts of these subsets: however, only the percentage and absolute size of the CD4+CD25+ subset (p = 0.0354 and p = 0.0151, respectively), and the absolute number of the CD4+ anti-HLA-DR+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ subsets (p = 0.0193 and p = 0.0209, respectively) were significantly higher. Interestingly, patients with APS1 also had significantly fewer CD8+CD11b+ and CD3-CD8+ cells. In conclusion, PBL distribution in APS1 resembles that of other autoimmune diseases. Further studies are needed to confirm and possibly extend these data. PMID:15751604

  16. Mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescences (cardiac MICE) associated with acute aortic dissection: a study of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Thomas; Bertz, Simone; Wachter, David Lukas; Weyand, Michael; Agaimy, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition mainly caused by hypertension, atherosclerotic disease and other degenerative diseases of the connective tissue of the aortic wall. Mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescences (cardiac MICE) is a rare benign reactive tumor-like lesion composed of admixture of histiocytes, mesothelial cells, and inflammatory cells set within a fibrinous meshwork without a vascular network or supporting stroma. Cardiac MICE occurring in association with aortic dissection is exceptionally rare (only one such case reported to date). We herein report on the surgical repair of two Stanford type A aortic dissections caused by idiopathic giant cell aortitis in a 66-year-old-woman and by atherosclerotic disease in a 58-year-old-man, respectively. In both cases, the dissections could be visualized via computed tomography. Histopathology showed cardiac incidental MICE within the external aortic wall near the pericardial surface which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. PMID:26097568

  17. The invention of lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Summary Lamprey and hagfish are surviving representatives of the most ancient vertebrates. They possess adaptive immune systems based on a vast, somatically diversified repertoire of lymphocyte-bound antigen receptors. Despite these similarities to antibody and T cell receptors (TCR) of later vertebrates, the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) are not related to the immunoglobulin (Ig)-superfamily of genes; and instead of V(D)J recombination VLR are somatically assembled by a gene conversion process. However, recent studies have revealed two lamprey lymphocyte subsets so closely resembling B cells and T cells that separate lymphocyte lineages must have already existed in the ancestral vertebrate, before Ig/TCR emergence. VLR and Ig/TCR arose independently, but the convergent evolution they display actually reflects their selection in cells with specialized functions. PMID:21227671

  18. Tracking mouse bone marrow monocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Pauline; Rodero, Mathieu Paul; Combadire, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Real time multiphoton imaging provides a great opportunity to study cell trafficking and cell-to-cell interactions in their physiological 3-dimensionnal environment. Biological activities of immune cells mainly rely on their motility capacities. Blood monocytes have short half-life in the bloodstream; they originate in the bone marrow and are constitutively released from it. In inflammatory condition, this process is enhanced, leading to blood monocytosis and subsequent infiltration of the peripheral inflammatory tissues. Identifying the biomechanical events controlling monocyte trafficking from the bone marrow towards the vascular network is an important step to understand monocyte physiopathological relevance. We performed in vivo time-lapse imaging by two-photon microscopy of the skull bone marrow of the Csf1r-Gal4VP16/UAS-ECFP (MacBlue) mouse. The MacBlue mouse expresses the fluorescent reporters enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) under the control of a myeloid specific promoter, in combination with vascular network labelling. We describe how this approach enables the tracking of individual medullar monocytes in real time to further quantify the migratory behaviour within the bone marrow parenchyma and the vasculature, as well as cell-to-cell interactions. This approach provides novel insights into the biology of the bone marrow monocyte subsets and allows to further address how these cells can be influenced in specific pathological conditions. PMID:25867540

  19. Changes in monocyte functions of astronauts.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Simons, Elizabeth R; Castro, Victoria A; Ott, C Mark; Pierson, Duane L

    2005-11-01

    As part of the systematic evaluation of the innate immune system for long duration missions, this study focused on the antimicrobial functions of monocytes in astronauts participating in spaceflight. The study included four space shuttle missions and 25 astronauts. Nine non-astronauts served as controls. Blood specimens were collected 10 days before launch, within 3h after landing, and again 3 days after landing. The number of monocytes did not differ significantly over the interval sampled in both the astronaut or control groups. However, following 5-11 days of spaceflight, the astronauts' monocytes exhibited reductions in ability to engulf Escherichia coli, elicit an oxidative burst, and degranulate. The phagocytic index was significantly reduced following spaceflight when compared to control values. This reduction in phagocytosis was accompanied by changes in the expression of two surface markers involved in phagocytosis, CD32 and CD64. Levels of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine after spaceflight did not increase over preflight values. PMID:15908177

  20. Histiocytic differentiation in acute monocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ru, Yong-Xin; Dong, Shu-Xu; Zhao, Shi-Xuan; Liang, Hao-Yue; Wang, Hui-Jun; Hu, Xiao; Mi, Ying-Chang; Wang, Jian-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid histocytes of dendritic cells (DCs), Langerhans cells (LCs), and macrophages in varied tissues, as leukemic blasts in acute monoblastic and monocytic leukemia (AML-M5a and M5b), are derived from monocyte progenitors in bone marrow. Based on DC induction from hematopoietic stem cells, myeloid progenitors, and monocytes, and occasional expressions of histocyte-related antigens (HRAs) in M5, we presume some M5 cases share histiocytic phenotypes originally. To clarify the conception, 93 M5 cases were tested with antibodies for HRAs, CD1a, CD163, S100, fascin, and langerin by immunostaining, and their morphologic characteristics were studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The study revealed that 23 M5 cases were positive for two or more kinds of HRAs and shared a serial of histocytic immunophenotype and morphologic features, which were closely associated with M5b subtype and expression of CD14 in M5. PMID:26771450

  1. Upregulation of Monocyte Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor during Human Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Dekkers, Pascale E. P.; ten Hove, Tessa; te Velde, Anje A.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; van der Poll, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) (CD87) plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion and migration. To assess the effect of endotoxin on cellular uPAR, uPAR expression was determined on leukocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis in seven healthy subjects following intravenous injection of endotoxin (lot G; 4 ng/kg). Endotoxin induced a transient increase in uPAR expression on monocytes, reaching a 92% ± 46% increase over baseline expression after 6 h (P < 0.05). Endotoxin did not influence uPAR expression on granulocytes, while uPAR remained undetectable on lymphocytes. Endotoxin also increased soluble uPAR levels in plasma (P < 0.05). Stimulation of human whole blood with endotoxin or gram-positive stimuli in vitro also resulted in an upregulation of monocyte uPAR expression. Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) upregulated monocyte uPAR expression, anti-TNF did not influence the endotoxin-induced increase in monocyte uPAR expression. These data suggest that infectious stimuli may influence monocyte function in vivo by enhancing the expression of uPAR. PMID:10722614

  2. [Alterations in populations of T-lymphocytes in the rats blood during experimental preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Sharashenidze, A; Kikalishvili, L; Sanikidze, T

    2015-04-01

    Immune tolerance to the fetus is predetermined mainly by HLA-G expression in trophoblasts, varying the ratio of Th1 / Th2, decrease in the content of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells (NK cells) and fusion "tread" of antibodies. The aim of the study was to establish the role of the placental hypoxia in regulation of expression of -lymphocytes populations in the blood of rats at different stages of pregnancy. For the purpose of modeling of PE in pregnant rats, at10-th day of gestation the lumen of the abdominal aorta below the renal artery was narrowed by the silk thread a third of its diameter (0.2 mm). In blood serum was defined the relative content of leukocyte subpopulations by indirect immunofluorescence in cytotoxic assay using monoclonal antibodies to CD4, CD8, CD14, CD16 leukocytes (ICN Pharmaceutical, USA). The study found that in the blood of animals of control group (phisiological pregnancy) within the 2nd 3rd trimester of gestation of CD4, CD8 subpopulations of lymphocytes did not change. The animals of the experimental group (pregnancy complicated by placental hypoxia) content of CD8 subpopulations and CD16 (NK cells) in the blood did not change significantly compared with those in the blood of animals in the control group, whereas CD4 T cell subpopulation in the second and in the third trimester statistical significantly decreased compared with those in control group (p<0.001). The ratio of immunoregulatory subpopulations lymphocytes CD4/CD8 decreased, number of CD14 (monocytes) phenotypes leukocytes increased. It is concluded that the placental hypoxia promotes disorder of the regulation of the immune balance of the mother's body during pregnancy, which is manifested in decrease ratio immunoregulatory subpopulations of lymphocyte, increasing the intensity of local expression of monocytes. PMID:25953947

  3. Pivotal Role for CD16+ Monocytes in Immune Surveillance of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Waschbisch, Anne; Schrder, Sina; Schraudner, Dana; Sammet, Laura; Weksler, Babette; Melms, Arthur; Pfeifenbring, Sabine; Stadelmann, Christine; Schwab, Stefan; Linker, Ralf A

    2016-02-15

    Monocytes represent a heterogeneous population of primary immune effector cells. At least three different subsets can be distinguished based on expression of the low-affinity Fc?RIII: CD14(++)CD16 -: classical monocytes, CD14(++)CD16(+) intermediate monocytes, and CD14(+)CD16 ++: non-classical monocytes. Whereas CD16 -: classical monocytes are considered key players in multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known on CD16(+) monocytes and how they contribute to the disease. In this study, we examined the frequency and phenotype of monocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain biopsy material derived from MS patients and controls. Furthermore, we addressed a possible monocyte dysfunction in MS and analyzed migratory properties of monocyte subsets using human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Our ex vivo studies demonstrated that CD16(+) monocyte subpopulations are functional but numerically reduced in the peripheral blood of MS patients. CD16(+) monocytes with an intermediate-like phenotype were found to be enriched in CSF and dominated the CSF monocyte population under noninflammatory conditions. In contrast, an inversed CD16(+) to CD16 -: CSF monocyte ratio was observed in MS patients with relapsing-remitting disease. Newly infiltrating, hematogenous CD16(+) monocytes were detected in a perivascular location within active MS lesions, and CD16(+) monocytes facilitated CD4(+) T cell trafficking in a blood -: brain barrier model. Our findings support an important role of CD16(+) monocytes in the steady-state immune surveillance of the CNS and suggest that CD16(+) monocytes shift to sites of inflammation and contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in CNS autoimmune diseases. PMID:26746191

  4. Study on peripheral blood lymphocytes chromosome abnormality of people exposed to cadmium in environment.

    PubMed

    Fu, J Y; Huang, X S; Zhu, X Q

    1999-03-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests were applied to investigate peripheral blood lymphocytes in 56 people environmentally exposed to cadmium (Cd) for a period up to 30 years, and in 10 unexposed people as controls. As indicator of body-load of Cd, urinary Cd (UCd) concentrations were measured simultaneously. The people in polluted villages were divided into four groups according to various levels of UCd concentrations: -2.5, 2.5-, 5.0-, 10.0- (micrograms/l). There was significant difference in MN rates between the exposed and control groups (3.47, 5.06, 8.06, 12.75/1000 for the exposed groups respectively, and 3.10/1000 for the controls), and significant correlation between MN rates and UCd was observed. Although no marked difference in CA rates was noted between UCd 5.0- and 10.0- groups, there was significant difference in CA rates between the exposed and control groups (3.07, 5.21, 7.21, 8.50% for exposed groups respectively, and 2.33% for the controls) and significant correlation between CA rates and UCd. CA was presented mainly in the form of chromatid and chromosome gaps and breaks. Together with our another study "An Investigation on Human Health Effects by Environmental Cadmium Pollution", the results suggest that Cd may injure human chromosomes and that the damage appears to be concentrated on cytogenetic material and may happen earlier than renal disfunction. PMID:10442217

  5. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies discovers multiple loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Sonja I.; Camp, Nicola J.; Skibola, Christine F.; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Zhaoming; Gu, Jian; Nieters, Alexandra; Kelly, Rachel S.; Smedby, Karin E.; Monnereau, Alain; Cozen, Wendy; Cox, Angela; Wang, Sophia S.; Lan, Qing; Teras, Lauren R.; Machado, Moara; Yeager, Meredith; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Ye, Yuanqing; Call, Timothy G.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Novak, Anne J.; Kay, Neil E.; Liebow, Mark; Cunningham, Julie M.; Allmer, Cristine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Adami, Hans-Olov; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Chang, Ellen T.; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K.; Weiner, George J.; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M.; Riby, Jacques; Arnett, Donna K.; Zhi, Degui; Leach, Justin M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Benavente, Yolanda; Sala, Núria; Casabonne, Delphine; Becker, Nikolaus; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Staines, Anthony; Chaffee, Kari G.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Vachon, Celine M.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Strom, Sara S.; Leis, Jose F.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Caporaso, Neil E.; Norman, Aaron D.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Severson, Richard K.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Masala, Giovanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chirlaque, María- Dolores; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Travis, Ruth C.; Southey, Melissa C.; Milne, Roger L.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clavel, Jacqueline; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Villano, Danylo J.; Maria, Ann; Spinelli, John J.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Ferri, Giovanni M.; Miligi, Lucia; Liang, Liming; Ma, Baoshan; Huang, Jinyan; Crouch, Simon; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; North, Kari E.; Snowden, John A.; Wright, Josh; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; de Sanjose, Silvia; Cerhan, James R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10−11), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10−8) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10−8), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10−11) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10−7) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10−8) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10−7). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility. PMID:26956414

  6. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies discovers multiple loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Sonja I; Camp, Nicola J; Skibola, Christine F; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Zhaoming; Gu, Jian; Nieters, Alexandra; Kelly, Rachel S; Smedby, Karin E; Monnereau, Alain; Cozen, Wendy; Cox, Angela; Wang, Sophia S; Lan, Qing; Teras, Lauren R; Machado, Moara; Yeager, Meredith; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P; Birmann, Brenda M; Vajdic, Claire M; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Ye, Yuanqing; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D; Novak, Anne J; Kay, Neil E; Liebow, Mark; Cunningham, Julie M; Allmer, Cristine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Adami, Hans-Olov; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Chang, Ellen T; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K; Weiner, George J; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Arnett, Donna K; Zhi, Degui; Leach, Justin M; Holly, Elizabeth A; Jackson, Rebecca D; Tinker, Lesley F; Benavente, Yolanda; Sala, Núria; Casabonne, Delphine; Becker, Nikolaus; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Staines, Anthony; Chaffee, Kari G; Achenbach, Sara J; Vachon, Celine M; Goldin, Lynn R; Strom, Sara S; Leis, Jose F; Weinberg, J Brice; Caporaso, Neil E; Norman, Aaron D; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Masala, Giovanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Travis, Ruth C; Southey, Melissa C; Milne, Roger L; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clavel, Jacqueline; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R; Villano, Danylo J; Maria, Ann; Spinelli, John J; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Ferri, Giovanni M; Miligi, Lucia; Liang, Liming; Ma, Baoshan; Huang, Jinyan; Crouch, Simon; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; North, Kari E; Snowden, John A; Wright, Josh; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; de Sanjose, Silvia; Cerhan, James R; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10(-11)), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10(-8)) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10(-8)), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10(-11)) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10(-7)) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10(-8)) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10(-7)). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility. PMID:26956414

  7. Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Childhood Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukemia: Findings from the SETIL Study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Farioli, Andrea; Legittimo, Patrizia; Miligi, Lucia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Ranucci, Alessandra; Salvan, Alberto; Rondelli, Roberto; Magnani, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL) were investigated. Methods Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 19982001. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene. Results Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ?11 cigarettes/day ?=?1.79, 95% CI 1.013.15; P trend 0.05). An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day ?=?1.85, 95%CI 0.973.52; P trend 0.07). No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates. PMID:25401754

  8. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Speedy, Helen E; Di Bernardo, Maria Chiara; Sava, Georgina P; Dyer, Martin J S; Holroyd, Amy; Wang, Yufei; Sunter, Nicola J; Mansouri, Larry; Juliusson, Gunnar; Smedby, Karin E; Roos, Göran; Jayne, Sandrine; Majid, Aneela; Dearden, Claire; Hall, Andrew G; Mainou-Fowler, Tryfonia; Jackson, Graham H; Summerfield, Geoffrey; Harris, Robert J; Pettitt, Andrew R; Allsup, David J; Bailey, James R; Pratt, Guy; Pepper, Chris; Fegan, Chris; Rosenquist, Richard; Catovsky, Daniel; Allan, James M; Houlston, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of CLL. To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1,739 individuals with CLL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in an additional 1,144 cases and 3,151 controls. A combined analysis identified new susceptibility loci mapping to 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 1.74 × 10(-9)), 4q26 (rs6858698, P = 3.07 × 10(-9)), 6q25.2 (IPCEF1, rs2236256, P = 1.50 × 10(-10)) and 7q31.33 (POT1, rs17246404, P = 3.40 × 10(-8)). Additionally, we identified a promising association at 5p15.33 (CLPTM1L, rs31490, P = 1.72 × 10(-7)) and validated recently reported putative associations at 5p15.33 (TERT, rs10069690, P = 1.12 × 10(-10)) and 8q22.3 (rs2511714, P = 2.90 × 10(-9)). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CLL. PMID:24292274

  9. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D. )

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.

  10. A study of the potential nephrotoxicity of heterologous anti-lymphocyte serum

    PubMed Central

    Orr, W. McN.; Birtch, A. G.; Diethelm, A. G.; Dubernard, J. M.; Duquella, J.; Glassock, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Nephrotoxic serum nephritis as a potential effect of the administration of heterologous anti-lymphocyte serum was investigated in dogs. Horse anti-dog lymphocyte serum, prepared using lymph node cells, was demonstrated by immunofluorescent techniques to possess both in-vitro and in-vivo anti-glomerular antibody activity. Experiments were designed to eliminate as far as possible conditions which would allow a serum sickness type of nephritis to develop, while permitting expression of the putative anti-glomerular antibody activity. While none of the animals receiving anti-lymphocyte serum either subcutaneously or intravenously showed clinical evidence of glomerular injury, in some cases early histological changes were apparent and the reasons for their non-progressive nature are discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4985162

  11. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme in human circulating mononuclear cells: genetic polymorphism of expression in T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Costerousse, O; Allegrini, J; Lopez, M; Alhenc-Gelas, F

    1993-01-01

    The expression of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE; EC 3.4.15.1) in human circulating mononuclear cells was studied. T-lymphocytes contained the highest level of enzyme, approx. 28 times more per cell than monocytes. No activity was detected in B-lymphocytes. ACE was present mainly in the microsomal fraction, where it was found to be the major membrane-bound bradykinin-inactivating enzyme. An mRNA for ACE was detected and characterized after reverse transcription and amplification by PCR in T-lymphocytes and several T-cell leukaemia cell lines. We have previously observed that the interindividual variability in the levels of ACE in plasma is, in part, genetically determined and influenced by an insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of ACE biosynthesis, the ACE levels of T-lymphocytes from 35 healthy subjects having different ACE genotypes were studied. These levels varied widely between individuals but were highly reproducible and influenced by the polymorphism of the ACE gene. T-lymphocyte levels of ACE were significantly higher in subjects who were homozygote for the deletion than in the other subjects. These results show that ACE is expressed in T-lymphocytes and indicate that the level of ACE expression in cells synthesizing the enzyme is genetically determined. Images Figure 3 PMID:8382480

  12. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Jamille Souza; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Lopes, Diego Mota; de Souza, Robson da Paixo; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Cardoso, Luciana Santos

    2014-01-01

    A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16?), intermediate (CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++). The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-?, and TGF-? was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R) between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers. PMID:24757288

  13. Influence of methisoprinol (isoprinosine) on HIV-infected human lymphocytes: in vitro immunological, virological, and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    De Simone, C; De Marco, F; Arancia, G; Tzantzoglou, S; Paradisi, S; Sorice, F

    1989-01-01

    Methisoprinol (isoprinosine) is a synthetic compound with reported antiviral and immunomodulating properties. Results of the present study showed that methisoprinol at concentrations greater than or equal to 200 micrograms/ml reduces the p24 and gp120 viral antigen expression on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected lymphocytes and the reverse transcriptase levels. In addition, cell viability, the number of the CD4+ cells, and the CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio are higher in methisoprinol-pretreated cell suspensions than in untreated HIV-infected cell cultures. A quantitative freeze-fracture study on the density of the intramembranous particles (IMP) present on both fracture faces of the plasma membrane of lymphocytes has shown that pretreatment with methisoprinol induces a different molecular organization resulting in a nearly three times increase of IMP density. PMID:2469781

  14. Prevalence of interferon type I signature in CD14 monocytes of patients with Sjgren's syndrome and association with disease activity and BAFF gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Brkic, Zana; Maria, Naomi I; van Helden-Meeuwsen, Cornelia G; van de Merwe, Joop P; van Daele, Paul L; Dalm, Virgil A; Wildenberg, Manon E; Beumer, Wouter; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Versnel, Marjan A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of upregulation of interferon (IFN) type I inducible genes, the so called IFN type I signature, in CD14 monocytes in 69 patients with primary Sjgren's syndrome (pSS) and 44 healthy controls (HC) and correlate it with disease manifestations and expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF). Methods Expression of IFI44L, IFI44, IFIT3, LY6E and MX1 was measured using real time quantitative PCR in monocytes. Expression values were used to calculate IFN type I scores for each subject. pSS patients positive for the IFN type I signature (IFN score?10) and patients negative for the signature (IFN score<10) were then compared for clinical disease manifestations and BAFF expression. A bioassay using a monocytic cell line was performed to study whether BAFF mRNA expression was inducible by IFN type I activity in serum of patients with pSS. Results An IFN type I signature was present in 55% of patients with pSS compared with 4.5% of HC. Patients with the IFN type I signature showed: (a) higher EULAR Sjgren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index scores; higher anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-La autoantibodies; higher rheumatoid factor; higher serum IgG; lower C3, lower absolute lymphocyte and neutrophil counts; (b)higher BAFF gene expression in monocytes. In addition, serum of signature-positive patients induced BAFF gene expression in monocytes. Conclusions The monocyte IFN type I signature identifies a subgroup of patients with pSS with a higher clinical disease activity together with higher BAFF mRNA expression. Such patients might benefit from treatment blocking IFN type I production or activity. PMID:22736090

  15. Lymphocyte transformation and interferon production in human mononuclear cell microcultures for assay of cellular immunity to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Haahr, S; Rasmussen, L; Merigan, T C

    1976-07-01

    Interferon production and transformation in response to herpes simplex virus antigen were studied in microcultures of human mononuclear cells. Mononuclear cells consisting of monocytes and both T and B lymphocytes were purified by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients. Lymphocytes, predominantly T with 5% B, were obtained by passage of buffy-coat cells through nylon fiber columns. For some experiments, autochthonous macrophages and column-purified lymphocytes were stimulated with herpesvirus antigen. The effect of specific antibody and cell concentration on reactivity is described. Crude and purified antigens were compared as cell culture stimulants. Significant differences in transformation and interferon were observed between donors with a history of herpes labialis and donors with no detectable antibody, both in cultures prepared by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients and by column purification of lymphocytes. Cultures from seronegative donors prepared by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients produced interferon but did not transform when stimulated by herpes simplex antigen. "Immune" interferon production, that is, type II as opposed to type I, occurred only with autochthonous macrophage and column-purified lymphocyte cultures. Interferon produced by Ficoll-Hypaque-purified mononuclear cultures was type I, and its production was unrelated to immune status. Similarly, column-purified lymphocytes responded to herpes simplex virus antigen with type I interferon if obtained from a seropositive donor. PMID:181328

  16. Primary human monocyte differentiation regulated by Nigella sativa pressed oil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxidized low density lipoprotein plays an important role in development of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The study was focused on regulation of primary human monocyte growth and CD11b expression in presence of Nigella sativa oil. Methods Primary human monocytes were isolated from whole blood and grown at 37C and 5% CO2 saturation for five days prior to treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The cells were plated and washed before treatment with ox-LDL (10 ?g/ml) as positive control and combined treatment of ox-LDL (10 ?g/ml) and (140 ng/ml) Nigella sativa oil. The growth progression was monitored every 24 hours for 3 days. Results Macrophages showed reduced growth in comparison to monocytes 24 hours after treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The mean cell diameter was significantly different between untreated and treated condition in monocytes and macrophages (p < 0.001). Similarly, intracellular lipid accumulation was hindered in combined treatment with Nigella sativa oil. This was further supported by cell surface expression analysis, where CD11b was markedly reduced in cells treated with combination oxLDL and Nigella sativa oil compared to oxLDL alone. More cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells when monocytes were supplemented with oxidized LDL alone. Conclusions The finding provides preliminary evidence on regulation of cell growth and differentiation in monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages by Nigella sativa oil. Further investigations need to be conducted to explain its mechanism in human monocyte. PMID:22104447

  17. A Pilot Study on Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-4 Gene Polymorphisms in Urinary Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou

    2012-01-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma haematobium, characterized by accumulation of eggs in the genitourinary tract. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) can play an important role in parasitic infection due to its major role as a negative regulator of T-cell activation and proliferation. This study was performed in patients with schistosomiasis and healthy controls to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of four CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms. The CTLA-4 gene was amplified using Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction, and allele and genotypes of 49 patients with schistosomiasis were analyzed using allelic discrimination analysis followed by subsequent direct sequencing. The results were compared with healthy control subjects. The frequencies of CTLA-4 rs733618 A allele at position ?1722 (p=0.001), rs11571316 C allele at position ?1577 (p<0.001), and rs231775 A allele at position +49 (p=0.002) in the patient group were significantly higher than the control group. The rs733618 AA genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CC genotype (p<0.001), and rs231775 AA genotype (p=0.007) were also significantly overrepresented. Meanwhile, rs733618 AG genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CT genotype (p=0.02), and rs231775 GG genotype (p=0.029) were significantly decreased in the patients with schistosomiasis, as compared with the controls. No significant difference was observed in both allele and genotype of rs16841252. The results of this study suggest that the rs733618, rs11571316, and rs231775 polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene may influence susceptibility to schistosomiasis infection in the Gabonese children. PMID:22288822

  18. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  19. miR128 up-regulation correlates with impaired amyloid ?(1-42) degradation in monocytes from patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tiribuzi, Roberto; Crispoltoni, Lucia; Porcellati, Serena; Di Lullo, Martina; Florenzano, Fulvio; Pirro, Matteo; Bagaglia, Francesco; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Zampolini, Mauro; Orlacchio, Aldo; Orlacchio, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia in elderly individuals, is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid-? (A?) plaques and neuroinflammation. New evidence has shown that the lysosomal system might be a crossroad in which etiological factors in AD pathogenesis converge. This study shows that several lysosomal enzymes, including Cathepsin B, D, S, ?-Galactosidase, ?-Mannosidase, and ?-Hexosaminidase, were less expressed in monocytes and lymphocytes from patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD dementia compared with cells from healthy controls. In vitro experiments of gain and loss of function suggest that down-regulation is a direct consequence of miR-128 up-regulation found in AD-related cells. The present study also demonstrates that miR-128 inhibition in monocytes from AD patients improves A?(1-42) degradation. These results could contribute to clarify the molecular mechanisms that affect the imbalanced A? production/clearance involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24064186

  20. Antiviral Regulation in Porcine Monocytic Cells at Different Activation States

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Raymond R. R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monocytic cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, exist in different activation states that are critical to the regulation of antimicrobial immunity. Many pandemic viruses are monocytotropic, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which directly infects subsets of monocytic cells and interferes with antiviral responses. To study antiviral responses in PRRSV-infected monocytic cells, we characterized inflammatory cytokine responses and genome-wide profiled signature genes to investigate response pathways in uninfected and PRRSV-infected monocytic cells at different activation states. Our findings showed suppressed interferon (IFN) production in macrophages in non-antiviral states and an arrest of lipid metabolic pathways in macrophages at antiviral states. Importantly, porcine monocytic cells at different activation states were susceptible to PRRSV and responded differently to viral infection. Based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, two approaches were used to potentiate antiviral activity: (i) pharmaceutical modulation of cellular lipid metabolism and (ii) in situ PRRSV replication-competent expression of interferon alpha (IFN-?). Both approaches significantly suppressed exogenous viral infection in monocytic cells. In particular, the engineered IFN-expressing PRRSV strain eliminated exogenous virus infection and sustained cell viability at 4 days postinfection in macrophages. These findings suggest an intricate interaction of viral infection with the activation status of porcine monocytic cells. An understanding and integration of antiviral infection with activation status of monocytic cells may provide a means of potentiating antiviral immunity. IMPORTANCE Activation statuses of monocytic cells, including monocytes, macrophages (M?s), and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. Unfortunately, the activation status of porcine monocytic cells or how cell activation status functionally interacts with antiviral immunity remains largely unknown. This is a significant omission because many economically important porcine viruses are monocytotropic, including our focus, PRRSV, which alone causes nearly $800 million economic loss annually in the U.S. swine industries. PRRSV is ideal for deciphering how monocytic cell activation statuses interact with antiviral immunity, because it directly infects subsets of monocytic cells and subverts overall immune responses. In this study, we systematically investigate the activation status of porcine monocytic cells to determine the intricate interaction of viral infection with activation statuses and functionally regulate antiviral immunity within the framework of the activation paradigm. Our findings may provide a means of potentiating antiviral immunity and leading to novel vaccines for PRRS prevention. PMID:25056886

  1. Comparison of hprt variant frequencies and chromosome aberration frequencies in lymphocytes from radiotherapy and chemotherapy patients: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Ammenheuser, M.M.; Au, W.W.; Whorton, E.B. Jr.; Belli, J.A.; Ward, J.B. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    The autoradiographic 6-thioguanine-resistant mutant lymphocyte assay and a chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the time-course of appearance and persistence of elevated frequencies of hprt variants and dicentric chromosomes in patients receiving x-irradiation therapy. The hprt mutation assays were done with frozen/thawed lymphocytes isolated from aliquots of the same blood samples used for the chromosome aberration assays. Five multiple sclerosis patients were also studied before and at 2 and 4 wk intervals after treatment with monthly i.v. doses of 750 mg/m{sup 2} of cyclophosphamide (CP). There were no significant elevations in chromosome aberrations at these post-treatment sample times. The results demonstrate the complementary nature of these two human monitoring assays and emphasize the importance of careful selection of optimal sampling times.

  2. Proliferation and cytogenetic studies in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Mohan, N; Meltz, M L; Wittler, M A

    1997-12-01

    Aliquots of human peripheral blood collected from two healthy human volunteers were exposed in vitro to continuous wave 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR), either continuously for a period of 90 min or intermittently for a total exposure period of 90 min (30 min on and 30 min off, repeated three times). Blood aliquots which were sham-exposed or exposed in vitro to 150 cGy gamma radiation served as controls. The continuous wave 2450 MHz RFR was generated with a net forward power of 34.5 W and transmitted from a standard gain rectangular antenna horn in a vertically downward direction. The mean power density at the position of the cells was 5.0 mW/cm2. The mean specific absorption rate calculated by Finite Difference Time Domain analysis was 12.46 W/kg. Immediately after exposure, lymphocytes were cultured for 48 and 72 h to determine the incidence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, respectively. Proliferation indices were also recorded. There were no significant differences between RFR-exposed and sham-exposed lymphocytes with respect to; (a) mitotic indices; (b) incidence of cells showing chromosome damage; (c) exchange aberrations; (d) acentric fragments; (e) binucleate lymphocytes, and (f) micronuclei, for either the continuous or intermittent RFR exposures. In contrast, the response of positive control cells exposed to 150 cGy gamma radiation was significantly different from RFR-exposed and sham-exposed lymphocytes. Thus, there is no evidence for an effect on mitogen-stimulated proliferation kinetics or for excess genotoxicity within 72 h in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to 2450 MHz RFR. PMID:9416798

  3. Microscopic colitis: a descriptive clinical cohort study of 795 patients with collagenous and lymphocytic colitis.

    PubMed

    Mellander, Marie-Rose; Ekbom, Anders; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Lfberg, Robert; st, ke; Bjrk, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Objective Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea in the Scandinavian countries. This report comprises demographic data, clinical and endoscopic features, and occurrence of coeliac and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a large urban cohort of patients with lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). Materials and methods A total of 795 patients with microscopic colitis from two hospitals in Stockholm were included. Medical records were reviewed and clinical data, including endoscopic and histological findings, were compiled. Results Forty-three percent had CC (female:male ratio 3.7:1) and 57% had LC (female:male ratio 2.7:1). The mean age at diagnosis of CC was 63 years and of LC was 59 years (p?=?0.005). Clinical features were similar in both entities, but the intensity of symptoms differed. Watery diarrhoea was reported in 55% in CC patients versus in 43% in LC patients (p?=?0.0014), and nocturnal diarrhoea in 28% versus 18% (p?=?0.002). Subtle endoscopic mucosal findings were reported in 37% of the CC patients and in 25% of the LC patients (p?=?0.0011). Colorectal adenomatous polyps were found in 5.3% of all patients. Coeliac disease occurred in 6% and IBD occurred in 2.1% of all patients. Conclusions Clinical features of LC and CC are similar but not identical. CC seems to be a more severe type of bowel inflammation and LC tends to occur earlier in life. Both forms might indeed feature endoscopic findings despite the designation 'microscopic'. Our study confirms the strong association with coeliac disease. PMID:26679722

  4. Further studies on progeny T lymphocytes after in utero insult by benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Urso, P.; Johnson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    Reasons are sought for early and sustained immunodeficiency in benzo(a)pyrene (BP) exposed progeny. Quantitative assay of lymphoid tissue at 15-19 days gestation and 0-5 postnatal (PN) days showed; a striking depletion of thymic cell numbers (CN) at day 19 and PN, normal CN in fetal liver (FL) and spleen, but depression in PN spleen. Depleted THETA/sup +/ and Ly 1/sup +/ cells reflected subnormal thymic CN, while reduced amounts of Ly 2/sup +/ cells did not initiate until after birth. Spleens revealed: a) reductions in THETA/sup +/ and Ly 1/sup +/ cells at gestation, b) enhanced THETA/sup +/ cells PN and c) elevated Ly 2/sup +/ pre- and postnatally. In FL, THETA/sup +/ cells decreased, Ly 1/sup +/ did not change; in contrast, Ly 2/sup +/ were markedly elevated. The thymic Ly 1/Ly 2 ratio was > 1, while it was < 1 for spleen and FL indicating increased Ly 1/sup -/2/sup +/ cells. These data suggest disruptions in T cell ontogenesis. In preliminary experiments analysis of T cell function shows FL cells from BP-exposed progeny either as deficient in supporting in vitro proliferation of syngeneic normal spleen cells, or to induce a 3-fold inhibition of the one-way mixed lymphocyte response. Further studies should reveal: a) evidence for T suppressors (by the elevated Ly 2/sup +/ cells.); b) other suppressor action, if any; and c) capabilities of Ly 1/sup +/ cells. The data should help explain the deficiency of progeny in combatting syngeneic tumor growth after sc or iv transfers.

  5. Endogenous production of interleukin 15 by activated human monocytes is critical for optimal production of interferon-gamma by natural killer cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, W E; Ross, M E; Baiocchi, R A; Marien, M J; Boiani, N; Grabstein, K; Caligiuri, M A

    1995-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes that constitutively express functional IL-2 receptors. We have shown that recombinant human IL-15 uses the IL-2 receptor to activate human NK cells and can synergize with recombinant human IL-12 to stimulate NK cell production of IFN-gamma in vitro. IFN-gamma production by NK cells is critical in the prevention of overwhelming infection by obligate intracellular microbial pathogens in several experimental animal models. Herein, we demonstrate that human monocytes produce IL-15 protein within 5 h of activation with LPS. Using an IL-15-neutralizing antiserum in a coculture of LPS-activated monocytes and NK cells, we demonstrate that monocyte-derived IL-15 is critical for optimal NK cell production of IFN-gamma. Endogenous IL-15 activates NK cells through the IL-2 receptor, and with endogenous IL-12, regulates NK cell IFN-gamma after monocyte activation by LPS. These in vitro studies are the first to characterize a function for endogenous IL-15, and as such, suggest an important role for IL-15 during the innate immune response. IL-15 may be an important ligand for the NK cell IL-2 receptor in vivo. Images PMID:8675621

  6. Lenalidomide and Rituximab for the Initial Treatment of Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Multicenter Clinical-Translational Study From the Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research Consortium

    PubMed Central

    James, Danelle F.; Werner, Lillian; Brown, Jennifer R.; Wierda, William G.; Barrientos, Jacqueline C.; Castro, Januario E.; Greaves, Andrew; Johnson, Amy J.; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Rai, Kanti R.; Neuberg, Donna; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent with therapeutic activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In preclinical models, lenalidomide acted synergistically with rituximab. The CLL Research Consortium initiated a phase II study to evaluate this combination in treatment-naive patients. Patients and Methods Lenalidomide was initiated at 2.5 mg/day and was escalated based on treatment tolerability to a maximum of 10 mg/day, for 21 days/cycle, for a maximum of seven cycles. Rituximab was administered at the end of cycle 1 and was continued for seven cycles. Patients received allopurinol and aspirin for prophylaxis. Results Sixty-nine patients enrolled onto one of two age-specific strata; patients' median age was 56 and 70 years for arms A and B, respectively. Patients in the older-patient stratum more frequently had elevated serum beta-2 microglobulin levels, high-risk Rai stage, and were less likely to complete the maximum planned therapy. Adverse events were similar in the two arms. Nonhematologic toxicity was predominantly at grade 1/2, and neutropenia was the most common hematologic adverse event. The response rate for arm A was 95%, with 20% complete responses (CRs) and 20% nodular partial responses. Of arm B patients, 78% achieved a response, of which 11% were CRs. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 19 months for the younger cohort and 20 months for the older cohort. Conclusion Intrapatient dose-escalation was safe. The majority of patients reached the maximum lenalidomide dose and experienced a response to a defined seven-cycle course of lenalidomide and rituximab therapy. Despite differences in baseline characteristics and the response rate between the two strata, the PFS did not differ. PMID:24868031

  7. Platelet density per monocyte predicts adverse events in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Bert; Roest, Mark; McClellan, Elizabeth A; Sels, Jan W; Stubbs, Andrew; Jukema, J Wouter; Doevendans, Pieter A; Waltenberger, Johannes; van Zonneveld, Anton-Jan; Pasterkamp, Gerard; De Groot, Philip G; Hoefer, Imo E

    2016-01-27

    Monocyte recruitment to damaged endothelium is enhanced by platelet binding to monocytes and contributes to vascular repair. Therefore, we studied whether the number of platelets per monocyte affects the recurrence of adverse events in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Platelet-monocytes complexes with high and low median fluorescence intensities (MFI) of the platelet marker CD42b were isolated using cell sorting. Microscopic analysis revealed that a high platelet marker MFI on monocytes corresponded with a high platelet density per monocyte while a low platelet marker MFI corresponded with a low platelet density per monocyte (3.4 0.7 vs 1.4 0.1 platelets per monocyte, P=0.01). Using real-time video microscopy, we observed increased recruitment of high platelet density monocytes to endothelial cells as compared with low platelet density monocytes (P=0.01). Next, we classified PCI scheduled patients (N=263) into groups with high, medium and low platelet densities per monocyte and assessed the recurrence of adverse events. After multivariate adjustment for potential confounders, we observed a 2.5-fold reduction in the recurrence of adverse events in patients with a high platelet density per monocyte as compared with a low platelet density per monocyte [hazard ratio=0.4 (95?% confidence interval, 0.2-0.8), P=0.01]. We show that a high platelet density per monocyte increases monocyte recruitment to endothelial cells and predicts a reduction in the recurrence of adverse events in patients after PCI. These findings may imply that a high platelet density per monocyte protects against recurrence of adverse events. PMID:26423019

  8. Inability of newborns' or pregnant women's monocytes to suppress pokeweed mitogen-induced responses

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-02-01

    Although an excess of human adult blood adherent cells inhibits the pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced normal adult lymphocyte proliferation and B cell maturation into immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC), adherent cells collected from newborn infants or pregnant women at time of delivery were unable to exert a similar suppressor activity. After activation by Concanavalin A (Con A), newborns' and pregnant women's adherent cells acquired a suppressor activity comparable to that of control adult adherent cells. The adherent suppressor cell was shown to be radioresistant (3000 rad), indicating its probable monocytic orgin. Both monocyte-suppressor activities (MSA) observed in adulthood (spontaneously) and in the neonatal period (after activation) were dependent on prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) secretion, because they were abolished by indomethacin or a specific anti-PGE/sub 2/ anti-serum. Expression of MSA appeared to be under a negative regulation exerted by naturally occurring T suppressor lymphocytes present in the blood of newborns or pregnant women, because incubation of adult monocytes or Con A-activated newborn monocytes with newborns' or pregnant women's T lymphocytes resulted in a dramatic decrease of their MSA. These results strongly suggest that the lack of MSA in the neonatal period and in late pregnancy is a consequence of activation of T suppressor lymphocytes.

  9. An in vitro study on suppressive effects of Leishmania major on IL-2Rα expression on peripheral human T lymphocyte.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, A; Rahdar, M; Hossainpour, A; Khademvatan, S

    2013-09-01

    Leishmania sp. is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes significant morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. The parasite can escape from host immune system by several mechanisms. Understanding biological behavior of the parasite can help us to control and treatment leishmaniasis. Therefore current study was conducted to determine suppresive effect of Leishmania major on IL-2Rα expression in the human peripheral T Lymphocytes. Human peripheral T Lymphocyte were co-cultured with standard strain of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/EK) in RPMI1640 medium. Infected cells were stained with FITC-labelled anti-CD25 (IL-2Rα chain MAb) and Picoerithrin-labelled anti-CD4 (CD4 MAb) and analyzed by flow cytometry. The results showed that L. major suppressed IL- 2Rα expression in activated T cells as well as inhibited lymphocyte proliferation 6h after infection and was increased up to 36 hour later. This finding also indicated that suppressed IL- 2R expression was increased when the number of promastigote was added up to 7.5×10(6) cells/ml. Inhibition of IL-2R expression by the parasite might play a critical role for escaping from host immune system. Understanding biological characterization of the Leishmania can be useful for vaccine development and also cytokine therapy. PMID:24189682

  10. CXCL10 induces the recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages into kidney, which aggravate puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    PubMed

    Petrovic-Djergovic, D; Popovic, M; Chittiprol, S; Cortado, H; Ransom, R F; Partida-Snchez, S

    2015-05-01

    The mechanism responsible for trafficking of monocyte-derived macrophages into kidney in the puromycin aminonucleoside model of nephrotic syndrome in rats (PAN-NS), and the significance of this infiltration, remain largely unknown. CXCL10, a chemokine secreted in many T helper type 1 (Th1) inflammatory diseases, exhibits important roles in trafficking of monocytes and activated T cells. We hypothesized that induction of circulating interferon (IFN)-? and glomerular tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? during PAN-NS would stimulate the release of CXCL10 by podocytes, leading to infiltration of activated immune cells and greater glomerular injury. We found that serum IFN-?, glomerular Cxcl10?mRNA and intra- and peri-glomerular macrophage infiltration were induced strongly during the late acute phase of PAN-NS in Wistar rats, but not in nude (Foxn1(rnu/rnu) ) rats lacking functional effector T lymphocytes. Wistar rats also developed significantly greater proteinuria than nude rats, which could be abolished by macrophage depletion. Stimulation of cultured podocytes with both IFN-? and TNF-? markedly induced the expression of Cxcl10?mRNA and CXCL10 secretion. Together, these data support our hypothesis that increased circulating IFN-? and glomerular TNF-? induce synergistically the production and secretion of CXCL10 by podocytes, attracting activated macrophages into kidney tissue. The study also suggests that IFN-?, secreted from Th1 lymphocytes, may prime proinflammatory macrophages that consequently aggravate renal injury. PMID:25561167

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

  12. Influence of GSM signals on human peripheral lymphocytes: study of genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Petra; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Greinert, Rdiger; Hermann-Then, Beate; Heselich, Anja; Klug, Stefanie J; Koenig, Jochem; Kuhr, Kathrin; Kuster, Niels; Merker, Mandy; Murbach, Manuel; Pollet, Dieter; Schadenboeck, Walter; Scheidemann-Wesp, Ulrike; Schwab, Britt; Volkmer, Beate; Weyer, Veronika; Blettner, Maria

    2013-02-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) is continuously increasing worldwide. Yet, conflicting results of a possible genotoxic effect of RF EMF continue to be discussed. In the present study, a possible genotoxic effect of RF EMF (GSM, 1,800 MHz) in human lymphocytes was investigated by a collaboration of six independent institutes (institutes a, b, c, d, e, h). Peripheral blood of 20 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers of two age groups (10 volunteers 16-20 years old and 10 volunteers 50-65 years old) was taken, stimulated and intermittently exposed to three specific absorption rates (SARs) of RF EMF (0.2 W/kg, 2 W/kg, 10 W/kg) and sham for 28 h (institute a). The exposures were performed in a setup with strictly controlled conditions of temperature and dose, and randomly and automatically determined waveguide SARs, which were designed and periodically maintained by ITIS (institute h). Four genotoxicity tests with different end points were conducted (institute a): chromosome aberration test (five types of structural aberrations), micronucleus test, sister chromatid exchange test and the alkaline comet assay (Olive tail moment and % DNA). To demonstrate the validity of the study, positive controls were implemented. The genotoxicity end points were evaluated independently by three laboratories blind to SAR information (institute c = laboratory 1; institute d = laboratory 2; institute e = laboratory 3). Statistical analysis was carried out by institute b. Methods of primary statistical analysis and rules to adjust for multiple testing were specified in a statistical analysis plan based on a data review before unblinding. A linear trend test based on a linear mixed model was used for outcomes of comet assay and exact permutation test for linear trend for all other outcomes. It was ascertained that only outcomes with a significant SAR trend found by at least two of three analyzing laboratories indicated a substantiated suspicion of an exposure effect. On the basis of these specifications, none of the nine end points tested for SAR trend showed a significant and reproducible exposure effect. Highly significant differences between sham exposures and positive controls were detected by each analyzing laboratory, thus validating the study. In conclusion, the results show no evidence of a genotoxic effect induced by RF EMF (GSM, 1,800 MHz). PMID:23316708

  13. Chromosome studies in human lymphocytes after in vitro exposure to metal salts.

    PubMed

    Deknudt, G; Deminatti, M

    1978-05-01

    The toxic concentration of different heavy metal salts was determined in normal stimulated human lymphocyte cultures and was found to be 3 X 10(-3), 1 X 10(-2) and 5 X 10(-4) for zinc chloride, lead acetate and cadmium chloride respectively. Furthermore 3 subtoxic doses of each salt (2, 10 and 100 times less than the toxic dose) were added to 48- and 72-h cultures at 0 h and 24 h after initiation. Chromosome preparations were made and 100 well spread metaphases from each culture were analysed for the presence of numerical and structural aberrations. The most common aberration found for all tested metal salts was the occurrence of chromosome fragments. Dicentric chromosomes were only recorded in lymphocyte cultures treated with the lowest concentration of zinc chloride (3 X 10(-5) M) added at time 0, regardless whether the cultures were fixed after 48 or 72 h. PMID:675717

  14. The neutrophil function and lymphocyte profile of milk from bovine mammary glands infected with Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Blagitz, Maiara G; Souza, Fernando N; Batista, Camila F; Azevedo, Luis Fernando F; Benites, Nilson Roberti; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Diniz, Soraia A; Silva, Marcos X; Haddad, Joo Paulo A; Heinnemann, Marcos Bryan; Cerqueira, Mnica M O P; Della Libera, Alice M M P

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a bacterium that accounts for a notable proportion of both clinical and subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs). Thus, the present study explores the function of milk neutrophils and the lymphocyte profile in mammary glands naturally infected with Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Here, we used 32 culture-negative control quarters from eight clinically healthy dairy cows with low somatic cell counts and 13 S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters from six dairy cows. Using flow cytometry, we evaluated the percentage of milk monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils, expression of CD62L, CD11b and CD44 by milk neutrophils, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by milk neutrophils, and neutrophil viability. Furthermore, the percentages of B cell (CD21(+)) and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3(+)/CD4(+)/CD8(-); CD3(+)/CD8(+)/CD4(-); and CD3(+)/CD8(-)/CD4(-)), and the expression of CD25 by T milk lymphocytes (CD3(+)) and T CD4(+) milk cells were also assessed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. The present study showed a higher SCC and percentage of milk neutrophils, and a decrease in the percentage of milk monocytes/macrophages from S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters when compared to uninfected ones. We also observed a higher expression of CD11b by milk neutrophils and a tendency toward a decrease in neutrophil apoptosis rate in S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters. In addition, the S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters had higher percentages of milk T cells (CD3(+)) and their subset CD3(+)CD8(+)CD4(-) cells. Overall, the present study provided new insights into S. dysgalactiae IMIs, including distinct lymphocyte profiles, and a tendency toward an inhibition of apoptosis in milk neutrophils. PMID:26119656

  15. Application of Nine-color Flow Cytometry for Detailed Studies of the Phenotypic Complexity and Functional Heterogeneity of Human Lymphocyte Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Veronica D.; Bjrkstrm, Niklas K.; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Moll, Markus; Kuylenstierna, Carlotta; Michalsson, Jakob; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Sandberg, Johan K.

    2008-01-01

    Innate and adaptive cellular immunity is initiated, directed and regulated by a vast array of cell surface receptors. Attempts to harness the cellular immune system in translational settings such as immunotherapy and vaccine development require tools to accurately describe and isolate lymphocytes with specific characteristics. One such tool, flow cytometry, is undergoing a revolution in instrumentation and reagents, providing opportunities for high resolution phenotypic and functional analysis of lymphocytes. Here, we demonstrate how nine-color flow cytometry can be adapted, optimized and applied to investigate the phenotypic complexity and functional heterogeneity of human lymphocyte subsets. We provide examples of studies of adaptive T cell responses against viruses, as well as the assessment of CD1d-restricted NKT cells and NK cells. We discuss the importance of this technology for detailed investigations of lymphocyte subsets in studies of infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:18083186

  16. Ontogeny of B-lymphocyte function. III. In vivo and in vitro studies on the ease of tolerance induction in B lymphocytes from fetal, neonatal, and adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Szewczuk, MR; Siskind, GW

    1977-01-01

    The ease of tolerance induction in B lymphocytes from fetal, neonatal, and adult mice was studied in vivo, in a cell transfer system, and in vitro. Three different tolerogens were used: ultracentrifuged BGG, DNP(6)-D-GL, and ultracentrifuged DNP(22)-BGG. Irradiated thymectomized mice were reconstituted with B cells from fetal or neonatal liver or adult spleen or bone marrow. The mice were injected with tolerogen 1 day later. They were given normal thymus cells and challenged with either BGG or DNP(44)-BGG between 4 and 14 days after tolerance induction. With BGG no difference in ease of B-cell tolerance induction was observed in mice reconstituted with B cells from 17-day fetal liver, neonatal liver, 8- day-old spleen, adult spleen, or adult bone marrow. B cells from 14-day fetal donors are relatively resistant to tolerance induction. In contrast, with DNP(6)-D-GL and DNP(22)-BGG B cells from neonatal donors were clearly more susceptible to tolerance induction than were B cells from adult donors. Comparable results were obtained in studies on tolerance induction in vitro. Neonatal B cells were more susceptible than adult B cells to tolerance induction upon culture with DNP(6)-D-GL or DNP(22)-BGG. However, neonatal and adult B cells were identical with respect to ease of tolerance induction in vitro with deaggregated BGG. The results suggest that there are multiple mechanisms for B-cell tolerance induction. Immature B cells appear to be more susceptible to tolerance induction by some mechanisms but not by others. It is suggested that immature B cells are more susceptible to tolerance induction with moderately polyvalent antigens such as hapten-carrier conjugates. With antigens like BGG which do not haverepeated epitopes no difference between mature and fetal B cells in regard to ease of tolerance induction is observed. These observations raise questions about the importance of relative ease of tolerance induction in immature B cells as a mechanism controlling the normal induction of self tolerance. PMID:301175

  17. Chronic brucellosis patients retain low frequency of CD4+ T-lymphocytes expressing CD25 and CD28 after Escherichia coli LPS stimulation of PHA-cultured PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Skendros, Panagiotis; Sarantopoulos, Alexandros; Tselios, Konstantinos; Boura, Panagiota

    2008-01-01

    Chronic brucellosis patients display a defective Th1 response to PHA. We have previously shown that heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) can downregulate the PHA-induced increase of CD4+/CD25+ and CD14+/CD80+ cells of brucellosis patients. In the present study, we investigate the effect of E. coli LPS, as a potent stimulant of monocytes and autologous T-lymphocytes, on the PHA-cultured PBMCs of the same groups of patients. Thirteen acute brucellosis (AB) patients, 22 chronic brucellosis (CB) patients, 11 "cured" subjects, and 15 healthy volunteers were studied. The percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes as well as CD14+/CD80+ monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry after PBMCs culture with PHA plus E. coli LPS. A significant decrease in the percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes was observed in CB compared to AB. In HKBA cultures, compared to E. coli LPS-cultures, there was a significant reduction of CD4+/CD25+ T-lymphocytes in all groups and CD14+/CD80+ in patients groups. We suggest that Brucella can modulate host immune response, leading to T-cell anergy and chronic infection. PMID:19190764

  18. Chronic Brucellosis Patients Retain Low Frequency of CD4+ T-Lymphocytes Expressing CD25 and CD28 after Escherichia coli LPS Stimulation of PHA-Cultured PBMCs

    PubMed Central

    Skendros, Panagiotis; Sarantopoulos, Alexandros; Tselios, Konstantinos; Boura, Panagiota

    2008-01-01

    Chronic brucellosis patients display a defective Th1 response to PHA. We have previously shown that heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) can downregulate the PHA-induced increase of CD4+/CD25+ and CD14+/CD80+ cells of brucellosis patients. In the present study, we investigate the effect of E. coli LPS, as a potent stimulant of monocytes and autologous T-lymphocytes, on the PHA-cultured PBMCs of the same groups of patients. Thirteen acute brucellosis (AB) patients, 22 chronic brucellosis (CB) patients, 11 cured subjects, and 15 healthy volunteers were studied. The percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes as well as CD14+/CD80+ monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry after PBMCs culture with PHA plus E. coli LPS. A significant decrease in the percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes was observed in CB compared to AB. In HKBA cultures, compared to E. coli LPS-cultures, there was a significant reduction of CD4+/CD25+ T-lymphocytes in all groups and CD14+/CD80+ in patients groups. We suggest that Brucella can modulate host immune response, leading to T-cell anergy and chronic infection. PMID:19190764

  19. Dynamic studies of lymphocytes labelled with indium-111 during and after treatment with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody in advanced B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, E M; Hekman, A; Hardeman, M R; Hoefnagel, C A

    1984-01-01

    The migration pattern of lymphocytes labelled with indium-111 was followed in a patient with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with a murine monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody. During the early phase of continuous infusion of antibody rapid fluxes of labelled lymphocytes into and out of the blood were seen. Dynamic scanning showed immediate uptake in the lungs; thereafter activity decreased in the lungs and increased in the liver. Studies of labelled and unlabelled cells in the circulation showed that treatment resulted in the removal of lymphocytes from the blood which was repopulated from an extravascular compartment. Tumour cells were shown to be cleared from the blood by the reticuloendothelial system in the liver. Indium-111 should be used circumspectly because it may cause chromosomal damage in labelled cells, but it is clearly useful as a radiolabel for following the migration pathways of lymphocytes in vivo. Images FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:6435791

  20. Human brucellosis is characterized by an intense Th1 profile associated with a defective monocyte function.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Zapata, Manuel; Matas, Marlene J; Prieto, Alfredo; Jonde, Marco A; Monserrat, Jorge; Snchez, Lorenzo; Reyes, Eduardo; De la Hera, Antonio; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2010-07-01

    In animal models, a defective Th1 response appears to be critical in the pathogenesis of brucellosis, but the Th1 response in human brucellosis patients remains partially undefined. Peripheral blood from 24 brucellosis patients was studied before and 45 days after antibiotherapy. Twenty-four sex- and age-matched healthy donors were analyzed in parallel. Significantly increased levels of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p40, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), but not of IL-10, in serum and/or significantly increased percentages of samples with detectable levels of these cytokines, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), were found for untreated brucellosis patients, but these levels were reduced and/or normalized after treatment. Flow cytometry studies showed that the intracytoplasmic expression of IFN-gamma, IL-2, and TNF-alpha, but not that of IL-4, by phorbol myristate-activated CD4(+) CD3(+) and CD8(+) CD3(+) T lymphocytes was significantly increased in untreated brucellosis patients and was also partially normalized after antibiotherapy. The percentage of phagocytic cells, the mean phagocytic activity per cell, and the phagocytic indices for monocytes at baseline were defective and had only partially reverted at follow-up. T lymphocytes from untreated brucellosis patients are activated in vivo and show Th1 cytokine production polarization, with strikingly high serum IFN-gamma levels. In spite of this Th1 environment, we found deficient effector phagocytic activity in peripheral blood monocytes. PMID:20404074

  1. Ingramon, a Peptide Inhibitor of MCP-1 Chemokine, Reduces Migration of Blood Monocytes Stimulated by Glioma-Conditioned Medium.

    PubMed

    Krasnikova, T L; Arefieva, T I; Pylaeva, E A; Sidorova, M V

    2016-02-01

    Malignant gliomas are most common and fatal primary brain tumors. In addition to neoplastic cells, the tumor tissue contains microglial cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. It is an established fact that monocyte recruiting promotes the tumor growth and dissemination. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is the major attractant for monocytes. We have previously synthesized an MCP-1 antagonist ingramon, a synthetic peptide fragment (65-76) of this chemokine. In the present study, we demonstrated that glioma-conditioned medium contains MCP-1 and stimulates migration of blood monocytes. Ingramon inhibited the effect of glioma-conditioned medium on monocyte migration. PMID:26906197

  2. Serial study of the effect of radiotherapy on semen parameters, hamster egg penetration rates, and lymphocyte chromosome abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.; Barnes, M.; Arthur, K.; Ringrose, T.; Douglas, G.

    1984-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the long-term effects of radiotherapy (RT) on male fertility and the induction of lymphocyte and sperm chromosome abnormalities. This preliminary report provides information on 11 cancer patients (mainly seminomas) treated by RT (testicular dose, 44 to 499 rads). All 11 men were studied pre-RT and at intervals post-RT. The pre-RT semen profile varied considerably, but, in general, the profile was poor with a mean sperm concentration of 19.4 x 10/sup 6/ ml and a mean hamster egg penetration rate of 5%. One month after RT, the sperm concentration decreased and hamster egg penetration was 0% in all men. At 3 and 12 months post-RT, all but two patients were azoospermic. By 24 months post-RT, 9 of 11 patients had regained sperm production and 5 had sperm capable of hamster egg penetration. The three men who have been studied 36 months post-RT had a mean sperm concentration of 45.3 x 10/sup 6/ ml, and all had positive hamster egg penetration tests, although two of the three men had very low penetration rates (2% and 4%). Lymphocyte chromosome analysis demonstrated a striking frequency of chromosome abnormalities post-RT which decreased with time (pre-RT, 0%; 1 month, 42.4%; 3 months, 24.7%; 12 months, 13.8%; 24 months, 11.2%; and 36 months, 10.0%). Thus, it appears that sperm production starts to recover 2 to 3 years after RT when the frequency of lymphocyte chromosome abnormalities has decreased, but the sperm may not be fully functional at this time, as evidenced by poor rates of hamster egg penetration. Future studies of sperm chromosome analysis in these men will determine whether this impairment of the sperm is associated with meiotic chromosome abnormalities.

  3. Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Wen, Jun; Nguyen, John; Cachia, Mark A.; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first study of stiffness/deformability changes of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, demonstrating that at the single cell level, leukemic metastasis progresses are accompanied by biophysical property alterations. A microfluidic device was utilized to electrically measure cell volume and transit time of single lymphocytes from healthy and CLL patients. The results from testing thousands of cells reveal that lymphocytes from CLL patients have higher stiffness (i.e., lower deformability), as compared to lymphocytes in healthy samples, which was also confirmed by AFM indentation tests. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known knowledge on other types of metastatic cells (e.g., breast and lung cancer cells) whose stiffness becomes lower as metastasis progresses.

  4. Monocyte transplantation for neural and cardiovascular ischemia repair

    PubMed Central

    Sanberg, Paul R; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Cruz, Eduardo; Hossne Jr, Nelson Americo; Buffolo, Enio; Willing, Alison E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Neovascularization is an integral process of inflammatory reactions and subsequent repair cascades in tissue injury. Monocytes/macrophages play a key role in the inflammatory process including angiogenesis as well as the defence mechanisms by exerting microbicidal and immunomodulatory activity. Current studies have demonstrated that recruited monocytes/macrophages aid in regulating angiogenesis in ischemic tissue, tumours and chronic inflammation. In terms of neovascularization followed by tissue regeneration, monocytes/macrophages should be highly attractive for cell-based therapy compared to any other stem cells due to their considerable advantages: non-oncogenic, non-teratogenic, multiple secretary functions including pro-angiogenic and growth factors, straightforward cell harvesting procedure and non-existent ethical controversy. In addition to adult origins such as bone marrow or peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood (UCB) can be a potential source for autologous or allogeneic monocytes/macrophages. Especially, UCB monocytes should be considered as the first candidate owing to their feasibility, low immune rejection and multiple characteristic advantages such as their anti-inflammatory properties by virtue of their unique immune and inflammatory immaturity, and their pro-angiogenic ability. In this review, we present general characteristics and potential of monocytes/macrophages for cell-based therapy, especially focusing on neovascularization and UCB-derived monocytes. PMID:19754667

  5. Platelets and Smooth Muscle Cells Affecting the Differentiation of Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michelle W. Y.; Guiffre, Ann K.; Fletcher, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is characterised by the formation of plaques. Monocytes play a pivotal role in plaque development as they differentiate into foam cells, a component of the lipid core whilst smooth muscle cells (SMC) are the principal cell identified in the cap. Recently, the ability of monocytes to differentiate into a myriad of other cell types has been reported. In lieu of these findings the ability of monocytes to differentiate into SMCs/smooth muscle (SM)-like cells was investigated. Method and Results Human monocytes were co-cultured with platelets or human coronary aortic SMCs and then analysed to assess their differentiation into SMCs/SM-like cells. The differentiated cells expressed a number of SMC markers and genes as determined by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). CD array analysis identified marker expression profiles that discriminated them from monocytes, macrophages and foam cells as well as the expression of markers which overlapped with fibroblast and mesenchymal cells. Electron microscopy studies identified microfilaments and increased amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum indicative of the SM- like cells, fibroblasts. Conclusions In the appropriate environmental conditions, monocytes can differentiate into SM-like cells potentially contributing to cap formation and plaque stability. Thus, monocytes may play a dual role in the development of plaque formation and ultimately atherosclerosis. PMID:24551082

  6. The presence of tumour-associated lymphocytes confers a good prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study of tissue microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumour-associated lymphocytes (TALs) have been linked with good prognosis in several solid tumours. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of CD3, CD8 and CD20 positive lymphocytes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Methods After histological re-evaluation of the tumours of 81 patients who underwent surgical resection for exclusively pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, tissue micro-arrays (TMA) were constructed and immunohistochemistry was performed for CD3, CD8 and CD20. The number of lymphocytes within specific tumour compartments (i.e. stromal and intratumoural) was quantified. X-tile software (Yale School of Medicine, CT, USA) was used to stratify patients into 'high and 'low for each of the lymphocytes stained and their association with survival. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were constructed to evaluate the association between the TALs, alone and in combination, with clinicopathological features. Results CD3 and CD8 positive lymphocytes were associated with grade of tumour differentiation. The presence of intratumoural CD3 positive cells was associated with improved survival (p?=?0.028), and intratumoural and stromal CD3 in combination also correlated with improved survival (p?=?0.043). When CD20 positive lymphocyte levels were high, survival improved (p?=?0.029) and similar results were seen for CD20 in combination with intratumoural CD3 (p?=?0.001) and stromal CD8 (p?=?0.013). Conclusions This study has shown a correlation between the presence of TALs and survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24063854

  7. Uptake of C60 by human monocyte macrophages, its localization and implications for toxicity: studied by high resolution electron microscopy and electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Porter, Alexandra E; Muller, Karin; Skepper, Jeremy; Midgley, Paul; Welland, Mark

    2006-07-01

    Despite great interest in the engineering applications of carbon-based nanoparticles, recent studies have raised concerns about their potential toxicity and safety. The release of C(60) into the environment has been suggested to be a potential risk with possible ecological implications. Here we evaluate energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-based electron tomography as techniques for imaging the three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of nanoparticles within cells. Our aim was to establish if human monocyte macrophages internalise nanoparticles and to assess whether nanoparticles are modified by cells following uptake. Using these techniques we were able to show a marked increased in the amount of information gained from 3-D imaging. 3-D electron tomography revealed several sub-cellular compartments containing C(60) within the cell: secondary lysosomes, along the outer and nuclear membrane and most notably inside the nucleus of the cell. Using EFTEM and STEM-based techniques we were able to visualize cell structures such as membranes, the mitochondria, ribosomes and the nucleus, without the need for traditional staining techniques. In particular we demonstrate the potential of electron tomography for whole cell studies to enable 3-D distributions of particles within cells. The concentrations of C(60) used in this study were not toxic and were chosen to study which sub-cellular compartments accumulated C(60). Knowledge of the sites of accumulation of nanoparticles will allow us to predict vulnerability if the nanoparticles can generate free radicals. PMID:16765881

  8. [Cys-containing peptides cause migration of monocytes].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, M V; Arefieva, T I; Palkeeva, M E; Molokoedov, A S; Az'muko, A A; Ruleva, N Yu; Pylaeva, E A; Krasnikova, T L; Bespalova, D

    2015-01-01

    Automated Fmoc solid-phase technique was used to synthesize Cys-containing linear peptide fragments of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and chemokine domain of fractalkine along with their analogues with Cys residue being either modified or replaced with Ser. Chimeric symmetric and asymmetric disulfides were also prepared from the former linear precursors. A SAR study on a set of the newly synthesized peptides revealed that capacity to stimulate migration of monocytes and to influence cell motility in vitro, in general, critically depends on the presence of Cys free thiol group in the molecule. Notably, all analogs lacking this feature, including chimeric disulfides, demonstrated lack of effect on monocyte migration. PMID:26050467

  9. Enhanced calcium responses to serotonin receptor stimulation in T-lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Genius, J; Schellenberg, A; Tchana-Duope, L; Hartmann, N; Giegling, I; Hartmann, A; Benninghoff, J; Rujescu, D

    2015-03-01

    Even if more extensively investigated in affective disorders, the serotonergic system is likely to be also implicated in modulating the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, where it closely interacts with the dopaminergic and glutamatergic system. To substantiate this notion, we studied the intensity and dynamics of cellular Ca(2+) responses to serotonin (5-hydoxytryptamine, 5-HT) in peripheral lymphocytes taken from currently non-psychotic schizophrenic patients. To this aim, peripheral lymphocytes were freshly obtained from healthy controls and a naturalistic collective of patients with schizophrenia in remission. Intracellular Ca(2+) responses were recorded in real-time by ratiometric fluorometry after 5-HT or phythaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, which served as an internal reference for Ca(2+) responsivity to non-specific stimulation. The intracellular Ca(2+) peak early after applying the 5-HT trigger was significantly elevated in schizophrenic patients. No significant differences of Ca(2+) peak levels were seen in response to stimulation with the mitogenic agent PHA, although responses to 5-HT and PHA were positively correlated in individual patients or controls. In conclusion, the serotonergic response patterns in peripheral lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients seem to be elevated, if employing sensitive tools like determination of intracellular Ca(2+) responses. Our observations suggest that the participation of serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia may deserve more interest, even if it should only act as a modulator on the main pathology in the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. We hope that this pilot study will prompt further studies with larger patient collectives to revisit this question. PMID:25576705

  10. Oxidative upregulation of Bcl-2 in healthy lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Cristofanon, Silvia; Nuccitelli, Silvia; D'Alessio, Maria; Radogna, Flavia; De Nicola, Milena; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Cerella, Claudia; Magrini, Andrea; Diederich, Marc; Ghibelli, Lina

    2006-12-01

    In many cell systems, pharmacological glutathione (GSH) depletion with the GSH neosynthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) leads to cell death and highly sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis induced by standard chemotherapeutic agents. However, some tumor cells upregulate Bcl-2 in response to BSO, thus surviving the treatment and failing to be chemosensitized. Cell lines of monocytic and lymphocytic origins respond to BSO treatment in an opposite way, lymphocytes being chemosensitized and unable to transactivate Bcl-2. In this article we investigate the response to BSO of lymphocytes freshly isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors. After ensuring that standard separation procedures do not alter per se lymphocytes redox equilibrium nor Bcl-2 levels in the first 24 h of culture, we show that BSO treatment promotes the upregulation of Bcl-2, with a mechanism involving the increased radical production consequent to GSH depletion. Thus, BSO treatment may increase the differential cytocidal effect of cytotoxic drugs in tumor versus normal lymphocytes. PMID:17341597

  11. Experimental animals and in vitro systems in the study of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus*

    PubMed Central

    Hotchin, J.

    1977-01-01

    The history of lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) research is reviewed from the point of view of whether the main discoveries concerning LCM pathogenesis have stemmed from animal or in vitro research methods. Most of the results initially stemmed from animal experiments, but in recent years recourse has increasingly been made to in vitro techniques to confirm and amplify the animal-based conclusions. Different research approaches are discussed and an attempt is made to assess the role of in vitro versus animal methods in obtaining knowledge on this virus. The same analysis is applied to the future needs and trends in arenavirus research. PMID:338190

  12. Inducibility of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in cultured human lymphocytes: a study of repeatability.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, K A; Evans, D A; Canning, M V

    1978-01-01

    Modifications to the method for estimating aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in cultured human lymphocytes are described. Despite the improvements to the technique it was not possible to show significant 'repeatability' of values for AHH induction over a period of 2 weeks or more. Significant repeatability could be seen when a blood sample from each subject was split into duplicates. However, this level of repeatability was low when considered for quantitative genetics purposes. Possible reasons for the poor repeatability have been discussed. PMID:353284

  13. The relative role of neutrophils and platelets in the local accumulation of circulating lymphocytes at sites of ionophore A23187 inoculation

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.M.; Simmons, R.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The early cellular infiltrate at inflammatory sites consists predominantly of neutrophils and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The mechanism by which circulating, unsensitized lymphocytes accumulate at sites of inflammation is unknown. The pattern of accumulation of 111indium-labeled circulating thymocytes in response to local injections of the ionophore A23187 was studied and compared with the pattern of (125)iodinated albumin accumulation as a measure of vascular permeability. The kinetics of thymocyte accumulation differed from those of vascular permeability. Sublethal total-body irradiation (750 rads) markedly decreased thymocyte accumulation but had little effect on vascular permeability. Irradiation of the local site alone had no effect. T lymphocyte, T lymphoblast, and platelet accumulation generally followed the same pattern as thymocytes. Intravenous injection of neutrophils, but not platelets, partially restored lymphocyte accumulation in vivo in irradiated mice via a pathway involving the circulating neutrophil, and seemed to be independent of changes in vascular permeability.

  14. Effect of dexamethasone on bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2015-08-15

    Stress has been shown to affect the immune system of turkeys making them more susceptible to bacterial infections. Five-week-old male and female turkeys were treated with 3 intra-muscular injections of dexamethasone (Dex) at 0, 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg body weight. Twenty-four hours after the third injection birds were bled and white blood cell (WBC) differentials and bacteriostatic activity of monocytes were measured. Dex at both 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg decreased phagocytic activity in females only. Bacteriostatic activity was decreased at both concentrations of Dex at 8 and 16 h post-infection in both sexes and was lower in males as compared to females. Total WBC counts were increased in females at both concentrations of Dex whereas male total WBC counts were unaffected. Both males and females had an increase in the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Within the same study, replicate pens of turkeys were challenged with intra-air sac inoculation of 100 cfu of Escherichia coli. Isolation of E. coli was significantly increased by both Dex and E. coli challenge, but there were no differences between sexes. These results suggest that stress can compromise the bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and increase bacterial colonization of blood and tissues, potentially affecting food safety. PMID:26099808

  15. Dendritic Cells Differentiated from Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Monocytes Exhibit Tolerogenic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kyung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) is rich in diverse hematopoietic stem cells that are competent to differentiate into various cell types with immunological compatibility at transplantation. Thus, UCB is a potential source for the preparation of dendritic cells (DCs) to be used for cell therapy against inflammatory disorders or cancers. However, the immunological properties of UCB-derived DCs are not fully characterized. In this study, we investigated the phenotypes and functions of UCB monocyte-derived DCs (UCB-DCs) in comparison with those of adult peripheral blood (APB) monocyte-derived DCs (APB-DCs). UCB-DCs contained less CD1a(+) DCs, which is known as immunostimulatory DCs, than APB-DCs. UCB-DCs exhibited lower expression of CD80, MHC proteins, and DC-SIGN, but higher endocytic activity, than APB-DCs. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of UCB-DCs minimally augmented the expression of maturation markers and production of interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, but potently expressed IL-10. When UCB-DCs were cocultured with CD14(+) cell-depleted allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells, they weakly induced the proliferation, surface expression of activation markers, and interferon (IFN)-? production of T lymphocytes compared with APB-DCs. UCB possessed higher levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than APB, which might be responsible for tolerogenic phenotypes and functions of UCB-DCs. Indeed, APB-DCs prepared in the presence of PGE2 exhibited CD1a(-)CD14(+) phenotypes with tolerogenic properties, including weak maturation, impaired IL-12 production, and negligible T lymphocyte activation as UCB-DCs did. Taken together, we suggest that UCB-DCs have tolerogenic properties, which might be due to PGE2 highly sustained in UCB. PMID:26203805

  16. Regulation of interleukin 6 receptor expression in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Comparison with the expression in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J; Bauer, T M; Kalb, T; Taga, T; Lengyel, G; Hirano, T; Kishimoto, T; Acs, G; Mayer, L; Gerok, W

    1989-11-01

    IL-6 is a cytokine with pleiotropic biological functions, including induction of the hepatic acute phase response and differentiation of activated B cells into Ig-secreting plasma cells. We found that human peripheral blood monocytes express the IL-6-R, which is undetectable on the large majority of lymphocytes of healthy individuals. Stimulation of monocytes by endotoxin or IL-1 causes a rapid downregulation of IL-6-R mRNA levels and a concomitant enhancement of IL-6 mRNA expression. IL-6 itself was found to suppress the IL-6-R at high concentrations. A gradual decrease of IL-6-R mRNA levels was observed along in vitro maturation of monocytes into macrophages. We show that downregulation of IL-6-R mRNA levels by IL-1 and IL-6 is monocyte specific, since IL-6-R expression is stimulated by both IL-1 and IL-6 in cultured human primary hepatocytes. Our data indicate that under noninflammatory conditions, monocytes may play a role in binding of trace amounts of circulating IL-6. Repression of monocytic IL-6-R and stimulation of hepatocytic IL-6-R synthesis may represent a shift of the IL-6 tissue targets under inflammatory conditions. PMID:2809509

  17. Analysis of FeLV-FAIDS provirus burden and productive infection in lymphocyte subsets in vivo.

    PubMed

    Quackenbush, S L; Dean, G A; Mullins, J I; Hoover, E A

    1996-09-01

    To help elucidate the immunopathogenesis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-induced immunodeficiency we studied the tropism of viruses derived from the FeLV-FAIDS isolate for lymphocyte subpopulations in cats. FeLV-FAIDS is composed of a replication-competent virus typical of subgroup A FeLV (prototype, clone 61E) and a family of replication-defective but immunopathogenic variant viruses (prototype, clone 61C). We sorted CD4+, CD8+, and IgG+ lymphocytes to > or = 97% purity and analyzed viral load in each cell population via genome-specific semiquantitative PCR. Both the 61E and 61C viruses were tropic for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as IgG+ B lymphocytes in blood and lymph node. High provirus burden were established for both virus genomes-ranging from 0.3 to > 2 copies/cell. To identify the fraction of circulating cells which expressed viral antigen in vivo, we developed a flow cytometric method to simultaneously label blood leukocytes for surface immunophenotype and intracytoplasmic FeLV CA (p27 Gag). These experiments established that 20 to 60% of CD4+, CD8+, and IgG+ lymphocytes and > 85% of monocytes and granulocytes expressed FeLV p27 intracellularly. Thus the in vivo target cells for FeLV-FAIDS infection are manifold and include CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells. PMID:8806534

  18. Monocytes in sterile inflammation: recruitment and functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Jessica H; Kreisel, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Monocytes play an important role in initiating innate immune responses. Three subsets of these cells have been defined in mice including classical, nonclassical and intermediate monocytes. Each of these cell types has been extensively studied for their role in infectious diseases. However, their role in sterile injury as occurs during ischemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, and trauma has only recently been the focus of investigations. Here, we review mechanisms of monocyte recruitment to sites of sterile injury, their modes of action, and their effect on disease outcome in murine models with some references to human studies. Therapeutic strategies to target these cells must be developed with caution since each monocyte subset is capable of mediating either anti- or pro-inflammatory effects depending on the setting. PMID:24310705

  19. Monocytes in sterile inflammation: recruitment and functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Spahn, Jessica H.; Kreisel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes play an important role in initiating innate immune responses. Three subsets of these cells have been defined in mice including classical, nonclassical and intermediate monocytes. Each of these cell types has been extensively studied for their role in infectious diseases. However, their role in sterile injury as occurs during ischemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, and trauma has only recently been the focus of investigations. Here we review mechanisms of monocyte recruitment to sites of sterile injury, their modes of action, and their effect on disease outcome in murine models with some references to human studies. Therapeutic strategies to target these cells must be developed with caution since each monocyte subset is capable of mediating either anti- or pro-inflammatory effects depending on the setting. PMID:24310705

  20. Wear particles from studded tires and granite pavement induce pro-inflammatory alterations in human monocyte-derived macrophages: a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Helen; Lindbom, John; Ghafouri, Bijar; Lindahl, Mats; Tagesson, Christer; Gustafsson, Mats; Ljungman, Anders G

    2011-01-14

    Airborne particulate matter is considered to be one of the environmental contributors to the mortality in cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases. For future preventive actions, it is of major concern to investigate the toxicity of defined groups of airborne particles and to clarify their pathways in biological tissues. To expand the knowledge beyond general inflammatory markers, this study examined the toxicoproteomic effects on human monocyte derived macrophages after exposure to wear particles generated from the interface of studded tires and a granite-containing pavement. As comparison, the effect of endotoxin was also investigated. The macrophage proteome was separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Detected proteins were quantified, and selected proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Among analyzed proteins, seven were significantly decreased and three were increased by exposure to wear particles as compared to unexposed control cells. Endotoxin exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of six proteins: four decreased and two increased. For example, macrophage capping protein was significantly increased after wear particle exposure only, whereas calgizzarin and galectin-3 were increased by both wear particle and endotoxin exposure. Overall, proteins associated with inflammatory response were increased and proteins involved in cellular functions such as redox balance, anti-inflammatory response, and glycolysis were decreased. Investigating the effects of characterized wear particles on human macrophages with a toxicoproteomic approach has shown to be useful in the search for more detailed information about specific pathways and possible biological markers. PMID:21117676

  1. Evaluation of an optimized protocol using human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells for the in vitro detection of sensitizers: Results of a ring study in five laboratories.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Hendrik; Gerlach, Silke; Spieker, Jochem; Ryan, Cindy; Bauch, Caroline; Mangez, Claire; Winkler, Petra; Landsiedel, Robert; Templier, Marie; Mignot, Aurelien; Gerberick, Frank; Wenck, Horst; Aeby, Pierre; Schepky, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed T-cell mediated allergic response associated with relevant social and economic impacts. Animal experiments (e.g. the local lymph node assay) are still supplying most of the data used to assess the sensitization potential of new chemicals. However, the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetic Directive have introduced a testing ban for cosmetic ingredients after March 2013. We have developed and optimized a stable and reproducible in vitro protocol based on human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells to assess the sensitization potential of chemicals. To evaluate the transferability and the predictivity of this PBMDCs based test protocol, a ring study was organized with five laboratories using seven chemicals with a known sensitization potential (one none-sensitizer and six sensitizers, including one pro-hapten). The results indicated that this optimized test protocol could be successfully transferred to all participating laboratories and allowed a correct assessment of the sensitization potential of the tested set of chemicals. This should allow a wider acceptance of PBMDCs as a reliable test system for the detection of human skin sensitizers and the inclusion of this protocol in the toolbox of in vitro methods for the evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. PMID:25868915

  2. The effects of prednisone and azathioprine on circulating immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Rinkardt, N E; Kruth, S A; Kaushik, A

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates serum immunoglobulin (SIg) levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs in response to putative immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and/or azathioprine. The objectives were to quantify SIg levels and lymphocyte subpopulations, including Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8+ and B cells, in normal dogs both before and after the administration of prednisone and/or azathioprine at 2 mg/kg, PO, each. Eighteen beagles were divided into 3 groups of 6 dogs each. Blood samples for radial immunodiffusion assay of IgG, IgM and IgA, complete blood count (CBC)and flow cytometry were collected prior to the administration of any drugs and again after 14 d of azathioprine, prednisone or azathioprine and prednisone. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated using density centrifugation and were incubated with monoclonal antibodies reacting with CD4+, CD8+, Thy-1+ and membrane immunoglobulin. Lymphocyte subsets were quantified using flow cytometry. Azathioprine-treated dogs had no significant changes in SIg levels or lymphocyte subpopulations. Prednisone-treated dogs had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in all SIg levels, all lymphocyte subpopulations and erythrocyte numbers, and had an increase in neutrophil counts. Prednisone and azathioprine-treated dogs had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in serum IgG levels and Thy-1+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subpopulations, with an increase in the CD4:CD8. These dogs also had a significant decrease in erythrocyte number and a significant increase in the monocyte count. These findings suggest that azathioprine and prednisone in combination or prednisone alone may be useful for the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases since decreased circulating T cell levels were demonstrated following treatment. The combination of drugs or azathioprine alone may not be appropriate for treatment of acute or autoantibody-mediated immune disease, because SIg levels were minimally affected by treatment. PMID:9918329

  3. A phase 2 study of idelalisib plus rituximab in treatment-nave older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, Nicole; Kipps, Thomas J.; Flinn, Ian; Zelenetz, Andrew D.; Burger, Jan A.; Keating, Michael; Mitra, Siddhartha; Holes, Leanne; Yu, Albert S.; Johnson, David M.; Miller, Langdon L.; Kim, Yeonhee; Dansey, Roger D.; Dubowy, Ronald L.; Coutre, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Idelalisib is a first-in-class oral inhibitor of PI3K? that has shown substantial activity in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate idelalisib as initial therapy, 64 treatment-nave older patients with CLL or small lymphocytic leukemia (median age, 71 years; range, 65-90) were treated with rituximab 375 mg/m2 weekly 8 and idelalisib 150 mg twice daily continuously for 48 weeks. Patients completing 48 weeks without progression could continue to receive idelalisib on an extension study. The median time on treatment was 22.4 months (range, 0.8-45.8+). The overall response rate (ORR) was 97%, including 19% complete responses. The ORR was 100% in patients with del(17p)/TP53 mutations and 97% in those with unmutated IGHV. Progression-free survival was 83% at 36 months. The most frequent (>30%) adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (including colitis) (64%), rash (58%), pyrexia (42%), nausea (38%), chills (36%), cough (33%), and fatigue (31%). Elevated alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase was seen in 67% of patients (23% grade ?3). The combination of idelalisib and rituximab was highly active, resulting in durable disease control in treatment-nave older patients with CLL. These results support the further development of idelalisib as initial treatment of CLL. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT01203930. PMID:26472751

  4. A phase 2 study of idelalisib plus rituximab in treatment-nave older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Susan M; Lamanna, Nicole; Kipps, Thomas J; Flinn, Ian; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Burger, Jan A; Keating, Michael; Mitra, Siddhartha; Holes, Leanne; Yu, Albert S; Johnson, David M; Miller, Langdon L; Kim, Yeonhee; Dansey, Roger D; Dubowy, Ronald L; Coutre, Steven E

    2015-12-17

    Idelalisib is a first-in-class oral inhibitor of PI3K? that has shown substantial activity in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate idelalisib as initial therapy, 64 treatment-nave older patients with CLL or small lymphocytic leukemia (median age, 71 years; range, 65-90) were treated with rituximab 375 mg/m(2) weekly 8 and idelalisib 150 mg twice daily continuously for 48 weeks. Patients completing 48 weeks without progression could continue to receive idelalisib on an extension study. The median time on treatment was 22.4 months (range, 0.8-45.8+). The overall response rate (ORR) was 97%, including 19% complete responses. The ORR was 100% in patients with del(17p)/TP53 mutations and 97% in those with unmutated IGHV. Progression-free survival was 83% at 36 months. The most frequent (>30%) adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (including colitis) (64%), rash (58%), pyrexia (42%), nausea (38%), chills (36%), cough (33%), and fatigue (31%). Elevated alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase was seen in 67% of patients (23% grade ?3). The combination of idelalisib and rituximab was highly active, resulting in durable disease control in treatment-nave older patients with CLL. These results support the further development of idelalisib as initial treatment of CLL. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT01203930. PMID:26472751

  5. Monocyte/macrophage and protein interactions with non-fouling plasma polymerized tetraglyme and chemically modified polystyrene surfaces: In vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mingchao

    2001-07-01

    Biomaterials become encapsulated by fibrous tissues after implantation in soft tissues. Monocytes and macrophages are believed to play important roles in this response. The hypothesis tested in this dissertation is that material surface chemistry determines the amount of adsorbed proteins, which mediate monocyte adhesion, activation, and the foreign body response. On chemically modified polystyrene surfaces, monocyte adhesion in vitro was promoted by preadsorbed fibrinogen, fibronectin, and IgG, and increased with increasing amount of adsorbed fibrinogen. Adsorbed proteins and material surface chemistry mediated monocyte activation. TNFalpha release, procoagulant activity, and multinucleated foreign body giant cell (FBGC) formation was at least two-fold higher on IgG than other protein adsorbed surfaces. Adsorbed IgG and fibrinogen triggered monocyte intracellular calcium changes. FBGC formation was the highest on the hydrophobic polystyrene surface. Materials that greatly reduce non-specific protein adsorption may reduce the foreign body response to implanted materials. Radio-frequency plasma polymerized tetraglyme (CH3O(CH2CH2O)4CH 3) surfaces contained PEO-like chemical species and reduced fibrinogen adsorption to less than 10 ng/cm2. Monocyte adhesion to tetraglyme in vitro was also greatly reduced. Monocyte adhesion correlated linearly to the amount of adsorbed fibrinogen on a series of tetraglyme surfaces deposited at different plasma powers. Multivariate analysis using partial least squares regression identified the key surface spectra variables from electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) that contributed to the non-fouling properties of tetraglyme. However, leukocyte adhesion to surfaces implanted subcutaneously in mice for 1 or 28 days did not correlate with protein adsorption and was higher on tetraglyme than the FEP control. Fibrous encapsulation to tetraglyme implanted for 28 days was not reduced. Neutrophil adhesion to tetraglyme from whole blood or in plasma was higher than FEP, but was lower than FEP from neutrophils in serum. Loosely bound proteins such as fibrinogen may contribute to leukocyte adhesion to tetraglyme. Overall, protein adsorption and monocyte adhesion to tetraglyme in vitro did not correlate with tissue responses in vivo. Further understanding of the mechanism of fibrous encapsulation is necessary for developing biocompatible materials that can inhibit the foreign body response and promote normal wound healing.

  6. Pediatric Nodular Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma: Treatment Recommendations of the GPOH-HD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Mauz-Körholz, C; Lange, T; Hasenclever, D; Burkhardt, B; Feller, A C; Dörffel, W; Kluge, R; Vordermark, D; Körholz, D

    2015-11-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (nLPHL) is a very rare disease in childhood and adolescence. In Germany, about 15 newly diagnosed patients present with this disease annually; this number comprises less than 10% of all pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma cases. Since the EuroNet-PHL-LP1 trial for early stage nLPHL patients stopped recruiting in Germany in October 2014, the GPOH-HD writing committee reviewed the literature and decided to deliver treatment recommendations for childhood and adolescent nLPHL patients. These guidelines shall be applicable to young nLPHL patients in European countries that will no longer be able to participate in nLPHL trials for young patients. Therefore, the EuroNet-PHL-nLPHL-registry will be installed to provide quality assured central review of staging and response assessment for registered patients by the Central Review Board of EuroNet-PHL in Halle/Leipzig, Germany. PMID:26356319

  7. Safety and activity of BTK inhibitor ibrutinib combined with ofatumumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase 1b/2 study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Nagar, Veena; Flynn, Joseph M.; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Maddocks, Kami J.; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Blum, Kristie A.; Grever, Michael R.; Smucker, Kelly; Ruppert, Amy S.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Lozanski, Gerard; Stefanos, Mona; Munneke, Brian; West, Jamie-Sue; Neuenburg, Jutta K.; James, Danelle F.; Hall, Nathan; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib represents a therapeutic advance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but as monotherapy produces few complete remissions in previously treated patients. Anti-CD20 antibodies have improved response and progression-free survival (PFS) when combined with chemotherapy. We evaluated the safety and activity of adding ofatumumab to ibrutinib in 3 different administration sequences. Patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), prolymphocytic leukemia, or Richters transformation who failed ?2 prior therapies were enrolled. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg daily and 12 doses of ofatumumab 300/2000 mg in 3 schedules: ibrutinib lead-in (group 1; n = 27), concurrent start (group 2; n = 20), or ofatumumab lead-in (group 3; n = 24). Seventy-one patients were treated; most had high-risk disease including del(17)(p13.1) (44%) or del(11)(q22.3) (31%). The most frequent adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (70%), infusion-related reaction (45%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (44%). Overall response rates in CLL/SLL patients (n = 66) were 100%, 79%, and 71% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Estimated 12-month PFSs for all patients were 89%, 85%, and 75%, respectively. Four patients in group 3 progressed prior to receiving ibrutinib. This study demonstrates the tolerability and clinical activity of this combination with quicker time to best response than single-agent ibrutinib and with durable responses. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01217749. PMID:26116658

  8. The use of human T-lymphocyte clones to study T-cell function in allergic contact dermatitis to urushiol.

    PubMed

    Kalish, R S

    1990-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) is believed to be mediated by T lymphocytes specific for the hapten urushiol. Activated T lymphocytes may produce pathology by a variety of mechanisms including direct cytotoxicity, production of lymphokines, recruitment of non-specific effector cells, non-specific cytotoxicity, and possibly autologous DR reactivity. The regulation and pathogenesis of this condition was studied by cloning and characterizing urushiol-specific T cells from the peripheral blood of patients with poison ivy dermatitis. Multiple CD8+ (T8+) urushiol-specific clones were derived. All clones that proliferated in response to a crude extract of T. radicans also proliferated in response to purified urushiol. Thus, urushiol appears to be the single immunogenic component of T. radicans resin. Pentadecylcatechol (PDC), which differs from urushiol only in the lack of unsaturated bonds in its lipophilic tail, stimulated only one of seven clones tested. This suggests that the double bonds in the C15 lipophilic tail of urushiol are required for antigenicity. Several of the CD8+ urushiol-specific clone suppressed pokeweed mitogen-induced IgG production in the presence of urushiol. Suppression was triggered specifically by urushiol and required MHC compatibility both for the antigen-presenting cells and the responding B cells. These suppressor clones were isolated from convalescent blood and may represent a mechanism for the termination of an allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:1693644

  9. Safety and activity of BTK inhibitor ibrutinib combined with ofatumumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase 1b/2 study.

    PubMed

    Jaglowski, Samantha M; Jones, Jeffrey A; Nagar, Veena; Flynn, Joseph M; Andritsos, Leslie A; Maddocks, Kami J; Woyach, Jennifer A; Blum, Kristie A; Grever, Michael R; Smucker, Kelly; Ruppert, Amy S; Heerema, Nyla A; Lozanski, Gerard; Stefanos, Mona; Munneke, Brian; West, Jamie-Sue; Neuenburg, Jutta K; James, Danelle F; Hall, Nathan; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C

    2015-08-13

    Ibrutinib represents a therapeutic advance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but as monotherapy produces few complete remissions in previously treated patients. Anti-CD20 antibodies have improved response and progression-free survival (PFS) when combined with chemotherapy. We evaluated the safety and activity of adding ofatumumab to ibrutinib in 3 different administration sequences. Patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), prolymphocytic leukemia, or Richter's transformation who failed ?2 prior therapies were enrolled. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg daily and 12 doses of ofatumumab 300/2000 mg in 3 schedules: ibrutinib lead-in (group 1; n = 27), concurrent start (group 2; n = 20), or ofatumumab lead-in (group 3; n = 24). Seventy-one patients were treated; most had high-risk disease including del(17)(p13.1) (44%) or del(11)(q22.3) (31%). The most frequent adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (70%), infusion-related reaction (45%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (44%). Overall response rates in CLL/SLL patients (n = 66) were 100%, 79%, and 71% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Estimated 12-month PFSs for all patients were 89%, 85%, and 75%, respectively. Four patients in group 3 progressed prior to receiving ibrutinib. This study demonstrates the tolerability and clinical activity of this combination with quicker time to best response than single-agent ibrutinib and with durable responses. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01217749. PMID:26116658

  10. Expression of DNAM-1 (CD226) on inflammatory monocytes.

    PubMed

    Vo, Anh Van; Takenaka, Eri; Shibuya, Akira; Shibuya, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    DNAM-1 is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and T cells and plays an important role in cytotoxicity of these cells against target cells. Although the role of DNAM-1 in the function of T cells and NK cells has been well studied, the expression and function of DNAM-1 on myeloid cells have been incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated expression of DNAM-1 on monocyte subsets in mouse peripheral blood and found that only inflammatory monocytes (iMos), but not patrolling monocytes (pMos), expressed high levels of DNAM-1. In addition, we found that DNAM-1 was highly expressed on iMos, rather than pMos, also in human. Furthermore, we found that DNAM-1 on inflammatory monocytes was involved in cell adhesion to CD155-expressing cells. Therefore, we propose that expression of DNAM-1 on inflammatory monocytes are evolutionally conserved and act as an adhesion molecule on blood inflammatory monocytes. PMID:26675069

  11. Human lymphocyte repertoires in ageing

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Scott D; Liu, Yi; Wang, Chen; Martin, Victoria; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    Deterioration of adaptive immunity with ageing may reflect changes in the repertoire of T cells and B cells available to respond to antigenic challenges, due to altered proportions and absolute numbers of lymphocyte subpopulations as well as changes in the repertoire of antigen receptor genes expressed by these cells. High-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) now facilitates examination of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene rearrangements, and initial studies using these methods to study immune system ageing in humans have demonstrated age-related alterations in the receptor populations within lymphocyte subsets, as well as in repertoires responding to vaccination. Accurate measurement of repertoire diversity remains an experimental challenge. Studies of larger numbers of human subjects, analysis of defined lymphocyte subpopulations including antigen-specific populations, and controlling for factors such as chronic viral infections, will be important for gaining additional understanding of the impact of ageing on human lymphocyte populations. PMID:23992996

  12. Effect of Neutrophil Apoptosis on Monocytic Cytokine Response to Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Ezel; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Background Neutrophil apoptosis may play a critical role in the resolution of inflammation by stimulating anti-inflammatory cytokine generation from monocytes. In this study, we investigated the effect of apoptotic neutrophils on interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1? production from monocytes in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. Methods Peripheral blood neutrophils from healthy individuals were isolated by sodium diatrizoate density gradient centrifugation. In order to induce apoptosis, neutrophils were cultured for 24 hours in modified Dulbeccos medium supplemented with 10% autologous serum. Cell apoptosis was quantified by Annexin V positivity and loss of CD16 expression on the cell surface. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from the same subjects; monocytes were purified by magnetic cell sorting and cultured with or without apoptotic or fresh neutrophils. Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis was used for cell stimulation. IL-1? and IL-10 levels in supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results IL-10 generation was significantly increased in monocytes cultured with apoptotic neutrophils compared to monocytes alone or cocultured with fresh neutrophils (P <0.05). IL-1? was suppressed both in resting and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes in the presence of apoptotic neutrophils compared to monocytes alone or monocytes cultured with fresh neutrophils at all time points (P <0.05). Conclusion Neutrophil apoptosis provides a signal to monocytes, changing the phenotype of the monocyte resulting in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide. PMID:15948692

  13. Assessments of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in Korean patients with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Suk; Shin, Dongyun; Lee, Min Seok; Kim, Hee Ju; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Soo Min; Lee, Min-Geol

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to assess neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as inflammatory markers in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A hundred and eleven psoriasis patients and 25 PsA patients were compared with 94 healthy controls. Demographic, clinical and laboratory information were collected and analyzed. NLR and PLR were calculated. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, eosinophils and NLR were increased in psoriasis patients compared with controls. WBC, neutrophils, NLR, monocytes, platelets and PLR were increased in PsA patients compared with both controls and psoriasis patients. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in PsA patients compared with psoriasis patients. Among psoriasis patients, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score correlated positively with platelets, NLR and PLR. These parameters were all significantly higher in moderate to severe psoriasis patients (PASI ≥ 10) compared with mild patients (PASI < 10). Elevated platelets, NLR and PLR were significantly associated with the increased PASI scores in multivariate analysis. NLR, PLR and ESR were statistically significant predictors for the presence of PsA in psoriasis patients. NLR was the strongest predictor (odds ratio = 3.351, P = 0.005). In conclusion, elevated NLR and PLR were significantly associated with psoriasis and PsA. Both NLR and PLR were strong predictors for the presence of PsA among psoriasis patients. PMID:26381893

  14. Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Induces Differentiation and Adhesion of Human Monocytes and the Monocytic Cell Line U937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frostegard, Johan; Nilsson, Jan; Haegerstrand, Anders; Hamsten, Anders; Wigzell, Hans; Gidlund, Magnus

    1990-02-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for development of atherosclerosis. In experimental animals fed a high-cholesterol diet, monocytes adhere to the arterial endothelium and penetrate into the intima where they differentiate into macrophages and ingest lipids thus giving rise to fatty streaks, the earliest type of atherosclerotic plaque. Macrophages express few receptors for normal low density lipo-protein (LDL) but can take up oxidized LDL by way of a scavenger receptor. The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of oxidized LDL in recruitment of resident intimal macrophages. We found that oxidized LDL induced enhanced expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on human monocytes and U937 cells, a well-established system for studies of monocytic differentiation. Oxidized LDL also induced enhanced expression of the surface antigen LEuM3 but caused decreased expression of CD4 antigen, a pattern compatible with expression of a more differentiated macrophage-like phenotype. Oxidized LDL also initiated aggregation of monocytes and U937 cells and stimulated adhesion of U937 cells to cultured endothelial cells. The results indicate that oxidized LDL may contribute to development of atherosclerosis by inducing adhesion of monocytes to the arterial intima and by stimulating intimal monocytes to differentiate into resident macrophages.

  15. Glucose transporter expression differs between bovine monocyte and macrophage subsets and is influenced by milk production.

    PubMed

    Eger, M; Hussen, J; Koy, M; Dänicke, S; Schuberth, H-J; Breves, G

    2016-03-01

    The peripartal period of dairy cows is characterized by negative energy balance and higher incidences of infectious diseases such as mastitis or metritis. With the onset of lactation, milk production is prioritized and large amounts of glucose are transported into the mammary gland. Decreased overall energy availability might impair the function of monocytes acting as key innate immune cells, which give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells and link innate and adaptive immunity. Information on glucose requirements of bovine immune cells is rare. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate glucose transporter expression of the 3 bovine monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes) and monocyte-derived macrophages and to identify influences of the peripartal period. Blood samples were either collected from nonpregnant healthy cows or from 16 peripartal German Holstein cows at d -14, +7, and +21 relative to parturition. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to determine mRNA expression of glucose transporters (GLUT) 1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 in monocyte subsets and monocyte-derived macrophages. The low GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression in nonclassical monocytes was unaltered during differentiation into macrophages, whereas in classical and intermediate monocytes GLUT expression was downregulated. Alternatively activated M2 macrophages consumed more glucose compared with classically activated M1 macrophages. The GLUT4 mRNA was only detectable in unstimulated macrophages. Neither monocytes nor macrophages were insulin responsive. In the peripartum period, monocyte GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression and the GLUT3/GLUT1 ratio were negatively correlated with lactose production. The high-affinity GLUT3 transporter appears to be the predominant glucose transporter on bovine monocytes and macrophages, especially in the peripartal period when blood glucose levels decline. Glucose transporter expression in monocytes is downregulated as a function of lactose production, which might impair monocyte to macrophage differentiation. PMID:26723114

  16. Identification and quantification of phosphodiesterase 4 subtypes in CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes from healthy and asthmatic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Landells, L J; Szilagy, C M; Jones, N A; Banner, K H; Allen, J M; Doherty, A; O'Connor, B J; Spina, D; Page, C P

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, for the first time, PDE4 subtypes were identified and semi-quantified in both CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes from healthy and asthmatic individuals. CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes from healthy and mild asymptomatic asthmatic subjects (receiving ?-agonist therapy only) were isolated from peripheral venous blood using appropriate antibody coated paramagnetic beads. PDE4 subtypes and ?-actin were identified by digoxigenin (DIG)-labelling reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and semi-quantified by DIG-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbance assay. In CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes PDE4A, PDE4B and PDE4D were detected, with no significant differences observed between healthy and asthmatic groups. In CD8 lymphocytes, enzyme subtype expression was lower and showed more intersubject variability. In functional studies investigating the effects of various PDE inhibitors on PHA-induced proliferation of mononuclear cells from healthy and asthmatic subjects, CDP840 (0.0310??M), rolipram (0.110??M) and theophylline (10??M1?mM) inhibited PHA-induced proliferation of mononuclear cells from healthy and asthmatic subjects in a concentration-dependent manner, although no significant difference was observed between the groups investigated. In additional studies, total monocyte cyclic AMP PDE activity was investigated in cells isolated from asthmatic subjects both prior to and 24?h after allergen challenge. Total monocyte cyclic AMP PDE activity remained unaffected following challenge of asthmatic subjects with either house dust mite or cat dander and was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by rolipram (0.01100??M) both before and after allergen challenge. PMID:11429397

  17. In vitro T-cell activation of monocyte-derived macrophages by soluble messengers or cell-to-cell contact in bovine tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Libana, E; Aranaz, A; Welsh, M; Neill, S D; Pollock, J M

    2000-01-01

    The macrophage plays a dual role in tuberculosis, promoting not only protection against mycobacteria, but also survival of the pathogen. Macrophages inhibit multiplication of mycobacteria but also act in concert with lymphocytes through presentation of antigens to T cells. Studies in animal and human infections have suggested a correlation of in vitro growth rates of mycobacteria with in vivo virulence, using uracil uptake to assess mycobacterial metabolism. This study found that blood-derived, non-activated bovine macrophages were capable of controlling Mycobacterium bovis bacillus CalmetteGurin growth for up to 96 hr, but were permissive to intracellular growth of virulent M. bovis. The present investigation compared the in vitro modulation of these macrophage activities by cytokine-rich T-cell supernatants or cell-to-cell contact. On the one hand, treatment of cultured monocytes with mitogen-produced T-cell supernatants promoted morphological changes suggestive of an activation status, enhanced the antigen presentation capabilities of monocytes and up-regulated major histocompatibility complex class II expression. However, this activation was not associated with enhanced anti-M. bovis activity. On the other hand, incubation of infected monocytes with T-cell populations resulted in proportionally increased inhibition of M. bovis uracil uptake. This inhibition was also seen using cells from uninfected animals and indicated the necessity for cell-to-cell contact to promote antimycobacterial capability. PMID:10886395

  18. [Study of the Response Rate and Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Keita; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Hara, Yukiko; Nagashima, Saki; Hirano, Tomohiro; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

    2015-10-01

    The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with the outcomes of some cancer patients such as those with digestive cancer. Herein, we examined the relationship between the response rate following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and NLR in breast cancer patients. We recruited 19 primary breast cancer patients who were administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated the effects of this treatment and classified the patients into responder (CR and PR) and non-responder (SD and PD) groups. We measured the value of NLR before or at the start of nab-PTX treatment, and 7 days after nab-PTX (1-1) and nab-PTX (4-3) treatment. The average age was 58.6 years. The responder and non-responder groups comprised 14 and 5 cases, respectively. The average values of NLR before or at the start of the nab-PTX phase were 4.33 and 5.05 in the responder and non-responder groups, respectively. The average NLR values 7 days after nab-PTX (1-1) were 6.72 and 5.60 in the responder and non-responder groups, respectively. The NLR values 7 days after nab-PTX (4-3) were 2.40 and 2.65 for the responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the responder and non-responder groups for each treatment phase. PMID:26489573

  19. Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin's Disease in Children: A Case Study and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stier, James R.; Vasquez, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    A three-year-old boy presented with an enlarging neck mass. Biopsy demonstrated IgD-positive nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), which was staged as IIa. The patient received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) with rituximab and had excellent results. NLPHL is a relatively rare disease that is biologically distinct from classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). NLPHL is a B-cell malignancy likely of germinal center origin that has an overall good prognosis and favorable response to treatment. Unlike cHL, NLPHL is ubiquitously CD20-positive. Recent evidence supports the efficacy of targeted anti-CD20 therapy in NLPHL, though prospective data is limited. This case demonstrates several unique features of NLPHL and further supports the use of rituximab in front-line therapy. The clinical characteristics among patients at various ages are discussed with a special focus on the IgD-positive subtype. A thorough literature search demonstrates this to be the youngest patient with NLPHL yet described. PMID:25878913

  20. Routine Use of Bendamustine in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Ninkovic, Marijana; Fiegl, Michael; Mian, Michael; Mondello, Patrizia; Kocher, Florian; Waldthaler, Christian; Verdorfer, Irmgard; Steurer, Michael; Gastl, Gnther; Pircher, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Bendamustine is an established treatment option in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and frequently used in Austria and Italy. Therefore, we analyzed 100 unselected, consecutive patients with CLL (treatment-nave and relapsed/refractory) receiving bendamustine in a real-life setting. Most patients were treated with bendamustine in combination with rituximab (BR). However, bendamustine monotherapy was additionally evaluated. Patients treated with BR had a significantly higher overall response rate of 76% (complete response=22%) when compared to those treated solely with bendamustine (overall response rate=50%; complete response=13%). Overall survival (OS) and progression -ree survival (PFS) were significantly lower in the bendamustine-treated group (OS=14.3 months; PFS=8.3 months) compared to the BR group (OS=42.7; PFS=22.5 months; both p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, patients with a good cytogenetic risk and those receiving BR had a significantly better OS. Grade 3/4 hematological complications were seen in 32% of the patients. Hence, bendamustine, especially in combination with rituximab, is an effective therapy with manageable toxicity for non-selected patients with CLL including those pre-treated with fludarabine and the elderly. PMID:26254418

  1. Induction of nitric oxide in human monocytes and monocyte cell lines by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, C; Actor, J K; Hunter, R L

    1998-01-01

    The induction of nitric oxide in human monocytes during mycobacterial infection has been a controversial issue. This study describes a comparative evaluation of the colorimetric and fluorometric methods for the detection of NO in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection in human peripheral blood-derived monocytes (PBM) and in U937, a human monocyte-derived cell line. MTB was grown in monocyte cultures in vitro for 7 or 10 days. RPMI 1640 medium, without antibiotics and supplemented with L-arginine, Hepes, 5% human AB serum, and tetrahydrobiopterin was used to support monocyte growth. As early as 72 h after infection, soluble nitrite was detectable in the medium using the fluorometric assay with diaminonaphthalene (DAN). Early induction of NO correlated with an increase in the levels of iNOS mRNA as quantitated by RT-PCR. NO levels increased progressively up to day 10 (PBM) or day 7 (U937), when 150-200 nM/10(6) cells of soluble nitrite accumulated in cultures, as measured by DAN. Furthermore, monocytes stained positively for human iNOS protein and peroxynitrite after infection with MTB. The induction of NO by MTB was inhibited by four different inhibitors of iNOS enzyme including N-monomethylarginine. Inhibition of NO resulted in the enhancement of the intracellular growth of two of five clinical isolates of MTB. NO released from a donor (S-nitroso-N-penicillamine) also had a direct bacteriostatic effect on the same isolates in broth cultures. MTB strains thus showed a differential susceptibility to intracellular and extracellular NO. In most of these assays, the Greiss reagent was limited by its sensitivity and remained negative for soluble nitrite throughout the 7-10 days of incubation. Thus, the colorimetric method, which is widely used, may give false-negative results in NO assays. This report also demonstrates for the first time that MTB induces mRNA for iNOS, iNOS protein, NO, and peroxynitrite in human monocyte/macrophage cultures. PMID:9731635

  2. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14+ mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14+ monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

  3. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana

    2015-02-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14(+) mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14(+) monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

  4. A role for KMT1c in monocyte to dendritic cell differentiation: Epigenetic regulation of monocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wierda, Rutger J; Goedhart, Marieke; van Eggermond, Marja C J A; Muggen, Alice F; Miggelbrink, Xanne M; Geutskens, Sacha B; van Zwet, Erik; Haasnoot, Geert W; van den Elsen, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Monocytes play a key role in immune system function. Chromatin remodeling is crucial for various differentiation and gene regulation processes and is rather well studied in T cells. However, for monocytes not much is known regarding how the epigenetic machinery influences the differentiation into various effector cell types. In the work presented here, we explore the epigenetic underpinnings of monocyte differentiation. By transcriptional profiling we show that transcription of lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and in particular KMT1c is markedly up regulated after differentiation of monocytes into immature dendritic cells (iDCs). Specifically inhibiting KMT1c function, using the small-molecule inhibitor BIX-01294, changes the transcription levels of the DC marker DC-SIGN, but does not affect surface protein expression. Blocking global KMT activity, using DZNep, does influence monocyte differentiation into iDCs, indicated by a loss of DC-SIGN surface expression. When BIX-01294 and DZNep treatment was combined DC-SIGN expression was almost lost completely. This work shows that the activities of KMTs are required for successful differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Furthermore it shows the importance of KMT inhibitors in the field of epigenetic immune therapy, which is still much focused around HDAC inhibitors. PMID:25843229

  5. Hypergravity-induced immunomodulation in a rodent model: lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Green, Lora M.; Miller, Glen M.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to quantify changes in lymphoid organs and cells over time due to centrifugation-induced hypergravity. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 G and the following assays were performed on days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 21: spleen, thymus, lung, and liver masses; total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte/macrophage, and granulocyte counts; level of splenocyte apoptosis; enumeration of CD3+ T, CD3+/CD4+ T helper, CD3+/CD8+ T cytotoxic, B220+ B, and NK1.1+ natural killer cells; and quantification of cells expressing CD25, CD69, and CD71 activation markers. The data show that increased gravity resulted in decreased body, spleen, thymus, and liver, but not lung, mass. Significant reductions were noted in all three major leukocyte populations (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocyte/macrophages) [correction of macrphages] with increased gravity; persistent depletion was noted in blood but not spleen. Among the various lymphocyte populations, the CD3+/CD8+ T cells and B220+ B cells were the most affected and NK1.1+ NK cells the least affected. Overall, the changes were most evident during the first week, with a greater influence noted for cells in the spleen. A linear relationship was found between some of the measurements and the level of gravity, especially on day 4. These findings indicate that hypergravity profoundly alters leukocyte number and distribution in a mammalian model and that some aberrations persisted throughout the three weeks of the study. In certain cases, the detected changes were similar to those observed after whole-body irradiation. In future investigations we hope to combine hypergravity with low-dose rate irradiation and immune challenge.

  6. Caffeine sensitization of cultured mammalian cells and human lymphocytes irradiated with gamma rays and fast neutrons: a study of relative biological effectiveness in relation to cellular repair

    SciTech Connect

    Hannan, M.A.; Gibson, D.P.

    1985-10-01

    The sensitizing effects of caffeine were studied in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells and human lymphocytes following irradiation with gamma rays and fast neutrons. Caffeine sensitization occurred only when log-phase BHK cells and mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes were exposed to the two radiations. Noncycling (confluent) cells of BHK resulted in a shouldered survival curve following gamma irradiation while a biphasic curve was obtained with the log-phase cells. Survival in the case of lymphocytes was estimated by measurement of (TH)thymidine uptake. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons was found to be greater at survival levels corresponding to the resistant portions of the survival curves (shoulder or resistant tail). In both cell types, no reduction in RBE was observed when caffeine was present, because caffeine affected both gamma and neutron survival by the same proportion.

  7. [A study of the correlation between the functional activity of blood lymphocytes in different animals and the intensity of neutron radiation near the Earth surface].

    PubMed

    Karnaukhova, N A; Sergievich, L A; Kuzhevski?, B M; Sigaeva, E A; Nechaev, O Iu; Karnaukhov, V A; Karnaukhov, V N

    2007-01-01

    A correlation between the functional activity of the synthesis apparatus of blood lymphocytes in different animals and the variations in the neutron count rate near the Earth surface has been studied. From 1999 to 2002 for rats and from 2002 to 2003 for ground squirrels, a reliable positive correlation between the synthetic activity of animal blood lymphocytes and the neutron count rate was found. The correlation was observed for both the neutron flux directed towards the Earth and the total neutron flux (the neutron field of the Earth). There was no a correlation for the neutron flux directed away from the Earth in this period. In 2005-2006, which is characterized by a minor variations in the neutron count rate, no correlation was observed. Thus, the biotropic effect of thermal neutrons makes its self-evident as changes in the functional activity of blood lymphocytes in periods of significant variations of neutron fluxes. PMID:17907412

  8. Upregulation of programmed death-1 on T cells and programmed death ligand-1 on monocytes in septic shock patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Studies on the role of programmed death-1(PD-1) and its main ligand (PD-L1) during experimental models of sepsis have shown that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays a pathologic role in altering microbial clearance, the innate inflammatory response and accelerated apoptosis in sepsis. However, the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 and their role during the development of immune suppression in septic patients have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to determine whether the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 is upregulated in septic shock patients and to explore the role of this pathway in sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Methods Nineteen septic shock patients and 22 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. Apoptosis in lymphocyte subpopulations and PD-1/PD-L1 expression on peripheral T cells, B cells and monocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Apoptosis of T cells induced by TNF? or T-cell receptor ligation in vitro and effects of anti-PD-L1 antibody administration were measured by flow cytometry. CD14+ monocytes of septic shock patients were purified and incubated with either lipopolysaccharide, anti-PD-L1 antibody, isotype antibody, or a combination of lipopolysaccharide and anti-PD-L1 antibody or isotype antibody. Supernatants were harvested to examine production of cytokines by ELISA. Results Compared with healthy controls, septic shock induced a marked increase in apoptosis as detected by the annexin-V binding and active caspase-3 on CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells. Expression of PD-1 on T cells and of PD-L1 on monocytes was dramatically upregulated in septic shock patients. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade in vitro with anti-PD-L1 antibody decreased apoptosis of T cells induced by TNF? or T-cell receptor ligation. Meanwhile, this blockade potentiated the lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF? and IL-6 production and decreased IL-10 production by monocytes in vitro. Conclusions The expression of PD-1 on T cells and PD-L1 on monocytes was upregulated in septic shock patients. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway might play an essential role in sepsis-induced immunosuppression. PMID:21349174

  9. DNA damage and repair detected by the comet assay in lymphocytes of african petrol attendants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keretetse, G S; Laubscher, P J; Du Plessis, J L; Pretorius, P J; Van Der Westhuizen, F H; Van Deventer, E; Van Dyk, E; Eloff, F C; Van Aarde, M N; Du Plessis, L H

    2008-10-01

    Petrol attendants are exposed to petrol volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which may have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. The single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) is a method highly sensitive to DNA damage induced by environmental and occupational exposure to carcinogenic and mutagenic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of exposure of petrol attendants to petrol VOCs and also to determine their effect on DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes of African petrol attendants. The exposed group consisted of 20 subjects, randomly selected from three petrol stations. A control group of 20 unexposed subjects was also chosen and matched for age and smoking habits with the exposed group. Sorbent tubes were used to assess personal exposure of petrol attendants. The comet assay was used to investigate the basal DNA damage and repair capacity in isolated lymphocytes of petrol attendants and unexposed subjects. Blood samples were taken from the petrol attendants at the end of their 8-h working shift and also from the unexposed subjects. The petrol attendants were found to be exposed to levels of petrol VOCs lower than the South African occupational exposure limit for constituent chemicals. A significant relationship was found between the volume of petrol sold during the shift and the average concentrations of benzene, toluene and the total VOCs measured. However, relative humidity had a negative correlation with the average concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylene and the total VOCs. Significantly higher basal DNA damage was observed with the exposed group compared to the unexposed group. The period of exposure influenced the level of DNA damage and the calculated repair capacity. Smoking and age had a significant influence on the level of DNA damage. DNA repair capacity was delayed in smokers of both exposed and unexposed group. PMID:18664513

  10. The Glial Scar-Monocyte Interplay: A Pivotal Resolution Phase in Spinal Cord Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Irit; Schwartz, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord, an immune privileged site, has been mainly associated with the poor prognosis. However, recent data demonstrated that, in fact, some leukocytes, namely monocytes, are pivotal for repair due to their alternative anti-inflammatory phenotype. Given the pro-inflammatory milieu within the traumatized spinal cord, known to skew monocytes towards a classical phenotype, a pertinent question is how parenchymal-invading monocytes acquire resolving properties essential for healing, under such unfavorable conditions. In light of the spatial association between resolving (interleukin (IL)-10 producing) monocytes and the glial scar matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), in this study we examined the mutual relationship between these two components. By inhibiting the de novo production of CSPG following spinal cord injury, we demonstrated that this extracellular matrix, mainly known for its ability to inhibit axonal growth, serves as a critical template skewing the entering monocytes towards the resolving phenotype. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that this matrix alone is sufficient to induce such monocyte polarization. Reciprocal conditional ablation of the monocyte-derived macrophages concentrated at the lesion margins, using diphtheria toxin, revealed that these cells have scar matrix-resolving properties. Replenishment of monocytic cell populations to the ablated mice demonstrated that this extracellular remodeling ability of the infiltrating monocytes requires their expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), a property that was found here to be crucial for functional recovery. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the glial scar-matrix, a known obstacle to regeneration, is a critical component skewing the encountering monocytes towards a resolving phenotype. In an apparent feedback loop, monocytes were found to regulate scar resolution. This cross-regulation between the glial scar and monocytes primes the resolution of this interim phase of spinal cord repair, thereby providing a fundamental platform for the dynamic healing response. PMID:22205935

  11. Cancer immunosurveillance: role of patrolling monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cassetta, Luca; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Classical inflammatory monocytes and their derivative macrophages promote tumor metastasis whereas CD8 T and NK cells restrict tumor growth. In a recent paper published in Science, Hanna and colleagues demonstrate that another monocyte population, nonclassical patrolling monocytes, is enriched in the microvasculature of tumor-challenged lung and reduces tumor metastasis by recruiting NK cells. PMID:26634605

  12. CCR5 susceptibility to ligand-mediated down-modulation differs between human T lymphocytes and myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M.; Kasprowicz, Richard; Hartley, Oliver; Signoret, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    CCR5 is a chemokine receptor expressed on leukocytes and a coreceptor used by HIV-1 to enter CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages. Stimulation of CCR5 by chemokines triggers internalization of chemokine-bound CCR5 molecules in a process called down-modulation, which contributes to the anti-HIV activity of chemokines. Recent studies have shown that CCR5 conformational heterogeneity influences chemokine-CCR5 interactions and HIV-1 entry in transfected cells or activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. However, the effect of CCR5 conformations on other cell types and on the process of down-modulation remains unclear. We used mAbs, some already shown to detect distinct CCR5 conformations, to compare the behavior of CCR5 on in vitro generated human T cell blasts, monocytes and MDMs and CHO-CCR5 transfectants. All human cells express distinct antigenic forms of CCR5 not detected on CHO-CCR5 cells. The recognizable populations of CCR5 receptors exhibit different patterns of down-modulation on T lymphocytes compared with myeloid cells. On T cell blasts, CCR5 is recognized by all antibodies and undergoes rapid chemokine-mediated internalization, whereas on monocytes and MDMs, a pool of CCR5 molecules is recognized by a subset of antibodies and is not removed from the cell surface. We demonstrate that this cell surface–retained form of CCR5 responds to prolonged treatment with more-potent chemokine analogs and acts as an HIV-1 coreceptor. Our findings indicate that the regulation of CCR5 is highly specific to cell type and provide a potential explanation for the observation that native chemokines are less-effective HIV-entry inhibitors on macrophages compared with T lymphocytes. PMID:25957306

  13. Expression of interleukin 2 receptors by monocytes from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and induction of monocyte interleukin 2 receptors by human immunodeficiency virus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J B; McCartney-Francis, N; Smith, P D; Simon, G; Gartner, S; Wahl, L M; Popovic, M; Wahl, S M

    1990-01-01

    A population of circulating mononuclear cells from patients with AIDS was identified which expressed interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R). By dual-fluorescence flow microfluorometry, the patients' IL-2R+ cells were further identified as Leu M3+ monocytes (29.4 +/- 5.2% of the Leu M3+ cells were IL-2R+, n = 15), whereas Leu M3+ monocytes from normal subjects were IL-2R negative (2.0 +/- 0.42%; P less than 0.001). By Northern analysis, monocytes from AIDS patients, but not control subjects, constitutively expressed steady-state levels of IL-2R mRNA. Functionally, the IL-2R+ monocytes were capable of depleting IL-2 from culture supernatants, suggesting a mechanism for the reduced IL-2 levels commonly seen in AIDS patients. IL-2R+ monocytes also expressed increased levels of surface HLA-DR which may favor monocyte T-cell interactions and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In additional studies, normal monocytes were infected with a macrophage-tropic HIV isolate in vitro and monitored for IL-2R and HLA-DR expression. Within 24-48 h after exposure to HIV in vitro, but before evidence of productive infection, greater than 25% of the monocytes became IL-2R+ with increasing numbers of IL-2R+ cells and HLA-DR levels through day 6. These early signaling effects of HIV could be mimicked by adding purified HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the monocytes. This stimulation of monocytes before or independent of productive infection of the cells by HIV is consistent with in vivo observations of activated and/or abnormal functions by monocytes that do not appear to be infected with HIV in AIDS patients. Images PMID:2295695

  14. Human monocyte subsets exhibit divergent angiotensin I-converting activity.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska-Zapa?a, M; Suski, M; Szatanek, R; Lenart, M; W?glarczyk, K; Olszanecki, R; Grodzicki, T; Strach, M; G?sowski, J; Siedlar, M

    2015-07-01

    Immune cells may take part in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which plays a pivotal role in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. The aim of the study was to analyse the expression and activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme type 1 (ACE1) and ACE2 in human monocytes (MO) and their subsets. The highest relative level of ACE1-, as well as ACE2-mRNA expression, was observed in CD14(++)CD16(-) (classical) MO. Moreover, in these cells, mean level of ACE2-mRNA was almost two times higher than that of ACE1-mRNA (11.48 versus 7.073 relative units, respectively). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), MO and classical MO, ACE1 and ACE2 protein expression was stronger compared to other MO subpopulations. The highest level of Ang II generated from Ang I in vitro was observed in classical MO. In this setting, generation of Ang-(1-9) by PBMC and classical MO was higher when compared to the whole MO population (P < 0.05). The generation rate of vasoprotective Ang-(1-7) was comparable in all analysed cell populations. However, in CD14(+)CD16(++) (non-classical) MO, formation of Ang-(1-7) was significantly greater than Ang II (P < 0.001). We suggest that in physiological conditions MO (but also lymphocytes forming the rest of PBMC pool) may be involved in the regulation of vessel wall homeostasis via the RAAS-related mechanisms. Moreover, non-classical MO, which are associated preferentially with the vascular endothelium, express the vasoprotective phenotype. PMID:25707554

  15. Identification of Distinct Monocyte Phenotypes and Correlation with Circulating Cytokine Profiles in Acute Response to Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wan; Vodovotz, Yoram; Kusturiss, Mary B.; Barclay, Derek; Greenwald, Karen; Boninger, Michael L.; Coen, Paul M.; Brienza, David; Sowa, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Macrophage infiltration to the injury site during the acute response to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is not uniform. Macrophage phenotype has been characterized as either pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2). Animal studies suggest that M1/M2 dominance at the site of injury relates to spontaneous recovery following SCI. Objective To investigate whether the phenotype of circulating macrophage precursors-monocytes (MOs), is altered in the acute phase of SCI and corresponds to circulating inflammatory cytokines. Study Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting A single academic medical center in Pennsylvania, US. Patients A cohort of 27 complete or incomplete traumatic SCI subjects enrolled within 7 days post-SCI injury. Methods MO phenotype was defined within the first week post-SCI, using flow cytometry, and compared to historical uninjured controls. Concentrations of 25 cytokines/chemokines were assessed using Luminex in serial blood samples up to two weeks post-SCI. ANOVA was used to determine the correlations between the phenotypes and the cytokine profiles. Results Patients subsets were identified with either M1 dominant or M2 dominant circulating MOs distinct from the uninjured controls. The M1-dominant was associated with higher circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-12p70 and IP-10, and lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-15 and IL-7, whereas the M2-dominant exhibited the opposite cytokine profiles with significantly higher IL-10 and IL-7. Conclusion In the acute phase after SCI, at comparable injury severity, subgroups of patients exhibit distinct M1/M2 MOs dominance and the phenotype is correlated with M1 or M2-specific cytokine/chemokine profiles. Though further studies are needed to determine how these observed phenotypic differences relate to functional recovery, our findings 1) provide the first evidence indicating the possible individual differences in the immune responses to the comparable traumatic SCI, with potential implications for management of acute SCI and rehabilitation; 2) may represent easily accessible biomarkers with prognostic utility. PMID:24140737

  16. Decrease in helper (T4+) lymphocytes following cimetidine treatment for duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Hast, R; Bernell, P; Befrits, R; Dowding, C; Sjgren, A M

    1986-01-01

    We studied the possible in vivo influence of cimetidine on peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) subpopulations defined with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) in eight haematologically normal patients with uncomplicated duodenal ulcers before cimetidine treatment, 1 week after the start, and finally 1 week following cessation of therapy. After cimetidine had been given for 3-5 weeks there was a significant decrease, compared with pretreatment numbers, in the proportion of T3+ cells (64.6 +/- 8.1 (mean +/- s.d.) v 51.0 +/- 7.8%) and in T4+ cells (47.3 +/- 4.3 v 30.8 +/- 4.7%). The number of T8+ cells was not affected (20.3 +/- 4.3 v 20.1 +/- 6.7%). These changes resulted in a significant reduction in the T4/T8 ratio (2.46 +/- 0.8 v 1.67 +/- 0.6). The total numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes as well as the percentage of B1+ lymphocytes did not change significantly. The observed decrease in T4/T8 ratio after cimetidine treatment is explained by a reduction in the number of T4+ cells and the appearance of a new subpopulation of T3-, T4-, T8-, B1-lymphocytes. The underlying mechanism, however, is not clear. Cimetidine does not seem to have a direct receptor-modulating effect, since in vitro exposure of normal lymphocytes to the drug did not change the proportions of the T cell subsets. PMID:2942318

  17. ?? T Lymphocytes Coordinate Eosinophil Influx during Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Henriques, Maria Das Graas Muller; Penido, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Tissue eosinophil infiltration, which is a hallmark of allergic and helminthic diseases, is mainly coordinated by T lymphocytes, via the production of eosinophilotactic chemokines. Among T lymphocyte subsets, lymphocytes expressing ?? T cell receptor have been determined as a key factor for eosinophil accumulation via direct and indirect mechanisms. This knowledge is strongly supported by the fact that, in different experimental models of eosinophilic airway inflammation and helminth-induced Th2 lung inflammation, an evident tissue accumulation of ?? T lymphocytes is observed. In addition, the depletion of ?? T lymphocytes is correlated with the impairment of eosinophil accumulation in inflamed tissue. ?? T lymphocytes are non-conventional T lymphocytes, which comprise a minor T lymphocyte subset, mainly distributed in the tissue, and present crucial roles in innate and acquired immune responses. ?? T lymphocytes recognize several danger- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules and stress antigens in a MHC-independent fashion and can provide rapid tissue-specific responses, via the production of a wide range of chemical mediators capable to modulate other cell populations. These mediators include chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines that attract eosinophils into the tissue by either direct recognition (such as IL-5, CCL11/eotaxin), or indirect mechanisms via the modulation of ?? T lymphocytes and macrophages (through the production of interferon-?, IL-4, and CCL2/Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1, for example). The present review presents an overview of how ?? T lymphocytes coordinate eosinophil accumulation in allergy, by focusing on their role in airway inflammation and by discussing the involvement of cytokines and chemokines in this phenomenon. PMID:23316161

  18. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lcia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Corra-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andra

    2013-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-? and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-? and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. PMID:23401741

  19. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lcia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Corra-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andra

    2013-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-? and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-? and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. PMID:23401741

  20. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by parainfluenza virus type 3-infected bovine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Basaraba, R J; Brown, P R; Laegreid, W W; Silflow, R M; Evermann, J F; Leid, R W

    1993-01-01

    Lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) or antigen in the presence of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) infected bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) or monocytes, had depressed [3H]thymidine incorporation. This failure of lymphocytes to incorporate radiolabel required live virus, was time dependent and was most pronounced when BAM were infected for 48 hr prior to the addition of lymphocytes. The rate of infection of alveolar macrophages and the release of infectious virus into culture supernatants paralleled suppression of lymphocyte mitogenesis by PIV-3. However, the peak titre of exogenous, live or inactivated virus was not suppressive when added to lymphocyte macrophage cultures just prior to Con A stimulation. Neither the loss of viable alveolar macrophages nor a shift in antigen or mitogen dose response in virally infected cultures could account for the deficit in [3H]thymidine incorporation by lymphocytes. Despite the presence of lymphocyte-associated virus antigen detected by direct immunofluorescence, no increase in PIV-3 titre above baseline was seen from infected lymphocytes, irrespective of mitogen stimulation. Likewise, lymphocytes did not contribute to the extracellular virus pool in lymphocyte-macrophage cultures as the increases in viral titre above basal levels in supernatants were equal to levels released by macrophages alone. The expression of viral antigen on lymphocytes stimulated in the presence of PIV-3-infected BAM suggests a non-productive or abortive infection of lymphocytes mediated through contact with infected macrophages. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8393834

  1. HCV-infected cells and differentiation increase monocyte immunoregulatory galectin-9 production.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Noah M K; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Cheng, Linling; Rosen, Hugo R; Mengshol, John A

    2016-03-01

    The lectin galectin-9 may help establish and maintain chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Galectin-9 is elevated in the liver and sera of hepatitis C virus patients, induces apoptosis of hepatitis C virus-specific T cells, and increases inhibitory regulatory T cells. Kupffer cells stain strongly for galectin-9 protein in hepatitis C virus patients. In the current study, we determined stimuli that induce galectin-9 production by monocytes and macrophages in hepatitis C virus infection. With the use of real-time PCR and flow cytometry, we analyzed galectin-9 mRNA and protein from human monocytes cocultured with hepatitis C virus-infected cells or noninfectious hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon cells. We focused on finding the stimuli for galectin-9 production. Additionally, we measured galectin-9 during monocyte-to-macrophage maturation. Finally, we examined galectin-9 in peripheral monocytes from hepatitis C virus patients using flow cytometry. Galectin-9 mRNA increased 8-fold when primary monocytes were exposed to hepatitis C virus--infected cells. Maximum induction required proximity or contact and did not require IFN-? or hepatitis C virus virions. Coculture of monocytes with subgenomic replicon cells increased galectin-9 5-fold, and purified exosomes from infected cells stimulated galectin-9 production. Stimulation of monocyte TLR3, -7, and -8 increased galectin-9 production. Differentiation of monocytes to macrophages increased galectin-9, and nonclassic monocytes from hepatitis C virus patients had the highest levels of galectin-9. Hepatitis C virus-infected cells stimulated monocytes to produce galectin-9 in close proximity, possibly, in part, as a result of exosomes and endosomal TLRs. Differentiation of monocytes to macrophages increased galectin-9. Nonclassic monocytes from hepatitis C virus patients express the highest galectin-9 levels, suggesting they may contribute to elevated galectin-9 and adaptive immune inhibition in hepatitis C virus infection. PMID:26475932

  2. Hypoxia-inducible C-to-U coding RNA editing downregulates SDHB in monocytes.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Bora E; De Jong, Kitty; Liu, Biao; Wang, Jianmin; Patnaik, Santosh K; Wallace, Paul K; Taggart, Robert T

    2013-01-01

    Background. RNA editing is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can alter the coding sequences of certain genes in response to physiological demands. We previously identified C-to-U RNA editing (C136U, R46X) which inactivates a small fraction of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; mitochondrial complex II) subunit B gene (SDHB) mRNAs in normal steady-state peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). SDH is a heterotetrameric tumor suppressor complex which when mutated causes paraganglioma tumors that are characterized by constitutive activation of hypoxia inducible pathways. Here, we studied regulation, extent and cell type origin of SDHB RNA editing. Methods. We used short-term cultured PBMCs obtained from random healthy platelet donors, performed monocyte enrichment by cold aggregation, employed a novel allele-specific quantitative PCR method, flow cytometry, immunologic cell separation, gene expression microarray, database analysis and high-throughput RNA sequencing. Results. While the editing rate is low in uncultured monocyte-enriched PBMCs (average rate 2.0%, range 0.4%-6.3%, n = 42), it is markedly upregulated upon exposure to 1% oxygen tension (average rate 18.2%, range 2.8%-49.4%, n = 14) and during normoxic macrophage differentiation in the presence of serum (average rate 10.1%, range 2.7%-18.8%, n = 17). The normoxic induction of SDHB RNA editing was associated with the development of dense adherent aggregates of monocytes in culture. CD14-positive monocyte isolation increased the percentages of C136U transcripts by 1.25-fold in normoxic cultures (n = 5) and 1.68-fold in hypoxic cultures (n = 4). CD14-negative lymphocytes showed no evidence of SDHB editing. The SDHB genomic DNA remained wild-type during increased RNA editing. Microarray analysis showed expression changes in wound healing and immune response pathway genes as the editing rate increased in normoxic cultures. High-throughput sequencing of SDHB and SDHD transcripts confirmed the induction of C136U RNA editing in normoxic cultures but showed no additional verifiable coding edits. Analysis of SDHB RNA sequence data from 16 normal human tissues from the Illumina Body Map and from 45 samples representing 23 different cell types from the ENCODE projects confirmed the occurrence of site-specific C136U editing in whole blood (1.7%) and two primary CD14+ monocyte samples (1.9% and 2.6%). In contrast, the other cell types showed an average of 0.2% and 0.1% C136U editing rates in the two databases, respectively. Conclusions. These findings demonstrate that C-to-U coding RNA editing of certain genes is dynamically induced by physiologically relevant environmental factors and suggest that epigenetic downregulation of SDHB by site-specific RNA editing plays a role in hypoxia adaptation in monocytes. PMID:24058882

  3. Hypoxia-inducible C-to-U coding RNA editing downregulates SDHB in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Kitty; Liu, Biao; Wang, Jianmin; Patnaik, Santosh K.; Wallace, Paul K.; Taggart, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. RNA editing is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can alter the coding sequences of certain genes in response to physiological demands. We previously identified C-to-U RNA editing (C136U, R46X) which inactivates a small fraction of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; mitochondrial complex II) subunit B gene (SDHB) mRNAs in normal steady-state peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). SDH is a heterotetrameric tumor suppressor complex which when mutated causes paraganglioma tumors that are characterized by constitutive activation of hypoxia inducible pathways. Here, we studied regulation, extent and cell type origin of SDHB RNA editing. Methods. We used short-term cultured PBMCs obtained from random healthy platelet donors, performed monocyte enrichment by cold aggregation, employed a novel allele-specific quantitative PCR method, flow cytometry, immunologic cell separation, gene expression microarray, database analysis and high-throughput RNA sequencing. Results. While the editing rate is low in uncultured monocyte-enriched PBMCs (average rate 2.0%, range 0.4%6.3%, n = 42), it is markedly upregulated upon exposure to 1% oxygen tension (average rate 18.2%, range 2.8%49.4%, n = 14) and during normoxic macrophage differentiation in the presence of serum (average rate 10.1%, range 2.7%18.8%, n = 17). The normoxic induction of SDHB RNA editing was associated with the development of dense adherent aggregates of monocytes in culture. CD14-positive monocyte isolation increased the percentages of C136U transcripts by 1.25-fold in normoxic cultures (n = 5) and 1.68-fold in hypoxic cultures (n = 4). CD14-negative lymphocytes showed no evidence of SDHB editing. The SDHB genomic DNA remained wild-type during increased RNA editing. Microarray analysis showed expression changes in wound healing and immune response pathway genes as the editing rate increased in normoxic cultures. High-throughput sequencing of SDHB and SDHD transcripts confirmed the induction of C136U RNA editing in normoxic cultures but showed no additional verifiable coding edits. Analysis of SDHB RNA sequence data from 16 normal human tissues from the Illumina Body Map and from 45 samples representing 23 different cell types from the ENCODE projects confirmed the occurrence of site-specific C136U editing in whole blood (1.7%) and two primary CD14+ monocyte samples (1.9% and 2.6%). In contrast, the other cell types showed an average of 0.2% and 0.1% C136U editing rates in the two databases, respectively. Conclusions. These findings demonstrate that C-to-U coding RNA editing of certain genes is dynamically induced by physiologically relevant environmental factors and suggest that epigenetic downregulation of SDHB by site-specific RNA editing plays a role in hypoxia adaptation in monocytes. PMID:24058882

  4. Basis for defective responses of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid lymphocytes to anti-CD3 (T3) antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lotz, M; Tsoukas, C D; Robinson, C A; Dinarello, C A; Carson, D A; Vaughan, J H

    1986-01-01

    Synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis characteristically respond poorly to mitogens. In this study, mitogenic antibodies reactive with the CD3(T3) antigen on human T lymphocytes were used to analyze the basis for the deficiency. OKT3-induced proliferation and release of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) from SFMC were depressed in all patients. Purified IL-1 or recombinant IL-2 restored proliferative responses in SFMC and increased IL-2 receptor density. Exogenous IL-1 also enhanced IL-2 release. Fractionation of SFMC supernatants on phosphocellulose columns revealed the presence of IL-1 and a potent IL-1 inhibitor. The monocyte-derived IL-1 inhibitor blocked IL-1-dependent responses of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes to OKT3, but had no effect on IL-2-dependent events. These results suggest that IL-1 inhibitor(s) in SFMC impair(s) OKT3-induced mitogenesis by interfering with the effects of IL-1 on T lymphocytes. The net result is deficient IL-2 secretion, IL-2 receptor expression, and impaired cellular proliferation. This novel inhibitory circuit provides a rational explanation for the diminished function of synovial fluid T lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:3091636

  5. Ly6C(high) monocytes control cerebral toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Aindrila; Bruder, Dunja; Wolf, Susanne A; Jeron, Andreas; Mack, Matthias; Heimesaat, Markus M; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by activation of resident cells and recruitment of immune cells from the periphery to the CNS. In this study, we show that a subset of myeloid cells, namely Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes that infiltrate the brain upon chronic T. gondii infection, plays a decisive role in host defense. Depletion of this monocyte subset resulted in elevated parasite load and decreased survival of infected mice, suggesting their crucial role. Notably, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes governed parasite control due to production of proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, inducible NO synthase, TNF, and reactive oxygen intermediate. Interestingly, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes were also able to produce the regulatory cytokine IL-10, revealing their dual feature. Moreover, we confirmed by adoptive transfer that the recruited monocytes further develop into two distinct subpopulations contributing to parasite control and profound host defense. The differentiated Ly6C(int)CCR2(+)F4/80(int) subset upregulated MHC I and MHC II molecules, suggesting dendritic cell properties such as interaction with T cells, whereas the Ly6C(neg)F4/80(high) cell subset displayed elevated phagocytic capacity while upregulating triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2. Finally, we have shown that the recruitment of Ly6C(high) monocytes to the CNS is regulated by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. These results indicate the critical importance of recruited Ly6C(high) monocytes upon cerebral toxoplasmosis and reveal the behavior of further differentiated myeloid-derived mononuclear cell subsets in parasite control and immune regulation of the CNS. PMID:25710908

  6. Buprenorphine decreases the CCL2-mediated chemotactic response of monocytes.

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Loreto; Lopez, Lillie; Che, Fa-Yun; Lim, Jihyeon; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Williams, Dionna W; Nieves, Edward; Calderon, Tina M; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Fiser, Andras; Weiss, Louis; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Berman, Joan W

    2015-04-01

    Despite successful combined antiretroviral therapy, ∼ 60% of HIV-infected people exhibit HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). CCL2 is elevated in the CNS of infected people with HAND and mediates monocyte influx into the CNS, which is critical in neuroAIDS. Many HIV-infected opiate abusers have increased neuroinflammation that may augment HAND. Buprenorphine is used to treat opiate addiction. However, there are few studies that examine its impact on HIV neuropathogenesis. We show that buprenorphine reduces the chemotactic phenotype of monocytes. Buprenorphine decreases the formation of membrane projections in response to CCL2. It also decreases CCL2-induced chemotaxis and mediates a delay in reinsertion of the CCL2 receptor, CCR2, into the cell membrane after CCL2-mediated receptor internalization, suggesting a mechanism of action of buprenorphine. Signaling pathways in CCL2-induced migration include increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and of the junctional protein JAM-A. We show that buprenorphine decreases these phosphorylations in CCL2-treated monocytes. Using DAMGO, CTAP, and Nor-BNI, we demonstrate that the effect of buprenorphine on CCL2 signaling is opioid receptor mediated. To identify additional potential mechanisms by which buprenorphine inhibits CCL2-induced monocyte migration, we performed proteomic analyses to characterize additional proteins in monocytes whose phosphorylation after CCL2 treatment was inhibited by buprenorphine. Leukosialin and S100A9 were identified and had not been shown previously to be involved in monocyte migration. We propose that buprenorphine limits CCL2-mediated monocyte transmigration into the CNS, thereby reducing neuroinflammation characteristic of HAND. Our findings underscore the use of buprenorphine as a therapeutic for neuroinflammation as well as for addiction. PMID:25716997

  7. Ipilimumab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of regulatory T cells ex vivo by nonclassical monocytes in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Romano, Emanuela; Kusio-Kobialka, Monika; Foukas, Periklis G; Baumgaertner, Petra; Meyer, Christiane; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Michielin, Olivier; Weide, Benjamin; Romero, Pedro; Speiser, Daniel E

    2015-05-12

    Enhancing immune responses with immune-modulatory monoclonal antibodies directed to inhibitory immune receptors is a promising modality in cancer therapy. Clinical efficacy has been demonstrated with antibodies blocking inhibitory immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) or PD-1/PD-L1. Treatment with ipilimumab, a fully human CTLA-4-specific mAb, showed durable clinical efficacy in metastatic melanoma; its mechanism of action is, however, only partially understood. This is a study of 29 patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma treated with ipilimumab. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and matched melanoma metastases from 15 patients responding and 14 not responding to ipilimumab by multicolor flow cytometry, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay, and immunohistochemistry. PBMCs and matched tumor biopsies were collected 24 h before (i.e., baseline) and up to 4 wk after ipilimumab. Our findings show, to our knowledge for the first time, that ipilimumab can engage ex vivo Fc?RIIIA (CD16)-expressing, nonclassical monocytes resulting in ADCC-mediated lysis of regulatory T cells (Tregs). In contrast, classical CD14(++)CD16(-) monocytes are unable to do so. Moreover, we show that patients responding to ipilimumab display significantly higher baseline peripheral frequencies of nonclassical monocytes compared with nonresponder patients. In the tumor microenvironment, responders have higher CD68(+)/CD163(+) macrophage ratios at baseline and show decreased Treg infiltration after treatment. Together, our results suggest that anti-CTLA-4 therapy may target Tregs in vivo. Larger translational studies are, however, warranted to substantiate this mechanism of action of ipilimumab in patients. PMID:25918390

  8. Aliphatic alcohols in spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question. PMID:25689949

  9. Carbon Black Particle Exhibits Size Dependent Toxicity in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, G. M.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased levels of particulate air pollution are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Some epidemiologic and toxicological researches suggest ultrafine particles (<100 nm) to be more harmful per unit mass than larger particles. In the present study, the effect of particle size (nano and micro) of carbon black (CB) particle on viability, phagocytosis, cytokine induction, and DNA damage in human monocytes, THP-1 cells, was analysed. The cells were incubated with nanosize (~50 nm) and micron (~500 nm) size of CB particles in a concentration range of 50–800 µg/mL. The parameters like MTT assay, phagocytosis assay, ELISA, gene expression, and DNA analysis were studied. Exposure to nano- and micron-sized CB particles showed size- and concentration dependent decrease in cell viability and significant increase in proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 as well as chemokine IL-8 release. Gene expression study showed upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene while cyclooxygenase-2 gene remained unaffected. Nano CB particles altered the phagocytic capacity of monocytes although micron CB had no significant effect. CB particles did not show any significant effect on DNA of monocytes. The investigations indicate that CB particles in nanosize exhibit higher propensity of inducing cytotoxicity, inflammation, and altered phagocytosis in human monocytes than their micron size. PMID:24669321

  10. Increase of infiltrating monocytes in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chenchen; Pan, Zhiyun; Xia, Juan; Xiong, Yali; Wang, Guiyang; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Jun; Yan, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoping; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating monocytes have been demonstrated to contribute to tissue damage in experimental models of liver injury and fibrosis. However, less is known about monocyte infiltration in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). In the present study, we demonstrated that CD68+ hepatic macrophages and MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies as compared with normal liver tissue. In addition, CLD patients with higher inflammatory grading scores had more CD68+ macrophages and MAC387+ monocytes infiltration in their livers compared to those with lower scores. Significantly more MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were found in the liver tissue of CLD patients with higher fibrotic staging scores compared to those with lower scores. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies. MCP-1 staining scores were significantly positively associated with the numbers of MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes in CLD patients. Taken together, our results demonstrate that infiltrating monocytes may play a pathological role in exacerbating chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD. MCP-1 may be involved in the monocyte infiltration and progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD. PMID:26896599

  11. Modulation of the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in stimulated human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlin-Hansen, L.; Eskeland, T.; Kolset, S.O. )

    1989-09-05

    Proteoglycan biosynthesis was studied in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after exposure to typical activators of the monocyte/macrophage system: interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). By morphological examination, both monocytes and MDM were stimulated by these activators. Treatment with IFN-gamma resulted in a slight decrease in the expression of (35S)chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) in both monocytes and MDM, whereas LPS treatment increased the (35S)CSPG expression 1.8 and 2.2 times, respectively. PMA, in contrast, decreased the CSPG expression 0.4 times in monocytes, whereas MDM were stimulated to increase the biosynthesis 1.9 times. An increase in the sulfate density of the chondroitin sulfate chains was evident following differentiation of monocytes into MDM due to the expression of disulfated disaccharide units of the chondroitin sulfate E type (CS-E). However, monocytes exposed to PMA did also express disaccharides of the chondroitin sulfate E type. Furthermore, the expression of CS-E in MDM was increased 2 times following PMA treatment. An inactive phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-diacetate, did not affect the expression of CS-E in either monocytes or MDM when compared with control cultures, suggesting that protein kinase C-dependent signal pathways may be involved in the regulation of sulfation of CSPG. Exposure to LPS or IFN-gamma did not lead to any changes in the sulfation of the chondroitin sulfate chains.

  12. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  13. Canine distemper virus-induced depletion of uninfected lymphocytes is associated with apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Schobesberger, Martina; Summerfield, Artur; Doherr, Marcus G; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Griot, Christian

    2005-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a negative stranded RNA morbillivirus, causes a multisystemic disease in dogs, which is associated with a severe immune suppression. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of early CDV infection on leukocyte depletion, lymphopenia and virus-induced cell death in dogs infected with a virulent CDV strain. From 10 infected dogs, peripheral blood leukocytes were harvested periodically, phenotyped and analyzed for CDV antigen content and apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide labeling. CDV infection induced a severe CD3+ T cell and CD21+ B cell depletion in all animals at 3 days post-infection (d.p.i.). For dogs with severe distemper, developing virus persistence in the lymphoid tissue and central nervous system, this lymphopenia lasted until the end of the experiment. Increased levels of lymphocyte apoptosis were found at 3 d.p.i., and monocyte apoptosis at 6 d.p.i. This was more prominent in the group of animals with severe distemper. At 3 d.p.i. no leukocyte infection was detectable indicating that the early lymphocyte depletion and apoptosis was not a direct consequence of virus infection. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CDV-induced lymphopenia is an early event and that the degree of lymphocyte depletion correlates with the severity of disease and virus persistence in the lymphoid tissue and central nervous system. PMID:15661329

  14. Human CD14dim Monocytes Patrol and Sense Nucleic Acids and Viruses via TLR7 and TLR8 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cros, Jrme; Cagnard, Nicolas; Woollard, Kevin; Patey, Natacha; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Senechal, Brigitte; Puel, Anne; Biswas, Subhra K.; Moshous, Despina; Picard, Capucine; Jais, Jean-Philippe; D'Cruz, David; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Trouillet, Cline; Geissmann, Frderic

    2010-01-01

    Summary Monocytes are effectors of the inflammatory response to microbes. Human CD14+ monocytes specialize in phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species and secrete inflammatory cytokines in response to a broad range of microbial cues. Here, we have characterized the functions of human monocytes that lack CD14 (CD14dim) and express CD16. CD14dim monocytes were genetically distinct from natural killer cells. Gene expression analyses indicated similarities with murine patrolling Gr1dim monocytes, and they patrolled the endothelium of blood vessels after adoptive transfer, in a lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-dependent manner. CD14dim monocytes were weak phagocytes and did not produce ROS or cytokines in response to cell-surface Toll-like receptors. Instead, they selectively produced TNF-?, IL-1?, and CCL3 in response to viruses and immune complexes containing nucleic acids, via a proinflammatory TLR7-TLR 8-MyD88-MEK pathway. Thus, CD14dim cells are bona fide monocytes involved in the innate local surveillance of tissues and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. PMID:20832340

  15. Increased risk of melanoma in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Lane, Steven W; Green, Adèle C

    2016-04-01

    An increased risk of melanoma has been variously reported in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), analogous with other immunosuppressed populations. To fully assess this association, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence from observational cohort studies. All such longitudinal studies of patients diagnosed with CLL that enabled quantitative assessment of the risk of melanoma compared with the general population were eligible. We identified seven studies from a search of all published literature to July 2014 in Medline, Embase and ISI science citation index databases. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. There was an almost four-fold increase in the risk of melanoma in patients with CLL compared with the general population (pooled standardized incidence ratio 3.88 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08-7.22]), although significant heterogeneity was evident among studies (I=96.0%, Phet<0.001). The risk of melanoma was higher for men with CLL (3.41; 95% CI 1.49-7.80) than women (2.61; 95% CI 1.13-6.01). CLL patients are at high risk of developing melanoma and the magnitude of the risk is higher than that found in other immunosuppressed populations. Our findings suggest that patients with CLL, as they are also at a higher risk of developing the more common skin cancers, would benefit from regular skin examinations. PMID:26630660

  16. Relationship Between Radiation-Induced Apoptosis of T Lymphocytes and Chronic Toxicity in Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated by Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Foro, Palmira; Algara, Manuel; Lozano, Joan; Rodriguez, Nuria; Sanz, Xavier; Torres, Erica; Carles, Joan; Reig, Anna; Membrive, Ismael; Quera, Jaume; Fernandez-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Oscar; Lacruz, Marti; Bellosillo, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the correlation of radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes with late toxicity of prostate cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: 214 patients were prospectively included in the study. Peripheral blood was drawn from patients before treatment and irradiated with 8 Gy. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes that underwent radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Toxicity and mortality were correlated in 198 cases with pretreatment apoptosis and clinical and biological variables by use of a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The mean percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte radiation-induced apoptosis was 28.58% (±14.23) and 50.76% (±18.9), respectively. Genitourinary (GU) toxicity was experienced by 39.9% of patients, while gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was experienced by 19.7%. The probability of development of GU toxicity was nearly doubled (hazard ratio [HR] 1.99, P=.014) in those patients in whom the percentage of in vitro radiation-induced apoptosis of CD4+ T-lymphocytes was ≤28.58%. It was also almost double in patients who received doses ≥50 Gy in 65% of the bladder volume (V65 ≥50) (HR 1.92, P=.048). No correlation was found between GI toxicity and any of the variables studied. The probability of death during follow-up, after adjustment for different variables, was 2.7 times higher in patients with a percentage of CD8+ T lymphocyte apoptosis ≤50.76% (P=.022). Conclusions: In conclusion, our study shows, in the largest prospective cohort of prostate cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, that in vitro radiation-induced apoptosis of CD4+ T lymphocytes assessed before radiation therapy was associated with the probability of developing chronic GU toxicity. In addition, the radiation dose received in the urinary bladder (V65 ≥50) affected the occurrence of GU toxicity. Finally, we also demonstrate that radiation-induced apoptosis of CD8+ T lymphocytes was associated with overall survival, although larger series are needed to confirm this finding.

  17. Hydrodynamic Regulation of Monocyte Inflammatory Response to an Intracellular Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Mareedu, Naresh; Montgomery, Robbie K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic bacterial infections elicit inflammatory response that promotes acute or chronic complications such as sepsis, arthritis or atherosclerosis. Of interest, cells in circulation experience hydrodynamic shear forces, which have been shown to be a potent regulator of cellular function in the vasculature and play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In this study, we have examined the effect of shear forces due to blood flow in modulating the inflammatory response of cells to infection. Using an in vitro model, we analyzed the effects of physiological levels of shear stress on the inflammatory response of monocytes infected with chlamydia, an intracellular pathogen which causes bronchitis and is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We found that chlamydial infection alters the morphology of monocytes and trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6. We also found that the exposure of chlamydia-infected monocytes to short durations of arterial shear stress significantly enhances the secretion of cytokines in a time-dependent manner and the expression of surface adhesion molecule ICAM-1. As a functional consequence, infection and shear stress increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under flow and in the activation and aggregation of platelets. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress enhances the inflammatory response of monocytes to infection, suggesting that mechanical forces may contribute to disease pathophysiology. These results provide a novel perspective on our understanding of systemic infection and inflammation. PMID:21249123

  18. Hydrodynamic regulation of monocyte inflammatory response to an intracellular pathogen.

    PubMed

    Evani, Shankar J; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Mareedu, Naresh; Montgomery, Robbie K; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2011-01-01

    Systemic bacterial infections elicit inflammatory response that promotes acute or chronic complications such as sepsis, arthritis or atherosclerosis. Of interest, cells in circulation experience hydrodynamic shear forces, which have been shown to be a potent regulator of cellular function in the vasculature and play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In this study, we have examined the effect of shear forces due to blood flow in modulating the inflammatory response of cells to infection. Using an in vitro model, we analyzed the effects of physiological levels of shear stress on the inflammatory response of monocytes infected with chlamydia, an intracellular pathogen which causes bronchitis and is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We found that chlamydial infection alters the morphology of monocytes and trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6. We also found that the exposure of chlamydia-infected monocytes to short durations of arterial shear stress significantly enhances the secretion of cytokines in a time-dependent manner and the expression of surface adhesion molecule ICAM-1. As a functional consequence, infection and shear stress increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under flow and in the activation and aggregation of platelets. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress enhances the inflammatory response of monocytes to infection, suggesting that mechanical forces may contribute to disease pathophysiology. These results provide a novel perspective on our understanding of systemic infection and inflammation. PMID:21249123

  19. Comparative studies on cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two organic mercury compounds in lymphocytes and gastric mucosa cells of Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, C.; Barale, R.; Pool-Zobel, B.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Human lymphocytes (HL) as well as lymphocytes (RL), hepatocytes (RH), and gastric mucosa cells (GM) of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated in vitro for 1 h with methylmercury chloride (MMC, 0.5 -4 [mu]g/ml) and dimethylmercury (DMM, 5-40 [mu]g/ml). The cytotoxicity of the two organic mercury compounds was assessed by dye exclusion, and the extent of induced DNA fragmentation was measured with a single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay. Both MMC and DMM induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity in a dose-related manner in HL, RL, and GM. MMC was more effective in causing a significant increase in median DNA migration than DMM at doses yielding approximately the same degree of cytotoxicity. In rat hepatocytes the MMC-induced DNA damage was, however, lower than in the other cells. An analysis of repair kinetics following exposure to 2 [mu]g/ml MMC was carried out in human lymphocytes obtained from an adult male donor. The bulk of DNA repair occurred 90 min after in vitro exposure, and it was about complete by 120 min following cessation of exposure. Finally, in order to have a basis for extrapolating to the human situation, in vivo studies were performed with Sprague-Dawley rats, also assessing the DNA damage and cytotoxicity in the lymphocytes and gastric mucosa cells. These in vivo results after oral exposure may be directly compared to the in vitro data obtained in the same cells. 27 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Characterization of a New Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cell Line for Mechanistic In Vitro and In Vivo Studies Relevant to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hertlein, Erin; Beckwith, Kyle A.; Lozanski, Gerard; Chen, Timothy L.; Towns, William H.; Johnson, Amy J.; Lehman, Amy; Ruppert, Amy S.; Bolon, Brad; Andritsos, Leslie; Lozanski, Arletta; Rassenti, Laura; Zhao, Weiqiang; Jarvinen, Tiina M.; Senter, Leigha; Croce, Carlo M.; Symer, David E.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Heerema, Nyla A.; Byrd, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have yielded substantial progress, however a lack of immortalized cell lines representative of the primary disease has hampered a full understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of new treatments. Here we describe a novel CLL cell line (OSU-CLL) generated by EBV transformation, which displays a similar cytogenetic and immunophenotype observed in the patients CLL (CD5 positive with trisomy 12 and 19). A companion cell line was also generated from the same patient (OSU-NB). This cell line lacked typical CLL characteristics, and is likely derived from the patients normal B cells. In vitro migration assays demonstrated that OSU-CLL exhibits migratory properties similar to primary CLL cells whereas OSU-NB has significantly reduced ability to migrate spontaneously or towards chemokine. Microarray analysis demonstrated distinct gene expression patterns in the two cell lines, including genes on chromosomes 12 and 19, which is consistent with the cytogenetic profile in this cell line. Finally, OSU-CLL was readily transplantable into NOG mice, producing uniform engraftment by three weeks with leukemic cells detectable in the peripheral blood spleen and bone marrow. These studies describe a new CLL cell line that extends currently available models to study gene function in this disease. PMID:24130782

  1. Bovine lymphocytic leukemia: studies of etiology, pathogenesis and mode of transmission. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, D.K.

    1980-06-01

    The primary project objectives are to elucidate the cause(s) and early pathogenesis of the adult form of lymphosarcoma in cattle. This goal is to be accomplished through experimental transmission of the disease. For these studies large quantities of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were propagated in short-term, mitogen stimulated, lymphocyte cultures. Cultures containing abundant BLV particles were pooled (33 liters total) and further processed by continuous flow, density gradient, ultracentrifugation. This higly concentrated, cell free, BLV preparation was then used as inoculum for 12 late stage bovine fetuses (inoculated in utero) and two newborn calves. Extensive monitoring studies have been carrid out on these inoculated animals to detect precancerous changes and to obtain a detailed description of the events preceding the development of lymphosarcoma. These extensive records on lymphosarcoma associated blood parameters have established that all of the inoculated animals became persistently BLV infected. However, after more than five years of incubation, no cases of lymphosarcoma developed. Consequently, during the past seven months, five of these well characterized animals have been subjected to frequent BLV re-exposure in order to study BLV-host interactions in previously infected adults and to potentially accelerate tumor formation in these animals.

  2. Lymphocyte Subsets Show Different Response Patterns to In Vivo Bound Natalizumab—A Flow Cytometric Study on Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Einhaeupl, Max; Oppermann, Katrin; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Wipfler, Peter; Sellner, Johann; Golaszewski, Stefan; Afazel, Shahrzad; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Kraus, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Natalizumab is an effective monoclonal antibody therapy for the treatment of relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and interferes with immune cell migration into the central nervous system by blocking the α4 subunit of very-late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4). Although well tolerated and very effective, some patients still suffer from relapses in spite of natalizumab therapy or from unwanted side effects like progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). In search of a routine-qualified biomarker on the effectiveness of natalizumab therapy we applied flow cytometry and analyzed natalizumab binding to α4 and α4 integrin surface levels on T-cells, B-cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cells from 26 RRMS patients under up to 72 weeks of therapy. Four-weekly infusions of natalizumab resulted in a significant and sustained increase of lymphocyte-bound natalizumab (p<0.001) which was paralleled by a significant decrease in detectability of the α4 integrin subunit on all lymphocyte subsets (p<0.001). We observed pronounced natalizumab accumulations on T and B cells at single measurements in all patients who reported clinical disease activity (n = 4). The natalizumab binding capacity of in vitro saturated lymphocytes collected during therapy was strongly diminished compared to treatment-naive cells indicating a therapy-induced reduction of α4. Summing up, this pilot study shows that flow cytometry is a useful method to monitor natalizumab binding to lymphocytes from RRMS patients under therapy. Investigating natalizumab binding provides an opportunity to evaluate the molecular level of effectiveness of natalizumab therapy in individual patients. In combination with natalizumab saturation experiments, it possibly even provides a means of studying the feasability of patient-tailored infusion intervals. A routine-qualified biomarker on the basis of individual natalizumab saturation on lymphocyte subsets might be an effective tool to improve treatment safety. PMID:22363732

  3. Increased Migratory and Activation Cell Markers of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in an Experimental Model of Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Wagner de Ftima; Brito-Melo, Gustavo Eustquio Alvim; Carneiro, Cludia Martins; Melo, Dirceu de Sousa; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Guimares, Fbio Loureno Tadeu; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Vieira, rica Leandro Marciano; Simes e Silva, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD80 and CD18 in subpopulations of peripheral blood leukocytes and oxidative kidney damage in rats with nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by doxorubicin (Dox) in comparison to control animals at different time points. Male adult Wistar rats were submitted to 24-hour urine and blood collection for biochemical and immunological analysis at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after Dox injection. After euthanasia, the kidneys were removed for histological analysis and the evaluation of oxidative stress. The phenotypic characterization of leukocytes was performed using flow cytometry. Dox-injected animals exhibited increased CD18 expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, NK cells, and monocytes and high CD80 expression in monocytes. Kidney oxidative damage was positively correlated with CD80 expression in monocytes and serum levels of creatinine. These results suggest that phagocytic and cytotoxic cells are preferentially recruited to the tissue injury site, which may contribute to kidney dysfunction in this animal model of NS. The blockade of integrin and costimulatory molecules may provide new therapeutic opportunities for NS. PMID:26063968

  4. Generation of alloreactive cytolytic T lymphocytes by immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of requirements for human cytolytic T-lymphocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, R; Brouwer, M; Rebel, V I; Van Seventer, G A; Miedema, F; Van Lier, R A

    1990-01-01

    Requirements for the induction of human cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity were studied in a monocyte-free T-cell activation system that uses immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as a stimulus. Alloreactive CTL with specificity for HLA-A and -B locus antigens could be demonstrated within 2 days after the initiation of activation. CTL induction in purified T cells initiated by an optimal concentration of immobilized anti-CD3 mAb was not enhanced by the addition of monocytes or exogeneous cytokines, whereas addition of anti-CD25 mAb largely blocked the response. Upon suboptimal anti-CD3 mAb stimulation, addition of recombinant interleukin (rIL)-2, rIL-1 and rIL-4, but not recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or rIL-6, potentiated the development of CTL activity. Finally it was shown that immobilized anti-CD3 mAb induced significant levels of CTL activity in both purified CD4+ and CD8+ cells. This study indicates that the requirement for cytokines in the differentiation of CTL precursors depends on the strength of the activation signal delivered through the T-cell receptor. PMID:2143171

  5. Subcutaneous injections of low doses of humanized anti-CD20 veltuzumab: a phase I study in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kalaycio, Matt E; George Negrea, O; Allen, Steven L; Rai, Kanti R; Abbasi, Rashid M; Horne, Heather; Wegener, William A; Goldenberg, David M

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the potential of subcutaneous (SC) injections with anti-CD20 antibody veltuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 21 patients received 80, 160, or 320 mg injections every 2 weeks × 4 doses (n = 11) or 160 or 320 mg twice-weekly × 16 doses (n = 10). Treatment was well tolerated with only occasional, mild-moderate, transient injection reactions. Lymphocytosis decreased in all patients (maximum decrease, 5-91%), with 12 patients obtaining >50% decreases. Of 14 patients with lymphadenopathy on CT imaging, 5 (36%) achieved 14-61% reductions (sum of perpendicular diameters). By NCI-WG criteria, two patients achieved partial responses (10%). SC veltuzumab appeared active in all dose groups, with no obvious exposure-response relationship, despite cumulative doses ranging from 320-5120 mg. Overall median progression-free survival was 7.7 months; three patients remained progression-free >1 year (2 ongoing at 2-year study completion). These data suggest further studies of SC veltuzumab in CLL are warranted. PMID:26389849

  6. Childhood nephrotic syndrome in relapse is associated with down-regulation of monocyte CD14 expression and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha production.

    PubMed

    Chen, S P; Cheung, W; Heng, C K; Jordan, S C; Yap, H K

    2003-10-01

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a known modulator of monocyte function, down-regulating monocyte surface markers such as CD14 and proinflammatory cytokines. We have shown previously that lymphocyte IL-13 gene expression was up-regulated during relapses in children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). In this study, we examined the monocyte mRNA expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated intracellular production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-8 in children with SRNS during relapse and remission. Additionally, we investigated CD14 mRNA levels, CD14 surface expression and its soluble component (sCD14) in serum. Our results showed that the percentages of TNF-alpha positive monocytes following LPS stimulation were significantly lower in nephrotic children in relapse (64.4 +/- 13.7%) compared to remission (81.6 +/- 9.0%, P < 0.005). This was associated with down-regulation of CD14 mRNA, as well as both membrane and sCD14 in patients with nephrotic relapse (82.9 +/- 10.1% and 1.23 +/- 0.30 micro g/ml, respectively) compared to remission (93.9 +/- 3.2% and 1.77 +/- 0.82 micro g/ml, respectively) (P < 0.003). Although we demonstrated a decrease in LPS-stimulated intracellular production of TNF-alpha in monocytes from patients with nephrotic relapse, we were unable to show a concomitant decrease in mRNA expression during relapses. This could be explained by down-regulation of gene expression at the translational rather than transcriptional level. In conclusion, it is conceivable that up-regulation of T-cell IL-13 production in children with active nephrotic relapse was associated with suppression of monocyte CD14 expression, down-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and could account for the increased susceptibility to bacterial sepsis seen in nephrotic children in active relapse. PMID:12974763

  7. Monocyte/macrophage cytokine activity regulates vascular smooth muscle cell function within a degradable polyurethane scaffold.

    PubMed

    Battiston, K G; Ouyang, B; Labow, R S; Simmons, C A; Santerre, J P

    2014-03-01

    Tissue engineering strategies rely on the ability to promote cell proliferation and migration into porous biomaterial constructs, as well as to support specific phenotypic states of the cells in vitro. The present study investigated the use of released factors from monocytes and their derived macrophages (MDM) and the mechanism by which they regulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) response in a VSMC-monocyte co-culture system within a porous degradable polyurethane (D-PHI) scaffold. VSMCs cultured in monocyte/MDM-conditioned medium (MCM), generated from the culture of monocytes/MDM on D-PHI scaffolds for up to 28 days, similarly affected VSMC contractile marker expression, growth and three-dimensional migration when compared to direct VSMC-monocyte co-culture. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were identified as two cytokines present in MCM, at concentrations that have previously been shown to influence VSMC phenotype. VSMCs cultured alone on D-PHI scaffolds and exposed to MCP-1 (5 ng ml(-1)) or IL-6 (1 ng ml(-1)) for 7 days experienced a suppression in contractile marker expression (with MCP-1 or IL-6) and increased growth (with MCP-1) compared to no cytokine medium supplementation. These effects were also observed in VSMC-monocyte co-culture on D-PHI. Neutralization of IL-6, but not MCP-1, was subsequently shown to decrease VSMC growth and enhance calponin expression for VSMC-monocyte co-cultures on D-PHI scaffolds for 7 days, implying that IL-6 mediates VSMC response in monocyte-VSMC co-cultures. This study highlights the use of monocytes and their derived macrophages in conjunction with immunomodulatory biomaterials, such as D-PHI, as agents for regulating VSMC response, and demonstrates the importance of monocyte/MDM-released factors, such as IL-6 in particular, in this process. PMID:24361424

  8. Homocysteine mediated expression and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaokun; Dai, Jing; Remick, Daniel G; Wang, Xian

    2003-08-22

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are major chemokines for leukocyte trafficking and have been identified in atheromatous plaques. MCP-1 and IL-8 have been found to express mainly by macrophages in human lesion. We undertook this study to determine whether Hcy could induce the secretion of chemokines from human monocytes and, if so, to explore the mediating mechanism. We found that clinically relevant levels of Hcy (10 to 1000 micromol/L) increased the protein secretion and mRNA expression as well as activity of MCP-1 and IL-8 in cultured primary human monocytes. These effects of Hcy were primarily mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NAD(P)H oxidase, because Hcy could upregulate the production of ROS and the inhibitors of protein kinase C, calmodulin, free radical scavengers, or NAD(P)H oxidase abolished Hcy-induced ROS production and MCP-1 and IL-8 secretion in these cells. Furthermore, the inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and nuclear factor-kappaB or the activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) significantly decreased Hcy-induced MCP-1 and IL-8 secretion in these cells. These data indicate that pathophysiological levels of Hcy can alter human monocyte function by upregulating MCP-1 and IL-8 expression and secretion via enhanced formation of intracellular ROS originated from NAD(P)H oxidase source via calmodulin or protein kinase C signaling pathways and that Hcy-induced ROS subsequently activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 and ERK1/2) and nuclear factor-kappaB in a PPARgamma activator-sensitive manner. Thus, activation of PPARgamma may become a therapeutic target for preventing Hcy-induced proatherogenic effects. PMID:12881478

  9. RECOMBINANT CD36 INHIBITS OXLDL-INDUCED ICAM-1-DEPENDENT MONOCYTE ADHESION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key event in atherosclerosis is the interaction between monocytes and endothelial cells. Binding of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) to CD36 on endothelial cells results in activation and subsequent monocyte adhesion. In this study, a recombinant soluble CD36 molecule was expressed to deli...

  10. Phagocytosis-enhancing effect of lactoferrin on bovine peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Szuster-Ciesielska, A; Kamińska, T; Kandefer-Szerszeń, M

    1995-01-01

    The effect of lactoferrin (LF) on in vitro and in vivo phagocytic ability of bovine blood monocytes was studied. It was demonstrated that bovine LF enhanced in vitro phagocytosis of bacteria and ovine erythrocyte-antibody complexes and increased intracellular killing of Staphylococcus albus. Monocytes of colostrum deprived calves, which were intravenously injected with LF, also exhibited elevated phagocytic properties. PMID:9071453

  11. The Blood Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio Correlates with Clinical Status in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    OBrien, Catherine E.; Price, Elvin T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been identified as a potentially useful marker of clinical outcome in disease states with an inflammatory component. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NLR and clinical status in children with cystic fibrosis. Methods This was a retrospective chart review. Data collected included NLR, body mass index, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) while asymptomatic, and during hospitalizations for pulmonary exacerbation. An NLR breakpoint of 3 was used for comparisons of body mass index and FEV1. Results A total of 159 charts were reviewed. An NLR ? 3 was significantly associated with lower body mass index and lower FEV1. NLR during hospitalization was significantly higher than NLR while asymptomatic. NLR measured during the first 3 months of life was negatively correlated with FEV1 at age 12. Conclusion NLR correlates with clinical status in children with cystic fibrosis and may be a useful biomarker in this population. PMID:24098587

  12. Bacterial Ghosts of Escherichia coli Drive Efficient Maturation of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Dar, Pervaiz Ahmad; Appavoo, Elamurugan; Kishore, Subodh; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Ganesh, Kondabattula

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They not only represent a potential platform for development of novel vaccines but also provide a tool for efficient adjuvant and antigen delivery system. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between BGs of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). MoDCs are highly potent antigen-presenting cells and have the potential to act as a powerful tool for manipulating the immune system. We generated bovine MoDCs in vitro from blood monocytes using E. coli expressed bovine GM-CSF and IL-4 cytokines. These MoDCs displayed typical morphology and functions similar to DCs. We further investigated the E. coli BGs to induce maturation of bovine MoDCs in comparison to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We observed the maturation marker molecules such as MHC-II, CD80 and CD86 were induced early and at higher levels in BG stimulated MoDCs as compared to the LPS stimulated MoDCs. BG mediated stimulation induced significantly higher levels of cytokine expression in bovine MoDCs than LPS. Both pro-inflammatory (IL-12 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines were induced in MoDCs after BGs stimulation. We further analysed the effects of BGs on the bovine MoDCs in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). We found the BG-treated bovine MoDCs had significantly (p<0.05) higher capacity to stimulate allogenic T cell proliferation in MLR as compared to the LPS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the E. coli BGs induce a strong activation and maturation of bovine MoDCs. PMID:26669936

  13. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in prostatic hyperplasia and prostate adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucchelli, L.; Loetscher, P.; Kappeler, A.; Uguccioni, M.; Baggiolini, M.; Laissue, J. A.; Mueller, C.

    1996-01-01

    Human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) has been shown to act as a chemokine in the recruitment of monocyte/macrophages during inflammation states. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that MCP-1 is involved in the recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages. In vivo, one of the major cellular sources of MCP-1 are the smooth muscle cells. As MCP-1 gene expression and/or protein production in these cells is not necessarily correlated with the accumulation of inflammatory cells, there might possibly be additional functions of this cytokine. In the present study, we investigated by use of 35S-labeled antisense RNA probes whether the MCP-1 gene is expressed in tissue specimens of benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 13) and specimens of prostate carcinoma (n = 8), both of which are characterized by a prominent fibromuscular stroma and inconspicuous inflammatory infiltrates. MCP-1 transcripts were located in stromal smooth muscle cells and, additionally, in basal cells of benign prostatic glands. In prostate carcinoma, the number of MCP-1 mRNA-expressing cells was significantly less than in benign prostatic hyperplasia. MCP-1 transcripts were located in preserved fibromuscular stroma and in basal cells of entrapped non-neoplastic glands but not in carcinomatous cells. Immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal antibodies raised against MCP-1 revealed strong reactivity in the fibromuscular stroma surrounding both benign and malignant glands. MCP-1 gene expression or immunoreactivity for anti-MCP-1 antibodies was not related to the rare, lymphocytic interstitial infiltrates. The results show that 1) in the absence of significant leukocyte accumulation, it is unlikely that MCP-1 exerts chemotactic functions in the prostate and 2) that MCP-1, in contrast to previous findings in a wide variety of other human neoplasms, is not expressed in carcinomatous cells of the prostate. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8701989

  14. Factors affecting the incidence of genotoxicity biomarkers in peripheral blood lymphocytes: impact on design of biomonitoring studies.

    PubMed

    Battershill, J M; Burnett, K; Bull, S

    2008-11-01

    A review of risk factors affecting background rates of micronuclei and chromosomal aberration (CA) formation in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was undertaken with a view to aiding the interpretation of genotoxicity biomonitoring studies. Both endogenous factors and those due to methodological variation were evaluated. Background variation of other indices of genotoxicity in PBLs (specifically 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and comet assays) were also considered as these data likely reflect overlapping causes of DNA damage and may provide some indicators for future research areas. A number of host risk factors, namely age, gender, smoking, vitamin B(12) and folate status, were identified for which there is strong or sufficient evidence that they impact on background levels of genotoxicity biomarkers. Evaluation of these factors should be routinely included in genotoxicity biomonitoring studies. Although data on the influence of smoking is somewhat inconsistent, because of its known association with cancer and DNA damage, it is also classified as a high-risk factor. A number of other factors were identified for which there is weak or insufficient evidence including alcohol consumption, disease conditions and infections, physical exercise, body mass index and genotype. The review shows that the evaluation of biomonitoring studies of genotoxicity is complex and there is a need to improve study designs by setting an a priori hypothesis, collecting good exposure data and stratifying groups appropriately, using appropriate power calculations before initiating biomonitoring studies, and collecting information on appropriate risk factors. There is a need for further collaborative work and the establishment of centres of excellence on genotoxicity biomonitoring. If these measures are achieved, then it would be possible to use the data from biomonitoring studies in risk assessments to derive risk management measures. PMID:18678752

  15. Acute lymphocytic leukemia mimicking spondyloarthritis in an adolescent: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XU, DANYI; XU, GUANHUA; XU, LIQIN; CAO, HENG; XU, BEI; CHEN, WEIQIAN; SUN, CHUANYIN; YUE, LIHUAN; LIN, JIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the case of an 18-year-old adolescent male exhibiting acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), complicated by the onset of the symptom of sacroiliitis mimicking spondyloarthritis. Atypical features including an enlarged spleen, poor effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy, low levels of hemoglobin, a low platelet count, a low neutrophil count and increased levels of monocytes, indicated the possibility of hematological malignancy. Bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of ALL. The patient received chemotherapy and the symptoms were dramatically relieved. To the best of our knowledge, the current study reports the second published case of a patient with ALL presenting with sacroiliitis. Sacroiliitis as an onset manifestation of ALL may result in misdiagnosis, therefore, a differential diagnosis is essential when atypical features are present.

  16. Periodontitis-activated monocytes/macrophages cause aortic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-? concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-?B activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-? signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-?B/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages. PMID:24893991

  17. Correlation between high density lipoprotein and monocyte subpopulations among stable coronary atherosclerotic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Hai; Liu, Ying-Feng; Wang, Xue-Jun; Liang, Jian-Guang; Liu, Jia-Chao

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a structurally and functionally heterogeneous molecular particle whose function is unclear in atherosclerosis at present. Studies show that small HDL functional imbalance may exist in Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CAD) patients. Monocyte is considered to play an important role in atherosclerosis, in accordance with the expression of superficial CD14 and CD16, it can be divided into three subpopulations. The purpose of this study was to explore the relation between HDL and monocyte subpopulations among CAD patients. We report 90 cases of stable CAD patients and define the monocyte subpopulations as classical monocyte (CD14++CD16-; CM), intermediate monocyte (CD14+CD16+; IM), and non-classical monocyte (CD14+CD16++; NCM); HDL group is measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the small HDL in blood serum has a correlation with proinflammatory NCM in circulation but a negative correction with CM and no relationship with diabetes, saccharify hemoglobin, hypertension, smoking history and taking dose of statins drugs and severity of disease. In conclusion, this study primarily confirms that micromolecule HDL level correlates with the increase of non-classical monocyte subpopulations and decrease of classical monocyte quantity. Thus demonstrates the proinflammatory correlation between micromolecule HDL and internal immunity in the development of stable atherosclerosis. PMID:26629252

  18. Nucleic acid distribution pattern as a possible biomarker for metabolic activities of neoplastic cells: a digitally-aided fluorescence microscopy study on normal and neoplastic lymphocytes of acute and chronic canine lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Isitor, Godwin N; Campbell, Mervyn; Nayak, Shivananda B

    2009-01-01

    Background Metabolic states of neoplastic cells are increasingly being relied upon for diagnostic and prognostic assessment of neoplastic conditions. The nucleic acid distribution pattern of cells in general, in terms of degree of condensation of the nuclear chromatin and overall spread of the nucleic acid within the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, can reflect the metabolic state of the cell. This simple but logical concept appears not be put into consideration to date as numerous attempts are being made towards formulating reliable biomarkers for rapid diagnosis, prognosis and subsequent therapeutic interventions for neoplastic conditions. We comparatively evaluated nucleic acid distribution patterns of normal lymphocytes and neoplastic cells of lymphocytic lineage, employing light and fluorescence microscopy procedures, as well as digital imaging analytical methods. Results The results demonstrate distinctiveness in the pattern of nucleic acid distribution for the normal lymphocytes and three lymphocytic neoplastic cell-types of canine lymphocytic leukemia that are categorized as small, intermediate and large neoplastic lymphocytes. Variably-shaped cytoplasmic processes laden with single-stranded nucleic acids (SSNA) were observed for the small and intermediate-sized neoplastic lymphocytes, compared with large neoplastic lymphocytes and the normal lymphocytes; the latter two categories of cells being virtually devoid of similar processes. Prominent cytoplasmic and nuclear clumps of SSNA, indicative of a higher rate of metabolic activity, were also observed within the neoplastic cells compared with fewer and narrower SSNA of the normal cells. Conclusion The comparative relative increases of SSNA in cytoplasmic processes and other cellular areas of small and intermediate-sized neoplastic lymphocytes is reflective of greater metabolic activity in neoplastic cells in general compared with their normal cellular counterparts. PMID:19432993

  19. Distinct Responses of Human Monocyte Subsets to Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia1

    PubMed Central

    Serbina, Natalya V.; Cherny, Mathew; Shi, Chao; Bleau, Sharon A.; Collins, Nancy H.; Young, James W.; Pamer, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental fungus that causes life-threatening infections in neutropenic patients. In the absence of intact innate immunity, inhaled A. fumigatus spores (conidia) germinate in the lung, forming hyphae that invade blood vessels and disseminate to other tissues. Although macrophages and neutrophils are postulated to provide defense against invasive fungal infection, animal models and human studies suggest that circulating monocytes also contribute to antifungal immunity. Although human monocyte subsets, defined as either CD14+CD16− or CD14+ CD16+, have been extensively characterized, their respective roles during fungal infection remain undefined. We isolated CD14+CD16− and CD14+CD16+ monocytes from healthy allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation donors and compared their ability to phagocytose and inhibit A. fumigatus conidia. Both monocyte subsets efficiently phagocytose conidia, but only CD14+CD16− monocytes inhibit conidial germination yet secrete little TNF. In contrast CD14+CD16+ do not inhibit conidial germination and secrete large amounts of TNF. Although CD14+CD16− and CD14+CD16+ monocytes differ in their response to dormant conidia, responses are similar if conidia are already germinated at the time of monocyte uptake. Our study demonstrates that functional CD14+CD16− and CD14+CD16+ monocytes can be isolated from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation donors and that these subsets differ in their response to A. fumigatus conidia. PMID:19635902

  20. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  1. Inhibition of antigen- and mitogen-induced human lymphocyte proliferation by gold compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, P E; Ziff, M

    1977-01-01

    Gold sodium thiomalate (GST) inhibited in vitro antigen- and mitogen-triggered human lymphocyte DNA synthesis. Inhibition of responsiveness was observed with concentrations of GST equivalent to gold levels found in serum or tissues of patients receiving chrysotherapy, Inhibition was dependent upon the gold ion itself since GST and gold chloride were both inhibitory whereas thiomalic acid was not. Inhibition could not be explained by nonspecific killing of cells or by an alteration in the kinetics of the responses. GST inhibited mitogen-induced proliferation most effectively when present from the initiation of culture and could not inhibit the responsiveness of cells which previously had been activated by concanvalin A. These findings indicated that GST blocked a critical early step in lymphocyte activation. The degree of GST-induced inhibition of proliferation was increased in cultures of cells partially depleted of monocytes. Moreover, inhibition was reversed by supplementation of these cultures with purified monocytes. These observations suggested that GST blocked thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte activation by interfering with a requisite function of the monocyte population in initiating such responses. Prolonged incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with GST resulted in diminished mitogen responsiveness upon subsequent culture in the absence of gold. The addition of fresh monocytes restored responsiveness to these populations. Furthermore, preincubation of purified monocytes with GST rendered them deficient in their ability to support mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation on subsequent culture. These observations indicate that the major effect of GST results from interference with the functional capability of the monocyte population. PMID:838859

  2. Comparison of lymphocyte apoptotic index and qualitative DNA damage in yoga practitioners and breast cancer patients: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Amritanshu; Banerjee, Birendranath; Hosakote, Vadiraja S; Rao, Raghavendra M; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2013-01-01

    Background: Yoga is found to be effective in reducing stress levels and radiation-induced DNA damage, and improving the quality of life, in breast cancer patients. The present study was aimed at comparing the apoptotic index (AI) and DNA damage of advanced yoga practitioners with those of breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional pilot study compared three groups (n = 9 each) of age-matched subjects viz. (1) Carcinoma breast patients in stage II or III undergoing radiation therapy after completing three cycles of chemotherapy; (2) Senior yoga practitioners who were practicing asanas, pranayama and meditation daily for more than 10 years; and (3) Normal healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated, and qualitative DNA damage (QDD) and AI were evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Approximately 500 cells were counted in each case. Number of cells that were normal, undergoing apoptosis, and with DNA damage were categorized and percentages were calculated. Results: Data being normally distributed, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant interaction between groups in AI (P = 0.016) and QDD (P = 0.045). On post-hoc analysis using Scheffe test, AI was significantly lower in non-yoga volunteers as compared with the breast cancer group (P = 0.019) and QDD was significantly lower in yoga practitioners when compared with non-yoga volunteers (P = 0.047). Conclusion: Cellular dysfunction (QDD) requires restorative mechanisms (AI) to restore the system to a balance. The results of this pilot study show trends, which indicate that in ill-health, there is inadequate restorative mechanisms (AI) although dysfunction (QDD) is high. Through regular practice of yoga, cellular dysfunction can be lowered, thus necessitating reduced restorative mechanisms. AI and QDD could also be useful indicators for predicting the three zones of health viz. disease, health, and positive health. PMID:23440089

  3. Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

  4. A Nonclassical Monocyte Phenotype in Peripheral Blood is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Report from an EMIL Subcohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Oeztuerk, S; Kratzer, W; Boehm, B O

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the prototypic hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Our study was designed to investigate the association between NAFLD and alteration in monocyte subsets as hallmark of cardiovascular disease. Seventy-three "Echinococcus Multilocularis and other medical diseases in Leutkirch" (EMIL) population-based cohort participants (mean observation period 11 years) were selected to study their monocyte phenotype by multiparameter flow cytometry. NAFLD was diagnosed using standard ultrasound based criteria excluding other causes of fatty liver disease. Three monocyte subsets ("classical" CD14++?CD16-, "intermediate" CD14++? CD16+, "nonclassical" CD14+CD16++? monocytes), and surface markers (CD36 and CD9) were determined. Classical risk markers covering inflammatory and dysmetabolic characters were also determined. Forty-three out of 73 subjects revealed a stable clinical phenotype, namely 17 subjects revealed NAFLD, whereas 26 subjects showed no fatty liver disease. Compared to the nonfatty liver group, the nonclassical monocyte fraction (p=0.049), total monocyte fraction and count were increased in NAFLD probands (p=0.028, and 0.035, respectively), while classical monocyte fraction (p=0.034) was decreased. Total monocyte fraction, nonclassical monocyte fraction, and waist circumstance were independent risk factors for NAFLD. The nonclassical monocyte fraction and classical monocyte fraction were significantly correlated with waist-to-hip ratio. This pilot long-term follow-up study suggests that nonclassical monocyte fraction and total monocyte fraction might have potential as a prognostic and modifiable biomarker in NFALD patients. This novel marker set might therefore be of interest to monitor druggable inflammatory pathways in individuals with hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25853894

  5. Alterations in calcium metabolism during human monocyte activation

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    Human peripheral blood monocytes have been prepared from plateletpheresis residues by counterflow centrifugal elutriation in sufficient quantities to enable quantitative studies of cell calcium. Kinetic analysis of /sup 45/Ca exchange data in resting monocytes was compatible with a model of cellular calcium containing three exchangeable calcium pools. These pools are thought to represent a putative ectocellular pool, a putative cytoplasmic chelated pool, and a putative organelle sequestered pool. Exposure of monocytes to the plant lectin Con A at a concentration that maximally simulated superoxide production caused an increase in the size and a doubling in the exchange rate of the putative cytoplasmic pool without a change in the other cellular pools. The cytoplasmic ionized calcium, (Ca)/sub i/, measured with the fluorescent probe, Quin 2 rose from a resting level of 83 nM to 165 mN within 30 sec of exposure to Con A. This increase in cytoplasmic calcium preceded the release of superoxide radicals. Calcium transport and calcium ATPase activities were identified and characterized in plasma membrane vesicles prepared from monocytes. Both activities were strictly dependent on ATP and Mg, had a Km/sub Ca/ in the submicromolar range and were stimulated by calmodulin. Thus, it seems that monocyte calcium is in a dynamic steady state that is a balance between efflux and influx rates, and that the activation of these cells results in the transition to a new steady state. The alteration in (Ca)/sub i/ that accompany the new steady state are essential for superoxide production by human monocytes.

  6. Transport of cargo from periphery to brain by circulating monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cintron, Amarallys F; Dalal, Nirjari V; Dooyema, Jeromy; Betarbet, Ranjita; Walker, Lary C

    2015-10-01

    The misfolding and aggregation of the Aβ peptide - a fundamental event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer׳s disease - can be instigated in the brains of experimental animals by the intracranial infusion of brain extracts that are rich in aggregated Aβ. Recent experiments have found that the peripheral (intraperitoneal) injection of Aβ seeds induces Aβ deposition in the brains of APP-transgenic mice, largely in the form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Macrophage-type cells normally are involved in pathogen neutralization and antigen presentation, but under some circumstances, circulating monocytes have been found to act as vectors for the transport of pathogenic agents such as viruses and prions. The present study assessed the ability of peripheral monocytes to transport Aβ aggregates from the peritoneal cavity to the brain. Our initial experiments showed that intravenously delivered macrophages that had previously ingested fluorescent nanobeads as tracers migrate primarily to peripheral organs such as spleen and liver, but that a small number also reach the brain parenchyma. We next injected CD45.1-expressing monocytes from donor mice intravenously into CD45.2-expressing host mice; after 24h, analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and histology confirmed that some CD45.1 monocytes enter the brain, particularly in the superficial cortex and around blood vessels. When the donor monocytes are first exposed to Aβ-rich brain extracts from human AD cases, a subset of intravenously delivered Aβ-containing cells migrate to the brain. These experiments indicate that, in mouse models, circulating monocytes are potential vectors by which exogenously delivered, aggregated Aβ travels from periphery to brain, and more generally support the hypothesis that macrophage-type cells can participate in the dissemination of proteopathic seeds. PMID:26168900

  7. The Monocyte to Macrophage Transition in the Murine Sterile Wound

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Meredith J.; Daley, Jean M.; van Houtte, Olivier; Brancato, Samielle K.; Henry, William L.; Albina, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of wound repair macrophages is incompletely defined and was examined here in sterile wounds using the subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponge implantation model in mice. Phenotypic analysis identified F4/80+Ly6ChiCD64+MerTK monocytes and F4/80+Ly6ClowCD64+MerTK+ macrophages in the wound. Circulating monocytes were the precursors of inflammatory Ly6Chi wound monocytes. Ly6ClowMerTK+ macrophages appeared later, expressed CD206, CD11c, and MHC class II, produced cytokines consistent with repair function, and lacked a gene expression profile compatible with mesenchymal transition or fibroblastic transdifferentiation. Data also demonstrated that Ly6Chi wound cells were precursors of Ly6Clow macrophages, although monocytes did not undergo rapid maturation but rather persisted in the wound as Ly6ChiMerTK cells. MerTK-deficient mice were examined to determine whether MerTK-dependent signals from apoptotic cells regulated the maturation of wound macrophages. MerTK-deficient mice had day 14 cell compositions that resembled more immature wounds, with a smaller proportion of F4/80+ cells and higher frequencies of Ly6G+ neutrophils and Ly6Chi monocytes. The cytokine profile and number of apoptotic cells in day 14 wounds of MerTK-deficient mice was unaffected despite the alterations in cell composition. Overall, these studies identified a differentiation pathway in response to sterile inflammation in which monocytes recruited from the circulation acquire proinflammatory function, persist in the wound, and mature into repair macrophages. PMID:24466192

  8. Microarray analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected monocytes reveals IL26 as a new candidate gene for tuberculosis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Laso, Jos M; Raposo-Garca, Sara; Garca-Garca, Silvia; Diez-Tascn, Cristina; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the activity of monocytes/macrophages, important target cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, might influence tuberculosis progression. With the purpose of identifying candidate genes for tuberculosis susceptibility we infected monocytes from both healthy elderly individuals (a tuberculosis susceptibility group) and elderly tuberculosis patients with M.tuberculosis, and performed a microarray experiment. We detected 78 differentially expressed transcripts and confirmed these results by quantitative PCR of selected genes. We found that monocytes from tuberculosis patients showed similar expression patterns for these genes, regardless of whether they were obtained from younger or older patients. Only one of the detected genes corresponded to a cytokine: IL26, a member of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine family which we found to be down-regulated in infected monocytes from tuberculosis patients. Non-infected monocytes secreted IL-26 constitutively but they reacted strongly to M.tuberculosis infection by decreasing IL-26 production. Furthermore, IL-26 serum concentrations appeared to be lower in the tuberculosis patients. When whole blood was infected, IL-26 inhibited the observed pathogen-killing capability. Although lymphocytes expressed IL26R, the receptor mRNA was not detected in either monocytes or neutrophils, suggesting that the inhibition of anti-mycobacterial activity may be mediated by lymphocytes. Additionally, IL-2 concentrations in infected blood were lower in the presence of IL-26. The negative influence of IL-26 on the anti-mycobacterial activity and its constitutive presence in both serum and monocyte supernatants prompt us to propose IL26 as a candidate gene for tuberculosis susceptibility. PMID:25157980

  9. Monocyte subset accumulation in the human heart following acute myocardial infarction and the role of the spleen as monocyte reservoir

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Anja M.; ter Horst, Ellis N.; Delewi, Ronak; Begieneman, Mark P.V.; Krijnen, Paul A.J.; Hirsch, Alexander; Lavaei, Mehrdad; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Horrevoets, Anton J.; Niessen, Hans W.M.; Piek, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Monocytes are critical mediators of healing following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), making them an interesting target to improve myocardial repair. The purpose of this study was a gain of insight into the source and recruitment of monocytes following AMI in humans. Methods and results Post-mortem tissue specimens of myocardium, spleen and bone marrow were collected from 28 patients who died at different time points after AMI. Twelve patients who died from other causes served as controls. The presence and localization of monocytes (CD14+ cells), and their CD14+CD16 and CD14+CD16+ subsets, were evaluated by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses. CD14+ cells localized at distinct regions of the infarcted myocardium in different phases of healing following AMI. In the inflammatory phase after AMI, CD14+ cells were predominantly located in the infarct border zone, adjacent to cardiomyocytes, and consisted for 85% (7892%) of CD14+CD16 cells. In contrast, in the subsequent post-AMI proliferative phase, massive accumulation of CD14+ cells was observed in the infarct core, containing comparable proportions of both the CD14+CD16 [60% (3167%)] and CD14+CD16+ subsets [40% (3369%)]. Importantly, in AMI patients, of the number of CD14+ cells was decreased by 39% in the bone marrow and by 58% in the spleen, in comparison with control patients (P = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively). Conclusions Overall, this study showed a unique spatiotemporal pattern of monocyte accumulation in the human myocardium following AMI that coincides with a marked depletion of monocytes from the spleen, suggesting that the human spleen contains an important reservoir function for monocytes. PMID:23966310

  10. Monocytes Do Not Transdifferentiate into Proper Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andreas; Ehnert, Sabrina; Schyschka, Lilianna; Buschner, Peter; Kühnl, Andreas; Döbele, Stefan; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Lucke, Martin; Stöckle, Ulrich; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent publications suggested that monocytes might be an attractive cell type to transdifferentiate into various cellular phenotypes. Aim was, therefore, to evaluate the potential of blood monocytes to transdifferentiate into osteoblasts. Monocytes isolated from peripheral blood were subjected to two previously published treatments to obtain unique, multipotent cell fractions, named programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMOs) and monocyte-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (MOMPs). Subsequently, MOMPs and PCMOs were treated with osteogenic differentiation medium (including either vitamin D or dexamethasone) for 14 days. Regarding a variety of surface markers, no differences between MOMPs, PCMOs, and primary monocytes could be detected. The treatment with osteogenic medium neither resulted in loss of hematopoietic markers nor in adoption of mesenchymal phenotype in all cell types. No significant effect was observed regarding the expression of osteogenic transcription factors, bone-related genes, or production of mineralized matrix. Osteogenic medium resulted in activation of monocytes and appearance of osteoclasts. In conclusion, none of the investigated monocyte cell types showed any transdifferentiation characteristics under the tested circumstances. Based on our data, we rather see an activation and maturation of monocytes towards macrophages and osteoclasts. PMID:22623892

  11. Monocytic cell differentiation from band-stage neutrophils under inflammatory conditions via MKK6 activation

    PubMed Central

    Kffel, Ren; Meshcheryakova, Anastasia; Warszawska, Joanna; Hennig, Annika; Wagner, Karin; Jrgl, Almut; Gubi, Daniela; Moser, Doris; Hladik, Anastasiya; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Fischer, Michael B.; van den Berg, Wim; Koenders, Marije; Scheinecker, Clemens; Gesslbauer, Bernhard; Knapp, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    During inflammation, neutrophils are rapidly mobilized from the bone marrow storage pool into peripheral blood (PB) to enter lesional sites, where most rapidly undergo apoptosis. Monocytes constitute a second wave of inflammatory immigrates, giving rise to long-lived macrophages and dendritic cell subsets. According to descriptive immunophenotypic and cell culture studies, neutrophils may directly transdifferentiate into monocytes/macrophages. We provide mechanistic data in human and murine models supporting the existence of this cellular pathway. First, the inflammatory signalinduced MKK6-p38MAPK cascade activates a monocyte differentiation program in human granulocyte colony-stimulating factordependent neutrophils. Second, adoptively transferred neutrophils isolated from G-CSFpretreated mice rapidly acquired monocyte characteristics in response to inflammatory signals in vivo. Consistently, inflammatory signals led to the recruitment of osteoclast progenitor cell potential from ex vivoisolated G-CSFmobilized human blood neutrophils. Monocytic cell differentiation potential was retained in left-shifted band-stage neutrophils but lost in neutrophils from steady-state PB. MKK6-p38MAPK signaling in HL60 model cells led to diminishment of the transcription factor C/EBP?, which enabled the induction of a monocytic cell differentiation program. Gene profiling confirmed lineage conversion from band-stage neutrophils to monocytic cells. Therefore, inflammatory signals relayed by the MKK6-p38MAPK cascade induce monocytic cell differentiation from band-stage neutrophils. PMID:25214442

  12. Fatty acids from VLDL lipolysis products induce lipid droplet accumulation in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    den Hartigh, Laura J; Connolly-Rohrbach, Jaime E; Fore, Samantha; Huser, Thomas R; Rutledge, John C

    2010-01-01

    One mechanism by which monocytes become activated postprandially is by exposure to triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins such as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). VLDL are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) at the blood-endothelial cell interface, releasing free fatty acids. In this study, we examined postprandial monocyte activation in more detail, and found that lipolysis products generated from postprandial VLDL induce the formation of lipid-filled droplets within cultured THP-1 monocytes, characterized by coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy. Organelle-specific stains revealed an association of lipid droplets with the endoplasmic reticulum, confirmed by electron microscopy. Lipid droplet formation was reduced when LpL-released fatty acids were bound by bovine serum albumin, which also reduced cellular inflammation. Furthermore, saturated fatty acids induced more lipid droplet formation in monocytes compared to mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Monocytes treated with postprandial VLDL lipolysis products contained lipid droplets with more intense saturated Raman spectroscopic signals than monocytes treated with fasting VLDL lipolysis products. In addition, we found that human monocytes isolated during the peak postprandial period contain more lipid droplets compared to those from the fasting state, signifying that their development is not limited to cultured cells but also occurs in vivo. In summary, circulating free fatty acids can mediate lipid droplet formation in monocytes and potentially be used as a biomarker to assess an individuals risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:20208007

  13. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals a Role for Epigenetic Reprogramming During Human Monocyte Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Dequina; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Qiongyi; Rudra, Jai; Xu, Feng; Langridge, William; Zhang, Kangling

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells involves mechanisms for activation of the innate immune system in response to inflammatory stimuli, such as pathogen infection and environmental cues. Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play an important role during monocyte differentiation. Complementary to cell surface markers, the characterization of monocytic cell lineages by mass spectrometry based protein/histone expression profiling opens a new avenue for studying immune cell differentiation. Here, we report the application of mass spectrometry and bioinformatics to identify changes in human monocytes during their differentiation into macrophages and dendritic cells. Our data show that linker histone H1 proteins are significantly down-regulated during monocyte differentiation. Although highly enriched H3K9-methyl/S10-phos/K14-acetyl tri-modification forms of histone H3 were identified in monocytes and macrophages, they were dramatically reduced in dendritic cells. In contrast, histone H4 K16 acetylation was found to be markedly higher in dendritic cells than in monocytes and macrophages. We also found that global hyperacetylation generated by the nonspecific histone deacetylase HDAC inhibitor Apicidin induces monocyte differentiation. Together, our data suggest that specific regulation of inter- and intra-histone modifications including H3 K9 methylation, H3 S10 phosphorylation, H3 K14 acetylation, and H4 K16 acetylation must occur in concert with chromatin remodeling by linker histones for cell cycle progression and differentiation of human myeloid cells into macrophages and dendritic cells. PMID:25316709

  14. Neutrophil degranulation differentially modulates phenotype and function of bovine monocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Hussen, Jamal; Koy, Mirja; Petzl, Wolfram; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2016-02-01

    Monocytes and neutrophils are important players in the innate immune response and cooperate during infection and inflammation. In our study we analyzed the effects of neutrophil degranulation products (polymorphonuclear granulocytes degranulation products, PMN-DGP) on the activation, the adhesion and the migration of three bovine monocyte subsets, as well as their effects on monocyte-macrophage differentiation. Cross-linking of surface CD18 molecules on bovine PMN resulted in the release of primary, secondary and tertiary granules as well as of secretory vesicles. PMN-DGP induced a significant Ca(2+)-influx in classical (classical monocytes, cM) and intermediate monocytes (intermediate monocytes, intM) but not in non-classical monocytes (non-classical monocytes, ncM). A selective and up-regulated expression induced by PMN-DGP was only seen for CD11a and CD31 on intM. PMN-DGP induced a selective migration of intM in vitro. The presence of PMN-DGP during the differentiation of cM or intM into macrophages resulted in increased expression of membrane CD163 and reduced expression of MHC-II molecules. PMN-DGP-derived macrophages produced more IL-12 and IL-10 and showed enhanced phagocytosis and ROS production capacities. In conclusion, PMN-DGP selectively attract bovine intM and skew the functional maturation of cM and intM. PMID:26644394

  15. Chemotaxis of large granular lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pohajdak, B.; Gomez, J.; Orr, F.W.; Khalil, N.; Talgoy, M.; Greenberg, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are capable of directed locomotion (chemotaxis) was tested. A population of LGL isolated from discontinuous Percoll gradients migrated along concentration gradients of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP), casein, and C5a, well known chemoattractants for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as interferon-..beta.. and colony-stimulating factor. Interleukin 2, tuftsin, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibronectin were inactive. Migratory responses were greater in Percoll fractions with the highest lytic activity and HNK-1/sup +/ cells. The chemotactic response to f-MLP, casein, and C5a was always greater when the chemoattractant was present in greater concentration in the lower compartment of the Boyden chamber. Optimum chemotaxis was observed after a 1 hr incubation that made use of 12 ..mu..m nitrocellulose filters. LGL exhibited a high degree of nondirected locomotion when allowed to migrate for longer periods (> 2 hr), and when cultured in vitro for 24 to 72 hr in the presence or absence of IL 2 containing phytohemagluttinin-conditioned medium. LGL chemotaxis to f-MLP could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the inactive structural analog CBZ-phe-met, and the RNK tumor line specifically bound f-ML(/sup 3/H)P, suggesting that LGL bear receptors for the chemotactic peptide.

  16. Carcinomatous invasion and lymphocyte infiltration in early esophageal carcinoma with special regard to the basement membrane. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Baba, K; Kuwano, H; Kitamura, K; Sugimachi, K

    1993-06-01

    We examined 24 cases of superficial esophageal carcinoma and evaluated 94 areas, including 43 intra-epithelial (ep), 36 mucosal (m) and 15 submucosal (sm) areas, using the immunohistochemical staining of laminin to detect the basement membrane. The staining pattern was divisible into three patterns, i.e., continuous, fragmentary and defective. Defective patterns were observed in 14%, 53%, and 73% of the ep, m, and sm lesions, respectively (p < 0.01). With regard to the degree of lymphocyte infiltration, 77% of the continuous areas were accompanied by a low lymphocyte infiltration, while 56% of the defective areas were accompanied by dense infiltrations with follicle formation. Lymphocyte infiltration was thus statistically significantly (p < 0.01) more closely associated with the defective areas than with the continuous areas. Furthermore, urokinase-type plasminogen activator was detected immunohistochemically in 11.1% of the defective areas, and in none of the continuous areas. These findings suggested 1) that superficial esophageal carcinoma might progress while destroying the basement membrane, and 2) that as host immune reactions lymphocytes might infiltrate the lesions where the basement membranes were destroyed and cancer cells exposed to the underlying layer. The findings also suggested the possibility that the degradation of the basement membrane might be caused by proteolytic enzymes produced by cancer cells. PMID:8325587

  17. Associations of Circulating Lymphocyte Subpopulations with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-Sectional Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nels C.; Doyle, Margaret F.; de Boer, Ian H.; Huber, Sally A.; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Kronmal, Richard A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distinct lymphocyte subpopulations have been implicated in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and obesity-associated inflammation in mouse models of insulin resistance. Information on the relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes remain limited in human population-based cohort studies. Methods Circulating levels of innate (γδ T, natural killer (NK)) and adaptive immune (CD4+ naive, CD4+ memory, Th1, and Th2) lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 929 free-living participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Cross-sectional relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes (n = 154) and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were evaluated by generalized linear models. Results Each standard deviation (SD) higher CD4+ memory cells was associated with a 21% higher odds of type 2 diabetes (95% CI: 1–47%) and each SD higher naive cells was associated with a 22% lower odds (95% CI: 4–36%) (adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and BMI). Among participants not using diabetes medication, higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations (p<0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity). There were no associations of γδ T, NK, Th1, or Th2 cells with type 2 diabetes, glucose, or insulin. Conclusions A higher degree of chronic adaptive immune activation, reflected by higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells, was positively associated with type 2 diabetes. These results are consistent with a role of chronic immune activation and exhaustion augmenting chronic inflammatory diseases, and support the importance of prospective studies evaluating adaptive immune activation and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26458065

  18. Cytometric analysis of perforin expression in NK cells, CD8+, and CD4+ lymphocytes in children with autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Popko, Katarzyna; Osińska, Iwona; Kucharska, Anna; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-07-01

    Perforin plays an essential role in cytotoxicity of natural killers (NK) and CD8+ lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity of T and NK cells is one of the mechanisms of destruction of cells in Hashimoto's disease (HD). The aim of this study was analysis of the expression of perforin in CD8+, CD4+, and NK cells and cytotoxic abilities of these cells in children with HD compared to healthy controls. The expression of perforin and surface antigens, as well as cytotoxicity were analyzed with a flow cytometry. Lower expression of perforin in CD8+ and NK was found in HD compared to controls (p=0.01; p=0.004). A significant correlation between perforin expression in CD8+ lymphocytes and in NK was observed (p=0.05). The spontaneous cytotoxicity of NK was significantly higher in HD compared to controls (p=0.04). Our results suggest that perforin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:26167976

  19. SLC11A1 is expressed by innate lymphocytes and augments their activation1

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, Jodi F.; Kimmel, Emily; Snyder, Deann T.; Jerome, Maria; Jutila, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    SLC11A1 is a divalent ion transporter formerly known as the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP1) and the Bcg/Lsh/Ity locus. SLC11A1 was thought to be exclusively expressed in monocyte/macrophages and to have roles in phagosome maturation and cell activation. We characterized the expression of SLC11A1 in the majority of human and bovine γδ T cells and NK cells, and in human CD3+CD45RO+ T cells. Consistent with a role for iron-dependent inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases, SLC11A1+ lymphocytes were moreprone to activation and retained tyrosine phosphorylation. Transfection of SLC11A1 into a human γδ T cell-like line rendered the cells more prone to activation. Non-adherent splenocytes from wild type mice expressed significantly greater IFN-γ compared to cells from Sv/129 (SLC11A1−/−) mice. Our data suggest that SLC11A1 has a heretofore unknown role in activation of a large subset of innate lymphocytes that are critical sources of IFN-γ. SLC11A1+ animals have enhanced innate IFN-γ expression in response to Salmonella infection compared to SLC11A1−mice, which includes commonly used inbred laboratory mice. Expression of SLC11A1 in innate lymphocytes and its role in augmenting their activation may account for inconsistencies in studies of innate lymphocytes in different animal models. PMID:23509347

  20. Polyamines in lymphocyte activation

    SciTech Connect

    Canellakis, Z.N.; Marsh, L.L.; Bondy, P.K.

    1987-05-01

    New features of polyamine metabolism have been identified in both the acid-soluble and the acid-insoluble fraction of activated murine splenic lymphocytes. Lymphocytes activated by the B cell mitogen LPS and simultaneously exposed to either 3H-putrescine or /sup 3/H-spermidine show a differential level of metabolism of the two radioactive polyamines. The percent uptake of isotope from the medium is the same for either putrescine or spermidine during the 48 hour activation period. Intracellularly, only 12% of the label take up as putrescine remains as putrescine and the rest is primarily metabolized to spermidine (47%) and spermine (22%). By contrast, 69% of the initial radioactive spermidine remains as spermidine, again a similar percentage is metabolized to spermine (22%), and a small amount appears as putrescine (2.5%). In these studies the authors have demonstrated the presence of two new small radioactive conjugates (5-7%). Radioactive spermidine is 3 times more effective than radioactive putrescine as a precursor of label in acid-insoluble material. Acid-insoluble label derived from putrescine represents 1.8% of the total cell-associated radioactivity whereas that derived from spermidine is 6.0%. HPLC molecular sieving reveals three distinct radioactive macromolecules.

  1. Association between Chemotherapy-Response Assays and Subsets of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Gastric Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Youn; Son, Taeil; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assays (ATP-CRAs) and subsets of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in gastric cancer. Materials and Methods In total, 15 gastric cancer tissue samples were obtained from gastrectomies performed between February 2007 and January 2011. Chemotherapy response assays were performed on tumor cells from these samples using 11 chemotherapeutic agents, including etoposide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, mitomycin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, methotrexate, and cisplatin. TILs in the tissue samples were evaluated using antibodies specific for CD3, CD4, CD8, Foxp3, and Granzyme B. Results The highest cancer cell death rates were induced by etoposide (44.8%), 5-FU (43.1%), and mitomycin (39.9%). Samples from 10 patients who were treated with 5-FU were divided into 5-FU-sensitive and -insensitive groups according to median cell death rate. No difference was observed in survival between the two groups (P=0.216). Only two patients were treated with a chemotherapeutic agent determined by an ATP-CRA and there was no significant difference in overall survival compared with that of patients treated with their physician's choice of chemotherapeutic agent (P=0.105). However, a high number of CD3 TILs was a favorable prognostic factor (P=0.008). Pearson's correlation analyses showed no association between cancer cell death rates in response to chemotherapeutic agents and subsets of TILs. Conclusions Cancer cell death rates in response to specific chemotherapeutic agents were not significantly associated with the distribution of TIL subsets. PMID:26819801

  2. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio as a predictor of systemic inflammation - A cross-sectional study in a pre-admission setting.

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraghavan, Lashmi; Tan, Tze Ping; Mehta, Jigesh; Arekapudi, Anil; Govindarajulu, Arun; Siu, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR)  is an emerging biomarker that is used to predict postoperative mortality and morbidity in cardiac and cancer surgeries. The association of this biomarker with systemic illness and its usefulness in risk assessment of preoperative patients has not been fully elucidated. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of elevated NLR in preoperative patients and to examine the relationship between elevated NLR and the presence of systemic illnesses as well as anaesthesia risk indices such as American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) and the revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) scores.   Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Anaesthesia pre-admission clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Canada Patients: We evaluated 1117 pre-operative patients seen at an anesthesia preadmission clinic. Results: NLR was elevated (>3.3) in 26.6% of target population. In multivariate analysis, congestive cardiac failure, diabetes mellitus and malignancy were independent risk factors predicting raised NLR. After regression analysis, a relationship between NLR and ASA score (Odds Ratio 1.78; 95% CI: 1.42-2.24) and revised cardiac risk index (RCRI, odds ratio 1.33; 95% CI: 1.09-1.64, p-value: 0.0063) was observed. Conclusions:  NLR was elevated (> 3.3) in 26.6% of patients. Congestive cardiac failure and malignancy were two constant predictors of elevated NLR at >3.3 and > 4.5. There was a strong association between NLR and anesthesia risk scoring tools of ASA and RCRI. PMID:26213612

  3. Successful Treatment of Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis with Rifampin

    PubMed Central

    Ajmal, Saira; Hughes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Currently recommended treatment regimens for human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) include doxycycline or tetracycline. Antibiotic susceptibility studies demonstrate that rifampin has in vitro bactericidal activity against Ehrlichia. Case reports have suggested clinical response with rifampin treatment of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). We report the first case of HME successfully treated with rifampin.

  4. Successful Treatment of Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis with Rifampin.

    PubMed

    Abusaada, Khalid; Ajmal, Saira; Hughes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Currently recommended treatment regimens for human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) include doxycycline or tetracycline. Antibiotic susceptibility studies demonstrate that rifampin has in vitro bactericidal activity against Ehrlichia. Case reports have suggested clinical response with rifampin treatment of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). We report the first case of HME successfully treated with rifampin. PMID:26918212

  5. Neutron-induced adaptive response studied in go human lymphocytes using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Gajendiran, N; Tanaka, K; Kumaravel, T S; Kamada, N

    2001-03-01

    This study demonstrates that cells adapted to ionizing radiation developed reduced initial DNA damage when compared to non-adapted cells. The results were obtained by subjecting in vitro irradiated whole blood from 10 healthy volunteers (including 2 A-bomb survivors carrying 1.5-2 Gy in vivo exposure) in an unstimulated condition (G0) using the comet assay. The intensity of DNA damage was assessed by computing the 'tail moment'. Adaptive response (AR) was noticed in only donor 3, as indicated by reduced tail moment when the blood samples received priming + challenging doses over a 4 h interval. The priming dose was either 0.01 Gy 137Cs gamma-rays or 0.0025 Gy 252Cf neutrons. The delivered challenging dose was either 1 Gy 60Co g-rays or 0.25 Gy 252Cf neutrons. The irradiation was conducted using the HIRRAC facility. A prior exposure to 0.0025 Gy 252Cf neutrons nullified the excess tail moment caused by 0.25 Gy neutrons given during a 4 h gap. In a similar way, 0.01 Gy 137Cs gamma-rays offered a cross-adaptive response to the neutron challenging dose. The tail moment of A-bomb survivors after in vitro irradiation was less than that of the age-matched control and, at the same time, was not influenced by the priming dose. An altered subset and the immunological status of blood after A-bomb exposure were cited as possible factors. Because AR can affect the outcome of RBE, its individual variability only emphasizes the need to have individual biodosimetry for better risk assessment, especially in planning for a long space voyage. PMID:11393893

  6. T and B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Potworowski, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    The occurrence of T and B lymphocytes was investigated by immunofluorescence in lymphoid organs of the chicken at different ages, using specific antisera. It was found that T lymphocytes make up most of the thymic cells in 2-week-old chickens and only about one half in chickens of 9 weeks and more. B lymphocytes account for approximately 1/3 of bursal cells in animals from 0 to 9 weeks. T and B lymphocytes in the spleen seem to lose some of their specific antigenicity. PMID:4560741

  7. Antibodies Against Membrane Interleukin 1? Activate Accessory Cells to Stimulate Proliferation of T Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugui, Elsie M.; Almquist, Susan J.

    1990-02-01

    Some monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against interleukin (IL) 1? have been found to activate antigen-presenting cells (APC, human peripheral blood monocytes and B lymphocytes), so that unstimulated T lymphocytes cultured with them are induced to proliferate and secrete IL-2. Control mAbs of the same isotypes and mAbs against IL-11? do not activate APC. In the absence of APC, mAbs against IL-1? do not induce proliferation of T lymphocytes. Mitomycin C-treated activated APC still induce T-cell proliferation. Proliferation of T lymphocytes cannot be induced by culture supernatants and requires contact with APC activated by mAbs against IL-1?. The observations imply that surface membrane IL-1? can function as a triggering molecule on APC, which could play an important role in the initiation of immune responses by T lymphocytes.

  8. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  9. Response of lymphocytes to a mitogenic stimulus during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Several studies were performed that demonstrate that immunological activities of lymphocytes can be affected by spaceflight or by models that attempt to simulate some aspects of weightlessness. Included among these are the responses of lymphocytes to external stimuli such as mitogens and viruses. When cultures of lymphocytes were flown in space, the ability of the lymphocytes to respond to mitogens was inhibited. Similar results were obtained when lymphocytes from astronauts or animals just returned from space were placed into culture immediately upon return to earth, and when models of hypogravity were used. Lymphocytes placed in culture during spaceflights produced enhanced levels of interferon compared to control cultures. When cultures of lymphocytes were prepared for cosmonauts or rodents immediately upon return to earth, interferon production was inhibited. These results suggest that space flight can have profound effects on lymphocyte function, and that effects on isolated cells may be different from that on cells in the whole organism.

  10. Preliminary studies of the effects of psychological stress on circulating lymphocytes analyzed by synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Mejia-Carmona, Gloria Erika; Prez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Cotte, Marine; Martnez-Martnez, Alejandro

    2014-07-15

    Psychological stress is a condition that not only generates behavioral disorders but also disrupts homeostasis and immune activity that can exacerbate or lead to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this work was to study biochemical changes in circulating immune cells from rats under psychological stress by using vibrational spectroscopy. A stress model was used, where exposure to a stressor was repeated for 5 days. Subsequently, circulating lymphocytes were examined for their biomolecular vibrational fingerprints with synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed an increased absorption at the ester lipid region (1720-1755 cm(-1)) in lymphocytes from stressed rats, suggesting lipid peroxidation. Statistical significant changes in wavenumber peak position and absorbance in the nucleic acid region were also observed (915-950 cm(-1) Z-DNA, 1090-1150 cm(-1) symmetric stretching of P-O-C, 1200-1260 cm(-1) asymmetric PO2 and 1570-1510 cm(-1) methylated nucleotides) which suggest a reduction of transcriptional activity in lymphocytes from stressed rat. These results unravel part of the mechanisms by which psychological stress may affect the immune system leading to systemic consequences. PMID:24667417

  11. Preliminary studies of the effects of psychological stress on circulating lymphocytes analyzed by synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Mejia-Carmona, Gloria Erika; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Cotte, Marine; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Psychological stress is a condition that not only generates behavioral disorders but also disrupts homeostasis and immune activity that can exacerbate or lead to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this work was to study biochemical changes in circulating immune cells from rats under psychological stress by using vibrational spectroscopy. A stress model was used, where exposure to a stressor was repeated for 5 days. Subsequently, circulating lymphocytes were examined for their biomolecular vibrational fingerprints with synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed an increased absorption at the ester lipid region (1720-1755 cm-1) in lymphocytes from stressed rats, suggesting lipid peroxidation. Statistical significant changes in wavenumber peak position and absorbance in the nucleic acid region were also observed (915-950 cm-1 Z-DNA, 1090-1150 cm-1 symmetric stretching of Psbnd Osbnd C, 1200-1260 cm-1 asymmetric PO2 and 1570-1510 cm-1 methylated nucleotides) which suggest a reduction of transcriptional activity in lymphocytes from stressed rat. These results unravel part of the mechanisms by which psychological stress may affect the immune system leading to systemic consequences.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide induces the expression of an autocrine prolactin loop enhancing inflammatory response in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolactin from pituitary gland helps maintain homeostasis but it is also released in immune cells where its function is not completely understood. Pleiotropic functions of prolactin (PRL) might be mediated by different isoforms of its receptor (PRLr). Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the eventual synthesis of PRL and PRLr isoforms with the inflammatory response in monocytes. We used THP-1 and monocytes isolated from healthy subjects stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western blot, real time PCR and immunocytochemistry were performed to identify both molecules. The bioactivity of the PRL was assessed using a bioassay and ELISA to detect pro inflammatory cytokines. Results PRLr mRNA and PRL mRNA were synthesized in THP-1 monocytes activated with LPS with peaks of 300-fold and 130-fold, respectively. The long (100 kDa) and the intermediate (50 kDa) isoforms of PRLr and big PRL (60 kDa) were time-dependent upregulated for monocytes stimulated with LPS. This expression was confirmed in monocytes from healthy subjects. The PRLr intermediate isoform and the big PRL were found soluble in the culture media and later in the nucleus in THP-1 monocytes stimulated with LPS. Big PRL released by monocytes showed bioactivity in Nb2 Cells, and both PRL and PRLr, synthesized by monocytes were related with levels of nitrites and proinflammatory citokines. Conclusions Our results suggest the expression of a full-autocrine loop of PRL enhances the inflammatory response in activated monocytes. This response mediated by big PRL may contribute to the eradication of potential pathogens during innate immune response in monocytes but may also contribute to inflammatory disorders. PMID:23731754

  13. Arsenic Exposure Increases Monocyte Adhesion to the Vascular Endothelium, a Pro-Atherogenic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lemari, Catherine A.; Bolt, Alicia M.; Flores Molina, Manuel; Krohn, Regina M.; Smits, Judit E.; Lehoux, Stphanie; Mann, Koren K.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure increases atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unknown. Monocytes, macrophages and platelets play an important role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Circulating monocytes and macrophages bind to the activated vascular endothelium and migrate into the sub-endothelium, where they become lipid-laden foam cells. This process can be facilitated by platelets, which favour monocyte recruitment to the lesion. Thus, we assessed the effects of low-to-moderate arsenic exposure on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, platelet activation and platelet-monocyte interactions. We observed that arsenic induces human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro. These findings were confirmed ex vivo using a murine organ culture system at concentrations as low as 10 ppb. We found that both cell types need to be exposed to arsenic to maximize monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. This adhesion process is specific to monocyte/endothelium interactions. Hence, no effect of arsenic on platelet activation or platelet/leukocyte interaction was observed. We found that arsenic increases adhesion of mononuclear cells via increased CD29 binding to VCAM-1, an adhesion molecule found on activated endothelial cells. Similar results were observed in vivo, where arsenic-exposed mice exhibit increased VCAM-1 expression on endothelial cells and increased CD29 on circulating monocytes. Interestingly, expression of adhesion molecules and increased binding can be inhibited by antioxidants in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data suggest that arsenic might enhance atherosclerosis by increasing monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, a process that is inhibited by antioxidants. PMID:26332580

  14. Effects of Corticosteroids on Human Monocyte Function

    PubMed Central

    Rinehart, John J.; Balcerzak, Stanley P.; Sagone, Arthur L.; LoBuglio, Albert F.

    1974-01-01

    This report examined the effect of corticosteroids in vitro on human peripheral blood monocytes, essential cells in both immune and nonimmune cellular defense mechanisms. Monocyte chemotaxis in response to sera, Escherichia coli filtrate, and lymphokine chemotactic factor was markedly reduced (P < 0.01) by hydrocortisone succinate (HCS) at 16 ?g/ml. Methylprednisolone succinate and unesterified hydrocortisone produced similar impairment of monocyte chemotaxis while two drugs which unmodified do not enter cells, hydrocortisone phosphate (HCP) and cortisone acetate, had no effect on chemotaxis. HCS also significantly impaired monocyte random migration at 16 ?g/ml. Monocyte bactericidal activity was reduced by HCS at 16 ?g/ml (P < 0.01)) but was not affected by HCP even at 120 ?g/ml. In comparison, HCS did not alter granulocyte chemotaxis even at 500 ?g/ml, and bactericidal activity was reduced at 16 ?g/ml (P < 0.01). Monocyte phagocytosis of cryptococci was reduced only 20% (P < 0.05) at 120 ?g/ml. HCS at 120 ?g/ml did not alter monocyte base-line or postphagocytic hexosemonophosphate shunt activity, viability by trypan blue exclusion, adherence to tissue culture flasks, or surface binding of IgG globulin. These corticosteroid-induced defects in monocyte function may contribute to reduced cellular defense during corticosteroid therapy. PMID:4612058

  15. Rat monocytes in a model of combined injury express the OX8 antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaffenberger, W.; Gruber, D.F.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1987-09-01

    We have analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cell preparations from a rat model of combined injury (CI) (whole-body irradiation (500 cGy /sup 60/Co) followed by a thermal injury (20% body surface area, dorsal, scald burn)) for the expression of OX8 antigens. Ficoll-separated mononuclear fractions were labeled with monoclonal antibodies MRC OX8, MRC OX19, W3/13 HLK, or W3/25 for flow cytometric analysis. Combined-injury trauma resulted in decreased mononuclear cells to 6% of normal. This effect was due to the rapid decrease in radiosensitive lymphocytes from 83% to 10%. The relative numbers of monocytes increased from a normal 13% to 70% at day 4 after CI. Labeling of cells with OX8 after CI shifted to a population which was significantly larger in volume than normal lymphocytes. At the same time the mean fluorescence intensity of OX8-positive cells was considerably reduced. With the use of a F(ab) fragment of OX8 as a probe, these results could be partially explained as unspecific binding of the whole molecule of OX8 to Fc receptors expressed by activated monocytes. But, double-labeling and cell-sorting experiments also revealed the expression of OX8 antigens by a subset of OX8+/OX19- monocytes after CI.

  16. Alvocidib in Treating Patients With B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  17. Lenalidomide and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Asymptomatic Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-03

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  18. Lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor synthesis in initial genital herpesvirus infection: correlation with lymphocyte transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, M C; Peterman, G M; Altman, L C; Corey, L; Holmes, K K

    1980-01-01

    Lymphocyte transformation and production of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor in response to herpes simplex virus antigen were studied in 15 patients with initial genital herpes and 10 controls. The patients underwent frequent genital examinations, viral cultures, and weekly immunological studies for a period of 11 weeks. The production of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor was maximal in week 1 of the disease and declined to control levels by week 6. In contrast, lymphocyte transformation was lowest in week 1, reached a maximum by week 4, and declined to control levels by week 11. Production of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor in week 1 was significantly lower in nine patients who developed signs or symptoms of systemic herpes infection than in six who had localized disease. In addition, a marked but transient decline in the production of this lymphokine was observed in patients at the time of clinical recurrence. Virus-specific lymphocyte transformation correlated inversely with the duration of genital pain and lesions and did not correlate with the presence of systemic signs or symptoms. These findings indicate that during initial genital herpes infection the dynamics of lymphocyte transformation and those of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor production are different, and that the generation of this lymphokine is an early component of the cellular immune response in this disease. Furthermore, adequate produce of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor may be important in restricting herpes simplex virus to the genital area and preventing disease recurrence. PMID:6254875

  19. [The effects of PEMF on the activation of human monocytes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoying; Han, Xiaoyu; Wang, Qian; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the activation of human monocytes (THP-1). Cultured THP-1 cells were exposed to PEMF stimulation with radiation of 32Hz or 64Hz respectively, using sinusoidal wave, and 1mT, twice a day, 30 minutes each time, with an interval of 8 hours, for 3 days. Those with 0Hz stimulation served as the controls. Monocytes activation was monitored by measuring both the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) from monocytes and their adhesion to monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs was evaluated by cell counting method. The secretion of MCP-1 from THP-1 cells was detected by ELISA and MCP-1 mRNA expression was assessed by real time quantitative RT-PCR. The data showed that exposure to PEMF with above parameters could significantly inhibit the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs and decrease the MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. The results demonstrated that exposure to PEMF of 1mT, 32Hz or 64Hz for 3 days could significantly inhibit the activation of THP-1 cells. PMID:23016400

  20. Anticancer drug bortezomib increases interleukin-8 expression in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanacora, Shannon; Urdinez, Joaquin; Chang, Tzu-Pei; Vancurova, Ivana

    2015-05-01

    Bortezomib (BZ) is the first clinically approved proteasome inhibitor that has shown remarkable anticancer activity in patients with hematological malignancies. However, many patients relapse and develop resistance; yet, the molecular mechanisms of BZ resistance are not fully understood. We have recently shown that in solid tumors, BZ unexpectedly increases expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8), while it inhibits expression of other NF?B-regulated genes. Since monocytes and macrophages are major producers of IL-8, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that BZ increases the IL-8 expression in human monocytes and macrophages. Here, we show that BZ dramatically increases the IL-8 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated U937 macrophages as well as in unstimulated U937 monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while it inhibits expression of IL-6, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-?. In addition, our results show that the underlying mechanisms involve p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is required for the BZ-induced IL-8 expression. Together, these data suggest that the BZ-increased IL-8 expression in monocytes and macrophages may represent one of the mechanisms responsible for the BZ resistance and indicate that targeting the p38-mediated IL-8 expression could enhance the BZ effectiveness in cancer treatment. PMID:25791477

  1. Reduction of dendritic cells by granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Waitz, Grit; Petermann, Sebastian; Liebe, Stefan; Emmrich, Joerg; Ramlow, Wolfgang

    2008-09-01

    The influence of the granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMCAP) on cell populations participating in mechanisms of tolerance, e.g. dendritic cells (DCs), is still not very clear. In a first step, we aimed to investigate changes in the DC population of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 13) compared to healthy subjects (n = 9). In a second step, we studied the changes in peripheral DCs in a small group of patients with active UC before and after Adacolumn apheresis (n = 7). For this purpose, plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs and their maturation markers CD40, CD80, and CD86 were measured using four-color flow cytometry in the peripheral blood. After apheresis, and in acute flare-ups, we identified a significantly lower number of lymphocytes, plasmacytoid, and myeloid DCs. In conclusion, the additional removal of peripheral DCs by GMCAP, which otherwise would contribute to the inflammatory process in the gut, may lead to a higher tolerogeneic status towards luminal antigens. PMID:18253828

  2. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma involving the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Chist, Marcela; Vrotsos, Elena; Zamora, Carlos; Martinez, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is a neoplasm composed of monomorphic small B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes, forming proliferation centers in tissue infiltrates (Muller-Hermelink HK, Montserrat E, Catovsky D, et al. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, in Swerdlow SH (ed). WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2008, pp. 180-182). We report a case of a 77-year-old man with a medical history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with worsening chest pain over 8 weeks. Imaging studies revealed severe aortic stenosis and moderate mitral regurgitation. He subsequently underwent minimally invasive aortic valve replacement and mitral repair at our institution. Grossly, the specimen consisted of a trileaflet valve with multiple yellow-white focally hemorrhagic and calcified nodules over its surface. Histologically, a lymphocytic infiltrate composed of monotonous small cells with scant cytoplasm was seen as well as calcification and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD20, PAX5, CD5, and CD23. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an immunohistochemically documented chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma to involve a cardiac valve. PMID:22683202

  3. COPD and levels of Hsp70 (HSPA1A) and Hsp27 (HSPB1) in plasma and lymphocytes among coal workers: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiuqing; Xing, Jingcai; Liu, Yuewei; Zhou, Yun; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Zhihong; Han, Wenhui; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2015-05-01

    This case-control study aimed to investigate whether the levels of Hsp70 (HSPA1A) and Hsp27 (HSPB1) in plasma and lymphocytes were associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among coal workers. A total of 76 COPD cases and 48 age-matched healthy controls from a group of coal workers were included. The case group consisted of 35 COPD patients whose condition was complicated with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and 41 COPD patients without CWP. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) in plasma and lymphocytes were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to estimate the association between Hsp levels and COPD risk. Our results showed that plasma Hsp70 and lymphocyte Hsp27 levels were significantly higher and plasma Hsp27 levels were significantly lower in COPD cases than in controls (p < 0.01). No significant differences in lymphocyte Hsp70 levels were found between COPD cases and the matched subjects. Higher plasma Hsp70 levels (odds ratio (OR) = 13.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 5.7-33.5) and lower plasma Hsp27 levels (OR = 4.6, 95 % CI = 2.0-10.5) were significantly associated with an increased risk of COPD after adjusting for confounders. Higher lymphocyte Hsp27 levels were only associated with an increased risk of COPD with CWP (OR = 6.6, 95 % CI = 2.0-22.1) but not with an increased risk of COPD without CWP (OR = 3.0, 95 % CI = 0.9-8.9). Additionally, there were strong joint effects of different Hsps on COPD risk. These results showed that higher levels of plasma Hsp70 and lower levels of plasma Hsp27 might be associated with an increased risk of COPD among coal workers. They may have the potential to serve as monitoring markers for COPD in coal workers. PMID:25620081

  4. Specific human B lymphocyte alloantigens linked to HL-A.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, D L; Abelson, L; Henkart, P; Harris, S D; Amos, D B

    1975-01-01

    Sera, previously found to react specifically with B lymphoid cultured cells, were tested on isolated T and B peripheral blood lymphocytes in a microcytotoxicity assay. Studies were performed on lymphocytes obtained from several large Amish families. The sera used in these studies were cytotoxic to peripheral blood, B lymphocytes, but not cytotoxic to T lymphocytes. The antigens detected followed the inheritance pattern of HL-A haplotypes. The strong linkage disequilibrium with HL-A antigens suggests that genes controlling the expression of B lymphocyte antigens are linked to genes controlling HL-A alloantigens. PMID:1082138

  5. A case-control study of nonrandom distribution of bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in lymphocytes of lung cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Hsu, T C; Annegers, J F; Amos, C I; Fueger, J J; Spitz, M R

    1995-02-01

    We used a case-control study design to determine the association between bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks and the risk of lung cancer in general and by specific histopathological types. Lymphocytes from primary blood cultures of 78 controls and 75 cases with 4 histopathological types of lung cancer were treated with 0.03 unit/ml bleomycin for 5 h, and the frequency of induced chromatid breakage and the locations of the breaks were determined in Q-banded preparations. After adjustment for their length, the larger chromosomes had more breaks than the smaller chromosomes in both cases and controls. The cases had significantly more breaks on chromosomes 4 and 5 than the controls did, with odds ratios (ORs) of 4.9 [95% confidence limits (CL), 2.0, 11.7] and 3.9 (95% CL, 1.6, 9.3), respectively. When the lung cancers were classified by histopathological type, adenocarcinomas had significantly more breaks on chromosomes 4 and 5, with ORs of 3.0 (95% CL, 1.0, 8.7) and 3.5 (95% CL, 1.2, 10.7), respectively. For squamous cell carcinoma, the ORs were significantly elevated for breaks on chromosomes 2, 4, and 5 with ORs of 3.5 (95% CL, 1.0, 11.7), 10.2 (95% CL, 2.5, 41.9), and 7.9 (95% CL, 1.9, 32.8). For small cell carcinoma, breaks on chromosomes 2 and 4 showed significantly increased ORs of 33.2 (95% CL, 2.2, 513.3) and 20.4 (95% CL, 1.7, 250.1), respectively. However, no specific chromatid breaks were detected in cases with large cell carcinoma. When the frequency of chromatid breaks at specific regions was calculated, breaks at 4p14, 4q27, 4q31, 5q21-q22, 5q31, and 5q33 were significantly more common in lung cancer cases than in controls. Lung cancer risk had a dose-response relationship with breaks on chromosomes 4 and 5. Cigarette smoking had a strong interaction with breaks on chromosomes 2, 4, and 5. The findings suggest that the susceptibility of particular chromosome loci to mutagenic damage may be a risk factor for specific types of lung cancer. PMID:7530597

  6. Interleukin-7 induces recruitment of monocytes/macrophages to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongying; Paul, Antoni; Ko, Kerry W.S.; Sheldon, Michael; Rich, Benjamin E.; Terashima, Tomoya; Dieker, Carrie; Cormier, Shelley; Li, Lan; Nour, Elie A.; Chan, Lawrence; Oka, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Aims Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a master regulator of T-cell development and homoeostasis. Increased IL-7 levels are associated with inflammatory diseases. The aims of this study were to determine whether IL-7 is a biomarker for inflammatory conditions or an active participant in atherogenesis. Methods and results Advanced atherosclerotic lesions in Apoe?/? mice were regressed by long-term cholesterol lowering through treatment with a helper-dependent adenovirus expressing apolipoprotein E (n= 610). Using this model, gene expression patterns in the aorta were analysed at an early phase of regression by microarray. After stringent statistical analysis, we found that IL-7 expression is significantly reduced in response to lowering of cholesterol (n= 6). To understand the importance of IL-7 down-regulation for atherosclerotic regression, we studied the effects and mechanisms of action of IL-7 on endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro as well as in vivo. Our major findings are: (i) IL-7 up-regulates cell adhesion molecules and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in ECs and promotes monocyte adhesion to ECs; (ii) this regulation is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT-dependent and -independent activation of NF-?B; (iii) elevation of plasma IL-7 induces recruitment of monocytes/macrophages to endothelium without affecting plasma cholesterol (n= 5, 6); and (4) lack of IL-7 in bone marrow-derived cells reduces migration of monocytes/macrophages to the lesions (n= 5, 6). Conclusion These results suggest that IL-7 inflames endothelium via PI3K/AKT-dependent and -independent activation of NF-?B and recruits monocytes/macrophages to the endothelium, thus playing an active role in atherogenesis. PMID:21804111

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Positive Sera Obtained Shortly after Seroconversion Neutralize Autologous HIV Type 1 Isolates on Primary Macrophages but Not on Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ruppach, Horst; Nara, Peter; Raudonat, Ina; Elanjikal, Ziju; Rbsamen-Waigmann, Helga; Dietrich, Ursula

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of humoral immunity in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As neutralizing activities in HIV-positive sera are rarely detectable earlier than 9 to 12 months after infection using primary lymphocytes as target cells in neutralization assays, humoral immunity is generally thought not to contribute significantly to early virus control in the patients. Besides lymphocytes, cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are known to be important target cells for HIV in vivo during the establishment of the infection. Therefore, we studied the neutralization of early primary HIV isolates by autologous serum samples using primary macrophages as target cells in the neutralization assays. We analyzed neutralizing activities against the autologous HIV-1 isolates in 10 patients' sera taken shortly after seroconversion, both on primary macrophages and, for comparison, on lymphocytes. Viruses were isolated and expanded in primary mixed cultures containing macrophages and lymphocytes in order to avoid selection for one particular cell type. All viruses replicated to different degrees in macrophages and lymphocytes; nine had a nonsyncytium-inducing phenotype, and one was syncytium inducing. The detection of neutralizing antibodies in acute primary HIV infection depended on the target cells used. Confirming previous studies, we did not find neutralizing activities on lymphocytes at this early time point. In contrast, neutralizing activities were detectable in the same sera if primary macrophages were used as target cells. Differences in neutralizing activities on macrophages and lymphocytes were not due to different virus variants being present in the different cell systems, as gp120 sequences derived from both cell types were homogeneous. Neutralization activities on macrophages did not correlate with the amount of ?-chemokines in the sera. As affinity-purified immunoglobulin G preparations from an early patient serum also exhibited neutralization of the autologous virus isolate on primary macrophages, but not on lymphocytes, neutralization is very likely due to antibodies against viral epitopes necessary for infection of macrophages but not for infection of lymphocytes. Our data suggest that, along with cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity may contribute to the reduction of primary viremia in the patient. This was further supported by a certain association between neutralizing antibody titers on macrophages and viral load in the patients. PMID:10823844

  8. slan-defined subsets of CD16-positive monocytes: impact of granulomatous inflammation and M-CSF receptor mutation.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Thomas P; Zawada, Adam M; Frankenberger, Marion; Skokann, Kerstin; Satzl, Anna A; Gesierich, Wolfgang; Schuberth, Madeleine; Levin, Johannes; Danek, Adrian; Rotter, Bjrn; Heine, Gunnar H; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems

    2015-12-10

    Human monocytes are subdivided into classical, intermediate, and nonclassical subsets, but there is no unequivocal strategy to dissect the latter 2 cell types. We show herein that the cell surface marker 6-sulfo LacNAc (slan) can define slan-positive CD14(+)CD16(++) nonclassical monocytes and slan-negative CD14(++)CD16(+) intermediate monocytes. Gene expression profiling confirms that slan-negative intermediate monocytes show highest expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class II genes, whereas a differential ubiquitin signature is a novel feature of the slan approach. In unsupervised hierarchical clustering, the slan-positive nonclassical monocytes cluster with monocytes and are clearly distinct from CD1c(+) dendritic cells. In clinical studies, we show a selective increase of the slan-negative intermediate monocytes to >100 cells per microliter in patients with sarcoidosis and a fivefold depletion of the slan-positive monocytes in patients with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS), which is caused by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor mutations. These data demonstrate that the slan-based definition of CD16-positive monocyte subsets is informative in molecular studies and in clinical settings. PMID:26443621

  9. In Vivo Imaging Reveals a Pioneer Wave of Monocyte Recruitment into Mouse Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Rodero, Mathieu P.; Licata, Fabrice; Poupel, Lucie; Hamon, Pauline; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Combadiere, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system are essential for the correct healing of adult skin wounds, but their specific functions remain ill-defined. The absence of granulation tissue immediately after skin injury makes it challenging to study the role of mononuclear phagocytes at the initiation of this inflammatory stage. To study their recruitment and migratory behavior within the wound bed, we developed a new model for real-time in vivo imaging of the wound, using transgenic mice that express green and cyan fluorescent proteins and specifically target monocytes. Within hours after the scalp injury, monocytes invaded the wound bed. The complete abrogation of this infiltration in monocyte-deficient CCR2?/? mice argues for the involvement of classical monocytes in this process. Monocyte infiltration unexpectedly occurred as early as neutrophil recruitment did and resulted from active release from the bloodstream toward the matrix through microhemorrhages rather than transendothelial migration. Monocytes randomly scouted around the wound bed, progressively slowed down, and stopped. Our approach identified and characterized a rapid and earlier than expected wave of monocyte infiltration and provides a novel framework for investigating the role of these cells during early stages of wound healing. PMID:25272047

  10. In vivo imaging reveals a pioneer wave of monocyte recruitment into mouse skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Rodero, Mathieu P; Licata, Fabrice; Poupel, Lucie; Hamon, Pauline; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Combadiere, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system are essential for the correct healing of adult skin wounds, but their specific functions remain ill-defined. The absence of granulation tissue immediately after skin injury makes it challenging to study the role of mononuclear phagocytes at the initiation of this inflammatory stage. To study their recruitment and migratory behavior within the wound bed, we developed a new model for real-time in vivo imaging of the wound, using transgenic mice that express green and cyan fluorescent proteins and specifically target monocytes. Within hours after the scalp injury, monocytes invaded the wound bed. The complete abrogation of this infiltration in monocyte-deficient CCR2(-/-) mice argues for the involvement of classical monocytes in this process. Monocyte infiltration unexpectedly occurred as early as neutrophil recruitment did and resulted from active release from the bloodstream toward the matrix through microhemorrhages rather than transendothelial migration. Monocytes randomly scouted around the wound bed, progressively slowed down, and stopped. Our approach identified and characterized a rapid and earlier than expected wave of monocyte infiltration and provides a novel framework for investigating the role of these cells during early stages of wound healing. PMID:25272047

  11. Expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 in human monocytes exposed to the mycobacterial cell wall component lipoarabinomannan.

    PubMed

    Vouret-Craviari, V; Cenzuales, S; Poli, G; Mantovani, A

    1997-12-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) is a C-C chemokine which interacts with the CCR1, CCR2 (MCP-1) and CCR3 receptors and has a distinct spectrum of action. The present study was designed to assess whether mycobacterial components were able to induce expression and production of MCP-3 in human monocytes. Mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) induced expression of MCP-3 mRNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The non-mannose-capped version of lipoarabinomannan (AraLAM) was considerably more potent than the mannose-capped version ManLAM or the simpler version phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PLM). Among mononuclear cells, monocytes were responsible for LAM-induced MCP-3 mRNA expression. Whole mycobacteria (Mycobacterium bovis BCG) strongly induced MCP-3 expression. Pretreatment with actinomycin D abolished LAM-induced MCP-3 expression, whereas cycloheximide only partially reduced the expression. LAM-induced MCP-3 expression was associated with the production of immunoreactive PTX3. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-13 inhibited the induction of MCP-3 by LAM. Thus mycobacterial cell wall components induced expression of MCP-3 in human monocytes. MCP-3, a chemokine active on mononuclear phagocytes, NK cells, T cells and dendritic cells, may be relevant to the induction and expression of immunity against mycobacteria. PMID:9417810

  12. Alcohol-induced miR-27a regulates differentiation and M2 macrophage polarization of normal human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Saha, Banishree; Bruneau, Johanna C; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of liver disease characterized by liver inflammation, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, or liver cirrhosis. Immunomodulatory effects of alcohol on monocytes and macrophages contribute to alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol use, an independent risk factor for progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection-mediated liver disease, impairs host defense and alters cytokine production and monocyte/macrophage activation. We hypothesized that alcohol and HCV have synergistic effects on the phenotype and function of monocytes. Our data show that acute alcohol binge drinking in healthy volunteers results in increased frequency of CD16(+) and CD68(+) and M2-type (CD206(+), dendritic cell [DC]-SIGN(+)-expressing and IL-10-secreting) circulating CD14(+) monocytes. Expression of HCV-induced CD68 and M2 markers (CD206 and DC-SIGN) in normal monocytes was further enhanced in the presence of alcohol. The levels of microRNA (miR)-27a was significantly upregulated in monocytes cultured in the presence of alcohol or alcohol and HCV as compared with HCV alone. The functional role of miR-27a in macrophage polarization was demonstrated by transfecting monocytes with an miR-27a inhibitor that resulted in reduced alcohol- and HCV- mediated monocyte activation (CD14 and CD68 expression), polarization (CD206 and DC-SIGN expression), and IL-10 secretion. Overexpression of miR-27a in monocytes enhanced IL-10 secretion via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. We found that miR-27a promoted ERK phosphorylation by downregulating the expression of ERK inhibitor sprouty2 in monocytes. Thus, we identified that sprouty2 is a target of miR-27a in human monocytes. In summary, our study demonstrates the regulatory role of miR-27a in alcohol-induced monocyte activation and polarization. PMID:25716995

  13. Non-Classical Monocytes and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) Correlate with Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in Chronically HIV-1 Infected Adults on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zungsontiporn, Nath; Tello, Raquel R.; Zhang, Guangxiang; Mitchell, Brooks I.; Budoff, Matthew; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Keating, Sheila M.; Norris, Philip J.; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C.; Souza, Scott A.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Chow, Dominic C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent inflammation and immune activation has been hypothesized to contribute to increased prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with chronic HIV infection. In this study, we examined the correlation of peripheral monocyte subsets and soluble biomarkers of inflammation to coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression, as measured by cardiac computed tomography scan. Methods We conducted a longitudinal analysis utilizing baseline data of 78 participants with HIV infection on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Hawaii Aging with HIV-Cardiovascular study who had available baseline monocyte subset analysis as well as CAC measurement at baseline and at 2-year follow up. Monocyte phenotypes were assessed from cryopreserved blood by flow cytometry and plasma was assayed for soluble biomarkers using antibody-coated beads in a high sensitivity Milliplex Luminex platform. Change in CAC over 2 years was analyzed as the primary outcome variable. Results Of all monocyte subsets and biomarkers tested, higher non-classical monocyte percentage (? = 0.259, p = 0.022), interleukin (IL)-6 (? = 0.311, p = 0.012), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (? = 0.524, p = <0.001) were significantly correlated to higher 2-year CAC progression in unadjusted Spearmans correlation. Non-classical monocyte percentage (? = 0.247, p = 0.039), and MCP-1 (? = 0.487, p = <0.001), remained significantly correlated to 2-year CAC progression, while IL-6 was not (? = 0.209, p = 0.120) after adjustment for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, smoking history, and BMI. Conclusion The percentage of non-classical monocytes and plasma MCP-1 levels were independently associated with CAC progression and may be related to the progression of atherosclerosis and increased CVD risk associated with chronic HIV infection on stable ART. PMID:26867220

  14. Phosphatidylinositol response and proliferation of oxidative enzyme-activated human T lymphocytes: suppression by plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Akeson, A.L.; Scupham, D.W.; Harmony, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PI) response and DNA synthesis of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase (NAGO)-stimulated human T lymphocytes are suppressed by low density lipoproteins (LDL). To understand the mechanism of lymphocyte activation more fully, the PI response and DNA synthesis and suppression of these events by LDL in NAGO-stimulated T lymphocytes were characterized. Between 30 min and 6 hr after NAGO stimulation, there was an increase of /sup 32/Pi incorporation into PI without increased incorporation into the phosphorylated forms of PI or into other phospholipids. DNA synthesis as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation depended on the lymphocyte-accessory monocyte ratio and total cell density. Optimal stimulation of the PI response and DNA synthesis occurred at the same concentration of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase. While the PI response was only partially suppressed by LDL with optimal suppression at 10 to 20 micrograms of protein/ml, DNA synthesis was completely suppressed although at much higher LDL concentrations, greater than 100 micrograms protein/ml. As monocyte numbers are increased, LDL suppression of DNA synthesis is decreased. The ability of NAGO to stimulate the PI response and DNA synthesis in a similar way, and the suppression of both events by LDL, suggests the PI response is important for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Stimulation of human T lymphocytes by oxidative mitogens, neuraminidase, and galactose oxidase caused increased phosphatidylinositol metabolism and increased DNA synthesis. Both responses were suppressed by low density lipoproteins.

  15. Acidosis differently modulates the inflammatory program in monocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Anne; Wuling, Hanna; Loppnow, Harald; Fu, Hang; Reime, Sarah; Thews, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, ischemia or the microenvironment of solid tumors is often accompanied by a reduction of extracellular pH (acidosis) that stresses the cells and acts on cellular signaling and transcription. The effect of acidosis on the expression of various inflammatory markers, on functional parameters (migration, phagocytic activity) and on signaling pathways involved was studied in monocytic cells and macrophages. In monocytic cell lines acidosis led to a reduction in expression of most of the inflammatory mediators, namely IL-1, IL-6, TNF-?, MCP-1, COX-2 and osteopontin. In primary human monocytes MCP-1 and TNF-? were reduced but COX-2 and IL-6 were increased. In RAW264.7 macrophage cell line IL-1, COX-2 and iNOS expression was increased, whereas MCP-1 was reduced similar to the effect in monocytic cells. For primary human monocyte-derived macrophages the regulation of inflammatory markers by acidosis depended on activation state, except for the acidosis-induced downregulation of MCP-1 and TNF-?. Acidosis affected functional immune cell behavior when looking at phagocytic activity which was increased in a time-dependent manner, but cellular motility was not changed. Neither ERK1/2 nor CREB signaling was stimulated by the reduction of extracellular pH. However, p38 was activated by acidosis in RAW264.7 cells and this activation was critical for the induction of IL-1, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In conclusion, acidosis may impede the recruitment of immune cells, but fosters inflammation when macrophages are present by increasing the level of COX-2 and iNOS and by functionally forcing up the phagocytic activity. PMID:26499398

  16. On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott I K; Richards, Jennifer M J; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance. PMID:23886969

  17. Retinoic acid selectively inhibits lipopolysaccharide induction of tissue factor gene expression in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Oeth, P; Yao, J; Fan, S T; Mackman, N

    1998-04-15

    Expression of tissue factor (TF) by activated monocytes in several diseases leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced monocyte TF expression is downregulated by the nuclear hormone all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). In this study, we examined the mechanism by which ATRA inhibits monocyte TF expression. We show that ATRA selectively inhibited LPS induction of TF expression in human monocytes and monocytic THP-1 cells without affecting LPS induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Inhibition of TF expression occurred at the level of transcription as determined by nuclear run-on. ATRA did not significantly alter the binding or functional activity of the transcription factors c-Fos/c-Jun and c-Rel/p65, which are required for LPS induction of the TF promoter in monocytic cells. In contrast to the ATRA inhibition of the endogenous TF gene, LPS induction of the cloned TF promoter was not inhibited by ATRA in transiently transfected THP-1 cells. Our results demonstrate that ATRA selectively inhibited LPS-induced TF gene transcription in human monocytic cells by a mechanism that does not involve repression of AP-1- or NF-kappaB-mediated transcription. PMID:9531596

  18. Monocyte cell surface glycosaminoglycans positively modulate IL-4-induced differentiation toward dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    den Dekker, Els; Grefte, Sander; Huijs, Tonnie; ten Dam, Gerdy B; Versteeg, Elly M M; van den Berk, Lieke C J; Bladergroen, Bellinda A; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Figdor, Carl G; Torensma, Ruurd

    2008-03-15

    IL-4 induces the differentiation of monocytes toward dendritic cells (DCs). The activity of many cytokines is modulated by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study, we explored the effect of GAGs on the IL-4-induced differentiation of monocytes toward DCs. IL-4 dose-dependently up-regulated the expression of DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), CD80, CD206, and CD1a. Monocytes stained positive with Abs against heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) B (CSB; dermatan sulfate), but not with Abs that recognize CSA, CSC, and CSE. Inhibition of sulfation of monocyte/DC cell surface GAGs by sodium chlorate reduced the reactivity of sulfate-recognizing single-chain Abs. This correlated with hampered IL-4-induced DC differentiation as evidenced by lower expression of DC-SIGN and CD1a and a decreased DC-induced PBL proliferation, suggesting that sulfated monocyte cell surface GAGs support IL-4 activity. Furthermore, removal of cell surface chondroitin sulfates by chondroitinase ABC strongly impaired IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation, whereas removal of HS by heparinase III had only a weak inhibitory effect. IL-4 bound to heparin and CSB, but not to HS, CSA, CSC, CSD, and CSE. Binding of IL-4 required iduronic acid, an N-sulfate group (heparin) and specific O sulfates (CSB and heparin). Together, these data demonstrate that monocyte cell surface chondroitin sulfates play an important role in the IL-4-driven differentiation of monocytes into DCs. PMID:18322173

  19. Inhibition of the Differentiation of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sguier, Sylvie; Tartour, Eric; Gurin, Coralie; Couty, Ludovic; Lemitre, Mathilde; Lallement, Laetitia; Folliguet, Marysette; Naderi, Samah El; Terme, Magali; Badoual, Ccile; Lafont, Antoine; Coulomb, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs) can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM) from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGF?1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism. PMID:23936476

  20. Exposure of Monocytes to Lipoarabinomannan Promotes Their Differentiation into Functionally and Phenotypically Immature Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Galán, Leslie; Ocaña-Guzmán, Ranferi; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; García-de-Alba, Carolina; Sada-Ovalle, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a lipid virulence factor secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis. LAM can be measured in the urine or serum of tuberculosis patients (TB-patients). Circulating monocytes are the precursor cells of alveolar macrophages and might be exposed to LAM in patients with active TB. We speculated that exposing monocytes to LAM could produce phenotypically and functionally immature macrophages. To test our hypothesis, human monocytes were stimulated with LAM (24–120 hours) and various readouts were measured. The study showed that when monocytes were exposed to LAM, the frequency of CD68+, CD33+, and CD86+ macrophages decreased, suggesting that monocyte differentiation into mature macrophages was affected. Regarding functionality markers, TLR2+ and TLR4+ macrophages also decreased, but the percentage of MMR+ expression did not change. LAM-exposed monocytes generated macrophages that were less efficient in producing proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ; however, their phagocytic capacity was not modified. Taken together, these data indicate that LAM exposure influenced monocyte differentiation and produced poorly functional macrophages with a different phenotype. These results may help us understand how mycobacteria can limit the quality of the innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:26347897

  1. Fluorescent bacterial rosetting of lymphocyte subpopulations. II. Identification of human lymphocyte subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Niemetz, A H; Mayr, W R

    1981-01-01

    In a previous study, fluorochrome-labelled bacteria were found to be a very objective tool to investigate human lymphocyte heterogeneity with regard to bacterial rosette formation. The application of these assay systems (mono-, double- and anti-Ig/bacterial rosetting test) to identify lymphocyte subpopulations is given. PMID:7034372

  2. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Bone Marrow-Derived Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte Production and Survival

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, Stéphanie; Jiang, Wei; Roy, Patrick; Champigny, Camille; LeBlanc, Éric; Morley, Barbara J.; Hao, Junwei; Simard, Alain R.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in immune regulation, and that their activation can protect against inflammatory diseases. Previous data have shown that nicotine diminishes the numbers of peripheral monocytes and macrophages, especially those of the pro-inflammatory phenotype. The goal of the present study was to determine if nicotine modulates the production of bone marrow -derived monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we first found that murine bone marrow cells express multiple nAChR subunits, and that the α7 and α9 nAChRs most predominant subtypes found in immune cells and their precursors. Using primary cultures of murine bone marrow cells, we then determined the effect of nicotine on monocyte colony-stimulating factor and interferon gamma (IFNγ)-induced monocyte production. We found that nicotine lowered the overall number of monocytes, and more specifically, inhibited the IFNγ-induced increase in pro-inflammatory monocytes by reducing cell proliferation and viability. These data suggested that nicotine diminishes the ratio of pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory monocyte produced in the bone marrow. We thus confirmed this hypothesis by measuring cytokine expression, where we found that nicotine inhibited the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-12, while stimulating the secretion of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Finally, nicotine also reduced the number of pro-inflammatory monocytes in the bone marrow of LPS-challenged mice. Overall, our data demonstrate that both α7 and α9 nAChRs are involved in the regulation of pro-inflammatory M1 monocyte numbers. PMID:26925951

  3. Detection and quantification methods of monocyte homing in coronary vasculature with an imaging cryomicrotome.

    PubMed

    Hakimzadeh, Nazanin; van Horssen, Pepijn; van Lier, Monique G J T B; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M; Belterman, Charly; Coronel, Ruben; Piek, Jan J; Verberne, Hein J; Spaan, Jos A E; Siebes, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Cellular imaging modalities are important for revealing the behavior and role of monocytes in response to neovascularization progression in coronary artery disease. In this study we aimed to develop methods for high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging and quantification of monocytes relative to the entire coronary artery network using a novel episcopic imaging modality. In a series of ex vivo experiments, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and CD14+ monocytes were labeled with fluorescent live cell tracker probes and infused into the coronary artery network of excised rat hearts by a Langendorff perfusion method. Coronary arteries were subsequently infused with fluorescent vascular cast material and processed with an imaging cryomicrotome, whereby each heart was consecutively cut (5 ?m slice thickness) and block face imaged at appropriate excitation and emission wavelengths. The resulting image stacks yielded 3D reconstructions of the vascular network and the location of cells administered. Successful detection and quantification of single cells and cell clusters were achieved relative to the coronary network using customized particle detection software. These methods were then applied to an in vivo rabbit model of chronic myocardial ischemia in which autologous monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, labeled with a fluorescent live cell tracker probe and re-infused into the host animal. The processed 3D image stacks revealed homing of monocytes to the ischemic myocardial tissue. Monocytes detected in the ischemic tissue were predominantly concentrated in the mid-myocardium. Vessel segmentation identified coronary collateral connections relative to monocyte localization. This study established a novel imaging platform to efficiently determine the localization of monocytes in relation to the coronary microvascular network. These techniques are invaluable for investigating the role of monocyte populations in the progression of coronary neovascularization in animal models of chronic and sub-acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:25179912

  4. Cellular pharmacokinetics and intracellular activity of the novel peptide deformylase inhibitor GSK1322322 against Staphylococcus aureus laboratory and clinical strains with various resistance phenotypes: studies with human THP-1 monocytes and J774 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Peyrusson, Frdric; Butler, Deborah; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Franoise

    2015-09-01

    GSK1322322 is a peptide deformylase inhibitor active against Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to currently marketed antibiotics. Our aim was to assess the activity of GSK1322322 against intracellular S. aureus using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model and, in parallel, to examine its cellular pharmacokinetics and intracellular disposition. For intracellular activity analysis, we used an established model of human THP-1 monocytes and tested one fully susceptible S. aureus strain (ATCC 25923) and 8 clinical strains with resistance to oxacillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, macrolides, clindamycin, linezolid, or moxifloxacin. Uptake, accumulation, release, and subcellular distribution (cell fractionation) of [(14)C]GSK1322322 were examined in uninfected murine J774 macrophages and uninfected and infected THP-1 monocytes. GSK1322322 demonstrated a uniform activity against the intracellular forms of all S. aureus strains tested, disregarding their resistance phenotypes, with a maximal relative efficacy (E max) of a 0.5 to 1 log10 CFU decrease compared to the original inoculum within 24 h and a static concentration (C s) close to its MIC in broth. Influx and efflux were very fast (<5 min to equilibrium), and accumulation was about 4-fold, with no or a minimal effect of the broad-spectrum eukaryotic efflux transporter inhibitors gemfibrozil and verapamil. GSK1322322 was recovered in the cell-soluble fraction and was dissociated from the main subcellular organelles and from bacteria (in infected cells). The results of this study show that GSK1322322, as a typical novel deformylase inhibitor, may act against intracellular forms of S. aureus. They also suggest that GSK1322322 has the ability to freely diffuse into and out of eukaryotic cells as well as within subcellular compartments. PMID:26169402

  5. Cellular Pharmacokinetics and Intracellular Activity of the Novel Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 against Staphylococcus aureus Laboratory and Clinical Strains with Various Resistance Phenotypes: Studies with Human THP-1 Monocytes and J774 Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Peyrusson, Frédéric; Butler, Deborah; Tulkens, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    GSK1322322 is a peptide deformylase inhibitor active against Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to currently marketed antibiotics. Our aim was to assess the activity of GSK1322322 against intracellular S. aureus using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model and, in parallel, to examine its cellular pharmacokinetics and intracellular disposition. For intracellular activity analysis, we used an established model of human THP-1 monocytes and tested one fully susceptible S. aureus strain (ATCC 25923) and 8 clinical strains with resistance to oxacillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, macrolides, clindamycin, linezolid, or moxifloxacin. Uptake, accumulation, release, and subcellular distribution (cell fractionation) of [14C]GSK1322322 were examined in uninfected murine J774 macrophages and uninfected and infected THP-1 monocytes. GSK1322322 demonstrated a uniform activity against the intracellular forms of all S. aureus strains tested, disregarding their resistance phenotypes, with a maximal relative efficacy (Emax) of a 0.5 to 1 log10 CFU decrease compared to the original inoculum within 24 h and a static concentration (Cs) close to its MIC in broth. Influx and efflux were very fast (<5 min to equilibrium), and accumulation was about 4-fold, with no or a minimal effect of the broad-spectrum eukaryotic efflux transporter inhibitors gemfibrozil and verapamil. GSK1322322 was recovered in the cell-soluble fraction and was dissociated from the main subcellular organelles and from bacteria (in infected cells). The results of this study show that GSK1322322, as a typical novel deformylase inhibitor, may act against intracellular forms of S. aureus. They also suggest that GSK1322322 has the ability to freely diffuse into and out of eukaryotic cells as well as within subcellular compartments. PMID:26169402

  6. Activated T cells induce interleukin-12 production by monocytes via CD40-CD40 ligand interaction.

    PubMed

    Shu, U; Kiniwa, M; Wu, C Y; Maliszewski, C; Vezzio, N; Hakimi, J; Gately, M; Delespesse, G

    1995-04-01

    Previous studies on the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) have shown that it is released, together with other proinflammatory cytokines, shortly after exposure of phagocytic cells to a variety of pathogens. We here report that IL-12 is also released during the recall response to soluble antigen (Ag) devoid of intrinsic adjuvant activity. We show that activated T cells induce the production of IL-12 by monocytes via a mechanism involving the interaction of T cell-associated CD40 ligand with CD40 on monocytes. The data suggest that Ag presentation on monocytes favors the persistence of type 1 responses. PMID:7537673

  7. Comparison between magnetic activated cell sorted monocytes and monocyte adherence techniques for in vitro generation of immature dendritic cells: an Egyptian trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Sahrigy, Sally Ahmed; Talkhan, Hala Ahmed; Rahman, Azza M. Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient antigen presenting cells, which are considered a central component of the immune system for their extraordinary capacity to initiate and modulate the immune responses elicited upon recognition of infectious agents. This has made them a major focus of interest in the conception of immunotherapeutic vaccine strategies. Aim of the study To standardise a protocol for in vitro differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) upon treatment with specific growth factors and to compare two monocyte isolation methods including magnetic activated cell sorted (MACS) monocytes by CD14+ immuno-magnetic beads and monocytes separated by adherence. Material and methods Immature DCs were generated from monocytes of human peripheral blood in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 after in vitro culture for seven days. Cultured cells were stained with surface markers of iDCs: FITC-anti-CD14, PE-anti-CD11c, PE-anti-CD1a, PE-Cy5-anti-HLA-DR, and PE-anti-CD83 for flow cytometry analysis. Results We found that the viability of MACS-DCs was higher than DCs derived from monocytes separated by adherence (median 50 and interquartile range 45-50 vs. 25 and 10-30, respectively; p < 0.001). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the median interquartile percentages of MACS-DCs expressing CD14– was significantly higher compared to the DCs derived from monocytes separated by adherence (median 80.2 and interquartile range 77.7-80.7 vs. 40.2 and 30.4-40.6, respectively; p < 0.001). However, MACS-DCs expressed the same levels of CD11c, CD1a, and HLA-DR as well as CD83 compared to the DCs derived from monocytes separated by adherence with p value > 0.05. Conclusions Both positively selected monocytes and monocytes separated by adherence procedure gave the same results as regards cell surface marker expression, although the DCs purity and viability using MACS separated monocytes were better. PMID:26155179

  8. In vitro production of dendritic cells from human blood monocytes for therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Garderet, L; Cao, H; Salamero, J; Verg, V; Tisserand, E; Scholl, S; Gorin, N C; Lopez, M

    2001-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are promising adjuvants for clinical immunotherapy. Methods to generate in vitro large numbers of functional human DC using either peripheral blood monocytes or CD34(+) pluripotent hematopoietic progenitor cells have been now developed. For this purpose, their in vitro production for further clinical use need to fit good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. In the present review, we give our experience of such a procedure: it includes collection of mononuclear cells by apheresis, separation of monocytes by elutriation, and culture of monocytes with GM-CSF + IL-13 + human serum (autologous patient's serum or AB serum) or in a serum-free medium (AIM V). The characteristics of monocyte-derived DC grown in these various conditions varied mainly regarding their phenotype and their morphology in confocal microscopy, whereas no significant differences were found in their capacity to phagocytize latex particles and to stimulate allogeneic (MLR) or autologous lymphocytes (antigen-presentation tests). The DC were also cryopreserved in bags (either by putting the bags directly in a -80 degrees C mechanical freezer or using a classical liquid nitrogen controlled-rate freezer at -1 degrees C/min) in a solution containing 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) and 2% human albumin in doses of DC available for several infusions. The mean recoveries after freezing and thawing were not statistically different (around 70%). The immunophenotype of DC, as well as the T lymphocyte-stimulating capacity, were not modified by the freezing--thawing procedure. The results obtained demonstrate that the experimental conditions we set up are easily applicable in clinical trials and lead to large numbers of well-defined DC. Clinical trials using DC already published will be discussed. PMID:11522238

  9. Characterization of a human blood monocyte subset with low peroxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Y; Miller, P J; Thurman, G B; Neubauer, R H; Oliver, C; Favilla, T; Beman, J A; Oldham, R K; Stevenson, H C

    1983-01-01

    Two human monocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of healthy donors have been isolated in greater than 90% purity by countercurrent centrifugal elutration and human serum albumin gradients and their functional capabilities have been assessed. We have demonstrated that one subset ("regular" monocytes, RM) showed intense cytoplasmic peroxidase staining and contained substantial peroxidase activity. In contrast, another subset ("intermediate" monocytes, IM) stained poorly for peroxidase and had low peroxidase activity. By electron microscopic analysis combined with peroxidase localization, it was found that IM had fewer peroxidase-positive granules per cell than did RM. IM coelutriated with some lymphocytes and by cell sizing analysis were shown to be slightly smaller than RM. Functional and cytochemical analysis of these subsets indicated that IM had less activity than RM in assays such as accessory cell function for mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and that fewer IM expressed OKM1 antigen and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) receptors on their membranes than did RM. The subset of IM not bearing either the PWM receptor or the OKM1 antigen had very low peroxidase activity. IM also were found to have a greater sensitivity to polyriboinosinic and polyribocytidilic acid (100 micrograms/ml)-induced secretion of interferon. There was no significant difference in the phagocytic capability, the percentage of Fc receptor-positive cells, 5'-nucleotidase activity, DR antigen expression, or the responsiveness to migration inhibitory factor of IM as compared with RM. Furthermore, it was found that the ratio of IM to RM increased after prolonged cytapheresis, which suggests that IM are more mobilizable than RM from the extravascular reservoirs of human monocytes. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:6193141

  10. Ciprofloxacin inhibits advanced glycation end products-induced adhesion molecule expression on human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Mori, S; Takahashi, H K; Liu, K; Wake, H; Zhang, J; Liu, R; Yoshino, T; Nishibori, M

    2010-09-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) subtypes, proteins or lipids that become glycated after exposure to sugars, can induce complications in diabetes. Among the various AGE subtypes, glyceraldehyde-derived AGE (AGE-2) and glycolaldehyde-derived AGE (AGE-3) are involved in inflammation in diabetic patients; monocytes are activated by these AGEs. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluorinated 4-quinolone, is often used clinically to treat infections associated with diabetis due to its antibacterial properties. It also modulates immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) therefore we investigated the involvement of AGEs in these effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 was examined by flow cytometry. The production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and cAMP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by [(3)H]-thymidine uptake. KEY RESULTS CIP induced PGE(2) production in monocytes, irrespective of the presence of AGE-2 and AGE-3, by enhancing COX-2 expression; this led to an elevation of intracellular cAMP in monocytes. Non-selective and selective COX-2 inhibitors, indomethacin and NS398, inhibited CIP-induced PGE(2) and cAMP production. In addition, CIP inhibited AGE-2- and AGE-3-induced expressions of ICAM-1, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 in monocytes, the production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and lymphocyte proliferation in PBMC. Indomethacin, NS398 and a protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, inhibited the actions of CIP. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CIP exerts immunomodulatory activity via PGE(2), implying therapeutic potential of CIP for the treatment of AGE-2- and AGE-3-induced inflammatory responses. PMID:20718752

  11. Ciprofloxacin inhibits advanced glycation end products-induced adhesion molecule expression on human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mori, S; Takahashi, HK; Liu, K; Wake, H; Zhang, J; Liu, R; Yoshino, T; Nishibori, M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) subtypes, proteins or lipids that become glycated after exposure to sugars, can induce complications in diabetes. Among the various AGE subtypes, glyceraldehyde-derived AGE (AGE-2) and glycolaldehyde-derived AGE (AGE-3) are involved in inflammation in diabetic patients; monocytes are activated by these AGEs. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluorinated 4-quinolone, is often used clinically to treat infections associated with diabetis due to its antibacterial properties. It also modulates immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) therefore we investigated the involvement of AGEs in these effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 was examined by flow cytometry. The production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-?, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cAMP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by [3H]-thymidine uptake. KEY RESULTS CIP induced PGE2 production in monocytes, irrespective of the presence of AGE-2 and AGE-3, by enhancing COX-2 expression; this led to an elevation of intracellular cAMP in monocytes. Non-selective and selective COX-2 inhibitors, indomethacin and NS398, inhibited CIP-induced PGE2 and cAMP production. In addition, CIP inhibited AGE-2- and AGE-3-induced expressions of ICAM-1, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 in monocytes, the production of TNF-? and IFN-? and lymphocyte proliferation in PBMC. Indomethacin, NS398 and a protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, inhibited the actions of CIP. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CIP exerts immunomodulatory activity via PGE2, implying therapeutic potential of CIP for the treatment of AGE-2- and AGE-3-induced inflammatory responses. PMID:20718752

  12. Proteomic profiling of lymphocytes in autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytes play important roles in the balance between body defense and noxious agents involved in a number of diseases, e.g. autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer. The proteomic analyses have been applied to identify and validate disease-associated and disease-specific biomarkers for therapeutic strategies of diseases. The proteomic profiles of lymphocytes may provide more information to understand their functions and roles in the development of diseases, although proteomic approaches in lymphocytes are still limited. The present review overviewed the proteomics-based studies on lymphocytes to headlight the proteomic profiles of lymphocytes in diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer, with a special focus on lung diseases. We will explore the potential significance of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets from the current status in proteomic studies of lymphocytes and discuss the value of the currently available proteomic methodologies in the lymphocytes research. PMID:24397796

  13. New therapy via targeting androgen receptor in monocytes/macrophages to battle atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Pang, Haiyan; Wang, Lin; Niu, Yuanjie; Luo, Jie; Chang, Eugene; Sparks, Janet D; Lee, Soo Ok; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-06-01

    The male sex has a higher risk to develop coronary artery diseases, including atherosclerosis. The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in several atherosclerosis-associated cell types, including monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells (ECs), and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but its pathophysiological role in each cell type during the development of atherosclerotic lesions remains unclear. Using the Cre-loxP system, we selectively knocked out AR in these 3 cell types and the resultant AR knockout (ARKO) mice, monocyte/macrophage ARKO, EC-ARKO, and SMC-ARKO, were then crossed with the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice to develop monocyte/macrophage ARKO-LDLR(-/-), EC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-), and SMC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice for the study of atherosclerosis. The results showed that the monocyte/macrophage ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice had reduced atherosclerosis compared with the wild-type-LDLR(-/-) control mice. However, no significant difference was detected in EC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-) and SMC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice compared with wild-type-LDLR(-/-) mice, suggesting that the AR in monocytes/macrophages, and not in ECs and SMCs, plays a major role to promote atherosclerosis. Molecular mechanism dissection suggested that AR in monocytes/macrophages upregulated the tumor necrosis factor-?, integrin ?2, and lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 molecules that are involved in 3 major inflammation-related processes in atherosclerosis, including monocytes/macrophages migration and adhesion to human umbilical vein ECs, and subsequent foam cell formation. Targeting AR via the AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, in wild-type-LDLR(-/-) mice showed similar effects as seen in monocyte/macrophage ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice with little influence on lipid profile. In conclusion, the AR in monocytes/macrophages plays key roles in atherosclerosis and targeting AR with ASC-J9 may represent a new potential therapeutic approach to battle atherosclerosis. PMID:24688120

  14. Increased expression and occupancy of receptors for tumour necrosis factor on blood monocytes from tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cadranel, J; Philippe, C; Philippe, B; Milleron, B; Fouqueray, B; Mayaud, C; Baud, L

    1993-01-01

    Blood monocytes from tuberculosis patients release high amounts of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Because the biological efficiency of TNF-alpha would depend on the expression of TNF-alpha receptors on target cells, we thought to analyse the capacity of blood monocytes from a group of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis to bind 125I-TNF-alpha. We report a slight but not significant enhancement in specific binding of 125I-TNF-alpha on monocytes of 15 consecutively studied patients compared with 10 controls. Per cent cell surface bound and internalized 125I-TNF-alpha was identical in the two groups. To evaluate the receptor occupancy by endogenously generated TNF-alpha, similar experiments were performed after cell exposure to low-pH glycine buffer. Under these conditions, specific binding of 125I-TNF-alpha was significantly higher on tuberculosis monocytes compared with control monocytes. Moreover, the occupancy of TNF-alpha receptors by endogenously generated TNF-alpha that was found to be significantly higher on tuberculosis monocytes than on control monocytes, was directly related to the enhanced capacity of mononuclear cells to generate TNF-alpha in vitro. It normalized after 3 months of antituberculous therapy. Scatchard analysis of the binding data revealed that tuberculosis infection caused a significant increase in high affinity 125I-TNF-alpha binding to monocytes without any significant change in the dissociation constant. Collectively, these results indicate an up-regulation of TNF-alpha generation and binding to blood monocytes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. They provide support to the hypothesis that TNF-alpha is of critical importance in the pathogenesis of this infection. PMID:8403517

  15. Labeling monocytes with gold nanoparticles to track their recruitment in atherosclerosis with computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chhour, Peter; Naha, Pratap C; O'Neill, Sean M; Litt, Harold I; Reilly, Muredach P; Ferrari, Victor A; Cormode, David P

    2016-05-01

    Monocytes are actively recruited from the circulation into developing atherosclerotic plaques. In the plaque, monocytes differentiate into macrophages and eventually form foam cells. Continued accumulation of foam cells can lead to plaque rupture and subsequent myocardial infarction. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is the best modality to image the coronary arteries non-invasively, therefore we have sought to track the accumulation of monocytes into atherosclerotic plaques using CT. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and stabilized with a variety of ligands. Select formulations were incubated with an immortalized monocyte cell line in vitro and evaluated for cytotoxicity, effects on cytokine release, and cell uptake. These data identified a lead formulation, 11-MUDA capped gold nanoparticles, to test for labeling primary monocytes. The formulation did not the affect the viability or cytokine release of primary monocytes and was highly taken up by these cells. Gold labeled primary monocytes were injected into apolipoprotein E deficient mice kept on Western diet for 10 weeks. Imaging was done with a microCT scanner. A significant increase in attenuation was measured in the aorta of mice receiving the gold labeled cells as compared to control animals. Following the experiment, the biodistribution of gold was evaluated in major organs. Additionally, plaques were sectioned and examined with electron microscopy. The results showed that gold nanoparticles were present inside monocytes located within plaques. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using gold nanoparticles as effective cell labeling contrast agents for non-invasive imaging of monocyte accumulation within plaques with CT. PMID:26914700

  16. Human T cell responses against the major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) of Trypanosoma cruzi: role of the multifunctional alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor in antigen presentation by monocytes.

    PubMed

    Morrot, A; Strickland, D K; Higuchi, M de L; Reis, M; Pedrosa, R; Scharfstein, J

    1997-06-01

    Chagas' disease patients (CDP) develop both humoral and cellular immune responses against the major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) from Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we demonstrate that complexes formed by cruzipain and alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) are efficiently internalized by human monocytes, and that this process results in enhanced presentation of cruzipain peptides to CD4+ T cells from CDP. Purified or serum alpha 2M binds to polymorphic cruzipains, but only a fraction of the proteinases become covalently linked. Once bound to alpha 2M, fluorescein-labeled cruzipain (FITC-cruzipain) or [125I]cruzipain were more efficiently internalized by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or monocytes; this effect was abolished by (I) pre-treating the cells with receptor-associated protein (rRAP), a known antagonist the of alpha 2M receptor (alpha 2MR/LRP), and (II) inactivating [125I]cruzipain's active site prior to the reaction with alpha 2M, indicating that the exposure of receptor binding sites on alpha 2M complexes required bait region cleavage. We then sought to determine if the alpha 2MR/LRP-dependent uptake of alpha 2M:cruzipain by monocytes resulted in increased CD4+ T cell responses of PBMC-CDP (n = 13). These effects were only revealed after depletion of CD19+ B lymphocytes from PBMC-CDP; the threshold of T cell stimulation was far lower in cultures stimulated with alpha 2M:cruzipain, as compared to antigen alone. Myocardial specimens from CDP with chronic myocardiopathy (three necropsies) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry with mAb anti-cruzipain or anti-alpha 2MR/LRP (CD81+). Extracellular depots of cruzipain were localized amidst inflammatory mononuclear infiltrates, part of which contained CD91+ macrophage-like cells. Ongoing studies should clarify if T. cruzi cysteinyl proteinases play a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas' heart disease. PMID:9199965

  17. Metabolic and functional stimulation of lymphocytes and macrophages by an Escherichia coli extract (OM-89): in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Van Pham, T; Kreis, B; Corradin-Betz, S; Bauer, J; Maul, J

    1990-04-01

    OM-89, a proteinaceous extract from Escherichia coli with very low endotoxin content, was tested for its capacity to stimulate in vitro cells involved in the immune response. OM-89 induced a marked proliferation of mouse spleen cells; E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at the same concentration as present in OM-89 was totally ineffective. Passage through nylon wool strongly decreased the OM-89-induced effect, suggesting that the responding lymphocytes were of the B lineage. Exposure of bone marrow-derived macrophages to OM-89 promoted glucose oxidation through the hexose monophosphate shunt pathway and the capacity to generate superoxide upon phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation. These effects were not blocked by polymyxin B, whereas this compound completely prevented induction of similar metabolic activation by E. coli lipopolysaccharide. In addition, OM-89 treatment induced marked PMA-dependent superoxide and hydrogen peroxide release by macrophages from the LPS low responder mouse strain C3H/HeJ. Incubation with recombinant murine interferon-gamma and OM-89, but not with either compound alone, led to functional activation, as shown by the killing of tumor target cells, and by the destruction of the intracellular parasite Leishmania enrietti by macrophages of both LPS-responsive and unresponsive mouse strains. These experiments indicate that OM-89 can stimulate metabolic and functional activities of lymphocytes and macrophages that are important for host defense. PMID:2160522

  18. Bovine lymphocytic leukemia: studies of etiology, pathogenesis and mode of transmission. Final report, April 30, 1969-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, D.K.

    1982-07-01

    The primary objectives were to elucidate the cause(s) and early pathogenesis of the adult form of bovine lymphosarcoma through experimental transmission of the disease. Large quantities of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were propagated in short-term mitogen stimulated, lymphocyte cultures. Cultures containing abundant BLV particles were pooled and further processed by continuous flow, density gradient, ultracentrifugation. This highly concentrated, cell free, BLV preparation was used as inoculum for 12 late stage bovine fetuses (inoculated in utero) and two newborn calves. Extensive monitoring of lymphosarcoma associated blood parameters such as BLV production, nuclear pocket incidence, B-cell percentage, anti-BLV serology titer, and complete blood count established that all inoculated animals became persistently BLV infected. However, after more than five years of incubation, no clinical cases of lymphosarcoma had developed. Consequently, five of these well-characterized animals received monthly injections of BLV infected lymphocytes in an attempt to accelerate tumor formation. One year following completion of this 15 month injection series, the experiment was terminated and each animal subjected to extensive physical and post-mortem examination. None of the 11 animals remaining, including the five repeatedly inoculated, showed clinical signs of leukemia. Necropsy examination, however, revealed one case of lymphosarcoma which was histologically confirmed. This animal had a six year history of persistent lymphocytosis and had received the supplemental series of inoculations.

  19. Monocyte trafficking across the vessel wall.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Teresa; Ley, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Monocytes fundamentally contribute to immune surveillance and the inflammatory response in immunoinflammatory diseases like atherosclerosis. Recruitment of these cells to the site of injury requires their trafficking across the blood vessel wall. A series of events, including capture, rolling, slow rolling, arrest, adhesion strengthening, and lateral locomotion, precede monocyte transmigration. Recent investigations have revealed new aspects of this cascade. This article revisits some conventional paradigms and selectively highlights new findings, including novel insights into monocyte differentiation and recently identified functional mediators, signalling pathways, and new structural aspects of monocyte extravasation. The emerging roles of endothelial junctional molecules like vascular endothelial-cadherin and the junctional adhesion molecule family, adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1, molecules localized to the lateral border recycling compartment like cluster of differentiation 99, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, and poliovirus receptor (CD155), as well as other cell surface molecules such as cluster of differentiation 146 and ephrins in transendothelial migration are discussed. PMID:25990461

  20. First Demonstration of Antigen Induced Cytokine Expression by CD4-1+ Lymphocytes in a Poikilotherm: Studies in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Wyse, Cathy; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Zou, Jun; Weerdenburg, Eveline M.; M. van der Sar, Astrid; Wang, Difei; Secombes, Christopher J.; Bird, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity in homeotherms depends greatly on CD4+ Th cells which release cytokines in response to specific antigen stimulation. Whilst bony fish and poikilothermic tetrapods possess cells that express TcR and CD4-related genes (that exist in two forms in teleost fish; termed CD4-1 and CD4-2), to date there is no unequivocal demonstration that cells equivalent to Th exist. Thus, in this study we determined whether CD4-1+ lymphocytes can express cytokines typical of Th cells following antigen specific stimulation, using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Initially, we analyzed the CD4 locus in zebrafish and found three CD4 homologues, a CD4-1 molecule and two CD4-2 molecules. The zfCD4-1 and zfCD4-2 transcripts were detected in immune organs and were most highly expressed in lymphocytes. A polyclonal antibody to zfCD4-1 was developed and used with an antibody to ZAP70 and revealed double positive cells by immunohistochemistry, and in the Mycobacterium marinum disease model CD4-1+ cells were apparent surrounding the granulomas typical of the infection. Next a prime-boost experiment, using human gamma globulin as antigen, was performed and revealed for the first time in fish that zfCD4-1+ lymphocytes increase the expression of cytokines and master transcription factors relevant to Th1/Th2-type responses as a consequence of boosting with specific antigen. PMID:26083432

  1. Ibrutinib plus rituximab for patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, phase 2 study

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Jan A.; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.; Hartmann, Elena; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Rosin, Nathalie Y.; de Weerdt, Iris; Jeyakumar, Ghayathri; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Lerner, Susan; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Nogueras-Gonzlez, Graciela M.; Zacharian, Gracy; Huang, Xuelin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garg, Naveen; Rosenwald, Andreas; OBrien, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), is an effective therapy for patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We investigated the activity and safety of the combination of ibrutinib with the monoclonal antibody rituximab (iR) in patients with high-risk CLL. Methods In this single-arm, phase 2 studywe enrolled 40 patients with high-risk CLL at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. Patients with symptomatic CLL requiring therapy received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg , together with rituximab (weekly during cycle 1, then once per cycle until cycle 6), followed by continuous single-agent ibrutinib. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01520519 and is no longer accruing patients. Findings Between February 28, 2012 and September 11, 2012, we enrolled 40 CLL patients with high-risk disease features. 20 patients had del17p or TP53 mutations (16 previously treated, 4 untreated), 13 had relapsed CLL with del11q, and 7 patients a PFS < 36 months after frontline chemo-immunotherapy. Toxicity was mainly of mild to moderate severity (grade 12). 10 (25%) patients had diarrhea (grade 1 in 9 [22.5%] patients, grade 2 in 1 [2.5%]), bleeding events occurred in 14 (35%) patients (8 [20%] patients with grade 1, 5 [12.5%] patients grade 2, and 1 [2.5%] grade 3), nausea in 15 (37.5) patients (10 [25%] grade 1, 5 [12.5%] grade 2), and fatigue in 7 (17.5%) patients (4 [10%] grade 1, 3 [7.5%] grade 2). Grade 3 infections occurred in 4 patients (10%), no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. At 18 months, the Kaplan Meier estimate of progression-free survival was 78% (95% CI 60.688.5) (del[17p] or TP53 mutation: 72%, 95% CI: 45.687.6) Interpretation Ibrutinib in combination with rituximab is a well-tolerated regimen for patients with high-risk CLL. It induces high rates of remissions and has positive impact on QOL in this difficult-to-treat patient population. These encouraging data merit further investigation of the added benefit of rituximab as combination partner for ibrutinib in an ongoing randomized trial, in which single-agent ibrutinib is compared to iR combination therapy (NCT02007044). Funding Pharmacyclics, Inc., Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT), Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, NCI Grant P30 CA016672, MD Andersons Moon Shot Program in CLL, and MD Anderson Cancer Center Support Grant CA016672. PMID:25150798

  2. Urokinase receptor surface expression regulates monocyte adhesion in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    May, Andreas E; Schmidt, Roland; Kanse, Sandip M; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Stephens, Ross W; Schmig, Albert; Preissner, Klaus T; Neumann, Franz-Josef

    2002-11-15

    The urokinase receptor (urokinase plasminogen activator receptor; uPAR) regulates monocyte adhesion by direct binding to vitronectin and by forming complexes with integrins. Therefore, possible up-regulation of uPAR in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may affect monocyte adhesion. In 20 patients with AMI, uPAR surface expression (measured by flow cytometry) was increased compared with that in patients with chronic stable angina (mean +/- SD fluorescence, 179 +/- 96 vs 80 +/- 53; P =.002). Expression of uPAR correlated with activation of beta(2)-integrins lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and macrophage antigen 1 (Mac-1), measured by using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 24 and CBRM1/5. Isolated mononuclear cells (MNCs) from patients with AMI showed enhanced adhesiveness to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), to fibrinogen (Mac-1 ligand), and to vitronectin (uPAR ligand). Excessive adhesion of MNCs to HUVECs was inhibited by mAbs anti-CD18 (84%), anti-CD11a (51%), and anti-CD11b (57%), indicating a major contribution of LFA-1 and Mac-1. The mAb anti-uPAR R3 blocked adhesion of cells from patients with AMI to vitronectin (95%) but also beta(2)-integrin-mediated adhesion to fibrinogen (79%) and HUVECs (66%). Incubation of monocytic MonoMac6 cells with plasma from patients with AMI enhanced uPAR messenger RNA expression and cell adhesion to HUVECs. Thus, released soluble factors may contribute to enhanced monocyte adhesion in AMI. Mouse pre-B lymphocytes (BAF3 cells) transfected with various amounts of uPAR complementary DNA showed a strong correlation of uPAR expression with beta(2)-integrin-dependent adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1, thus providing evidence for the functional relevance of uPAR up-regulation in an isolated in vitro system. In conclusion, we found that uPAR expression is elevated on monocytes in AMI and contributes to enhanced cell adhesion. Thus, uPAR may be a novel target for prevention of unwanted monocyte recruitment as part of inflammatory cardiovascular processes. PMID:12393744

  3. Role of macrophages and monocytes in hepatitis C virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Revie, Dennis; Salahuddin, Syed Zaki

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies conducted over many years have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) can infect a variety of cell types. In vivo infection of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells by HCV has been frequently shown by a number of researchers. These studies have demonstrated replication of HCV by detecting the presence of both negative genomic strands and a variety of non-structural HCV proteins in infected cells. In addition, analyses of genome sequences have also shown that different cell types can harbor different HCV variants. Investigators have also done preliminary studies of which cellular genes are affected by HCV infection, but there have not yet been a sufficient number of these studies to understand the effects of infection on these cells. Analyses of in vitro HCV replication have shown that monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells can be infected by HCV from patient sera or plasma. These studies suggest that entry and cellular locations may vary between different cell types. Some studies suggest that macrophages may preferentially allow HCV genotype 1 to replicate, but macrophages do not appear to select particular hypervariable regions. Overall, these studies agree with a model where monocytes and macrophages act as an amplification system, in which these cells are infected and show few cytopathic effects, but continuously produce HCV. This allows them to produce virus over an extended time and allows its spread to other cell types. PMID:24659871

  4. Effects of PCBs and PBDEs on thyroid hormone, lymphocyte proliferation, hematology and kidney injury markers in residents of an e-waste dismantling area in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two typical categories of contaminants released from e-waste dismantling environments. In China, the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs are associated with abnormal thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites, but the results are limited and contradictory. In this study, we measured the serum levels of PCBs and PBDEs and the thyroid hormone free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 40 residents in an e-waste dismantling area and in 15 residents in a control area. Additionally, we also measured some lymphocyte proliferation indexes, hematologic parameters and kidney injury markers, including white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin (?2-MG). The results indicated that the mean level of ?PCBs in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (964.39 and 67.98 ng g(-1), p<0.0001), but the mean level of ?PBDEs in the exposure group was not significantly higher than that in the controls (139.32 vs. 75.74 ng g(-1), p>0.05). We determined that serum levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower, whereas the levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the exposed group (p<0.05). The mean level of ?PCBs was negatively correlated with levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes (p<0.05) and positively correlated with levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, serum creatinine and ?2-MG (p<0.05). Additionally, the mean level of ?PBDEs was positively correlated with levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelets (p<0.05). Our data suggest that exposure to an e-waste dismantling environment may increase the body burdens of PCBs and the specific PBDEs congeners in native residents and that the contaminants released from e-waste may contribute to abnormal changes in body levels of thyroid hormone, hematology and kidney injury markers. PMID:26218560

  5. Abnormal Production of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines by Lupus Monocytes in Response to Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Sangeeta; Rosen, Antony; Petri, Michelle; Akhter, Ehtisham; Andrade, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Monocytes are a key component of the innate immune system involved in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Previous studies have focused on apoptotic cell clearance abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) monocytes. However, whether SLE monocytes might express unique patterns of cytokine secretion in response to apoptotic cells is still unknown. Here, we used monocytes from healthy controls and SLE patients to evaluate the production of TNF-? and TGF-? in response to apoptotic cells. Upon recognition of apoptotic material, monocytes from healthy controls showed prominent TGF-? secretion (mean SD: 824.6144.3 pg/ml) and minimal TNF-? production (mean SD: 32.62.1 pg/ml). In contrast, monocytes from SLE patients had prominent TNF-? production (mean SD: 302.2337.5 pg/ml) and diminished TGF-? secretion (mean SD: 685.9615.9 pg/ml), a difference that was statistically significant compared to normal monocytes (p?10?6 for TNF-? secretion, and p?=?0.0031 for TGF-?, respectively). Interestingly, the unique cytokine response by SLE monocytes was independent of their phagocytic clearance efficiency, opsonizing autoantibodies and disease activity. We further showed that nucleic acids from apoptotic cells play important role in the induction of TNF-? by lupus monocytes. Together, these observations suggest that, in addition to potential clearance defects, monocytes from SLE patients have an abnormal balance in the secretion of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to apoptotic cells. Since the abnormal cytokine response to apoptotic material in SLE is not related to disease activity and opsonizing autoantibodies, it is possible that this response might be an intrinsic property of lupus monocytes. The studies focus attention on toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their downstream pathways as mediators of this response. PMID:21423726

  6. Quantification of newly produced B and T lymphocytes in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The immune defects occurring in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are responsible for the frequent occurrence of infections and autoimmune phenomena, and may be involved in the initiation and maintenance of the malignant clone. Here, we evaluated the quantitative defects of newly produced B and T lymphocytes. Methods The output of B and T lymphocytes from the production and maturation sites was analyzed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and healthy controls by quantifying kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) and T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) by a Real-Time PCR assay that simultaneously detects both targets. T-lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by six-color flow cytometric analysis. Data comparison was performed by two-sided Mann-Whitney test. Results KRECs level was reduced in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients studied at the very early stage of the disease, whereas the release of TRECs+ cells was preserved. Furthermore, the observed increase of CD4+ lymphocytes could be ascribed to the accumulation of CD4+ cells with effector memory phenotype. Conclusions The decreased number of newly produced B lymphocytes in these patients is likely related to a homeostatic mechanism by which the immune system balances the abnormal B-cell expansion. This feature may precede the profound defect of humoral immunity characterizing the later stages of the disease. PMID:21054858

  7. Selective Granulocyte and Monocyte Apheresis as a Non-Pharmacological Option for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    C. Leitner, Gerda; Worel, Nina; Vogelsang, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the two most prevalent inflammatory bowel diseases. In both cases, the medically refractory and steroid-dependent type presents a therapeutic challenge. To help resolve this problem, a mainly Japanese team developed a new therapeutic option. There are two systems, both of which are able to selectively remove the main mediators of the disease, namely the activated pro-inflammatory cytokine-producing granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, from the patient's blood circulation (GMA = granulocyte monocyte apheresis). One of the two systems is the Adacolumn (Immunoresearch Laboratories, Takasaki, Japan) consisting of the ADA-monitor and a single-use column, which contains approximately 35,000 cellulose acetate beads. The exact mode of action is not yet sufficiently understood, but however, a modulation of the immune system takes place. As a result, less pro-inflammatory cytokines are released. Furthermore, the production of anti-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is increased, and the apoptosis of granulocytes boosted. The decreased LECAM-1-expression on leukocytes impedes the leukotaxis to the inflamed tissue, and CD10-negative immature granulocytes appear in the peripheral blood. Another effect to be mentioned is the removal of the peripheral dendritic cells and the leachate of regulatory T cells (T-regs). The second system is the Cellsorba FX Filter (Asahi Medical, Tokyo, Japan). The range of efficiency, the indication, and the procedure are very similar to the Adacolumn. Solely the additional removal of lymphocytes can possibly limit the implementation since lymphopenia can increase the risk of autoimmune disease. Both systems provide a low-risk therapy with few adverse reactions. ASFA recommendations for GMA in inflammatory bowel disease are 2B due to the fact that not enough randomized double-blind studies are available to proof the efficacy of this treatment. PMID:22969694

  8. Generation of Novel Bone Forming Cells (Monoosteophils) from the Cathelicidin-Derived Peptide LL-37 Treated Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhifang; Shively, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone generation and maintenance involve osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes which originate from unique precursors and rely on key growth factors for differentiation. However, an incomplete understanding of bone forming cells during wound healing has led to an unfilled clinical need such as nonunion of bone fractures. Since circulating monocytes are often recruited to sites of injury and may differentiate into various cell types including osteoclasts, we investigated the possibility that circulating monocytes in the context of tissue injury may also contribute to bone repair. In particular, we hypothesized that LL-37 (produced from hCAP-18, cathelicidin), which recruits circulating monocytes during injury, may play a role in bone repair. Methods and Findings Treatment of monocytes from blood with LL-37 for 6 days resulted in their differentiation to large adherent cells. Growth of LL-37-differentiated monocytes on osteologic discs reveals bone-like nodule formation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In vivo transplantation studies in NOD/SCID mice show that LL-37-differentiated monocytes form bone-like structures similar to endochondral bone formation. Importantly, LL-37-differentiated monocytes are distinct from conventional monocyte-derived osteoclasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells and do not express markers of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) lineage, distinguishing them from the conventional precursors of osteoblasts. Furthermore, LL-37 differentiated monocytes express intracellular proteins of both the osteoblast and osteoclast lineage including osteocalcin (OC), osteonectin (ON), bone sialoprotein II (BSP II), osteopontin (OP), RANK, RANKL, MMP-9, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and cathepsin K (CK). Conclusion Blood derived monocytes treated with LL-37 can be differentiated into a novel bone forming cell that functions both in vitro and in vivo. We propose the name monoosteophil to indicate their monocyte derived lineage and their bone forming phenotype. These cells may have wide ranging implications in the clinic including repair of broken bones and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:21085494

  9. Correlation Between High-Density Lipoprotein and Monocyte Subsets in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Li, Dan; Li, Jian; An, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background High-density lipoprotein (HDL) consists of heterogeneous particles with a variety of structures and functions. Its role in atherosclerosis has been gradually recognized. Studies have shown dysfunction of small HDL in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Monocytes play an important role in atherosclerosis, which can be divided into 3 subgroups based on the expression of surface markers CD14 and CD16. This study aimed to investigate the association between HDL and monocyte subsets in CAD patients. Material/Methods A total of 90 patients with stable CAD were selected in this study. Monocytes were divided into classical monocytes (CM, CD14++CD16?), intermediate monocytes (IM, CD14++CD16+), and non-classical monocytes (NCM, CD14+CD16++). HDL components in serum were determined by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (detected by Quantimetrix HDL Lipoprint system, referring to HDL subfractions analysis: A new laboratory diagnostic assay for patients with cardiovascular diseases and dyslipoproteinemia). Results Serum level of small HDL was positively correlated with circulating proinflammatory NCM (r=0.30; p=0.004), negatively correlated with CM, and not correlated with IM. We also found that disease severity was not associated with diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, hypertension, smoking history, or statin dosage. Conclusions Our study confirmed that small HDL level is associated with an increase in NCM and a decrease in CM, suggesting the proinflammatory relationship between small HDL and intrinsic immune function during the progression of stable CAD. PMID:26474031

  10. Human monocytes undergo functional re-programming during sepsis mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1?.

    PubMed

    Shalova, Irina N; Lim, Jyue Yuan; Chittezhath, Manesh; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Beasley, Federico; Hernndez-Jimnez, Enrique; Toledano, Victor; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Rapisarda, Annamaria; Chen, Jinmiao; Duan, Kaibo; Yang, Henry; Poidinger, Michael; Melillo, Giovanni; Nizet, Victor; Arnalich, Francisco; Lpez-Collazo, Eduardo; Biswas, Subhra K

    2015-03-17

    Sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to infection. Despite studies in mice, the cellular and molecular basis of human sepsis remains unclear and effective therapies are lacking. Blood monocytes serve as the first line of host defense and are equipped to recognize and respond to infection by triggering an immune-inflammatory response. However, the response of these cells in human sepsis and their contribution to sepsis pathogenesis is poorly understood. To investigate this, we performed a transcriptomic, functional, and mechanistic analysis of blood monocytes from patients during sepsis and after recovery. Our results revealed the functional plasticity of monocytes during human sepsis, wherein they transited from a pro-inflammatory to an immunosuppressive phenotype, while enhancing protective functions like phagocytosis, anti-microbial activity, and tissue remodeling. Mechanistically, hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF1?) mediated this functional re-programming of monocytes, revealing a potential mechanism for their therapeutic targeting to regulate human sepsis. PMID:25746953

  11. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4+ CD4+ Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Masato; Ishimaru, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I (N = 8) and group II (N = 8). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (P < 0.01). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (P < 0.01). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamuspituitary glandadrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. PMID:26464935

  12. A phase 1 study evaluating the safety and tolerability of otlertuzumab, an anti-CD37 mono-specific ADAPTIR therapeutic protein in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, John M.; Awan, Farrukh T.; Forero, Andres; Flinn, Ian W.; Deauna-Limayo, Delva P.; Spurgeon, Stephen E.; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Leonard, John P.; Eisenfeld, Amy J.; Bannink, Jeannette E.; Stromatt, Scott C.; Furman, Richard R.

    2014-01-01

    Otlertuzumab is a novel humanized anti-CD37 protein therapeutic. This study evaluated the safety of otlertuzumab administered intravenously to patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Otlertuzumab was administered weekly for up to 8 weeks followed by 1 dose per month for 4 months ranging from 0.03 to 20 mg/kg in the dose-escalation phase and 10 to 30 mg/kg in the dose-expansion phase. Responses were determined by using the 1996 National Cancer Institute (NCI-96) and 2008 International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (IWCLL) criteria. Fifty-seven patients were treated in the dose-escalation phase and 26 in the dose-expansion phase. A maximum-tolerated dose was not identified. Response occurred in 19 (23%) of 83 treated patients by NCI-96 criteria. All responses were partial and occurred more commonly in patients with symptomatic untreated CLL (6/7) or 1 to 2 prior therapies (12/28) vs 3 or more therapies (1/48). Twenty percent (12/61) with serial computed tomography scan assessment had a response per IWCLL criteria. The most frequent adverse events were infusion reactions, fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea and were not dose related. Otlertuzumab was well tolerated, and modest clinical activity was observed. Otlertuzumab warrants further evaluation in combination with other agents for the treatment of CLL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00614042. PMID:24381226

  13. Quantifying T Lymphocyte Turnover

    PubMed Central

    De Boer, Rob J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral T cell populations are maintained by production of naive T cells in the thymus, clonal expansion of activated cells, cellular self-renewal (or homeostatic proliferation), and density dependent cell life spans. A variety of experimental techniques have been employed to quantify the relative contributions of these processes. In modern studies lymphocytes are typically labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU), deuterium, or the fluorescent dye carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), their division history has been studied by monitoring telomere shortening and the dilution of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) or the dye CFSE, and clonal expansion has been documented by recording changes in the population densities of antigen specific cells. Proper interpretation of such data in terms of the underlying rates of T cell production, division, and death has proven to be notoriously difficult and involves mathematical modeling. We review the various models that have been developed for each of these techniques, discuss which models seem most appropriate for what type of data, reveal open problems that require better models, and pinpoint how the assumptions underlying a mathematical model may influence the interpretation of data. Elaborating various successful cases where modeling has delivered new insights in T cell population dynamics, this review provides quantitative estimates of several processes involved in the maintenance of naive and memory, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell pools in mice and men. PMID:23313150

  14. Fate of gamma-interferon-activated killer blood monocytes adoptively transferred into the abdominal cavity of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, H.C.; Keenan, A.M.; Woodhouse, C.; Ottow, R.T.; Miller, P.; Steller, E.P.; Foon, K.A.; Abrams, P.G.; Beman, J.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-11-15

    Five patients with colorectal cancer widely metastatic to peritoneal surfaces have been treated i.p. with infusions of autologous blood monocytes made cytotoxic by in vitro incubation with human gamma-interferon. The monocytes were purified by a combination of cytapheresis and counter-current centrifugal elutriation procedures; each week approximately 350 million activated monocytes were given to patients as adoptive immunotherapy by a single i.p. instillation. On the eighth cycle of treatment the trafficking of i.p. infused blood monocytes was studied in two patients by prelabeling the cells with /sup 111/In. These activated cells became distributed widely within the peritoneal cavity. Two and 5 days after infusion their position within the peritoneum had not changed. When peritoneal specimens were obtained 36 h after /sup 111/In-labeled monocyte infusion, labeled monocytes were demonstrated to be associated with the serosal surfaces by autoradiographic analysis. Scintiscanning structures outside the abdominal cavity revealed that /sup 111/In-labeled monocytes infused i.p. did not traffic to other organs during the 5 days of the study. We conclude that i.p. adoptive transfer of autologous killer blood monocytes is an effective way of delivering these cytotoxic cells to sites of tumor burden on peritoneal surfaces in these cancer patients.

  15. Evaluation of geriatric assessment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Results of the CLL9 trial of the German CLL study group.

    PubMed

    Goede, Valentin; Bahlo, Jasmin; Chataline, Viktoria; Eichhorst, Barbara; Dürig, Jan; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Kolb, Gerald; Honecker, Friedemann; Wedding, Ulrich; Hallek, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Multidimensional geriatric assessment (GA) has been demonstrated to predict outcomes in older patients with cancer. This study evaluated GA in a cohort of older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Seventy-five of 97 subjects with CLL who were enrolled in a clinical trial of the German CLL Study Group underwent GA prior to the start of study treatment (low-dose chemotherapy with fludarabine). GA included cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS), timed-up-and-go (TUG) test, dementia detection (DEMTECT) test and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) index. There was little correlation between CIRS, TUG, DEMTECT or IADL results and treatment toxicity, feasibility or efficacy in this study. CIRS and IADL had no statistically significant impact on overall prognosis. However, under-performance in TUG or DEMTECT test was strongly associated with poor survival. The latter findings provide a rationale to further investigate geriatric assessment in CLL and in the context with other CLL treatments. PMID:26377031

  16. Selective expression of monocyte chemotactic and activating factor/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in human blood monocytes by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, K; Tobe, T; Tomita, M; Mukaida, N; Shao-Bo, S; Matsushima, K; Yoshida, T; Sugihara, S; Kobayashi, K

    1994-11-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant leukocyte population in acute inflammation. Granulomatous inflammation such as tuberculosis is a specific type of chronic inflammation characterized by the predominant accumulation of macrophages. To clarify the mechanism of cellular recruitment in inflammation, the expression of chemokines, interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF)/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), was examined in human blood monocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, which could induce acute inflammation, or purified protein derivative (PPD) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which could provoke chronic inflammation. Monocytes stimulated with PPD or M. tuberculosis expressed low levels of antigenic interleukin-8 but high levels of MCAF/MCP-1 compared with monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Northern blot analysis showed the early induction of interleukin-8 mRNA and the delayed expression of MCAF/MCP-1 mRNA in response to PPD or M. tuberculosis. Thus, the disparate expression of chemokines may contribute to the cellular recruitment in acute and chronic inflammations. PMID:7963719

  17. Function of blood monocytes among patients with orofacial infections.

    PubMed

    Tzermpos, Fotios; Iatrou, Ioannis; Papadimas, Christos; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Georgitsi, Marianna; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2013-03-01

    Few data are available on the significance of the integrity of the innate immune system among patients with orofacial infections. This was assessed in the present study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 23 patients with orofacial infections before surgical debridement and from 12 healthy volunteers. PBMCs were stimulated with bacterial endotoxin (LPS) and with Pam3Cys. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) were estimated in supernatants by an enzyme immunoassay. Concentrations of estimated cytokines released from PBMCs of healthy volunteers and of patients did not differ. Intensity of cytokine release after stimulation was related with the time until complete resolution of the infection (p: 0.046). It is concluded that adequate functions of blood monocytes are associated with favorable outcome after surgery for orofacial abscesses. It seems, however, that impairment of monocyte function predisposes to infection persistence. PMID:22542474

  18. ACE inhibition prevents the release of monocytes from their splenic reservoir in mice with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Leuschner, Florian; Panizzi, Peter; Chico-Calero, Isabel; Lee, Won Woo; Ueno, Takuya; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Waterman, Peter; Gorbatov, Rostic; Marinelli, Brett; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Sosnovik, David E.; Pittet, Mikael J.; Swirski, Filip K.; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Monocytes recruited to ischemic myocardium originate from a reservoir in the spleen, and the release from their splenic niche relies on angiotensin-II (Ang-II) signaling. Objective Since monocytes are centrally involved in tissue repair after ischemia, we here hypothesized that early ACE inhibitor therapy impacts healing after myocardial infarction partly via effects on monocyte traffic. Methods and Results In a mouse model of permanent coronary ligation, Enalapril arrested the release of monocytes from the splenic reservoir and consequently reduced their recruitment into the healing infarct by 45%, as quantified by flow cytometry of digested infarcts. Time-lapse intravital microscopy revealed that Enalapril reduces monocyte motility in the spleen. In vitro migration assays and Western blotting showed that this was caused by reduced signaling through the Ang-II receptor subtype 1. We then