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Sample records for study lymphocyte monocyte

  1. Prognostic Significance of Systemic Inflammation-Based Lymphocyte- Monocyte Ratio in Patients with Lung Cancer: Based on a Large Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pingping; Shen, Hongchang; Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Qi; Du, Jiajun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates cancer-related inflammatory biomarkers show great promise for predicting the outcome of cancer patients. The lymphocyte- monocyte ratio (LMR) was demonstrated to be independent prognostic factor mainly in hematologic tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of LMR in operable lung cancer. We retrospectively enrolled a large cohort of patients with primary lung cancer who underwent complete resection at our institution from 2006 to 2011. Inflammatory biomarkers including lymphocyte count and monocyte count were collected from routinely performed preoperative blood tests and the LMR was calculated. Survival analyses were calculated for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 1453 patients were enrolled in the study. The LMR was significantly associated with OS and DFS in multivariate analyses of the whole cohort (HR?=?1.522, 95% CI: 1.275–1.816 for OS, and HR?=?1.338, 95% CI: 1.152–1.556 for DFS). Univariate subgroup analyses disclosed that the prognostic value was limited to patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR: 1.824, 95% CI: 1.520–2.190), in contrast to patients with small cell lung cancer (HR: 1.718, 95% CI: 0.946–3.122). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that LMR was still an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC. LMR can be considered as a useful independent prognostic marker in patients with NSCLC after complete resection. This will provide a reliable and convenient biomarker to stratify high risk of death in patients with operable NSCLC. PMID:25275631

  2. Monocyte Stabilin-1 Suppresses the Activation of Th1 Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Palani, Senthil; Elima, Kati; Ekholm, Eeva; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Salmi, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the putative functions of stabilin-1 in blood monocytes. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of several proinflammatory genes in the stabilin-1(high) monocytes when compared with stabilin-1(low) monocytes. When cocultured with stabilin-1(high) monocytes, IFN-? synthesis by T cells was diminished in Ag-recall assays. Knockdown of stabilin-1 in monocytes increased the synthesis of several proinflammatory molecules, including TNF-?, and supported high IFN-? and low IL-4 and IL-5 production by T cells in Ag-specific stimulation assays. Anti-stabilin-1 Ab treatment also led to increased IFN-? synthesis in the recall assays. In clinical settings, the expression of stabilin-1 was diminished on blood monocytes and tissue macrophages under proinflammatory conditions. These data define stabilin-1 as a new immunosuppressive molecule and suggest that stabilin-1(high) monocytes may dampen proinflammatory reactions in vivo. PMID:26608916

  3. Peripheral blood lymphocyte/monocyte ratio at diagnosis and survival in classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Porrata, Luis F.; Ristow, Kay; Colgan, Joseph P.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Inwards, David J.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Micallef, Ivana N.; Johnston, Patrick B.; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Thompson, Carrie; Markovic, Svetomir N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lymphopenia and tumor-associated macrophages are negative prognostic factors for survival in classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma. We, therefore, studied whether the peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio at diagnosis affects survival in classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Design and Methods We studied 476 consecutive patients with classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma followed at the Mayo Clinic from 1974 to 2010. Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve were used to determine cut-off values for the absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio at diagnosis, while proportional hazards models were used to compare survival based on the absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio at diagnosis. Results The median follow-up period was 5.6 years (range, 0.1–33.7 years). An absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio at diagnosis of 1.1 or more was the best cut-off value for survival with an area under the curve of 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 0.96), a sensitivity of 90% (95% confidence interval, 85% to 96%) and specificity of 79% (95% confidence interval, 73% to 88%). Absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio at diagnosis was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.08 to 0.38, P<0.0001); lymphoma-specific survival (hazard ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.25, P<0.0001); progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.66, P<0.002) and time to progression (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.57, P<0.0006). Conclusions The ratio of absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count at diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for survival and provides a single biomarker to predict clinical outcomes in patients with classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:21993683

  4. Two-color flow cytometric analysis of monocyte depleted human blood lymphocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, T A; Marti, G E; Hagengruber, C

    1988-07-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal individuals were examined using 16 pairs of FITC and phycoerythrin (PE) directly conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Each pair of reagents was used to evaluate a conventional lymphocyte gate as well as open (non) gate of monocyte depleted PBMC. Parallel studies using the same panel of monoclonal antibodies were carried out on selected, nonmonocyte depleted samples. The major findings of this analysis were that 1,000-1,200 lymphocytes in a 10,000 cell analysis are found outside the lymphocyte gate and of these approximately 2/5 are CD16 positive LGL/NK cells, 2/5 are CD3 positive T cells, and 1/5 are CD19/CD20 positive B cells. Thus, it appears that 10-15% of the lymphoid cells fall outside of the conventional lymphocyte gate, and in certain settings monocyte depletion may be useful to perform more complete evaluation of the total lymphoid cell population obtained after ficoll-hypaque separation. PMID:3261232

  5. Lymphocyte-conditioned medium protects human monocyte-macrophages from cholesteryl ester accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Fogelman, A M; Seager, J; Haberland, M E; Hokom, M; Tanaka, R; Edwards, P A

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of human monocyte-macrophages to as little as 50 microliters of cultured medium from lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A (Con A) resulted in a dramatic decrease in the activities of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway, the LDL-dextran sulfate pathway, and the scavenger receptor pathway. This effect was not seen when the monocyte-macrophages were exposed to culture medium from lymphocytes cultured without Con A or with Con A together with alpha-methyl mannoside or control medium without lymphocytes. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase also decreased in monocyte-macrophages exposed to culture medium from stimulated lymphocytes. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase activity, protein synthesis, protein content, phagocytosis of heat-killed yeast, and non-receptor-mediated endocytosis were not inhibited. Monocyte-macrophages exposed to malondialdehyde altered-LDL in the presence of stimulated lymphocyte culture medium accumulated substantially less cholesteryl esters than did cells in control medium. We propose that substances produced by stimulated lymphocytes may be useful in protecting macrophages from cholesteryl ester accumulation. Images PMID:6278500

  6. Lymphocyte and monocyte flow cytometry immunophenotyping as a diagnostic tool in uncharacteristic inflammatory disorders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with uncharacteristic inflammatory symptoms such as long-standing fatigue or pain, or a prolonged fever, constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of the present study was to determine if an extended immunophenotyping of lymphocytes and monocytes including activation markers can define disease-specific patterns, and thus provide valuable diagnostic information for these patients. Methods Whole blood from patients with gram-negative bacteraemia, neuroborreliosis, tuberculosis, acute mononucleosis, influenza or a mixed connective tissue disorders, as diagnosed by routine culture and serology techniques was analysed for lymphocyte and monocyte cell surface markers using a no-wash, no-lyse protocol for multi-colour flow cytometry method. The immunophenotyping included the activation markers HLA-DR and CD40. Plasma levels of soluble TNF alpha receptors were analysed by ELISA. Results An informative pattern was obtained by combining two of the analysed parameters: (i), the fractions of HLA-DR-expressing CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, respectively, and (ii), the level of CD40 on CD14+ CD16- monocytes. Patients infected with gram-negative bacteria or EBV showed a marked increase in monocyte CD40, while this effect was less pronounced for tuberculosis, borrelia and influenza. The bacterial agents could be distinguished from the viral agents by the T cell result; CD4+ T cells reacting in bacterial infection, and the CD8+ T cells dominating for the viruses. Patients with mixed connective tissue disorders also showed increased activation, but with similar engagement of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Analysis of soluble TNF alpha receptors was less informative due to a large inter-individual variation. Conclusion Immunophenotyping including the combination of the fractions of HLA-DR expressing T cell subpopulations with the level of CD40 on monocytes produces an informative pattern, differentiating between infections of bacterial and viral origin. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of these parameters revealed the novel finding of characteristic patterns indicating a subacute bacterial infection, such as borreliosis or tuberculosis, or a mixed connective tissue disorder. The employed flow cytometric method is suitable for clinical diagnostic laboratories, and may help in the assessment of patients with uncharacteristic inflammatory symptoms. PMID:20626864

  7. Defective monocyte production of, and T lymphocyte response to, interleukin-1 in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Alcocer-Varela, J; Laffon, A; Alarcón-Segovia, D

    1984-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a monocyte product with diverse amplifying effects on immune cell reactions. We have studied 16 untreated SLE patients to determine the production of IL-1 by their monocytes under the stimulus of E. Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and measured by the capacity of their supernatants to augment normal autologous mixed lymphocyte cultures (AMLR) or to replace accessory cells in Con A-induced proliferation of T lymphocytes. Concurrently, we studied the response of T lymphocytes from these same patients to IL-1 by its capacity to increase the percentage of stable E rosette forming cells and by the enhancement of T cell proliferation in AMLR. Monocytes from SLE patients produced significantly less IL-1 activity than those of age matched controls, regardless of the stimulus (LPS or PMA), as well as of the indicator system. All patients with active disease and seven of the 10 patients with inactive disease had decreased production of IL-1 activity as determined by at least one method. Response of T lymphocytes from SLE patients to IL-1 produced by normal monocytes was also found decreased as compared to normals. This defect was more marked in the T cells from patients with active than in those of patients with inactive disease. These findings indicate that the immunoregulatory disturbance that SLE patients have encompasses monocytes as well as T and B lymphocytes and suggest that the defect is either multicentric or originates in the stem cell. PMID:6229371

  8. Association between lymphocyte and monocyte subsets and cognition in children with HIV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assesses the relationships between lymphocyte and monocyte subsets and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-infected Thai children without advanced HIV disease. Findings Sixty-seven ART-naive Thai children with CD4 between 15-24% underwent cognitive testing by Weschler intelligence scale and had 13 cell subsets performed by flow cytometry including naive, memory and activated subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, activated and perivascular monocytes and B cells. Regression modelling with log10 cell count and cell percentage transformation was performed. Median age (IQR) was 9 (7–10) years, 33% were male, CDC stages N:A:B were 1:67:31%, median CD4% and count (IQR) were 21 (18–24)%, 597 (424–801) cells/mm3 and HIV RNA (IQR) was 4.6 (4.1-4.9) log10 copies/ml. Most (82%) lived at home, 45% had a biological parent as their primary caregiver, and 26 (49%) had low family income. The mean (SD) scores were 75 (13) for full scale IQ (FIQ), 73 (12) for verbal IQ (VIQ) and 80 (14) for performance IQ (PIQ). Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed significant negative associations between B cell counts and FIQ, VIQ and PIQ (p?lymphocyte subsets and neurocognitive development. PMID:24450991

  9. Peripheral blood monocyte and T-lymphocyte activation levels at diagnosis predict long-term survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Aarstad, Hans Jørgen; Vintermyr, Olav K; Ulvestad, Elling; Aarstad, Helene H; Kross, Kenneth W; Heimdal, John H

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to determine whether peripheral blood (PB) monocyte and/or lymphocyte activation at diagnosis were associated with long-term prognosis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and to what extent such prognostic properties relate to human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated tumor infection of the included patients. This was a long-term prospective study describing patient survival in relation to PB T lymphocyte and monocyte activation in patients observed for up to 14 years following diagnosis. Sixty-four patients from a consecutive cohort of newly diagnosed HNSCC patients along with 16 non-cancer control patients were included over a period of almost 2 years. Monocyte responsiveness was assessed at diagnosis (N = 56 HNSCC/16 non-cancer controls) by measuring net levels of spontaneous vs lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 secretion in vitro. PB T lymphocyte activation was determined (N = 58 HNSCC/16 controls) by measuring the percentage of T cells expressing CD69 by flow cytometry. Whether HPV infection or not was determined by PCR analysis on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. Tumor HPV-positive patients had better prognosis than HPV-negative patients. A low net MCP-1 response in monocytes predicted increased survival (Relative risk (RR) = 2.1; Confidence interval (CI): 1.1-4.0; p < 0.05). A low percentage of CD69 positive T lymphocytes also predicted better prognosis (RR = 2.6; CI: 1.3-5.0; p = 0.005). The predictive power of MCP-1 monocyte and CD69 T lymphocyte measures were retained when adjusted for age and gender of the patients and shown to be independent of each other (N = 50 HNSCC/16 controls). The results were similar in HPV tumor-positive and -negative patients. Patients with high monocyte- and/or T lymphocyte activation status had low survival with 8% 5 year overall survival (OS) compared to 65% 5 year OS for patients with dual low activation levels (RR = 0.27; CI: 0.14-0.56; p < 0.001), mostly secondary to disease-specific survival. Both tumor HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC patients with high percentage of CD69 positive T lymphocytes and/or high monocyte MCP-1 secretion had low long-term survival. The data suggest that the general inflammatory and adaptive immune systems are independently linked to the clinical aggressiveness of both tumor HPV-negative and -positive HNSCC patients. PMID:25801083

  10. Absolute monocyte and lymphocyte count prognostic score for patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Wan Kyu; Jeong, Da Wun; Chang, Hye Jung; Won, Kyu Yeoun; Choi, Sung Il; Kim, Se Hyun; Chun, Sung Wook; Oh, Young Lim; Lee, Tae Hwa; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Ki Hyung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To measure the prognostic significance of absolute monocyte count/absolute lymphocyte count prognostic score (AMLPS) in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the combination of absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as prognostic variables in a cohort of 299 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2013 and were followed at a single institution. Both AMC and ALC were dichotomized into two groups using cut-off points determined by receiving operator characteristic curve analysis. An AMLPS was generated, which stratified patients into three risk groups: low risk (both low AMC and high ALC), intermediate risk (either high AMC or low ALC), and high risk (both high AMC and low ALC). The primary objective of the study was to validate the impact of AMLPS on both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), and the second objective was to assess the AMLPS as an independent prognostic factor for survival in comparison with known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Using data from the entire cohort, the most discriminative cut-off values of AMC and ALC selected on the receiver operating characteristic curve were 672.4/?L and 1734/?L for DFS and OS. AMLPS risk groups included 158 (52.8%) patients in the low-risk, 128 (42.8%) in the intermediate-risk, and 13 (4.3%) in the high-risk group. With a median follow-up of 37.2 mo (range: 1.7-91.4 mo), five-year DFS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 83.4%, 78.7%, and 19.8%, respectively. And five-year OS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89.3%, 81.1%, and 14.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis performed with patient- and tumor-related factors, we identified AMLPS, age, and pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage as the most valuable prognostic factors impacting DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: AMLPS identified patients with a poor DFS and OS, and it was independent of age, pathologic stage, and various inflammatory markers. PMID:25759535

  11. Monocyte and Lymphocyte Activation in Bipolar Disorder: A New Piece in the Puzzle of Immune Dysfunction in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Assis, Frankcinéia; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Soares, Jair C; Bauer, Moises Evandro; Teixeira,, Antônio Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study tested the hypothesis that the low-grade inflammation presented in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with expansion of activated T cells, and this activated state may be due to a lack of peripheral regulatory cells. Methods: Specifically, we investigated the distribution of monocytes and lymphocyte subsets, and investigated Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in plasma by flow cytometry. Twenty-one BD type I patients and 21 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited for this study. Results: BD patients had increased proportions of monocytes (CD14+). Regarding lymphocyte populations, BD patients presented reduced proportions of T cells (CD3+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+). BD patients also exhibited a higher percentage of activated T CD4+CD25+ cells, and a lower percentage of IL-10 expressing Treg cells. Conclusions: Our data shed some light into the underlying mechanisms involved with the chronic low-grade inflammatory profile described in BD patients. PMID:25539506

  12. Pre-operative lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio as a predictor of overall survival in patients suffering from osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Fang, Xuan-Cheng; Ding, Zhen; Sun, Ze-Gan; Sun, Li-Ming; Wang, Yi-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory markers have been proposed to predict clinical outcomes in many types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) on clinical prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. This study collected 327 patients who underwent surgical treatment for osteosarcoma during the period 2006–2010. LMR was calculated from pre-operative peripheral blood cells counts. The optimal cut-off value of LMR was determined based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) was plotted using the Kaplan–Meier method and evaluated by the log-rank test. A predictive model was established to predict clinical prognosis for OS, and the predictive accuracy of this model was determined by concordance index (c-index). Our results showed that young age, elevated alkaline phosphatase, metastasis at diagnosis, chemotherapy, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly associated with LMR. Low LMR was associated with shorter OS and EFS (P < 0.001), and was an independent predictor of both OS and EFS (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.14–2.60, P = 0.010; HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.32–2.57, P = 0.009). The nomogram performed well in the prediction of overall survival in patients with osteosarcoma (c-index 0.630). In conclusion, low pre-operative LMR is associated with a poor prognosis in patients suffering from osteosarcoma. A prospective study is warranted for further validation of our results. PMID:26380812

  13. The tetracycline derivative minocycline differentially affects cytokine production by monocytes and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kloppenburg, M; Brinkman, B M; de Rooij-Dijk, H H; Miltenburg, A M; Daha, M R; Breedveld, F C; Dijkmans, B A; Verweij, C

    1996-01-01

    Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative that has beneficial effects in noninfectious forms of arthritis and dermatitis. To investigate whether this effect may be attributed to interference with cytokine production, we studied the effect of minocycline on cytokine production by T cells and monocytes. Minocycline exerted an inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and gamma interferon production by stimulated T cells, whereas the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) remained unaffected. The effect of minocycline on TNF-alpha mRNA synthesis by T cells was shown to be stimulus specific. T cells stimulated by a Ca2+-independent mode exhibited a decrease in TNF-alpha mRNA in the presence of minocycline, whereas the TNF-alpha mRNA level remained unaffected by minocycline when cells were stimulated in a Ca2+-dependent manner. In contrast to the effect on T cells, addition of minocycline to lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes led to a dose-dependent increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production which was paralleled by an enhancement of TNF-alpha mRNA synthesis. These results indicate that minocycline exerts differential effects on the regulation of cytokine production by T cells and monocytes that are partly reflected at the mRNA level. Given the pleiotropic effects of minocycline, it is suggested that the immunostimulatory effect on monocytes might counteract its beneficial properties in the treatment of several forms of chronic inflammation. PMID:8849255

  14. Pre-incubation of human monocytes results in loss of effector activity and diminished stimulation of the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, M M; Liebman, M L; Hassid, A I; Berk, G I

    1983-01-01

    Human monocytes were cultured at 37 degrees C for 72 h, washed, adjusted for viability and compared to freshly prepared monocytes for stimulation of the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR) and effector function. Pre-incubated monocytes were less potent AMLR stimulators than were freshly prepared cells. Pre-incubated monocytes demonstrated less antibody-dependent tumour killing of CCRF-CEM, less killing of Staphylococci and less spontaneous tumour killing of K-562 than did fresh monocytes. Pre-incubated monocytes produced less prostaglandin E2, demonstrated less surface Ia antigen and were less efficient accessory cells for antigen presentation than were fresh monocytes. AMLR stimulation correlated with monocyte killing (r = 0.95) and PGE2 production (r = 0.98). Thus, monocytes pre-incubated for 3 days are less active effector cells, display less surface Ia antigen and are less potent stimulators of the AMLR than fresh monocytes. Moreover, in this system, monocyte effector activity correlates with ability to stimulate the AMLR. PMID:6224613

  15. Prognostic value of peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Shu; Li, Bao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Although accumulating evidence suggests peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) could act as a prognosis predictor in various tumors, the prognostic value of LMR still remains controversial. We carried out this meta-analysis to evaluate the association of pretreatment LMR with survival outcomes in patients with solid tumors. Methods Eligible studies were collected and extracted by searching PubMed and Embase databases up to June 3, 2015. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to assess the prognostic value of LMR quantitatively. Results Eighteen studies with a total of 8,377 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Our findings indicated that elevated pre-treatment LMR predicted a significantly favorable overall survival (HR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.53–0.67) and disease-free survival (HR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.68–0.80) in solid tumor patients. Subgroup analyses revealed that enhanced LMR was significantly associated with favorable overall survival in patients with digestive system cancers (HR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.49–0.81), urinary tract tumors (HR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.52–0.84), lung cancer (HR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.54–0.72), and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (HR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.43–0.57). Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that enhanced LMR may indicate a favorable prognosis in patients with solid tumors.

  16. The lymphocyte/monocyte ratio predicts poor clinical outcome and improves the predictive accuracy in patients with soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Szkandera, Joanna; Gerger, Armin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Absenger, Gudrun; Stotz, Michael; Friesenbichler, Joerg; Trajanoski, Slave; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Eberhard, Katharina; Leithner, Andreas; Pichler, Martin

    2014-07-15

    Increasing evidence indicates the involvement of inflammation and coagulation in cancer progression and metastases. Inflammatory biomarkers hold great promise for improving the predictive ability of existing prognostic tools in cancer patients. In the present study, we investigated several inflammatory indices with regard to their prognostic relevance for predicting clinical outcome in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients. Three hundred and forty STS patients were divided into a training set (n?=?170) and a validation set (n?=?170). Besides well-established clinico-pathological prognostic factors, we evaluated the prognostic value of the neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, the lymphocyte/monocyte (L/M) ratio and the platelet/lymphocyte (P/L) ratio using Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate as well as multivariate Cox regression models. Additionally, we developed a nomogram by supplementing the L/M ratio to the well-established Kattan nomogram and evaluated the predictive accuracy of this novel nomogram by applying calibration and Harrell's concordance index (c-index). In multivariate analysis, a low L/M ratio was significantly associated with decreased CSS and DFS (HR?=?0.41, 95% CI?=?0.18-0.97, p?=?0.043; HR?=?0.39, 95% CI?=?0.16-0.91, p?=?0.031, respectively) in the training set. Using the validation set for confirmation, we found also in multivariate analysis an independent value for CSS (HR?=?0.33, 95% CI?=?0.12-0.90, p?=?0.03) and for DFS (HR?=?0.36, 95% CI?=?0.16-0.79, p?=?0.01). The estimated c-index was 0.74 using the original Kattan nomogram and 0.78 when the L/M ratio was added. Our study reports for the first time that the pre-operative L/M ratio represents a novel independent prognostic factor for prediction the clinical outcome in STS patients. This easily determinable biomarker might be helpful in improved individual risk assessment. PMID:24347236

  17. Detection of cytokine gene expression in human monocytes and lymphocytes by fluorescent in situ hybridization in cell suspension and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Wieckiewicz, J; Krzeszowiak, A; Ruggiero, I; Pituch-Noworolska, A; Zembala, M

    1998-06-01

    The use of digoxigenin (DIG)- and biotin-labelled dsDNA probes to detect TNFalpha-mRNA accumulation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and isolated monocytes is described. The fragment of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GAPDH-cDNA was used as a control probe. The hybridization signals were detected by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled anti-DIG antibody and avidin-FITC, respectively. The cells were stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 0.5-6 h. The TNFalpha-mRNA was detected in monocytes 1 h after stimulation with LPS, and the highest accumulation was seen around 2 h. The TNFalpha-mRNA in stimulated PBMC was detected at the lower level peaking around 4 h. The TNFalpha-mRNA accumulation was lower in lymphocytes than in monocytes when PBMC were studied. There was no difference in the level of GAPDH-mRNA between unstimulated and stimulated cells. Finally, an enhanced accumulation of TNFalpha-mRNA was observed in PBMC from some patients with sepsis or cancer. Thus, this study shows that cytokine gene expression may be detected in cells ex vivo. This opens the possibility of studying the level of cytokine gene activation in PBMC of patients with diseases where the role of cytokines in their pathophysiology is implicated. PMID:9852637

  18. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Wahlstrom, J; Berlin, M; Skold, C; Wigzell, H; Eklund, A; Grunewald, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed.?METHODS—CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry.?RESULTS—CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio.?CONCLUSIONS—Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.?? PMID:10092696

  19. The recombinant 65-kD heat shock protein of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin/M. tuberculosis is a target molecule for CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes that lyse human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ottenhoff, T H; Ab, B K; Van Embden, J D; Thole, J E; Kiessling, R

    1988-11-01

    Since little is known about Tc cells in the human immune response to intracellular parasites, we have studied the role of Tc cells in response to M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Donors whose PBMC responded to BCG, purified protein derivative (PPD), and the recombinant 65-kD heat shock protein (HSP) of BCG generated BCG/PPD-specific CD4+ effector T lymphocytes that lysed PPD as well as recombinant 65-kD-pulsed monocytes. Nonpulsed or irrelevant antigen-pulsed target cells were lysed to a much lower but still significant extent. PPD-stimulated effector lymphocytes of a recombinant 65-kD nonresponder lysed PPD but not recombinant 65-kD-pulsed monocytes. Recombinant 65-kD-educated effector lymphocytes lysed both recombinant 65-kD- and PPD-pulsed monocytes. In addition, these effector cells efficiently lysed nonpulsed target cells. These results demonstrate that in recombinant 65-kD responders, the recombinant 65-kD HSP of BCG is an immunodominant target as well as a triggering molecule for BCG/PPD-specific CD4+ cytotoxic T cells that lyse autologous monocytes. The implications of these findings with respect to the role of the 65-kD HSP in autoimmunity are discussed. PMID:2903217

  20. Peripheral blood lymphocyte/monocyte ratio as a useful prognostic factor in dogs with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving chemoimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Marconato, Laura; Martini, Valeria; Stefanello, Damiano; Moretti, Pierangelo; Ferrari, Roberta; Comazzi, Stefano; Laganga, Paola; Riondato, Fulvio; Aresu, Luca

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most frequent canine lymphoid neoplasm. Despite treatment, the majority of dogs with DLBCL experience tumour relapse and consequently die, so practical models to characterise dogs with a poor prognosis are needed. This study examined whether the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) can predict outcome in dogs with newly diagnosed DLBCL with regard to time-to-progression (TTP) and lymphoma specific survival (LSS). A retrospective study analysed the prognostic significance of LMR obtained at diagnosis by flow cytometry (based on morphological properties and CD45 expression) in 51 dogs that underwent complete staging and received the same treatment, comprising multi-agent chemotherapy and administration of an autologous vaccine. Dogs with an LMR???1.2 (30% of all cases) were found to have significantly shorter TTP and LSS, and it was concluded that LMR was a useful independent prognostic indicator with biological relevance in dogs with DLBCL treated with chemoimmunotherapy. PMID:26403958

  1. Lymphocyte subpopulations of workers in a plant producing plastic materials (preliminary study).

    PubMed

    Boscolo, P; Di Gioacchino, M; Cervone, M; Di Giacomo, F; Bavazzano, P; Giuliano, G

    1995-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 31 men working in a plant producing plastic materials in relation with control groups of similar age and smoking habit. 8 workers (group A) were exposed to solvents (mainly methylethylketone and dimethylformamide), 8 men (group B) to dust containing particles of calcium carbonate, polyvinylchloride, phtalates, unsaturated oils, paraffin wax, iron oxides, titanium bioxides, barium, zinc and lead and 15 men (group C), working in the same department as group B, were studied after a period of 16 months during which lead chromate was employed in the preparation of colors. The lymphocyte subpopulations were normal in group A, while in B there was a significant increase of HLA-DR + cells (monocytes, B and activated T lymphocytes). In group C, T helper/inducer lymphocytes (mainly CD4(+)-CD45RO- "virgin" lymphocytes), CD19+ B lymphocytes, CD3-HLADR+ and CD3-CD25+ (activated B lymphocytes and monocytes) were significantly reduced without changes of serum IgM, IgG and IgA. Highly significant correlation was found between B lymphocytes (reduced in the workers about 40%) and CD4(+)-CD45R0+ "memory" lymphocytes (reduced about 20%). Moreover, blood lead (correlated with urinary chromium) showed a highly significant negative correlation with the B lymphocytes. This study demonstrates that combined exposure to toxic agents produces specific modifications in the lymphocyte subsets without changes in immunoglobulins and confirms the results of previous researches showing that the exposure to lead or chromate induces reduction of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. PMID:8940654

  2. Immunologic effector mechanisms of a standardized mistletoe extract on the function of human monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Lucie; von Baehr, Volker; Liebenthal, Christa; von Baehr, Rüdiger; Volk, Hans-Dieter

    2006-07-01

    Even though mistletoe extracts have been in clinical use for centuries their exact mode of action is still unknown. Currently, the application scheme for registered preparations is a dose-escalating scheme to thus reduce side effects. In this study, healthy controls and patients were evaluated for their immunologic response to treatment with a standardized mistletoe extract (Iscador). It shows a strong effect as adjuvant that induces TNF-alpha and IL-12, which was partly mediated via CD14. Desensitization of the TNF-alpha response could be shown after repeated application in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Iscador induces a specific lymphocyte sensitization upon multiple injections and production of IgG1- and IgG3 -mistletoe antibodies. Remarkably, a systemic bystander effect (heterologous immunity against other recall antigens) was observed after long-term treatment. In conclusion, dose-escalation reduces the monocyte-related clinical side effects. A T-lymphocyte sensitization stimulates mainly a specific Th1 response. The most interesting clinical long-term effect is the bystander stimulation of various memory T cells that might mediate in vivo antitumor and antiinfectious T-cell response under mistletoe-extract immunization. PMID:16705487

  3. The Peripheral Blood Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio Is Superior to the Lymphocyte-To-Monocyte Ratio for Predicting the Long-Term Survival of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaping; Zhang, Xiaolan; Chen, Kai; Su, Fengxi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The peripheral hematologic parameters of patients can be prognostic for many malignant tumors, including breast cancer, although their value has not been investigated among the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods A retrospective cohort of 1570 operable breast cancer patients was recruited between January 2000 and December 2010. The counts of peripheral neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets were collected and applied to calculate the NLR and the LMR. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to assess the relationship of the NLR and the LMR with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in all patients and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Results Univariate analysis revealed that lower NLR (?2.0) and higher LMR (>4.8) were significantly associated with superior DFS in all patients (NLR, P = 0.005; LMR, P = 0.041) and in TNBC patients (NLR, p = 0.007; LMR, P = 0.011). However, multivariate analysis revealed that only lower NLR was a significant independent predictor of superior DFS and OS in all breast cancer patients (DFS, HR = 1.50 95% CI: 1.14–1.97, P = 0.004; OS, HR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.07–2.49, P = 0.022) and in TNBC patients (DFS, HR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.23–5.42, P = 0.012; OS, HR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.08–8.61, P = 0.035). Both univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that neither the NLR nor the LMR significantly predicted DFS and OS among the patients with other molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Conclusions A higher pretreatment peripheral NLR significantly and independently indicated a poor prognosis for breast cancer and TNBC, and this measurement exhibited greater prognostic value than a lower LMR. The NLR was not a prognostic factor for other breast cancer subtypes. PMID:26580962

  4. The association between the ratio of monocytes:lymphocytes at age 3 months and risk of tuberculosis (TB) in the first two years of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic studies revived a hypothesis suggested by historical studies in rabbits that the ratio of peripheral blood monocytes to lymphocytes (ML) is associated with risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. Recent data confirmed the hypothesis in cattle and in adults infected with HIV. Methods We tested this hypothesis in 1,336 infants (540 HIV-infected, 796 HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU)) prospectively followed in a randomized controlled trial of isoniazid prophylaxis in Southern Africa, the IMPAACT P1041 study. We modeled the relationship between ML ratio at enrollment (91 to 120 days after birth) and TB disease or death in HIV-infected children and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, TB disease or death in HEU children within 96 weeks (with 12 week window) of randomization. Infants were followed-up prospectively and routinely assessed for MTB exposure and outcomes. Cox proportional hazards models allowing for non-linear associations were used; in all cases linear models were the most parsimonious. Results Increasing ML ratio at baseline was significantly associated with TB disease/death within two years (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.17 per unit increase in ML ratio; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.34; P?=?0.03). Neither monocyte count nor lymphocyte counts alone were associated with TB disease. The association was not statistically dissimilar between HIV infected and HEU children. Baseline ML ratio was associated with composite endpoints of TB disease and death and/or TB infection. It was strongest when restricted to probable and definite TB disease (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.89; P?=?0.006). Therefore, per 0.1 unit increase in the ML ratio at three to four months of age, the hazard of probable or definite TB disease before two years was increased by roughly 4% (95% CI 1.7% to 6.6%). Conclusion Elevated ML ratio at three- to four-months old is associated with increased hazards of TB disease before two years among children in Southern Africa. While significant, the modest effect size suggests that the ML ratio plays a modest role in predicting TB disease-free survival; its utility may, therefore, be limited to combination with existing tools to stratify TB risk, or to inform underlying pathophysiologic determinants of TB disease. PMID:25034889

  5. [IMPACT OF VARIOUS MULTIPLICITY OF INFECTION OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS ON PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS INDUCTION IN CULTURED CELL LINES OF LYMPHOCYTIC AND MONOCYTIC ORIGIN (JURKAT, NC-37, THP-1 AND U-937)].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, T D; Danilenko, D M; Ilyinskaya, E V; Smirnova, S S; Eropkin, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The severity of disease caused by influenza A infection depends not only on biological characteristics of the virus but also on the number of viral particles than penetrate the body. T- and B-lymphocytes as well as monocytes (macrophages) play a key role in the development of cell-based and humoral immunity as well as influenza virus elimination from the body. The present study describes the effect of influenza A virus infection on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human cultured cell lines of T-, B-lymphocytic and monocytic origin infected with various multiplicity of infection (moi). Low moi of the virus stimulated cell proliferation; maximal effect has been registered 3-4 days after infection. But the fate of T-cells, B-cells and monocytes after initial infection was different: Jurkat cells continued intense proliferation while proliferation of NC-37, THP-1 and U-937 cells lowered. Prolonged (for 3 passages) cultivation of Jurkat, NC-37 and U-937 cell lines has shown that infection of these cell lines not only with low but also with medium and high moi also leads to stimulation of proliferation. Using a variety of methods for the detection of viral reproduction has clearly shown that infection of non-permissive human T-, B-cells and monocytes with influenza A virus leads to latent infection. So, low moi interferes with normal formation of viral particles, which in turn might stimulate cell proliferation and then be followed by induction of apoptosis. Antiviral drags rimantadine and ribavirin suppressed virus-induced cell proliferation; at the same time, induction of apoptosis was suppressed only by rimantadine and was enhanced by ribavirin. The data obtained provide strong support for the role of influenza A virus in the observed effects. PMID:26591065

  6. Altered monocyte function in uremia.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, R A; Martinez, O M; Garovoy, M R

    1990-07-01

    Uremia appears to suppress immune function predisposing patients to infections. When the defect in cellular immunity was studied by exposing mononuclear cells (MNC) from uremic patients and controls to tetanus toxoid, diptheria toxoid, or Candida albicans antigen in vitro, the uremic cells were far less responsive. Monocytes and T cells, which are both involved in the proliferative response to soluble antigens, were isolated from MNC of uremic patients and HLA class II matched controls and incubated with tetanus toxoid. Tetanus toxoid-pulsed uremic monocytes were unable to stimulate the proliferation of HLA identical control T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes from uremic patients, however, were stimulated by tetanus toxoid-pulsed control monocytes. Therefore, the ability of monocytes to function as accessory cells is severely affected by uremia. The uremic monocytes were FcR+, produced IL-1 beta, and expressed levels of HLA class II antigens comparable to controls. Although the biochemical defect in uremic monocytes remains unknown, the abnormality could explain many of the immunological changes of uremia. PMID:2192826

  7. Prognostic role of peripheral blood lymphocyte/monocyte ratio at diagnosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Baochai; Chen, Cuie; Qian, Yan; Feng, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of the absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio (ALC/AMC ratio) at diagnosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we performed a meta-analysis of published studies that provided survival information with reference to the ALC/AMC ratio at diagnosis. Nine studies covering a total of 4198 subjects were included in this analysis. The summary hazard ratios of low ALC/AMC ratio for overall survival were 2.00 (p = 0.000) in the population that received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and 1.12 (p = 0.479) in the population that received CHOP. The corresponding ratios for event-free survival and progression-free survival were 1.93 (p = 0.000) and 2.31 (p = 0.000) in the population that received R-CHOP. These results may justify risk-adapted therapeutic strategies for patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP to account for the ALC/AMC ratio at diagnosis. PMID:25686648

  8. Monocytes become macrophages; they do not become microglia: a light and electron microscopic autoradiographic study using 125-iododeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Schelper, R.L.; Adrian, E.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This light and electron microscopic autoradiographic study of stab injuries in the spinal cord of mice evaluated the ultrastructural characteristics of cells labeled by incorporation of the thymidine analogue /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (I-UdR), injected one day prior to injury. I-UdR was used instead of tritiated thymidine (H-TdR) because H-TdR can be reutilized and is therefore not a suitable pulse label for long-term studies of cell migration. Using serial thick and thin sections for autoradiography 614 labeled cells were identified. Labeled cells included 545 monocytes/macrophages, 50 lymphocytes, 17 pericytes, one endothelial cell, and one arachnoid cell. No labeled cell had the morphology of microglia. We concluded that macrophages in stab injuries of the spinal cord of mice are derived from blood monocytes. Blood-derived lymphocytes are also involved in the reaction to spinal cord stab injury. Microglia are not blood-derived and are not seen as a transitional form in the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages.

  9. Ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count at diagnosis is associated with progression-free survival in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shogo; Tashima, Masaharu; Fujikawa, Jun; Iwasaki, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Sueki, Yuki; Fukunaga, Akiko; Yanagita, Soshi; Nishikori, Momoko; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Arima, Nobuyoshi

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) is significantly associated with host immunity and tumor microenvironment. Lymphopenia has been identified as a negative prognostic factor for FL. The association between monocytosis and progression-free survival (PFS) in FL remains controversial. It is unknown whether the ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) at diagnosis is associated with FL prognosis. We studied 99 consecutive patients with FL who were treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy at Kitano Hospital or Kyoto University Hospital between 2000 and 2012. We analyzed individual variables associated with the ALC/AMC ratio before treatment, as well as known prognostic factors of FL, and found that an ALC/AMC ratio of 4.7 was the best cut-off value for PFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was associated with inferior PFS (P = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was a significant poor prognostic factor independent of other variables (hazard ratio, 2.714; 95 % confidence interval, 1.060-6.948; P = 0.037). The ALC/AMC ratio before treatment may be a significant prognostic factor predicting PFS of FL. PMID:24756873

  10. Predictive value of pretreatment inflammation-based prognostic scores (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio) for invasive bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Andrew; Hellawell, Giles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inflammation-based prognostic scores including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) are associated with oncologic outcomes in diverse malignancies. We evaluated the predictive value of pretreatment prognostic scores in differentiating nonmuscle invasive (NMIBC) and muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Materials and Methods Consecutive transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) cases from January 2011 to December 2013 were analysed retrospectively. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics and prognostic scores results were recorded. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to determine prognostic score cutoffs. Univariate and multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between variables and MIBC. Results A total of 226 patients were included, with 175 and 51 having NMIBC (stages Ta and T1) and MIBC (stage T2+) groups, respectively. Median age was 75 years and 174 patients were male. The NLR cutoff was 3.89 and had the greatest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.710, followed by LMR (cutoff<1.7; AUC, 0.650) and PLR (cutoff>218; AUC, 0.642). Full blood count samples were taken a median of 12 days prior to TURBT surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified tumour grade G3 (odds ration [OR], 32.848; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.818-109.902; p=0.000), tumour size?3 cm (OR, 3.353; 95% CI, 1.347-8.345; p=0.009) and NLR?3.89 (OR, 8.244; 95% CI, 2.488-27.316; p=0.001) as independent predictors of MIBC. Conclusions NLR may provide a simple, cost-effective and easily measured marker for MIBC. It can be performed at the time of diagnostic flexible cystoscopy, thereby assisting in the planning of further treatment. PMID:26568792

  11. Evidence for the involvement of monocyte-derived toxic oxygen metabolites in the lymphocyte dysfunction of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Deshazo, R D; Ewel, C; Londono, S; Metzger, Z; Hoffeld, J T; Oppenheim, J J

    1981-01-01

    This study was performed to see if adherent cell-derived toxic oxygen metabolites contribute to the suppression of mononuclear cell blastogenic responses in Hodgkin's disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 10 patients with Hodgkin's disease were stimulated in culture with the mitogen PHA in the presence of the prostaglandin inhibitor indomethacin and the antioxidants catalase or vitamin E. Patient lymphocytes showed significant increases in PHA-induced proliferation at all PHA doses when cultured with indomethacin. Further augmentation of lymphocyte proliferation was achieved with the addition of catalase or vitamin E to indomethacin in the culture system. The increases in proliferation seen on culture with these agents were greatest in patients with more depressed initial PHA responses. When adherent cells were removed before culture, the agents no longer facilitated increases in proliferation. These data suggest that abnormal lymphocyte proliferative responses seen in Hodgkin's disease may result in part from the excessive production of toxic oxygen metabolites as well as prostaglandins by adherent cell populations. PMID:7337972

  12. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Torpey, D.J. III

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

  13. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: very long-chain fatty acid metabolism is severely impaired in monocytes but not in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Weber, Franziska D; Wiesinger, Christoph; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Regelsberger, Günther; Einwich, Angelika; Weber, Willi H A; Köhler, Wolfgang; Stockinger, Hannes; Berger, Johannes

    2014-05-15

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, encoding a member of the peroxisomal ABC transporter family. The ABCD1 protein transports CoA-activated very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) into peroxisomes for degradation via ?-oxidation. In the severest form, X-ALD patients suffer from inflammatory demyelination of the brain. As the extent of the metabolic defect in the main immune cells is unknown, we explored their phenotypes concerning mRNA expression pattern of the three peroxisomal ABC transporters, VLCFA accumulation and peroxisomal ?-oxidation. In controls, ABCD1 expression was high in monocytes, intermediate in B cells and low in T cells; ABCD2 expression was extremely low in monocytes, intermediate in B cells and highest in T cells; ABCD3 mRNA was equally distributed. In X-ALD patients, the expression patterns remained unaltered; accordingly, monocytes, which lack compensatory VLCFA transport by ABCD2, displayed the severest biochemical phenotype with a 6-fold accumulation of C26:0 and a striking 70% reduction in peroxisomal ?-oxidation activity. In contrast, VLCFA metabolism was close to control values in B cells and T cells, supporting the hypothesis that sufficient ABCD2 is present to compensate for ABCD1 deficiency. Thus, the vulnerability of the main immune cell types is highly variable in X-ALD. Based on these results, we propose that in X-ALD the halt of inflammation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation relies particularly on the replacement of the monocyte lineage. Additionally, these findings support the concept that ABCD2 is a target for pharmacological induction as an alternative therapeutic strategy. PMID:24363066

  14. Development of a novel in vitro model to study the tryptic : endothelial cells, monocytes and flow

    E-print Network

    Turjman, Alexis S. (Alexis Salomon)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a novel in vitro model of monocytes transmigration under flow and use in the study of early molecular events of atherogenesis. In this work, we focused on how endothelial dysfunction, ...

  15. Cyclic dinucleotides modulate human T-cell response through monocyte cell death.

    PubMed

    Tosolini, Marie; Pont, Frédéric; Verhoeyen, Els; Fournié, Jean-Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides, a class of microbial messengers, have been recently identified in bacteria, but their activity in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we have studied the function of cyclic dinucleotides in humans. We found that c-di-AMP and cGAMP, two adenosine-based cyclic dinucleotides, activated T lymphocytes in an unusual manner through monocyte cell death. c-di-AMP and cGAMP induced the selective apoptosis of human monocytes, and T lymphocytes were activated by the direct contact with these dying monocytes. The ensuing T-cell response comprised cell-cycle exit, phenotypic maturation into effector memory cells and proliferation arrest, but not cell death. This quiescence was transient since T cells remained fully responsive to further restimulation. Together, our results depict a novel activation pattern for human T lymphocytes: a transient quiescence induced by c-di-AMP- or cGAMP-primed apoptotic monocytes. PMID:26460927

  16. Interaction studies reveal specific recognition of an anti-inflammatory polyphosphorhydrazone dendrimer by human monocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledall, Jérémy; Fruchon, Séverine; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Blanzat, Muriel; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-10-01

    Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes.Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03884g

  17. Phosphatidylcholine metabolism is altered in a monocyte-derived macrophage model of Gaucher disease but not in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Trajkovic-Bodennec, Selena; Bodennec, Jacques; Futerman, Anthony H

    2004-01-01

    Gaucher disease is caused by defective activity of acid-beta-glucosidase (GlcCerase), resulting in accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) mainly in macrophages. We now demonstrate that secondary biochemical pathways regulating levels of phospholipid metabolism are altered in a Gaucher disease macrophage model. Upon treatment of macrophages with the GlcCerase inhibitor, conduritol-B-epoxide, phosphatidylcholine (PC) labeling with the metabolic precursor, [methyl-14C]choline, was elevated after 6 or 12 days in macrophages but not in lymphocytes. These changes correlated with increases in the cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio and with levels of [3H]GlcCer accumulation. Moreover, metabolic labeling with L-[3-3H]serine and L-[methyl-3H]methionine demonstrated that PC synthesis via the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine is also increased in CBE-treated macrophages. Since PC is a major structural component of biological membranes and the source of various second messengers, we suggest that changes in its metabolism in macrophages may be relevant for understanding Gaucher disease pathology. PMID:15223015

  18. Cannabidiol induced a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect between freshly isolated and precultured human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hsin-Ying; Chang, An-Chi; Wang, Chia-Chi; Kuo, Fu-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ya; Liu, Der-Zen; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2010-08-01

    It has been documented that cannabidiol (CBD) induced apoptosis in a variety of transformed cells, including lymphocytic and monocytic leukemias. In contrast, a differential sensitivity between normal lymphocytes and monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis has been reported. The present study investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD on human peripheral monocytes that were either freshly isolated or precultured for 72 h. CBD markedly enhanced apoptosis of freshly isolated monocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas precultured monocytes were insensitive. By comparison, both cells were sensitive to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. CBD significantly diminished the cellular thiols and glutathione in freshly isolated monocytes. The apoptosis induced by CBD was abrogated in the presence of N-acetyl-{sub L}-cysteine, a precursor of glutathione. In addition, precultured monocytes contained a significantly greater level of glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) compared to the freshly isolated cells. The HO-1 competitive inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin partially but significantly restored the sensitivity of precultured monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrated a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect of CBD between precultured and freshly isolated monocytes, which was closely associated with the cellular level of glutathione and the antioxidative capability of the cells.

  19. Altered T Lymphocyte Proliferation upon Lipopolysaccharide Challenge Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Poujol, Fanny; Monneret, Guillaume; Pachot, Alexandre; Textoris, Julien; Venet, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Context Sepsis is characterized by the development of adaptive immune cell alterations, which intensity and duration are associated with increased risk of health-care associated infections and mortality. However, pathophysiological mechanisms leading to such lymphocyte dysfunctions are not completely understood, although both intrinsic lymphocyte alterations and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) dysfunctions are most likely involved. Study The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS, mimicking initial Gram negative bacterial challenge) could directly impact lymphocyte function after sepsis. Therefore, we explored ex-vivo the effect of LPS priming on human T lymphocyte proliferation induced by different stimuli. Results We showed that LPS priming of PBMCs reduced T cell proliferative response and altered IFN? secretion after stimulation with OKT3 but not with phytohaemagglutinin or anti-CD2/CD3/CD28-coated beads stimulations. Interestingly only LPS priming of monocytes led to decreased T cell proliferative response as opposed to LPS priming of lymphocytes. Importantly, LPS priming was associated with reduced expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and CD64 on monocytes but not with the modification of CD3, CTLA4, PD-1 and CD28 expressions on lymphocytes. Finally, IFN? stimulation restored monocytes accessory functions and T cell proliferative response to OKT3. Conclusion We conclude that LPS priming does not directly impact lymphocyte functions but reduces APC’s capacity to activate T cells. This recapitulates ex vivo indirect mechanisms participating in sepsis-induced lymphocyte alterations and suggests that monocyte-targeting immunoadjuvant therapies in sepsis may also help to improve adaptive immune dysfunctions. Direct mechanisms impacting lymphocytes being also at play during sepsis, the respective parts of direct versus indirect sepsis-induced lymphocyte alterations remain to be evaluated in clinic. PMID:26642057

  20. Studies on the accessory requirement for T lymphocyte activation by concanavalin A.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R B; Whelan, A; Feighery, C

    1986-01-01

    In this study we have examined the interactions between accessory cells (AC) and T cells in response to Con A. Highly purified peripheral blood T cells and AC exposed to a variety of treatments were used. We found that untreated AC provided optimal help for T cell proliferation and this was not mediated by soluble factors since whole cells could not be replaced with supernatants from activated AC. Furthermore, cycloheximide-treated AC were able to supply the accessory signal although unable to elaborate soluble activation factors. To find out more about the accessory signal, we examined the ability of monocytes mildly fixed with glutaraldehyde to supply help. These cells were completely unable to perform as AC, although they were viable and had unaltered surface antigen expression. They could not secrete activation factors, but this alone could not explain their inability to supply help because this function was not restored with the addition of soluble activation factors. This indicated that AC-T cell contact was of prime importance to accessory function. To investigate the possibility that AC work by cross-linking structures on the lymphocyte surface, we attempted to substitute for the soluble Con A plus AC with Con A bound to the surface of erythrocytes. Comparable stimulation was observed, suggesting that the cross-linking of Con A-bound structures on the lymphocyte surface generates the accessory signal. PMID:3100115

  1. Mitogenic signal transduction in T lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.; Bechler, B.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Criswell, S. B.; Joller, H.; Joller, P.; Hunzinger, E.; Muller, O.

    1993-01-01

    The activation by concanavalin A Con A of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in the presence of monocytes as accessory cells was investigated in cultures exposed to microgravity conditions in Spacelab. Activation of T cells was measured as incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-gamma, and expression of IL-2 receptors. Whereas, as discovered in earlier experiments, the activation of resuspended T cells is strongly inhibited, activation of cells attached to microcarrier beads is more than doubled in microgravity. The results suggest that the depression of the activation in resuspended cells may be attributed to a malfunction of monocytes acting as accessory cells. In fact, although the ultrastructure of resuspended monocytes is not altered in microgravity, the secretion of IL-1 is strongly inhibited. Our data suggest that (1) IL-2 is produced independently of IL-1, (2) IL-1 production is triggered only when monocytes (and lymphocytes?) adhere to microcarriers, (3) the expression of IL-2 receptors depends on IL-1, and (4) provided sufficient IL-1 is available, activation is enhanced in microgravity. Finally, cultures of resuspended PBLs and monocytes in microgravity constitute a complete and natural system in which monocytes are not operational. This may be useful for studies of the role of accessory cells and cell-cell interactions in T lymphocyte activation.

  2. Quantification of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 levels on lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells, and differentially conditioned monocyte-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Benhur; Sharron, Matthew; Montaner, Luis J.; Weissman, Drew; Doms, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    CCR5 and CXCR4 are the major HIV-1 coreceptors for R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains, respectively, and a threshold number of CD4 and chemokine receptor molecules is required to support virus infection. Therefore, we used a quantitative fluorescence-activated cell sorting assay to determine the number of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 antibody-binding sites (ABS) on various T cell lines, T cell subsets, peripheral blood dendritic cells (PBDC), and monocyte-derived macrophages by using four-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis on fresh whole blood. Receptor levels varied dramatically among the various subsets examined and typically varied from 2- to 5-fold between individuals. CCR5 was expressed at much higher levels in CD4+/CD45RO+/CD62L-true memory cells compared with CD4+/CD45RO+/CD62L+ cells. Fresh PBDC had the highest number of CCR5 ABS among the leukocyte subsets examined but had few CXCR4 ABS, affording a strategy for sort-purifying PBDC. In vitro maturation of PBDC resulted in median 3- and 41-fold increases in CCR5 and CXCR4 ABS, respectively. We found that macrophage colony-stimulating factor caused the greatest up-regulation of both CCR5 and CXCR4 on macrophage maturation (from ?5,000 to ?50,000 ABS) whereas granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor caused a marked decrease of CXCR4 (from ?5,000 ABS to <500) while up-regulating CCR5 expression (from ?5,000 to ?20,000 ABS). Absolute ABS for CD4 and the major HIV-1 coreceptors serve as a more quantitative measure of cell surface expression, and we propose that this be used for future studies looking at the modulation of CD4 or chemokine receptor expression by cytokines, HIV-1 infection, or receptor polymorphisms. PMID:10220446

  3. Gene expression studies of a human monocyte cell line identify dissimilarities between differently manufactured glatiramoids

    PubMed Central

    Kolitz, Sarah; Hasson, Tal; Towfic, Fadi; Funt, Jason M.; Bakshi, Shlomo; Fowler, Kevin D.; Laifenfeld, Daphna; Grinspan, Augusto; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Birnberg, Tal; Schwartz, Rivka; Komlosh, Arthur; Hayardeny, Liat; Ladkani, David; Hayden, Michael R.; Zeskind, Benjamin; Grossman, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Glatiramer Acetate (GA) has provided safe and effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients for two decades. It acts as an antigen, yet the precise mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, and no validated pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic biomarkers exist. In order to better characterize GA’s biological impact, genome-wide expression studies were conducted with a human monocyte (THP-1) cell line. Consistent with previous literature, branded GA upregulated anti-inflammatory markers (e.g. IL10), and modulated multiple immune-related pathways. Despite some similarities, significant differences were observed between expression profiles induced by branded GA and Probioglat, a differently-manufactured glatiramoid purported to be a generic GA. Key results were verified using qRT-PCR. Genes (e.g. CCL5, adj. p?monocytes. These observations suggest differential biological impact by the two glatiramoids and warrant further investigation. PMID:25998228

  4. Glutamine May Repress the Weak LPS and Enhance the Strong Heat Shock Induction of Monocyte and Lymphocyte HSP72 Proteins but May Not Modulate the HSP72 mRNA in Patients with Sepsis or Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Briassouli, Efrossini; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Goukos, Dimitris; Routsi, Christina; Nanas, Serafim; Vardas, Kostas; Apostolou, Kleovoulos; Kanariou, Maria; Daikos, George; Briassoulis, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or heat shock (HS) induction of heat shock protein-72 (HSP72) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with severe sepsis (SS) or trauma-related systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), compared to healthy individuals (H); we also investigated any pre- or posttreatment modulating glutamine (Gln) effect. Methods. SS (11), SIRS (10), and H (19) PBMCs were incubated with 1??g/mL LPS or 43°HS. Gln 10?mM was either added 1?h before or 1?h after induction or was not added at all. We measured monocyte (m), lymphocyte (l), mRNA HSP72, HSP72 polymorphisms, interleukins (ILs), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cortisol levels. Results. Baseline lHSP72 was higher in SS (p < 0.03), and mHSP72 in SIRS (p < 0.02), compared to H. Only HS induced l/mHSP72/mRNA HSP72; LPS induced IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and MCP-1. Induced mRNA was related to l/mHSP72, and was related negatively to cytokines. Intracellular l/mHSP72/HSP72 mRNA was related to serum ILs, not being influenced by cortisol, illness severity, and HSP72 polymorphisms. Gln did not induce mRNA in any group but modified l/mHSP72 after LPS/HS induction unpredictably. Conclusions. HSP72 mRNA and l/mHSP72 are higher among critically ill patients, further induced by HS, not by LPS. HSP72 proteins and HSP72 mRNA are related to serum ILs and are negatively related to supernatant cytokines, not being influenced by HSP72 polymorphisms, cortisol, or illness severity. Gln may depress l/mHSP72 after LPS exposure and enhance them after HS induction, but it may not affect early induced HSP72 mRNA. PMID:26550577

  5. The ARIC Carotid MRI Study of Blood Cellular Markers: An Inverse Association of Monocyte Myeloperoxidase Content With Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matijevic (Aleksic), Nena; Wu, Kenneth K.; Nidkarni, Nivedita; Heiss, Gerardo; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association of blood monocyte and platelet activation markers with the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in a multicenter study of atherosclerosis among African American and Caucasian patients. Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells was performed in 1791 participants (209 cases with PAD and 1582 noncases) from the cross-sectional Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Carotid Magnetic Resonance Imaging ([MRI] ARIC Carotid MRI) Study to assess platelet glycoproteins IIb and IIIa, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, platelet–leukocyte aggregates, monocyte lipopolysaccharide receptor, toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and myeloperoxidase. Multivariate regression analyses evaluated the association of cellular markers with the risk of PAD. After adjusting for age, race, and gender, platelet CD40L, and monocyte myeloperoxidase (mMPO) levels were significantly lower (P < .001), and monocyte TLR-4 levels were higher (P = .03) in patients with PAD. With additional adjustments for conventional risk factors, mMPO remained inversely and independently associated with the risk of PAD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P = .01). PMID:21406422

  6. Phenotypic and functional characterization of macrophages with therapeutic potential generated from human cirrhotic monocytes in a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Joanna K.; Mackinnon, Alison C.; Wojtacha, Dvina; Pope, Caroline; Fraser, Alasdair R.; Burgoyne, Paul; Bailey, Laura; Pass, Chloe; Atkinson, Anne; Mcgowan, Neil W.A.; Manson, Lynn; Turner, Mark L.; Campbell, John D.M.; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Background aims Macrophages have complex roles in the liver. The aim of this study was to compare profiles of human monocyte-derived macrophages between controls and cirrhotic patients, to determine whether chronic inflammation affects precursor number or the phenotype, with the eventual aim to develop a cell therapy for cirrhosis. Methods Infusion of human macrophages in a murine liver fibrosis model demonstrated a decrease in markers of liver injury (alanine transaminase, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-?, ?-smooth muscle actin, phosphatidylserine receptor) and an increase in markers of liver regeneration (matrix metalloproteinases [MMP]-9, MMP-12 and TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis). CD14+ monocytes were then isolated from controls. Monocytes were matured into macrophages for 7 days using a Good Manufacturing Practice–compatible technique. Results There was no significant difference between the mean number of CD14+ monocytes isolated from cirrhotic patients (n = 9) and controls (n = 10); 2.8 ± SEM 0.54 × 108 and 2.5 ± 0.56 × 108, respectively. The mean yield of mature macrophages cultured was also not significantly different between cirrhotic patients and controls (0.9 × 108 ± 0.38 × 108, with more than 90% viability and 0.65 × 108 ± 0.16 × 108, respectively. Maturation to macrophages resulted in up-regulation of a number of genes (MMP-9, CCL2, interleukin [IL]-10 and TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis). A cytokine and chemokine polymerase chain reaction array, comparing the control and cirrhotic macrophages, revealed no statistically significant differences. Conclusions Macrophages can be differentiated from cirrhotic patients' apheresis-derived CD14 monocytes and develop the same pro-resolution phenotype as control macrophages, indicating their suitability for clinical therapy. PMID:26342993

  7. Optimal macroculture method for studying mitogenic stimulation of turkey lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tessler, J; Page, L A

    1978-01-01

    This report describes a method for culturing turkey lymphocytes in disposable, unwashed glass test tubes with Morton closures and for recovering lymphocytes on fiber glass filters with a cell harvester made of common laboratory equipment for assay of mitogenic stimulation. Optimal conditions for culture were established. PMID:352493

  8. Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and

    E-print Network

    Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) plus a Comparison Population in Sierra Vista, Arizona The protocol Assessment of Case Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) and a Reference

  9. Baseline and Trend of Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio as Prognostic Factors in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with First-Line Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Mu; Lai, Chien-Hao; Chang, Huang-Chih; Chao, Tung-Ying; Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Fang, Wen-Feng; Wang, Chin-Chou; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Wang, Yi-Hsi; Su, Mao-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Hung-Chen; Chang, Ya-Chun; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with early-stage lung cancer who have a high baseline lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) have a favorable prognosis. However, the prognostic significance of LMR in patients with advanced-stage EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has not been established. We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate the influence of LMR on clinical outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in EGFR-mutant patients with NSCLC. Materials and Methods Of 1310 lung cancer patients diagnosed between January 2011 and October 2013, 253 patients receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs for EGFR-mutant NSCLC were included. The cut-off values for baseline and the 1-month-to-baseline ratio of LMR (MBR), determined by using receiver operating characteristic curves, were 3.29 and 0.63, respectively. Patients were divided into 3 prognostic groups: high LMR and MBR, high LMR or MBR, and low LMR and MBR. Results The mean patient age was 65.2 years, and 41% were men. The median PFS and OS were 10.3 and 22.0 months, respectively. The PFS in patients with high LMR and MBR, high LMR or MBR, and low LMR and MBR were 15.4, 7.1, and 2.0 months, respectively (p < 0.001), whereas the OS were 32.6, 13.7, and 5.1 months, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion A combination of baseline and trend of LMR can be used to identify patients with a high mortality risk in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs. PMID:26313661

  10. Changes in Monocyte Functions of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur, I.; Simons, E.; Castro, V.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2004-01-01

    Monocyte cell numbers and functions, including phagocytosis, oxidative burst capacity, and degranulation and expression of related surface molecules, were studied in blood specimens from 25 astronauts and 9 healthy control subjects. Blood samples were obtained 10 days before a space flight, 3 hours after landing and 3 days after landing. The number of monocytes in astronauts did not change significantly among the three sample collection periods. Following space flight, the monocytes ability to phagocytize Escherichia coli, to exhibit an oxidative burst, and to degranulate was reduced as compared to monocytes from control subjects. These alterations in monocyte functions after space flight correlated with alterations in the expression of CD32 and CD64.

  11. The migration of lymphocytes across the vascular endothelium in lymph nodes: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Nishi, M; Hamada, N; Nomura, H; Mastueda, M; Aiko, T

    1979-03-01

    Endothelial cells of Postcapillary Venules (PCV) and the passage of lymphocytes through the wall of PCV were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in mesenteric lymph nodes of rats. Individual endothelial cells of PCV in the lymph node did not have flat surface or were not typically cubic, but swelled at the central part assuming a foot ball-like shape. Circulating lymphocytes are considered to migrate into lymphatic tissues through the wall of PCV from the blood stream. Two hypotheses, inter-endothelial cell passage and intra-endothelial cell passage, have been proposed. The three-dimensional studies on lymphocytes passing the wall with SEM confirmed that migrating lymphocytes pushes their way through the intercellular space with pressing the adjoining endothelial cells from beginning to end, supporting the former hypothesis. Invasion of lymphocytes into endothelial cells were not observed. PMID:449406

  12. Study of splenic irradiation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Guiney, M.J.; Liew, K.H.; Quong, G.G.; Cooper, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to assess the effect of splenic irradiation (SI) on splenomegaly, splenic pain, anemia, and thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Twenty-two patients received 32 courses of SI. Of 31 courses of SI given for splenomegaly there were 19 responders (61%). Ten courses of SI were given for splenic pain resulting in partial relief of pain in 4 courses and complete relief in 4 courses. Only 4 of 16 courses given for anemia resulted in elevations of hemoglobin of 2 g/dL or more. Of the 14 courses of SI given for thrombocytopenia there were only 2 responses with platelet counts decreasing further in another 9 courses. The median duration of response was 14 months (range: 3-116 months). There was no dose-response relationship detected for SI in CLL. Treatment related toxicity was hematologic and secondary to leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. We recommend the use of small fraction sizes of 25 cGy to 50 cGy and close monitoring of hematological parameters. Splenic irradiation effectively palliates splenomegaly and reduces spleen size in CLL. It was of limited value in correcting anemia and thrombocytopenia in this patient population.

  13. Orthodontic Force Induces Systemic Inflammatory Monocyte Responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, M; Kou, X; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Zhang, J; Yan, Y; Liu, F; He, D; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-09-01

    Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement are considered regional reactions. However, how systemic immune responses are involved in this regional reaction remains unclear. In this study, we explored the systemic effects of orthodontic force by focusing on the mononuclear phagocyte system. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the percentage of inflammatory monocytes, in peripheral blood and in the monocyte reservoir spleen, decreased on days 1 and 3 and then recovered on day 7 after force application. Along with the systemic decrease of inflammatory monocyte percentage, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts increased in the compression side of the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. Systemic transfusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled inflammatory monocytes showed recruitment of these monocytes to the orthodontic force compression side of periodontal tissues. These monocytes were colocalized with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that orthodontic force could upregulate the expression of pivotal monocyte chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in periodontal tissues or cultured periodontal ligament cells, which may contribute to monocyte recruitment to regional sites. These data suggest that orthodontic force induces systemic immune responses related to inflammatory monocytes and that systemic inflammatory monocytes can be recruited to periodontal tissues by orthodontic force stimulus. PMID:26130260

  14. Changes of lymphocyte membrane fluidity in rheumatoid arthritis: a fluorescence polarisation study.

    PubMed Central

    Beccerica, E; Piergiacomi, G; Curatola, G; Ferretti, G

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence polarisation of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was used to study the lymphocyte membrane in rheumatoid arthritis. The increase of polarisation value in the patients (n = 27) compared with healthy controls (n = 32) suggests a decrease of membrane fluidity. Moreover, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were positively correlated with lymphocyte fluorescence polarisation values (r = 0.66 and r = 0.76 respectively). The results suggest that the changes in lymphocyte membrane fluidity could be involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:3382266

  15. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320–1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234–0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  16. Activation profile of Toll-like receptors of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wong, C K; Wong, P T Y; Tam, L S; Li, E K; Chen, D P; Lam, C W K

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease associated with aberrant activation of T and B lymphocytes for the production of inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. Animal studies of SLE have indicated that Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in the pathogenesis of murine lupus. In the present clinical study, differential protein expressions of TLR-1-9 of monocytes and different lymphocyte subsets from patients with SLE and normal control subjects were determined by flow cytometry. Results showed that the expression of intracellular TLRs (TLR-3, -8, -9) and extracellular TLRs (TLR-1, -2, -4, -5, -6) were elevated in monocytes, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes of SLE patients compared to control subjects (all P < 0.001). Moreover, cell surface expression of TLR-4 on CD4(+) T lymphocytes and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, and TLR-6 on B lymphocytes, were correlated positively with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (TLR-4 on CD4(+) T lymphocytes and CD8(+) T lymphocytes: r = 0.536, P = 0.04; r = 0.713, P = 0.003; TLR-6 in B lymphocytes: r = 0.572, P = 0.026). In concordance with the above results, there is an observable increased relative induction (%) of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12, chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, CCL5 and CXCL10 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon differential stimulation by PolyIC (TLR-3 ligand), lipopolysaccharide (TLR-4 ligand), peptidoglycan (TLR-2 ligand), flagellin (TLR-5 ligand), R837 (TLR-7 ligand) and CpG DNA (TLR-9 ligand) in SLE patients compared to controls. These results suggest that the innate immune response for extracellular pathogens and self-originated DNA plays immunopathological roles via TLR activation in SLE. PMID:19843090

  17. Prognostic impact of platelet/lymphocyte and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios in patients with gastric cancer: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Gunaldi, Meral; Goksu, Sema; Erdem, Dilek; Gunduz, Seyda; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Tiken, Eda; Kahraman, Sibel; Inan, Yesim Ozdem; Genc, Tugrul Burak; Yildirim, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing amounts of evidence suggest patient-related systemic inflammatory response (SIR) as a powerful prognostic factor in cancer and applicability of SIR as a prognostic factor has been investigated. Aim: To evaluate the prognostic significance of SIR, which is among routinely analysed blood parameters in patients with all stages of gastric cancer (GC). Methods: A total of 245 patients with gastric cancer who were followed up and treated in four clinics of medical oncology were included in the study. At first admission of the patients, from routinely determined whole blood cell counts in medical oncology clinics, their neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) values were estimated and recorded before initiating chemo- or radiotherapy. A univariate non-parametric analytical method and chi-square test examined the correlation between prognostic factors, and survival rates. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Sixty-eight (27.8%) female and 177 (72.2) male patients (total n=245) were included in the study. When NLR was used as an indicator of SIR, 108 (44.1%) patients were SIR negative and 137 (55.9%) patients were SIR positive. When PLR was used as an indicator of SIR, SIR negativity and positivity were detected in 93(38%) and 152 (62%) patients, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between status of lymph node metastasis, stage of the disease and NLR (P=0.001, P=0.017). SIR determined with PLR was found to be correlated with the depth of tumor invasion and stage of the disease (P=0.016, P=0.033). A significant correlation was not detected between PLR and survival (P=0.405). Conclusion: According to our study, parameters of NLR and PLR calculated preoperatively from peripheral blood samples can be used in patients with various sizes of tumours in different disease stages. Still based on our results, NLR calculated during diagnostic workup is a parameter with a prognostic value. In addition, NLR is a determinative factor in the selection of surgical method and chemotherapeutic modalities, which also functions as a potential contributory marker in effective immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26131188

  18. Oxidative Mechanisms of Monocyte-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stephen J.; Lobuglio, Albert F.; Kessler, Howard B.

    1980-01-01

    Human monocytes stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate were able to rapidly destroy autologous erythrocyte targets. Monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity was related to phorbol myristate acetate concentration and monocyte number. Purified preparations of lymphocytes were incapable of mediating erythrocyte lysis in this system. The ability of phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes to lyse erythrocyte targets was markedly impaired by catalase or superoxide dismutase but not by heat-inactivated enzymes or albumin. Despite a simultaneous requirement for superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the cytotoxic event, a variety of hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen scavengers did not effect cytolysis. However, tryptophan significantly inhibited cytotoxicity. The myeloperoxidase inhibitor cyanide enhanced erythrocyte destruction, whereas azide reduced it modestly. The inability of cyanide to reduce cytotoxicity coupled with the protective effect of superoxide dismutase suggests that cytotoxicity is independent of the classic myeloperoxidase system. We conclude that monocytes, stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, generate superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, which together play an integral role in this cytotoxic mechanism.

  19. Role of caveolin-3 in lymphocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Chinh; Stary, Creed M.; Schilling, Jan M.; Bentley, Brandon; Patel, Hemal H.; Roth, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Caveolins are structural proteins clustered in lipid-rich regions of plasma membrane involved in coordinating signal transduction in various organ systems. While caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been shown to regulate lymphocyte activation, the role of caveolin-3 (Cav-3) in immune system signaling has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that Cav-3 modulates lymphocyte activation. Main methods Lymphocyte/leukocyte subpopulations from WT and Cav-3 mice were profiled with flow cytometry. Cytokine production in quiescent and activated splenocytes from WT and Cav-3 mice was assessed with ELISA. Key findings Levels of T-cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells were not different between WT and KO mice, however KO mice had lower B-cell population-percentage. Functionally, activated lymphocytes from Cav-3 KO mice demonstrated significantly reduced expression of IL-2 compared to WT, while expression of TNF?, IL-6, and IL-10 was not different. Finally, expression of IL-17 was significantly reduced in T-helper cells from KO mice, while IFN? was not, suggesting that Cav-3 is a determinant in the development of the Th-17 subpopulation. Significance This study is the first to demonstrate that Cav-3 may be a novel participant in B-cell expression, T-cell cytokine production and activation of inflammation. PMID:25476831

  20. Effects of dietary salt levels on monocytic cells and immune responses in healthy human subjects: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Buqing; Titze, Jens; Rykova, Marina; Feuerecker, Matthias; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Schelling, Gustav; Morukov, Boris; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicated that excess salt consumption can impose risks on human health and a reduction in daily salt intake from the current average of approximately 12 g/d to 5-6 g/d was suggested by public health authorities. The studies on mice have revealed that sodium chloride plays a role in the modulation of the immune system and a high-salt diet can promote tissue inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, translational evidence of dietary salt on human immunity is scarce. We used an experimental approach of fixing salt intake of healthy human subjects at 12, 9, and 6 g/d for months and examined the relationship between salt-intake levels and changes in the immune system. Blood samples were taken from the end point of each salt intake period. Immune phenotype changes were monitored through peripheral leukocyte phenotype analysis. We assessed immune function changes through the characterization of cytokine profiles in response to mitogen stimulation. The results showed that subjects on the high-salt diet of 12 g/d displayed a significantly higher number of immune cell monocytes compared with the same subjects on a lower-salt diet, and correlation test revealed a strong positive association between salt-intake levels and monocyte numbers. The decrease in salt intake was accompanied by reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23, along with enhanced producing ability of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results suggest that in healthy humans high-salt diet has a potential to bring about excessive immune response, which can be damaging to immune homeostasis, and a reduction in habitual dietary salt intake may induce potentially beneficial immune alterations. PMID:25497276

  1. Titanates deliver metal ions to human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Hobbs, David T; Wong, Jacqueline J; Dogan, Sami; Zhang, Hai; Chung, K-H; Elvington, Mark C

    2010-04-01

    Amorphous peroxotitantes (APT) are insoluble titanium-based particles that bind a variety of metal compounds with high affinity; these particles could be sequestered locally in a solid phase to deliver metal-based drugs. Previous studies have confirmed the 'biodelivery' of metals from metal-APT complexes to fibroblasts, but not monocytes. Our goal in the current study was to use monocytic cytokine secretion to assess delivery of gold or platinum-based compounds from APT to human THP1 monocytes. Cytokine secretion was not triggered by APT alone or metal-APT complexes. In monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), APT alone enhanced or suppressed IL1beta or IL6 secretion, yet TNFalpha secretion was unaffected. Complexes of APT and Au(III) or cis-platin altered LPS-activated IL6 or IL1beta secretion most, TNFalpha least. Our results suggest that the APT deliver metals to monocytes. PMID:19941042

  2. Early Dynamics of Cerebrospinal CD14+ Monocytes and CD15+ Granulocytes in Patients after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Postl, Lukas Kurt; Bogner, Viktoria; van Griensven, Martijn; Beirer, Marc; Kanz, Karl Georg; Egginger, Christoph; Schmitt-Sody, Markus; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the analysis of neuroinflammatory mechanisms gained increasing interest. In this context certain immunocompetent cells might play an important role. Interestingly, in the actual literature there exist only a few studies focusing on the role of monocytes and granulocytes in TBI patients. In this regard it has recently reported that the choroid plexus represents an early, selective barrier for leukocytes after brain injury. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the very early dynamics of CD14+ monocytes and CD15+ granulocyte in CSF of patients following severe TBI with regard to the integrity of the BBB. Cytometric flow analysis was performed to analyze the CD14+ monocyte and CD15+ granulocyte population in CSF of TBI patients. The ratio of CSF and serum albumin as a measure for the BBB's integrity was assessed in parallel. CSF samples of patients receiving lumbar puncture for elective surgery were obtained as controls. Overall 15 patients following severe TBI were enrolled. 10 patients were examined as controls. In patients, the monocyte population as well as the granulocyte population was significantly increased within 72 hours after TBI. The BBB's integrity did not have a significant influence on the cell count in the CSF. PMID:26568661

  3. Stimulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shan, B E; Yoshida, Y; Sugiura, T; Yamashita, U

    1999-03-01

    The effects of eight kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) on human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. The extract of Cinnamomum cassia presl markedly stimulated human lymphocytes to proliferate. Codonopsis pilosula, Oldenlandia diffusa and Rhizoma typhonii weakly stimulated. These extracts enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity, but failed to enhance natural killer (NK)-cell activity. The extracts of these CMHs have stimulatory effect on immunoglobulin (Ig) production by B-cells and interleukin(IL)-1 production by monocytes. These activities of Cinnamomun cassia presl extract are associated with glycoproteins, whose molecular weight was about 100 KDa. These results suggest that CMH extracts have a stimulating activity on human lymphocytes and these abilities could be used clinically for the treatment of diseases such as cancer. PMID:10348365

  4. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma,; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  5. Urine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Lupus Nephritis Disease Activity: Preliminary Report of a Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Alharazy, Sabah; Kong, Norella C. T.; Mohd, Marlyn; Shah, Shamsul A.; Ba'in, Arbaiyah; Abdul Gafor, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the urine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1) levels in patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN) at various stages of renal disease activity and to compare them to current standard markers. Methods. Patients with LN—active or inactive—had their uMCP-1 levels and standard disease activity markers measured at baseline and 2 and 4 months. Urinary parameters, renal function test, serological markers, and renal SLE disease activity index-2K (renal SLEDAI-2K) were analyzed to determine their associations with uMCP-1. Results. A hundred patients completed the study. At each visit, uMCP-1 levels (pg/mg creatinine) were significantly higher in the active group especially with relapses and were significantly associated with proteinuria and renal SLEDAI-2K. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that uMCP-1 was a potential biomarker for LN. Whereas multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only proteinuria and serum albumin and not uMCP-1 were independent predictors of LN activity. Conclusion. uMCP-1 was increased in active LN. Although uMCP-1 was not an independent predictor for LN activity, it could serve as an adjunctive marker when the clinical diagnosis of LN especially early relapse remains uncertain. Larger and longer studies are indicated. PMID:26246906

  6. Gene rearrangement study for minimal residual disease monitoring in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Juliana Godoy; Paula, Francisco Danilo Ferreira; Xavier, Sandra Guerra; Murao, Mitiko; de Aguirre, Joaquim Caetano; Dutra, Álvaro Pimenta; Lima, Eduardo Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Benigna Maria; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect markers for minimal residual disease monitoring based on conventional polymerase chain reaction for immunoglobulin, T-cell receptor rearrangements and the Sil-Tal1 deletion in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Methods Fifty-nine children with acute lymphocytic leukemia from three institutions in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were prospectively studied. Clonal rearrangements were detected by polymerase chain reaction followed by homo/heteroduplex clonality analysis in DNA samples from diagnostic bone marrow. Follow-up samples were collected on Days 14 and 28-35 of the induction phase. The Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox methods were used for survival analysis. Results Immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor rearrangements were not detected in 5/55 children screened (9.0%). For precursor-B acute lymphocytic leukemia, the most frequent rearrangement was IgH (72.7%), then TCRG (61.4%), and TCRD and IgK (47.7%); for T-acute lymphocytic leukemia, TCRG (80.0%), and TCRD and Sil-Tal deletion (20.0%) were the most common. Minimal residual disease was detected in 35% of the cases on Day 14 and in 22.5% on Day 28-35. Minimal residual disease on Day 28-35, T-acute lymphocytic leukemia, and leukocyte count above 50 x 109/L at diagnosis were bad prognostic factors for leukemia-free survival in univariate analysis. Relapse risk for minimal residual disease positive relative to minimal residual disease negative children was 8.5 times higher (95% confidence interval: 1.02-70.7). Conclusion Immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor rearrangement frequencies were similar to those reported before. Minimal residual disease is an independent prognostic factor for leukemia-free survival, even when based on a non-quantitative technique, but longer follow-ups are needed. PMID:24255617

  7. Inflammatory Monocytes Recruited to the Liver within 24 Hours after Virus-Induced Inflammation Resemble Kupffer Cells but Are Functionally Distinct

    PubMed Central

    Movita, Dowty; Biesta, Paula; Kreefft, Kim; Haagmans, Bart; Zuniga, Elina; Herschke, Florence; De Jonghe, Sandra; Janssen, Harry L. A.; Gama, Lucio; Boonstra, Andre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to a scarcity of immunocompetent animal models for viral hepatitis, little is known about the early innate immune responses in the liver. In various hepatotoxic models, both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of recruited monocytes have been described. In this study, we compared the effect of liver inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with that of a persistent virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13, on early innate intrahepatic immune responses in mice. LCMV infection induces a remarkable influx of inflammatory monocytes in the liver within 24 h, accompanied by increased transcript levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in whole liver. Importantly, while a single LPS injection results in similar recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the liver, the functional properties of the infiltrating cells are dramatically different in response to LPS versus LCMV infection. In fact, intrahepatic inflammatory monocytes are skewed toward a secretory phenotype with impaired phagocytosis in LCMV-induced liver inflammation but exhibit increased endocytic capacity after LPS challenge. In contrast, F4/80high-Kupffer cells retain their steady-state endocytic functions upon LCMV infection. Strikingly, the gene expression levels of inflammatory monocytes dramatically change upon LCMV exposure and resemble those of Kupffer cells. Since inflammatory monocytes outnumber Kupffer cells 24 h after LCMV infection, it is highly likely that inflammatory monocytes contribute to the intrahepatic inflammatory response during the early phase of infection. Our findings are instrumental in understanding the early immunological events during virus-induced liver disease and point toward inflammatory monocytes as potential target cells for future treatment options in viral hepatitis. IMPORTANCE Insights into how the immune system deals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV are scarce due to the lack of adequate animal model systems. This knowledge is, however, crucial to developing new antiviral strategies aimed at eradicating these chronic infections. We model virus-host interactions during the initial phase of liver inflammation 24 h after inoculating mice with LCMV. We show that infected Kupffer cells are rapidly outnumbered by infiltrating inflammatory monocytes, which secrete proinflammatory cytokines but are less phagocytic. Nevertheless, these recruited inflammatory monocytes start to resemble Kupffer cells on a transcript level. The specificity of these cellular changes for virus-induced liver inflammation is corroborated by demonstrating opposite functions of monocytes after LPS challenge. Overall, this demonstrates the enormous functional and genetic plasticity of infiltrating monocytes and identifies them as an important target cell for future treatment regimens. PMID:25673700

  8. Radiation effects on cultured human monocytes and on monocyte-derived macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Buescher, E.S.; Gallin, J.I.

    1984-06-01

    Prior to administration, leukocyte transfusions are commonly irradiated with up to 5,000 R to eliminate lymphocytes and thereby prevent graft-versus-host disease in the recipient. It has been widely believed that phagocytes are resistant to this irradiation. In a recent report, it was noted that phagocyte oxidative metabolism was compromised during preparation of white cells for transfusion. As part of the effort to examine the basis for this inhibition of phagocyte function during white cell preparation, an assessment was made of the effects of irradiation on the long-lived monocytes that have been shown to persist at inflammatory foci posttransfusion. Human monocytes were irradiated for up to 3 min, receiving 2,500-5,000 R. This irradiation damaged human monocytes, significantly decreasing their in vitro survival for the first 3 wk of culture, and growth as assessed by two-dimensional cell size measurements during the first 2 wk of culture. Despite smaller cell size, total cell protein was significantly increased over time in irradiated cultures. Extracellular release of lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase per cell was not affected by irradiation, but extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was significantly increased after irradiation. Irradiated monocytes killed Listeria monocytogenes at a slower rate than the nonirradiated controls. Thus, the data indicate that irradiation in doses used to prevent graft-versus-host disease in leukocyte transfusion recipients has a deleterious effect on in vitro human monocyte survival and function.

  9. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1): An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Deshmane, Satish L.; Kremlev, Sergey; Amini, Shohreh

    2009-01-01

    Chemokines constitute a family of chemoattractant cytokines and are subdivided into four families on the basis of the number and spacing of the conserved cysteine residues in the N-terminus of the protein. Chemokines play a major role in selectively recruiting monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, as well as in inducing chemotaxis through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. Both CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 have been demonstrated to be induced and involved in various diseases. Migration of monocytes from the blood stream across the vascular endothelium is required for routine immunological surveillance of tissues, as well as in response to inflammation. This review will discuss these biological processes and the structure and function of CCL2. PMID:19441883

  10. In-111 tropolone complex for study of lymphocyte kinetics: Evidence for an induced defect in structure, function and viability

    SciTech Connect

    Balaban, E.; Simon, T.R.; Kulkarni, P.; White, J.; Newton, M.; Frenkel, E.

    1984-01-01

    The lipid soluble In-111 and tropolone complex (In-T) has been proposed as a desirable cell labeling moiety for in vivo studies. Its advantages over In-111 complexed to oxy/sup -/ or acetylacetonate are water solubility and efficient cell labeling in plasma. The authors examined the effect of In-T on lymphocyte integrity and function in preparation for studies of lymphocyte kinetics in traffic. At equal concentrations, both normal and lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia had cellular In-T uptake consistently 20% greater than that achieved with In-111 oxine. This desirable uptake led to studies of function and viability. Lymphocyte mitogenmediated blastogenic capability (an intrinsic lymphocyte function) was measured in vitro in ficoll-hypaque isolated normal lymphocytes with varying concentrations and intervals of exposure of In-T. Marked impairment of lymphocyte blastogenic responsiveness was seen with 3 different mitogens (concanavalin A, phytohemmagglutinin P, and pokeweed mitogen). Severe functional impairment was seen when cells were exposed to a In-T concentration of 10 ..mu..l/ml for 20 minutes; and a lesser effect was noted even at 10-minute incubation exposure. Cell viability, evaluated by trypan blue exclusion, was normal immediately following cell labeling, but rapidly and progressively failed to exclude (i.e. effective viability). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated loss of the normal surface villous architecture within 36 hours of in vitro incubation following a 20-minute exposure. Thus, although In-T has attractive features, its effect on lymphocyte structure, function and viability eliminate it for in vivo studies in traffic kinetics.

  11. Lipoprotein lipase enhances human monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mamputu, J C; Desfaits, A C; Renier, G

    1997-09-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated lipolysis of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) has been demonstrated to increase U937 monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of LPL to enhance human monocyte adhesion to bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in the absence of exogenous lipoproteins. Exposure of BAEC to 1 microgram/ml LPL at 37 degrees C resulted in a significant increase in monocyte adhesion over control values. Addition of VLDL in the culture media further enhanced the LPL effect. A significant increase in monocyte adhesion was also observed when BAEC were incubated with LPL at 4 degrees C. Heparin or heparinase treatment of BAEC totally abolished the LPL stimulatory effect on monocyte adhesion. In addition, incubation of monocytes with heparinase suppressed the ability of LPL to stimulate monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. These treatments also markedly decreased LPL binding to the monocyte and endothelial cell surfaces. In contrast to native LPL, heat inactivated or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF)-treated LPL did not increase monocyte adhesion to BAEC. Finally, incubation of LPL in the presence of the 5D2 antibody resulted in a total suppression of the LPL-induced monocyte adhesion to BAEC. Taken together, these data demonstrate that LPL activity plays an important role in LPL-induced monocyte adhesion and that LPL binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans expressed on both monocytes and endothelial cells surfaces is required for the enhanced monocyte adhesion. These results suggest a new mechanism by which LPL may promote the development of atherosclerosis, that of facilitating monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. PMID:9323582

  12. Glatiramer acetate treatment effects on gene expression in monocytes of multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic peptides used in the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GA therapy on the gene expression of monocytes. Methods Monocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of eight RRMS patients. The blood was obtained longitudinally before the start of GA therapy as well as after one day, one week, one month and two months. Gene expression was measured at the mRNA level by microarrays. Results More than 400 genes were identified as up-regulated or down-regulated in the course of therapy, and we analyzed their biological functions and regulatory interactions. Many of those genes are known to regulate lymphocyte activation and proliferation, but only a subset of genes was repeatedly differentially expressed at different time points during treatment. Conclusions Overall, the observed gene regulatory effects of GA on monocytes were modest and not stable over time. However, our study revealed several genes that are worthy of investigation in future studies on the molecular mechanisms of GA therapy. PMID:24134771

  13. Evidence for a link between sphingolipid metabolism and expression of CD1d and MHC-class II: monocytes from Gaucher disease patients as a model.

    PubMed

    Balreira, Andrea; Lacerda, Lúcia; Miranda, Clara Sá; Arosa, Fernando A

    2005-06-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive inherited defect of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GluCerase) that leads to glucosylceramide (GluCer) accumulation. We previously demonstrated the existence of imbalances in certain lymphocyte populations in GD patients. We now show that GluCerase-deficient monocytes from GD patients or monocytes from healthy subjects treated with conduritol-B-epoxide (CBE), an irreversible inhibitor of GluCerase activity, display high levels of surface expression of the lipid-binding molecule CD1d. GluCerase-deficient monocytes from GD patients also showed increased surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class II, but not of other lysosomal trafficking molecules, such as CD63 and MHC-class I. However, CD1d and MHC-class II mRNA levels were not increased. GluCerase-deficient monocytes from GD patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy also exhibited increased levels of CD1d and MHC-class II and imbalances in the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and Valpha24+ T cells. Interestingly, follow-up studies revealed that enzyme replacement therapy induced a decrease in MHC-class II expression and partial correction of the CD4+ T cell imbalances. These results reveal a new link between sphingolipid accumulation in monocytes and the expression of certain MHC molecules that may result in imbalances of regulatory T cell subsets. These immunological anomalies may contribute to the clinical heterogeneity in GD patients. PMID:15916690

  14. Dysferlin regulates cell adhesion in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    de Morrée, Antoine; Flix, Bàrbara; Bagaric, Ivana; Wang, Jun; van den Boogaard, Marlinde; Grand Moursel, Laure; Frants, Rune R; Illa, Isabel; Gallardo, Eduard; Toes, Rene; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2013-05-17

    Dysferlin is mutated in a group of muscular dystrophies commonly referred to as dysferlinopathies. It is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, where it is important for sarcolemmal maintenance. Recent studies show that dysferlin is also expressed in monocytes. Moreover, muscle of dysferlinopathy patients is characterized by massive immune cell infiltrates, and dysferlin-negative monocytes were shown to be more aggressive and phagocytose more particles. This suggests that dysferlin deregulation in monocytes might contribute to disease progression, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Here we show that dysferlin expression is increased with differentiation in human monocytes and the THP1 monocyte cell model. Freshly isolated monocytes of dysferlinopathy patients show deregulated expression of fibronectin and fibronectin-binding integrins, which is recapitulated by transient knockdown of dysferlin in THP1 cells. Dysferlin forms a protein complex with these integrins at the cell membrane, and its depletion impairs cell adhesion. Moreover, patient macrophages show altered adhesion and motility. These findings suggest that dysferlin is involved in regulating cellular interactions and provide new insight into dysferlin function in inflammatory cells. PMID:23558685

  15. Dysferlin Regulates Cell Adhesion in Human Monocytes*

    PubMed Central

    de Morrée, Antoine; Flix, Bàrbara; Bagaric, Ivana; Wang, Jun; van den Boogaard, Marlinde; Grand Moursel, Laure; Frants, Rune R.; Illa, Isabel; Gallardo, Eduard; Toes, Rene; van der Maarel, Silvère M.

    2013-01-01

    Dysferlin is mutated in a group of muscular dystrophies commonly referred to as dysferlinopathies. It is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, where it is important for sarcolemmal maintenance. Recent studies show that dysferlin is also expressed in monocytes. Moreover, muscle of dysferlinopathy patients is characterized by massive immune cell infiltrates, and dysferlin-negative monocytes were shown to be more aggressive and phagocytose more particles. This suggests that dysferlin deregulation in monocytes might contribute to disease progression, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Here we show that dysferlin expression is increased with differentiation in human monocytes and the THP1 monocyte cell model. Freshly isolated monocytes of dysferlinopathy patients show deregulated expression of fibronectin and fibronectin-binding integrins, which is recapitulated by transient knockdown of dysferlin in THP1 cells. Dysferlin forms a protein complex with these integrins at the cell membrane, and its depletion impairs cell adhesion. Moreover, patient macrophages show altered adhesion and motility. These findings suggest that dysferlin is involved in regulating cellular interactions and provide new insight into dysferlin function in inflammatory cells. PMID:23558685

  16. Influence of fingolimod on basic lymphocyte subsets frequencies in the peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients – preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, Julia; Czerwiec, Micha?; Siwicka-Gieroba, Dorota; Walankiewicz, Monika; Grafka, Agnieszka; Zgurski, Micha?; Surdacka, Agata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Roli?ski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Background Fingolimod is a drug administered orally to adult patients treated for relapsing remitting course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mode of action of fingolimod is based on intense S1P1 receptor stimulation and “arresting” lymphocytes in lymphatic organs. Objective of the research was to assess changes in the frequencies of basic lymphocyte subsets in patients treated for multiple sclerosis with the use of fingolimod. Material and methods Study group comprised of 25 previously untreated adult patients with MS. Venous blood samples were collected from each patient before and one month, three months and six months after treatment initiation. Peripheral blood lymphocyte immunophenotype was assessed with a set of monoclonal antibodies bounded to appropriate fluorochromes and flow cytometer FACSC alibur. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using Statistica 9.0 software. Results Before fingolimod administration median of lymphocyte subsets percentage in each patient was in reference range. After 1 month of treatment we noticed significant changes in frequencies of following lymphocyte subsets: NK cells – 51.22% (p = 0.016), T CD4+ cells – 11.58% (p = 0.01), T CD4+:T CD8+ cells ratio – 0.61 (p = 0.005). After 3 and 6 months of treatment there was further increase of deviation from normal state. Conclusions The use of fingolimod is associated with profound changes in lymphocyte subsets distribution, which might bear a risk of the development of cellular immune deficiency symptoms. PMID:26648781

  17. Studies of the stimulation and desensitization of beta adrenergic receptors in the human lymphocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes, were employed in radioligand binding studies of beta-adrenergic receptor density and affinity for agonists and in studies of isoproterenol stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Studies of isoproterenol stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity demonstrated a role for extracellular calcium ions but not for extracellular magnesium ions in this process. Responses were diminished by chelation or by removal of extracellular calcium, as well as by lanthanum ion which competes with calcium for membrane binding sites. Initial studies using /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol (/sup 3/H-DHA) indicated that 40% of cell surface beta receptors are lost during exposure of lymphocytes to isoproterenol and that the remaining receptors have a reduced affinity for beta agonists. Results from studies with /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol (/sup 125/ICYP) are consistent with the view that beta receptors lost from the cell surface during isoproterenol treatment are present in a internal compartment of the cell. In mild asthmatic patients receiving a three week regimen of oral terbutaline a 40% reduction in the total receptor population was observed, suggesting that degradation of internalized receptors had occurred.

  18. Lack of autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence for autoreactive T-cell dysfunction not correlated with phenotype, karyotype, or clinical status

    SciTech Connect

    Han, T.; Bloom, M.L.; Dadey, B.; Bennett, G.; Minowada, J.; Sandberg, A.A.; Ozer, H.

    1982-11-01

    In the present study, there was a complete lack of autologous MLR between responding T cells or T subsets and unirradiated or irradiated leukemic B cells or monocytes in all 20 patients with CLL, regardless of disease status, stage, phenotype, or karyotype of the disease. The stimulating capacity of unirradiated CLL B cells and CLL monocytes or irradiated CLL B cells was significantly depressed as compared to that of respective normal B cells and monocytes in allogeneic MLR. The responding capacity of CLL T cells was also variably lower than that of normal T cells against unirradiated or irradiated normal allogeneic B cells and monocytes. The depressed allogeneic MLR between CLL B cells or CLL monocytes and normal T cells described in the present study could be explained on the basis of a defect in the stimulating antigens of leukemic B cells or monocytes. The decreased allogeneic MLR of CLL T cells might simply be explained by a defect in the responsiveness of T lymphocytes from patients with CLL. However, these speculations do not adequately explain the complete lack of autologous MLR in these patients. When irradiated CLL B cells or irradiated CLL T cells were cocultured with normal T cells and irradiated normal B cells, it was found that there was no suppressor cell activity of CLL B cells or CLL T cells on normal autologous MLR. Our data suggest that the absence or dysfunction of autoreactive T cells within the Tnon-gamma subset account for the lack of autologous MLR in patients with CLL. The possible significance of the autologous MLR, its relationship to in vivo immunoregulatory mechanisms, and the possible role of breakdown of autoimmunoregulation in the oncogenic process of certain lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases in man are discussed.

  19. Regulation of ICAM-1 in Cells of the Monocyte/Macrophage System in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M.; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.; Thiel, Cora S.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

  20. Defects in Mitochondrial Clearance Predispose Human Monocytes to Interleukin-1? Hypersecretion

    PubMed Central

    van der Burgh, Robert; Nijhuis, Lotte; Pervolaraki, Kalliopi; Compeer, Ewoud B.; Jongeneel, Lieneke H.; van Gijn, Marielle; Coffer, Paul J.; Murphy, Michael P.; Mastroberardino, Pier G.; Frenkel, Joost; Boes, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Most hereditary periodic fever syndromes are mediated by deregulated IL-1? secretion. The generation of mature IL-1? requires two signals: one that induces synthesis of inflammasome components and substrates and a second that activates inflammasomes. The mechanisms that mediate autoinflammation in mevalonate kinase deficiency, a periodic fever disease characterized by a block in isoprenoid biosynthesis, are poorly understood. In studying the effects of isoprenoid shortage on IL-1 ? generation, we identified a new inflammasome activation signal that originates from defects in autophagy. We find that hypersecretion of IL-1? and IL-18 requires reactive oxygen species and is associated with an oxidized redox status of monocytes but not lymphocytes. IL-1? hypersecretion by monocytes involves decreased mitochondrial stability, release of mitochondrial content into the cytosol and attenuated autophagosomal degradation. Defective autophagy, as established by ATG7 knockdown, results in prolonged cytosolic retention of damaged mitochondria and increased IL-1? secretion. Finally, activation of autophagy in healthy but not mevalonate kinase deficiency patient cells reduces IL-1? secretion. Together, these results indicate that defective autophagy can prime monocytes for mitochondria-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, thereby contributing to hypersecretion of IL-1? in mevalonate kinase deficiency. PMID:24356959

  1. Regulation of ICAM-1 in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Unverdorben, Felix; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Buttron, Isabell; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Thiel, Cora S; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

  2. Decreased Splenic CD4+ T-Lymphocytes in Apolipoprotein M Gene Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhigang; Luo, Guanghua; Feng, Yuehua; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Hongyao; Liang, Yun; Liu, Zhonghua; Shao, Peng; Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Spleen T-lymphocytes, especially CD4+ T-cells, have been demonstrated to be involved in broad immunomodulation and host-defense activity in vivo. Apolipoprotein M gene (apoM) may have an important role in the regulation of immunoprocess and inflammation, which could be hypothesized to the apoM containing sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). In the present study we demonstrate that the splenic CD4+ T-lymphocytes were obviously decreased in the apoM gene deficient (apoM?/?) mice compared to the wild type (apoM+/+). Moreover, these mice were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and it was found that even more pronounced decreasing CD4+ T-lymphocytes occurred in the spleen compared to the apoM+/+ mice. The similar phenomena were found in the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes. After administration of LPS, the hepatic mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were markedly increased; however, there were no statistical differences observed between apoM+/+ mice and apoM?/? mice. The present study demonstrated that apoM might facilitate the maintenance of CD4+ T-lymphocytes or could modify the T-lymphocytes subgroups in murine spleen, which may further explore the importance of apoM in the regulation of the host immunomodulation, although the detailed mechanism needs continuing investigation. PMID:26543853

  3. Release of colony-stimulating activity from thymus-derived lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruscetti, F W; Chervenick, P A

    1975-01-01

    Colony-stimulating activity (CSA) is essential for in vitro differentiation of bone marrow cells into colonies of granulocytes and mononuclear cells. While blood monocytes and macrophages are a major source of CSA, recent studies have indicated that CSA may be produced by lymphocytes responding to immunologic stimulation. Lymphocytes, purified from spleens and thymuses of mice by glass wool columns, were incubated in CMRL-1066 medium with fetal calf serum in vitro. Lymphocytes from the thumus and spleen released CSA when cultured in vitro, with peak levels of CSA observed after 7 days of incubation. Stimulation of cultures with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, or pokeweed mitogen resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in CSA release, with peak levels of CSA released after 4 days of incubation. Thymus-dependent lymphocytes were responsible for the release of CSA from unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated cultures, since the incubation of these cultures with rabbit anti-mouse T cell sera abolished their ability to release CSA. Anti-mouse B cell sera had no effect on the ability of lymphocyte cultures to release CSA. These studies suggest that thymocytes and thymus-derived lymphocytes can release CSA in vitro and may be responsible for the increase in CSA observed in certain immunologic reactions. PMID:1090636

  4. Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yu

    Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia Yi Zheng1,2 , Jun Wen1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, demonstrating that at the single cell level, leukemic lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines (HL-60 and Jurkat) caused by chemotherapy was quantified13 . The study

  5. Effects of environmental toxins on lymphocyte function: studies in rhesus and man

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, R. )

    1991-06-01

    The immune system is a potential target of environmental toxins. Impairment of immune function could have a disastrous effect upon the affected individual. We had the unique opportunity to study the results of a prolonged exposure to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin) in rhesus monkeys and their offspring. Subsequently, we performed similar studies on humans exposed to the nematode pesticide, Aldicarb. This report summarizes those previous studies. In the monkeys, no major deficits of the immune system were found and the animals did not have excessive numbers of infections. However, at higher doses of dietary TCDD (25 ppt), only 22% of the offspring survived to 1 year of age. Thus, the failure to demonstrate effects on the young may simply relate to the essential equivalence of the lethal to an immunosuppressive dose. In humans, exposure to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Aldicarb, was received through contaminated well water. The known exposure was for at least 1 year and could have been as long as 5 years. Various tests of the immune system, including lymphocyte subset counts, proliferative responses, total immunoglobulin levels and specific antibody responses did not reveal immunodeficiency. Increases in the numbers of CD8 positive T lymphocytes was observed. There was no evidence of any increase in clinical illness in the exposed compared with the control group.

  6. Ofatumumab in poor-prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a Phase IV, non-interventional, observational study from the European Research Initiative on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carol; Montillo, Marco; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Dimou, Maria; Bloor, Adrian; Dupuis, Jehan; Schuh, Anna; Norin, Stefan; Geisler, Christian; Hillmen, Peter; Doubek, Michael; Trn?ný, Marek; Obrtlikova, Petra; Laurenti, Luca; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Smolej, Lukas; Ghia, Paolo; Cymbalista, Florence; Jaeger, Ulrich; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Stavroyianni, Niki; Carrington, Patrick; Zouabi, Hamadi; Leblond, Veronique; Gomez-Garcia, Juan C.; Rubio, Martin; Marasca, Roberto; Musuraca, Gerardo; Rigacci, Luigi; Farina, Lucia; Paolini, Rossella; Pospisilova, Sarka; Kimby, Eva; Bradley, Colm; Montserrat, Emili

    2015-01-01

    We report the largest retrospective, phase IV non-interventional, observational study of ofatumumab therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with poor-prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Total number of patients was 103; median age was 65 years (range 39–85). Median number of prior lines of therapy was 4 (range 1–13), including, in most cases, rituximab-, fludarabine- and alemtuzumab-based regimens; 13 patients had been allografted. Of 113 adverse events, 28 (29%) were considered to be directly related to ofatumumab. Grade 3–4 toxicities included neutropenia (10%), thrombocytopenia (5%), anemia (3%), pneumonia (17%), and fever (3%). Two heavily pre-treated patients developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. On an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall response rate was 22% (3 complete response, 1 incomplete complete response). Median progression-free and overall survival times were 5 and 11 months, respectively. This study confirms in a daily-life setting the feasibility and acceptable toxicity of ofatumumab treatment in advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The complete response rate, however, was low. Therefore, treatment with ofatumumab should be moved to earlier phases of the disease. Ideally, this should be done in combination with other agents, as recently approved for ofatumumab plus chlorambucil as front-line treatment for patients unfit for fludarabine. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01453062. PMID:25596264

  7. Therapeutic depletion of monocyte-derived cells protects from long-term axonal loss in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Monica A; Burns, Travis; Yao, Pamela; Miers, Laird; Pleasure, David; Soulika, Athena M

    2016-01-15

    Studies in multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) suggest that peripheral monocyte-derived cells (MDCs) are instrumental for disease initiation. MDCs, however, are plastic, and may exert various functions once in the central nervous system (CNS) for prolonged periods. Furthermore, the long-term effect of MDC depletion on continuing axon loss is not known. We show that long-lasting depletion of MDCs, after onset of EAE clinical deficits, is accompanied by decreased CNS infiltration by pathogenic T lymphocytes. Although this treatment does not reverse clinical disease, it prevents worsening of neurological deficits and long-term axonal loss. PMID:26711567

  8. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from horses differ from dendritic cells of humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Mauel, Susanne; Steinbach, Falko; Ludwig, Hanns

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the initiators of immune responses and are present in most tissues in vivo. To generate myeloid DC from monocytes (MoDC) in vitro the necessary cytokines are granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Using degenerated primers delineated from other species and rapid amplification of cDNA ends reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RACE RT-PCR), the cDNA of equine (eq.) GM-CSF was cloned and found to have a point deletion at the 3?-end of eq.GM-CSF, resulting in a 24-nucleotide extended open reading frame not described in any species thus far. For differentiating eq.MoDC, monocytes were stimulated with eq.GM-CSF and eq.IL-4. The eq.MoDC was analysed by both light and electron microscopy and by flow cytometry and mixed lymphocyte reaction. The eq.MoDC obtained had the typical morphology and function of DC, including the ability to stimulate allogeneic T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. In contrast to the human system, however, monocytes had to be differentiated for 6–7 days before immature DC were obtained. Our data also indicate that lipopolysaccharide or poly(I:C) alone are not sufficient to confer the full phenotypic transition into mature DC. Thus our study contributes to understanding the heterogeneity of immunity and adds important information on the equine immune system, which is clearly distinct from those of mice or man. PMID:16556260

  9. Molecular analyses of in vivo hprt mutations in human T-lymphocytes: IV. Studies in newborns

    SciTech Connect

    McGinniss, M.J.; Nicklas, J.A.; Albertini, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to characterize in vivo gene mutations that occur during fetal development, molecular analyses were undertaken of mutant 6-thioguanine resistant T-lymphocytes isolated from placental cord blood samples of 13 normal male newborns. These mutant T-cells were studied to define hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene structural alterations and to determine T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement patterns. Structural hprt alterations, as shown by Southern blot analyses, occurred in 85% of these mutant clones. These alterations consisted mostly of deletion of exons 2 and 3. These findings contrast with the 10-20% of gross structural alterations occurring randomly across the entire gene previously reported for T-cell mutants isolated from normal young adults. Iterative analyses of hprt structural alterations and TCR gene rearrangement patterns show that approximately one-third of the newborn derived mutants may have originated as pre- or intrathymic hprt mutations. This too contrasts with previous findings in adults where the background in vivo hprt mutations appeared to originate in postthymic T-lymphocytes.

  10. STAT-5 is activated constitutively in T cells, B cells and monocytes from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pertovaara, M; Silvennoinen, O; Isomäki, P

    2015-07-01

    The expression and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) have been shown to be markedly increased in the salivary gland epithelial cells of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). The present aim was to investigate the activation status of different STAT proteins in peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes and monocytes, and their correlations with clinical parameters in patients with pSS. To this end, PB samples were drawn from 16 patients with active pSS and 16 healthy blood donors, and the phosphorylation of STAT-1, -3, -4, -5 and -6 proteins was studied in T cells, B cells and monocytes using multi-colour flow cytometry. In addition, mRNA expression of STAT molecules in PB mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied with quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Basal phosphorylation of STAT-5 was found to be significantly higher in PB T cells, B cells and monocytes in patients with pSS than in healthy controls. The expression of STAT-5 mRNA was not increased in PBMC. pSTAT-5 levels in B cells and monocytes showed a significant correlation with serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels and anti-SSB antibody titres. Constitutive STAT-5 activation in monocytes and CD4(+) T cells was associated with purpura. There were no major differences in the activation of other STATs between pSS patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, STAT-5 is activated constitutively in PB leucocytes in patients with pSS, and basal STAT-5 phosphorylation seems to associate with hypergammaglobulinaemia, anti-SSB antibody production and purpura. PMID:25736842

  11. Upregulation of integrin expression on monocytes in multiple sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Simone; Franciotta, Diego; Carluccio, Silvia; Signorini, Lucia; Gastaldi, Matteo; Colombo, Elena; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Elia, Francesca; Villani, Sonia; Ferrante, Pasquale; Delbue, Serena

    2015-10-15

    Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the ?4 subunit of VLA-4 integrin that is used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Although its effects on lymphocytes have been widely described, little is known about its effects on monocytes. Here we described the effects of natalizumab treatment on peripheral blood monocytes from a small cohort of MS patients in terms of relative frequencies and surface integrin (CD49d and CD18) expression. We showed that natalizumab treatment altered the surface integrin expression on monocyte subsets in the peripheral compartment, suggesting a role for them as mediators of natalizumab effects. PMID:26439965

  12. Tracking mouse bone marrow monocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Pauline; Rodero, Mathieu Paul; Combadière, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Real time multiphoton imaging provides a great opportunity to study cell trafficking and cell-to-cell interactions in their physiological 3-dimensionnal environment. Biological activities of immune cells mainly rely on their motility capacities. Blood monocytes have short half-life in the bloodstream; they originate in the bone marrow and are constitutively released from it. In inflammatory condition, this process is enhanced, leading to blood monocytosis and subsequent infiltration of the peripheral inflammatory tissues. Identifying the biomechanical events controlling monocyte trafficking from the bone marrow towards the vascular network is an important step to understand monocyte physiopathological relevance. We performed in vivo time-lapse imaging by two-photon microscopy of the skull bone marrow of the Csf1r-Gal4VP16/UAS-ECFP (MacBlue) mouse. The MacBlue mouse expresses the fluorescent reporters enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) under the control of a myeloid specific promoter, in combination with vascular network labelling. We describe how this approach enables the tracking of individual medullar monocytes in real time to further quantify the migratory behaviour within the bone marrow parenchyma and the vasculature, as well as cell-to-cell interactions. This approach provides novel insights into the biology of the bone marrow monocyte subsets and allows to further address how these cells can be influenced in specific pathological conditions. PMID:25867540

  13. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-30

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  14. A dose escalation feasibility study of lenalidomide for treatment of symptomatic, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Kami; Ruppert, Amy S.; Browning, Rebekah; Jones, Jeffrey; Flynn, Joseph; Kefauver, Cheryl; Gao, Yue; Jiang, Yao; Rozewski, Darlene M.; Poi, Ming; Phelps, Mitch A.; Harper, Erica; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.; Andritsos, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dosing of lenalidomide in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) remains unclear. This study determined maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in relapsed CLL patients (Cohort A) and patients achieving a partial response (PR) or better to recent therapy (Cohort B). Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD was 2.5 mg followed by 5.0 mg continuous. In Cohort A, tumor flare grade 1–2 occurred in 15 patients (50%) and grade 3 in 1 patient (3%). Cohort A had 19 of 23 evaluable (83%) patients, 4 PR (17%) and 15 (65%) stable disease (SD), Cohort B had 6 of 7 patients (86%) with SD. Despite overall response rate not being high, many patients remained on therapy several months with SD. PMID:25082342

  15. Lymphocyte subsets at different stages of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a study with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Marrosu, M G; Cianchetti, C; Ennas, M G

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocyte subsets in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were studied using monoclonal antibodies, in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, eight of whom were at stage 2 and seven at stage 4. Eighteen subjects affected with non immunological diseases constituted the controls. Regardless of the stage, patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis had lower percentages of OKT3+ (pan-T) cells in both CSF and peripheral blood, with an increase of OKIa+ cells (B cells, macrophages and active T cells) in peripheral blood. A difference was found in the proportion of OKT4+ (helper-inducer) and OKT8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells in relation to the stage, the most striking finding being a significant decrease of OKT8+ with an increase of T4/T8 ratio in peripheral blood at an early stage. PMID:2942644

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Sonja I; Skibola, Christine F; Joseph, Vijai; Camp, Nicola J; Nieters, Alexandra; Wang, Zhaoming; Cozen, Wendy; Monnereau, Alain; Wang, Sophia S; Kelly, Rachel S; Lan, Qing; Teras, Lauren R; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chung, Charles C; Yeager, Meredith; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P; Birmann, Brenda M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zhang, Yawei; Severi, Gianluca; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Burdette, Laurie; Yuenger, Jeffrey; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D; Novak, Anne J; Kay, Neil E; Liebow, Mark; Wang, Alice H; Smedby, Karin E; Adami, Hans-Olov; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Chang, Ellen T; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Jones, Brandt; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K; Weiner, George J; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Holly, Elizabeth A; Smith, Martyn T; Jackson, Rebecca D; Tinker, Lesley F; Benavente, Yolanda; Becker, Nikolaus; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Staines, Anthony; Rabe, Kari G; Achenbach, Sara J; Vachon, Celine M; Goldin, Lynn R; Strom, Sara S; Lanasa, Mark C; Spector, Logan G; Leis, Jose F; Cunningham, Julie M; Weinberg, J Brice; Morrison, Vicki A; Caporaso, Neil E; Norman, Aaron D; Linet, Martha S; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Travis, Ruth C; Giles, Graham G; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clavel, Jacqueline; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J; Spinelli, John J; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Laden, Francine; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Vajdic, Claire M; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Ferri, Giovanni M; Miligi, Lucia; Liang, Liming; Sampson, Joshua; Crouch, Simon; Park, Ju-Hyun; North, Kari E; Cox, Angela; Snowden, John A; Wright, Josh; Carracedo, Angel; Lopez-Otin, Carlos; Bea, Silvia; Salaverria, Itziar; Martin-Garcia, David; Campo, Elias; Fraumeni, Joseph F; de Sanjose, Silvia; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Cerhan, James R; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L

    2013-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified 13 loci associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted the largest meta-analysis for CLL thus far, including four GWAS with a total of 3,100 individuals with CLL (cases) and 7,667 controls. In the meta-analysis, we identified ten independent associated SNPs in nine new loci at 10q23.31 (ACTA2 or FAS (ACTA2/FAS), P=1.22×10(-14)), 18q21.33 (BCL2, P=7.76×10(-11)), 11p15.5 (C11orf21, P=2.15×10(-10)), 4q25 (LEF1, P=4.24×10(-10)), 2q33.1 (CASP10 or CASP8 (CASP10/CASP8), P=2.50×10(-9)), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1, P=1.27×10(-8)), 18q21.32 (PMAIP1, P=2.51×10(-8)), 15q15.1 (BMF, P=2.71×10(-10)) and 2p22.2 (QPCT, P=1.68×10(-8)), as well as an independent signal at an established locus (2q13, ACOXL, P=2.08×10(-18)). We also found evidence for two additional promising loci below genome-wide significance at 8q22.3 (ODF1, P=5.40×10(-8)) and 5p15.33 (TERT, P=1.92×10(-7)). Although further studies are required, the proximity of several of these loci to genes involved in apoptosis suggests a plausible underlying biological mechanism. PMID:23770605

  17. Serum and Lymphocytic Neurotrophins Profiles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Lise, Marie-Claude; Marget, Pierre; Lapeybie, François-Xavier; Bezanahary, Holy; Martel, Clothilde; Dumonteil, Stéphanie; Sparsa, Agnès; Lalloué, Fabrice; Ly, Kim; Essig, Marie; Vidal, Elisabeth; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurotrophins play a central role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. However, neurotrophins can also modulate B and T cell proliferation and activation, especially via autocrine loops. We hypothesized that both serum and lymphocytic neurotrophin levels may be deregulated in systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may reflect clinical symptoms of the disease. Methods Neurotrophins in the serum (ELISA tests) and lymphocytes (flow cytometry) were measured in 26 SLE patients and 26 control subjects. Th1 (interferon-?) and Th2 (IL-10) profiles and serum concentration of BAFF were assessed by ELISA in the SLE and control subjects. Findings We have demonstrated that both NGF and BDNF serum levels are higher in SLE patients than healthy controls (p=0.003 and p<0.001), independently of Th1 or Th2 profiles. Enhanced serum NT-3 levels (p=0.003) were only found in severe lupus flares (i.e. SLEDAI ? 10) and significantly correlated with complement activation (decreased CH 50, ?=-0.28, p=0.03). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between serum NGF levels and the number of circulating T regulatory cells (?=0.48, p=0.01). In circulating B cells, production of both NGF and BDNF was greater in SLE patients than in healthy controls. In particular, the number of NGF-secreting B cells correlated with decreased complement levels (p=0.05). One month after SLE flare treatment, BDNF levels decreased; in contrast, NGF and NT-3 levels remained unchanged. Conclusion This study demonstrates that serum and B cell levels of both NGF and BDNF are increased in SLE, suggesting that the neurotrophin production pathway is deregulated in this disease. These results must be confirmed in a larger study with naive SLE patients, in order to avoid the potential confounding influence of prior immune-modulating treatments on neurotrophin levels. PMID:24223945

  18. Prevalence of interferon type I signature in CD14 monocytes of patients with Sjögren's syndrome and association with disease activity and BAFF gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Brkic, Zana; Maria, Naomi I; van Helden-Meeuwsen, Cornelia G; van de Merwe, Joop P; van Daele, Paul L; Dalm, Virgil A; Wildenberg, Manon E; Beumer, Wouter; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Versnel, Marjan A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of upregulation of interferon (IFN) type I inducible genes, the so called ‘IFN type I signature’, in CD14 monocytes in 69 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 44 healthy controls (HC) and correlate it with disease manifestations and expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF). Methods Expression of IFI44L, IFI44, IFIT3, LY6E and MX1 was measured using real time quantitative PCR in monocytes. Expression values were used to calculate IFN type I scores for each subject. pSS patients positive for the IFN type I signature (IFN score?10) and patients negative for the signature (IFN score<10) were then compared for clinical disease manifestations and BAFF expression. A bioassay using a monocytic cell line was performed to study whether BAFF mRNA expression was inducible by IFN type I activity in serum of patients with pSS. Results An IFN type I signature was present in 55% of patients with pSS compared with 4.5% of HC. Patients with the IFN type I signature showed: (a) higher EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index scores; higher anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-La autoantibodies; higher rheumatoid factor; higher serum IgG; lower C3, lower absolute lymphocyte and neutrophil counts; (b)higher BAFF gene expression in monocytes. In addition, serum of signature-positive patients induced BAFF gene expression in monocytes. Conclusions The monocyte IFN type I signature identifies a subgroup of patients with pSS with a higher clinical disease activity together with higher BAFF mRNA expression. Such patients might benefit from treatment blocking IFN type I production or activity. PMID:22736090

  19. Prognostic Significance of Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy, Preoperative Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio in Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Gungorduk, Kemal; Ertas, Ibrahim E.; Ozdemir, Aykut; Akkaya, Emrah; Telli, Elcin; Taskin, Salih; Gokcu, Mehmet; Guzel, Ahmet Baris; Oge, Tufan; Akman, Levent; Toptas, Tayfun; Solmaz, Ulas; Dogan, Ask?n; Terek, Mustafa Cosan; Sanci, Muzaffer; Ozsaran, Aydin; Simsek, Tayyup; Vardar, Mehmet Ali; Yalcin, Omer Tarik; Ozalp, Sinan; Yildirim, Yusuf; Ortac, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic role of preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the need for para-aortic lymphadectomy in patients with primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). Materials and Methods Ninety-one patients with a diagnosis of PFTC were identified through the gynecologic oncology service database of six academic centers. Clinicopathological, surgical, and complete blood count data were collected. Results In univariate analysis, advanced stage, suboptimal surgery, and NLR > 2.7 were significant prognostic factors for progression-free survival, whereas in multivariate analysis, only advanced stage and suboptimal surgery were significant. In addition, in univariate analysis, cancer antigen 125 ? 35 U/mL, ascites, advanced stage, suboptimal surgery, NLR > 2.7, PLR > 233.3, platelet count ? 400,000 cells/mm3, staging type, and histological subtype were significant prognostic factors for overall survival (OS); however, in multivariate analysis, only advanced stage, suboptimal surgery, NLR > 2.7, and staging type were significant. Inclusion of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in surgery showed significant association with longer OS, with a mean and median OS of 42.0 months and 35.5 months (range, 22 to 78 months), respectively, vs. 33.5 months and 27.5 months (range, 14 to 76 months), respectively, for patients who underwent surgery without para-aortic lymphadenectomy (hazard ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.7; p=0.002). Conclusion NLR (in both univariate and multivariate analysis) and PLR (only in univariate analysis) were prognostic factors in PFTC. NLR and PLR are inexpensive and easy tests to perform. In addition, patients with PFTC who underwent bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy had longer OS. PMID:25622588

  20. Human Bladder Uroepithelial Cells Synergize with Monocytes to Promote IL-10 Synthesis and Other Cytokine Responses to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Duell, Benjamin L.; Carey, Alison J.; Dando, Samantha J.; Schembri, Mark A.; Ulett, Glen C.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a major source of morbidity for women and the elderly, with Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) being the most prevalent causative pathogen. Studies in recent years have defined a key anti-inflammatory role for Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in urinary tract infection mediated by UPEC and other uropathogens. We investigated the nature of the IL-10-producing interactions between UPEC and host cells by utilising a novel co-culture model that incorporated lymphocytes, mononuclear and uroepithelial cells in histotypic proportions. This co-culture model demonstrated synergistic IL-10 production effects between monocytes and uroepithelial cells following infection with UPEC. Membrane inserts were used to separate the monocyte and uroepithelial cell types during infection and revealed two synergistic IL-10 production effects based on contact-dependent and soluble interactions. Analysis of a comprehensive set of immunologically relevant biomarkers in monocyte-uroepithelial cell co-cultures highlighted that multiple cytokine, chemokine and signalling factors were also produced in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. These results demonstrate that IL-10 responses to UPEC occur via multiple interactions between several cells types, implying a complex role for infection-related IL-10 during UTI. Development and application of the co-culture model described in this study is thus useful to define the degree of contact dependency of biomarker production to UPEC, and highlights the relevance of histotypic co-cultures in studying complex host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24155979

  1. Endogenous production of interleukin 15 by activated human monocytes is critical for optimal production of interferon-gamma by natural killer cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, W E; Ross, M E; Baiocchi, R A; Marien, M J; Boiani, N; Grabstein, K; Caligiuri, M A

    1995-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes that constitutively express functional IL-2 receptors. We have shown that recombinant human IL-15 uses the IL-2 receptor to activate human NK cells and can synergize with recombinant human IL-12 to stimulate NK cell production of IFN-gamma in vitro. IFN-gamma production by NK cells is critical in the prevention of overwhelming infection by obligate intracellular microbial pathogens in several experimental animal models. Herein, we demonstrate that human monocytes produce IL-15 protein within 5 h of activation with LPS. Using an IL-15-neutralizing antiserum in a coculture of LPS-activated monocytes and NK cells, we demonstrate that monocyte-derived IL-15 is critical for optimal NK cell production of IFN-gamma. Endogenous IL-15 activates NK cells through the IL-2 receptor, and with endogenous IL-12, regulates NK cell IFN-gamma after monocyte activation by LPS. These in vitro studies are the first to characterize a function for endogenous IL-15, and as such, suggest an important role for IL-15 during the innate immune response. IL-15 may be an important ligand for the NK cell IL-2 receptor in vivo. Images PMID:8675621

  2. The influence of aminophylline on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes: an AFM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xun; He, Jiexiang; Liu, Mingxian; Zhou, Changren

    2014-09-01

    Although much progress has been made in the illustration of the mechanism of aminophylline (AM) treating asthma, there is no data about its effect on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes. Here, we presented atomic force spectroscopy (AFM)-based investigations at the nanoscale level to address the above fundamental biophysical questions. As increasing AM treatment time, T lymphocytes' volume nearly double increased and then decreased. The changes of nanostructural features of the cell membrane, i.e., mean height of particles, root-mean-square roughness (Rq), crack and fragment appearance, increased with AM treatment time. T lymphocytes were completely destroyed with 96-h treatment, and they existed in the form of small fragments. Analysis of force-distance curves showed that the adhesion force of cell surface decreased significantly with the increase of AM treatment time, while the cell stiffness increased firstly and then decreased. These changes were closely correlated to the characteristics and process of cell oncosis. In total, these quantitative and qualitative changes of T lymphocytes' structure and nanomechanical properties suggested that AM could induce T lymphocyte oncosis to exert anti-inflammatory effects for treating asthma. These findings provide new insights into the T lymphocyte oncosis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism and immune regulation actions of AM.

  3. Study of response of thymic and submaxillary lymph node lymphocytes to administration of lead by different routes.

    PubMed

    Teijón, César; Blanco, María Dolores; Romero, Carlos Santiago; Beneit, Juan Vicente; Villarino, Antonio Luis; Guerrero, Sandra; Olmo, Rosa

    2010-06-01

    A number of studies have reported that heavy metals are not only toxic for the organism but they may modulate immune responses. In the current study, the effect of 4-week administration of 200 ppm of PbAc(2), using different routes of administration (orally and intraperitoneal injection), on lymphatic organs was evaluated. In the thymus, the number of lymphocyte cells and the cellularity diminished significantly for both routes of treatment. Regarding the submaxillary lymph nodes, no significant variations took place. Cell-mediated immune response is commonly evaluated by cell proliferation assays. Mitogens are known to induce a vigorous proliferative response in lymphoid cells from mammals. An increase in the proliferation of T lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A and the proliferation of B lymphocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharides was found in thymus for both routes of administration, whereas in the lymph nodes, there was a decrease in proliferation of T lymphocytes. Furthermore, lead administration by intraperitoneal route caused an effect on B and T lymphocyte subpopulations. Thus, there was an increase in B+ cells and a decrease in T+ cells. Regarding CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, there were only variations, concretely a drop in both subpopulations, in lymph nodes when lead was administered intraperitoneally. It is important to emphasize that an increase in apoptosis was found in this tissue. At the histological level, evident alterations were described in thymus both for the oral and for the intraperitoneal route. Therefore, it is possible to show that lead administered by both routes generated effects on an immunological level. PMID:19756406

  4. Immunophenotypic characterisation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1: clinical study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Perniola, Roberto; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Rosatelli, Maria Cristina; Pitotti, Elena; Accogli, Elisa; De Rinaldis, Corrado

    2005-02-01

    Autoimmune endocrinopathies are characterised by an increased number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) expressing activation/ memory markers on their surface. The aim of this study was to determine whether a similar finding could be detected in a group of 11 paediatric and young adult patients suffering from autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS1), also called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), as very few data have previously been reported in this field. The control group was made up of 11 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Fifteen lymphocyte subsets were compared, in terms of percentage and absolute number, and statistical analysis was performed by the Mann-Whitney test. Measurement of T (CD3+), B (CD19+), natural killer (NK, CD3-CD16/56+), CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes showed that patients with APS1 had a higher percentage and absolute count of T lymphocytes: this was entirely due to the statistically larger CD3+CD4+ fraction. Patients with APS1 also had slightly fewer B and NK lymphocytes, but the difference was negligible. Comparison of CD4+ subpopulations bearing activation and naive/memory antigens (marked by CD69, CD25, anti-HLA-DR, CD45RA and CD45RO) showed that patients with APS1 had generally larger percentages and absolute counts of these subsets: however, only the percentage and absolute size of the CD4+CD25+ subset (p = 0.0354 and p = 0.0151, respectively), and the absolute number of the CD4+ anti-HLA-DR+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ subsets (p = 0.0193 and p = 0.0209, respectively) were significantly higher. Interestingly, patients with APS1 also had significantly fewer CD8+CD11b+ and CD3-CD8+ cells. In conclusion, PBL distribution in APS1 resembles that of other autoimmune diseases. Further studies are needed to confirm and possibly extend these data. PMID:15751604

  5. Inability of newborns' or pregnant women's monocytes to suppress pokeweed mitogen-induced responses

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-02-01

    Although an excess of human adult blood adherent cells inhibits the pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced normal adult lymphocyte proliferation and B cell maturation into immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC), adherent cells collected from newborn infants or pregnant women at time of delivery were unable to exert a similar suppressor activity. After activation by Concanavalin A (Con A), newborns' and pregnant women's adherent cells acquired a suppressor activity comparable to that of control adult adherent cells. The adherent suppressor cell was shown to be radioresistant (3000 rad), indicating its probable monocytic orgin. Both monocyte-suppressor activities (MSA) observed in adulthood (spontaneously) and in the neonatal period (after activation) were dependent on prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) secretion, because they were abolished by indomethacin or a specific anti-PGE/sub 2/ anti-serum. Expression of MSA appeared to be under a negative regulation exerted by naturally occurring T suppressor lymphocytes present in the blood of newborns or pregnant women, because incubation of adult monocytes or Con A-activated newborn monocytes with newborns' or pregnant women's T lymphocytes resulted in a dramatic decrease of their MSA. These results strongly suggest that the lack of MSA in the neonatal period and in late pregnancy is a consequence of activation of T suppressor lymphocytes.

  6. Effect of released lymphocyte proteins on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Szabó, M T; Hrabák, A A

    1978-01-01

    The effect on lymphocytes and Hep2 target cells of proteins obtained from the medium of human lymphocytes incubated for short times was studied. The supernatants were precipitated and fractionated with ammonium sulfate in three steps. Two protein fractions were found to inhibit protein synthesis in target cells and to increase in vitro release of chromium from prelabelled lymphocytes. The proteins studied may be related to lymphotoxin produced by mitogen-activated lymphocytes. It is assumed that in vitro interactions for short times between different types of lymphocytes may cause the release of proteins. The same proteins play probably a part in the in vivo regulation of the metabolic activity of lymphocytes. PMID:754435

  7. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D. )

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.

  8. Molecular control of monocyte development.

    PubMed

    Terry, Rachael L; Miller, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte development is a tightly regulated and multi-staged process, occurring through several defined progenitor cell intermediates. The key transcription factors, including PU.1, IRF8 and KLF4, growth factors, such as M-CSF and IL-34 and cytokines that drive monocyte development from hematopoietic progenitor cells are well defined. However, the molecular controls that direct differentiation into the Ly6C(hi) inflammatory and Ly6C(lo) monocyte subsets are yet to be completely elucidated. This review will provide a summary of the transcriptional regulation of monocyte development. We will also discuss how these molecular controls are also critical for microglial development despite their distinct haematopoetic origins. Furthermore, we will examine recent breakthroughs in defining mechanisms that promote differentiation of specific monocyte subpopulations. PMID:24709055

  9. Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Childhood Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukemia: Findings from the SETIL Study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Farioli, Andrea; Legittimo, Patrizia; Miligi, Lucia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Ranucci, Alessandra; Salvan, Alberto; Rondelli, Roberto; Magnani, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL) were investigated. Methods Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 1998–2001. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene. Results Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ?11 cigarettes/day ?=?1.79, 95% CI 1.01–3.15; P trend 0.05). An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day ?=?1.85, 95%CI 0.97–3.52; P trend 0.07). No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates. PMID:25401754

  10. A study on the beryllium lymphocyte transformation test and the beryllium levels in working environment.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Shima, S; Nagaoka, K; Taniwaki, H; Wada, A; Kurita, H; Morita, K

    1997-07-01

    The relationship between airborne concentration of beryllium in the working environment and workers' beryllium lymphocyte transformation test (Be-LTT) values was examined based on data obtained from a four-year survey (1992-1995) conducted at beryllium-copper alloy manufacturing factories. This study showed that the T cells of workers continuously exposed to beryllium of more than 0.01 microgram/m3 could be activated and that the cell-mediated immune response of workers could be promoted. On the other hand, the Be-LTT of workers exposed to beryllium levels of less than 0.01 microgram/m3 was shown to be unaffected by beryllium. These findings suggest that beryllium sensitization is not manifested when level of beryllium in working environment are less than 0.01 microgram/m3. Therefore, in such cases workers do not develop Chronic beryllium disease (CBD). We concluded that the Be-LTT can be applied as a medical indicator to detect the development of CBD. PMID:9248221

  11. A study of the potential nephrotoxicity of heterologous anti-lymphocyte serum

    PubMed Central

    Orr, W. McN.; Birtch, A. G.; Diethelm, A. G.; Dubernard, J. M.; Duquella, J.; Glassock, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Nephrotoxic serum nephritis as a potential effect of the administration of heterologous anti-lymphocyte serum was investigated in dogs. Horse anti-dog lymphocyte serum, prepared using lymph node cells, was demonstrated by immunofluorescent techniques to possess both in-vitro and in-vivo anti-glomerular antibody activity. Experiments were designed to eliminate as far as possible conditions which would allow a serum sickness type of nephritis to develop, while permitting expression of the putative anti-glomerular antibody activity. While none of the animals receiving anti-lymphocyte serum either subcutaneously or intravenously showed clinical evidence of glomerular injury, in some cases early histological changes were apparent and the reasons for their non-progressive nature are discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4985162

  12. The neutrophil function and lymphocyte profile of milk from bovine mammary glands infected with Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Blagitz, Maiara G; Souza, Fernando N; Batista, Camila F; Azevedo, Luis Fernando F; Benites, Nilson Roberti; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Diniz, Soraia A; Silva, Marcos X; Haddad, João Paulo A; Heinnemann, Marcos Bryan; Cerqueira, Mônica M O P; Della Libera, Alice M M P

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a bacterium that accounts for a notable proportion of both clinical and subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs). Thus, the present study explores the function of milk neutrophils and the lymphocyte profile in mammary glands naturally infected with Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Here, we used 32 culture-negative control quarters from eight clinically healthy dairy cows with low somatic cell counts and 13 S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters from six dairy cows. Using flow cytometry, we evaluated the percentage of milk monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils, expression of CD62L, CD11b and CD44 by milk neutrophils, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by milk neutrophils, and neutrophil viability. Furthermore, the percentages of B cell (CD21+) and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3+/CD4+/CD8-; CD3+/CD8+/CD4-; and CD3+/CD8-/CD4-), and the expression of CD25 by T milk lymphocytes (CD3+) and T CD4+ milk cells were also assessed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. The present study showed a higher SCC and percentage of milk neutrophils, and a decrease in the percentage of milk monocytes/macrophages from S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters when compared to uninfected ones. We also observed a higher expression of CD11b by milk neutrophils and a tendency toward a decrease in neutrophil apoptosis rate in S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters. In addition, the S. dysgalactiae-infected quarters had higher percentages of milk T cells (CD3+) and their subset CD3+CD8+CD4- cells. Overall, the present study provided new insights into S. dysgalactiae IMIs, including distinct lymphocyte profiles, and a tendency toward an inhibition of apoptosis in milk neutrophils. PMID:26119656

  13. Chronic brucellosis patients retain low frequency of CD4+ T-lymphocytes expressing CD25 and CD28 after Escherichia coli LPS stimulation of PHA-cultured PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Skendros, Panagiotis; Sarantopoulos, Alexandros; Tselios, Konstantinos; Boura, Panagiota

    2008-01-01

    Chronic brucellosis patients display a defective Th1 response to PHA. We have previously shown that heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) can downregulate the PHA-induced increase of CD4+/CD25+ and CD14+/CD80+ cells of brucellosis patients. In the present study, we investigate the effect of E. coli LPS, as a potent stimulant of monocytes and autologous T-lymphocytes, on the PHA-cultured PBMCs of the same groups of patients. Thirteen acute brucellosis (AB) patients, 22 chronic brucellosis (CB) patients, 11 "cured" subjects, and 15 healthy volunteers were studied. The percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes as well as CD14+/CD80+ monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry after PBMCs culture with PHA plus E. coli LPS. A significant decrease in the percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes was observed in CB compared to AB. In HKBA cultures, compared to E. coli LPS-cultures, there was a significant reduction of CD4+/CD25+ T-lymphocytes in all groups and CD14+/CD80+ in patients groups. We suggest that Brucella can modulate host immune response, leading to T-cell anergy and chronic infection. PMID:19190764

  14. Primary monocytes regulate endothelial cell survival through secretion of Angiopoietin-1 and activation of endothelial Tie2

    E-print Network

    Schubert, Shai Y.

    Objective—Monocyte recruitment and interaction with the endothelium is imperative to vascular recovery. Tie2 plays a key role in endothelial health and vascular remodeling. We studied monocyte-mediated Tie2/angiopoietin ...

  15. Comparison of hprt variant frequencies and chromosome aberration frequencies in lymphocytes from radiotherapy and chemotherapy patients: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Ammenheuser, M.M.; Au, W.W.; Whorton, E.B. Jr.; Belli, J.A.; Ward, J.B. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    The autoradiographic 6-thioguanine-resistant mutant lymphocyte assay and a chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the time-course of appearance and persistence of elevated frequencies of hprt variants and dicentric chromosomes in patients receiving x-irradiation therapy. The hprt mutation assays were done with frozen/thawed lymphocytes isolated from aliquots of the same blood samples used for the chromosome aberration assays. Five multiple sclerosis patients were also studied before and at 2 and 4 wk intervals after treatment with monthly i.v. doses of 750 mg/m{sup 2} of cyclophosphamide (CP). There were no significant elevations in chromosome aberrations at these post-treatment sample times. The results demonstrate the complementary nature of these two human monitoring assays and emphasize the importance of careful selection of optimal sampling times.

  16. A study of the effect of salicylic acetic acid on a lymphocyte cell model of cellular activation and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Enrique Aranda; de la Haba-Rodríguez, Juan; Macho, Antonio; Lucena, Concha; Gómez, Auxiliadora; Calzado, Marco; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2006-01-18

    Salicylic acetic acid (SAA) is a drug that has formed part of the treatment of many diseases for many years. Its anti-inflammatory activity is well known, but recently its possible role in the interference in the oncogenesis mechanisms has become apparent. With the aim of supporting these yet preliminary observations, we studied the effect of salicylic acetic acid on a cellular activation and proliferation model. We used lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, which were later exposed to cellular activation and proliferation stimulus by the SEB antigen. Lymphocyte activation was determined by direct immunoflourescence through expression of the receptor IL-2 (CD25) alpha chain and proliferation through the incorporation of tritiated thymidine to the DNA in synthesis together with the determination of the cellular cycle by flow cytometry. We found that both processes, activation and proliferation, are inhibited by increasing doses of SAA. PMID:16011873

  17. Effect of dexamethasone on bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2015-08-15

    Stress has been shown to affect the immune system of turkeys making them more susceptible to bacterial infections. Five-week-old male and female turkeys were treated with 3 intra-muscular injections of dexamethasone (Dex) at 0, 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg body weight. Twenty-four hours after the third injection birds were bled and white blood cell (WBC) differentials and bacteriostatic activity of monocytes were measured. Dex at both 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg decreased phagocytic activity in females only. Bacteriostatic activity was decreased at both concentrations of Dex at 8 and 16 h post-infection in both sexes and was lower in males as compared to females. Total WBC counts were increased in females at both concentrations of Dex whereas male total WBC counts were unaffected. Both males and females had an increase in the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Within the same study, replicate pens of turkeys were challenged with intra-air sac inoculation of 100 cfu of Escherichia coli. Isolation of E. coli was significantly increased by both Dex and E. coli challenge, but there were no differences between sexes. These results suggest that stress can compromise the bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and increase bacterial colonization of blood and tissues, potentially affecting food safety. PMID:26099808

  18. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in systemic lupus erythematosus disease: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lixiu; Xia, Yuncheng; Chen, Chunmei; Cheng, Ping; Peng, Canhui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Lupus nephritis (LN) is an important cause of morbidity and even mortality in patients with SLE. Some evidences suggest that neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) associated with different inflammatory malignancies, ischemic injury and cardiovascular disease. Few scholars have investigated the relationship between NLR and SLE. This study aims to evaluate the role of NLR in SLE without nephritis and LN patients. Methods: A total of 228 subjects were participated in this study. 79 diagnosed with SLE in patients group and 149 healthy age-and sex-matched in control group. In patient team, 20 of them were diagnosed with LN. Results: The SLE without nephritis group showed significantly higher NLR than control group (control=2.00±0.76, SLE=4.26±3.38, P<0.001), and the NLR values of the patients with LN were higher than those of the patients without LN (SLE=4.26±3.38, LN=7.21±6.01, P<0.001). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis (ROC) of NLR to predict SLE showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.757. The cutoff value using the ROC curve was 3.13 (sensitivity, 0.574; specificity, 0.926; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.668-0.845; P<0.001). While ROC analysis of NLR to predict LN showed that the AUC was 0.828). Logistic regression analysis showed that SLE without nephritis and LN were independently related to NLR. Conclusion: NLR is independently associated with SLE, and it may be a promising marker that reflects renal involvement in patients with SLE. PMID:26379900

  19. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  20. Dendritic Cells Differentiated from Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Monocytes Exhibit Tolerogenic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kyung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) is rich in diverse hematopoietic stem cells that are competent to differentiate into various cell types with immunological compatibility at transplantation. Thus, UCB is a potential source for the preparation of dendritic cells (DCs) to be used for cell therapy against inflammatory disorders or cancers. However, the immunological properties of UCB-derived DCs are not fully characterized. In this study, we investigated the phenotypes and functions of UCB monocyte-derived DCs (UCB-DCs) in comparison with those of adult peripheral blood (APB) monocyte-derived DCs (APB-DCs). UCB-DCs contained less CD1a(+) DCs, which is known as immunostimulatory DCs, than APB-DCs. UCB-DCs exhibited lower expression of CD80, MHC proteins, and DC-SIGN, but higher endocytic activity, than APB-DCs. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of UCB-DCs minimally augmented the expression of maturation markers and production of interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, but potently expressed IL-10. When UCB-DCs were cocultured with CD14(+) cell-depleted allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells, they weakly induced the proliferation, surface expression of activation markers, and interferon (IFN)-? production of T lymphocytes compared with APB-DCs. UCB possessed higher levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than APB, which might be responsible for tolerogenic phenotypes and functions of UCB-DCs. Indeed, APB-DCs prepared in the presence of PGE2 exhibited CD1a(-)CD14(+) phenotypes with tolerogenic properties, including weak maturation, impaired IL-12 production, and negligible T lymphocyte activation as UCB-DCs did. Taken together, we suggest that UCB-DCs have tolerogenic properties, which might be due to PGE2 highly sustained in UCB. PMID:26203805

  1. Further studies on progeny T lymphocytes after in utero insult by benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Urso, P.; Johnson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    Reasons are sought for early and sustained immunodeficiency in benzo(a)pyrene (BP) exposed progeny. Quantitative assay of lymphoid tissue at 15-19 days gestation and 0-5 postnatal (PN) days showed; a striking depletion of thymic cell numbers (CN) at day 19 and PN, normal CN in fetal liver (FL) and spleen, but depression in PN spleen. Depleted THETA/sup +/ and Ly 1/sup +/ cells reflected subnormal thymic CN, while reduced amounts of Ly 2/sup +/ cells did not initiate until after birth. Spleens revealed: a) reductions in THETA/sup +/ and Ly 1/sup +/ cells at gestation, b) enhanced THETA/sup +/ cells PN and c) elevated Ly 2/sup +/ pre- and postnatally. In FL, THETA/sup +/ cells decreased, Ly 1/sup +/ did not change; in contrast, Ly 2/sup +/ were markedly elevated. The thymic Ly 1/Ly 2 ratio was > 1, while it was < 1 for spleen and FL indicating increased Ly 1/sup -/2/sup +/ cells. These data suggest disruptions in T cell ontogenesis. In preliminary experiments analysis of T cell function shows FL cells from BP-exposed progeny either as deficient in supporting in vitro proliferation of syngeneic normal spleen cells, or to induce a 3-fold inhibition of the one-way mixed lymphocyte response. Further studies should reveal: a) evidence for T suppressors (by the elevated Ly 2/sup +/ cells.); b) other suppressor action, if any; and c) capabilities of Ly 1/sup +/ cells. The data should help explain the deficiency of progeny in combatting syngeneic tumor growth after sc or iv transfers.

  2. An in vitro study on suppressive effects of Leishmania major on IL-2R? expression on peripheral human T lymphocyte.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, A; Rahdar, M; Hossainpour, A; Khademvatan, S

    2013-09-01

    Leishmania sp. is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes significant morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. The parasite can escape from host immune system by several mechanisms. Understanding biological behavior of the parasite can help us to control and treatment leishmaniasis. Therefore current study was conducted to determine suppresive effect of Leishmania major on IL-2R? expression in the human peripheral T Lymphocytes. Human peripheral T Lymphocyte were co-cultured with standard strain of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/EK) in RPMI1640 medium. Infected cells were stained with FITC-labelled anti-CD25 (IL-2R? chain MAb) and Picoerithrin-labelled anti-CD4 (CD4 MAb) and analyzed by flow cytometry. The results showed that L. major suppressed IL- 2R? expression in activated T cells as well as inhibited lymphocyte proliferation 6h after infection and was increased up to 36 hour later. This finding also indicated that suppressed IL- 2R expression was increased when the number of promastigote was added up to 7.5×10(6) cells/ml. Inhibition of IL-2R expression by the parasite might play a critical role for escaping from host immune system. Understanding biological characterization of the Leishmania can be useful for vaccine development and also cytokine therapy. PMID:24189682

  3. Lenalidomide and Rituximab for the Initial Treatment of Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Multicenter Clinical-Translational Study From the Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research Consortium

    PubMed Central

    James, Danelle F.; Werner, Lillian; Brown, Jennifer R.; Wierda, William G.; Barrientos, Jacqueline C.; Castro, Januario E.; Greaves, Andrew; Johnson, Amy J.; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Rai, Kanti R.; Neuberg, Donna; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent with therapeutic activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In preclinical models, lenalidomide acted synergistically with rituximab. The CLL Research Consortium initiated a phase II study to evaluate this combination in treatment-naive patients. Patients and Methods Lenalidomide was initiated at 2.5 mg/day and was escalated based on treatment tolerability to a maximum of 10 mg/day, for 21 days/cycle, for a maximum of seven cycles. Rituximab was administered at the end of cycle 1 and was continued for seven cycles. Patients received allopurinol and aspirin for prophylaxis. Results Sixty-nine patients enrolled onto one of two age-specific strata; patients' median age was 56 and 70 years for arms A and B, respectively. Patients in the older-patient stratum more frequently had elevated serum beta-2 microglobulin levels, high-risk Rai stage, and were less likely to complete the maximum planned therapy. Adverse events were similar in the two arms. Nonhematologic toxicity was predominantly at grade 1/2, and neutropenia was the most common hematologic adverse event. The response rate for arm A was 95%, with 20% complete responses (CRs) and 20% nodular partial responses. Of arm B patients, 78% achieved a response, of which 11% were CRs. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 19 months for the younger cohort and 20 months for the older cohort. Conclusion Intrapatient dose-escalation was safe. The majority of patients reached the maximum lenalidomide dose and experienced a response to a defined seven-cycle course of lenalidomide and rituximab therapy. Despite differences in baseline characteristics and the response rate between the two strata, the PFS did not differ. PMID:24868031

  4. Immunological characterization and transcription profiling of peripheral blood (PB) monocytes in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD): case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There exists a small subset of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by fluctuating behavioral symptoms and cognitive skills following immune insults. Some of these children also exhibit specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD), resulting in frequent infection caused by encapsulated organisms, and they often require supplemental intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (ASD/SPAD). This study assessed whether these ASD/SPAD children have distinct immunological findings in comparison with ASD/non-SPAD or non-ASD/SPAD children. Case description We describe 8 ASD/SPAD children with worsening behavioral symptoms/cognitive skills that are triggered by immune insults. These ASD/SPAD children exhibited delayed type food allergy (5/8), treatment-resistant seizure disorders (4/8), and chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (5/8) at high frequencies. Control subjects included ASD children without SPAD (N = 39), normal controls (N = 37), and non-ASD children with SPAD (N = 12). Discussion and Evaluation We assessed their innate and adaptive immune responses, by measuring the production of pro-inflammatory and counter-regulatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in responses to agonists of toll like receptors (TLR), stimuli of innate immunity, and T cell stimulants. Transcription profiling of PB monocytes was also assessed. ASD/SPAD PBMCs produced less proinflammatory cytokines with agonists of TLR7/8 (IL-6, IL-23), TLR2/6 (IL-6), TLR4 (IL-12p40), and without stimuli (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-?) than normal controls. In addition, cytokine production of ASD/SPAD PBMCs in response to T cell mitogens (IFN-?, IL-17, and IL-12p40) and candida antigen (Ag) (IL-10, IL-12p40) were less than normal controls. ASD/non-SPAD PBMDs revealed similar results as normal controls, while non-ASD/SPAD PBMCs revealed lower production of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-23 with a TLR4 agonist. Only common features observed between ASD/SPAD and non-ASD/SPAD children is lower IL-10 production in the absence of stimuli. Transcription profiling of PB monocytes revealed over a 2-fold up (830 and 1250) and down (653 and 1235) regulation of genes in ASD/SPAD children, as compared to normal (N = 26) and ASD/non-SPAD (N = 29) controls, respectively. Enriched gene expression of TGFBR (p < 0.005), Notch (p < 0.01), and EGFR1 (p < 0.02) pathways was found in the ASD/SPAD monocytes as compared to ASD/non-SPAD controls. Conclusions The Immunological findings in the ASD/SPAD children who exhibit fluctuating behavioral symptoms and cognitive skills cannot be solely attributed to SPAD. Instead, these findings may be more specific for ASD/SPAD children with the above-described clinical characteristics, indicating a possible role of these immune abnormalities in their neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:22226452

  5. The Immunosuppressive Activity of Amniotic Membrane Mesenchymal Stem Cells on T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alikarami, Fatemeh; Yari, Fatemeh; Amirizadeh, Naser; Nikougoftar, Mahin; Jalili, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are isolated from different sources like placenta. The placenta and its membranes like Amniotic Membrane (AM) are readily available and easy to work with. There is only limited knowledge on the immunomodulatory properties of human Amniotic Membrane-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hAM-MSCs). The aim of this study was to survey the suppressive activity of hAM-MSCs on T lymphocytes in vitro. Methods: Human AMs were obtained after caesarean section births from healthy women. After enzymatic digestion, cells were cultured and hAM-MSCs were obtained. In addition, human T lymphocytes were isolated and co-cultured with hAM-MSCs for 72 hr in the presence or absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Subsequently, proliferation of T cells was analyzed using BrdU and subsequently flow cytometry technique. Besides, the production of IL-4 and IFN-? was examined by ELISA method. Additionally, the expression of activation markers (CD38, HLA-DR) was studied on T lymphocytes by flow cytometry technique. Results: It was revealed that hAM-MSCs could significantly suppress the proliferation of T lymphocytes (p?0.01) and significantly decrease the production of IFN-? by T cells (p<0.05). hAM-MSCs also down regulated the expression of activation markers on the surface of T lymphocytes, CD38 and HLA-DR. The difference was significant between the case and control samples (p<0.05). All the comparisons were carried out between the case (Tcell+PHA+hAM-MSCs) and control (Tcell+PHA) groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, hAM-MSCs could inhibit the (mitogen-activated) T cells even in the absence of blood monocytes. Besides, hAM-MSCs-mediated inhibition of T lymphocytes was combined with down regulation of activation markers. PMID:26306147

  6. Evaluation of an optimized protocol using human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells for the in vitro detection of sensitizers: Results of a ring study in five laboratories.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Hendrik; Gerlach, Silke; Spieker, Jochem; Ryan, Cindy; Bauch, Caroline; Mangez, Claire; Winkler, Petra; Landsiedel, Robert; Templier, Marie; Mignot, Aurelien; Gerberick, Frank; Wenck, Horst; Aeby, Pierre; Schepky, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed T-cell mediated allergic response associated with relevant social and economic impacts. Animal experiments (e.g. the local lymph node assay) are still supplying most of the data used to assess the sensitization potential of new chemicals. However, the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetic Directive have introduced a testing ban for cosmetic ingredients after March 2013. We have developed and optimized a stable and reproducible in vitro protocol based on human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells to assess the sensitization potential of chemicals. To evaluate the transferability and the predictivity of this PBMDCs based test protocol, a ring study was organized with five laboratories using seven chemicals with a known sensitization potential (one none-sensitizer and six sensitizers, including one pro-hapten). The results indicated that this optimized test protocol could be successfully transferred to all participating laboratories and allowed a correct assessment of the sensitization potential of the tested set of chemicals. This should allow a wider acceptance of PBMDCs as a reliable test system for the detection of human skin sensitizers and the inclusion of this protocol in the toolbox of in vitro methods for the evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. PMID:25868915

  7. Role of lymphocytes in myocardial injury, healing, and remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2015-01-16

    A large body of evidence produced during decades of research indicates that myocardial injury activates innate immunity. On the one hand, innate immunity both aggravates ischemic injury and impedes remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). On the other hand, innate immunity activation contributes to myocardial healing, as exemplified by monocytes' central role in the formation of a stable scar and protection against intraventricular thrombi after acute infarction. Although innate leukocytes can recognize a wide array of self-antigens via pattern recognition receptors, adaptive immunity activation requires highly specific cooperation between antigen-presenting cells and distinct antigen-specific receptors on lymphocytes. We have only recently begun to examine lymphocyte activation's relationship to adaptive immunity and significance in the context of ischemic myocardial injury. There is some experimental evidence that CD4(+) T-cells contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several studies have shown that CD4(+) T-cells, especially CD4(+) T-regulatory cells, improve wound healing after MI, whereas depleting B-cells is beneficial post MI. That T-cell activation after MI is induced by T-cell receptor signaling implicates autoantigens that have not yet been identified in this context. Also, the significance of lymphocytes in humans post MI remains unclear, primarily as a result of methodology. This review summarizes current experimental evidence of lymphocytes' activation, functional role, and crosstalk with innate leukocytes in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, wound healing, and remodeling after myocardial infarction. PMID:25593279

  8. Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Wen, Jun; Nguyen, John; Cachia, Mark A.; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first study of stiffness/deformability changes of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, demonstrating that at the single cell level, leukemic metastasis progresses are accompanied by biophysical property alterations. A microfluidic device was utilized to electrically measure cell volume and transit time of single lymphocytes from healthy and CLL patients. The results from testing thousands of cells reveal that lymphocytes from CLL patients have higher stiffness (i.e., lower deformability), as compared to lymphocytes in healthy samples, which was also confirmed by AFM indentation tests. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known knowledge on other types of metastatic cells (e.g., breast and lung cancer cells) whose stiffness becomes lower as metastasis progresses.

  9. Immune surveillance of the lung by migrating tissue monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rodero, Mathieu P; Poupel, Lucie; Loyher, Pierre-Louis; Hamon, Pauline; Licata, Fabrice; Pessel, Charlotte; Hume, David A; Combadière, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are phagocytic effector cells in the blood and precursors of resident and inflammatory tissue macrophages. The aim of the current study was to analyse and compare their contribution to innate immune surveillance of the lung in the steady state with macrophage and dendritic cells (DC). ECFP and EGFP transgenic reporters based upon Csf1r and Cx3cr1 distinguish monocytes from resident mononuclear phagocytes. We used these transgenes to study the migratory properties of monocytes and macrophages by functional imaging on explanted lungs. Migratory monocytes were found to be either patrolling within large vessels of the lung or locating at the interface between lung capillaries and alveoli. This spatial organisation gives to monocytes the property to capture fluorescent particles derived from both vascular and airway routes. We conclude that monocytes participate in steady-state surveillance of the lung, in a way that is complementary to resident macrophages and DC, without differentiating into macrophages. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07847.001 PMID:26167653

  10. Monocyte/macrophage and protein interactions with non-fouling plasma polymerized tetraglyme and chemically modified polystyrene surfaces: In vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mingchao

    2001-07-01

    Biomaterials become encapsulated by fibrous tissues after implantation in soft tissues. Monocytes and macrophages are believed to play important roles in this response. The hypothesis tested in this dissertation is that material surface chemistry determines the amount of adsorbed proteins, which mediate monocyte adhesion, activation, and the foreign body response. On chemically modified polystyrene surfaces, monocyte adhesion in vitro was promoted by preadsorbed fibrinogen, fibronectin, and IgG, and increased with increasing amount of adsorbed fibrinogen. Adsorbed proteins and material surface chemistry mediated monocyte activation. TNFalpha release, procoagulant activity, and multinucleated foreign body giant cell (FBGC) formation was at least two-fold higher on IgG than other protein adsorbed surfaces. Adsorbed IgG and fibrinogen triggered monocyte intracellular calcium changes. FBGC formation was the highest on the hydrophobic polystyrene surface. Materials that greatly reduce non-specific protein adsorption may reduce the foreign body response to implanted materials. Radio-frequency plasma polymerized tetraglyme (CH3O(CH2CH2O)4CH 3) surfaces contained PEO-like chemical species and reduced fibrinogen adsorption to less than 10 ng/cm2. Monocyte adhesion to tetraglyme in vitro was also greatly reduced. Monocyte adhesion correlated linearly to the amount of adsorbed fibrinogen on a series of tetraglyme surfaces deposited at different plasma powers. Multivariate analysis using partial least squares regression identified the key surface spectra variables from electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) that contributed to the non-fouling properties of tetraglyme. However, leukocyte adhesion to surfaces implanted subcutaneously in mice for 1 or 28 days did not correlate with protein adsorption and was higher on tetraglyme than the FEP control. Fibrous encapsulation to tetraglyme implanted for 28 days was not reduced. Neutrophil adhesion to tetraglyme from whole blood or in plasma was higher than FEP, but was lower than FEP from neutrophils in serum. Loosely bound proteins such as fibrinogen may contribute to leukocyte adhesion to tetraglyme. Overall, protein adsorption and monocyte adhesion to tetraglyme in vitro did not correlate with tissue responses in vivo. Further understanding of the mechanism of fibrous encapsulation is necessary for developing biocompatible materials that can inhibit the foreign body response and promote normal wound healing.

  11. Organic dust exposure alters monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Alexis, Neil E.; Burrell, Angela M.; Parks, Conrad; Romberger, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dust exposure in agricultural animal environments results in airway diseases. Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate inflammatory immune response in the airways, but little is known about how organic dust affects differentiation and maturation of monocyte-derived immature and mature DCs (iDCs, mDCs). Peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated in vitro into iDCs with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor + IL-4 (6 days) with and without swine facility organic dust extract (ODE, 0.1%). Unlike control iDCs, ODE-conditioned iDCs maintained key monocyte properties (increased mCD14, increased phagocytic ability) while expressing DC features [increased mCD83, HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, diminished cytokine (TNF-?, IL-6) responsiveness]. At day 6, iDCs were cultured for an additional 48 h (days 7 and 8) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce mDCs. ODE-conditioned mDCs maintained high expression of mCD14+ and elevated phagocytosis while their DC features weakened as evidenced by decreased CD11c, CD83, HLA-DR, CD86, and CCR7 expression and reduced lymphocyte-stimulating capacity. Similar results were observed when monocytes were exposed to ODE for only the first 48 h and with ODE depleted of endotoxin. Control iDCs exposed to ODE during the final 2 days of iDC maturation (days 7 and 8) did not differ from control (no ODE) iDCs in surface marker expression and phagocytic ability, but exhibited enhanced lymphocyte-stimulating capacity. Dust exposure alters monocyte differentiation to iDCs and prevents maturation of iDC to mDCs. The first 48 h of monocyte differentiation appears to be the susceptible period to exposure. Environmental exposures present during early monocyte differentiation may impact the critical balance of DCs in the lung. PMID:19648285

  12. Effect of Neutrophil Apoptosis on Monocytic Cytokine Response to Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Ezel; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Background Neutrophil apoptosis may play a critical role in the resolution of inflammation by stimulating anti-inflammatory cytokine generation from monocytes. In this study, we investigated the effect of apoptotic neutrophils on interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1? production from monocytes in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. Methods Peripheral blood neutrophils from healthy individuals were isolated by sodium diatrizoate density gradient centrifugation. In order to induce apoptosis, neutrophils were cultured for 24 hours in modified Dulbecco’s medium supplemented with 10% autologous serum. Cell apoptosis was quantified by Annexin V positivity and loss of CD16 expression on the cell surface. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from the same subjects; monocytes were purified by magnetic cell sorting and cultured with or without apoptotic or fresh neutrophils. Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis was used for cell stimulation. IL-1? and IL-10 levels in supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results IL-10 generation was significantly increased in monocytes cultured with apoptotic neutrophils compared to monocytes alone or cocultured with fresh neutrophils (P <0.05). IL-1? was suppressed both in resting and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes in the presence of apoptotic neutrophils compared to monocytes alone or monocytes cultured with fresh neutrophils at all time points (P <0.05). Conclusion Neutrophil apoptosis provides a signal to monocytes, changing the phenotype of the monocyte resulting in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide. PMID:15948692

  13. Distinct immunologic effects of different intravenous iron preparations on monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Lisa H.; Zawada, Adam M.; Rogacev, Kyrill S.; Seiler, Sarah; Fliser, Danilo; Heine, Gunnar H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency contributes to anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. I.v. iron is therefore widely used for anaemia treatment, although it may induce oxidative stress and activate monocytes. Different i.v. iron preparations are available, but interestingly their substance-specific immunologic effects are poorly studied. Methods We analysed the effect of iron sucrose, ferric carboxymaltose, iron isomaltoside 1000, low-molecular-weight iron dextran and ferumoxytol on classical, intermediate and nonclassical monocyte biology. We therefore stimulated in vitro mature monocytes and haematopoietic CD34+ stem cells during their differentiation into monocytes with different concentrations (0.133, 0.266, 0.533 mg/mL) of i.v. iron preparations. Alterations of monocyte subset distribution, expression of surface markers (CD86, CCR5, CX3CR1), as well as production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?) and reactive oxygen species were measured using flow cytometry. Additionally, we analysed phagocytosis and antigen presentation capacity. Results We found specific immunologic effects after stimulation with iron sucrose which were not induced by the other iron preparations. Iron sucrose activated monocyte subsets leading to significantly increased CD86 expression. Simultaneously CD16 and CX3CR1 expression and monocytic phagocytosis capacity were decreased. Additionally, differentiation of monocytes from haematopoietic CD34+ stem cells was almost completely abolished after stimulation with iron sucrose. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that specific immunologic effects of distinct i.v. iron preparations exist. The clinical relevance of these findings requires further investigation. PMID:24523357

  14. A longitudinal study of feline immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in experimentally infected cats, using antigen-specific induction.

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, J A; Willett, B J; Gault, E A; Jarrett, O

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response in two cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was monitored. Effector cells were derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes during the acute and chronic phases of infection (0 to 21 and 62 to 127 weeks, respectively) and from the spleen and lymph nodes at 127 weeks after infection. Lymphocytes were restimulated in vitro with paraformaldehyde-fixed, autologous lymphoblasts which had been infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing FIV GAG or ENV proteins. Unstimulated lymphocytes were also used as effectors in some assays. 51Cr-labelled autologous skin fibroblasts infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses were used as targets. FIV GAG-specific cytotoxic precursors were detected in restimulated circulating lymphocytes during acute infection in both cats. The onset of this activity was as early as 2 weeks postinfection (p.i.) in one cat. From 62 weeks p.i. neither FIV GAG- nor ENV-specific precursors could be detected in the peripheral blood. However, at 127 weeks p.i., GAG- and ENV-specific cytotoxic precursors were detected in lymphocytes isolated from lymph nodes. The FIV-specific cytotoxic cells were predominantly major histocompatibility complex class I restricted. No cytotoxic activity was detected from unstimulated lymphocytes. These studies demonstrate the use of an assay system for dissecting the FIV-specific cytotoxic cell response and show that precursor cells appear in the circulation very early after infection and prior to a detectable antibody response. Our results also suggest that the persistent high-level circulating antiviral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses seen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans may not be a feature of FIV infections in cats. PMID:8709246

  15. Detection of Celiac Disease and Lymphocytic Enteropathy by Parallel Serology and Histopathology in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Marjorie M.; Murray, Joseph A.; Ronkainen, Jukka; Aro, Pertti; Storskrubb, Tom; D’Amato, Mauro; Lahr, Brian; Talley, Nicholas J.; Agreus, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Although serological analysis is used in diagnosis of celiac disease, histopathology is considered most reliable. We performed a prospective study to determine the clinical, pathological and serological spectrum of celiac disease in a general population (Kalixanda study). Methods A random sample of an adult general population (n=1000) was analyzed by upper endoscopy, duodenal biopsy, and serological analysis of tissue transglutaminase (tTg) levels; endomysial antibody (EMA) levels were analyzed in samples that were tTg+. The cutoff values for diagnosis of celiac disease were villous atrophy with 40 intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)/100 enterocytes (ECs). Results Samples from 33 subjects were tTg+ and 16 were EMA+. Histological analysis identified 7/1000 subjects (0.7%) with celiac disease; all were tTg+ and 6/7 were EMA+. Another 26 subjects were tTg+ (7/26 EMA+). This was addressed by a second quantitative pathology study, (nested case-control design) using a threshold of 25 IELS/100 ECs. In this analysis, all 13 samples that were tTg+ and EMA+ had ?25 IELs/100ECs. In total, 16 subjects (1.6%) had serological and histological evidence of gluten-sensitive enteropathy. IELs were quantified in duodenal biopsy samples from seronegative individuals (n=500); 19 (3.8%) had >25 IELs and lymphocytic duodenosis (LD). Conclusions Measurement of ?25 IELs/100 ECs correlated with serological indicators of celiac disease; a higher IEL threshold could miss 50% of cases. Quantification of tTg is a sensitive test for celiac disease; diagnosis can be confirmed by observation of ?25 IELs/100ECs in duodenal biopsies. Lymphocytic enteropathy (celiac disease and LD) is common in the population (5.4%). PMID:20398668

  16. Enhanced calcium responses to serotonin receptor stimulation in T-lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Genius, J; Schellenberg, A; Tchana-Duope, L; Hartmann, N; Giegling, I; Hartmann, A; Benninghoff, J; Rujescu, D

    2015-03-01

    Even if more extensively investigated in affective disorders, the serotonergic system is likely to be also implicated in modulating the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, where it closely interacts with the dopaminergic and glutamatergic system. To substantiate this notion, we studied the intensity and dynamics of cellular Ca(2+) responses to serotonin (5-hydoxytryptamine, 5-HT) in peripheral lymphocytes taken from currently non-psychotic schizophrenic patients. To this aim, peripheral lymphocytes were freshly obtained from healthy controls and a naturalistic collective of patients with schizophrenia in remission. Intracellular Ca(2+) responses were recorded in real-time by ratiometric fluorometry after 5-HT or phythaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, which served as an internal reference for Ca(2+) responsivity to non-specific stimulation. The intracellular Ca(2+) peak early after applying the 5-HT trigger was significantly elevated in schizophrenic patients. No significant differences of Ca(2+) peak levels were seen in response to stimulation with the mitogenic agent PHA, although responses to 5-HT and PHA were positively correlated in individual patients or controls. In conclusion, the serotonergic response patterns in peripheral lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients seem to be elevated, if employing sensitive tools like determination of intracellular Ca(2+) responses. Our observations suggest that the participation of serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia may deserve more interest, even if it should only act as a modulator on the main pathology in the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. We hope that this pilot study will prompt further studies with larger patient collectives to revisit this question. PMID:25576705

  17. Human monocyte response to retrieved polymethylmethacrylate particles.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Masatsugu; Kobayashi, Akio; Iwaki, Hiroyoshi; Ohashi, Hirotsugu; Kadoya, Yoshinori; Yamano, Yoshiki

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare retrieved polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles from failed total hip arthroplasties in terms of size, shape, and the response of human monocytes with commercially available particles. PMMA particles were isolated from peri-implant tissues of five failed cemented total hip arthroplasties using tissue digestion and a sucrose density gradient technique. Prepolymerized cement powder and those from which barium sulfate had been removed were examined for comparison. After exposure of peripheral human monocytes to PMMA particles, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in medium were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Image analysis revealed that retrieved particles were larger (retrieved: 1.24 microm; prepolymerized cement powder: 0.83 microm; barium sulfate-free powder: 0.87 microm) and were more irregular in shape and rougher than commercially available particles. Cytokine release was increased by all PMMA particle species. However, commercially available PMMA particles stimulated the release of necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 more strongly than did retrieved particles at very high doses. The observed difference in monocyte response might be due to the volume of the challenged particles. Another possible reason for the difference might be alteration of the surface chemistry of particles in situ and the difference in surface morphology between them. PMID:12209918

  18. HIV-1-Induced Impairment of Dendritic Cell Cross Talk with ?? T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cardone, Marco; Ikeda, Kyojiro N.; Varano, Barbara; Gessani, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interplay between dendritic cells (DC) and ?? T lymphocytes represents a network of paracrine and cell contact interactions important for an integrated immune response to pathogens. HIV-1 infection dramatically affects the number and functions of both cell populations, and DC/?? T cell cross talk may represent a target of virus-induced immune escape. We investigated whether HIV-exposed DC could deliver aberrant signals to interacting ?? T cells. Here we report that the interaction of human ?? T lymphocytes with HIV-1-exposed autologous monocyte-derived DC, but not direct exposure to the virus, impairs lymphocyte expansion and gamma interferon (IFN-?) production in response to phosphoantigens. This effect is independent of virus strain and occurred in 55% of the donors analyzed. The donor-dependent variation observed relies on the responsiveness of DC to HIV-1 and is strictly related to the capacity of the virus to suppress the maturation-induced expression of interleukin 12 (IL-12). In fact, ?? T cell response to phosphoantigens is almost completely recovered when this cytokine is exogenously added to the DC/lymphocyte cocultures. Interestingly, we show that ?? T lymphocytes are recruited by HIV-1-exposed DC through a CCR5-mediated mechanism and exert a CCL4-mediated control on virus dissemination within DC and susceptible CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results demonstrate an association between HIV-induced DC dysfunction and alterations of ?? T cell responses. The aberrant cross talk between these two cell populations may contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV infection by further reducing the strength of antiviral immune response. IMPORTANCE This study provides new evidence on the mechanisms exploited by HIV-1 to evade the host immune response. We report that HIV-1 impairs the cross talk between DC and ?? T lymphocytes, by reducing the capacity of DC to promote functional ?? T cell activation. Interestingly, the virus does not per se interfere with ?? T cell activation, thus highlighting the key role of early DC–HIV-1 interaction in this phenomenon. Furthermore, the results obtained unravel the novel role of ?? T cells in controlling HIV-1 dissemination within the DC population as well as virus transfer to susceptible CD4+ T lymphocytes. The interactions of DC with innate lymphocytes represent a major control mechanism for an integrated immune response to infection. Understanding how HIV-1 harnesses these pathways may provide important insights on the pathogenesis of disease and offer new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. PMID:25673717

  19. Comparing methods for ex vivo characterization of human monocyte phenotypes and in vitro responses.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa; Harding, Scott A; La Flamme, Anne Camille

    2015-12-01

    Monocytes are key innate effector cells and their phenotype and function may be a useful biomarker of disease state or therapeutic response. However, for such an assay to be clinically feasible it needs to be simple and reproducible, which this study aimed to address. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)(2) isolated from whole blood using Histopaque-1077 or cell preparation tubes (CPT) showed no difference in the ex vivo monocyte activation marker expression or in vitro responses; however, a delayed isolation using CPT significantly altered ex vivo and in vitro phenotypes and responses. Furthermore, purification of monocytes using CD14(+) microbeads resulted in a loss of CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes compared to PBMC samples. Thus, the use of CPT reduced complexity and time compared to Histopaque, and PBMC isolation allowed the analysis of all 3 major monocyte subsets. Finally, because the delayed isolation of PBMC from CPT significantly altered monocytes, time delays should be standardized. PMID:26256247

  20. Upregulation of programmed death-1 on T cells and programmed death ligand-1 on monocytes in septic shock patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Studies on the role of programmed death-1(PD-1) and its main ligand (PD-L1) during experimental models of sepsis have shown that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays a pathologic role in altering microbial clearance, the innate inflammatory response and accelerated apoptosis in sepsis. However, the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 and their role during the development of immune suppression in septic patients have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to determine whether the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 is upregulated in septic shock patients and to explore the role of this pathway in sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Methods Nineteen septic shock patients and 22 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. Apoptosis in lymphocyte subpopulations and PD-1/PD-L1 expression on peripheral T cells, B cells and monocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Apoptosis of T cells induced by TNF? or T-cell receptor ligation in vitro and effects of anti-PD-L1 antibody administration were measured by flow cytometry. CD14+ monocytes of septic shock patients were purified and incubated with either lipopolysaccharide, anti-PD-L1 antibody, isotype antibody, or a combination of lipopolysaccharide and anti-PD-L1 antibody or isotype antibody. Supernatants were harvested to examine production of cytokines by ELISA. Results Compared with healthy controls, septic shock induced a marked increase in apoptosis as detected by the annexin-V binding and active caspase-3 on CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells. Expression of PD-1 on T cells and of PD-L1 on monocytes was dramatically upregulated in septic shock patients. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade in vitro with anti-PD-L1 antibody decreased apoptosis of T cells induced by TNF? or T-cell receptor ligation. Meanwhile, this blockade potentiated the lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF? and IL-6 production and decreased IL-10 production by monocytes in vitro. Conclusions The expression of PD-1 on T cells and PD-L1 on monocytes was upregulated in septic shock patients. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway might play an essential role in sepsis-induced immunosuppression. PMID:21349174

  1. Identification and quantification of phosphodiesterase 4 subtypes in CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes from healthy and asthmatic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Landells, L J; Szilagy, C M; Jones, N A; Banner, K H; Allen, J M; Doherty, A; O'Connor, B J; Spina, D; Page, C P

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, for the first time, PDE4 subtypes were identified and semi-quantified in both CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes from healthy and asthmatic individuals. CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes from healthy and mild asymptomatic asthmatic subjects (receiving ?-agonist therapy only) were isolated from peripheral venous blood using appropriate antibody coated paramagnetic beads. PDE4 subtypes and ?-actin were identified by digoxigenin (DIG)-labelling reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and semi-quantified by DIG-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbance assay. In CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes PDE4A, PDE4B and PDE4D were detected, with no significant differences observed between healthy and asthmatic groups. In CD8 lymphocytes, enzyme subtype expression was lower and showed more intersubject variability. In functional studies investigating the effects of various PDE inhibitors on PHA-induced proliferation of mononuclear cells from healthy and asthmatic subjects, CDP840 (0.03–10??M), rolipram (0.1–10??M) and theophylline (10??M–1?mM) inhibited PHA-induced proliferation of mononuclear cells from healthy and asthmatic subjects in a concentration-dependent manner, although no significant difference was observed between the groups investigated. In additional studies, total monocyte cyclic AMP PDE activity was investigated in cells isolated from asthmatic subjects both prior to and 24?h after allergen challenge. Total monocyte cyclic AMP PDE activity remained unaffected following challenge of asthmatic subjects with either house dust mite or cat dander and was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by rolipram (0.01–100??M) both before and after allergen challenge. PMID:11429397

  2. A phase 2 study of idelalisib plus rituximab in treatment-naïve older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Susan M; Lamanna, Nicole; Kipps, Thomas J; Flinn, Ian; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Burger, Jan A; Keating, Michael; Mitra, Siddhartha; Holes, Leanne; Yu, Albert S; Johnson, David M; Miller, Langdon L; Kim, Yeonhee; Dansey, Roger D; Dubowy, Ronald L; Coutre, Steven E

    2015-12-17

    Idelalisib is a first-in-class oral inhibitor of PI3K? that has shown substantial activity in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate idelalisib as initial therapy, 64 treatment-naïve older patients with CLL or small lymphocytic leukemia (median age, 71 years; range, 65-90) were treated with rituximab 375 mg/m(2) weekly ×8 and idelalisib 150 mg twice daily continuously for 48 weeks. Patients completing 48 weeks without progression could continue to receive idelalisib on an extension study. The median time on treatment was 22.4 months (range, 0.8-45.8+). The overall response rate (ORR) was 97%, including 19% complete responses. The ORR was 100% in patients with del(17p)/TP53 mutations and 97% in those with unmutated IGHV. Progression-free survival was 83% at 36 months. The most frequent (>30%) adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (including colitis) (64%), rash (58%), pyrexia (42%), nausea (38%), chills (36%), cough (33%), and fatigue (31%). Elevated alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase was seen in 67% of patients (23% grade ?3). The combination of idelalisib and rituximab was highly active, resulting in durable disease control in treatment-naïve older patients with CLL. These results support the further development of idelalisib as initial treatment of CLL. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT01203930. PMID:26472751

  3. Monocyte implication in renal allograft dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guillén-Gómez, E; Guirado, L; Belmonte, X; Maderuelo, A; Santín, S; Juarez, C; Ars, E; Facundo, C; Ballarín, J A; Vidal, S; Díaz-Encarnación, M M

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are involved in the development and progression of kidney fibrosis. The aim of this study was to analyse the phenotype of circulating monocytes and their ability to predict kidney allograft dysfunction in living kidney transplant recipients. Whole blood samples from 25 kidney recipients and 17 donors were collected at five time-points. Monocyte phenotype was analysed by flow cytometry, and interleukin (IL)-10 and soluble CD163 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One week after transplantation, surface CD163 and IL-10 levels increased significantly from baseline [2·99 ± 1·38 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) to 5·18 ± 2·42 MFI for CD163; 4·5 ± 1·46 pg/ml to 6·7 ± 2·5 pg/ml for IL-10]. This CD163 increase correlated with 4-month creatinine levels (r = 0·4394, P = 0·04). However, soluble CD163 decreased significantly from baseline at 1 week (797·11 ± 340·45 ng/ml to 576·50 ± 293·60 ng/ml). CD14+CD16– monocytes increased at 4 months and correlated positively with creatinine levels at 12 and 24 months (r = 0·6348, P = 0·002 and r = 0·467, P = 0·028, respectively) and negatively with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) at 12 months (r = 0·6056, P = 0·003). At 4 months, IL-10 decreased significantly (P = 0·008) and correlated positively with creatinine at 2 years (r = 0·68, P = 0·010) and with CD14+CD16– monocytes at 4 months (r = 0·732, P = 0·004). At 24 h, levels of human leucocyte antigen D-related declined from 12·12 ± 5·99 to 5·21 ± 3·84 and CD86 expression decreased from 2·76 ± 1·08 to 1·87 ± 0·95. Both markers recovered progressively until 12 months, when they decreased again. These results indicate that monitoring monocytes could be a promising new prognostic tool of graft dysfunction in renal transplant patients. PMID:24134783

  4. Studies on Shiga toxin type 1 mediated tumor necrosis factor synthesis in a human monocytic cell line 

    E-print Network

    Sakiri, Ramesh

    1997-01-01

    studies have shown that a direct cYtOtOxic effect Of Purified stx on human vascular endothelial cells was minimal unless they were treated with proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-I (IL-1) or tumor necrois factor (-rNF)-These cytokines have been...

  5. Cancer immunosurveillance: role of patrolling monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cassetta, Luca; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Classical inflammatory monocytes and their derivative macrophages promote tumor metastasis whereas CD8 T and NK cells restrict tumor growth. In a recent paper published in Science, Hanna and colleagues demonstrate that another monocyte population, nonclassical patrolling monocytes, is enriched in the microvasculature of tumor-challenged lung and reduces tumor metastasis by recruiting NK cells. PMID:26634605

  6. Hypergravity-induced immunomodulation in a rodent model: lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Green, Lora M.; Miller, Glen M.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to quantify changes in lymphoid organs and cells over time due to centrifugation-induced hypergravity. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 G and the following assays were performed on days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 21: spleen, thymus, lung, and liver masses; total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte/macrophage, and granulocyte counts; level of splenocyte apoptosis; enumeration of CD3+ T, CD3+/CD4+ T helper, CD3+/CD8+ T cytotoxic, B220+ B, and NK1.1+ natural killer cells; and quantification of cells expressing CD25, CD69, and CD71 activation markers. The data show that increased gravity resulted in decreased body, spleen, thymus, and liver, but not lung, mass. Significant reductions were noted in all three major leukocyte populations (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocyte/macrophages) [correction of macrphages] with increased gravity; persistent depletion was noted in blood but not spleen. Among the various lymphocyte populations, the CD3+/CD8+ T cells and B220+ B cells were the most affected and NK1.1+ NK cells the least affected. Overall, the changes were most evident during the first week, with a greater influence noted for cells in the spleen. A linear relationship was found between some of the measurements and the level of gravity, especially on day 4. These findings indicate that hypergravity profoundly alters leukocyte number and distribution in a mammalian model and that some aberrations persisted throughout the three weeks of the study. In certain cases, the detected changes were similar to those observed after whole-body irradiation. In future investigations we hope to combine hypergravity with low-dose rate irradiation and immune challenge.

  7. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana

    2015-02-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14(+) mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14(+) monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

  8. Cytomegalovirus impairs antiviral CD8+ T cell immunity by recruiting inflammatory monocytes.

    PubMed

    Daley-Bauer, Lisa P; Wynn, Grace M; Mocarski, Edward S

    2012-07-27

    Inflammatory monocytes are key early responders to infection that contribute to pathogen-host interactions in diverse ways. Here, we report that the murine cytomegalovirus-encoded CC chemokine, MCK2, enhanced CCR2-dependent recruitment of these cells to modulate antiviral immunity, impairing virus-specific CD8(+) T cell expansion and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes, thus reducing the capacity to eliminate viral antigen-bearing cells and slowing viral clearance. Adoptive transfer of inflammatory monocytes into Ccr2(-/-)Ccl2(-/-) mice impaired virus antigen-specific clearance. Cytomegalovirus therefore enhances a natural CCR2-dependent immune regulatory network to modulate adaptive immunity via nitric oxide production, reminiscent of the monocytic subtype of myeloid-derived suppressor cells primarily implicated in cancer immunomodulation. PMID:22840843

  9. Monocyte interaction accelerates HCl-induced lung epithelial remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by overwhelming inflammatory responses and lung remodeling. We hypothesized that leukocyte infiltration during the inflammatory response modulates epithelial remodeling through a mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods Human lung epithelial cells were treated for 30 min with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Human monocytes were then cocultured with the epithelial cells for up to 48 h, in the presence or absence of blocking peptides against lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), or tyrphostin A9, a specific inhibitor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor tyrosine kinase. Results Exposure of lung epithelial cells to HCl resulted in increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and production of interleukin (IL)-8 at 24 h. The expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin decreased while the mesenchymal markers vimentin and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) increased at 24 h and remained high at 48 h. The addition of monocytes augmented the profiles of lower expression of epithelial markers and higher mesenchymal markers accompanied by increased collagen deposition. This EMT profile was associated with an enhanced production of IL-8 and PDGF. Treatment of the lung epithelial cells with the LAF-1 blocking peptides CD11a237–246 or/and CD18112–122 suppressed monocyte adhesion, production of IL-8, PDGF and hydroxyproline as well as EMT markers. Treatment with tyrphostin A9 prevented the EMT profile shift induced by HCl stimulation. Conclusions The interaction between epithelial cells and monocytes enhanced epithelial remodelling after initial injury through EMT signalling that is associated with the release of soluble mediators, including IL-8 and PDGF. PMID:25108547

  10. Safety and activity of BTK inhibitor ibrutinib combined with ofatumumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase 1b/2 study.

    PubMed

    Jaglowski, Samantha M; Jones, Jeffrey A; Nagar, Veena; Flynn, Joseph M; Andritsos, Leslie A; Maddocks, Kami J; Woyach, Jennifer A; Blum, Kristie A; Grever, Michael R; Smucker, Kelly; Ruppert, Amy S; Heerema, Nyla A; Lozanski, Gerard; Stefanos, Mona; Munneke, Brian; West, Jamie-Sue; Neuenburg, Jutta K; James, Danelle F; Hall, Nathan; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C

    2015-08-13

    Ibrutinib represents a therapeutic advance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but as monotherapy produces few complete remissions in previously treated patients. Anti-CD20 antibodies have improved response and progression-free survival (PFS) when combined with chemotherapy. We evaluated the safety and activity of adding ofatumumab to ibrutinib in 3 different administration sequences. Patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), prolymphocytic leukemia, or Richter's transformation who failed ?2 prior therapies were enrolled. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg daily and 12 doses of ofatumumab 300/2000 mg in 3 schedules: ibrutinib lead-in (group 1; n = 27), concurrent start (group 2; n = 20), or ofatumumab lead-in (group 3; n = 24). Seventy-one patients were treated; most had high-risk disease including del(17)(p13.1) (44%) or del(11)(q22.3) (31%). The most frequent adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (70%), infusion-related reaction (45%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (44%). Overall response rates in CLL/SLL patients (n = 66) were 100%, 79%, and 71% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Estimated 12-month PFSs for all patients were 89%, 85%, and 75%, respectively. Four patients in group 3 progressed prior to receiving ibrutinib. This study demonstrates the tolerability and clinical activity of this combination with quicker time to best response than single-agent ibrutinib and with durable responses. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01217749. PMID:26116658

  11. Safety and activity of BTK inhibitor ibrutinib combined with ofatumumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase 1b/2 study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Nagar, Veena; Flynn, Joseph M.; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Maddocks, Kami J.; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Blum, Kristie A.; Grever, Michael R.; Smucker, Kelly; Ruppert, Amy S.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Lozanski, Gerard; Stefanos, Mona; Munneke, Brian; West, Jamie-Sue; Neuenburg, Jutta K.; James, Danelle F.; Hall, Nathan; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib represents a therapeutic advance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but as monotherapy produces few complete remissions in previously treated patients. Anti-CD20 antibodies have improved response and progression-free survival (PFS) when combined with chemotherapy. We evaluated the safety and activity of adding ofatumumab to ibrutinib in 3 different administration sequences. Patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), prolymphocytic leukemia, or Richter’s transformation who failed ?2 prior therapies were enrolled. Patients received ibrutinib 420 mg daily and 12 doses of ofatumumab 300/2000 mg in 3 schedules: ibrutinib lead-in (group 1; n = 27), concurrent start (group 2; n = 20), or ofatumumab lead-in (group 3; n = 24). Seventy-one patients were treated; most had high-risk disease including del(17)(p13.1) (44%) or del(11)(q22.3) (31%). The most frequent adverse events (any grade) were diarrhea (70%), infusion-related reaction (45%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (44%). Overall response rates in CLL/SLL patients (n = 66) were 100%, 79%, and 71% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Estimated 12-month PFSs for all patients were 89%, 85%, and 75%, respectively. Four patients in group 3 progressed prior to receiving ibrutinib. This study demonstrates the tolerability and clinical activity of this combination with quicker time to best response than single-agent ibrutinib and with durable responses. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01217749. PMID:26116658

  12. A Miniature Couette to Generate Shear for Flow Cytometry: Studying Real-Time Modulation of Intracellular Calcium in Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zwartz, Gordon J.; Chigaev, Alexandre; Foutz, Terry D.; Edwards, Bruce; Sklar, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular hydrodynamic forces may be transmitted to the interior of cells through the alteration of integrin conformation and affinity. Integrin activation regulates leukocyte recruitment, cell activation, and transmigration. The cellular and molecular mechanisms for integrin activation are not precisely known, although intracellular calcium signaling is involved. Flow cytometry offers a versatile way to study intracellular calcium signaling in real-time. We report a novel method to generate defined shear by using a miniature Couette. Testing involved measuring shear induced intracellular calcium signals of human monoblastoid U937 cells in suspension. The Couette was connected externally to a flow cytometer and pressurized at 6 PSI (4.1 N/m2). Cells were subjected to well-defined shear between 0 and 1000 s?1 and delivered continuously within 10 s to a FACScan at 1 ?l/s. Intracellular calcium levels and the percentage of cells activated increased as shear increased in duration and intensity. PMID:22045643

  13. Human bone marrow lymphocytes. I. Distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in the bone marrow of normal individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Fauci, A S

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the proportions and in vitro immune capacities of lymphocyte populations in the bone marrows of normal humans. Relatively pure mononuclear cell suspensions were obtained from bone marrow aspirates by linear sucrose gradient centrifugations. Simultaneous peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens from each individual were assayed for lymphocyte surface markers and mitogen responsiveness. Maximal possible contamination of bone marrow aspirates by peripheral blood was determined by performing aspirates on individuals who had received 51chromium-labeled autologous erythrocytes. Rhymus-derived (T) lymphocytes, as determined by the sheep red blood cell (E) rosette assay, comprised 8.6-(plus or minus 1.6)% of the total bone marrow lymphocyte pool. Bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes, as determined by the presence of a complement receptor, made up 15.4-(plus or minus 1.9)% of the lymphocyte pool whereas 74.6 (plus or minus 2.4)% of mononuclear cells lacked easily detectable surface markers. These findings could not be explained by contamination with peripheral blood lymphocytes since contamination was corrected for in the calculations. Lymphocyte-enriched suspensions of bone marrow cells responded to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, concanalin A, and particularly pokeweed mitogen. In vitro incubations of bone marrow and peripheral blood lymphocytes with tritiated thymidine followed by determinations of E and erythrocyte antibody complement (EAC) rosettes were performed. Simultaneous rosetteradioautographs demonstrated that the proliferative potential of bone marrow B lymphocytes was greater than peripheral blood B lymphocytes (P less than 0.01). On the other hand, the proliferative potential of bone marrow T lymphocytes was the same as that of peripheral blood T lymphocytes. These findings demonstrate that in addition to containing B lymphocytes the normal bone marrow contains a small fraction of T lymphocytes similar to the mature T lymphocyte pool found in the peripheral blood. These T cells most probably enter the bone marrow parenchyma as part of the normal recirculating lymphocyte pool. Images PMID:1079808

  14. Identification of Distinct Monocyte Phenotypes and Correlation with Circulating Cytokine Profiles in Acute Response to Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wan; Vodovotz, Yoram; Kusturiss, Mary B.; Barclay, Derek; Greenwald, Karen; Boninger, Michael L.; Coen, Paul M.; Brienza, David; Sowa, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Macrophage infiltration to the injury site during the acute response to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is not uniform. Macrophage phenotype has been characterized as either pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2). Animal studies suggest that M1/M2 dominance at the site of injury relates to spontaneous recovery following SCI. Objective To investigate whether the phenotype of circulating macrophage precursors-monocytes (MOs), is altered in the acute phase of SCI and corresponds to circulating inflammatory cytokines. Study Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting A single academic medical center in Pennsylvania, US. Patients A cohort of 27 complete or incomplete traumatic SCI subjects enrolled within 7 days post-SCI injury. Methods MO phenotype was defined within the first week post-SCI, using flow cytometry, and compared to historical uninjured controls. Concentrations of 25 cytokines/chemokines were assessed using Luminex in serial blood samples up to two weeks post-SCI. ANOVA was used to determine the correlations between the phenotypes and the cytokine profiles. Results Patients subsets were identified with either M1 dominant or M2 dominant circulating MOs distinct from the uninjured controls. The M1-dominant was associated with higher circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-12p70 and IP-10, and lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-15 and IL-7, whereas the M2-dominant exhibited the opposite cytokine profiles with significantly higher IL-10 and IL-7. Conclusion In the acute phase after SCI, at comparable injury severity, subgroups of patients exhibit distinct M1/M2 MOs dominance and the phenotype is correlated with M1 or M2-specific cytokine/chemokine profiles. Though further studies are needed to determine how these observed phenotypic differences relate to functional recovery, our findings 1) provide the first evidence indicating the possible individual differences in the immune responses to the comparable traumatic SCI, with potential implications for management of acute SCI and rehabilitation; 2) may represent easily accessible biomarkers with prognostic utility. PMID:24140737

  15. Hypoxia-inducible C-to-U coding RNA editing downregulates SDHB in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Kitty; Liu, Biao; Wang, Jianmin; Patnaik, Santosh K.; Wallace, Paul K.; Taggart, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. RNA editing is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can alter the coding sequences of certain genes in response to physiological demands. We previously identified C-to-U RNA editing (C136U, R46X) which inactivates a small fraction of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; mitochondrial complex II) subunit B gene (SDHB) mRNAs in normal steady-state peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). SDH is a heterotetrameric tumor suppressor complex which when mutated causes paraganglioma tumors that are characterized by constitutive activation of hypoxia inducible pathways. Here, we studied regulation, extent and cell type origin of SDHB RNA editing. Methods. We used short-term cultured PBMCs obtained from random healthy platelet donors, performed monocyte enrichment by cold aggregation, employed a novel allele-specific quantitative PCR method, flow cytometry, immunologic cell separation, gene expression microarray, database analysis and high-throughput RNA sequencing. Results. While the editing rate is low in uncultured monocyte-enriched PBMCs (average rate 2.0%, range 0.4%–6.3%, n = 42), it is markedly upregulated upon exposure to 1% oxygen tension (average rate 18.2%, range 2.8%–49.4%, n = 14) and during normoxic macrophage differentiation in the presence of serum (average rate 10.1%, range 2.7%–18.8%, n = 17). The normoxic induction of SDHB RNA editing was associated with the development of dense adherent aggregates of monocytes in culture. CD14-positive monocyte isolation increased the percentages of C136U transcripts by 1.25-fold in normoxic cultures (n = 5) and 1.68-fold in hypoxic cultures (n = 4). CD14-negative lymphocytes showed no evidence of SDHB editing. The SDHB genomic DNA remained wild-type during increased RNA editing. Microarray analysis showed expression changes in wound healing and immune response pathway genes as the editing rate increased in normoxic cultures. High-throughput sequencing of SDHB and SDHD transcripts confirmed the induction of C136U RNA editing in normoxic cultures but showed no additional verifiable coding edits. Analysis of SDHB RNA sequence data from 16 normal human tissues from the Illumina Body Map and from 45 samples representing 23 different cell types from the ENCODE projects confirmed the occurrence of site-specific C136U editing in whole blood (1.7%) and two primary CD14+ monocyte samples (1.9% and 2.6%). In contrast, the other cell types showed an average of 0.2% and 0.1% C136U editing rates in the two databases, respectively. Conclusions. These findings demonstrate that C-to-U coding RNA editing of certain genes is dynamically induced by physiologically relevant environmental factors and suggest that epigenetic downregulation of SDHB by site-specific RNA editing plays a role in hypoxia adaptation in monocytes. PMID:24058882

  16. Ly6C(high) monocytes control cerebral toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Aindrila; Bruder, Dunja; Wolf, Susanne A; Jeron, Andreas; Mack, Matthias; Heimesaat, Markus M; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by activation of resident cells and recruitment of immune cells from the periphery to the CNS. In this study, we show that a subset of myeloid cells, namely Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes that infiltrate the brain upon chronic T. gondii infection, plays a decisive role in host defense. Depletion of this monocyte subset resulted in elevated parasite load and decreased survival of infected mice, suggesting their crucial role. Notably, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes governed parasite control due to production of proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, inducible NO synthase, TNF, and reactive oxygen intermediate. Interestingly, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes were also able to produce the regulatory cytokine IL-10, revealing their dual feature. Moreover, we confirmed by adoptive transfer that the recruited monocytes further develop into two distinct subpopulations contributing to parasite control and profound host defense. The differentiated Ly6C(int)CCR2(+)F4/80(int) subset upregulated MHC I and MHC II molecules, suggesting dendritic cell properties such as interaction with T cells, whereas the Ly6C(neg)F4/80(high) cell subset displayed elevated phagocytic capacity while upregulating triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2. Finally, we have shown that the recruitment of Ly6C(high) monocytes to the CNS is regulated by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. These results indicate the critical importance of recruited Ly6C(high) monocytes upon cerebral toxoplasmosis and reveal the behavior of further differentiated myeloid-derived mononuclear cell subsets in parasite control and immune regulation of the CNS. PMID:25710908

  17. Buprenorphine decreases the CCL2-mediated chemotactic response of monocytes.

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Loreto; Lopez, Lillie; Che, Fa-Yun; Lim, Jihyeon; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Williams, Dionna W; Nieves, Edward; Calderon, Tina M; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Fiser, Andras; Weiss, Louis; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Berman, Joan W

    2015-04-01

    Despite successful combined antiretroviral therapy, ? 60% of HIV-infected people exhibit HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). CCL2 is elevated in the CNS of infected people with HAND and mediates monocyte influx into the CNS, which is critical in neuroAIDS. Many HIV-infected opiate abusers have increased neuroinflammation that may augment HAND. Buprenorphine is used to treat opiate addiction. However, there are few studies that examine its impact on HIV neuropathogenesis. We show that buprenorphine reduces the chemotactic phenotype of monocytes. Buprenorphine decreases the formation of membrane projections in response to CCL2. It also decreases CCL2-induced chemotaxis and mediates a delay in reinsertion of the CCL2 receptor, CCR2, into the cell membrane after CCL2-mediated receptor internalization, suggesting a mechanism of action of buprenorphine. Signaling pathways in CCL2-induced migration include increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and of the junctional protein JAM-A. We show that buprenorphine decreases these phosphorylations in CCL2-treated monocytes. Using DAMGO, CTAP, and Nor-BNI, we demonstrate that the effect of buprenorphine on CCL2 signaling is opioid receptor mediated. To identify additional potential mechanisms by which buprenorphine inhibits CCL2-induced monocyte migration, we performed proteomic analyses to characterize additional proteins in monocytes whose phosphorylation after CCL2 treatment was inhibited by buprenorphine. Leukosialin and S100A9 were identified and had not been shown previously to be involved in monocyte migration. We propose that buprenorphine limits CCL2-mediated monocyte transmigration into the CNS, thereby reducing neuroinflammation characteristic of HAND. Our findings underscore the use of buprenorphine as a therapeutic for neuroinflammation as well as for addiction. PMID:25716997

  18. CCR5 susceptibility to ligand-mediated down-modulation differs between human T lymphocytes and myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M.; Kasprowicz, Richard; Hartley, Oliver; Signoret, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    CCR5 is a chemokine receptor expressed on leukocytes and a coreceptor used by HIV-1 to enter CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages. Stimulation of CCR5 by chemokines triggers internalization of chemokine-bound CCR5 molecules in a process called down-modulation, which contributes to the anti-HIV activity of chemokines. Recent studies have shown that CCR5 conformational heterogeneity influences chemokine-CCR5 interactions and HIV-1 entry in transfected cells or activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. However, the effect of CCR5 conformations on other cell types and on the process of down-modulation remains unclear. We used mAbs, some already shown to detect distinct CCR5 conformations, to compare the behavior of CCR5 on in vitro generated human T cell blasts, monocytes and MDMs and CHO-CCR5 transfectants. All human cells express distinct antigenic forms of CCR5 not detected on CHO-CCR5 cells. The recognizable populations of CCR5 receptors exhibit different patterns of down-modulation on T lymphocytes compared with myeloid cells. On T cell blasts, CCR5 is recognized by all antibodies and undergoes rapid chemokine-mediated internalization, whereas on monocytes and MDMs, a pool of CCR5 molecules is recognized by a subset of antibodies and is not removed from the cell surface. We demonstrate that this cell surface–retained form of CCR5 responds to prolonged treatment with more-potent chemokine analogs and acts as an HIV-1 coreceptor. Our findings indicate that the regulation of CCR5 is highly specific to cell type and provide a potential explanation for the observation that native chemokines are less-effective HIV-entry inhibitors on macrophages compared with T lymphocytes. PMID:25957306

  19. Use of whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls.

    PubMed

    Redig, P T; Dunnette, J L; Sivanandan, V

    1984-11-01

    Mitogen-induced whole blood lymphocyte stimulation tests for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were developed. Combinations of incubation times, blood dilutions, concentrations of [3H]thymidine and [125I]2-deoxyuridine, antibiotics, phytohemagglutinin-P, and concanavalin A were tested for their effects on the stimulation index (SI). An antibiotic combination of gentamicin plus amphotericin B yielded low SI with lymphocytes from bald eagles, but not with lymphocytes from great horned owls or red-tailed hawks. Penicillin plus streptomycin caused no such depression of SI. Lymphocytes from all 3 species yielded maximum responses with a 48-hour prelabel and 12- to- 16 hour postlabel incubation period at 41 C and 1:20 blood dilution. Optimal mitogen concentrations for lymphocytes from bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls were 25 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of phytohemagglutinin-P/well, respectively, and 2.5 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of concanavalin A/well, respectively. Differences in SI were not seen between the 2 radioactive labels. The optimal concentration of the [3H]thymidine label ranged from 0.06 to 0.125 microCi/well. PMID:6524727

  20. LILRA2 selectively modulates LPS-mediated cytokine production and inhibits phagocytosis by monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao K; Mitchell, Ainslie; Endoh, Yasumi; Hampartzoumian, Taline; Huynh, Owen; Borges, Luis; Geczy, Carolyn; Bryant, Katherine; Tedla, Nicodemus

    2012-01-01

    The activating immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily A, member 2 (LILRA2) is primarily expressed on the surface of cells of the innate immunity including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils but not on lymphocytes and NK cells. LILRA2 cross-linking on monocytes induces pro-inflammatory cytokines while inhibiting dendritic cell differentiation and antigen presentation. A similar activating receptor, LILRA4, has been shown to modulate functions of TLR7/9 in dendritic cells. These suggest a selective immune regulatory role for LILRAs during innate immune responses. However, whether LILRA2 has functions distinct from other receptors of the innate immunity including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and Fc?RI remains unknown. Moreover, the effects of LILRA2 on TLR4 and Fc?RI-mediated monocyte functions are not elucidated. Here, we show activation of monocytes via LILRA2 cross-linking selectively increased GM-CSF production but failed to induce IL-12 and MCP-1 production that were strongly up-regulated by LPS, suggesting functions distinct from TLR4. Interestingly, LILRA2 cross-linking on monocytes induced similar amounts of IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF and MIP-1? but lower levels of TNF?, IL-1?, IL-10 and IFN? compared to those stimulated with LPS. Furthermore, cross-linking of LILRA2 on monocytes significantly decreased phagocytosis of IgG-coated micro-beads and serum opsonized Escherichia coli but had limited effect on phagocytosis of non-opsonized bacteria. Simultaneous co-stimulation of monocytes through LILRA2 and LPS or sequential activation of monocytes through LILRA2 followed by LPS led lower levels of TNF?, IL-1? and IL-12 production compared to LPS alone, but had additive effect on levels of IL-10 and IFN? but not on IL-6. Interestingly, LILRA2 cross-linking on monocytes caused significant inhibition of TLR4 mRNA and protein, suggesting LILRA2-mediated suppression of LPS responses might be partly via regulation of this receptor. Taken together, we provide evidence that LILRA2-mediated activation of monocytes is significantly different to LPS and that LILRA2 selectively modulates LPS-mediated monocyte activation and Fc?RI-dependent phagocytosis. PMID:22479404

  1. LILRA2 Selectively Modulates LPS-Mediated Cytokine Production and Inhibits Phagocytosis by Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hao K.; Mitchell, Ainslie; Endoh, Yasumi; Hampartzoumian, Taline; Huynh, Owen; Borges, Luis; Geczy, Carolyn; Bryant, Katherine; Tedla, Nicodemus

    2012-01-01

    The activating immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily A, member 2 (LILRA2) is primarily expressed on the surface of cells of the innate immunity including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils but not on lymphocytes and NK cells. LILRA2 cross-linking on monocytes induces pro-inflammatory cytokines while inhibiting dendritic cell differentiation and antigen presentation. A similar activating receptor, LILRA4, has been shown to modulate functions of TLR7/9 in dendritic cells. These suggest a selective immune regulatory role for LILRAs during innate immune responses. However, whether LILRA2 has functions distinct from other receptors of the innate immunity including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and Fc?RI remains unknown. Moreover, the effects of LILRA2 on TLR4 and Fc?RI-mediated monocyte functions are not elucidated. Here, we show activation of monocytes via LILRA2 cross-linking selectively increased GM-CSF production but failed to induce IL-12 and MCP-1 production that were strongly up-regulated by LPS, suggesting functions distinct from TLR4. Interestingly, LILRA2 cross-linking on monocytes induced similar amounts of IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF and MIP-1? but lower levels of TNF?, IL-1?, IL-10 and IFN? compared to those stimulated with LPS. Furthermore, cross-linking of LILRA2 on monocytes significantly decreased phagocytosis of IgG-coated micro-beads and serum opsonized Escherichia coli but had limited effect on phagocytosis of non-opsonized bacteria. Simultaneous co-stimulation of monocytes through LILRA2 and LPS or sequential activation of monocytes through LILRA2 followed by LPS led lower levels of TNF?, IL-1? and IL-12 production compared to LPS alone, but had additive effect on levels of IL-10 and IFN? but not on IL-6. Interestingly, LILRA2 cross-linking on monocytes caused significant inhibition of TLR4 mRNA and protein, suggesting LILRA2-mediated suppression of LPS responses might be partly via regulation of this receptor. Taken together, we provide evidence that LILRA2-mediated activation of monocytes is significantly different to LPS and that LILRA2 selectively modulates LPS-mediated monocyte activation and Fc?RI-dependent phagocytosis. PMID:22479404

  2. Bacille Calmette-Guérin induces NOD2-dependent nonspecific protection from reinfection via epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Ifrim, Daniela C.; Saeed, Sadia; Jacobs, Cor; van Loenhout, Joke; de Jong, Dirk; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive features of innate immunity, recently described as “trained immunity,” have been documented in plants, invertebrate animals, and mice, but not yet in humans. Here we show that bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination in healthy volunteers led not only to a four- to sevenfold increase in the production of IFN-?, but also to a twofold enhanced release of monocyte-derived cytokines, such as TNF and IL-1?, in response to unrelated bacterial and fungal pathogens. The enhanced function of circulating monocytes persisted for at least 3 mo after vaccination and was accompanied by increased expression of activation markers such as CD11b and Toll-like receptor 4. These training effects were induced through the NOD2 receptor and mediated by increased histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation. In experimental studies, BCG vaccination induced T- and B-lymphocyte–independent protection of severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice from disseminated candidiasis (100% survival in BCG-vaccinated mice vs. 30% in control mice). In conclusion, BCG induces trained immunity and nonspecific protection from infections through epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells. PMID:22988082

  3. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lúcia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-? and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-? and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. PMID:23401741

  4. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lúcia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-? and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-? and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. PMID:23401741

  5. Caffeine sensitization of cultured mammalian cells and human lymphocytes irradiated with gamma rays and fast neutrons: a study of relative biological effectiveness in relation to cellular repair

    SciTech Connect

    Hannan, M.A.; Gibson, D.P.

    1985-10-01

    The sensitizing effects of caffeine were studied in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells and human lymphocytes following irradiation with gamma rays and fast neutrons. Caffeine sensitization occurred only when log-phase BHK cells and mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes were exposed to the two radiations. Noncycling (confluent) cells of BHK resulted in a shouldered survival curve following gamma irradiation while a biphasic curve was obtained with the log-phase cells. Survival in the case of lymphocytes was estimated by measurement of (TH)thymidine uptake. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons was found to be greater at survival levels corresponding to the resistant portions of the survival curves (shoulder or resistant tail). In both cell types, no reduction in RBE was observed when caffeine was present, because caffeine affected both gamma and neutron survival by the same proportion.

  6. Heterogeneity in the Locomotory Behavior of Human Monocyte Subsets over Human Vascular Endothelium In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Collison, Joanna L; Carlin, Leo M; Eichmann, Martin; Geissmann, Frederic; Peakman, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Human monocytes comprise three distinct subsets, defined by their relative expression of CD14 and CD16. These subsets appear to have different functional roles within homeostasis and inflammation, but little is known about the manner in which they interact with macro- and microvascular endothelial cells, a key enabling component for the fulfillment of their functional roles. In the present study, we examined the locomotory behavior of the three major human monocyte subsets over human endothelial monolayers subjected to physiologically relevant levels of shear flow in vitro. Each subset was shown to preferentially perform different types of locomotory behavior in a resting state. A long-range crawling behavior, similar to the "patrolling" behavior of murine Ly6C(-) monocytes, was observed in CD14(+)CD16(-) and CD14(dim)CD16(+) monocytes, but not in CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes. CD14(dim)CD16(+) and CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes showed a preference for adhering to microvascular over macrovascular endothelium, whereas CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes showed the opposite. Transendothelial migration was not observed in CD14(dim)CD16(+) monocytes during the 30-min observation period. Long-range crawling behavior in CD14(dim)CD16(+) monocytes was abrogated by blockade of ICAM1, VCAM1, or CX3CL1, in contrast with CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes, which only required ICAM1 for this behavior. These studies indicate the existence of subtype-specific human monocyte migratory behavior patterns with distinct adhesion molecule dependence, which may assist in elucidating their physiological function and relevance to disease. PMID:26085686

  7. RECOMBINANT CD36 INHIBITS OXLDL-INDUCED ICAM-1-DEPENDENT MONOCYTE ADHESION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key event in atherosclerosis is the interaction between monocytes and endothelial cells. Binding of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) to CD36 on endothelial cells results in activation and subsequent monocyte adhesion. In this study, a recombinant soluble CD36 molecule was expressed to deli...

  8. ?? T Lymphocytes Coordinate Eosinophil Influx during Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Henriques, Maria Das Graças Muller; Penido, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Tissue eosinophil infiltration, which is a hallmark of allergic and helminthic diseases, is mainly coordinated by T lymphocytes, via the production of eosinophilotactic chemokines. Among T lymphocyte subsets, lymphocytes expressing ?? T cell receptor have been determined as a key factor for eosinophil accumulation via direct and indirect mechanisms. This knowledge is strongly supported by the fact that, in different experimental models of eosinophilic airway inflammation and helminth-induced Th2 lung inflammation, an evident tissue accumulation of ?? T lymphocytes is observed. In addition, the depletion of ?? T lymphocytes is correlated with the impairment of eosinophil accumulation in inflamed tissue. ?? T lymphocytes are non-conventional T lymphocytes, which comprise a minor T lymphocyte subset, mainly distributed in the tissue, and present crucial roles in innate and acquired immune responses. ?? T lymphocytes recognize several danger- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules and stress antigens in a MHC-independent fashion and can provide rapid tissue-specific responses, via the production of a wide range of chemical mediators capable to modulate other cell populations. These mediators include chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines that attract eosinophils into the tissue by either direct recognition (such as IL-5, CCL11/eotaxin), or indirect mechanisms via the modulation of ?? T lymphocytes and macrophages (through the production of interferon-?, IL-4, and CCL2/Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1, for example). The present review presents an overview of how ?? T lymphocytes coordinate eosinophil accumulation in allergy, by focusing on their role in airway inflammation and by discussing the involvement of cytokines and chemokines in this phenomenon. PMID:23316161

  9. A phenotypic study of B lymphocyte subpopulations in human bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Chapple, M R; MacLennan, I C; Johnson, G D

    1990-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms that monitor the size of the peripheral B cell pool and determine cell death or survival are poorly understood. In rodents B lymphopoiesis is maintained at a high rate throughout adult life, and under resting conditions there is little recruitment into the long-lived peripheral pool; it therefore follows that most newly formed B lymphocytes have a very short lifespan. The maturation stages of B lymphopoiesis in humans and in experimental mammals appear to be similar. We have determined the phenotype of sIgM- and sIgD-expressing cells from normal adult human bone-marrow and peripheral blood by dual immunofluorescence with an extensive panel of monoclonal antibodies representative of major B cell clusters, in order to identify antigenic differences that may play a regulatory role. Antibodies of the CD21, CD22 and CD9 clusters, the unclustered restricted B antibody 7-F-7 and anti-IgD were reactive with different proportions of sIgM+ cells in blood and bone marrow; 29.5% (range 5-60%) of sIgM+ cells in marrow were sIgD- and most of these cells were also CD21- and CD22-, thus defining a unique marrow population. However, newly formed and mature re-circulating cells comprising the sIgM+sIgD+ population could not be distinguished by the panel of antibodies. PMID:2199096

  10. [Monocyte locomotion inhibiting factor (MLIF) produced by E. histolytica induces an increase of cAMP in human monocytes].

    PubMed

    Rico-Rosillo, G; Díaz-Guerra, O; Kretschmer, R R

    1990-01-01

    The supernatant fluid of axenically grown E. histolytica contains a factor (MLIF) which inhibits the locomotion of human monocytes (including chemotaxis) without affecting that of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Locomotion, like other cellular functions, is modulated by changes in intracellular cAMP and cGMP. The consensus--with some exceptions--is that while rises in cGMP accompany locomotion, an increase in cAMP (without a concomitant fall in -cGMP) occurs with inhibition of cellular movement. We measured by radioimmunoassay the cAMP concentration of human monocytes exposed to inhibitory concentrations of MLIF. A significant (p less than 0.005) rise in monocyte cAMP was found, comparable to that observed with the use of forskolin, a well known cAMP stimulator. The control studies using plain axenic medium, not only failed to reveal any rise in cAMP but disclosed a small, yet not significant drop in intracellular cAMP. These results suggest that MLIF (like other locomotion inhibitors, i.e. prostaglandins E1, A1 and isoproterenol) produces a significant increase in intracellular monocyte cAMP. This modification in intracellular signals may contribute to the inhibition in monocyte locomotion, an event during which an increase in pericentriolar microtubules has also been observed. PMID:1967028

  11. Canine distemper virus-induced depletion of uninfected lymphocytes is associated with apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Schobesberger, Martina; Summerfield, Artur; Doherr, Marcus G; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Griot, Christian

    2005-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a negative stranded RNA morbillivirus, causes a multisystemic disease in dogs, which is associated with a severe immune suppression. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of early CDV infection on leukocyte depletion, lymphopenia and virus-induced cell death in dogs infected with a virulent CDV strain. From 10 infected dogs, peripheral blood leukocytes were harvested periodically, phenotyped and analyzed for CDV antigen content and apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide labeling. CDV infection induced a severe CD3+ T cell and CD21+ B cell depletion in all animals at 3 days post-infection (d.p.i.). For dogs with severe distemper, developing virus persistence in the lymphoid tissue and central nervous system, this lymphopenia lasted until the end of the experiment. Increased levels of lymphocyte apoptosis were found at 3 d.p.i., and monocyte apoptosis at 6 d.p.i. This was more prominent in the group of animals with severe distemper. At 3 d.p.i. no leukocyte infection was detectable indicating that the early lymphocyte depletion and apoptosis was not a direct consequence of virus infection. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CDV-induced lymphopenia is an early event and that the degree of lymphocyte depletion correlates with the severity of disease and virus persistence in the lymphoid tissue and central nervous system. PMID:15661329

  12. Correlation between high density lipoprotein and monocyte subpopulations among stable coronary atherosclerotic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Hai; Liu, Ying-Feng; Wang, Xue-Jun; Liang, Jian-Guang; Liu, Jia-Chao

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a structurally and functionally heterogeneous molecular particle whose function is unclear in atherosclerosis at present. Studies show that small HDL functional imbalance may exist in Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CAD) patients. Monocyte is considered to play an important role in atherosclerosis, in accordance with the expression of superficial CD14 and CD16, it can be divided into three subpopulations. The purpose of this study was to explore the relation between HDL and monocyte subpopulations among CAD patients. We report 90 cases of stable CAD patients and define the monocyte subpopulations as classical monocyte (CD14++CD16-; CM), intermediate monocyte (CD14+CD16+; IM), and non-classical monocyte (CD14+CD16++; NCM); HDL group is measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the small HDL in blood serum has a correlation with proinflammatory NCM in circulation but a negative correction with CM and no relationship with diabetes, saccharify hemoglobin, hypertension, smoking history and taking dose of statins drugs and severity of disease. In conclusion, this study primarily confirms that micromolecule HDL level correlates with the increase of non-classical monocyte subpopulations and decrease of classical monocyte quantity. Thus demonstrates the proinflammatory correlation between micromolecule HDL and internal immunity in the development of stable atherosclerosis.

  13. Bacterial Ghosts of Escherichia coli Drive Efficient Maturation of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Dar, Pervaiz Ahmad; Appavoo, Elamurugan; Kishore, Subodh; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Ganesh, Kondabattula

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They not only represent a potential platform for development of novel vaccines but also provide a tool for efficient adjuvant and antigen delivery system. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between BGs of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). MoDCs are highly potent antigen-presenting cells and have the potential to act as a powerful tool for manipulating the immune system. We generated bovine MoDCs in vitro from blood monocytes using E. coli expressed bovine GM-CSF and IL-4 cytokines. These MoDCs displayed typical morphology and functions similar to DCs. We further investigated the E. coli BGs to induce maturation of bovine MoDCs in comparison to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We observed the maturation marker molecules such as MHC-II, CD80 and CD86 were induced early and at higher levels in BG stimulated MoDCs as compared to the LPS stimulated MoDCs. BG mediated stimulation induced significantly higher levels of cytokine expression in bovine MoDCs than LPS. Both pro-inflammatory (IL-12 and TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines were induced in MoDCs after BGs stimulation. We further analysed the effects of BGs on the bovine MoDCs in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). We found the BG-treated bovine MoDCs had significantly (p<0.05) higher capacity to stimulate allogenic T cell proliferation in MLR as compared to the LPS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the E. coli BGs induce a strong activation and maturation of bovine MoDCs. PMID:26669936

  14. Increased Migratory and Activation Cell Markers of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in an Experimental Model of Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Wagner de Fátima; Brito-Melo, Gustavo Eustáquio Alvim; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Melo, Dirceu de Sousa; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Guimarães, Fábio Lourenço Tadeu; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD80 and CD18 in subpopulations of peripheral blood leukocytes and oxidative kidney damage in rats with nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by doxorubicin (Dox) in comparison to control animals at different time points. Male adult Wistar rats were submitted to 24-hour urine and blood collection for biochemical and immunological analysis at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after Dox injection. After euthanasia, the kidneys were removed for histological analysis and the evaluation of oxidative stress. The phenotypic characterization of leukocytes was performed using flow cytometry. Dox-injected animals exhibited increased CD18 expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, NK cells, and monocytes and high CD80 expression in monocytes. Kidney oxidative damage was positively correlated with CD80 expression in monocytes and serum levels of creatinine. These results suggest that phagocytic and cytotoxic cells are preferentially recruited to the tissue injury site, which may contribute to kidney dysfunction in this animal model of NS. The blockade of integrin and costimulatory molecules may provide new therapeutic opportunities for NS. PMID:26063968

  15. DNA damage and repair detected by the comet assay in lymphocytes of african petrol attendants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keretetse, G S; Laubscher, P J; Du Plessis, J L; Pretorius, P J; Van Der Westhuizen, F H; Van Deventer, E; Van Dyk, E; Eloff, F C; Van Aarde, M N; Du Plessis, L H

    2008-10-01

    Petrol attendants are exposed to petrol volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which may have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. The single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) is a method highly sensitive to DNA damage induced by environmental and occupational exposure to carcinogenic and mutagenic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of exposure of petrol attendants to petrol VOCs and also to determine their effect on DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes of African petrol attendants. The exposed group consisted of 20 subjects, randomly selected from three petrol stations. A control group of 20 unexposed subjects was also chosen and matched for age and smoking habits with the exposed group. Sorbent tubes were used to assess personal exposure of petrol attendants. The comet assay was used to investigate the basal DNA damage and repair capacity in isolated lymphocytes of petrol attendants and unexposed subjects. Blood samples were taken from the petrol attendants at the end of their 8-h working shift and also from the unexposed subjects. The petrol attendants were found to be exposed to levels of petrol VOCs lower than the South African occupational exposure limit for constituent chemicals. A significant relationship was found between the volume of petrol sold during the shift and the average concentrations of benzene, toluene and the total VOCs measured. However, relative humidity had a negative correlation with the average concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylene and the total VOCs. Significantly higher basal DNA damage was observed with the exposed group compared to the unexposed group. The period of exposure influenced the level of DNA damage and the calculated repair capacity. Smoking and age had a significant influence on the level of DNA damage. DNA repair capacity was delayed in smokers of both exposed and unexposed group. PMID:18664513

  16. Increased Expression of CD169 on Blood Monocytes and Its Regulation by Virus and CD8 T Cells in Macaque Models of HIV Infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong-Ki; McGary, Christopher M; Holder, Gerard E; Filipowicz, Adam R; Kim, Michael M; Beydoun, Hind A; Cai, Yanhui; Liu, Xianhong; Sugimoto, Chie; Kuroda, Marcelo J

    2015-07-01

    Increased expression of CD169 on monocytes has been reported in HIV-1-infected humans. Using rhesus macaque models of HIV infection, we sought to investigate whether simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection upregulates CD169 expression on monocytes/macrophages. We also sought to determine whether CD8 T cells and plasma viral load directly impact the expression of CD169 on monocytes during SIV infection. We longitudinally assessed monocyte expression of CD169 during the course of SIV infection by flow cytometry, and examined the expression of CD169 on macrophages by immunohistochemistry in the spleen and lymph nodes of uninfected and infected macaques. CD169 expression on monocytes was substantially upregulated as early as 4 days during the hyperacute phase and peaked by 5-15 days after infection. After a transient decrease following the peak, its expression continued to increase during progression to AIDS. Monocyte CD169 expression was directly associated with plasma viral loads. To determine the contribution of CD8(+) T lymphocytes and virus to the control of monocyte CD169 expression, we used experimental CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in SIV-infected macaques. Rapid depletion of CD8 T cells during acute infection of rhesus macaques induced an abrupt increase in CD169 expression. Importantly, levels of CD169 expression plummeted following initiation of ART and rebounded upon cessation of therapy. Taken together, our data reveal independent roles for virus and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in controlling monocyte CD169 expression, which may be an important link in further investigating the host response to viral infection. PMID:25891017

  17. Transport of cargo from periphery to brain by circulating monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cintron, Amarallys F; Dalal, Nirjari V; Dooyema, Jeromy; Betarbet, Ranjita; Walker, Lary C

    2015-10-01

    The misfolding and aggregation of the A? peptide - a fundamental event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer?s disease - can be instigated in the brains of experimental animals by the intracranial infusion of brain extracts that are rich in aggregated A?. Recent experiments have found that the peripheral (intraperitoneal) injection of A? seeds induces A? deposition in the brains of APP-transgenic mice, largely in the form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Macrophage-type cells normally are involved in pathogen neutralization and antigen presentation, but under some circumstances, circulating monocytes have been found to act as vectors for the transport of pathogenic agents such as viruses and prions. The present study assessed the ability of peripheral monocytes to transport A? aggregates from the peritoneal cavity to the brain. Our initial experiments showed that intravenously delivered macrophages that had previously ingested fluorescent nanobeads as tracers migrate primarily to peripheral organs such as spleen and liver, but that a small number also reach the brain parenchyma. We next injected CD45.1-expressing monocytes from donor mice intravenously into CD45.2-expressing host mice; after 24h, analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and histology confirmed that some CD45.1 monocytes enter the brain, particularly in the superficial cortex and around blood vessels. When the donor monocytes are first exposed to A?-rich brain extracts from human AD cases, a subset of intravenously delivered A?-containing cells migrate to the brain. These experiments indicate that, in mouse models, circulating monocytes are potential vectors by which exogenously delivered, aggregated A? travels from periphery to brain, and more generally support the hypothesis that macrophage-type cells can participate in the dissemination of proteopathic seeds. PMID:26168900

  18. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogels modulate ?-defensin release from polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocyte recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lieberthal, Tyler Jacob; Cohen, Hannah Caitlin; Kao, W John

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) release granule proteins as the first line of defense against bacteria and set up chemotactic gradients that result in monocyte infiltration to the site of injury. Although well established, the role of biomaterials in regulating adherent PMN degranulation and subsequent PMN-monocyte paracrine interactions is less clear. The aim of this study was to determine how biomaterials affect the degranulation of selected biomarkers and downstream monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing hydrogels (PEG and an interpenetrating network of PEG and gelatin) promote the release of the ?-defensins human neutrophil peptides 1-3, but not azurocidin or monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Although human neutrophil peptides 1-3 are monocyte chemoattractants, no subsequent effects on monocyte transmigration are observed in static conditions. Under flow conditions, monocyte adhesion on human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-? is elevated in the presence of granule proteins from PMNs adherent on polydimethylsiloxane, but not from PMNs cultured on PEG hydrogels. These results suggest that PEG promotes PMN antimicrobial capacity without enhanced monocyte recruitment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3772-3780, 2015. PMID:26053326

  19. Blood Monocyte Subsets and Selected Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis of Short Duration in relation to Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Miko?ajczyk, Tomasz; Sulicka, Joanna; Kwa?ny-Krochin, Beata; Korkosz, Mariusz; Osmenda, Grzegorz; Guzik, Tomasz; Grodzicki, Tomasz K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate blood monocyte subsets and functional monocyte properties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of short duration in the context of cardiovascular (CV) risk and disease activity. Methods. We studied conventional markers of CV risk, intima media thickness (IMT), and blood monocyte subsets in 27 patients aged 41 ± 10 years with RA of short duration (median 12 months) and 22 healthy controls. The RA subjects were divided into low (DAS28: 2.6–5.1) and high (DAS28 > 5.1) disease activity. Results. RA patients exhibited increased levels of intermediate (CD14++CD16+) monocytes with decreased CD45RA expression compared to controls, increased counts of classical (CD14++CD16?) monocytes, and decreased percentages of nonclassical (CD14+CD16++) monocytes. Patients with high disease activity had lower HLA DR expression on classical monocytes compared to low disease activity patients. There were no differences in monocyte subsets between subjects with DAS > 5.1 and DAS ? 5.1. There were no significant intergroup differences in IMT and the majority of classical CV risk factors. Conclusions. Patients with RA of short duration show alteration in peripheral blood monocyte subsets despite the fact that there is no evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Disease activity assessed with DAS28 was associated with impaired functional properties but not with a shift in monocyte subpopulations. PMID:25126574

  20. 3D Porous Chitosan-Alginate Scaffolds: New Matrix for Studying Prostate Cancer Cell-Lymphocyte Interactions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Florczyk, Stephen J.; Liu, Gang; Kievit, Forrest M.; Lewis, Allison M.; Wu, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains palliative. Immunotherapy offers a potentially effective therapy for CRPC; however, its advancement into the clinic has been slow, in part because of the lack of representative in vitro tumor models that resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment for studying interactions of CRPC cells with immune cells and other potential therapeutics. This study evaluates the use of 3D porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds for culturing human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and studying tumor cell interaction with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) ex vivo. CA scaffolds and Matrigel matrix samples supported in vitro tumor spheroid formation over 15 days of culture, and CA scaffolds supported live cell fluorescence imaging with confocal microscopy using stably transfected PCa cells for 55 days. PCa cells grown in Matrigel matrix and CA scaffolds for 15 days were co-cultured with PBLs for 2 and 6 days in vitro and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometry. Both the Matrigel matrix and CA scaffolds supported interaction of PBLs with PCa tumors, with CA scaffolds providing a more robust platform for subsequent analyses. This study demonstrates the use of 3D natural polymer scaffolds as a tissue culture model for supporting long-term analysis of interaction of prostate cancer tumor cells with immune cells, providing an in vitro platform for rapid immunotherapy development. PMID:23184794

  1. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  2. Characterization of a New Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cell Line for Mechanistic In Vitro and In Vivo Studies Relevant to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hertlein, Erin; Beckwith, Kyle A.; Lozanski, Gerard; Chen, Timothy L.; Towns, William H.; Johnson, Amy J.; Lehman, Amy; Ruppert, Amy S.; Bolon, Brad; Andritsos, Leslie; Lozanski, Arletta; Rassenti, Laura; Zhao, Weiqiang; Jarvinen, Tiina M.; Senter, Leigha; Croce, Carlo M.; Symer, David E.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Heerema, Nyla A.; Byrd, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have yielded substantial progress, however a lack of immortalized cell lines representative of the primary disease has hampered a full understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of new treatments. Here we describe a novel CLL cell line (OSU-CLL) generated by EBV transformation, which displays a similar cytogenetic and immunophenotype observed in the patient’s CLL (CD5 positive with trisomy 12 and 19). A companion cell line was also generated from the same patient (OSU-NB). This cell line lacked typical CLL characteristics, and is likely derived from the patient’s normal B cells. In vitro migration assays demonstrated that OSU-CLL exhibits migratory properties similar to primary CLL cells whereas OSU-NB has significantly reduced ability to migrate spontaneously or towards chemokine. Microarray analysis demonstrated distinct gene expression patterns in the two cell lines, including genes on chromosomes 12 and 19, which is consistent with the cytogenetic profile in this cell line. Finally, OSU-CLL was readily transplantable into NOG mice, producing uniform engraftment by three weeks with leukemic cells detectable in the peripheral blood spleen and bone marrow. These studies describe a new CLL cell line that extends currently available models to study gene function in this disease. PMID:24130782

  3. Arsenic Exposure Increases Monocyte Adhesion to the Vascular Endothelium, a Pro-Atherogenic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lemarié, Catherine A.; Bolt, Alicia M.; Flores Molina, Manuel; Krohn, Regina M.; Smits, Judit E.; Lehoux, Stéphanie; Mann, Koren K.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure increases atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unknown. Monocytes, macrophages and platelets play an important role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Circulating monocytes and macrophages bind to the activated vascular endothelium and migrate into the sub-endothelium, where they become lipid-laden foam cells. This process can be facilitated by platelets, which favour monocyte recruitment to the lesion. Thus, we assessed the effects of low-to-moderate arsenic exposure on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, platelet activation and platelet-monocyte interactions. We observed that arsenic induces human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro. These findings were confirmed ex vivo using a murine organ culture system at concentrations as low as 10 ppb. We found that both cell types need to be exposed to arsenic to maximize monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. This adhesion process is specific to monocyte/endothelium interactions. Hence, no effect of arsenic on platelet activation or platelet/leukocyte interaction was observed. We found that arsenic increases adhesion of mononuclear cells via increased CD29 binding to VCAM-1, an adhesion molecule found on activated endothelial cells. Similar results were observed in vivo, where arsenic-exposed mice exhibit increased VCAM-1 expression on endothelial cells and increased CD29 on circulating monocytes. Interestingly, expression of adhesion molecules and increased binding can be inhibited by antioxidants in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data suggest that arsenic might enhance atherosclerosis by increasing monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, a process that is inhibited by antioxidants. PMID:26332580

  4. Functional capabilities of marmoset T and B lymphocytes in primary in vitro antibody formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nickerson, D.A.; Gengozian, N.

    1981-01-15

    In vitro tests of T- and B-lymphocyte function of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus, were examined to explore the lower immune response profile previously reported for S. o. oedipus. Experiments with trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP-LPS) revealed peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from both species capable of antibody formation. This response was both T cell and monocyte independent; indeed, removal of T cells led to an enhanced response, indicating a regulatory role for this cell in each species. Studies with the nonmitogenic form of TNP-LPS, trinitrophenyl-base-hydrolyzed-lipopolysaccharide, revealed that plaque-forming cells could be obtained from S. fuscicollis PBL while S. o. oedipus PBL were unresponsive. This report also demonstrates that hemopoietic chimerism, a feature common to all marmosets, has a negative influence on antibody-forming capabilities.

  5. Eosinophil Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Bacteremia: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Terradas, Roser; Grau, Santiago; Blanch, Jordi; Riu, Marta; Saballs, Pere; Castells, Xavier; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Knobel, Hernando

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is scarce evidence on the use of eosinophil count as a marker of outcome in patients with infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in eosinophil count, as well as the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), could be used as clinical markers of outcome in patients with bacteremia. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients with a first episode of community-acquired or healthcare-related bacteremia during hospital admission between 2004 and 2009. A total of 2,311 patients were included. Cox regression was used to analyze the behaviour of eosinophil count and the NLCR in survivors and non-survivors. Results In the adjusted analysis, the main independent risk factor for mortality was persistence of an eosinophil count below 0.0454·103/uL (HR?=?4.20; 95% CI 2.66–6.62). An NLCR value >7 was also an independent risk factor but was of lesser importance. The mean eosinophil count in survivors showed a tendency to increase rapidly and to achieve normal values between the second and third day. In these patients, the NLCR was <7 between the second and third day. Conclusion Both sustained eosinopenia and persistence of an NLCR >7 were independent markers of mortality in patients with bacteremia. PMID:22912753

  6. Lymphocyte transformation induced by autologous cells. V. generation of immunologic memory and specificity during the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction

    PubMed Central

    Weksler, ME; Kozak, R

    1977-01-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation in vitro may follow antigen recognition and serve as a correlate of cell-mediated immunity. Lymphocyte proliferation can also be simulated by nonimmune mechanisms as, for example, following culture with plant lectin, lipopolysaccharides, or staphylococcal protein A (1). The autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) refers to the proliferation of T lymphocytes cultured with autologous mon-T lymphocytes (2,3). The purpose of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte proliferation in the autologous MLR results from immune or nonimmune mechanisms. We have shown that the autologous MLR has two classical attributes of an immune phenomenon: memory and specificity. PMID:144773

  7. FTY720 Reduces Post-Ischemic Brain Lymphocyte Influx but Does Not Improve Outcome in Permanent Murine Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Liesz, Arthur; Sun, Li; Zhou, Wei; Schwarting, Sönke; Mracsko, Eva; Zorn, Markus; Bauer, Henrike; Sommer, Clemens; Veltkamp, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Background The contribution of neuroinflammation and specifically brain lymphocyte invasion is increasingly recognised as a substantial pathophysiological mechanism after stroke. FTY720 is a potent treatment for primary neuroinflammatory diseases by inhibiting lymphocyte circulation and brain immigration. Previous studies using transient focal ischemia models showed a protective effect of FTY720 but did only partially characterize the involved pathways. We tested the neuroprotective properties of FTY720 in permanent and transient cortical ischemia and analyzed the underlying neuroimmunological mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings FTY720 treatment resulted in substantial reduction of circulating lymphocytes while blood monocyte counts were significantly increased. The number of histologically and flow cytometrically analyzed brain invading T- and B lymphocytes was significantly reduced in FTY720 treated mice. However, despite testing a variety of treatment protocols, infarct volume and behavioural dysfunction were not reduced 7d after permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Additionally, we did not measure a significant reduction in infarct volume at 24h after 60 min filament-induced MCAO, and did not see differences in brain edema between PBS and FTY720 treatment. Analysis of brain cytokine expression revealed complex effects of FTY720 on postischemic neuroinflammation comprising a substantial reduction of delayed proinflammatory cytokine expression at 3d but an early increase of IL-1? and IFN-? at 24 h after MCAO. Also, serum cytokine levels of IL-6 and TNF-? were increased in FTY720 treated animals compared to controls. Conclusions/Significance In the present study we were able to detect a reduction of lymphocyte brain invasion by FTY720 but could not achieve a significant reduction of infarct volumes and behavioural dysfunction. This lack of neuroprotection despite effective lymphopenia might be attributed to a divergent impact of FTY720 on cytokine expression and possible activation of innate immune cells after brain ischemia. PMID:21701599

  8. Effects of Corticosteroids on Human Monocyte Function

    PubMed Central

    Rinehart, John J.; Balcerzak, Stanley P.; Sagone, Arthur L.; LoBuglio, Albert F.

    1974-01-01

    This report examined the effect of corticosteroids in vitro on human peripheral blood monocytes, essential cells in both immune and nonimmune cellular defense mechanisms. Monocyte chemotaxis in response to sera, Escherichia coli filtrate, and lymphokine chemotactic factor was markedly reduced (P < 0.01) by hydrocortisone succinate (HCS) at 16 ?g/ml. Methylprednisolone succinate and unesterified hydrocortisone produced similar impairment of monocyte chemotaxis while two drugs which unmodified do not enter cells, hydrocortisone phosphate (HCP) and cortisone acetate, had no effect on chemotaxis. HCS also significantly impaired monocyte random migration at 16 ?g/ml. Monocyte bactericidal activity was reduced by HCS at 16 ?g/ml (P < 0.01)) but was not affected by HCP even at 120 ?g/ml. In comparison, HCS did not alter granulocyte chemotaxis even at 500 ?g/ml, and bactericidal activity was reduced at 16 ?g/ml (P < 0.01). Monocyte phagocytosis of cryptococci was reduced only 20% (P < 0.05) at 120 ?g/ml. HCS at 120 ?g/ml did not alter monocyte base-line or postphagocytic hexosemonophosphate shunt activity, viability by trypan blue exclusion, adherence to tissue culture flasks, or surface binding of IgG globulin. These corticosteroid-induced defects in monocyte function may contribute to reduced cellular defense during corticosteroid therapy. PMID:4612058

  9. Interaction between human peripheral blood monocytes and tumor promoters: Effect on growth differentiation and function in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Keisari, Y.; Bucana, C.; Markovich, S.; Campbell, D.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Studies on the differentiation and activation of human monocytes in tissue cultures have usually been limited by the deterioration of human monocytes and macrophages in long-term cultures. In this study, we attempted to establish long-term human monocyte/macrophage cultures using the phorbol ester 12-0 tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), and we studied the morphology, function, and biochemical properties of such treated human blood monocytes. Enriched suspensions of monocytes were obtained using Ficoll-Hypaque gradient and cultured in the absence or presence of various concentrations of TPA. Samples were removed at different times and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Parallel samples were examined for numbers of adherent cells, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, beta-galactosidase assays, and lectin-mediated erythrolysis. TPA-treated monocytes survived in larger numbers in culture for up to 7 weeks and were more pleomorphic and exhibited higher beta-galactosidase activities after 14 days in culture than untreated monocytes. TPA-treated cells and untreated cells in long-term cultures showed a decrease in their oxidative burst activity while their phagocytic activity was not affected, and the TPA treatment augmented the lysis of wheat germ agglutinin-opsonized erythrocytes by the cultured monocytes. TPA treatment of adherent human monocytes resulted in cell cultures with increased numbers of viable and functionally adherent cells for extended periods of time and does not seem to interfere with the differentiation and maturation of the cells in culture.

  10. Induction of high-affinity interleukin 1 receptor on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by glucocorticoid hormones

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro effect of glucocorticoids (GCs) on IL-1-R expression of human PBMCs was investigated. Both physiological and pharmacological concentration ranges of GC increased the specific binding of 125I- labeled human rIL-1 alpha to PBMCs. This enhancement was specific for GC, since other steroid hormones, such as progesterone, 17 beta- estradiol, and testosterone failed to elevate the binding of 125I-IL-1 alpha to PBMCs. The effect was time dependent with maximal effect occurring 6 h after treatment and dose dependent with half-maximal effect elicited by 100 nM prednisolone. Scatchard plot analysis indicated that 125I-IL-1 alpha binding increased from approximately 100 IL-1-R per cell to 2 X 10(3) receptors per cell without a major change in affinity (Kd = 2.6 X 10(-10) M). The subpopulation of PBMCs induced by GC to express higher levels of IL-1-R consisted predominantly of B lymphocytes, but not T lymphocytes, large granular lymphocytes, or monocytes. GCs also induced the expression of IL-1-R on some other cell types, including normal human dermal fibroblasts and the human large granular lymphocyte cell line YT. Since cycloheximide and actinomycin D inhibited the induction of IL-1-R by GC, synthesis of both new RNA and protein seems to be required for IL-1-R induction. This study presents the first evidence of upregulation of the receptors for IL-1 by GC, and may account for the reported enhancement of in vitro and in vivo humoral immune responses by GCs. PMID:2965211

  11. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  12. slan-defined subsets of CD16-positive monocytes: impact of granulomatous inflammation and M-CSF receptor mutation.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Thomas P; Zawada, Adam M; Frankenberger, Marion; Skokann, Kerstin; Satzl, Anna A; Gesierich, Wolfgang; Schuberth, Madeleine; Levin, Johannes; Danek, Adrian; Rotter, Björn; Heine, Gunnar H; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems

    2015-12-10

    Human monocytes are subdivided into classical, intermediate, and nonclassical subsets, but there is no unequivocal strategy to dissect the latter 2 cell types. We show herein that the cell surface marker 6-sulfo LacNAc (slan) can define slan-positive CD14(+)CD16(++) nonclassical monocytes and slan-negative CD14(++)CD16(+) intermediate monocytes. Gene expression profiling confirms that slan-negative intermediate monocytes show highest expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class II genes, whereas a differential ubiquitin signature is a novel feature of the slan approach. In unsupervised hierarchical clustering, the slan-positive nonclassical monocytes cluster with monocytes and are clearly distinct from CD1c(+) dendritic cells. In clinical studies, we show a selective increase of the slan-negative intermediate monocytes to >100 cells per microliter in patients with sarcoidosis and a fivefold depletion of the slan-positive monocytes in patients with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS), which is caused by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor mutations. These data demonstrate that the slan-based definition of CD16-positive monocyte subsets is informative in molecular studies and in clinical settings. PMID:26443621

  13. Activation of tumoricidal properties in human blood monocytes by muramyl dipeptide requires specific intracellular interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Fogler, W.E.; Fidler, I.J.

    1986-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism by which muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activates antitumor cytotoxic properties in normal and interferon-..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma..)-primed human peripheral blood monocytes. The structurally and functionally active MDP analog, nor-muramyl dipeptide (nor-MDP), and (/sup 3/H)nor-MDP were used as reference glycopeptides. Direct activation of normal, noncytotoxic monocytes by nor-MDP was enhanced its encapsulation within multilamellar vesicles (MLV). Studies with (/sup 3/H)nor-MDP revealed that the activation of monocytes by nor-MDP was not attributable to its interaction with a specific cell surface receptor, nor did it result merely from the internalization by monocytes of glycopeptide. Subthreshold concentrations of nor-MDP could activate tumor cytotoxic properties in IFN-..gamma..-primed monocytes. The intracellular interaction of (/sup 3/H)nor-MDP with IFN-..gamma..-primed monocytes was specific in that intracellular levels of radiolabeled material could be displaced and recovered as intact molecules by unlabeled nor-MDP, but not by a biologically inactive MDP stereoisomer. Collectively, these results suggest that the activation of tumoricidal properties in human blood monocytes by MDP occurs subsequent to intracellular interaction with specific MDP receptors.

  14. Leishmania infection modulates beta-1 integrin activation and alters the kinetics of monocyte spreading over fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; Carvalhal, Djalma Gomes Ferrão; Almeida, Rafaela Andrade; Hermida, Micely d’ El-Rei; Touchard, Dominique; Robert, Phillipe; Pierres, Anne; Bongrand, Pierre; dos-Santos, Washington LC

    2015-01-01

    Contact with Leishmania leads to a decreases in mononuclear phagocyte adherence to connective tissue. In this work, we studied the early stages of bond formation between VLA4 and fibronectin, measured the kinetics of membrane alignment and the monocyte cytoplasm spreading area over a fibronectin-coated surface, and studied the expression of high affinity integrin epitope in uninfected and Leishmania-infected human monocytes. Our results show that the initial VLA4-mediated interaction of Leishmania-infected monocyte with a fibronectin-coated surface is preserved, however, the later stage, leukocyte spreading over the substrate is abrogated in Leishmania-infected cells. The median of spreading area was 72 [55–89]??m2 for uninfected and 41 [34–51]??m2 for Leishmania-infected monocyte. This cytoplasm spread was inhibited using an anti-VLA4 blocking antibody. After the initial contact with the fibronectrin-coated surface, uninfected monocyte quickly spread the cytoplasm at a 15??m2?s?1 ratio whilst Leishmania-infected monocytes only made small contacts at a 5.5??m2?s?1 ratio. The expression of high affinity epitope by VLA4 (from 39?±?21% to 14?±?3%); and LFA1 (from 37?±?32% to 18?±?16%) molecules was reduced in Leishmania-infected monocytes. These changes in phagocyte function may be important for parasite dissemination and distribution of lesions in leishmaniasis. PMID:26249106

  15. In Vivo Imaging Reveals a Pioneer Wave of Monocyte Recruitment into Mouse Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Rodero, Mathieu P.; Licata, Fabrice; Poupel, Lucie; Hamon, Pauline; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Combadiere, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system are essential for the correct healing of adult skin wounds, but their specific functions remain ill-defined. The absence of granulation tissue immediately after skin injury makes it challenging to study the role of mononuclear phagocytes at the initiation of this inflammatory stage. To study their recruitment and migratory behavior within the wound bed, we developed a new model for real-time in vivo imaging of the wound, using transgenic mice that express green and cyan fluorescent proteins and specifically target monocytes. Within hours after the scalp injury, monocytes invaded the wound bed. The complete abrogation of this infiltration in monocyte-deficient CCR2?/? mice argues for the involvement of classical monocytes in this process. Monocyte infiltration unexpectedly occurred as early as neutrophil recruitment did and resulted from active release from the bloodstream toward the matrix through microhemorrhages rather than transendothelial migration. Monocytes randomly scouted around the wound bed, progressively slowed down, and stopped. Our approach identified and characterized a rapid and earlier than expected wave of monocyte infiltration and provides a novel framework for investigating the role of these cells during early stages of wound healing. PMID:25272047

  16. Costimulatory Pathways in Lymphocyte Proliferation Induced by the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsmmPBj14

    PubMed Central

    Whetter, Linda; Novembre, Francis J.; Saucier, Michelle; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Dewhurst, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The PBj14 isolate of the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmmPBj14 is unique among primate lentiviruses in its ability to induce lymphocyte proliferation and acutely lethal disease. The studies reported here show that viral induction of T-cell proliferation requires accessory cells, such as primary monocytes or Raji B-lymphoma cells, as well as the presence of a putative immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif within the viral Nef protein. Addition of CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion protein or anti-B7 antibodies to virally infected T cells led to substantial, but not complete, inhibition of monocyte-costimulated T-cell proliferation—suggesting that both CD28/B7-dependent and non-CD28-dependent pathways may contribute to the costimulation of virally induced lymphoproliferation. Finally, cyclosporin A, a specific inhibitor of the calcium-calmodulin-regulated phosphatase activity of calcineurin, which influences activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells, was shown to block virally mediated T-cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the effect of SIVsmmPBj14 on T-cell activation may be functionally analogous, at least in part, to the effect of engagement of the T-cell receptor. PMID:9621081

  17. Fibronectin fragments containing the RGDS cell-binding domain mediate monocyte migration into the rabbit lung. A potential mechanism for C5 fragment-induced monocyte lung accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, D E; Henson, P M; Clark, R A

    1990-01-01

    Many inflammatory processes are characterized by an early phase of neutrophil migration and a later phase of monocyte migration into the inflammatory site. Mechanisms that govern the transition between phases are the subject of these investigations. Acute lung inflammation induced by C5 fragments in the rabbit leads to an initial neutrophil influx and plasma leakage into the alveolar space, followed by monocyte influx that we have previously shown to be dependent on prior emigration of neutrophils. Neutrophil enzymes are known to cleave intact fibronectin into fragments that are monocyte chemotaxins in vitro. Accordingly, generation of appropriate fibronectin fragments in situ by proteolytic enzymes from infiltrating neutrophils might represent a potential mechanism for attraction of monocytes into the lung. The studies reported herein demonstrate that a 120-kD fragment of fibronectin containing the RGDS fibroblast cell-binding domain induced monocyte migration into the rabbit lung in vivo. Intact fibronectin was inactive. A significant proportion of the monocyte migration was neutrophil independent. Intact fibronectin was present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from C5 fragment-treated animals rendered neutropenic, but absent in lavage from normal C5 fragment-treated animals. Fibronectin fragments were present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from both C5 fragment-treated and control rabbits. In addition, the amount of fibronectin was significantly increased in lavage of C5 fragment-treated normal but not neutropenic animals. Monoclonal antibodies directed against an epitope of fibronectin containing the RGDS cell-binding domain significantly inhibited the C5 fragment-induced monocyte migration, but not neutrophil migration. These studies suggest that chemotactic fibronectin fragments may in part be responsible for the recruitment of monocytes into areas of acute lung inflammation. Images PMID:2212000

  18. C-reactive protein is produced by a small number of normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Biosynthetic labeling with [35S]met and immunoprecipitation with anti-C- reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and Staphylococcus aureus indicate that cell surface CRP is produced by lymphocytes. The ability of anti- CRP to reduce NK activity, and the demonstration that 125I-anti-CRP- labeled PBL are found in low-density Percoll fractions associated with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) and NK activity suggest that S-CRP- bearing cells are NK effectors. The production of S-CRP by LGL supports this hypothesis. While lymphocytes were shown to synthesize S-CRP, monocytes produced no detectable S-CRP. The lymphocytes that produce S- CRP apparently do not secrete it; when lymphocyte culture supernatants were tested, no S-CRP was found. This is the first description of extrahepatic synthesis of CRP. PMID:3723078

  19. Chemotaxis of large granular lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pohajdak, B.; Gomez, J.; Orr, F.W.; Khalil, N.; Talgoy, M.; Greenberg, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are capable of directed locomotion (chemotaxis) was tested. A population of LGL isolated from discontinuous Percoll gradients migrated along concentration gradients of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP), casein, and C5a, well known chemoattractants for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as interferon-..beta.. and colony-stimulating factor. Interleukin 2, tuftsin, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibronectin were inactive. Migratory responses were greater in Percoll fractions with the highest lytic activity and HNK-1/sup +/ cells. The chemotactic response to f-MLP, casein, and C5a was always greater when the chemoattractant was present in greater concentration in the lower compartment of the Boyden chamber. Optimum chemotaxis was observed after a 1 hr incubation that made use of 12 ..mu..m nitrocellulose filters. LGL exhibited a high degree of nondirected locomotion when allowed to migrate for longer periods (> 2 hr), and when cultured in vitro for 24 to 72 hr in the presence or absence of IL 2 containing phytohemagluttinin-conditioned medium. LGL chemotaxis to f-MLP could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the inactive structural analog CBZ-phe-met, and the RNK tumor line specifically bound f-ML(/sup 3/H)P, suggesting that LGL bear receptors for the chemotactic peptide.

  20. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate increases cation permeability of chronic lymphocytic leukemic lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, J.S.; Dubyak, G.R.

    1989-04-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to reversibly increase the cation permeability of a variety of freshly isolated and cultured cell types. In this study the effects of extracellular ATP were studied using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) isolated from both normal subjects and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Changes in the permeability to Na+, Rb+, and Li+ ions were measured using conventional isotope and flame photometry techniques. In addition, changes in cytosolic (Ca2+) were fluorimetrically monitored to assess possible changes in net Ca2+ influx. ATP produced a 12-fold increase in 22Na+ influx into CLL cells but only a 3.5-fold increase in this flux in PBL cells. A maximal response was produced by 0.1 mmol/L ATP in the absence of Mg2+, while a twofold molar excess of Mg2+ over ATP abolished the response. ATP had no effect on the passive (ouabain-insensitive) 86Rb+ influx into PBL cells but stimulated this flux by fivefold in the CLL cells. Li+ influx into CLL cells was also stimulated threefold by ATP. Under these same conditions ATP also produced a net increase in total cell Na and a decrease in total cell K in the CLL cells. Exclusion of two normally impermeable dyes, trypan blue and ethidium bromide, was not altered in the ATP-treated CLL cells. Finally, extracellular ATP (3 mmol/L) produced no significant change in the cytosolic (Ca2+) of normal, monocyte-depleted populations of PBL. Conversely, this same concentration of ATP produced a very rapid and a significant (an average threefold peak change) increase in the cytosolic (Ca2+) of cell preparations derived from five out of nine CLL patients. In these latter CLL cells, the ATP-induced elevation in cytosolic (Ca2+) appeared to be due to a net increase in Ca2+ influx, since no elevations were observed when the extracellular (Ca2+) was reduced to less than 0.1 mmol/L.

  1. Associations of Circulating Lymphocyte Subpopulations with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-Sectional Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nels C.; Doyle, Margaret F.; de Boer, Ian H.; Huber, Sally A.; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Kronmal, Richard A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distinct lymphocyte subpopulations have been implicated in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and obesity-associated inflammation in mouse models of insulin resistance. Information on the relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes remain limited in human population-based cohort studies. Methods Circulating levels of innate (?? T, natural killer (NK)) and adaptive immune (CD4+ naive, CD4+ memory, Th1, and Th2) lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 929 free-living participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Cross-sectional relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes (n = 154) and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were evaluated by generalized linear models. Results Each standard deviation (SD) higher CD4+ memory cells was associated with a 21% higher odds of type 2 diabetes (95% CI: 1–47%) and each SD higher naive cells was associated with a 22% lower odds (95% CI: 4–36%) (adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and BMI). Among participants not using diabetes medication, higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations (p<0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity). There were no associations of ?? T, NK, Th1, or Th2 cells with type 2 diabetes, glucose, or insulin. Conclusions A higher degree of chronic adaptive immune activation, reflected by higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells, was positively associated with type 2 diabetes. These results are consistent with a role of chronic immune activation and exhaustion augmenting chronic inflammatory diseases, and support the importance of prospective studies evaluating adaptive immune activation and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26458065

  2. Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

  3. Inhibition of the Differentiation of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Séguier, Sylvie; Tartour, Eric; Guérin, Coralie; Couty, Ludovic; Lemitre, Mathilde; Lallement, Laetitia; Folliguet, Marysette; Naderi, Samah El; Terme, Magali; Badoual, Cécile; Lafont, Antoine; Coulomb, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs) can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell® chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM) from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGF?1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism. PMID:23936476

  4. Immunosuppressive CD14+HLA-DRlow/? monocytes in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Gustafson, Michael P.; Bulur, Peggy A.; Gastineau, Dennis A.; Witzig, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppression is a known risk factor for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), yet mechanisms of tumor-associated immunosuppression remain to be fully characterized. We examined the immunophenotype of 40 NHL patients and 27 age-matched healthy volunteers to better understand systemic immune suppression. NHL peripheral blood mononuclear cells had significantly decreased interferon-? production and proliferation. This suppression was not the result of regulatory T cells, interleukin-6 or interleukin-10, as these factors were not different between NHL and healthy volunteers (controls). We were able to restore T-cell proliferation by removing NHL monocytes, suggesting that these monocytes are suppressive. This suppression was mediated in part through arginine metabolism as exogenous arginine supplementation partially overcame monocytes' suppression of T-cell proliferation in vitro and NHL patients had elevated arginase I in their plasma. NHL monocytes had impaired STAT1 phosphorylation and interferon-? production to CpG stimulation and a dendritic cell differentiation deficiency. Further studies demonstrated that monocytes from NHL patients had decreased HLA-DR and Tumor necrosis factor-? receptor II (CD120b) expression compared with controls (CD14+HLA-DRlow/?CD120blow). Patients with increased ratios of CD14+HLA-DRlow/? monocytes had more aggressive disease and suppressed immune functions. In summary, we report that CD14+HLA-DRlow/? monocytes are a major and multifactorial contributor to systemic immunosuppression in NHL. PMID:21063024

  5. Acidosis differently modulates the inflammatory program in monocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Anne; Wußling, Hanna; Loppnow, Harald; Fu, Hang; Reime, Sarah; Thews, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, ischemia or the microenvironment of solid tumors is often accompanied by a reduction of extracellular pH (acidosis) that stresses the cells and acts on cellular signaling and transcription. The effect of acidosis on the expression of various inflammatory markers, on functional parameters (migration, phagocytic activity) and on signaling pathways involved was studied in monocytic cells and macrophages. In monocytic cell lines acidosis led to a reduction in expression of most of the inflammatory mediators, namely IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-?, MCP-1, COX-2 and osteopontin. In primary human monocytes MCP-1 and TNF-? were reduced but COX-2 and IL-6 were increased. In RAW264.7 macrophage cell line IL-1ß, COX-2 and iNOS expression was increased, whereas MCP-1 was reduced similar to the effect in monocytic cells. For primary human monocyte-derived macrophages the regulation of inflammatory markers by acidosis depended on activation state, except for the acidosis-induced downregulation of MCP-1 and TNF-?. Acidosis affected functional immune cell behavior when looking at phagocytic activity which was increased in a time-dependent manner, but cellular motility was not changed. Neither ERK1/2 nor CREB signaling was stimulated by the reduction of extracellular pH. However, p38 was activated by acidosis in RAW264.7 cells and this activation was critical for the induction of IL-1ß, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In conclusion, acidosis may impede the recruitment of immune cells, but fosters inflammation when macrophages are present by increasing the level of COX-2 and iNOS and by functionally forcing up the phagocytic activity. PMID:26499398

  6. Cytometric analysis of perforin expression in NK cells, CD8+, and CD4+ lymphocytes in children with autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Popko, Katarzyna; Osi?ska, Iwona; Kucharska, Anna; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-07-01

    Perforin plays an essential role in cytotoxicity of natural killers (NK) and CD8+ lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity of T and NK cells is one of the mechanisms of destruction of cells in Hashimoto's disease (HD). The aim of this study was analysis of the expression of perforin in CD8+, CD4+, and NK cells and cytotoxic abilities of these cells in children with HD compared to healthy controls. The expression of perforin and surface antigens, as well as cytotoxicity were analyzed with a flow cytometry. Lower expression of perforin in CD8+ and NK was found in HD compared to controls (p=0.01; p=0.004). A significant correlation between perforin expression in CD8+ lymphocytes and in NK was observed (p=0.05). The spontaneous cytotoxicity of NK was significantly higher in HD compared to controls (p=0.04). Our results suggest that perforin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:26167976

  7. Response of lymphocytes to a mitogenic stimulus during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Several studies were performed that demonstrate that immunological activities of lymphocytes can be affected by spaceflight or by models that attempt to simulate some aspects of weightlessness. Included among these are the responses of lymphocytes to external stimuli such as mitogens and viruses. When cultures of lymphocytes were flown in space, the ability of the lymphocytes to respond to mitogens was inhibited. Similar results were obtained when lymphocytes from astronauts or animals just returned from space were placed into culture immediately upon return to earth, and when models of hypogravity were used. Lymphocytes placed in culture during spaceflights produced enhanced levels of interferon compared to control cultures. When cultures of lymphocytes were prepared for cosmonauts or rodents immediately upon return to earth, interferon production was inhibited. These results suggest that space flight can have profound effects on lymphocyte function, and that effects on isolated cells may be different from that on cells in the whole organism.

  8. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  9. TNF-?-dependent Regulation of Acute Pancreatitis Severity by Ly-6Chi Monocytes in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Perides, George; Weiss, Eric R.; Michael, Emily S.; Laukkarinen, Johanna M.; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Steer, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The roles of monocytes/macrophages and their mechanisms of action in the regulation of pancreatitis are poorly understood. To address these issues, we have employed genetically altered mouse strains that either express the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) coupled to the CD11b promoter or have global deletion of TNF-?. Targeted, conditional depletion of monocytes/macrophages was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to CD11b-DTR mice. We show that in the absence of DT administration, pancreatitis is associated with an increase in pancreatic content of Ly-6Chi monocytes/macrophages but that this response is prevented by prior administration of DT to CD11b-DTR mice. DT administration also reduces pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis in two dissimilar experimental models of acute pancreatitis (a secretagogue-induced model and a model elicited by retrograde pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurocholate). In the secretagogue-elicited model, the DT-induced decrease in pancreatitis severity is reversed by adoptive transfer of purified Ly-6Chi monocytes harvested from non-DT-treated CD11b-DTR mice or by the transfer of purified Ly-6Chi monocytes harvested from TNF-?+/+ donor mice, but it is not reversed by the transfer of Ly-6Chi monocytes harvested from TNF-??/? donors. Our studies indicate that the Ly-6Chi monocyte subset regulates the severity of pancreatitis by promoting pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis and that this phenomenon is dependent upon the expression of TNF-? by those cells. They suggest that therapies targeting Ly-6Chi monocytes and/or TNF-? expression by Ly-6Chi monocytes might prove beneficial in the prevention or treatment of acute pancreatitis. PMID:21343291

  10. Human T cell responses against the major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) of Trypanosoma cruzi: role of the multifunctional alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor in antigen presentation by monocytes.

    PubMed

    Morrot, A; Strickland, D K; Higuchi, M de L; Reis, M; Pedrosa, R; Scharfstein, J

    1997-06-01

    Chagas' disease patients (CDP) develop both humoral and cellular immune responses against the major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) from Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we demonstrate that complexes formed by cruzipain and alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) are efficiently internalized by human monocytes, and that this process results in enhanced presentation of cruzipain peptides to CD4+ T cells from CDP. Purified or serum alpha 2M binds to polymorphic cruzipains, but only a fraction of the proteinases become covalently linked. Once bound to alpha 2M, fluorescein-labeled cruzipain (FITC-cruzipain) or [125I]cruzipain were more efficiently internalized by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or monocytes; this effect was abolished by (I) pre-treating the cells with receptor-associated protein (rRAP), a known antagonist the of alpha 2M receptor (alpha 2MR/LRP), and (II) inactivating [125I]cruzipain's active site prior to the reaction with alpha 2M, indicating that the exposure of receptor binding sites on alpha 2M complexes required bait region cleavage. We then sought to determine if the alpha 2MR/LRP-dependent uptake of alpha 2M:cruzipain by monocytes resulted in increased CD4+ T cell responses of PBMC-CDP (n = 13). These effects were only revealed after depletion of CD19+ B lymphocytes from PBMC-CDP; the threshold of T cell stimulation was far lower in cultures stimulated with alpha 2M:cruzipain, as compared to antigen alone. Myocardial specimens from CDP with chronic myocardiopathy (three necropsies) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry with mAb anti-cruzipain or anti-alpha 2MR/LRP (CD81+). Extracellular depots of cruzipain were localized amidst inflammatory mononuclear infiltrates, part of which contained CD91+ macrophage-like cells. Ongoing studies should clarify if T. cruzi cysteinyl proteinases play a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas' heart disease. PMID:9199965

  11. Characterization of a human blood monocyte subset with low peroxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Y; Miller, P J; Thurman, G B; Neubauer, R H; Oliver, C; Favilla, T; Beman, J A; Oldham, R K; Stevenson, H C

    1983-01-01

    Two human monocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of healthy donors have been isolated in greater than 90% purity by countercurrent centrifugal elutration and human serum albumin gradients and their functional capabilities have been assessed. We have demonstrated that one subset ("regular" monocytes, RM) showed intense cytoplasmic peroxidase staining and contained substantial peroxidase activity. In contrast, another subset ("intermediate" monocytes, IM) stained poorly for peroxidase and had low peroxidase activity. By electron microscopic analysis combined with peroxidase localization, it was found that IM had fewer peroxidase-positive granules per cell than did RM. IM coelutriated with some lymphocytes and by cell sizing analysis were shown to be slightly smaller than RM. Functional and cytochemical analysis of these subsets indicated that IM had less activity than RM in assays such as accessory cell function for mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and that fewer IM expressed OKM1 antigen and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) receptors on their membranes than did RM. The subset of IM not bearing either the PWM receptor or the OKM1 antigen had very low peroxidase activity. IM also were found to have a greater sensitivity to polyriboinosinic and polyribocytidilic acid (100 micrograms/ml)-induced secretion of interferon. There was no significant difference in the phagocytic capability, the percentage of Fc receptor-positive cells, 5'-nucleotidase activity, DR antigen expression, or the responsiveness to migration inhibitory factor of IM as compared with RM. Furthermore, it was found that the ratio of IM to RM increased after prolonged cytapheresis, which suggests that IM are more mobilizable than RM from the extravascular reservoirs of human monocytes. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:6193141

  12. Lenalidomide and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Asymptomatic Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-03

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  13. Validation of micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes as early cancer risk biomarker in a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Elena; Ballardin, Michela; Bonassi, Stefano; Rossi, Anna Maria; Barale, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    Aim of this work was to assess the predictive value of micronuclei (MN) frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) for the risk of cancer death in disease-free individuals. Blood samples from 1650 subjects selected from the general population of Pisa, Italy, were collected between June 1991 and November 1993. The follow-up until January 2005 recorded a total of 111 deaths (52 for cancer). MN frequency was assessed for 49 cancer cases and 101 matched controls. A significantly higher MN frequency was found in cancer cases (4.7+/-3.4 MN/1000 BN cells) versus controls (1.5+/-1.7; p<0.0001). Donors were stratified in two classes and multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that individuals with high MN frequency (>2.5 MN/1000 BN cells) had a significantly increased risk of cancer death (OR=10.7; 95% CI=4.6-24.9; p<0.0001) when compared to individuals with low MN frequency (study performed 14 years after the original recruitment. PMID:18155071

  14. Preliminary studies of the effects of psychological stress on circulating lymphocytes analyzed by synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Mejia-Carmona, Gloria Erika; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Cotte, Marine; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2014-07-15

    Psychological stress is a condition that not only generates behavioral disorders but also disrupts homeostasis and immune activity that can exacerbate or lead to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this work was to study biochemical changes in circulating immune cells from rats under psychological stress by using vibrational spectroscopy. A stress model was used, where exposure to a stressor was repeated for 5 days. Subsequently, circulating lymphocytes were examined for their biomolecular vibrational fingerprints with synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed an increased absorption at the ester lipid region (1720-1755 cm(-1)) in lymphocytes from stressed rats, suggesting lipid peroxidation. Statistical significant changes in wavenumber peak position and absorbance in the nucleic acid region were also observed (915-950 cm(-1) Z-DNA, 1090-1150 cm(-1) symmetric stretching of P-O-C, 1200-1260 cm(-1) asymmetric PO2 and 1570-1510 cm(-1) methylated nucleotides) which suggest a reduction of transcriptional activity in lymphocytes from stressed rat. These results unravel part of the mechanisms by which psychological stress may affect the immune system leading to systemic consequences. PMID:24667417

  15. Preliminary studies of the effects of psychological stress on circulating lymphocytes analyzed by synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Mejia-Carmona, Gloria Erika; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Cotte, Marine; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Psychological stress is a condition that not only generates behavioral disorders but also disrupts homeostasis and immune activity that can exacerbate or lead to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this work was to study biochemical changes in circulating immune cells from rats under psychological stress by using vibrational spectroscopy. A stress model was used, where exposure to a stressor was repeated for 5 days. Subsequently, circulating lymphocytes were examined for their biomolecular vibrational fingerprints with synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed an increased absorption at the ester lipid region (1720-1755 cm-1) in lymphocytes from stressed rats, suggesting lipid peroxidation. Statistical significant changes in wavenumber peak position and absorbance in the nucleic acid region were also observed (915-950 cm-1 Z-DNA, 1090-1150 cm-1 symmetric stretching of Psbnd Osbnd C, 1200-1260 cm-1 asymmetric PO2 and 1570-1510 cm-1 methylated nucleotides) which suggest a reduction of transcriptional activity in lymphocytes from stressed rat. These results unravel part of the mechanisms by which psychological stress may affect the immune system leading to systemic consequences.

  16. Phosphatidylinositol response and proliferation of oxidative enzyme-activated human T lymphocytes: suppression by plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Akeson, A.L.; Scupham, D.W.; Harmony, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PI) response and DNA synthesis of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase (NAGO)-stimulated human T lymphocytes are suppressed by low density lipoproteins (LDL). To understand the mechanism of lymphocyte activation more fully, the PI response and DNA synthesis and suppression of these events by LDL in NAGO-stimulated T lymphocytes were characterized. Between 30 min and 6 hr after NAGO stimulation, there was an increase of /sup 32/Pi incorporation into PI without increased incorporation into the phosphorylated forms of PI or into other phospholipids. DNA synthesis as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation depended on the lymphocyte-accessory monocyte ratio and total cell density. Optimal stimulation of the PI response and DNA synthesis occurred at the same concentration of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase. While the PI response was only partially suppressed by LDL with optimal suppression at 10 to 20 micrograms of protein/ml, DNA synthesis was completely suppressed although at much higher LDL concentrations, greater than 100 micrograms protein/ml. As monocyte numbers are increased, LDL suppression of DNA synthesis is decreased. The ability of NAGO to stimulate the PI response and DNA synthesis in a similar way, and the suppression of both events by LDL, suggests the PI response is important for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Stimulation of human T lymphocytes by oxidative mitogens, neuraminidase, and galactose oxidase caused increased phosphatidylinositol metabolism and increased DNA synthesis. Both responses were suppressed by low density lipoproteins.

  17. Cell-contact dependent inhibition of monocytes by airway epithelial cells and reversion by infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Oumouna, Mustapha; Weitnauer, Michael; Mijošek, Vedrana; Schmidt, Lotte M; Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2015-11-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are the first line of defense against airborne infectious microbes and play an important role in regulating the local immune response. However, the interplay of epithelial cells and professional immune cells during both homeostasis and infection has only been partially studied. The present study was performed to determine how bronchial epithelial cells affect the activation of monocytes. Under healthy conditions, AECs were shown to inhibit reactivity of monocytes. We hypothesized that upon infection, monocytes might be released from inhibition by AECs. We report that direct contact of monocytes with unstimulated BEAS2B epithelial cells results in inhibition of TNF secretion by activated monocytes. In addition to the known soluble modulators, we show that cell contacts between epithelial cells and monocytes or macrophages also contribute to homeostatic inhibitory actions. We find AECs to express the inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and blockade of PD-L1 results in increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes. Contrary to the inhibitory activities during homeostasis, epithelial cells infected with Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) induce a significant release of inhibition. However, release of inhibition was not due to modulation of PD-L1 expression in AECs. We conclude that airway epithelial cells control the reactivity of monocytes through direct and indirect interactions; however tonic inhibition can be reverted upon stimulation of AECs with RSV and thereof derived molecular patterns. The study confirms the important role of airway epithelial cells for local immune reactions. PMID:26153873

  18. Generation of Novel Bone Forming Cells (Monoosteophils) from the Cathelicidin-Derived Peptide LL-37 Treated Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhifang; Shively, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone generation and maintenance involve osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes which originate from unique precursors and rely on key growth factors for differentiation. However, an incomplete understanding of bone forming cells during wound healing has led to an unfilled clinical need such as nonunion of bone fractures. Since circulating monocytes are often recruited to sites of injury and may differentiate into various cell types including osteoclasts, we investigated the possibility that circulating monocytes in the context of tissue injury may also contribute to bone repair. In particular, we hypothesized that LL-37 (produced from hCAP-18, cathelicidin), which recruits circulating monocytes during injury, may play a role in bone repair. Methods and Findings Treatment of monocytes from blood with LL-37 for 6 days resulted in their differentiation to large adherent cells. Growth of LL-37-differentiated monocytes on osteologic discs reveals bone-like nodule formation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In vivo transplantation studies in NOD/SCID mice show that LL-37-differentiated monocytes form bone-like structures similar to endochondral bone formation. Importantly, LL-37-differentiated monocytes are distinct from conventional monocyte-derived osteoclasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells and do not express markers of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) lineage, distinguishing them from the conventional precursors of osteoblasts. Furthermore, LL-37 differentiated monocytes express intracellular proteins of both the osteoblast and osteoclast lineage including osteocalcin (OC), osteonectin (ON), bone sialoprotein II (BSP II), osteopontin (OP), RANK, RANKL, MMP-9, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and cathepsin K (CK). Conclusion Blood derived monocytes treated with LL-37 can be differentiated into a novel bone forming cell that functions both in vitro and in vivo. We propose the name monoosteophil to indicate their monocyte derived lineage and their bone forming phenotype. These cells may have wide ranging implications in the clinic including repair of broken bones and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:21085494

  19. Correlation Between High-Density Lipoprotein and Monocyte Subsets in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Li, Dan; Li, Jian; An, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background High-density lipoprotein (HDL) consists of heterogeneous particles with a variety of structures and functions. Its role in atherosclerosis has been gradually recognized. Studies have shown dysfunction of small HDL in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Monocytes play an important role in atherosclerosis, which can be divided into 3 subgroups based on the expression of surface markers CD14 and CD16. This study aimed to investigate the association between HDL and monocyte subsets in CAD patients. Material/Methods A total of 90 patients with stable CAD were selected in this study. Monocytes were divided into classical monocytes (CM, CD14++CD16?), intermediate monocytes (IM, CD14++CD16+), and non-classical monocytes (NCM, CD14+CD16++). HDL components in serum were determined by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (detected by Quantimetrix HDL Lipoprint system, referring to HDL subfractions analysis: A new laboratory diagnostic assay for patients with cardiovascular diseases and dyslipoproteinemia). Results Serum level of small HDL was positively correlated with circulating proinflammatory NCM (r=0.30; p=0.004), negatively correlated with CM, and not correlated with IM. We also found that disease severity was not associated with diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, hypertension, smoking history, or statin dosage. Conclusions Our study confirmed that small HDL level is associated with an increase in NCM and a decrease in CM, suggesting the proinflammatory relationship between small HDL and intrinsic immune function during the progression of stable CAD. PMID:26474031

  20. Technical Advance: Liposomal alendronate depletes monocytes and macrophages in the nonhuman primate model of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Reed, Jason S.; Hammond, Katherine B.; Ohme, Merete A.; Planer, Shannon L.; Legasse, Alfred W.; Ericsen, Adam J.; Richter, Yoram; Golomb, Gershon; Sacha, Jonah B.

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are critical animal models for the study of human disorders and disease and offer a platform to assess the role of immune cells in pathogenesis via depletion of specific cellular subsets. However, this model is currently hindered by the lack of reagents that safely and specifically ablate myeloid cells of the monocyte/macrophage Lin. Given the central importance of macrophages in homeostasis and host immunity, development of a macrophage-depletion technique in nonhuman primates would open new avenues of research. Here, using LA at i.v. doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg, we show a >50% transient depletion of circulating monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages in RMs by an 11-color flow cytometric analysis. Diminution of monocytes was followed rapidly by emigration of monocytes from the bone marrow, leading to a rebound of monocytes to baseline levels. Importantly, LA was well-tolerated, as no adverse effects or changes in gross organ function were observed during depletion. These results advance the ex vivo study of myeloid cells by flow cytometry and pave the way for in vivo studies of monocyte/macrophage biology in nonhuman primate models of human disease. PMID:24823811

  1. Circulating monocytes are activated in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed Central

    Josefsen, K; Nielsen, H; Lorentzen, S; Damsbo, P; Buschard, K

    1994-01-01

    Investigations in the BB rat and the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse have provided substantial evidence for the involvement of the monocyte/macrophage system in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, it is not known whether monocytes play the same role in the pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes. We investigated this problem in a longitudinal study of 29 recent-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Monocyte chemotaxis, phagocytosis and superoxide production as well as metabolic and haematological parameters were studied immediately after diagnosis and 6 months later. At diagnosis the patients had activated casein and C5a chemotaxis (casein 70 +/- 9 versus 150 +/- 5 (mean +/- s.e.m.), P < 0.001; C5a 137 +/- 10 versus 158 +/- 5, P < 0.05 (activation immobilizes monocytes, reducing the measured values)), and activated superoxide production (3.6 +/- 0.3 versus 3.0 +/- 0.3, P < 0.05). After 6 months casein chemotaxis (115 +/- 16 versus 150 +/- 5, P < 0.05) and Candida phagocytosis (3.3 +/- 0.1 versus 2.8 +/- 0.2, P < 0.001) were still activated. There was no correlation with other clinical or paraclinical parameters. We conclude that the circulating monocytes in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients are activated. It is reasonable to expect that monocytes at the local site of inflammation in pancreas are even further activated. This could play a pathogenic role in beta cell destruction. PMID:7994912

  2. The CD14+CD16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity and Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Lis R. V.; Leoratti, Fabiana M. S.; Costa, Pedro A. C.; Rocha, Bruno C.; Diniz, Suelen Q.; Tada, Mauro S.; Pereira, Dhelio B.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax–infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14+CD16? (classical), CD14+CD16+ (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16+ (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16+ cells, in particular the CD14+CD16+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14+CD16+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-? and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14+CD16+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection. PMID:25233271

  3. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Lis R V; Leoratti, Fabiana M S; Costa, Pedro A C; Rocha, Bruno C; Diniz, Suelen Q; Tada, Mauro S; Pereira, Dhelio B; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Golenbock, Douglas T; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2014-09-01

    Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+) cells, in particular the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+) were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-? and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+)CD16(+) cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection. PMID:25233271

  4. c-Met identifies a population of matrix metalloproteinase 9-producing monocytes in peritumoural stroma of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan; Wu, Yan; Xie, Xu-Dong; Chu, Yi-Fan; Li, Jin-Qing; Zheng, Limin

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages (M?) are prominent components of solid tumours and exhibit distinct phenotypes in different microenvironments. Previously, we found that tumours could alter the normal developmental process of M? to trigger transient activation of monocytes in the peritumoural stroma of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we showed that a fraction of monocytes in the peritumoural stroma, but not in HCC cancer nests, expressed surface c-Met molecules. Monocytes exposed to tumours strongly expressed c-Met proteins with kinetics similar to their activation status, and significant correlations were found between c-Met levels and HLA-DR expression on tumour-infiltrating monocytes. NF-?B-mediated autocrine TNF-? stimulated the expression of c-Met on activated monocytes, and by interacting with its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), c-Met increased the motility and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9-producing capacity of tumour-associated monocytes. The intensity of c-Met expression on tumour-infiltrating monocytes was associated with high mortality and reduced survival of patients with HCC. Therefore, the expression of c-Met on activated monocytes/M? may represent a novel mechanism by which a tumour actively and precisely regulates the distribution and functions of these cells to facilitate disease progression. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26108200

  5. Regulation of epithelial and lymphocyte cell adhesion by adenosine deaminase-CD26 interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Ginés, Silvia; Mariño, Marta; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Morimoto, Chikao; Callebaut, Christian; Hovanessian, Ara; Casadó, Vicent; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    The extra-enzymic function of cell-surface adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme mainly localized in the cytosol but also found on the cell surface of monocytes, B cells and T cells, has lately been the subject of numerous studies. Cell-surface ADA is able to transduce co-stimulatory signals in T cells via its interaction with CD26, an integral membrane protein that acts as ADA-binding protein. The aim of the present study was to explore whether ADA-CD26 interaction plays a role in the adhesion of lymphocyte cells to human epithelial cells. To meet this aim, different lymphocyte cell lines (Jurkat and CEM T) expressing endogenous, or overexpressing human, CD26 protein were tested in adhesion assays to monolayers of colon adenocarcinoma human epithelial cells, Caco-2, which express high levels of cell-surface ADA. Interestingly, the adhesion of Jurkat and CEM T cells to a monolayer of Caco-2 cells was greatly dependent on CD26. An increase by 50% in the cell-to-cell adhesion was found in cells containing higher levels of CD26. Incubation with an anti-CD26 antibody raised against the ADA-binding site or with exogenous ADA resulted in a significant reduction (50-70%) of T-cell adhesion to monolayers of epithelial cells. The role of ADA-CD26 interaction in the lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion appears to be mediated by CD26 molecules that are not interacting with endogenous ADA (ADA-free CD26), since SKW6.4 (B cells) that express more cell-surface ADA showed lower adhesion than T cells. Adhesion stimulated by CD26 and ADA is mediated by T cell lymphocyte function-associated antigen. A role for ADA-CD26 interaction in cell-to-cell adhesion was confirmed further in integrin activation assays. FACS analysis revealed a higher expression of activated integrins on T cell lines in the presence of increasing amounts of exogenous ADA. Taken together, these results suggest that the ADA-CD26 interaction on the cell surface has a role in lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion. PMID:11772392

  6. Heat-Shocked Monocytes Are Resistant to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Apoptotic DNA Fragmentation due to Expression of HSP72

    PubMed Central

    Guzik, Krzysztof; Bzowska, Ma?gorzata; Dobrucki, Jerzy; Pryjma, Juliusz

    1999-01-01

    Human peripheral blood monocytes became apoptotic following phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. The consequences of heat stress for monocytes were studied with regard to the effect on S. aureus-induced apoptosis. Exposure of monocytes to 41.5°C for 1 h resulted in HSP72 expression and had no influence on phagocytosis of bacteria; moreover, phagocytosis of S. aureus immediately or shortly after heat shock had no effect on the S. aureus-induced monocyte apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation assay. In contrast, cells which recovered from heat shock for 18 to 24 h, although active as phagocytes, were resistant to the S. aureus-induced apoptosis. The observed protective effect was related to the induction of HSP72, since blocking of HSP72 synthesis by an antisense oligomer abolished the protective effect of heat shock on bacterium-induced monocyte apoptosis. PMID:10417194

  7. [Effect of Kv1.3 and KCa3.1 potassium ion channels on the proliferation and migration of monocytes/macrophages].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Xia; Wang, Xian-Pei; Gao, Chuan-Yu; Ju, Chen-Hui; Zhu, Li-Jie; DU, Yi-Mei

    2015-10-25

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of blockade of Ca(2+) activated channel KCa3.1 and voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 of the monocytes/macrophages on inflammatory monocyte chemotaxis. Chemotaxis assay was used to test the inflammatory Ly-6C(hi) monocyte chemotaxis caused by the monocytes/macrophages. The proliferation of monocytes/macrophages was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect the C-C motif ligand 7 (CCL7) in cultured media. The results showed that the recruitment of Ly-6C(hi) monocyte induced by monocytes/macrophages was suppressed by the potent Kv1.3 blocker Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) or the specific KCa3.1 inhibitor TRAM-34. Meanwhile, the proliferation of monocytes/macrophages was significantly inhibited by ShK. The response of Ly-6C(hi) monocyte pretreated with ShK or TRAM-34 to CCL2 was declined. These results suggest that KCa3.1 and Kv1.3 may play an important role in monocytes/macrophages' proliferation and migration. PMID:26490068

  8. Inhibition of Dengue Virus Entry and Multiplication into Monocytes Using RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Alhoot, Mohammed Abdelfatah; Wang, Seok Mui; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2011-01-01

    Background Dengue infection ranks as one of the most significant viral diseases of the globe. Currently, there is no specific vaccine or antiviral therapy for prevention or treatment. Monocytes/macrophages are the principal target cells for dengue virus and are responsible for disseminating the virus after its transmission. Dengue virus enters target cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis after the viral envelope protein E attaches to the cell surface receptor. This study aimed to investigate the effect of silencing the CD-14 associated molecule and clathrin-mediated endocytosis using siRNA on dengue virus entry into monocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene expression analysis showed a significant down-regulation of the target genes (82.7%, 84.9 and 76.3% for CD-14 associated molecule, CLTC and DNM2 respectively) in transfected monocytes. The effect of silencing of target genes on dengue virus entry into monocytes was investigated by infecting silenced and non-silenced monocytes with DENV-2. Results showed a significant reduction of infected cells (85.2%), intracellular viral RNA load (73.0%), and extracellular viral RNA load (63.0%) in silenced monocytes as compared to non-silenced monocytes. Conclusions/Significance Silencing the cell surface receptor and clathrin mediated endocytosis using RNA interference resulted in inhibition of the dengue virus entry and subsequently multiplication of the virus in the monocytes. This might serve as a novel promising therapeutic target to attenuate dengue infection and thus reduce transmission as well as progression to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:22140591

  9. Patrolling monocytes play a critical role in CX3CR1-mediated neuroprotection during excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bellavance, Marc-André; Gosselin, David; Yong, V Wee; Stys, Peter K; Rivest, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity underlies neuronal death in many neuropathological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. In murine models of these diseases, disruption of CX3CR1 signaling has thus far generated data either in favor or against a neuroprotective role of this crucial regulator of microglia and monocyte functions. In this study, we investigated the recruitment of circulating PU.1-expressing cells following sterile excitotoxicity and delineated the CX3CR1-dependent neuroprotective functions of circulating monocytes versus that of microglia in this context. WT, Cx3cr1-deficient and chimeric mice were subjected to a sterile excitotoxic insult via an intrastriatal injection of kainic acid (KA), a conformational analog of glutamate. Following KA administration, circulating monocytes physiologically engrafted the brain and selectively accumulated in the vicinity of excitotoxic lesions where they gave rise to activated macrophages depicting strong Iba1 and CD68 immunoreactivity 7 days post-injury. Monocyte-derived macrophages completely vanished upon recovery and did thus not permanently seed the brain. Furthermore, Cx3cr1 deletion significantly exacerbated neuronal death, behavioral deficits and activation of microglia cells following sterile excitotoxicity. Cx3cr1 disruption also markedly altered the blood levels of patrolling monocytes 24 h after KA administration. The specific elimination of patrolling monocytes using Nr4a1(-/-) chimeric mice conditioned with chemotherapy provided direct evidence that these circulating monocytes are essential for neuroprotection. Taken together, these data support a beneficial role of CX3CR1 signaling during excitotoxicity and highlight a novel and pivotal role of patrolling monocytes in neuroprotection. These findings open new research and therapeutic avenues for neuropathological disorders implicating excitotoxicity. PMID:24706067

  10. Simplexide Induces CD1d-Dependent Cytokine and Chemokine Production from Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Loffredo, Stefania; Staiano, Rosaria I.; Granata, Francescopaolo; Costantino, Valeria; Borriello, Francesco; Frattini, Annunziata; Lepore, Maria Teresa; Mangoni, Alfonso; Marone, Gianni; Triggiani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes are major effector cells of innate immunity and recognize several endogenous and exogenous molecules due to the expression of wide spectrum of receptors. Among them, the MHC class I-like molecule CD1d interacts with glycolipids and presents them to iNKT cells, mediating their activation. Simplexide belongs to a novel class of glycolipids isolated from marine sponges and is structurally distinct from other immunologically active glycolipids. In this study we have examined the effects of simplexide on cytokine and chemokine release from human monocytes. Simplexide induces a concentration- and time-dependent release of IL-6, CXCL8, TNF-? and IL-10 and increases the expression of IL6, CXCL8 and IL10 mRNA. Cytokine and chemokine release induced by simplexide from monocytes is dependent on CD1d since: i) a CD1d antagonist, 1,2-bis (diphenylphosphino) ethane [DPPE]- polyethylene glycolmonomethylether [PEG], specifically blocks simplexide-induced activation of monocytes; ii) CD1d knockdown inhibits monocyte activation by simplexide and iii) simplexide induces cytokine production from CD1d-transfected but not parental C1R cell line Finally, we have shown that simplexide also induces iNKT cell expansion in vitro. Our results demonstrate that simplexide, apart from activating iNKT cells, induces the production of cytokines and chemokines from human monocytes by direct interaction with CD1d. PMID:25390653

  11. Placental fractalkine mediates adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to villous trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Siwetz, Monika; Sundl, Monika; Kolb, Dagmar; Hiden, Ursula; Herse, Florian; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) recently attracted increasing attention in the field of placenta research due to its dual nature, acting both as membrane-bound and soluble forms. While the membrane-bound form mediates flow-resistant adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial and epithelial cells via its corresponding receptor CX3CR1, the soluble form arises from metalloprotease-dependent shedding and bears chemoattractive activity for monocytes, natural killer cells and T cells. In human placenta, fractalkine is expressed at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast, which may enable close physical contact with circulating maternal leukocytes. Based on these observations, we tested the hypothesis that fractalkine mediates adhesion of monocytes to the villous trophoblast. Forskolin-induced differentiation and syncytialization of the trophoblast cell line BeWo was accompanied with a substantial upregulation in fractalkine expression and led to increased adhesion of the monocyte cell line THP-1, which preferentially bound to syncytia. Blocking as well as silencing of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 proved involvement of the fractalkine/CX3CR1 system in adherence of THP-1 monocytes to villous trophoblast. Pre-incubation of THP-1 monocytes with human recombinant fractalkine as well as silencing of CX3CR1 expression in THP-1 monocytes significantly impaired their adherence to BeWo cells and primary term trophoblasts. The present study suggests fractalkine as another candidate among the panel of adhesion molecules enabling stable interaction between leukocytes and the syncytiotrophoblast. PMID:25566740

  12. Irradiation Enhances the Ability of Monocytes as Nanoparticle Carrier for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chia-Yi; Woo, Christopher William; Lo, Shao-Hua; Huang, Yu-Kuan; Hong, Ji-Hong; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2015-01-01

    The tumor-homing ability of monocytes renders them a potential cellular delivery system for alternative cancer therapies, although their migratory ability can be impaired following reagent uptake. Approaches that enhance monocyte tumor homing and promote their migration will improve the clinical value of these cells as cellular carriers. Previous studies have shown that irradiation (IR) can promote macrophage aggregation in hypoxic regions. To investigate whether IR enhances the infiltration of bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMDMs) into tumors, the infiltration of BMDMs from GFP-transgenic mice in a murine prostate adenocarcinoma TRAMP-C1 model was examined by fluorescence microscopy. IR did not increase the number of BMDMs that infiltrated initially, but did increase monocyte retention within IR-treated tumors for up to 2 weeks. We also showed that BMDMs can take up various imaging and therapeutic agents, although the mobility of BMDMs decreased with increasing load. When BMDMs were differentiated in IR-treated tumor-conditioned medium (IR-CM) in vitro, the nanoparticle load-mediated inhibition of migration was attenuated. These IR-CM-differentiated BMDMs delivered polymer vesicles encapsulating doxorubicin to radiation therapy (RT)-induced hypoxic tumor regions, and enhanced the efficacy of RT. The prolonged retention of monocytes within irradiated tumor tissues and the ability of IR-CM to enhance the migratory ability of cargo-laden BMDMs suggest that monocytes pre-conditioned by IR-CM can potentially act as cellular carriers for targeted therapy following conventional RT. PMID:26418962

  13. Evidence for direct transfer of tissue factor from monocytes to platelets in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Sovershaev, Mikhail A; Egorina, Elena M; Osterud, Bjarne; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2012-06-01

    Varying specificity of anti-tissue factor (anti-TF) antibodies gives rise to erroneous conclusions on TF positivity of platelets. Although monocytes are a well established source of TF in whole blood, there is no consensus whether platelets express or acquire TF from external sources. To test whether platelets can acquire TF expressed in monocytes, we studied a transfer of TF-yellow fluorescent protein (TF-YFP) from monocytes nucleofected with TF-YFP to platelets in a whole blood model. Platelets isolated from whole blood were found positive for TF when immunostained with anti-TF antibody from one supplier, whereas no platelet TF antigen was found in whole blood immunostained with anti-TF antibody from another supplier. Both antibodies recognized TF in monocytes. Platelets isolated from whole blood reconstituted with monocytes expressing TF-YFP fusion protein were found positive for TF-YFP only after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Taken together, TF protein could be transferred from monocytes upon stimulation with LPS. PMID:22343684

  14. JC virus infection of hematopoietic progenitor cells, primary B lymphocytes, and tonsillar stromal cells: implications for viral latency.

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, M C; Atwood, W J; Gravell, M; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

    1996-01-01

    The human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) infects myelin-producing cells in the central nervous system, resulting in the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV-induced PML occurs most frequently in immunosuppressed individuals, with the highest incidence in human immunodeficiency type 1-infected patients, ranging between 4 and 6% of all AIDS cases. Although JCV targets a highly specialized cell in the central nervous system, infection is widespread, with more than 80% of the human population worldwide demonstrating serum antibodies. A number of clinical and laboratory studies have now linked the pathogenesis of PML with JCV infection in lymphoid cells. For example, JCV-infected lymphocytes have been suggested as possible carriers of virus to the brain following reactivation of a latent infection in lymphoid tissues. To further define the cellular tropism associated with JCV, we have attempted to infect immune system cells, including CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from human fetal liver, primary human B lymphocytes, and human tonsillar stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that these cell types as well as a CD34+ human cell line, KG-1a, are susceptible to JCV infection. JCV cannot, however, infect KG-1, a CD34+ cell line which differentiates into a macrophage-like cell when treated with phorbol esters. In addition, peripheral blood B lymphocytes isolated by flow cytometry from a PML patient demonstrate JCV infection. These results provide direct evidence that JCV is not strictly neurotropic but can infect CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and those cells which have differentiated into a lymphocytic, but not monocytic, lineage. PMID:8794345

  15. Thromboplastin (tissue factor) in plasma membranes of human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, O; Brovold, A B; Holme, R; Gaudernack, G; Prydz, H

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of thromboplastin, a potent trigger of blood coagulation, can be induced in human peripheral blood monocytes. Indirect evidence suggests that newly synthesized thromboplastin becomes in part available on the cell surface. We have attempted to study the localization and availability of thromboplastin more directly by isolating plasma membranes from isolated human peripheral blood monocytes. The specific activities of the plasma membrane markers increased 16-22-fold in these preparations with a recovery of about 15%. The contamination by mitochondria, lysosomes, nuclei and endoplasmic reticulum was low as estimated by marker enzymes and electron microscopy. In both unstimulated and stimulated monocytes thromboplastin was largely recovered in this plasma membrane fraction, providing direct evidence for its membrane localization. Phospholipase C (E.C. 3.1.4.3) is a potent inactivator of thromboplastin through its hydrolysis of the phospholipids necessary for thromboplastin activity [Otnaess, Prydz, Bjørklid & Berre (1972) Eur. J. Biochem. 27, 238-243]. About 70% of the total membrane thromboplastin activity was inactivated when whole cells were treated with phospholipase C and the membranes subsequently isolated. Following stimulation to induce thromboplastin synthesis, the plasma membranes showed a shift in their relative content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine consistent with a transmethylation process. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4026807

  16. First Demonstration of Antigen Induced Cytokine Expression by CD4-1+ Lymphocytes in a Poikilotherm: Studies in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Wyse, Cathy; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Zou, Jun; Weerdenburg, Eveline M.; M. van der Sar, Astrid; Wang, Difei; Secombes, Christopher J.; Bird, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity in homeotherms depends greatly on CD4+ Th cells which release cytokines in response to specific antigen stimulation. Whilst bony fish and poikilothermic tetrapods possess cells that express TcR and CD4-related genes (that exist in two forms in teleost fish; termed CD4-1 and CD4-2), to date there is no unequivocal demonstration that cells equivalent to Th exist. Thus, in this study we determined whether CD4-1+ lymphocytes can express cytokines typical of Th cells following antigen specific stimulation, using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Initially, we analyzed the CD4 locus in zebrafish and found three CD4 homologues, a CD4-1 molecule and two CD4-2 molecules. The zfCD4-1 and zfCD4-2 transcripts were detected in immune organs and were most highly expressed in lymphocytes. A polyclonal antibody to zfCD4-1 was developed and used with an antibody to ZAP70 and revealed double positive cells by immunohistochemistry, and in the Mycobacterium marinum disease model CD4-1+ cells were apparent surrounding the granulomas typical of the infection. Next a prime-boost experiment, using human gamma globulin as antigen, was performed and revealed for the first time in fish that zfCD4-1+ lymphocytes increase the expression of cytokines and master transcription factors relevant to Th1/Th2-type responses as a consequence of boosting with specific antigen. PMID:26083432

  17. Ber-MAC3: new monoclonal antibody that defines human monocyte/macrophage differentiation antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Backé, E; Schwarting, R; Gerdes, J; Ernst, M; Stein, H

    1991-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody Ber-MAC3 is reported. It recognises a formol sensitive epitope of a not yet clustered monocyte/macrophage specific 140 kilodalton glycoprotein that is expressed on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. In 30 cases of acute and chronic leukaemia, Ber-MAC3 staining was restricted to 15 myeloid leukaemias of M4 and M5 types. The tumour cells of two cases of true histiocytic malignancies were Ber-MAC3 positive, whereas those of all 280 malignancies of lymphocytic origin were negative. The latter included 52 cases of Hodgkin's disease and 41 cases of Ki-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas which had previously been classified as true histiocytic lymphomas. Ber-MAC3 therefore seems to be of considerable value for selective identification of monocytes and macrophages at a certain stage of differentiation and seems to be suitable for diagnosing myelomonocytic or monocytic leukaemia and neoplasms of true histiocytic origin. Images PMID:1721628

  18. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) differentially affects inflammatory immune responses in human monocytes infected with viable Salmonella or stimulated with LPS.

    PubMed

    Askar, Basim; Ibrahim, Hiba; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

    2015-09-01

    We compared the effect of VIP on human blood monocytes infected with Salmonella typhimurium 4/74 or stimulated with LPS. VIP (10(-7)M) increased monocyte viability by 24% and 9% when cultured for 24h with 4/74 or Salmonella LPS (100ng/ml), respectively. Significantly increased (P<0.05) numbers of 4/74 were also recovered from monocytes co-cultured with VIP after 6h post-infection (pi) and this remained high after 24h pi. Both 4/74 and LPS increased (P<0.05) the concentration of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 measured in monocyte supernatants. However, LPS induced this effect more rapidly while, with the exception of IL-6, 4/74 induced higher concentrations (P<0.05). VIP significantly decreased (P<0.05) TNF-? and IL-1? production by 4/74-infected monocytes after 6 pi, but only after 24h in LPS-cultured monocytes. This trend was reversed for IL-6 production. However, TNF-? and IL-1? production by 4/74-infected monocytes, cultured with VIP, still remained higher (P<0.05) than concentrations measured in supernatants cultured only with LPS. VIP also increased (P<0.05) production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in both 4/74 and LPS cultures after 24h. We also show a differential effect of VIP on the expression of TNF? and IL-6 receptors, since VIP was only able to decreased expression in LPS-stimulated monocytes but not in 4/74-infected monocytes. In conclusion, we show a differential effect of VIP on human monocytes infected with virulent Salmonella or stimulated with LPS. Our study suggests that the use of VIP in bacteraemia and/or sepsis may be limited to an adjunctive therapy to antibiotic treatment. PMID:26206287

  19. NONMALIGNANT LYMPHOCYTE DISORDERS

    E-print Network

    Toxoplasmosis Cytomegalovirus Infectious Lymphocytosis Bordetella Pertussis Persistence Lymphocytosis Other LYMPHOCYTOSIS Leukocytosis 40-50 x 109/L, 60-70% small lymphocytes #12;9/16/2013 3 BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS

  20. Loss of CCR2 expressing non-classical monocytes are associated with cognitive impairment in antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected Thais.

    PubMed

    Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; D'Antoni, Michelle L; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Byron, Mary Margaret; Chalermchai, Thep; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Tipsuk, Somporn; Ho, Erika; Slike, Bonnie M; Schuetz, Alexandra; Zhang, Guangxiang; Agsalda-Garcia, Melissa; Shiramizu, Bruce; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Valcour, Victor

    2015-11-15

    HIV DNA in monocytes has been linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), however, characterization of monocyte subsets associated with HAND remains unclear. We completed a prospective study of antiretroviral therapy-naïve, HIV-infected Thais, with varying degrees of cognitive impairment, compared to HIV-uninfected controls. Monocyte subsets' CCR2, CCR5 and CD163 expression were profiled and inflammatory markers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), measured. Lower numbers of CCR2(+)non-classical monocytes were associated with worse neuropsychological test performance (r=0.43, p=0.024). CCR2(+)non-classical monocyte count inversely correlated with CSF neopterin (r=-0.43, p=0.035) and plasma TNF-? levels (r=-0.40, p=0.041). These data benchmark CCR2(+)non-classical monocytes as an independent index of cognitive impairment. PMID:26531691

  1. Age-associated telomere attrition of lymphocytes in vivo is co-ordinated with changes in telomerase activity, composition of lymphocyte subsets and health conditions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun; Damjanovic, Amanda; Metter, E Jeffrey; Nguyen, Huy; Truong, Thai; Najarro, Kevin; Morris, Christa; Longo, Dan L; Zhan, Ming; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hodes, Richard J; Weng, Nan-ping

    2015-03-01

    Telomeres are essential in maintaining chromosome integrity and in controlling cellular replication. Attrition of telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with age is well documented from cross-sectional studies. But the actual in vivo changes in telomere lengths and its relationship with the contributing factors within the individuals with age have not been fully addressed. In the present paper, we report a longitudinal analysis of telomere length in the PBMCs, lymphocytes and monocytes of 216 human subjects aged from 20-90 years assessed at 0-, 5- and 12-year follow-up. For the 5- and 12-year follow-up, telomere length in the PBMCs decreased in 34% and 46%, exhibited no detectable change in 56% and 47% and increased in 10% and 7% of the subjects respectively. The rate of telomere change was distinct for T-cells, B-cells and monocytes for any given subject. Telomerase activity declined with age in the resting T-cells and B-cells and the activated T-cells. Finally, a significant portion of telomere attrition in T-cells with age was explained by a decline in the telomerase activity, decreased naïve cells and the change in physiological conditions such as elevated blood glucose and interleukin (IL)-6 levels. These findings show that changes in the telomere length of the PBMCs with age in vivo occur at different rates in different individuals and cell types and reveal that changes in the telomere length in the T-cells with age is influenced by the telomerase activity, naïve T-cell percentage and changes in health conditions. PMID:25317735

  2. Whole Blood Activation Results in Enhanced Detection of T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production by Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a wholeblood activation culture has been described. We compared whole blood culture to standard PBMC culture and determined the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells and monocytes via flow cytometry. For T cells cytokine assessment following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture; (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. In addition, a four-color cytometric analysis was used to allow accurate phenotyping and quantitation of cytokine producing lymphocyte populations. Using this technique we found IFNgamma production to be significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines in conjunction with CD 14. The cytokine pairs used for analysis were IL-1a/IL-12, and IL-10ITNFa. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFalpha equally well in both culture systems. Monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated following whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes may represent functionally different monocyte subsets with distinct functions. Whole blood culture eliminates the need to purify cell populations prior to culture and may have significant utility for the routine monitoring of the cytokine balances of the peripheral blood T cell and monocyte populations. In addition, there are distinct advantages to performing whole-blood (WB) activation as compared to PBMC activation. These advantages would include retaining all various cell-cell interactions as well as any soluble factors present in serum that influence cell activation. It is likely that the altered cytokine production observed following whole blood culture more accurately represents the in-vivo immune balance.

  3. Targeting monocytes and macrophages by means of SPECT and PET.

    PubMed

    Van De Wiele, C; Sathekge, M; Maes, A

    2014-09-01

    Monocytes have been isolated from patient's blood and directly radiolabelled in vitro using a variety of radiopharmaceuticals such as 99mTc-HMPAO, 111In-oxine, 99mTc-colloids and 18F-FDG. Overall, the best labeling results were obtained using 99mTc-HMPAO. The wide availability of 99mTc and of the ligand HMPAO in kit-formulation makes it the most versatile procedure for imaging localized inflammation using in-vitro labeling. Injection of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled monocytes in adult patients has proven safe with an effective dose of 0.011 mSv/Mbq, equivalent to that of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled mixed white blood cells. Furthermore, in a proof of concept studies, in-vitro labeled monocytes were shown to specifically accumulate in the bowels of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease as well as in inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Inversely, the decrease in disease activity of inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated by Adalimumab could not be substantiated using 99mTc-HMPAO labelled monocytes suggesting this type of treatment does not reduce monocyte influx. In spite of their wide availability, in-vitro labeling procedures are cumbersome and time-consuming. Furthermore, cell activation may occur during the labeling process and it cannot be excluded that the radiopharmaceuticals used for labelling interfere with ongoing cellular processes. As such, various authors turned towards the development of radiopharmaceuticals for in-vivo labeling of both monocytes and more importantly macrophages, many of which were subsequently validated in animal models. Targets studied in this regard include amongst others the folate receptor, the mannose receptor, the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor as well as more general characteristics of macrophages such as phagocytosis. Various of these novel molecules appear promising and clinical studies using these radiopharmaceuticals are awaited in the near future. Some of these radiopharmaceuticals also reached the clinical stage, respectively the translocating protein targeting radiopharmaceutical 11C-PK11195 and the folate receptor targeting radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-EC20. Uptake of 11C-PK11195 in inflamed joints and sites of atherosclerosis in patients proved to be directly related to the number of peripheral benzodiazepine binding receptors available as well as to the severity of ongoing inflammation. Comparable results were obtained using 99mTc-EC20 in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In spite of these promising results, additional studies are warranted demonstrating that in vivo, quantitative visualization of monocyte trafficking and accumulation of M1 or M2 macrophage subtypes in sites of ongoing inflammation by means of SPECT and PET will contribute to a better understanding of human inflammatory diseases as well as to diagnosis, treatment planning and the development of targeted treatment strategies. PMID:24844256

  4. Intravenous Infusion of Nerve Growth Factor–Secreting Monocytes Supports the Survival of Cholinergic Neurons in the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert in Hypercholesterolemia Brown–Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Ehrlich, Daniela; Humpel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of monocytes into the brain has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease and recent studies have indicated that monocytes can reduce amyloid plaque burden. Our previous investigations have shown that hypercholesterolemic rats develop cognitive, cholinergic, and blood–brain barrier dysfunction, but do not develop amyloid plaques. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of repeated intravenous (i.v.) infusion (via the dorsal penile vein) of primary monocytes on cognition, the cholinergic system, and cortical cytokine levels in hypercholesterolemia Brown-Norway rats. In addition, we also transduced the monocytes with nerve growth factor (NGF) to evaluate whether these cells could be used to deliver a neuroprotective agent to the brain. Our results indicate that repeated i.v. infused monocytes migrate into the brains of hypercholesterolemic rats; however, this migration does not translate into marked effects on learning. Animals receiving NGF-loaded monocytes demonstrate slightly improved learning and significantly elevated cholinergic neuron staining compared to treatment with monocytes alone. Furthermore, our data indicate that repeated infusion of monocytes does not lead to elevated cytokine secretion, indicating that no inflammatory response is induced. This study provides an experimental attempt to evaluate the effects of blood-derived primary monocytes in hypercholesterolemia rats. PMID:24323796

  5. Monocyte subset distribution in patients with stable atherosclerosis and elevated levels of lipoprotein(a)

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Kastl, Stefan P.; Hofbauer, Sebastian L.; Wonnerth, Anna; Goliasch, Georg; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Katsaros, Katharina M.; Maurer, Gerald; Huber, Kurt; Dostal, Elisabeth; Binder, Christoph J.; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a proatherogenic plasma lipoprotein currently established as an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease and as a predictor for acute thrombotic complications. In addition, Lp(a) is the major carrier of proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). Today, atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are crucially involved. Circulating monocytes can be divided according to their surface expression pattern of CD14 and CD16 into at least 3 subsets with distinct inflammatory and atherogenic potential. Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether elevated levels of Lp(a) and OxPL on apolipoprotein B-100–containing lipoproteins (OxPL/apoB) are associated with changes in monocyte subset distribution. Methods We included 90 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Lp(a) and OxPL/apoB were measured, and monocyte subsets were identified as classical monocytes (CMs; CD14++CD16?), intermediate monocytes (IMs; CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical monocytes (NCMs; CD14+CD16++) by flow cytometry. Results In patients with elevated levels of Lp(a) (>50 mg/dL), monocyte subset distribution was skewed toward an increase in the proportion of IM (7.0 ± 3.8% vs 5.2 ± 3.0%; P = .026), whereas CM (82.6 ± 6.5% vs 82.0 ± 6.8%; P = .73) and NCM (10.5 ± 5.3 vs 12.8 ± 6.0; P = .10) were not significantly different. This association was independent of clinical risk factors, choice of statin treatment regime, and inflammatory markers. In addition, OxPL/apoB was higher in patients with elevated Lp(a) and correlated with IM but not CM and NCM. Conclusions In conclusion, we provide a potential link between elevated levels of Lp(a) and a proatherogenic distribution of monocyte subtypes in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26228671

  6. Monocytes Infiltrate the Pancreas via the MCP-1/CCR2 Pathway and Differentiate into Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ino, Kazuko; Masuya, Masahiro; Tawara, Isao; Miyata, Eri; Oda, Keiko; Nakamori, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Kei; Ohishi, Kohshi; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that monocytes possess pluripotent plasticity. We previously reported that monocytes could differentiate into hepatic stellate cells. Although stellate cells are also present in the pancreas, their origin remains unclear. An accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)+CD45– cells was observed in the pancreases and livers of chimeric mice, which were transplanted with a single hematopoietic stem cell isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice and treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Because the vast majority of EGFP+CD45– cells in the pancreas expressed stellate cell-associated antigens such as vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, procollagen-I, and ?-smooth muscle actin, they were characterized as pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs). EGFP+ PaSCs were also observed in CCl4-treated mice adoptively transferred with monocytes but not with other cell lineages isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II) increased in the pancreas of CCl4-treated mice and their respective receptors, C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), were expressed on Ly6Chigh monocytes isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. We examined the effect of an AT1R antagonist, irbesartan, which is also a CCR2 antagonist, on the migration of monocytes into the pancreas. Monocytes migrated toward MCP-1 but not Ang II in vitro. Irbesartan inhibited not only their in vitro chemotaxis but also in vivo migration of adoptively transferred monocytes from peripheral blood into the pancreas. Irbesartan treatment significantly reduced the numbers of EGFP+F4/80+CCR2+ monocytic cells and EGFP+ PaSCs in the pancreas of CCl4-treated chimeric mice receiving EGFP+ bone marrow cells. A specific CCR2 antagonist RS504393 inhibited the occurrence of EGFP+ PaSCs in injured mice. We propose that CCR2+ monocytes migrate into the pancreas possibly via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway and give rise to PaSCs. PMID:24416305

  7. A phase 1 study evaluating the safety and tolerability of otlertuzumab, an anti-CD37 mono-specific ADAPTIR therapeutic protein in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, John M.; Awan, Farrukh T.; Forero, Andres; Flinn, Ian W.; Deauna-Limayo, Delva P.; Spurgeon, Stephen E.; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Leonard, John P.; Eisenfeld, Amy J.; Bannink, Jeannette E.; Stromatt, Scott C.; Furman, Richard R.

    2014-01-01

    Otlertuzumab is a novel humanized anti-CD37 protein therapeutic. This study evaluated the safety of otlertuzumab administered intravenously to patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Otlertuzumab was administered weekly for up to 8 weeks followed by 1 dose per month for 4 months ranging from 0.03 to 20 mg/kg in the dose-escalation phase and 10 to 30 mg/kg in the dose-expansion phase. Responses were determined by using the 1996 National Cancer Institute (NCI-96) and 2008 International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (IWCLL) criteria. Fifty-seven patients were treated in the dose-escalation phase and 26 in the dose-expansion phase. A maximum-tolerated dose was not identified. Response occurred in 19 (23%) of 83 treated patients by NCI-96 criteria. All responses were partial and occurred more commonly in patients with symptomatic untreated CLL (6/7) or 1 to 2 prior therapies (12/28) vs 3 or more therapies (1/48). Twenty percent (12/61) with serial computed tomography scan assessment had a response per IWCLL criteria. The most frequent adverse events were infusion reactions, fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea and were not dose related. Otlertuzumab was well tolerated, and modest clinical activity was observed. Otlertuzumab warrants further evaluation in combination with other agents for the treatment of CLL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00614042. PMID:24381226

  8. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4(+) CD4(+) Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Masato; Ishimaru, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4(+) CD4(+) T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I (N = 8) and group II (N = 8). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (P < 0.01). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (P < 0.01). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus-pituitary gland-adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4(+) CD4(+) lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. PMID:26464935

  9. Inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase modifies LPS-induced inflammatory responses of human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Erik; Wehrhahn, Janine; Klein, Carina; Raulien, Nora; Ceglarek, Uta; Hauschildt, Sunna

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have identified enzymes that use NAD as a substrate, thus contributing to its net consumption. To maintain the intracellular pool, NAD is re-synthesized by a salvage pathway using nicotinamide, the by-product generated by the enzymatic cleavage of NAD. Enzymes involved in NAD re-synthesis include nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase. Our studies show, that NAMPT was substantially up-regulated by LPS in primary human monocytes, suggesting that it may be especially required during the process of monocyte activation. To evaluate the contribution of the NAD rescue pathway to LPS-induced biological responses in human monocytes, we used APO866, a well-characterized inhibitor of NAMPT. Concomitant with the inhibition of NAMPT, LPS-induced TNF-? protein synthesis declined, while TNF-? mRNA levels were minimally affected. Moreover, APO866 strongly decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased surface expression of the NAD-consuming enzyme CD38, and modified the production of selective eicosanoids. We further demonstrate that protein ADP-ribosylation was strongly reduced, indicating a possible link between this post-translational protein modification and human monocyte inflammatory responses. Despite a substantial reduction in intracellular NAD levels, activated monocytes were resistant to apoptosis, while resting monocytes were not. Taken together, our data suggest that activated monocytes strongly depend on the NAD salvage pathway to mount an appropriate inflammatory response. Their survival is not affected by NAD-depletion, probably as a result of LPS-mediated anti-apoptotic signals. PMID:21975728

  10. Differential Induction of Cytokines by Human Neonatal, Adult, and Elderly Monocyte/Macrophages Infected with Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Nereida; Levy, Alegria; Añez, Germán; Marcucci, Rafael; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Immunosuppressive status against infections in monocytes from neonates and elderly subjects has been reported. The interaction between dengue virus and monocytes/macrophages plays an important role during dengue disease. The aim of this study was to determine the cytokine response of monocytes from individuals with different ages after infection with dengue virus. Monocyte/macrophage cultures from neonatal, adult, and elderly subjects (n=10 each group) were incubated with all four dengue virus types (DENV-1 to -4). After 1 and 3 days of culture, cytokine concentrations (TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?) were determined in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Increased production of all studied cytokines was induced by the different viral types in monocyte/macrophage cultures regardless of their source. However, lower cytokine concentrations were found in neonatal and elderly monocytes. The relative monocyte/macrophage immunosuppressive status observed in neonates and the elderly could be relevant during dengue infection in those age groups and important in innate and adaptive immunity responses against this virus. PMID:24801946

  11. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is a regulator of monocyte diapedesis through the brain endothelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Reijerkerk, Arie; Kooij, Gijs; van der Pol, Susanne M A; Leyen, Thomas; van Het Hof, Bert; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Vivien, Denis; Dijkstra, Christine D; de Vries, Helga E

    2008-09-01

    Inflammatory cell trafficking into the brain complicates several neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis. Normally, reliable brain functioning is maintained and controlled by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is essential to restrict the entry of potentially harmful molecules and cells from the blood into the brain. The BBB is a selective barrier formed by dedicated brain endothelial cells and dependent on the presence of intracellular tight junctions. In multiple sclerosis, a severe dysfunction of the BBB is observed, which is key to monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the brain. Proteolytic activity has been associated with these inflammatory processes in the brain. Our studies in plasma of rats indicated that the extracellular protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) correlates with the clinical signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, a rat model of multiple sclerosis. In this study, we studied the function of the tPA during diapedesis of monocytes through a rat and human brain endothelial barrier. Monocyte-brain endothelial cell coculture experiments showed that monocytes induce the release of tPA by brain endothelial cells, which subsequently activates the signal transduction protein extracellular signal related kinase (ERK1/2), both involved in monocyte diapedesis. Importantly, live imaging and immunoblot analyses of rat brain endothelial cells revealed that tPA and ERK1/2 control the breakdown of the tight junction protein occludin. These studies identify tPA as a novel and relevant pathological mediator of neuroinflammation and provide a potential mechanism for this. PMID:18714030

  12. Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

  13. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  14. Interactions of monocytic cells with human endothelial cells stimulate monocytic metalloproteinase production.

    PubMed Central

    Amorino, G. P.; Hoover, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Monocyte-endothelial cell interactions play an important role in the early stages of atherosclerosis, and it is hypothesized that regulation of metalloproteinase production by these interactions contributes to this pathological process. The effects of monocytic cell-endothelial cell interactions on monocytic metalloproteinase production were investigated using an in vitro system, focusing on the role of endothelial cell secretions and physical contact as effectors in the regulation of monocytic metalloproteinase expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 were used, and changes in the levels of THP-1 metalloproteinase secretion and mRNA were measured. When THP-1 cells were incubated for 18 hours with HUVEC conditioned medium (CM), a four- to eightfold induction of the metalloproteinase MMP-9 was observed at both the mRNA and protein levels; however, levels of another metalloproteinase, MMP-2, were unaffected. The induction of MMP-9 by HUVEC CM was confirmed using freshly isolated human monocytes. A sevenfold increase in MMP-9 levels was observed with apically collected HUVEC CM but not with basally collected CM. THP-1 cells incubated with paraformaldehyde-fixed HUVECs and isolated HUVEC plasma membranes showed an eightfold increase in MMP-9 levels, and measurements of MMP-9 activity found in THP-1 conditioned medium due to either HUVEC contact or HUVEC CM showed a threefold increase. The molecular weight of the endothelial secreted effector molecule(s) was determined to be 30 +/- 6 kd. The data show that endothelial cells through the release of soluble factors and through direct contact with monocytic cells regulate monocytic metalloproteinase production, which has implications for the atherogenic process. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 8 PMID:9422537

  15. A Higher Frequency of CD14+CD169+ Monocytes/Macrophages in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenguang; Luo, Xiaofan; Lin, Yuyang; Tang, Xiuqi; Ling, Limian; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yanfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Monocytes and macrophages can infiltrate into tumor microenvironment and regulate the progression of tumors. This study aimed at determining the frequency of different subsets of circulating monocytes and tumor infiltrating macrophages (TIMs) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods The frequency of different subsets of circulating monocytes was characterized in 46 CRC patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) by flow cytometry. The frequency of different subsets of macrophages was analyzed in TIMs from 30 tumor tissues and in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) from 12 non-tumor tissues. The concentrations of plasma cytokines and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were determined. The potential association of these measures with the values of clinical parameters was analyzed. Results In comparison with that in the HC, the percentages of circulating CD14+CD169+, CD14+CD169+CD163+ and CD14+CD169+CD206+ monocytes and TIMs CD14+CD169+ as well as IL-10+CD14+CD169+, but not IL-12+ CD14+CD169+ macrophages were significantly increased, accompanied by higher levels of plasma IL-10 in the CRC patients. The percentages of CD14+CD169+ circulating monocytes and TIM macrophages were associated with the stage of disease and correlated positively with the levels of plasma IL-10 and CEA in CRC patients. Conclusion Our data suggest that an increase in the frequency of CD14+CD169+ cells may be associated with the development and progression of CRC and is concomitant rise of both, pro-tumor (M2-like, IL-10 producing) and anti-tumor (M1-like, IL-12 producing) monocytes and infiltrating macrophages. The frequency of CD14+CD169+ circulating monocytes and infiltrating macrophages may serve as a biomarker for evaluating the pathogenic degrees of CRC. PMID:26509874

  16. Galectin-2 Induces a Proinflammatory, Anti-Arteriogenic Phenotype in Monocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Y?ld?r?m, Cansu; Vogel, Daphne Y. S.; Hollander, Maurits R.; Baggen, Josefien M.; Fontijn, Ruud D.; Nieuwenhuis, Sylvia; Haverkamp, Anouk; de Vries, Margreet R.; Quax, Paul H. A.; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; van der Laan, Anja M.; Dijkstra, Christine D.; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke C. T. M.; van Royen, Niels; Horrevoets, Anton J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Galectin-2 is a monocyte-expressed carbohydrate-binding lectin, for which increased expression is genetically determined and associated with decreased collateral arteriogenesis in obstructive coronary artery disease patients. The inhibiting effect of galectin-2 on arteriogenesis was confirmed in vivo, but the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study we aimed to explore the effects of galectin-2 on monocyte/macrophage phenotype in vitro and vivo, and to identify the receptor by which galectin-2 exerts these effects. We now show that the binding of galectin-2 to different circulating human monocyte subsets is dependent on monocyte surface expression levels of CD14. The high affinity binding is blocked by an anti-CD14 antibody but not by carbohydrates, indicating a specific protein-protein interaction. Galectin-2 binding to human monocytes modulated their transcriptome by inducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting pro-arteriogenic factors, while attenuating monocyte migration. Using specific knock-out mice, we show that galectin-2 acts through the CD14/toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 pathway. Furthermore, galectin-2 skews human macrophages to a M1-like proinflammatory phenotype, characterized by a reduced motility and expression of an anti-arteriogenic cytokine/growth factor repertoire. This is accompanied by a switch in surface protein expression to CD40-high and CD206-low (M1). In a murine model we show that galectin-2 administration, known to attenuate arteriogenesis, leads to increased numbers of CD40-positive (M1) and reduced numbers of CD206-positive (M2) macrophages surrounding actively remodeling collateral arteries. In conclusion galectin-2 is the first endogenous CD14/TLR4 ligand that induces a proinflammatory, non-arteriogenic phenotype in monocytes/macrophages. Interference with CD14-Galectin-2 interaction may provide a new intervention strategy to stimulate growth of collateral arteries in genetically compromised cardiovascular patients. PMID:25884209

  17. Helper T-lymphocyte-related chemokines in healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting-Fan; Ng, Pak-Cheung; Tam, Wing-Hung; Li, Chung-Yi; Wong, Eric; Ma, Terence P Y; Lam, Christopher W K; Fok, Tai-Fai

    2004-02-01

    Atopic disease is characterized by an imbalance in cytokines secreted from Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes. The association between atopy and serum levels of atopy-related chemokines in umbilical cord blood (UCB) has not been evaluated. This study formulates the reference ranges of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), eotaxin (EOX), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in UCB of term neonates and investigates the relation between these chemokines and the development of atopy during infancy. The concentrations of total IgE and chemokines in UCB serum were measured by microparticle immunoassay and sandwich enzyme immunoassay, respectively. A total of 124 singleton healthy newborns were investigated. Fifty-three (43%) infants had family history of allergic diseases, and 26 (21%) had increased serum total IgE concentrations. The median (interquartile range) serum TARC, MDC, EOX, MCP-1, and IP-10 concentrations, in pg/mL, were 425 (300-639), 786 (561-1050), 36 (28-45), 156 (116-205), and 38 (29-49), respectively. Multiparity was associated with increased serum MDC (p = 0.017). Serum chemokine concentrations were not associated with total IgE levels or family history of allergies. The median (interquartile range) serum MDC concentrations in newborns who developed wheezing during infancy and those without wheezing were 1259 pg/mL (945-1523) and 782 pg/mL (551-992), respectively (p = 0.010). This study provides reference ranges of Th-specific chemokines in UCB serum of singleton term neonates. Increased serum MDC concentrations at birth are associated with the occurrence of wheezing during infancy. PMID:14630994

  18. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) in Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Panee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is the first discovered and most extensively studied CC chemokine, and the amount of studies on its role in the etiologies of obesity- and diabetes-related diseases have increased exponentially during the past 2 decades. This review attempted to provide a panoramic perspective of the history, regulatory mechanisms, functions, and therapeutic strategies of this chemokine. The highlights of this review include the roles of MCP-1 in the development of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, insulitis, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Therapies that specifically or non-specifically inhibit MCP-1 overproduction have been summarized. PMID:22766373

  19. On-site education of VEGF-recruited monocytes improves their performance as angiogenic and arteriogenic accessory cells

    PubMed Central

    Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Yona, Simon; Grunewald, Myriam; Landsman, Limor; Cochain, Clement; Silvestre, Jean Sebastien; Mizrahi, Haim; Faroja, Mohammad; Strauss-Ayali, Dalit; Mack, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Adult neovascularization relies on the recruitment of monocytes to the target organ or tumor and functioning therein as a paracrine accessory. The exact origins of the recruited monocytes and the mechanisms underlying their plasticity remain unclear. Using a VEGF-based transgenic system in which genetically tagged monocytes are conditionally summoned to the liver as part of a VEGF-initiated angiogenic program, we show that these recruited cells are derived from the abundant pool of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes. Remarkably, however, upon arrival at the VEGF-induced organ, but not the naive organ, monocytes undergo multiple phenotypic and functional changes, endowing them with enhanced proangiogenic capabilities and, importantly, with a markedly increased capacity to remodel existing small vessels into larger conduits. Notably, monocytes do not differentiate into long-lived macrophages, but rather appear as transient accessory cells. Results from transfers of presorted subpopulations and a novel tandem transfer strategy ruled out selective recruitment of a dedicated preexisting subpopulation or onsite selection, thereby reinforcing active reprogramming as the underlying mechanism for improved performance. Collectively, this study uncovered a novel function of VEGF, namely, on-site education of recruited “standard” monocytes to become angiogenic and arteriogenic professional cells, a finding that may also lend itself for a better design of angiogenic therapies. PMID:24166715

  20. A procedure for efficient non-viral siRNA transfection of primary human monocytes using nucleofection.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Olga; Maeß, Marten B; Lindner, Saskia; Garscha, Ulrike; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Werz, Oliver; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Monocytes are an important constituent of the innate immune system. Therefore, manipulating gene expression of primary human monocytes is a crucial mean to study and characterize the functions of targeted proteins in monocytes. Gene silencing by transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) leading to the degradation of the corresponding mRNA and thus to reduced target protein levels is an important tool to investigate gene and protein function of interest. However, non-viral transfection of primary monocytes is challenging because siRNA uptake by these suspended cells is tricky, and the individual cells vary among different donors and do not proliferate. Here, we describe a procedure for efficient non-viral transfection of primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, which maintains cell viability and cell functions, such as responsiveness to stimuli like LPS and IL-10. Nucleofection was used as an electroporation technique that enables efficient introduction of siRNA and silencing of target genes. Using a modification of our previously published protocol for the fast-proliferating THP-1 monocytic cell line, we transfected primary human monocytes with siRNA targeting 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). In fact, we successfully downregulated 5-LO mRNA resulting in reduced protein levels and enzymatic activity. PMID:25891792

  1. Cytokine and Eicosanoid Production by Cultured Human Monocytes Exposed to Titanium Particulate Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Timothy M.; Manley, Paul A.; Sims, Paul A.; Albrecht, Ralph; Darien, Benjamin J.

    1999-10-01

    Phagocytosis of particulate wear debris from arthroplasties by macrophages induces an inflammatory response that has been linked to implant loosening and premature failure of artificial joints. Inflammatory mediators released by phagocytic macrophages such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-[alpha]), interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of aseptic loosening. The objective of this study was to characterize titanium alloy particulates that closely match wear debris found around joint arthroplasties and to study their effects on the biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators by cultured monocytes. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy human volunteers. Monocytes were cultured in 96-well plates for 24 h, washed, and exposed to three concentrations of titanium particulates and controls from 18Ð24 h. Supernatants were assayed for TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], IL-6, and PGE2 activity. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) verified the titanium alloy to be Ti6A14V. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed significant titanium particulate heterogeneity with approximately 95% of the particles <1 micrometer in diameter. SEM and EDX technology was useful in the characterization of the titanium particulates utilized for in vitro models of titanium-induced cytokine release by monocytes. Incubation of titanium particulates (in concentrations similar to those found around loosened prosthetic joints) with cultured monocytes significantly increased their production of TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], and PGE2.

  2. Functional involvement of P-selectin and MAdCAM-1 in the recruitment of alpha4beta7-integrin-expressing monocyte-like cells to the pregnant mouse uterus.

    PubMed

    Fernekorn, Uta; Butcher, Eugene C; Behrends, Jochen; Hartz, Sylvia; Kruse, Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Leukocyte recruitment to the pregnant mouse uterus has been suggested to be associated with highly regulated expression of distinct patterns of vascular adhesion receptors. One of the most striking observations is the combined expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) and P-selectin by maternal vessels of the vascular zone during the critical period of initial placenta development. The predominant cell population within these vessels is of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and expresses the mucosal integrin alpha4beta7, which represents the ligand for MAdCAM-1; neutrophils and lymphocytes are rare. To directly assess the importance of identified adhesion receptors, we undertook long-term in vivo inhibition studies using monoclonal antibodies to inhibit the contribution of MAdCAM-1 in leukocyte trafficking to the decidua or to deplete alpha4beta7(+) leukocytes. In addition, implantation sites of mouse strains genetically deficient in specific adhesion receptors were investigated. Our results underline the importance of predicted adhesion pathways in the recruitment of monocyte-like cells, especially those expressing alpha4beta7. Interestingly, maternal/fetal units with inhibited recruitment of alpha4beta7(+) leukocytes or the absence of these cells are characterized by reduced size and frequency of uterine NK cells. PMID:15484189

  3. A Single-Cell Gene-Expression Profile Reveals Inter-Cellular Heterogeneity within Human Monocyte Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Gren, Susanne T.; Rasmussen, Thomas B.; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Håkansson, Katarina; Gerwien, Jens G.; Grip, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population classified into three different subsets: Classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+, and non-classical CD14+CD16++ monocytes. These subsets are distinguished by their differential expression of CD14 and CD16, and unique gene expression profile. So far, the variation in inter-cellular gene expression within the monocyte subsets is largely unknown. In this study, the cellular variation within each human monocyte subset from a single healthy donor was described by using a novel single-cell PCR gene-expression analysis tool. We investigated 86 different genes mainly encoding cell surface markers, and proteins involved in immune regulation. Within the three human monocyte subsets, our descriptive findings show multimodal expression of key immune response genes, such as CD40, NF?B1, RELA, TLR4, TLR8 and TLR9. Furthermore, we discovered one subgroup of cells within the classical monocytes, which showed alterations of 22 genes e.g. IRF8, CD40, CSF1R, NF?B1, RELA and TNF. Additionally one subgroup within the intermediate and non-classical monocytes also displayed distinct gene signatures by altered expression of 8 and 6 genes, respectively. Hence the three monocyte subsets can be further subdivided according to activation status and differentiation, independently of the traditional classification based on cell surface markers. Demonstrating the use and the ability to discover cell heterogeneity within defined populations of human monocytes is of great importance, and can be useful in unravelling inter-cellular variation in leukocyte populations, identifying subpopulations involved in disease pathogenesis and help tailor new therapies. PMID:26650546

  4. Altered Monocyte Phenotype in HIV-1 Infection Tends to Normalize with Integrase-Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCausland, Marie R.; Juchnowski, Steven M.; Zidar, David A.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Andrade, Adriana; Sieg, Scott F.; Lederman, Michael M.; Funderburg, Nicholas T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Monocytes are increasingly implicated in the inflammatory consequences of HIV-1 disease, yet their phenotype following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is incompletely defined. Here, we define more completely monocyte phenotype both prior to ART initiation and during 48 weeks of ART. Methods Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained at baseline (prior to ART initiation) and at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment from 29 patients participating in ACTG clinical trial A5248, an open label study of raltegravir/emtricitibine/tenofovir administration. For comparison, cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained from 15 HIV-1 uninfected donors, each of whom had at least two cardiovascular risk factors. Thawed samples were stained for monocyte subset markers (CD14 and CD16), HLA-DR, CCR2, CX3CR1, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD38, CD36, CD13, and CD163 and examined using flow cytometry. Results In untreated HIV-1 infection there were perturbations in monocyte subset phenotypes, chiefly a higher frequency and density (mean fluorescence intensity–MFI) of HLA-DR (%-p = 0.004, MFI-p = .0005) and CD86 (%-p = 0.012, MFI-p = 0.005) expression and lower frequency of CCR2 (p = 0.0002) expression on all monocytes, lower CCR2 density on inflammatory monocytes (p = 0.045) when compared to the expression and density of these markers in controls’ monocytes. We also report lower expression of CX3CR1 (p = 0.014) on patrolling monocytes at baseline, compared to levels seen in controls. After ART, these perturbations tended to improve, with decreasing expression and density of HLA-DR and CD86, increasing CCR2 density on inflammatory monocytes, and increasing expression and density of CX3CR1 on patrolling monocytes. Conclusions In HIV-1 infected patients, ART appears to attenuate the high levels of activation (HLA-DR, CD86) and to increase expression of the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 on monocyte populations. Circulating monocyte phenotypes are altered in untreated infection and tend to normalize with ART; the role of these cells in the inflammatory environment of HIV-1 infection warrants further study. PMID:26430882

  5. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is another rare form of chronic leukemia. The cancer cells are large and have features of either T lymphocytes or another type of lymphocyte called natural killer (NK) cells. Most LGL leukemias are slow- ...

  6. Increased mitogenic response in lymphocytes from chronically centrifuged mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Otfried; Hunzinger, E.; Cogoli, Augusto; Bechler, B.; Lee, J.; Moore, J.; Duke, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects upon the mitogenic response of splenic lymphocytes when exposing mice to prolonged hypergravity conditions (3.5 G for 1 year) were studied. Cultures of splenic lymphocytes isolated from both centrifuged and control (1 G) animals were stimulated with Concanavalin A and the response measured using both morphological and biochemical means. Lymphocytes obtained from centrifuged mice exhibited much higher activation rates (as measured by the incorporation of H-3 thymidine) and larger cell aggregates consisting of more lymphoblasts and mitotic figures than those observed in non centrifuged control animals. Isolated splenic lymphocytes thus appear to have been conditioned by hypergravity state.

  7. Morphologic, flow cytometric, functional, and molecular analyses of S100B positive lymphocytes, unique cytotoxic lymphocytes containing S100B protein.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yukari; Gion, Yuka; Mukae, Yuriko; Hayashi, Atsushi; Sato, Hiaki; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the S100B? lymphocytes, which are unique human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) containing the S100B protein. It has recently been shown that S100B is released from various types of S100B? cells and exhibits varied cytokine-like activities. In this study, we precisely characterized the S100B? lymphocytes of healthy adults with respect to the proportion in the whole PBL, immunophenotypes, function, and their S100B mRNA expression and also evaluated their S100B-releasing activity upon stimulation. S100B? lymphocytes were detected in all individuals examined, and the proportion of S100B? lymphocytes in the whole PBL ranged from 0.42% to 16.15% (mean, 4.21%). In addition, two subtypes of S100B ? lymphocytes, a CTL subtype (CD3? CD8? CD16?) and a NK subtype (CD3? CD3? CD16?), were detected. The majority of the CTL subtype of S100B? lymphocytes expressed the ??-T-cell receptor. Surprisingly, S100B mRNA was detected not only in S100B? lymphocytes, but also in every S100B? lymphocytes, although the expression levels of S100B mRNA in S100B? lymphocytes were much lower than those of S100B? lymphocytes. The CTL subtype of S100B? lymphocytes exhibited blastic morphological changes, proliferated and released S100B upon stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The NK subtype of S100B? lymphocytes exhibited morphological NK activity when cocultivated with NK-sensitive target, K-562 cells. Thus, the CTL subtype of S100B? lymphocytes exhibit the biological characteristics of T cells, while the NK subtype of S100B? lymphocytes exhibit the characteristics of NK cells. These results suggest that S100B? lymphocytes are a particular subtype of cytotoxic lymphocytes that play a unique role in antitumor immunity. PMID:23130680

  8. From Monocytes to M1/M2 Macrophages: Phenotypical vs. Functional Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Italiani, Paola; Boraschi, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Studies on monocyte and macrophage biology and differentiation have revealed the pleiotropic activities of these cells. Macrophages are tissue sentinels that maintain tissue integrity by eliminating/repairing damaged cells and matrices. In this M2-like mode, they can also promote tumor growth. Conversely, M1-like macrophages are key effector cells for the elimination of pathogens, virally infected, and cancer cells. Macrophage differentiation from monocytes occurs in the tissue in concomitance with the acquisition of a functional phenotype that depends on microenvironmental signals, thereby accounting for the many and apparently opposed macrophage functions. Many questions arise. When monocytes differentiate into macrophages in a tissue (concomitantly adopting a specific functional program, M1 or M2), do they all die during the inflammatory reaction, or do some of them survive? Do those that survive become quiescent tissue macrophages, able to react as naïve cells to a new challenge? Or, do monocyte-derived tissue macrophages conserve a “memory” of their past inflammatory activation? This review will address some of these important questions under the general framework of the role of monocytes and macrophages in the initiation, development, resolution, and chronicization of inflammation. PMID:25368618

  9. Mechanical Forces in Endothelial Cells during Firm Adhesion and Early Transmigration of Human Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijun; Sniadecki, Nathan J; Chen, Christopher S

    2010-03-01

    Transmigration of leukocytes across the endothelial barrier is a tightly controlled process involving multiple steps, including rolling adhesion, firm adhesion, and then penetration of leukocytes through the endothelial monolayer. While the key molecular signals have been described in great detail, we are only just beginning to unveil the mechanical forces involved in this process. Here, using a microfabricated system that reports traction forces generated by cells, we describe forces generated by endothelial cells during monocyte firm adhesion and transmigration. Average traction force across the endothelial monolayer increased dramatically when monocytes firmly adhered and transmigrated. Interestingly, the endothelial cell that was in direct contact with the monocyte exhibited much larger traction forces relative to its neighbors, and the direction of these traction forces aligned centripetally with respect to the monocyte. The increase in traction force occurred in the local subcellular zone of monocyte adhesion, and dissipated rapidly with distance. To begin to characterize the basis for this mechanical effect, we show that beads coated with anti-ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 antibodies bound to monolayers could reproduce this effect. Taken together, this study provides a new approach to examining the role of cellular mechanics in regulating leukocyte transmigration through the endothelium. PMID:20862208

  10. A proteomic analysis of C-reactive protein stimulated THP-1 monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP) is a predictor of cardiovascular risk. It circulates as a pentameric protein in plasma. Recently, a potential dissociation mechanism from the disc-shaped pentameric CRP (pCRP) into single monomers (monomeric or mCRP) has been described. It has been shown that mCRP has strong pro-inflammatory effects on monocytes. To further define the role of mCRP in determining monocyte phenotype, the effects of CRP isoforms on THP-1 protein expression profiles were determined. The hypothesis to be tested was that mCRP induces specific changes in the protein expression profile of THP-1 cells that differ from that of pCRP. Methods Protein cell lysates from control and mCRP, pCRP or LPS-treated THP-1 cells were displayed using 2-dimensional SDS PAGE and compared. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and confirmed by Western blotting. Results mCRP significantly up-regulates ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, a member of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in THP-1 monocytes. Furthermore, HSP 70, alpha-actinin-4 (ACTN4) and alpha-enolase/enolase 1 were upregulated. The proteomic profile of LPS and pCRP treated monocytes differ significantly from that of mCRP. Conclusion The data obtained in this study support the hypothesis that isoform-specific effects of CRP may differentially regulate the phenotype of monocytes. PMID:21219634

  11. ZFP36L1 promotes monocyte/macrophage differentiation by repressing CDK6

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Tai; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Yin, Xiao-Lin; Ning, Hong-Mei; Shen, Chao; Su, Rui; Li, Feng; Song, Li; Ma, Yan-Ni; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Hua-Lu; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Jun-Wu

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs)-mediated post-transcriptional control has been implicated in influencing various aspects of RNA metabolism and playing important roles in mammalian development and pathological diseases. However, the functions of specific RBPs and the molecular mechanisms through which they act in monocyte/macrophage differentiation remain to be determined. In this study, through bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation, we identify that ZFP36L1, a member of ZFP36 zinc finger protein family, exhibits significant decrease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients compared with normal controls and remarkable time-course increase during monocyte/macrophage differentiation of PMA-induced THP-1 and HL-60 cells as well as induction culture of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Lentivirus-mediated gain and loss of function assays demonstrate that ZFP36L1 acts as a positive regulator to participate in monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Mechanistic investigation further reveals that ZFP36L1 binds to the CDK6 mRNA 3?untranslated region bearing adenine-uridine rich elements and negatively regulates the expression of CDK6 which is subsequently demonstrated to impede the in vitro monocyte/macrophage differentiation of CD34+ HSPCs. Collectively, our work unravels a ZFP36L1-mediated regulatory circuit through repressing CDK6 expression during monocyte/macrophage differentiation, which may also provide a therapeutic target for AML therapy. PMID:26542173

  12. Decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes from individuals presenting Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Pinke, Karen Henriette; Freitas, Patrícia; Viera, Narciso Almeida; Honório, Heitor Marques; Porto, Vinicius Carvalho; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2016-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis (DS) is the most frequent lesion among denture wearers, especially the elderly. DS is strongly associated with Candida albicans, as well as local and systemic factors, such as impaired immune response. Monocytes are important in the protective immune response against the fungus by the production of cytokines that recruit and activate leukocytes. There are functional changes in these cells with age, and individual alterations involving monocyte response may predispose the host to developing infections by Candida spp. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the production of TNF-?, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-1?, MCP-1 and IL-10 by monocytes from elderly denture wearers with/without DS and elderly or young non-denture wearers. We detected that monocytes from elderly denture wearers with Candida-related denture stomatitis produced lower levels of CXCL-8, IL-6 and MCP-1. This imbalance in cytokine levels was observed in spontaneous or LPS-stimulated production. Therefore, our data suggested that inherent aspects of the host, such as changes in cytokine production by monocytes, might be associated with the development and the persistence of DS irrespective of aging. PMID:26587801

  13. Non-Classical monocytes display inflammatory features: Validation in Sepsis and Systemic Lupus Erythematous

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Ratnadeep; Kanti Barman, Pijus; Kumar Thatoi, Pravat; Tripathy, Rina; Kumar Das, Bidyut; Ravindran, Balachandran

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of monocytes in pathogenesis of infectious and other inflammatory disorders, delineating functional and phenotypic characterization of monocyte subsets has emerged as a critical requirement. Although human monocytes have been subdivided into three different populations based on surface expression of CD14 and CD16, published reports suffer from contradictions with respect to subset phenotypes and function. This has been attributed to discrepancies in reliable gating strategies for flow cytometric characterization and purification protocols contributing to significant changes in receptor expression. By using a combination of multicolour flow cytometry and a high-dimensional automated clustering algorithm to confirm robustness of gating strategy and analysis of ex-vivo activation of whole blood with LPS we demonstrate the following: a. ‘Classical’ monocytes are phagocytic with no inflammatory attributes, b. ‘Non-classical’ subtype display ‘inflammatory’ characteristics on activation and display properties for antigen presentation and c. ‘Intermediate’ subtype that constitutes a very small percentage in circulation (under physiological conditions) appear to be transitional monocytes that display both phagocytic and inflammatory function. Analysis of blood from patients with Sepsis, a pathogen driven acute inflammatory disease and Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE), a chronic inflammatory disorder validated the broad conclusions drawn in the study. PMID:26358827

  14. ZFP36L1 promotes monocyte/macrophage differentiation by repressing CDK6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Tai; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Yin, Xiao-Lin; Ning, Hong-Mei; Shen, Chao; Su, Rui; Li, Feng; Song, Li; Ma, Yan-Ni; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Hua-Lu; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Jun-Wu

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs)-mediated post-transcriptional control has been implicated in influencing various aspects of RNA metabolism and playing important roles in mammalian development and pathological diseases. However, the functions of specific RBPs and the molecular mechanisms through which they act in monocyte/macrophage differentiation remain to be determined. In this study, through bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation, we identify that ZFP36L1, a member of ZFP36 zinc finger protein family, exhibits significant decrease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients compared with normal controls and remarkable time-course increase during monocyte/macrophage differentiation of PMA-induced THP-1 and HL-60 cells as well as induction culture of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Lentivirus-mediated gain and loss of function assays demonstrate that ZFP36L1 acts as a positive regulator to participate in monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Mechanistic investigation further reveals that ZFP36L1 binds to the CDK6 mRNA 3'untranslated region bearing adenine-uridine rich elements and negatively regulates the expression of CDK6 which is subsequently demonstrated to impede the in vitro monocyte/macrophage differentiation of CD34(+) HSPCs. Collectively, our work unravels a ZFP36L1-mediated regulatory circuit through repressing CDK6 expression during monocyte/macrophage differentiation, which may also provide a therapeutic target for AML therapy. PMID:26542173

  15. Nucleotides released from palmitate-challenged muscle cells through pannexin-3 attract monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Li, Yujin E; Fink, Lisbeth N; Brozinick, Joseph T; Nikolayev, Alexander; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira

    2014-11-01

    Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in metabolically relevant tissues contributes to insulin resistance. We recently reported monocyte/macrophage infiltration in mouse and human skeletal muscles. However, the molecular triggers of this infiltration are unknown, and the role of muscle cells in this context is poorly understood. Animal studies are not amenable to the specific investigation of this vectorial cellular communication. Using cell cultures, we investigated the crosstalk between myotubes and monocytes exposed to physiological levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Media from L6 myotubes treated with palmitate-but not palmitoleate-induced THP1 monocyte migration across transwells. Palmitate activated the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway in myotubes and elevated cytokine expression, but the monocyte chemoattracting agent was not a polypeptide. Instead, nucleotide degradation eliminated the chemoattracting properties of the myotube-conditioned media. Moreover, palmitate-induced expression and activity of pannexin-3 channels in myotubes were mediated by TLR4-NF-?B, and TLR4-NF-?B inhibition or pannexin-3 knockdown prevented monocyte chemoattraction. In mice, the expression of pannexin channels increased in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in response to high-fat feeding. These findings identify pannexins as new targets of saturated fatty acid-induced inflammation in myotubes, and point to nucleotides as possible mediators of immune cell chemoattraction toward muscle in the context of obesity. PMID:24917574

  16. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is an essential intermediate of active DNA demethylation processes in primary human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytosine methylation is a frequent epigenetic modification restricting the activity of gene regulatory elements. Whereas DNA methylation patterns are generally inherited during replication, both embryonic and somatic differentiation processes require the removal of cytosine methylation at specific gene loci to activate lineage-restricted elements. However, the exact mechanisms facilitating the erasure of DNA methylation remain unclear in many cases. Results We previously established human post-proliferative monocytes as a model to study active DNA demethylation. We now show, for several previously identified genomic sites, that the loss of DNA methylation during the differentiation of primary, post-proliferative human monocytes into dendritic cells is preceded by the local appearance of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Monocytes were found to express the methylcytosine dioxygenase Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) 2, which is frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of this enzyme in primary monocytes prevented active DNA demethylation, suggesting that TET2 is essential for the proper execution of this process in human monocytes. Conclusions The work described here provides definite evidence that TET2-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine initiates targeted, active DNA demethylation in a mature postmitotic myeloid cell type. PMID:23705593

  17. Intestinal macrophages arising from CCR2+ monocytes control pathogen infection by activating innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang-Uk; Kuffa, Peter; Kitamoto, Sho; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Rousseau, Jenna; Kim, Yun-Gi; Núñez, Gabriel; Kamada, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes play a crucial role in antimicrobial host defence, but the mechanisms by which they protect the host during intestinal infection remains poorly understood. Here we show that depletion of CCR2+ monocytes results in impaired clearance of the intestinal pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. After infection, the de novo recruited CCR2+ monocytes give rise to CD11c+CD11b+F4/80+CD103? intestinal macrophages (MPs) within the lamina propria. Unlike resident intestinal MPs, de novo differentiated MPs are phenotypically pro-inflammatory and produce robust amounts of IL-1? (interleukin-1?) through the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome. Intestinal MPs from infected mice elicit the activation of ROR?t+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in an IL-1?-dependent manner. Deletion of IL-1? in blood monocytes blunts the production of IL-22 by ILC3 and increases the susceptibility to infection. Collectively, these studies highlight a critical role of de novo differentiated monocyte-derived intestinal MPs in ILC3-mediated host defence against intestinal infection. PMID:26269452

  18. In vivo studies fail to reveal a role for IL-4 or STAT6 signaling in Th2 lymphocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    van Panhuys, Nicholas; Tang, Shiau-Choot; Prout, Melanie; Camberis, Mali; Scarlett, Debbie; Roberts, Joanna; Hu-Li, Jane; Paul, William E.; Le Gros, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) is viewed as the hallmark of a Th2 lymphocyte, whereas the subsequent action of IL-4 and IL-13, mediated through the STAT6 signaling pathway, is seen as a prerequisite for the full development of Th2 immune responses to parasites and allergens. G4 mice, whose IL-4 gene locus contains the fluorescent reporter eGFP, were used to quantify the number of Th2 cells that develop during Nippostrongylus brasiliensis- or allergen-induced immune responses under conditions where IL-4 or STAT6 was absent. Here, we show that deletion of IL-4 or STAT6 had little impact on the number or timing of appearance of IL-4-producing Th2 cells. These data indicate that in vivo differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells to Th2 status often occurs independently of IL-4 and STAT6 and that recently described pathways of Th2 cell differentiation may explain how allergens and parasites selectively induce Th2-mediated immunity. PMID:18719110

  19. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and the Extent of Coronary Artery Disease: Results From a Large Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Di Giovine, Gabriella; Marino, Paolo; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammatory biomarker, may be of predictive and prognostic value for cardiovascular (CV) events. We evaluated the relationship of NLR with the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in consecutive patients undergoing elective or urgent coronary angiography. Our population (n = 3738 patients) was divided into NLR quartiles. Higher NLR was associated with aging and established CV risk factors, previous percutaneous coronary revascularization, acute presentation, and more complex pharmacological therapy. The NLR was related to platelet count, white blood cell count, creatinine, glycemia, uric acid, and C-reactive protein (all P = .001) levels but inversely related to hemoglobin (P < .001), total cholesterol (P = .005), and triglycerides (P < .001) levels. The NLR was associated with multivessel disease (P < .001), anterior descending, right coronary arteries (P < .001) or circumflex branch lesions (P = .01), percentage of stenosis (P < .001), coronary calcification (P < .001), and intracoronary thrombus (P < .001) but inversely with in-stent restenosis (P < .001) and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow (P = .04). The NLR was directly related to the prevalence of CAD (P = .001) and severe CAD (P < .001). In patients undergoing coronary angiography, the NLR is independently associated with the prevalence and severity of CAD. PMID:25818102

  20. Sensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to small targeted therapeutic molecules: An in vitro comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sylvan, Sandra Eketorp; Skribek, Henriette; Norin, Stefan; Muhari, Orsolya; Österborg, Anders; Szekely, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    New drugs targeting important cellular signaling pathways are currently being developed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is therefore of interest to analyze their in vitro killing capacity in manufacturer-independent, comparative experiments. We here report on the sensitivity of CLL cells to a panel of emerging targeted therapeutics using high-throughput screening based on an automated fluorescence digital scanning system. Fresh CLL cells from 42 patients with indolent or progressive CLL were cultured for 72 hours on microtiter plates in a unique primary cell culture medium. Antitumor effects of 31 small therapeutic molecules (and, as controls, 29 cytostatic agents) at equimolar concentration were compared in a fluorescence survival assay. In vitro sensitivity to each drug exhibited considerable interpatient variability. The highest mean direct killing was observed for one survivin inhibitor (YM-155), two bcl-2 inhibitors (ABT-199, ABT-737), and one selective CDK inhibitor (dinaciclib). Their killing capacity was, in contrast to most cytostatic agents, similarly high in refractory versus untreated CLL patients and was significantly higher on cells with the 17p deletion/TP53 mutation than on cells with other cytogenetic abnormalities (p = 0.02). Sensitivity of bone marrow and lymph node cells was highly correlated with that of blood cells. Even though direct killing may not be the only therapeutic effector function in vivo, results from this head-to-head comparison may help to identify drugs of particular interest for intensified clinical development. PMID:26325331

  1. Ankylosing spondylitis, HLA-B27, and Klebsiella: a study of lymphocyte reactivity of anti-Klebsiella sera.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, B; Milton, J D; Woodrow, J C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty three anti-Klebsiella antisera were tested for their cytotoxic activity and four for their binding capacity for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis (AS+B27+) and from B27 positive (AS-B27+) and B27 negative (AS-B27-) healthy individuals. None of the antisera showed specific activity against PBL from any particular group. The antisera tested included two anti-Klebsiella K43 sera provided by an Australian group, who have reported them to be specifically cytotoxic for AS+B27+ PBL, four antisera raised against a Klebsiella K43 strain provided by this group, and an antiserum from another group, who have reported it as having increased binding capacity for AS+B27+ and AS-B27+ PBL compared with AS-B27- PBL. The results of other workers who have attempted to reproduce the results of either group are reviewed and the possible reasons for the repeated failure to confirm the reported findings are discussed. PMID:3485408

  2. Association of Small Dense LDL Serum Levels and Circulating Monocyte Subsets in Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Kastl, Stefan P.; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Lenz, Max; Hofbauer, Sebastian L.; Wonnerth, Anna; Koller, Lorenz; Katsaros, Katharina M.; Pongratz, Thomas; Goliasch, Georg; Niessner, Alexander; Gaspar, Ludovit; Huber, Kurt; Maurer, Gerald; Dostal, Elisabeth; Wojta, Johann; Oravec, Stanislav; Speidl, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three distinct subtypes, namely in classical monocytes (CM; CD14++CD16-), intermediate monocytes (IM; CD14++CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (NCM; CD14+CD16++). Low density lipoprotein particles are heterogeneous in size and density, with small, dense LDL (sdLDL) crucially implicated in atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine whether monocyte subsets are associated with sdLDL serum levels. Methods We included 90 patients with angiographically documented stable coronary artery disease and determined monocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. sdLDL was measured by an electrophoresis method on polyacrylamide gel. Results Patients with sdLDL levels in the highest tertile (sdLDL?4mg/dL;T3) showed the highest levels of pro-inflammatory NCM (15.2±7% vs. 11.4±6% and 10.9±4%, respectively; p<0.01) when compared with patients in the middle (sdLDL=2-3mg/dL;T2) and lowest tertile (sdLDL=0-1mg/dL;T1). Furthermore, patients in the highest sdLDL tertile showed lower CM levels than patients in the middle and lowest tertile (79.2±8% vs. 83.9±7% and 82.7±5%; p<0.01 for T3 vs. T2+T1). Levels of IM were not related to sdLDL levels (5.6±4% vs. 4.6±3% vs. 6.4±3% for T3, T2 and T1, respectively). In contrast to monocyte subset distribution, levels of circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were not associated with sdLDL levels. Conclusion The atherogenic lipoprotein fraction sdLDL is associated with an increase of NCM and a decrease of CM. This could be a new link between lipid metabolism dysregulation, innate immunity and atherosclerosis. PMID:25849089

  3. In vitro reactivity of lymphocytes obtained from uraemic patients maintained by heamodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sengar, D P; Rashid, A; Harris, J E

    1975-08-01

    Lymphocytes obtained from uraemic patients maintained on intermittent haemodialysis had a normal ability to respond to and stimulate allogeneic lymphocytes obtained from normal subjects in the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) reaction. The response of these uraemic lymphocytes to PHA and pokeweed mitogen (PWN) was also normal. Uraemic plasma from eight out of twenty-six patients studied, however, possessed blocking factor activity which suppressed the MLC reactivity of normal random donors and also the mitogenic response of allogeneic lymphocytes but not of autologous uraemic lymphocytes. The blocking factor activity was attributed to a non-dialysable factor present in the plasma of the patients investigated. PMID:126831

  4. Low lymphocyte interferon-gamma production and variable proliferative response in anorexia nervosa patients.

    PubMed

    Polack, E; Nahmod, V E; Emeric-Sauval, E; Bello, M; Costas, M; Finkielman, S; Arzt, E

    1993-11-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in 14 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) was significantly lower than in 14 age-matched healthy controls. Follow-up samples in four patients displayed low levels, except in two when they recovered the IFN-gamma production as the hormonal cycles were restored. A large interindividual variation for the lymphocyte proliferative response was observed in 30 AN patients. DNA synthesis of PBMC was normal in 8 patients (27%), significantly increased in 6 (20%) (P < 0.001), and significantly decreased in 16 (53%) (P < 0.001). IFN-gamma inhibition was reversed by culturing a control lymphocyte population with monocytes from patients with AN. This was not observed in cultures of control monocytes and AN lymphocytes. IL-2 receptor (TAC subunit) was assessed and no difference was found in the number of TAC-positive cells between patients and controls. These results point out impaired production of the immunomodulator cytokine IFN-gamma as a major functional defect of AN peripheral lymphocytes. PMID:8288728

  5. Deficiency of immunity to Mycobacterium avium that can be restored by allogeneic lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Schot, J D; Elferink, D; Hooijkaas, H; Neijens, H J; Schuurman, R K

    1987-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl developed a disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection despite treatment with eight antimycobacterial drugs. She had no pre-existent general humoral or cellular immunodeficiency. In the course of the disease B lymphocyte areas in the lymphoid tissues were replaced by histiocytes and an IgM and IgA deficiency evolved. The patient still made antibodies to concomitant micro-organisms and to transfused blood cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) had normal responses to mitogens and various antigens in vitro. However, she lacked any response to mycobacterial antigens, in vivo and in vitro. The defect appeared not to be dependent on immunosuppression by lymphocytes or monocytes or on deficient antigen presentation by monocytes. because a genetic origin could not be substantiated, acquired immunological paralysis for mycobacterial antigens was the most likely explanation. Addition of irradiated PBMC from her HLA-A, -B, -C and -DR phenotypically identical father, transferred a response to mycobacterial antigens of the patient's PBMC in vitro. We concluded that the disseminated M. avium infection was accompanied by a selective deficiency of the lymphocyte response to mycobacterial antigens which could be restored by allogeneic antigen responsive lymphocytes. PMID:3652515

  6. Correlations between Lymphocytes, Mid-Cell Fractions and Granulocytes with Human Blood Characteristics Using Low Power He-Ne Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssein, Hend A. A.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ramli, R. M.; Ismail, N. E.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Y.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the subpopulations of human blood parameters including lymphocytes, the mid-cell fractions (eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes), and granulocytes were determined by electronic sizing in the Health Centre of Universiti Sains Malaysia. These parameters have been correlated with human blood characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, and blood types; before and after irradiation with 0.95 mW He-Ne laser (? = 632.8 nm). The correlations were obtained by finding patterns, paired non-parametric tests, and an independent non-parametric tests using the SPSS version 11.5, centroid and peak positions, and flux variations. The findings show that the centroid and peak positions, flux peak and total flux, were very much correlated and can become a significant indicator for blood analyses. Furthermore, the encircled flux analysis demonstrated a good future prospect in blood research, thus leading the way as a vibrant diagnosis tool to clarify diseases associated with blood.

  7. Lymphocyte Surface Markers and Serum Immunoglobulins in Persons with Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Hann, Hie-Won L.

    1979-01-01

    Distributions of the serum immunoglobulins (IgM), of T and B lymphocytes, and subpopulations of B lymphocytes were studied in children and institutionalized adults with Down's syndrome and appropriate mentally retarded controls. (Author)

  8. Immunosuppressive monocytes: possible homeostatic mechanism to restrain chronic intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kurmaeva, Elvira; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Goodman, Wendy; Omenetti, Sara; Merendino, Amber; Berney, Seth; Pizarro, Theresa; Ostanin, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic colitis is accompanied by extensive myelopoiesis and accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in spleens and secondary lymphoid tissues. Although cells with similar phenotype have been described in cancer, chronic infection, or autoimmunity, where they were associated with suppression of T cell responses, little is known regarding how these cells affect CD4 T cell responses in the context of chronic intestinal inflammation. Therefore, we undertook this study to characterize the interplay between colitis-induced myeloid cells and CD4 T cell. Within the CD11b+Gr-1+ population, only monocytes (Ly6GnegLy6Chigh) but not other myeloid cell subsets suppressed proliferation and production of cytokines by CD4 T cells. Suppression was mediated by cell-contact, NO and partially by IFN-? and PGs. Interestingly, Ly6Chigh MDCs, isolated from colitic colons, showed up-regulation of iNOS and arginase-1 and were more potent suppressors than those isolated from spleen. On a single-cell level, MDCs inhibited Th1 responses but enhanced generation of foxp3+ T cells. MDCs, cocultured with activated/Teffs, isolated from inflamed colons under hypoxic (1% O2) conditions typical for the inflamed intestine, suppressed proliferation but not their production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Taken together, expansion of monocytes and MDCs and activation of their suppressive properties may represent a homeostatic mechanism aimed at restraining excessive T cell activation during chronic inflammatory settings. The contribution of immunosuppressive monocytes/MDCs to chronic colitis and their role in shaping T cell responses in vivo require further investigation. PMID:24696357

  9. Differential effects of chronic monocyte depletion on macrophage populations

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, A.; Chang, N.C.; Strausbauch, P.H.; Morahan, P.S.

    1983-09-01

    The administration of the bone-seeking isotope, /sup 89/Sr, to mice results in severe monocytopenia without any apparent effect on the numbers of resident peritoneal macrophages (M luminal diameter). An explanation for this dichotomy was sought by determining whether the residual blood monocytes were still an effective source of M luminal diameter after /sup 89/Sr treatment. Stem cell enumeration showed that a 90% fall in bone marrow macrophage colony-forming cells after /sup 89/Sr was accompanied by a 10-fold rise in splenic M-CFC. Splenectomy performed before /sup 89/Sr treatment, however, resulted in little additional monocytopenia and had no affect on the numbers of resident peritoneal M luminal diameter even when sampling was extended to 31 days, an interval beyond the accepted half-time for peritoneal M luminal diameter. Intraperitoneal injections of thioglycollate or Corynebacterium parvum elicited few or no monocyte-M luminal diameter during respective intervals of 4 and 7 days. Elicitation with thioglycollate was attempted in tritiated thymidine-labeled mice 26 days after /sup 89/Sr. Four days later only a 2-fold increase in labeled peritoneal M luminal diameter was found in the /sup 89/Sr-treated mice compared with a 150-fold increase in the controls. Studies of the ectoenzymes 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and leucine aminopeptidase in such elicitation experiments suggested that the observed changes in activities reflected the direct stimulation of resident M luminal diameter rather than monocyte immigration. Overall, the results indicate that treatment with /sup 89/Sr distinguishes two large populations of M luminal diameter on the basis of their dependence on bone marrow. M luminal diameter of inflammation reflect the monocytopenia and are severely and rapidly depleted by such treatment.

  10. Association between T lymphocyte sub-sets apoptosis and peripheral blood mononuclear cells oxidative stress in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dilip; Aggarwal, Ashish; Bhatnagar, Archana; Kiran, Ravi; Wanchu, Ajay

    2011-05-01

    Increased oxidative stress and lymphocyte apoptosis are a hallmark of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the association between oxidative stress and T lymphocytes apoptosis has still to be elucidated in SLE. In order to appraise the interaction between oxidative stress and T lymphocyte apoptosis with the severity of disease, oxidative stress profile and T lymphocytes apoptosis were studied. Increased levels of ROS, MDA and CD4(+) lymphocyte apoptosis were positively associated with disease activity while decreased levels of GSH and percentage expression of CD4(+) lymphocyte were negatively associated with disease activity. The decrease in intracellular levels of GSH was negatively associated with T lymphocyte, CD4(+) lymphocyte, CD8(+) lymphocyte apoptosis and intracellular caspase-3 expression. The present study suggests that increased T lymphocyte sub-sets apoptosis may be mediated by decreased intracellular glutathione concentration and severity of disease might be enhanced together by over-production of ROS in SLE. PMID:21284579

  11. CD14+ blood monocytes can differentiate into functionally mature CD83+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L J; Tedder, T F

    1996-01-01

    Dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells that initiate primary immune responses. Although dendritic cells derive from bone marrow stem cells, the intermediate stages in their development remain unknown. In this study, plastic-adherent blood monocytes (CD14+, CD1a-) cultured for 7 days with granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin 4, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were shown to differentiate into CD1a+ CD83+ dendritic cells. These cells displayed all phenotypic and morphologic characteristics of mature dendritic cells and were the most potent stimulatory cells in allogeneic mixed leukocyte reactions. The identification of specific culture conditions that generate large numbers of dendritic cells from purified monocytes uncovers an important step in dendritic cell maturation that will allow the further characterization of their role in autoimmune diseases, graft rejection, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8637918

  12. The Immunologically Active Oligosaccharides Isolated from Wheatgrass Modulate Monocytes via Toll-like Receptor-2 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Che; Lin, Chih-Ru; Tsai, Hsien-Yu; Chen, Chia-Jung; Li, Wen-Tai; Yu, Hui-Ming; Ke, Yi-Yu; Hsieh, Wei-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Chung-Yi; Chen, Shui-Tein; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2013-01-01

    Wheatgrass is one of the most widely used health foods, but its functional components and mechanisms remain unexplored. Herein, wheatgrass-derived oligosaccharides (WG-PS3) were isolated and found to induce CD69 and Th1 cytokine expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In particular, WG-PS3 directly activated the purified monocytes by inducing the expression of CD69, CD80, CD86, IL-12, and TNF-? but affected NK and T cells only in the presence of monocytes. After further purification and structural analysis, maltoheptaose was identified from WG-PS3 as an immunomodulator. Maltoheptaose activated monocytes via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) signaling, as discovered by pretreatment of blocking antibodies against Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and also determined by click chemistry. This study is the first to reveal the immunostimulatory component of wheatgrass with well defined molecular structures and mechanisms. PMID:23629653

  13. The immunologically active oligosaccharides isolated from wheatgrass modulate monocytes via Toll-like receptor-2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Che; Lin, Chih-Ru; Tsai, Hsien-Yu; Chen, Chia-Jung; Li, Wen-Tai; Yu, Hui-Ming; Ke, Yi-Yu; Hsieh, Wei-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Ying-Ta; Wu, Chung-Yi; Chen, Shui-Tein; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2013-06-14

    Wheatgrass is one of the most widely used health foods, but its functional components and mechanisms remain unexplored. Herein, wheatgrass-derived oligosaccharides (WG-PS3) were isolated and found to induce CD69 and Th1 cytokine expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In particular, WG-PS3 directly activated the purified monocytes by inducing the expression of CD69, CD80, CD86, IL-12, and TNF-? but affected NK and T cells only in the presence of monocytes. After further purification and structural analysis, maltoheptaose was identified from WG-PS3 as an immunomodulator. Maltoheptaose activated monocytes via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) signaling, as discovered by pretreatment of blocking antibodies against Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and also determined by click chemistry. This study is the first to reveal the immunostimulatory component of wheatgrass with well defined molecular structures and mechanisms. PMID:23629653

  14. Detection of circulating lipopolysaccharide-bound monocytes in children with gram-negative sepsis.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, S; Nakatani, K; Tsujimoto, H; Kawamura, Y; Sekine, I

    2000-11-01

    The possibility that gram-negative sepsis can be diagnosed by detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bound on the surface of monocytes in the circulation of patients with gram-negative sepsis was investigated. Peripheral monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometer and an anti-LPS monoclonal antibody in 3 groups: children with gram-negative sepsis, children with gram-positive sepsis, and healthy children. LPS-bound monocytes were found in all patients with gram-negative sepsis but not in children with gram-positive sepsis or in healthy children. Therefore, the flow cytometry method developed for this study may be a novel method for diagnosing gram-negative sepsis. PMID:11015235

  15. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. PMID:20003307

  16. Shear flow affects selective monocyte recruitment into MCP-1-loaded scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Anthal I P M; Ballotta, Virginia; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2014-01-01

    Novel cardiovascular replacements are being developed by using degradable synthetic scaffolds, which function as a temporary guide to induce neotissue formation directly in situ. Priming of such scaffolds with fast-releasing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was shown to improve the formation of functional neoarteries in rats. However, the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of a burst-release of MCP-1 from a synthetic scaffold on the local recruitment of circulating leucocytes under haemodynamic conditions. Herein, we hypothesized that MCP-1 initiates a desired healing cascade by recruiting favourable monocyte subpopulations into the implanted scaffold. Electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds were loaded with fibrin gel containing various doses of MCP-1 and exposed to a suspension of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in static or dynamic conditions. In standard migration assay, a dose-dependent migration of specific CD14+ monocyte subsets was observed, as measured by flow cytometry. In conditions of pulsatile flow, on the other hand, a marked increase in immediate monocyte recruitment was observed, but without evident selectivity in monocyte subsets. This suggests that the selectivity was dependent on the release kinetics of the MCP-1, as it was overruled by the effect of shear stress after the initial burst-release. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that local recruitment of specific MCP-1-responsive monocytes is not the fundamental principle behind the improved neotissue formation observed in long-term in vivo studies, and mobilization of MCP-1-responsive cells from the bone marrow into the bloodstream is suggested to play a predominant role in vivo. PMID:25103256

  17. Demonstration of increased anti-mycobacterial activity in peripheral blood monocytes after BCG vaccination in British school children.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S H; Walker, L; Poole, J; Aber, V R; Walker, K B; Mitchison, D A; Lowrie, D B

    1988-01-01

    A blood sample was taken from children aged 13-15 years immediately before BCG vaccination and 8 weeks after. The children were tuberculin skin-test negative to PPD-S before vaccination and positive after. Mononuclear cells were separated from the blood, infected with Mycobacterium microti at a low bacterium/monocyte ratio and allowed to form monolayers in microtitre wells. The infected monolayers were rinsed daily and the change in number of live bacteria in monolayers and supernatants was monitored by colony counts on agar. The cells were bacteriostatic during the first day, thereafter growth accelerated in pre-vaccination monolayers. When monolayers received pulsed exposures to autologous lymphocytes that had been incubated with whole dead tubercle bacilli the growth rates of M. microti were increased. However, growth rates in lymphocyte-pulsed monolayers were significantly lower after vaccination than before. It is proposed that this difference reflects the protective effect of vaccination. PMID:3219800

  18. Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-16

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  19. Infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages with Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Jeffrey G; Heinzen, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that has a tropism for cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Following internalization, C. burnetii remains in a phagosome that ultimately matures into a vacuole with lysosomal characteristics that supports pathogen replication. Most in vitro investigations of Coxiella - macrophage interactions have employed continuous cell lines. Although these studies have been informative, genetic alterations of immortalized cells may result in attenuated biological responses to infection relative to primary cells. Consequently, primary macrophages are preferred as in vitro model systems. Here, we describe procedures for propagation and isolation of C. burnetii from cell culture and the use of these preparations to infect primary macrophages derived from human peripheral blood monocytes. Both virulent phase I and avirulent phase II C. burnetii productively infect human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and replicate with approximately the same kinetics, thereby providing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model system to study the infectious process of this pathogen. PMID:18287757

  20. Prognostic value of monocyte count in patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (from the EVEREST Trial).

    PubMed

    Greene, Stephen J; Harinstein, Matthew E; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Suba?ius, Haris; Konstam, Marvin A; Zannad, Faiez; Maggioni, Aldo P; Swedberg, Karl; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2012-12-01

    Monocytes play a critical role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), but few studies have evaluated the prognostic implications of an increased monocyte count in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF). The Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) examined the effects of tolvaptan in patients with worsening HF and EF ?40%. This post hoc analysis evaluated the primary end points of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality or HF hospitalization in 3,717 patients. At baseline, 265 (7.1%) had an increased monocyte count defined by ?800/?l. Patients with increased monocyte count tended to have an increased EF and were less likely to have a history of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, or coronary revascularization but were more likely to have higher HF functional class and to be taking HF therapies such as diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, and digoxin (p <0.05 for all comparisons). At median follow-up of 9.9 months, increased monocyte count was predictive of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.003 to 1.60, p = 0.047) but was not associated with cardiovascular mortality or HF hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.30, p = 0.55). Similar results were seen when monocyte count was analyzed as a continuous variable. However, after adjustment for baseline clinical risk factors, monocyte count was not predictive of either primary end point. In conclusion, increased monocyte count occurs in a minority of patients hospitalized with HF and is associated with poor postdischarge prognosis. However, it does not contribute prognostic value above other more traditional risk factors. PMID:22917555

  1. Tumor-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induces intratumoral infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophage subpopulation in transplanted rat tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, S.; Takeya, M.; Nishi, T.; Kuratsu, J.; Yoshimura, T.; Ushio, Y.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry using anti-rat macrophage monoclonal antibodies RM-1, ED1, ED2, ED3, TRPM-3, and Ki-M2R, we studied transplanted rat tumors of 9L (rat gliosarcoma), Ad-2 (rat mammary carcinoma), and MT-P (rat malignant fibrous histiocytoma) cell lines to examine the distribution pattern of macrophages within and around the tumors. Most tumor-associated macrophages expressed RM-1, ED1, and Ia antigens, indicating activated macrophages. Based on differences in their immunophenotypical expression, these macrophages were distinguished into two major subpopulations. One expressed TRPM-3 and/or ED3, and the other was positive for ED2 and Ki-M2R. The former was considered to be monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas the latter showed the immunophenotype of tissue-fixed, resident macrophages. Infiltration and distribution patterns in the two macrophage subpopulations differed in the three different tumors. Monocyte-derived, activated macrophages infiltrated into 9L- and Ad-2-transplanted tumors, which markedly produced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Additionally, numerous ED2- and Ki-M2R-positive macrophages were observed within the Ad-2-transplanted tumors, and some of them expressed TRPM-3. However, there were few macrophages in the MT-P-transplanted tumors that showed no MCP-1 production. In transplanted tumors of four MT-P/MCP-1 cell lines established by transfecting a rat MCP-1 gene expression vector (pCEP4/MCP-1) into the MT-P cell line, different levels of MCP-1 production were detected, which correlated well with the numbers of intratumorally infiltrated TRPM-3-positive macrophages. In contrast, ED2- and Ki-M2R-positive macrophages were not detected in any MT-P/MCP-1-transplanted tumors. MT-P/MCP-1-transplanted tumors exhibited lower growth rate than parental MT-P-transplanted tumors. These results indicate that tumor-derived MCP-1 induces intratumoral infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages, but not macrophages with the immunophenotype of tissue-fixed, resident type. The former population of macrophages seems to have a suppressive effect on the growth of tumors. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7943176

  2. The Impact of ATRA on Shaping Human Myeloid Cell Responses to Epithelial Cell-Derived Stimuli and on T-Lymphocyte Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Gogolak, Péter; Blottière, Hervé M.; Rajnavölgyi, Éva

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A plays an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but its interplay with chemokines has not been explored so far. Using an in vitro model system we studied the effects of human colonic epithelial cells (Caco2, HT-29, and HCT116) derived inflammatory stimuli on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Unstimulated Caco2 and HT-29 cells secreted CCL19, CCL21, and CCL22 chemokines, which could attract dendritic cells and macrophages and induced CCR7 receptor up-regulation by retinoic-acid resulting in dendritic cell migration. The chemokines Mk, CXCL16, and CXCL7 were secreted by all the 3 cell lines tested, and upon stimulation by IL-1? or TNF-? this effect was inhibited by ATRA but had no impact on CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL20 secretion in response to IL-1?. In the presence of ATRA the supernatants of these cells induced CD103 expression on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and when conditioned by ATRA and cocultured with CD4+ T-lymphocytes they reduced the proportion of Th17 T-cells. However, in the macrophage-T-cell cocultures the number of these effector T-cells was increased. Thus cytokine-activated colonic epithelial cells trigger the secretion of distinct combinations of chemokines depending on the proinflammatory stimulus and are controlled by retinoic acid, which also governs dendritic cell and macrophage responses. PMID:25944986

  3. The impact of ATRA on shaping human myeloid cell responses to epithelial cell-derived stimuli and on T-lymphocyte polarization.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arunima; Gogolak, Péter; Blottière, Hervé M; Rajnavölgyi, Éva

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A plays an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but its interplay with chemokines has not been explored so far. Using an in vitro model system we studied the effects of human colonic epithelial cells (Caco2, HT-29, and HCT116) derived inflammatory stimuli on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Unstimulated Caco2 and HT-29 cells secreted CCL19, CCL21, and CCL22 chemokines, which could attract dendritic cells and macrophages and induced CCR7 receptor up-regulation by retinoic-acid resulting in dendritic cell migration. The chemokines Mk, CXCL16, and CXCL7 were secreted by all the 3 cell lines tested, and upon stimulation by IL-1? or TNF-? this effect was inhibited by ATRA but had no impact on CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL20 secretion in response to IL-1?. In the presence of ATRA the supernatants of these cells induced CD103 expression on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and when conditioned by ATRA and cocultured with CD4(+) T-lymphocytes they reduced the proportion of Th17 T-cells. However, in the macrophage-T-cell cocultures the number of these effector T-cells was increased. Thus cytokine-activated colonic epithelial cells trigger the secretion of distinct combinations of chemokines depending on the proinflammatory stimulus and are controlled by retinoic acid, which also governs dendritic cell and macrophage responses. PMID:25944986

  4. Lipid emulsions differentially affect LPS-induced acute monocytes inflammation: in vitro effects on membrane remodeling and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Delabranche, Xavier; Klymchenko, Andrey; Drai, Jocelyne; Blond, Emilie; Zobairi, Fatiha; Mely, Yves; Hasselmann, Michel; Toti, Florence; Meziani, Ferhat

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute monocyte inflammation in vitro. An 18 h long LPS induced human monocyte leukemia cell stimulation was performed and the cell-growth medium was supplemented with three different industrial lipid emulsions: Intralipid(®), containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT--soybean oil); Medialipid(®), containing LCT (soybean oil) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT--coconut oil); and SMOFlipid(®), containing LCT, MCT, omega-9 and -3 (soybean, coconut, olive and fish oils). Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by Trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry respectively. Monocyte composition and membrane remodeling were studied using gas chromatography and NR12S staining. Microparticles released in supernatant were measured by prothrombinase assay. After LPS challenge, both cellular necrosis and apoptosis were increased (threefold and twofold respectively) and microparticle release was enhanced (sevenfold) after supplementation with Medialipid(®) compared to Intralipid(®), SMOFlipid(®) and monocytes in the standard medium. The monocytes differentially incorporated fatty acids after lipid emulsion challenge. Finally, lipid-treated cells displayed microparticles characterized by disrupted membrane lipid order, reflecting lipid remodeling of the parental cell plasma membrane. Our data suggest that lipid emulsions differentially alter cell viability, monocyte composition and thereby microparticle release. While MCT have deleterious effects, we have shown that parenteral nutrition emulsion containing LCT or LCT and MCT associated to n-3 and n-9 fatty acids have no effect on endotoxin-induced cell death and inflammation. PMID:25038627

  5. Results of The Analysis of The Blood Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Data From The Oak Ridge Y-12 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, EL

    2001-12-18

    The potential hazards from exposure to beryllium or beryllium compounds in the workplace were first reported in the 1930s. The tritiated thymidine beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro blood test that is widely used to screen beryllium exposed workers in the nuclear industry for sensitivity to beryllium. Newman [18] has discussed the clinical significance of the BeLPT and described a standard protocol that was developed in the late 1980s. Cell proliferation is measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into dividing cells on two culture dates and using three concentrations of beryllium sulfate. Results are expressed as a ''stimulation index'' (SI) which is the ratio of the amount of tritiated thymidine (measured by beta counts) in the stimulated cells divided by the counts for the unstimulated cells on the same culture day. Several statistical methods for use in the routine analysis of the BeLPT were considered in the early 1990's by Frome et al. [7]. The least absolute values (LAV) method was recommended for routine analysis of the BeLPT. The purposes of this report are to further evaluate the LAV method using new data, and to describe a new method for identification of an abnormal or borderline test. This new statistical biological positive (SBP) method reflects the clinical judgment that (1) at least two SIs show a ''positive'' response to beryllium, and (2), that the maximum of the six SIs must exceed a cut point that is determined from a reference data set of normal individuals whose blood has been tested by the same method in the same serum. The new data is from the Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge and consist of 1080 worker and 33 nonexposed control BeLPTs (all tested in the same serum). Graphical results are presented to explain the statistical method, and the new SBP method is applied to the Y-12 group. The true positive rate and specificity of the new method were estimated to be 86 percent and 97 percent, respectively.

  6. Definition of a target for immunotherapy and results of the first Peptide vaccination study in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tabarkiewicz, J; Giannopoulos, K

    2010-10-01

    Results of bone marrow transplantation, as well as remission phenomena after viral infections, suggest that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) might be targeted effectively by T-cell-based immunotherapy. Antigen-targeted immunotherapies represent novel treatments for CLL patients. Earlier, we screened the mRNA expression of several tumor associated antigens (TAAs), observing the presence of RHAMM/CD168, fibromodulin, syntaxin, and NY-Ren60 in 55%-90% of CLL patients. RHAMM/CD168, fibromodulin, PRAME, and MPP11 were expressed in CLL patients but not in healthy volunteers. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed higher RHAMM expression in high-risk CLL patients as well as in advanced stages of the disease. CLL cases with higher RHAMM expressions showed significantly shorter median treatment-free survivals. Among patients with mutated IgVH genes, an analysis of RHAMM expression enabled us to distinguish a subgroup of patients with a favorable prognosis. In lymph nodes, RHAMM staining correlated with a higher Ki-67 index and CD40L expression. Functionally, stimulation with CD40L enhanced RHAMM expression in CLL. Because of the exquisite tissue expression of RHAMM and its high expression frequency in CLL patients, we further characterized RHAMM-specific CD8+ T cells in these patients. CD8+ T cells primed with the RHAMM-derived epitope R3, which is restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)A2, lysed RHAMM+ CLL cells. Therefore, we initiated a Phase I clinical trial of R3 peptide vaccination. Four patients exhibited reduced white blood cell counts during the vaccination process. In 5/6 patients, R3-specific CD8+ T cells were detected with the corresponding peptide/HLA-A2 tetrameric complex; these populations were verified functionally in 4/5 patients using ELISpot assays. In conclusion, RHAMM expression seems to be of prognostic value, and may reflect the proliferative capacity of CLL cells; it may therefore represent an interesting target for immunotherapy. Peptide vaccination in CLL patients was safe eliciting specific CD8+ T-cell responses against the tumor antigen RHAMM. PMID:20970674

  7. Impacts of parturition and body condition score on glucose uptake capacity of bovine monocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Eger, Melanie; Hussen, Jamal; Drong, Caroline; Meyer, Ulrich; von Soosten, Dirk; Frahm, Jana; Daenicke, Sven; Breves, Gerhard; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-15

    The peripartal period of dairy cows is associated with a higher incidence of infectious diseases like mastitis or metritis, particularly in high-yielding animals. The onset of lactation induces a negative energy balance and a shift of glucose distribution toward the udder. Glucose is used as primary fuel by monocytes which give rise to macrophages, key cells in the defense against pathogens. The aim of this study was to analyze whether animals with high or low body condition score (BCS) differ in composition and glucose uptake capacities of bovine monocyte subsets. Blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows starting 42 days before parturition until day 56 after parturition. The cows were allocated to two groups according to their BCS. A feeding regime was applied, in which the BCS high group received higher amounts of concentrate before parturition and concentrate feeding was more restricted in the BCS high group after parturition compared with the BCS low group, to promote postpartal lipolysis and enhance negative energy balance in the BCS high group. Blood cell counts of classical (cM), intermediate (intM) and nonclassical monocytes (ncM) were increased at day 7 after calving. In the BCS low group intM numbers were significantly higher compared to the BCS high group at day 7 after parturition. Within the BCS low group cows suffering from mastitis or metritis showed significantly higher numbers of cM, intM and ncM at day 7 after parturition. Classical monocytes and intM showed similar glucose uptake capacities while values for ncM were significantly lower. Compared with antepartal capacities and irrespective of BCS and postpartal mastitis or metritis, glucose uptake of all monocyte subsets decreased after parturition. In conclusion, whereas glucose uptake capacity of bovine monocyte subsets is altered by parturition, it is not linked to the energy supply of the animals or to postpartal infectious diseases. PMID:25980551

  8. Effects of normoxic and hypoxic exercise regimens on monocyte-mediated thrombin generation in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jong-Shyan; Chang, Ya-Lun; Chen, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Fu, Tieh-Cheng

    2015-08-01

    Exercise and hypoxia paradoxically modulate vascular thrombotic risks. The shedding of procoagulant-rich microparticles from monocytes may accelerate the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. The present study explores the manner in which normoxic and hypoxic exercise regimens affect procoagulant monocyte-derived microparticle (MDMP) formation and monocyte-promoted thrombin generation (TG). Forty sedentary healthy males were randomized to perform either normoxic (NET; 21% O2, n=20) or hypoxic (HET; 15% O2, n=20) exercise training (60% VO(2max)) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 5 weeks. At rest and immediately after HET (100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min), the MDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. The results demonstrated that acute 12% O2 exercise (i) increased the release of coagulant factor V (FV)/FVIII-rich, phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed and tissue factor (TF)-expressed microparticles from monocytes, (ii) enhanced the peak height and rate of TG in monocyte-rich plasma (MRP) and (iii) elevated concentrations of norepinephrine/epinephrine, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma. Following the 5-week intervention, HET exhibited higher enhancements of peak work-rate and cardiopulmonary fitness than NET did. Moreover, both NET and HET decreased the FV/FVIII-rich, PS-exposed and TF-expressed MDMP counts and the peak height and rate of TG in MRP following the HET. However, HET elicited more suppression for the HE (hypoxic exercise)-enhanced procoagulant MDMP formation and dynamic TG in MPR and catecholamine/peroxide/pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in plasma than NET. Hence, we conclude that HET is superior to NET for enhancing aerobic capacity. Furthermore, HET effectively suppresses procoagulant MDMP formation and monocyte-mediated TG under severe hypoxic stress, compared with NET. PMID:25826125

  9. Greater inflammatory activity and blunted glucocorticoid signaling in monocytes of chronically stressed caregivers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Murphy, Michael L M; Cashman, Rosemary; Ma, Roy; Ma, Jeffrey; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Kobor, Michael S; Cole, Steve W

    2014-10-01

    Chronic stress is associated with morbidity and mortality from numerous conditions, many of whose pathogenesis involves persistent inflammation. Here, we examine how chronic stress influences signaling pathways that regulate inflammation in monocytes. The sample consisted of 33 adults caring for a family member with glioblastoma and 47 controls whose lives were free of major stressors. The subjects were assessed four times over eight months. Relative to controls, caregivers' monocytes showed increased expression of genes bearing response elements for nuclear-factor kappa B, a key pro-inflammatory transcription factor. Simultaneously, caregivers showed reduced expression of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, a transcription factor that conveys cortisol's anti-inflammatory signals to monocytes. Transcript origin analyses revealed that CD14+/CD16- cells, a population of immature monocytes, were the predominate source of inflammatory gene expression among caregivers. We considered hormonal, molecular, and functional explanations for caregivers' decreased glucocorticoid-mediated transcription. Across twelve days, the groups displayed similar diurnal cortisol profiles, suggesting that differential adrenocortical activity was not involved. Moreover, the groups' monocytes expressed similar amounts of glucocorticoid receptor protein, suggesting that differential receptor availability was not involved. In ex vivo studies, subjects' monocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, and caregivers showed greater production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 relative to controls. However, no group differences in functional glucocorticoid sensitivity were apparent; hydrocortisone was equally effective at inhibiting cytokine production in caregivers and controls. These findings may help shed light on the mechanisms through which caregiving increases vulnerability to inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25242587

  10. Acute Exercise-Induced Response of Monocyte Subtypes in Chronic Heart and Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Van Craenenbroeck, Amaryllis H.; Hoymans, Vicky Y.; Verpooten, Gert A.; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Couttenye, Marie M.; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Monocytes (Mon1-2-3) play a substantial role in low-grade inflammation associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). The effect of an acute exercise bout on monocyte subsets in the setting of systemic inflammation is currently unknown. This study aims (1) to evaluate baseline distribution of monocyte subsets in CHF and CKD versus healthy subjects (HS) and (2) to evaluate the effect of an acute exercise bout. Exercise-induced IL-6 and MCP-1 release are related to the Mon1-2-3 response. Methods. Twenty CHF patients, 20 CKD patients, and 15 HS were included. Before and after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, monocyte subsets were quantified by flow cytometry: CD14++CD16?CCR2+ (Mon1), CD14++CD16+CCR2+ (Mon2), and CD14+CD16++CCR2? (Mon3). Serum levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 were determined by ELISA. Results. Baseline distribution of Mon1-2-3 was comparable between the 3 groups. Following acute exercise, %Mon2 and %Mon3 increased significantly at the expense of a decrease in %Mon1 in HS and in CKD. This response was significantly attenuated in CHF (P < 0.05). In HS only, MCP-1 levels increased following exercise; IL-6 levels were unchanged. Circulatory power was a strong and independent predictor of the changes in Mon1 (? = ?0.461, P < 0.001) and Mon3 (? = 0.449, P < 0.001); and baseline LVEF of the change in Mon2 (? = 0.441, P < 0.001). Conclusion. The response of monocytes to acute exercise is characterized by an increase in proangiogenic and proinflammatory Mon2 and Mon3 at the expense of phagocytic Mon1. This exercise-induced monocyte subset response is mainly driven by hemodynamic changes and not by preexistent low-grade inflammation. PMID:25587208

  11. Effects of botulinum toxin type D on secretion of tumor necrosis factor from human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, K.; Spriggs, D.; Ohno, T.; Kufe, D.

    1989-05-01

    Botulinum toxins are potent neurotoxins which block the release of neurotransmitters. The effects of these toxins on hematopoietic cells, however, are unknown. Monocytes secrete a variety of polypeptide growth factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In the study reported here, the effects of botulinum toxin type D on the secretion of TNF from human monocytes were examined. The results demonstrate that biotulinum toxin type D inhibits the release of TNF from monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Botulinum toxin type D had no detectable effect on intracellular TNF levels in LPS-treated monocytes, indicating that the effects of this toxin involve the secretory process. This inhibitory effect of botulinum toxin type D on TNF secretion from LPS-treated monocytes was partially reversed by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or introduction of guanosine 5'-(/gamma/-thio)t-riphosphate into these cells. The results demonstrate that TNF secretion is regulated by at least two distinct guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, one responsible for the activation of phospholiphase C and another which acts as a substrate for botulinum toxin type D. ADP-ribosylation of monocyte membranes by botulinum toxin type D demonstrated the presence of three substrates with M/sub r/s of 45,000, 21,000, and 17,000. While the role of these substrates in exocytosis is unknown, the results suggest that the M/sub r/ 21,000 substrate is involved in a process other than TNF secretion.

  12. Vitamin D3, gamma interferon, and control of proliferation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rook, G A; Steele, J; Fraher, L; Barker, S; Karmali, R; O'Riordan, J; Stanford, J

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), crude T cell supernatants, or appropriate T-cell lines can cause total inhibition of the growth of M. tuberculosis inside murine peritoneal macrophages. In similar experiments with human monocytes much smaller effects are seen. This could be due to the relative immaturity of these cells. Because dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2 D3) can cause phenotypic differentiation of immature leukemic lines into macrophage-like cells, we have explored the possibility that exposure to cholecalciferol metabolites in vitro might increase the ability of monocytes to control proliferation of M. tuberculosis, or cause monocytes to mature into cells able to respond appropriately to IFN-gamma. Incubation of monocytes with three cholecalciferol metabolites induced anti-tuberculosis activity to an extent that correlated with their binding affinities to the intracellular receptor protein for the derivatives. 1,25-(OH)2 D3 also primed monocytes for phorbol myristate acetate-triggered reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. The effects were additive rather than synergistic with those of IFN-gamma. Monocytes incubated with IFN-gamma developed 25-OH D3 1-hydroxylase activity, detected by conversion of tritiated 25-(OH) D3 to a more polar metabolite which coeluted with 1,25-(OH)2 D3 on straight and reverse-phase HPLC. The latter is a more active form in vivo. These findings help to explain claims for the efficacy of vitamin D in the treatment of some forms of tuberculosis, and also the occasional finding of raised serum calcium, and disturbed vitamin D metabolism in these patients. PMID:3002968

  13. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-20

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  14. Topographical and mechanical characterization of living eukaryotic cells on opaque substrates: development of a general procedure and its application to the study of non-adherent lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daza, Rafael; Cruces, Julia; Arroyo-Hernández, María; Marí-Buyé, Núria; De la Fuente, Mónica; Plaza, Gustavo R.; Elices, Manuel; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Guinea, Gustavo V.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of living murine T-lymphocytes was assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A robust experimental procedure was developed to overcome some features of lymphocytes, in particular their spherical shape and non-adherent character. The procedure included the immobilization of the lymphocytes on amine-functionalized substrates, the use of hydrodynamic effects on the deflection of the AFM cantilever to monitor the approaching, and the use of the jumping mode for obtaining the images. Indentation curves were analyzed according to Hertz’s model for contact mechanics. The calculated values of the elastic modulus are consistent both when considering the results obtained from a single lymphocyte and when comparing the curves recorded from cells of different specimens.

  15. Effect of prostaglandin I2 analogs on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human monocyte and macrophage.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Kai; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Lee, Min-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Yii; Kuo, Chang-Hung; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2015-08-01

    Chemokines play essential roles during inflammatory responses and in pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a critical chemokine in the development of atherosclerosis and acute cardiovascular syndromes. MCP-1, by its chemotactic activity, causes diapedesis of monocytes from the lumen to the subendothelial space that leads to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) analogs are used clinically for patients with pulmonary hypertension and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, little is known about the effect of PGI2 analogs on the MCP-1 production in human monocytes and macrophages. We investigated the effects of three conventional (iloprost, beraprost and treprostinil) and one new (ONO-1301) PGI2 analogs, on the expression of MCP-1 expression in human monocytes and macrophages. Human monocyte cell line, THP-1 cell, was treated with PGI2 analogs after LPS stimulation. Supernatants were harvested to measure MCP-1 levels and measured by ELISA. To explore which receptors involved the effects of PGI2 analogs on the expression of MCP-1 expression, IP and EP, PPAR-? and PPAR-? receptor antagonists were used. Forskolin, a cAMP activator, was used to further confirm the involvement of cAMP on MCP-1 production in human monocytes. Three PGI2 analogs suppressed LPS-induced MCP-1 production in THP-1 cells and THP-1-induced macrophages. Higher concentrations of ONO-1301 also had the suppressive effect. CAY 10449, an IP receptor antagonist, could reverse the effects on MCP-1 production of iloprost on THP-1 cells. Other reported PGI2 receptor antagonists including EP1, EP2, EP4, PPAR-? and PPAR-? antagonists could not reverse the effect. Forskolin, a cAMP activator, also suppressed MCP-1 production in THP-1 cells. PGI2 analogs suppressed LPS-induced MCP-1 production in human monocytes and macrophages via the IP receptor and cAMP pathway. The new PGI2 analog (ONO-1301) was not better than conventional PGI2 analog in the suppression of MCP-1 production in human monocytes. PMID:25154882

  16. MAP-Kinase Activated Protein Kinase 2 Links Endothelial Activation and Monocyte/macrophage Recruitment in Arteriogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Krishnasamy, Kashyap; Napp, L. Christian; Kapopara, Piyushkumar R.; Gaestel, Matthias; Schieffer, Bernhard; Bauersachs, Johann; Limbourg, Florian P.; Bavendiek, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Arteriogenesis, the growth of natural bypass arteries, is triggered by hemodynamic forces within vessels and requires a balanced inflammatory response, involving induction of the chemokine MCP-1 and recruitment of leukocytes. However, little is known how these processes are coordinated. The MAP-kinase-activated-proteinkinase-2 (MK2) is a critical regulator of inflammatory processes and might represent an important link between cytokine production and cell recruitment during postnatal arteriogenesis. Therefore, the present study investigated the functional role of MK2 during postnatal arteriogenesis. In a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia (HLI) MK2-deficiency (MK2KO) significantly impaired ischemic blood flow recovery and growth of collateral arteries as well as perivascular recruitment of mononuclear cells and macrophages. This was accompanied by induction of endothelial MCP-1 expression in wildtype (WT) but not in MK2KO collateral arteries. Following HLI, MK2 activation rapidly occured in the endothelium of growing WT arteries in vivo. In vitro, inflammatory cytokines and cyclic stretch activated MK2 in endothelial cells, which was required for stretch- and cytokine-induced release of MCP-1. In addition, a monocyte cell autonomous function of MK2 was uncovered potentially regulating MCP-1-dependent monocyte recruitment to vessels: MCP-1 stimulation of WT monocytes induced MK2 activation and monocyte migration in vitro. The latter was reduced in MK2KO monocytes, while in vivo MK2 was activated in monocytes recruited to collateral arteries. In conclusion, MK2 regulates postnatal arteriogenesis by controlling vascular recruitment of monocytes/macrophages in a dual manner: regulation of endothelial MCP-1 expression in response to hemodynamic and inflammatory forces as well as MCP-1 dependent monocyte migration. PMID:26431421

  17. Surface Chemistry of Nanocellulose Fibers Directs Monocyte/Macrophage Response.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kai; Ålander, Eva; Lindström, Tom; Mihranyan, Albert; Strømme, Maria; Ferraz, Natalia

    2015-09-14

    The effect of surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on monocyte/macrophage (MM) behavior is investigated to understand how the physicochemical properties of nanocelluloses influence the interactions of such materials with biological systems. Films of anionic (a-), cationic (c-), and unmodified (u-) NFC were synthesized and characterized in terms of surface charge. THP-1 monocytes were cultured on the surface of the films for 24 h in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide, and the cell response was evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, morphology, and secretion of TNF-?, IL-10, and IL-1ra. The results show that MMs cultured on carboxymethylated-NFC films (a-NFC) are activated toward a proinflammatory phenotype, whereas u-NFC promotes a mild activation of the studied cells. The presence of hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium groups on c-NFC, however, does not promote the activation of MMs, indicating that c-NFC closely behaves as an inert material in terms of MM activation. None of the materials is able to directly activate the MMs toward an anti-inflammatory response. These results may provide a foundation for the design of future NFC-based materials with the ability to control MM activation and may expand the use of NFC in biomedical applications. PMID:26247827

  18. Separation of lymphocytes by electrophoresis under terrestrial conditions and at zero gravity, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. L.; Stenzel, K. H.; Cheigh, J. S.; Seaman, G. V. F.; Novogrodsky, A.

    1977-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities (EPM) of peripheral lymphocytes were studied from normal subjects, chronic hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients. A technique to separate B lymphocytes and null cells from non-T lymphocyte preparation was developed. The experiments were designed to determine which subpopulation of the non-T lymphocytes is primarily affected and shows a decreased EPM in chronic hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.

  19. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Is Overexpressed and Represents a Potential Therapeutic Target in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    Lymphocytic Leukemia Maike Buchner, 1 Simon Fuchs, 1 Gabriele Prinz, 1 Dietmar Pfeifer, 1 Kilian Bartholome lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), limiting the efficacy of current therapeutic approaches. In this study, we Res 2009;69(13):5424­32] Introduction B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most prevalent B

  20. Hematopoietic expression of oncogenic BRAF promotes aberrant growth of monocyte-lineage cells resistant to PLX4720

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Tamihiro; Dankort, David; Kang, Jing; Giblett, Susan; Pritchard, Catrin A.; McMahon, Martin; Leavitt, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Mutational activation of BRAF leading to expression of the BRAFV600E oncoprotein was recently identified in a high percentage of specific hematopoietic neoplasms in monocyte/histiocyte and mature B-cell lineages. Although BRAFV600E is a driver oncoprotein and pharmacological target in solid tumors such as melanoma, lung and thyroid cancer, it remains unknown whether BRAFV600E is an appropriate therapeutic target in hematopoietic neoplasms. To address this critical question, we generated a mouse model expressing inducible BRAFV600E in the hematopoietic system, and evaluated the efficacy of pathway-targeted therapeutics against primary hematopoietic cells. In this model, BRAFV600E expression conferred cytokine-independent growth to monocyte/macrophage-lineage progenitors leading to aberrant in vivo and in vitro monocyte/macrophage expansion. Furthermore, transplantation of BRAFV600E-expressing bone marrow cells promoted an in vivo pathology most notable for monocytosis in hematopoietic tissues and visceral organs. In vitro analysis revealed that MEK inhibition, but not RAF inhibition, effectively suppressed cytokine-independent clonal growth of monocyte/macrophage-lineage progenitors. However, combined RAF and PI3K inhibition effectively inhibited cytokine-independent colony formation, suggesting autocrine PI3K pathway activation. Taken together, these results provide evidence that constitutively activated BRAFV600E drives aberrant proliferation of monocyte-lineage cells. This study supports the development of pathway-targeted therapeutics in the treatment of BRAFV600E-expressing hematopoietic neoplasms in the monocyte/histiocyte lineage. PMID:24152792

  1. Human ? Defensin-3 Increases CD86 Expression on Monocytes by Activating the ATP-Gated Channel P2X7.

    PubMed

    Lioi, Anthony B; Ferrari, Brian M; Dubyak, George R; Weinberg, Aaron; Sieg, Scott F

    2015-11-01

    Human ? defensin-3 (hBD-3), an epithelial cell-derived antimicrobial peptide, mediates chemotaxis and activation of myeloid cells. In this study, we provide evidence that hBD-3 induces the costimulatory molecule CD86 on primary human monocytes by a mechanism involving autocrine activation of ionotropic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) by ATP. Incubation of monocytes with hBD-3 resulted in increased expression of both the CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules. Treatment of monocytes with a selective P2X7R antagonist inhibited the ability of hBD-3 to induce expression of CD86 but not CD80. The hBD-3-dependent upregulation of CD86 was also attenuated in monocytes incubated with apyrase, a potent scavenger of extracellular ATP. Finally, direct activation of monocyte P2X7R by exogenous ATP mimicked the ability of hBD-3 to induce CD86 expression. These data suggest that hBD-3 induces monocyte activation by both P2X7-dependent (CD86 upregulation) and P2X7-independent (CD80 upregulation) signaling mechanisms and raise the possibility that activation of P2X7R could play an important role in shaping the inflammatory microenvironment in conditions where hBD-3 is highly expressed, such as psoriasis or oral carcinoma. PMID:26416278

  2. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-10 is correlated with disease activity and mediates monocyte migration and adhesion in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Takeo; Ishii, Sho; Nishimi, Shinichiro; Nishimi, Airi; Oguro, Nao; Seki, Shinya; Miura, Yoko; Miwa, Yusuke; Oh, Koei; Toyoshima, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Masanori; Inagaki, Katsunori; Kasama, Tsuyoshi

    2015-09-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) are a family of proteins that have been reported to be involved in several inflammatory conditions. We examined the secretion of ADAM-10 in biological fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the role it plays in monocyte migration. ADAM-10 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunofluorescence. To examine the role of ADAM-10 in RA synovial fluids (SFs), we studied THP-1 (human acute monocyte leukemia cell line) and monocyte chemotaxis. To determine whether ADAM-10 plays a role in cell proliferation in the RA synovium, we assayed the proliferation of ADAM-10 small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfected RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). The ADAM-10 level in RA serum was significantly higher than that in normal serum and was correlated with a disease activity score of 28. ADAM-10-depleted RA SFs showed a decrease in THP-1 and monocyte migratory activity compared with that of sham-depleted controls. ADAM-10 siRNA inhibited monocyte adhesion to RA FLSs. Finally, blocking ADAM-10 secretion in RA FLSs resulted in decreased production of fractalkine/CX3CL1 and vascular endothelial cell growth factor. These data indicate that ADAM-10 plays a role in monocyte migration in RA and suggest that targeting ADAM-10 may provide a method of decreasing inflammation and potentially treating other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25796462

  3. Interleukin-16 stimulates the expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mathy, N L; Scheuer, W; Lanzendörfer, M; Honold, K; Ambrosius, D; Norley, S; Kurth, R

    2000-01-01

    Interleukin-16 (IL-16) acts as a chemoattractant for CD4+ cells, as a modulator of T-cell activation, and plays a key role in asthma. This report describes the cytokine-inducing effects of IL-16 on total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and PBMC subpopulations. While CD4+ T lymphocytes did not secrete cytokines in response to rhIL-16, CD14+ CD4+ monocytes and maturing macrophages secrete IL-1?, IL-6, IL-15 and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) upon rhIL-16 stimulation. The mRNA species for these four cytokines were detected as early as 4 hr post-stimulation, with protein being secreted by 24 hr. Secretion of IL-1? and IL-6 by total PBMC was dose dependent, with maximal secretion being observed using 50 ng/ml rhIL-16. However, for IL-15 or TNF-? maximal secretion by total PBMC occurred with all concentrations between 5 ng/ml to 500 ng/ml rhIL-16. Purified monocytes/macrophages secreted maximal concentrations of all four cytokines in the presence of 500 ng/ml rhIL-16, except for monocytes where maximal secretion of IL-15 was, interestingly, observed with only 50 ng/ml rhIL-16. The use of higher concentrations of rhIL-16 (1000 ng/ml) inhibited secretion of all four cytokines. While these IL-16-induced cytokines are likely to be involved in the immune system's response to antigen, the data suggest that IL-16 may play a key role in initiating and/or sustaining an inflammatory response. PMID:10809960

  4. Cellular uptake and metabolism of curcuminoids in monocytes/macrophages: regulatory effects on lipid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that curcumin (CUR) may increase lipid accumulation in cultured THP-1 monocytes/macrophages, but tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), an in vivo metabolite of CUR, had no such effect. In the present study, we have hypothesized that different cellular uptake and/or metabolism of CUR and THC...

  5. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  6. Granzyme K synergistically potentiates LPS-induced cytokine responses in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wensink, Annette C.; Kemp, Vera; Fermie, Job; García Laorden, M. Isabel; van der Poll, Tom; Hack, C. Erik; Bovenschen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Granzymes are serine proteases released by cytotoxic lymphocytes to induce apoptosis in virus-infected cells and tumor cells. Evidence is emerging that granzymes also play a role in controlling inflammation. Granzyme serum levels are elevated in patients with autoimmune diseases and infections, including sepsis. However, the function of extracellular granzymes in inflammation largely remains unknown. Here, we show that granzyme K (GrK) binds to Gram-negative bacteria and their cell-wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GrK synergistically enhances LPS-induced cytokine release in vitro from primary human monocytes and in vivo in a mouse model of LPS challenge. Intriguingly, these extracellular effects are independent of GrK catalytic activity. GrK disaggregates LPS from micelles and augments LPS–CD14 complex formation, thereby likely boosting monocyte activation by LPS. We conclude that extracellular GrK is an unexpected direct modulator of LPS–TLR4 signaling during the antimicrobial innate immune response. PMID:24711407

  7. Vorinostat, Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-30

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  8. Sex dependent differences in physiological ageing in the immune system of lower airways in healthy non-smoking volunteers: study of lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood

    PubMed Central

    Mund, E; Christensson, B; Larsson, K; Gronneberg, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Age related changes in the immune system have been studied frequently but a possible relation to sex has not, to our knowledge, previously been examined. The effect of age and sex on the composition of lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood was therefore examined.?METHODS—Bronchoscopy with lavage was performed in 32 healthy non-atopic, non-smoking volunteers (16 women aged 26-63 years (mean 44) and 16 men aged 23-63 years (mean 39)). Cytospin preparations for differential counts of BAL fluid cells and surface antigen expression of lymphocytes from BAL fluid and blood were analysed by flow cytometry.?RESULTS—Most parameters in the BAL fluid changed with age in women. The percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes increased with age from a mean of 48 (SD10)% in women aged ?40 years to 69 (11)% in women aged >43 years (p=0.001). The percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes tended to decrease with age and the CD4/CD8 ratio was 5.8 (1.2) in women aged >43 years compared with 2.1 (0.7) in those aged ?40 years (p<0.0001). Women aged >43 years differed from men aged >43 years as well as from younger subjects of both sexes with respect to CD4+ cells and CD4/CD8 ratio, and from younger women with respect to CD8+ cells. There was no age related change in the CD4/CD8 ratio in blood. No sex related differences were seen in the blood or BAL fluid of adults below the age of 40years.?CONCLUSIONS—The composition of lymphocytes with different phenotypes in the lower respiratory tract changes with age in women but not in men. This may have implications for some clinical conditions such as chronic dry cough which are observed predominantly in women.?? PMID:11359960

  9. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground-based investigations simulating the conditions expected in the flight experiment. Several parameters including cell concentration, time between cell loading and activation, and storage temperature on cell survival were examined to characterise cell response and optimise the experiments to be flown aboard the Space Shuttle. Results indicate that the objectives of the experiments could be met with delays up to 5 days between cell loading into the hardware and initial in flight experiment activation, without the need for medium exchange. Experiment hardware of this kind, which is adaptable to a wide range of cell types and can be easily interfaced to different spacecraft facilities, offers the possibility for a wide range of experimenters successfully and easily to utilise future flight opportunities.

  10. Effect of spaceflight on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Patricia V.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexandr L.; Lesniak, A. T.; Mastro, Andrea M.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, inguinal lymp node lymphocytes from rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission were tested for proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Cells cultured with mitogenic lectins, phorbol ester, and calcium ionophore, or T-cell mitogen and lymphokine, were assayed for DNA synthesis by (H-3) thymidine incorporation. Lymphocytes incubated with a T-cell mitogen alone also were tested for IL-2 production. Proliferation of lymphocytes from flight rats was not significantly different from controls for any of the mitogens tested. Furthermore, lymph node lymphocytes from control and flown rats produced similar amounts of IL-23. Thus microgravity may act on lymphocytes in a tissue-specific manner, a new finding that could impact on the evaluation of spaceflight effects on immunocompetence.

  11. Brain endothelial barrier passage by monocytes is controlled by the endothelin system.

    PubMed

    Reijerkerk, Arie; Lakeman, Kim A M; Drexhage, Joost A R; van Het Hof, Bert; van Wijck, Yolanda; van der Pol, Susanne M A; Kooij, Gijs; Geerts, Dirk; de Vries, Helga E

    2012-06-01

    Homeostasis of the brain is dependent on the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This barrier tightly regulates the exchange of essential nutrients and limits the free flow of immune cells into the CNS. Perturbations of BBB function and the loss of its immune quiescence are hallmarks of a variety of brain diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), vascular dementia, and stroke. In particular, diapedesis of monocytes and subsequent trafficking of monocyte-derived macrophages into the brain are key mediators of demyelination and axonal damage in MS. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is considered as a potent pro-inflammatory peptide and has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we studied the role of different components of the endothelin system, i.e., ET-1, its type B receptor (ET(B)) and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) in monocyte diapedesis of a human brain endothelial cell barrier. Our pharmacological inhibitory and specific gene knockdown studies point to a regulatory function of these proteins in transendothelial passage of monocytes. Results from this study suggest that the endothelin system is a putative target within the brain for anti-inflammatory treatment in neurological diseases. PMID:21777246

  12. Methamphetamine cytotoxicity and effect on LPS-stimulated IL-1beta production by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Tipton, D A; Legan, Z T; Dabbous, M Kh

    2010-04-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is associated with "METH mouth", characterized by rampant dental decay and destruction of periodontal bone and soft tissues. In periodontitis, monocyte/macrophages, stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), produce interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), contributing to bone and soft tissue degradation. Effects of METH on monocyte/macrophages and its role in periodontitis are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine METH cytotoxicity and effects on constitutive and LPS-stimulated IL-1beta production in THP-1 human monocytes. METH significantly reduced cell viability, assessed by activity of a mitochondrial enzyme, by 20-40% after 24h, with recovery at longer periods. Brief exposure to METH caused <10% cytotoxicity (measured by an assay that detects membrane damage). LPS from E. coli or the periodontopathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. n.) significantly increased IL-1beta production (measured by ELISA). Despite cytotoxicity of some METH concentrations, METH had no significant effect on constitutive IL-1beta production. However, METH generally increased LPS-stimulated IL-1beta levels, reaching statistical significance at 5x10(-5)M METH ( approximately 50% to >100% increase). The study suggests that METH potentiation of periodontopathogen LPS stimulation of IL-1beta in monocytes could contribute to periodontitis in METH abusers, consistent with other studies suggesting a role for increased IL-1beta in deleterious effects of METH. PMID:19945523

  13. Rituximab in relapsed lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term results of a phase 2 trial by the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (GHSG).

    PubMed

    Schulz, Holger; Rehwald, Ute; Morschhauser, Franck; Elter, Thomas; Driessen, Christoph; Rüdiger, Thomas; Borchmann, Peter; Schnell, Roland; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas; Reiser, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    Because nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) express CD20, rituximab may be used as a nonmutagenic treatment option to avoid late toxicities in this rather indolent entity. Between 1999 and 2004, the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) investigated the activity of rituximab (375 mg/m(2) in 4 doses) in a phase 2 trial in 21 relapsed or refractory NLPHL patients. The initial diagnosis of NLPHL was confirmed in 15 of the 21 enrolled patients by reference pathology. The remaining cases were reclassified as Hodgkin lymphoma transformed to T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL; n = 2) or CD20(+) classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL; n = 4). In NLPHL patients the overall response rate was 94%, including 8 complete remission (CR) and 6 partial remission (PR). With a median follow-up of 63 months (range, 3-84), the median time to progression was 33 months, with the median overall survival (OS) not reached. Thus, rituximab is highly effective in relapsed and refractory NLPHL. This study is registered at http://www.klinisches-studienzentrum.de/trial/285. PMID:17938252

  14. An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Phase 1 Study to Assess Biomarker Effects, Efficacy, and Safety of Ofatumumab in Patients With Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Patton, William Nigel; Lindeman, Robert; Butler, Andrew C.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Jewell, Roxanne C.; Laubscher, Kevin H.; Zhou, YanYan; Lewis, Eric; Sedoti, Donna; Witman, Philip; Fang, Lei; Chan, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    This open-label, phase 1 study evaluated the effects of ofatumumab on QTc intervals, safety, efficacy, B-cell and neutrophil counts, complement levels, and cytokine and chemokine concentrations. Fourteen fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients received 12 ofatumumab infusions. A higher maximum infusion rate of 400 mL/h was tested at the first two doses and was well-tolerated. The 43% overall response rate was similar to previous data (42%-51%). B-cell depletion was observed along with complement consumption; median C2 and CH50 levels appeared lower during monthly dosing in patients who responded. Responding patients appeared to have higher median levels of certain proinflammatory cytokines and lower median levels of certain immunotolerant cytokines than patients who did not respond. Ofatumumab-induced CDC activity can be detected clinically by measuring complement and may be associated with clinical activity. The potential relationship between changes in complement or cytokines and clinical response to ofatumumab warrants further study. PMID:25721750

  15. Oncolytic reovirus enhances rituximab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, C; Scott, G B; Migneco, G; Scott, K J; Steele, L P; Ilett, E; West, E J; Hall, K; Selby, P J; Buchanan, D; Varghese, A; Cragg, M S; Coffey, M; Hillmen, P; Melcher, A A; Errington-Mais, F

    2015-01-01

    The naturally occurring oncolytic virus (OV), reovirus, replicates in cancer cells causing direct cytotoxicity, and can activate innate and adaptive immune responses to facilitate tumour clearance. Reovirus is safe, well tolerated and currently in clinical testing for the treatment of multiple myeloma, in combination with dexamethasone/carfilzomib. Activation of natural killer (NK) cells has been observed after systemic delivery of reovirus to cancer patients; however, the ability of OV to potentiate NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is unexplored. This study elucidates the potential of oncolytic reovirus for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), both as a direct cytotoxic agent and as an immunomodulator. We demonstrate that reovirus: (i) is directly cytotoxic against CLL, which requires replication-competent virus; (ii) phenotypically and functionally activates patient NK cells via a monocyte-derived interferon-? (IFN?)-dependent mechanism; and (iii) enhances ADCC-mediated killing of CLL in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. Our data provide strong preclinical evidence to support the use of reovirus in combination with anti-CD20 immunotherapy for the treatment of CLL. PMID:25814029

  16. Expression and function of the TL1A/DR3 axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Chiara; Lovato, Ornella; Bertolaso, Anna; Zoratti, Elisa; Malpeli, Giorgio; Mimiola, Elda; Tinelli, Martina; Aprili, Fiorenza; Tecchio, Cristina; Perbellini, Omar; Scarpa, Aldo; Zamò, Alberto; Cassatella, Marco Antonio; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Scupoli, Maria Teresa

    2015-10-13

    TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A) and its unique receptor death receptor 3 (DR3) acts as broad T-cell costimulator involved in regulatory mechanisms of adaptive immune response under physiological and pathological settings. Moreover, we have recently shown that TL1A negatively regulates B-cell proliferation. Despite increasing interest on the TL1A/DR3-axis functions, very little is known on its expression and role in leukemia. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of TL1A/DR3 axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). DR3 was differentially expressed in activated CLL cells and predominantly detected in patients with early clinical stage disease. Soluble TL1A has been revealed in the sera of CLL patients where higher TL1A levels were associated with early stage disease. T cells, monocytes and leukemic B cells have been identified as major sources of TL1A in CLL. The relevance of these findings has been sustained by functional data showing that exogenous TL1A reduces CLL proliferation induced by stimulation of the B cell receptor. Overall, these data document the expression of the TL1A/DR3 axis in early-stage CLL. They also identify a novel function for TL1A as a negative regulator of leukemic cell proliferation that may influence the CLL physiopathology and clinical outcome at an early-stage disease. PMID:26393680

  17. Role of LOX-1 in monocyte adhesion-triggered redox, Akt/eNOS and Ca2+ signaling pathways in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Nobuo; Ishibashi, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Koichi; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Takayuki; Inoue, Nobutaka; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Kamioka, Masashi; Uekita, Hironori; Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Koji; Teramoto, Tamio; Maruyama, Yukio; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the role of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in monocyte adhesion-induced redox-sensitive, Akt/eNOS and Ca2+ signaling pathways in endothelial cells (ECs). LOX-1 was blocked by an antibody-neutralizing LOX-1 TS92 or small interfering RNA. In cultured human aortic ECs, monocyte adhesion activated Rac1 and p47(phox), and increased NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation within 30 min and NF-kappaB phosphorylation within 1 h, resulting in redox-sensitive gene expression. Akt and eNOS phosphorylation was induced 15 min after adding monocytes and returned to control level after 30 min, whereas NO production was not altered by monocyte adhesion. Blockade of LOX-1 blunted the monocyte adhesion-triggered redox-sensitive signaling pathway and Akt/eNOS phosphorylation in ECs. Both endothelial intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and Ca2+ influx caused by monocyte attachment were markedly attenuated by pretreatment of ECs with TS92. This suggests that LOX-1 is involved in redox-sensitive, Akt/eNOS and Ca2+ signaling pathways in monocyte adhesion to ECs independent of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Furthermore, blockade of Ca2+ inhibited monocyte adhesion-triggered Rac1 and p47(phox) activation and ROS generation in ECs, whereas Ca2+ signaling was suppressed by blockade of NADPH oxidase and ROS generation. Finally, TS92 blocked the monocyte adhesion to ECs stimulated with or without tumor necrosis factor-alpha or ox-LDL. We provide evidence that LOX-1 plays a role in redox-sensitive, Akt/eNOS and Ca2+ signaling pathways in monocyte adhesion to ECs independent of the ox-LDL-LOX-1 axis. PMID:19452449

  18. Triacylglycerol metabolism by lymphocytes and the effect of triacylglycerols on lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P; Newsholme, E A

    1994-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of lymphocytes to utilize fatty acids originating from triacylglycerols and the effect of triacylglycerols upon mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocytes isolated from rat lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and lymphatic duct had a lipoprotein lipase activity of approx. 10 units/mg of protein, indicating that the fatty acids of circulating triacylglycerols are accessible to these cells. In culture lymph node lymphocytes hydrolysed triacylglycerols added to the medium as emulsions. Both non-esterified fatty acids and free glycerol appeared in the cell culture medium, but their concentrations indicated that a high proportion of each (65-90% of fatty acids and 60-80% of glycerol) was taken up by the cells. The incorporation and fate of triacylglycerol-fatty acids was studied by culturing the cells in the presence of tri[3H]oleoylglycerol or tri[14C]inoleoylglycerol. Both fatty acids were incorporated into lymphocyte lipids in a time-dependent manner; linoleic acid was incorporated at a significantly greater rate than oleic acid. The majority of oleic acid (greater than 70%) was incorporated into cellular triacylglycerol, while less than 10% was incorporated into phospholipids. In contrast, linoleic acid incorporation into cellular triacylglycerol never exceeded 25%, while up to 45% was incorporated into phospholipids. Triacylglycerols containing polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibited concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner; triacylglycerols containing saturated fatty acids or oleic acid were not inhibitory. Such direct effects of certain triacylglycerols on lymphocyte function may explain why some clinical trials of polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich diets have been successful in improving the condition of patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. PMID:8141773

  19. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, A; García-Sancho, M; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M Á; Sainz, Á

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and ?2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E.?canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. PMID:25957920

  20. Neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Terasawa, Masao; Nagata, Kisaburo; Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2008-12-12

    Antigen-transporting cells take up pathogens, and then migrate from sites of inflammation to secondary lymphoid tissues to induce an immune response. Among antigen-transporting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to be the most potent and professional antigen-presenting cells that can stimulate naive T cells. However, the cells that transport antigens, tumor cell antigens in particular, have not been clearly identified. In this study we have analyzed what types of cells transport tumor cell antigens to secondary lymphoid tissues. We show that neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages but not DCs engulf X-irradiated P388 leukemic cells after their injection into the peritoneal cavity, and that neutrophils and monocytes but not macrophages migrate to the parathymic lymph nodes (pLN), the blood, and then the spleen. The monocytes in the pLN comprise Gr-1{sup -} and Gr-1{sup +} ones, and some of these cells express CD11c. Overall, this study demonstrates that neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues.

  1. Peptidoglycan Up-Regulates CXCL8 Expression via Multiple Pathways in Monocytes/Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung Won; Chung, Sung Woon; Bae, Mi Ju; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Sang-pil; Kim, Koanhoi

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG), the gram positive bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), is detected in a high proportion in macrophage-rich atheromatous regions, and expression of chemokine CXCL8, which triggers monocyte arrest on early atherosclerotic endothelium, is elevated in monocytes/macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PG induced CXCL8 expression in the cell type and to determine cellular signaling pathways involved in that process. Exposure of THP-1 cell, human monocyte/macrophage cell line, to PG not only enhanced CXCL8 release but also profoundly induced il8 gene transcription. PG-induced release of CXCL8 and induction of il8 gene transcription were blocked by OxPAPC, an inhibitor of TLR-2/4 and TLR4, but not by polymyxin B, an inhibitor of LPS. PG-mediated CXCL8 release was significantly attenuated by inhibitors of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways. PKC inhibitors, MAPK inhibitors, and ROS quenchers also significantly attenuated expression of CXCL8. The present study proposes that PG contributes to inflammatory reaction and progression of atherosclerosis by inducing CXCL8 expression in monocytes/macrophages, and that TLR-2, PI3K-Akt-mTOR, PKC, ROS, and MAPK are actively involved in the process. PMID:26535082

  2. Cytogenetic studies in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to 2.45 GHz or 8.2 GHz radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    Peripheral blood samples collected from healthy human volunteers were exposed in vitro to 2.45 GHz or 8.2 GHz pulsed-wave radiofrequency (RF) radiation. The net forward power, average power density, mean specific absorption rate, and the temperature maintained during the 2-h exposure of the cells to 2.45 GHz or 8.2 GHz were, respectively, 21 W or 60 W, 5 mW/cm(2) or 10 mW/cm(2), 2.13 W/kg or 20.71 W/kg, and 36.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C or 37.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C. Aliquots of the same blood samples that were either sham-exposed or exposed in vitro to an acute dose of 1.5 Gy gamma radiation were used as unexposed and positive controls, respectively. Cultured lymphocytes were examined to determine the extent of cytogenetic damage assessed from the incidence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei. Under the conditions used to perform the experiments, the levels of damage in RF-radiation-exposed and sham-exposed lymphocytes were not significantly different. Also, there were no significant differences in the response of unstimulated lymphocytes and lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin when exposed to 8.2 GHz RF radiation. In contrast, the positive control cells that had been subjected to gamma irradiation exhibited significantly more damage than RF-radiation- and sham-exposed lymphocytes. PMID:16972753

  3. The role of Kupffer cells in glucan-induced granuloma formation in the liver of mice depleted of blood monocytes by administration of strontium-89

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, M.; Takahashi, K. )

    1991-05-01

    In order to elucidate the role of Kupffer cells in granuloma formation in the liver of mice under a condition of severe monocytopenia induced by administration of strontium-89, granulomas were produced by particulate glucan injection and examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically, by ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography, and in culture experiments. Hepatic granulomas were smaller, less numerous, and more irregularly shaped in the monocytopenic mice than in the control mice. The granulomas were composed of multinuclear giant cells, epithelioid cells, Kupffer cells, and T lymphocytes, but not monocytes or granulocytes. Kupffer cells were heavily labeled with ({sup 3}H)thymidine in the monocytopenic mice, particularly just before the stage of granuloma formation, and then clustered in the liver sinusoids. At 8 days, they formed granulomas, transformed into epithelioid cells, and transformed further into multinuclear giant cells. Although the culture of liver cell suspensions prepared from the livers of monocytopenic mice sustained diffuse proliferation of macrophages on a monolayer of mouse stromal cell line (ST2), no monocyte/macrophage colonies were formed. From these results, it is reasonable to conclude that Kupffer cells alone are activated in a condition without a supply of monocytes from peripheral blood; proliferate and cluster in the hepatic sinusoids; transform into peroxidase-negative macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinuclear giant cells; and participate in granuloma formation in loco together with T lymphocytes.

  4. Monocyte function is severely impaired by the fluorochrome calcein acetomethylester

    SciTech Connect

    Czepluch, Frauke S.; Olieslagers, Serve J.F.; Waltenberger, Johannes . E-mail: j.waltenberger@cardio.azm.nl

    2007-09-21

    For rapid chemotaxis quantification, cell prelabelling is often performed with the fluorochrome calcein acetomethylester (calcein AM). We investigated whether calcein AM-prelabelling is reliable for monocyte migration analysis. Human monocytes were either preexposed to calcein AM or unlabelled. Monocyte migration towards the potent chemoattractants transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and N-formyl-Methionin-Leucin-Phenylalanin (fMLP) was assessed using a 48-well micro-chemotaxis chamber. For quantification, cells were visualized by light microscopy and counted. Surprisingly, random migration of calcein AM-prelabelled cells was significantly impaired compared to the unlabelled control. Accordingly, monocyte chemotaxis towards either TGF-{beta}1 or fMLP dramatically declined. Adherence of calcein AM-labelled monocytes on plastic was also significantly decreased compared to control cells. As adhesion is regarded as an essential component of monocyte migration, the reduced migration observed in calcein AM-labelled monocytes might be explained by a fluorochrome-induced adhesion defect. Therefore, use of the fluorochrome calcein AM cannot be recommended for functional testing of monocytes.

  5. Mechanisms of corticosteroid action on lymphocyte subpopulations. I. Redistribution of circulating T and b lymphocytes to the bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Fauci, A S

    1975-01-01

    The effect of corticosteroid administration on the redistribution of sirculating lymphocytes was studied in the guinea-pig, since this species closely resembles man in its relative resistance to the lymphopenic effect of corticosteroids. A single intravenous injection of hydrocortisone (either 10 mg or 100 mg/kg) caused a profound but transient lymphocytopenia which was maximal at 4 hours following injection, with a returnto normal counts by 24 hours. There was a proportionately greater decrease in circulating T lymphocytes compared to B lymphocytes, although both populations were diminished. Chronic cortisone acetate treatment (100 mg/kg subcutaneously for 7 days) caused a similiar pattern of lymphocytopenia except that it was sustained during the period of chronically elevated plasma cortisol levels. The lymphocytes remaining inthe circulation during the period of lymphocytopenia responded normally in vitro to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweek mitogen. There was very littleeffect of corticosteroid administration on the numbers, proportions, or mitogenic response of splenic lymphocytes. There was a dramatic increase in the bone marrow of proportions and absolute numbers of lymphocytes bearing surface T-and B-cell markers, as well as a marked increase in response of bone marrow lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation during the period of maximal circulating lymphocytopenia caused by the administration of corticosteroids, especially chronic cortisone acetate. There was a preferential homing of reinfused -51Cr-labelled syngeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes to the bone marrow of corticosteroid-treated recipients. These studies demonstrate aredistribution of circulating lymphocytes to the bone marrow during corticosteroid treatment, resulting in an increase in immunocompetence of this compartment, while the peripheral blood lymphocyte compartment is quantitatively immunosuppressed due to a lymphocytopenia. PMID:1080130

  6. How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Found?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia found? At this time there are no special ... oncologist (doctor who treats cancer). Tests to find acute lymphocytic leukemia Most of the symptoms seen in leukemia can ...

  7. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic ... germs by surrounding and digesting them. Development of leukemia Any type of early blood-forming cell of ...

  8. Monocyte-derived extracellular Nampt-dependent biosynthesis of NAD(+) protects the heart against pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Yano, Masamichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Toru; Yabumoto, Chizuru; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Kamo, Takehiro; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, and thereby regulates the deacetylase activity of sirtuins. Here we show accommodative regulation of myocardial NAD(+) by monocyte-derived extracellular Nampt (eNampt), which is essential for hemodynamic compensation to pressure overload. Although intracellular Nampt (iNampt) expression was decreased in pressure-overloaded hearts, myocardial NAD(+) concentration and Sirt1 activity were preserved. In contrast, iNampt was up-regulated in spleen and monocytes, and circulating eNampt protein and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key precursor of NAD(+), were significantly increased. Pharmacological inhibition of Nampt by FK866 or depletion of monocytes/macrophages by clodronate liposomes disrupted the homeostatic mechanism of myocardial NAD(+) levels and NAD(+)-dependent Sirt1 activity, leading to susceptibility to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac decompensation in pressure-overloaded mice. These biochemical and hemodynamic defects were prevented by systemic administration of NMN. Our studies uncover a crucial role of monocyte-derived eNampt in myocardial adaptation to pressure overload, and highlight a potential intervention controlling myocardial NAD(+) against heart failure. PMID:26522369

  9. Monocyte-derived extracellular Nampt-dependent biosynthesis of NAD+ protects the heart against pressure overload

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Masamichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Toru; Yabumoto, Chizuru; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Kamo, Takehiro; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, and thereby regulates the deacetylase activity of sirtuins. Here we show accommodative regulation of myocardial NAD+ by monocyte-derived extracellular Nampt (eNampt), which is essential for hemodynamic compensation to pressure overload. Although intracellular Nampt (iNampt) expression was decreased in pressure-overloaded hearts, myocardial NAD+ concentration and Sirt1 activity were preserved. In contrast, iNampt was up-regulated in spleen and monocytes, and circulating eNampt protein and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key precursor of NAD+, were significantly increased. Pharmacological inhibition of Nampt by FK866 or depletion of monocytes/macrophages by clodronate liposomes disrupted the homeostatic mechanism of myocardial NAD+ levels and NAD+-dependent Sirt1 activity, leading to susceptibility to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac decompensation in pressure-overloaded mice. These biochemical and hemodynamic defects were prevented by systemic administration of NMN. Our studies uncover a crucial role of monocyte-derived eNampt in myocardial adaptation to pressure overload, and highlight a potential intervention controlling myocardial NAD+ against heart failure. PMID:26522369

  10. Rhodomyrtone Modulates Innate Immune Responses of THP-1 Monocytes to Assist in Clearing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Srisuwan, Sutthirat; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Srimanote, Potjanee; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to conventional antibiotics poses a major health problem. Moreover, S. aureus can survive within phagocytes, thus evading some antibiotics and the innate immune response. Rhodomyrtone, a bioactive compound from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, possesses potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of rhodomyrtone on THP-1 monocytes in response to MRSA. Methods THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with heat-killed MRSA, followed by treatment with rhodomyrtone. The cell pellets were prepared to detect pro-inflammatory molecules using real-time PCR. The supernatants were collected to assess nitric oxide production using Griess assay. Assays for phagocytosis and bacterial killing by THP-1 monocytes were performed to determine if they were affected by rhodomyrtone. Results Expression of pro-inflammatory molecules including IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, and iNOS was enhanced in THP-1 monocytes stimulated with high doses of heat-killed MRSA (108 to 109 cfu/ml). In contrast, monocytes stimulated with MRSA at lower doses (106 to 107 cfu/ml) did not induce the expression of these cytokines. However, rhodomyrtone significantly increased the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, IL-6 and iNOS in monocytes stimulated with heat-killed MRSA at low doses, and displayed some anti-inflammatory activity by reducing TNF-? expression in monocytes stimulated with heat-killed MRSA at high doses. Treatment with rhodomyrtone also significantly up-regulated the expression of the key pattern recognition receptors, TLR2 and CD14, in THP-1 monocytes stimulated with heat-killed MRSA at 106 to 109 cfu/ml, while heat-killed MRSA alone did not induce the expression of these molecules. The ability of rhodomyrtone to eliminate MRSA from the monocytes was observed within 24 h after treatment. Conclusion Rhodomyrtone enhanced the expression of pattern recognition receptors by monocytes in response to MRSA. Increased expression of these receptors might improve MRSA clearance by modulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses. PMID:25329066

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma: infiltrating monocyte/macrophage subpopulations express functional mature phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Neuchrist, C.; Grasl, M.; Scheiner, O.; Lassmann, H.; Ehrenberger, K.; Kraft, D.

    1990-01-01

    Biopsies from 26 patients with advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were investigated to determine the intensity of the inflammatory cellular infiltrate and the expression of leucocyte antigens. Mononuclear cell infiltration varied considerably between the individual patients and also within the tumour. Tumour-infiltrating cells consisted mainly of T lymphocytes and monocytes (Mo)/macrophages (M phi). Staining procedure with monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against Mo/M phi revealed different clusters of antigen expression: (1) moabs 27E10 and a-CD35 detected a subgroup of Mo/M phi with particular staining of perivasal Mo; (2) moab a-CD1 stained preferentially cells in tumour cell clusters; (3) moabs that reacted with cells of either typical M phi or dendritic morphology throughout the tumour-tissue: a-Fc gamma receptor I-III, a-class II antigens, a-CD4, Rm3/1, a-CD36 and 25F9. Thus, the majority of tumour-infiltrating mononuclear phagocytes were found to possess a rather mature phenotype. The number of Mo/M phi with mature phenotype within the tumours correlated with T lymphocyte infiltration in the tissue. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2147109

  12. Soy Isoflavones Attenuate Human Monocyte Adhesion to Endothelial Cell–Specific CD54 by Inhibiting Monocyte CD11a1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy-based diets have been shown to protect against the development of atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) remain unknown. Interaction between activated monocytes and inflamed endothelial cells is an early event in atherogenesis. Therefore, we examined whether treatment of monocytes...

  13. SMAD-PI3K-Akt-mTOR Pathway Mediates BMP-7 Polarization of Monocytes into M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Crystal; Singla, Dinender K.

    2013-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) treatment polarizes monocytes into M2 macrophages and increases the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Despite these findings, the mechanisms for the observed BMP-7 induced monocyte polarization into M2 macrophages are completely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the mechanisms involved in the polarization of monocytes into M2 macrophages. Apoptotic conditioned media (ACM) was generated to mimic the stressed conditions, inducing monocyte polarization. Monocytes were treated with ACM along with BMP-7 and/or its inhibitor, follistatin, for 48 hours. Furthermore, an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway, LY-294002, was also studied. Our data show that BMP-7 induces polarization of monocytes into M2 macrophages while significantly increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory markers, arginase-1 and IL-10, and significantly (p<0.05) decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory markers iNOS, IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1; (p<0.05). Moreover, addition of the PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002, significantly (p<0.05) decreases upregulation of IL-10 and arginase-1, suggesting involvement of the PI3K pathway in M2 macrophage polarization. Next, following BMP-7 treatment, a significant (p<0.05) increase in p-SMAD1/5/8 and p-PI3K expression resulting in downstream activation of p-Akt and p-mTOR was observed. Furthermore, expression of p-PTEN, an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway, was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the ACM group. However, BMP-7 treatment inhibited its expression, suggesting involvement of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that BMP-7 polarizes monocytes into M2 macrophages and enhances anti-inflammatory cytokine expression which is mediated by the activated SMAD-PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. PMID:24376781

  14. SMAD-PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway mediates BMP-7 polarization of monocytes into M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Crystal; Singla, Dinender K

    2013-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) treatment polarizes monocytes into M2 macrophages and increases the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Despite these findings, the mechanisms for the observed BMP-7 induced monocyte polarization into M2 macrophages are completely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the mechanisms involved in the polarization of monocytes into M2 macrophages. Apoptotic conditioned media (ACM) was generated to mimic the stressed conditions, inducing monocyte polarization. Monocytes were treated with ACM along with BMP-7 and/or its inhibitor, follistatin, for 48 hours. Furthermore, an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway, LY-294002, was also studied. Our data show that BMP-7 induces polarization of monocytes into M2 macrophages while significantly increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory markers, arginase-1 and IL-10, and significantly (p<0.05) decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory markers iNOS, IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1; (p<0.05). Moreover, addition of the PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002, significantly (p<0.05) decreases upregulation of IL-10 and arginase-1, suggesting involvement of the PI3K pathway in M2 macrophage polarization. Next, following BMP-7 treatment, a significant (p<0.05) increase in p-SMAD1/5/8 and p-PI3K expression resulting in downstream activation of p-Akt and p-mTOR was observed. Furthermore, expression of p-PTEN, an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway, was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the ACM group. However, BMP-7 treatment inhibited its expression, suggesting involvement of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that BMP-7 polarizes monocytes into M2 macrophages and enhances anti-inflammatory cytokine expression which is mediated by the activated SMAD-PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. PMID:24376781

  15. Functional Activity of Monocytes and Macrophages in HTLV-1 Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Camila F.; Souza, Anselmo S.; Diniz, Angela G.; Carvalho, Natália B.; Santos, Silvane B.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2014-01-01

    The Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infects predominantly T cells, inducing proliferation and lymphocyte activation. Additionally, HTLV-1 infected subjects are more susceptible to other infections caused by other intracellular agents. Monocytes/macrophages are important cells in the defense against intracellular pathogens. Our aims were to determine the frequency of monocytes subsets, expression of co-stimulatory molecules in these cells and to evaluate microbicidal ability and cytokine and chemokine production by macrophages from HTLV-1 infected subjects. Participants were 23 HTLV-1 carriers (HC), 22 HAM/TSP patients and 22 healthy subjects (HS) not infected with HTLV-1. The frequencies of monocyte subsets and expression of co-stimulatory molecules were determined by flow cytometry. Macrophages were infected with L. braziliensis or stimulated with LPS. Microbicidal activity of macrophages was determined by optic microscopy. Cytokines/chemokines from macrophage supernatants were measured by ELISA. HAM/TSP patients showed an increase frequency of intermediate monocytes, but expression of co-stimulatory molecules was similar between the groups. Macrophages from HTLV-1 infected individuals were infected with L. braziliensis at the same ratio than macrophages from HS, and all the groups had the same ability to kill Leishmania parasites. However, macrophages from HTLV-1 infected subjects produced more CXCL9 and CCL5, and less IL-10 than cells from HS. While there was no correlation between IFN-? and cytokine/chemokine production by macrophages, there was a correlation between proviral load and TNF and CXCL10. These data showed a dissociation between the inflammatory response and microbicidal ability of macrophages from HTLV-1 infected subjects. While macrophages ability to kill an intracellular pathogen did not differ among HTLV-1 infected subjects, these cells secreted high amount of chemokines even in unstimulated cultures. Moreover the increasing inflammatory activity of macrophages was similar in HAM/TSP patients and HC and it was related to HTLV-1 proviral load rather than the high IFN-? production observed in these subjects. PMID:25521499

  16. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Grade in Primary Melanomas Is Independently Associated With Melanoma-Specific Survival in the Population-Based Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Busam, Klaus J.; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Groben, Pamela A.; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S.; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W.; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. Patients and Methods On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Results Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (Ptrend < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. Conclusion At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions. PMID:24127443

  17. Lymphocyte Functions in Space - Related Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, D.; Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.; Davson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that modeled (MMG) and true (STS-54 and STS-56) microgravity (MG) inhibit human lymphocyte locomotion. MMG also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Analysis of the relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG suggested a fundamental defect in signal transduction mechanism localized either at the PKC level or upstream at the cell membrane. FACS analysis of the expression of PKC isoforms in PBMC revealed that MMG selectively inhibits the PKC isoforms expression. The decrease was most prominent in PKC epsilon, less obvious in PKC delta and almost marginal and insignificant in PKC alpha. Western blot analysis confirmed these results (PKC epsilon protein expression was downregulated at 24, 72 and 96 hours in MG). We also found a decrease in PKC epsilon mRNA expression. MMG inhibited programmed cell death (PCD) in lymphocytes. Inhibition was observed in two types of experiments: 1) when PCD was induced by gamma-radiation of PBMC, and 2) when PCD in activated T cells was triggered by PHA-M or PMA + ionomycin restimulation. The established direct effects of MG on signal transduction mechanisms as well as on PCD in lymphocytes could contribute to the impairment of the immunity in space.

  18. The Study of Leukocyte Functions in a Rotating Wall Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trial, JoAnn

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of leukocytes under free-fall conditions in a rotating wall vessel. In such a vessel, the tendency of a cell to fall in response to gravity is opposed by the rotation of the vessel and the culture medium within, keeping the cells in suspension without fluid shear. Previous reports indicated that such functions as lymphocyte migration through collagen matrix or monocyte cytokine secretion are altered under these conditions, and these changes correlate with similar functional defects of cultured cells seen during spaceflight.

  19. In vitro analysis of the homing properties of human lymphocytes: developmental regulation of functional receptors for high endothelial venules.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, S T; Butcher, E C

    1985-09-01

    Circulating lymphocytes leave the blood by binding to specialized high endothelial cells lining postcapillary venules in lymphoid organs or sites of chronic inflammations, migrating through the vessel wall into the surrounding tissue. The capacity of lymphocytes to recognize and bind to high endothelial venules (HEVs) is thus central to the overall process of lymphocyte traffic and recirculation. We show that viable human lymphocytes bind selectively to HEVs in frozen sections of normal human lymph nodes, thus defining a simple in vitro model for the study of human lymphocyte homing properties. Optimal conditions for the quantitative analysis of lymphocyte-HEV interaction are described. Furthermore, by using this assay, we demonstrate that the ability of human lymphocyte populations to bind to HEVs parallels their presumed migratory status in vivo. Thus, thymocytes and bone marrow cells, which are sessile in vivo, bind poorly to HEVs in comparison with mature circulating lymphocytes in peripheral blood or in peripheral lymphoid tissues. These results indicate that HEV-binding ability is a regulated property of mature lymphocytes and, as demonstrated previously in animal models, probably plays a fundamental role in controlling lymphocyte traffic in humans. The in vitro model of lymphocyte-HEV interaction thus provides a unique means to assay the migratory properties of normal and neoplastic human lymphocyte subsets, to analyze the role of lymphocyte traffic mechanisms in normal and pathologic inflammatory reactions, and to define some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the control of lymphocyte migration and positioning in humans. PMID:4027380

  20. Rosiglitazone transiently disturbs calcium homeostasis in monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Caddy, J; Singh, N; Atkin, L; Ahluwalia, M; Roberts, A; Lang, D; Thomas, A W; Webb, R

    2008-02-01

    The PPARgamma agonist Rosiglitazone exerts anti-hyperglycaemic effects by regulating the long-term expression of genes involved in metabolism, differentiation and inflammation. In the present study, Rosiglitazone treatment rapidly inhibited (5-30 min) the ER Ca(2+) ATPase SERCA2b in monocytic cells (IC(50)=1.88 microM; p<0.05), thereby disrupting short-term Ca(2+) homeostasis (resting [Ca(2+)](cyto)=121.2+/-2.9% basal within 1h; p<0.05). However, extended Rosiglitazone treatment (72 h) induced dose-dependent SERCA2b up-regulation, and restored calcium homeostasis, in monocytic cells (SERCA2b mRNA: 138.7+/-5.7% basal (1 microM)/215.0+/-30.9% basal (10 microM); resting [Ca(2+)](cyto)=97.3+/-8.3% basal (10 microM)). As unfavourable cardiovascular outcomes, possibly related to disrupted cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, have been linked to Rosiglitazone, this effect may be of clinical interest. In contrast, in PPRE-luciferase reporter-gene assays, Rosiglitazone induced non-dose-dependent PPARgamma-dependent effects (1 microM: 152.5+/-4.9% basal; 10 microM: 136.1+/-5.1% basal (p<0.05 for 1 microM vs. 10 microM)). Thus, we conclude that Rosiglitazone can exert PPARgamma-independent non-genomic effects, such as the SERCA2b inhibition seen here, but that long-term Rosiglitazone treatment did not perturb resting [Ca](cyto) in this study. PMID:18053798

  1. Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 is up-regulated in monocytes from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Jaume; Sauleda, Jaume; Regueiro, Verónica; Santos, Carmen; López, Meritxell; Ferrer, Joana; Agustí, Alvar GN; Bengoechea, José A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by pulmonary and systemic inflammation which flare-up during episodes of acute exacerbation (AECOPD). Given the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the induction of inflammatory responses we investigated the involvement of TLRs in COPD pathogenesis. Methods The expression of TLR-2, TLR-4 and CD14 in monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. To study the functional responses of these receptors, monocytes were stimulated with peptidoglycan or lipopolysaccharide and the amounts of TNF? and IL-6 secreted were determined by ELISA. Results We found that the expression of TLR-2 was up-regulated in peripheral blood monocytes from COPD patients, either clinically stable or during AECOPD, as compared to never smokers or smokers with normal lung function. Upon stimulation with TLR-2 ligand monocytes from COPD patients secreted increased amounts of cytokines than similarly stimulated monocytes from never smokers and smokers. In contrast, the expressions of TLR-4 and CD14 were not significantly different between groups, and the response to lipopolysaccharide (a TLR-4 ligand) stimulation was not significantly different either. At discharge from hospital TLR-2 expression was down-regulated in peripheral blood monocytes from AECOPD patients. This could be due to the treatment with systemic steroids because, in vitro, steroids down-regulated TLR-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrated that IL-6, whose plasma levels are elevated in patients, up-regulated in vitro TLR-2 expression in monocytes from never smokers. Conclusion Our results reveal abnormalities in TLRs expression in COPD patients and highlight its potential relationship with systemic inflammation in these patients. PMID:16606450

  2. Vibrio cholerae porin OmpU mediates M1-polarization of macrophages/monocytes via TLR1/TLR2 activation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Junaid; Sharma, Praveen K; Mukhopadhaya, Arunika

    2015-11-01

    Polarization of the monocytes and macrophages toward the M1 and M2 states is important for hosts' defense against the pathogens. Moreover, it plays a crucial role to resolve the overwhelming inflammatory responses that can be harmful to the host. Polarization of macrophages/monocytes can be induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMP-mediated monocyte/macrophage polarization is important during the infection, as pathogen can suppress host immune system by altering the polarization status of the macrophages/monocytes. OmpU, an outer membrane porin protein of Vibrio cholerae, possesses the ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses in monocytes/macrophages. It is also able to down-regulate the LPS-mediated activation of the monocytes/macrophages. Such observation leads us to believe that OmpU may induce a state that can be called as M1/M2-intermediate state. In the present study, we evaluated a set of M1 and M2 markers in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line, and THP-1 human monocytic cell line, in response to the purified OmpU protein. We observed that OmpU, as a PAMP, induced M1-polarization by activating the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. OmpU induced formation of TLR1/TLR2-heterodimers. OmpU-mediated TLR-activation led to the MyD88 recruitment to the TLR1/TLR2 complex. MyD88, in turn, recruited IRAK1. Ultimately, OmpU-mediated signaling led to the activation and subsequent nuclear translocation of the NF?B p65 subunit. We also observed that blocking of the TLR1, TLR2, IRAK1, and NF?B affected OmpU-mediated production of M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF? and IL-6. PMID:26093918

  3. Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate for absolute CD4 count in the adult Indian HIV population: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Karanth, Suman S.; Rau, N. R.; Gupta, Anurag; Kamath, Asha; Shanbhogue, Vikram; Pruthvi, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Standard methods of CD4 counts and plasma viral load estimation require specialized equipment, highly trained personnel and are extremely expensive. This remains a major challenge for the initiation of anti-retroviral therapy for patients in resource-limited settings. Objective: To assess the clinical utility of the total lymphocyte count (TLC) to serve as a surrogate marker for predicting a CD4 counts <350 cell/mm3 in patients with HIV. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 200 consecutive newly detected highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) naïve HIV patients admitted over a one year period was conducted. Linear regression, Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the relationship between TLC and CD4 counts. Results: A significant correlation between TLC and CD4 count was observed (r = 0.682, P < 0.001). TLC cut off of 1200 cell/mm3 as a predictor of CD4 count <350 cell/mm3 had 73.1% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value (PPV) and 51.4% negative predictive value (NPV). Raising the cutoff to 1500 cells/mm3 improved the sensitivity to 82.1% with 88.2% specificity, 96.5% PPV, 44.4% NPV. The ROC curve demonstrated highest area under curve (AUC = 0.8) for TLC of 1500 cell/mm3. Conclusion: The study showed that TLC cutoff value of 1500 cells/mm3 was a cost effective surrogate marker for CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 in resource-limited settings. PMID:24678463

  4. Evolution and Impact of Subclonal Mutations in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    E-print Network

    Landau, Dan A.

    Clonal evolution is a key feature of cancer progression and relapse. We studied intratumoral heterogeneity in 149 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases by integrating whole-exome sequence and copy number to measure the ...

  5. Distinct Contributions of Neutrophils and CCR2+ Monocytes to Pulmonary Clearance of Different Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Huizhong; Carter, Rebecca A; Leiner, Ingrid M; Tang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Pamer, Eric G

    2015-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen, with some strains having developed broad resistance to clinically available antibiotics. Humans can become infected with many different K. pneumoniae strains that vary in genetic background, antibiotic susceptibility, capsule composition, and mucoid phenotype. Genome comparisons have revealed differences between K. pneumoniae strains, but the impact of genomic variability on immune-mediated clearance of pneumonia remains unclear. Experimental studies of pneumonia in mice have used the rodent-adapted 43816 strain of K. pneumoniae and demonstrated that neutrophils are essential for optimal host defense. It remains unclear, however, whether CCR2(+) monocytes contribute to K. pneumoniae clearance from the lung. We selectively depleted neutrophils, CCR2(+) monocytes, or both from immunocompetent mice and determined susceptibility to infection by the 43816 strain and 4 newly isolated clinical K. pneumoniae strains. The clinical K. pneumoniae strains, including one carbapenem-resistant ST258 strain, are less virulent than 43816. Optimal clearance of each of the 5 strains required either neutrophils or CCR2(+) monocytes. Selective neutrophil depletion markedly worsened infection with K. pneumoniae strain 43816 and three clinical isolates but did not increase susceptibility of mice to infection with the carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae ST258 strain. Depletion of CCR2(+) monocytes delayed recovery from infection with each of the 5 K. pneumoniae strains, revealing a contribution of these cells to bacterial clearance from the lung. Our findings demonstrate strain-dependent variation in the contributions of neutrophils and CCR2(+) monocytes to clearance of K. pneumoniae pulmonary infection. PMID:26056382

  6. The Role of HIV and Monocytes/Macrophages in Adipose Tissue Biology

    PubMed Central

    Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A.; Killebrew, Deirdre A.; LiButti, Daniel E.; Chow, Dominic C.; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Liang, Chin Yuan; Milne, Cris I.P.; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C.; Barbour, Jason D.; Shiramizu, Bruce T.; Gerschenson, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of HIV and monocytes/macrophages in adipose tissue dysregulation. Methods Cross-sectional study in 5 groups: HIV seronegative, HIV+ antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV+ nonlipoatrophic on zidovudine- and/or stavudine-containing ART, HIV+ lipoatrophic on similar ART, and HIV+ on abacavir- or tenofovir-containing ART. HIV DNA in circulating monocyte subsets was quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Biopsied subcutaneous fat was examined for macrophage content by CD68 staining. Isolated adipocytes and macrophages were cultured and the supernatant assayed for secretory products by Luminex multiplex cytokine technology. Results Sixty-nine subjects were enrolled. Lipoatrophic subjects had higher median HIV DNA levels (270.5 copies/106 cells) in circulating peripheral CD14+CD16+ co-expressing monocyte subsets compared with subjects who were ART-naive (25.0 copies), non-lipoatrophic (15.0 copies), or on abacavir/tenofovir (57.5 copies), P < 0.01. Group differences in adipocytes and adipose macrophage content were marginal. Although adipocyte secretory products were similar, HIV-infected subjects had higher adipose macrophage–derived interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte inflammatory protein 1 alpha and lower eotaxin and interferon gamma levels than HIV seronegative subjects (P < 0.05). Within HIV-infected subjects, adipose macrophage secretory products were comparable between subjects naive with ART versus those on ART. Conclusions Circulating HIV-infected and proinflammatory CD14+CD16+ monocyte subsets contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lipoatrophy. Among HIV-infected individuals, macrophages, rather than adipocytes, are the primary source of low-grade inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue. HIV infection modifies these macrophages to a more proinflammatory phenotype, and these changes are not substantially mitigated by the use of ART. PMID:24091690

  7. CD14{sup +} monocytes promote the immunosuppressive effect of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ding; TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin ; Chen, Ke; TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin ; Du, Wei Ting; Han, Zhi-Bo; TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin ; Ren, He; Chi, Ying; TEDA Life and Technology Research Center, Institute of Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, TEDA, Tianjin ; and others

    2010-09-10

    Here, the effect of CD14{sup +} monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) secretion capacities of CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) as an important soluble mediator. CD14{sup +} monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1{beta}, either exogenously added or produced by CD14{sup +} monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE{sub 2} by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE{sub 2} expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14{sup +} monocytes and partially restored CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cell proliferation and IFN-{gamma} secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

  8. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. )

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  9. Common Variants on Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Polymorphisms Contributes to Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility: Evidence Based on 58 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junhua; Sun, Fei; Zhao, Zefei; Gu, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of case–control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the CTLA4 gene polymorphisms and type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, these studies have yielded contradictory results. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of all available studies dealing with the relationship between the CTLA4 polymorphism and T1D. In total, 58 association studies on two CTLA4 polymorphisms (G49A and C60T) and risk of T1D, including a total of 30,723 T1D cases and 45,254 controls were included. In a combined analysis, the summary per-allele odds ratio (OR) for T1D of the G49A and C60T polymorphism was 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–1.53, P<10?5] and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.18–1.29, P<10?5), respectively. Significant results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic model. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity and sample size, significantly increased risks were also found for these polymorphisms. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the G49A and C60T polymorphism of CTLA4 is a risk factor associated with increased T1D susceptibility, but these associations vary in different ethnic populations. PMID:24465825

  10. Mobilization of Copper ions by Flavonoids in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Leads to Oxidative DNA Breakage: A Structure Activity Study.

    PubMed

    Arif, Hussain; Rehmani, Nida; Farhan, Mohd; Ahmad, Aamir; Hadi, Sheikh Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked dietary consumption of plant polyphenols with lower incidence of various cancers. In particular, flavonoids (present in onion, tomato and other plant sources) induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These can therefore be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of novel anticancer drugs with greater bioavailability. In the present study, we examined the chemical basis of cytotoxicity of flavonoids by studying the structure-activity relationship of myricetin (MN), fisetin (FN), quercetin (QN), kaempferol (KL) and galangin (GN). Using single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay), we established the relative efficiency of cellular DNA breakage as MN > FN > QN > KL > GN. Also, we determined that the cellular DNA breakage was the result of mobilization of chromatin-bound copper ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species. The relative DNA binding affinity order was further confirmed using molecular docking and thermodynamic studies through the interaction of flavonoids with calf thymus DNA. Our results suggest that novel anti-cancer molecules should have ortho-dihydroxy groups in B-ring and hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 5 in the A-ring system. Additional hydroxyl groups at other positions further enhance the cellular cytotoxicity of the flavonoids. PMID:26569217

  11. Mobilization of copper ions in human peripheral lymphocytes by catechins leading to oxidative DNA breakage: A structure activity study.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Mohd; Zafar, Atif; Chibber, Sandesh; Khan, Husain Yar; Arif, Hussain; Hadi, S M

    2015-08-15

    Epidemiological studies suggest that dietary consumption of plant polyphenols is related to a lower incidence of various cancers. Among these compounds catechins (present in green tea and other beverages) are considered to be potent inducers of apoptosis and cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Thus these compounds can be used as leads to synthesize novel anticancer drugs with greater bioavailability. In view of this in this paper we have examined the chemical basis of cytotoxicity of catechins by studying the structure-activity relationship between catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Using single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay) we have established the relative efficiency of cellular DNA breakage as EGCG>EGC>EC>C. We also show that cellular DNA breakage is the result of mobilization of copper ions bound to chromatin and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Further the relative DNA binding affinity order was confirmed using molecular docking and thermodynamic studies by studying the interaction of catechins with calf thymus DNA. The results suggest that the synthesis of any novel anti cancer molecule based on the structure of catechins should have as many galloyl moieties as possible resulting in an increased number of hydroxyl groups that may facilitate the binding of the molecule to cellular DNA. PMID:26142371

  12. Mobilization of Copper ions by Flavonoids in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Leads to Oxidative DNA Breakage: A Structure Activity Study

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Hussain; Rehmani, Nida; Farhan, Mohd; Ahmad, Aamir; Hadi, Sheikh Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked dietary consumption of plant polyphenols with lower incidence of various cancers. In particular, flavonoids (present in onion, tomato and other plant sources) induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These can therefore be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of novel anticancer drugs with greater bioavailability. In the present study, we examined the chemical basis of cytotoxicity of flavonoids by studying the structure–activity relationship of myricetin (MN), fisetin (FN), quercetin (QN), kaempferol (KL) and galangin (GN). Using single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay), we established the relative efficiency of cellular DNA breakage as MN > FN > QN > KL > GN. Also, we determined that the cellular DNA breakage was the result of mobilization of chromatin-bound copper ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species. The relative DNA binding affinity order was further confirmed using molecular docking and thermodynamic studies through the interaction of flavonoids with calf thymus DNA. Our results suggest that novel anti-cancer molecules should have ortho-dihydroxy groups in B-ring and hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 5 in the A-ring system. Additional hydroxyl groups at other positions further enhance the cellular cytotoxicity of the flavonoids. PMID:26569217

  13. Studies of DNA and chromosome damage in skin fibroblasts and blood lymphocytes from psoriasis patients treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bredberg, A.; Lambert, B.; Lindblad, A.; Swanbeck, G.; Wennersten, G.

    1983-08-01

    Exposure of human lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts in vitro to a single, clinically used dose of PUVA, i.e., 0.1 micrograms/ml of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus 0.9-4 J/cm2 of longwave ultraviolet radiation (UVA), lead to the formation of DNA damage as determined by alkaline elution, and to chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). When lymphocyte-enriched plasma was obtained from psoriasis patients 2 h after oral intake of 8-MOP and then UVA irradiated (1.8-3.6 J/cm2) in vitro, an increased frequency of chromosome aberrations and SCE was observed. Normal levels of chromosome aberrations and SCE were found in lymphocytes of psoriasis patients after 3-30 weeks of PUVA treatment in vivo. A small but statistically significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in the lymphocytes of psoriasis patients treated for 1-6 years with PUVA (mean 18.0 SCE/cell) as compared with before PUVA (mean 15.8, p less than 0.05). Skin fibroblasts of psoriasis patients analyzed 5 years after the start of PUVA treatment showed a normal number of SCE but a high fraction of filter-retained DNA in the alkaline elution assay, suggesting the presence of cross-linked DNA.

  14. Influence of Phthalates on Cytokine Production in Monocytes and Macrophages: A Systematic Review of Experimental Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Claus H.; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Background Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which could affect both pro- and anti-inflammatory abilities of these cells. Strategy and Results A systematic search was performed in Medline, Embase and Toxline in June 2013, last updated 3rd of August 2014. Criteria used to select studies were described and published beforehand online on Prospero (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236). In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters) and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor-? secretion/production from monocytes or macrophages. A summary of cytokine measurements was not possible since few studies were comparable in study design and due to insufficient reporting of raw data for most of the included studies. Conclusion Results from this review have suggested that at least one phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) has the ability to enhance tumour necrosis factor-? production/secretion from monocytes/macrophages in vitro, but also observed ex vivo. Influence of other phthalates on other cytokines has only been investigated in few studies. Thus, in vitro studies on primary human monocytes/macrophages as well as more in vivo studies are needed to confirm or dispute these findings. PMID:25811352

  15. Inflammatory monocytes and the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes are a heterogeneous population of bone marrow-derived cells that are recruited to sites of infection and inflammation in many models of human diseases, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). Ly6Chi/CCR2hi inflammatory monocytes have been identified as the circulating precursors of brain macrophages, dendritic cells and arguably microglia in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Alzheimer’s disease; stroke; and more recently in CNS infection caused by Herpes simplex virus, murine hepatitis virus, Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. The precise differentiation pathways and functions of inflammatory monocyte-derived populations in the inflamed CNS remains a contentious issue, especially in regard to the existence of monocyte-derived microglia. Furthermore, the contributions of monocyte-derived subsets to viral clearance and immunopathology are not well-defined. Thus, understanding the pathways through which inflammatory monocytes migrate to the brain and their functional capacity within the CNS is critical to inform future therapeutic strategies. This review discusses some of the key aspects of inflammatory monocyte trafficking to the brain and addresses the role of these cells in viral encephalitis. PMID:23244217

  16. Lactate promotes PGE2 synthesis and gluconeogenesis in monocytes to benefit the growth of inflammation-associated colorectal tumor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Libin; Zhou, Yuxin; Yao, Jing; Qiao, Chen; Ni, Ting; Guo, Ruichen; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-06-30

    Reprogramming energy metabolism, such as enhanced glycolysis, is an Achilles' heel in cancer treatment. Most studies have been performed on isolated cancer cells. Here, we studied the energy-transfer mechanism in inflammatory tumor microenvironment. We found that human THP-1 monocytes took up lactate secreted from tumor cells through monocarboxylate transporter 1. In THP-1 monocytes, the oxidation product of lactate, pyruvate competed with the substrate of proline hydroxylase and inhibited its activity, resulting in the stabilization of HIF-1? under normoxia. Mechanistically, activated hypoxia-inducible factor 1-? in THP-1 monocytes promoted the transcriptions of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which were the key enzyme of prostaglandin E2 synthesis and gluconeogenesis, respectively, and promote the growth of human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Interestingly, lactate could not accelerate the growth of colon cancer directly in vivo. Instead, the human monocytic cells affected by lactate would play critical roles to 'feed' the colon cancer cells. Thus, recycling of lactate for glucose regeneration was reported in cancer metabolism. The anabolic metabolism of monocytes in inflammatory tumor microenvironment may be a critical event during tumor development, allowing accelerated tumor growth. PMID:25938544

  17. Lactate promotes PGE2 synthesis and gluconeogenesis in monocytes to benefit the growth of inflammation-associated colorectal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Libin; Zhou, Yuxin; Yao, Jing; Qiao, Chen; Ni, Ting; Guo, Ruichen; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming energy metabolism, such as enhanced glycolysis, is an Achilles' heel in cancer treatment. Most studies have been performed on isolated cancer cells. Here, we studied the energy-transfer mechanism in inflammatory tumor microenvironment. We found that human THP-1 monocytes took up lactate secreted from tumor cells through monocarboxylate transporter 1. In THP-1 monocytes, the oxidation product of lactate, pyruvate competed with the substrate of proline hydroxylase and inhibited its activity, resulting in the stabilization of HIF-1? under normoxia. Mechanistically, activated hypoxia-inducible factor 1-? in THP-1 monocytes promoted the transcriptions of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which were the key enzyme of prostaglandin E2 synthesis and gluconeogenesis, respectively, and promote the growth of human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Interestingly, lactate could not accelerate the growth of colon cancer directly in vivo. Instead, the human monocytic cells affected by lactate would play critical roles to ‘feed’ the colon cancer cells. Thus, recycling of lactate for glucose regeneration was reported in cancer metabolism. The anabolic metabolism of monocytes in inflammatory tumor microenvironment may be a critical event during tumor development, allowing accelerated tumor growth. PMID:25938544

  18. Reduction of CD8+ T lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis patients treated with dimethyl fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Collin M.; Crabtree-Hartman, Elizabeth C.; Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Cree, Bruce A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of dimethyl fumarate (DMF, Tecfidera) treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) on leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets. Methods: Peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets, including CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells; CD19+ B cells; and CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells, were obtained at baseline and monitored at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after initiation of DMF treatment. Results: Total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts diminished after 6 months of DMF therapy. At 12 months, lymphocyte counts had decreased by 50.1% (p < 0.0001) and were below the lower limit of normal (LLN) in one-half of patients. CD3+ T lymphocyte counts fell by 44.2% (p < 0.0001). Among subsets, CD8+ T cell counts declined by 54.6% (p < 0.0001), whereas CD4+ T cell counts decreased by 39.2% (p = 0.0006). This disproportionate reduction of CD8+ T cells relative to CD4+ T cells was significant (p = 0.007) and was reflected by a 35.5% increase in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p = 0.007). A majority of CD8+ T cell counts, but not CD4+ T cell counts, were below the LLN even when total lymphocyte counts were greater than 500 cells/?L. CD19+ B cell counts were reduced by 37.5% (p = 0.035). Eosinophil levels decreased by 54.1% (p = 0.006), whereas levels of neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and NK cells were not significantly altered. Conclusion: Subsets of peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphocytes are differentially affected by DMF treatment of MS. Reduction of CD8+ T cells is more pronounced than that of CD4+ T cells. These findings may have implications for cell-mediated antiviral immunity during DMF treatment. PMID:25738172

  19. Regional differences in the density of Langerhans cells, CD8-positive T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages: a preliminary study using elderly donated cadavers.

    PubMed

    Omine, Yuya; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Kasahara, Masaaki; Matsunaga, Satoru; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    To provide a better understanding of the local immune system in the face and external genitalia, i.e., the oral floor, lower lip, palpebral conjunctiva, anus and penis, we examined the distribution and density of CD1a-positve Langerhans cells, CD8-positive suppressor T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages using specimens from 8 male elderly cadavers. The density of Langerhans cells showed an individual difference of more than (or almost) 10-fold in the lip (oral floor). In the oral floor, Langerhans cells were often spherical. Submucosal or subcutaneous suppressor lymphocytes, especially rich in the oral floor and penile skin, migrated into the epithelium at 4 sites, except for the anus. In the conjunctiva, macrophage migration into the epithelium was seen in all 8 specimens. The density of suppressor lymphocytes showed a significant correlation between the oral floor and the lip (r=0.78). In contrast, the anal and penile skins showed no positive correlation in the density of all three types of immunoreactive cells examined. Overall, irrespective of the wide individual differences, the oral floor and conjunctiva seemed to be characterized by a rich content of all three cell types, whereas the penile skin was characterized by an abundance of suppressor lymphocytes. Based on the tables, as mean value, the relative abundance of three different cell types were as follows; CD1a-positive Langerhans cells (anus), CD8-positive lymphocytes (penis), and CD68-positive macrophages (lip). The present observations suggest that the local immune response is highly site-dependent, with a tendency for tolerance rather than rejection. PMID:26417477

  20. Chemoimmunotherapy With Fludarabine and Rituximab Produces Extended Overall Survival and Progression-Free Survival in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Term Follow-Up of CALGB Study 9712

    PubMed Central

    Woyach, Jennifer A.; Ruppert, Amy S.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Gribben, John G.; Morrison, Vicki A.; Rai, Kanti R.; Larson, Richard A.; Byrd, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The addition of rituximab to fludarabine-based regimens in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been shown to produce high response rates with extended remissions. The long-term follow-up of these regimens with respect to progression, survival, risk of secondary leukemia, and impact of genomic risk factors has been limited. Methods We report the long-term follow-up of the chemoimmunotherapy trial CALGB 9712 from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, for which treatment regimen was previously reported, to examine end points of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), impact of genomic features, and risk of therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN). Results A total of 104 patients were enrolled on this study and now have a median follow-up of 117 months (range, 66 to 131 months). The median OS was 85 months, and 71% of patients were alive at 5 years. The median PFS was 42 months, and 27% were progression free at 5 years. An estimated 13% remained free of progression at almost 10 years of follow-up. Multivariable models of PFS and OS showed that immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region mutational status was significant for both, whereas cytogenetic abnormalities were significant only for OS. No patient developed t-MN before relapse. Conclusion Long-term follow-up of CALGB 9712 demonstrates extended OS and PFS with fludarabine plus rituximab. Patients treated with fludarabine plus rituximab administered concurrently or sequentially have a low risk of t-MN. These long-term data support fludarabine plus rituximab as one acceptable first-line treatment for symptomatic patients with CLL. PMID:21321292

  1. Separation of lymphocytes by electrophoresis under terrestrial conditions and at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of human peripheral lymphocytes were examined with the following objectives: To determine differences in EPM of lymphocytes under immuno-stimulated and immuno-suppressed states. To define the conditions necessary for the separation of lymphocyte sub-populations in normal and pathological conditions; To investigate immunological active, charged chemical groups on lymphocyte surfaces; and to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms of immune responsiveness, as reflected by alterations in EPM. To evaluate the potential of lymphocyte electrophoresis as: (1) a means of monitoring the immune status of kidney transplant recipients, (2) in predicting the outcome of kidney transplants, and (3) as a method for separation of lymphocyte sub-populations, the EPM was studied for unfractionated human peripheral lymphocytes and of populations enriched with T and "B" cells from normal adults, hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.

  2. Oral Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Challenge Induces Activation of Circulating Monocytes and Dendritic Cells in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Toapanta, Franklin R.; Bernal, Paula J.; Fresnay, Stephanie; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S.; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    A new human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) was recently developed. In this model, ingestion of 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of subjects developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD-) 5–10 days post-challenge. TD criteria included meeting clinical (oral temperature ?38°C for ?12h) and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia) endpoints. One of the first lines of defense against pathogens are the cells of the innate immune system (e.g., monocytes, dendritic cells -DCs-). Various changes in circulating monocytes and DCs have been described in the murine S. Typhimurium model; however, whether similar changes are present in humans remains to be explored. To address these questions, a subset of volunteers (5 TD and 3 who did not develop typhoid despite oral challenge -NoTD-) were evaluated for changes in circulating monocytes and DCs. Expression of CD38 and CD40 were upregulated in monocytes and DCs in TD volunteers during the disease days (TD-0h to TD-96h). Moreover, integrin ?4?7, a gut homing molecule, was upregulated on monocytes but not DCs. CD21 upregulation was only identified in DCs. These changes were not observed among NoTD volunteers despite the same oral challenge. Moreover, monocytes and DCs from NoTD volunteers showed increased binding to S. Typhi one day after challenge. These monocytes showed phosphorylation of p38MAPK, NFkB and Erk1/2 upon stimulation with S. Typhi-LPS-QDot micelles. In contrast, monocytes from TD volunteers showed only a moderate increase in S. Typhi binding 48h and 96h post-TD, and only Erk1/2 phosphorylation. This is the first study to describe different activation and migration profiles, as well as differential signaling patterns, in monocytes and DCs which relate directly to the clinical outcome following oral challenge with wild type S. Typhi. PMID:26065687

  3. Quantitative diagnosis of lymphocytic myocarditis in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Møller, Jesper; Banner, Jytte; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish quantitative diagnostic criteria for lymphocytic myocarditis on autopsy samples by using a stereological cell profile counting method. We quantified and compared the presence of lymphocytes and macrophages in myocardial autopsy specimens from 112 deceased individuals who had been diagnosed with myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria and 86 control subjects with morphologically normal hearts. We found the mean number to be 52.7 lymphocyte profiles/mm(2) (range 3.7-946; standard deviation 131) in the myocarditis group and 9.7 (range 2.1-25.9; standard deviation 4.6) in the control group. The cut-off value for the diagnosis of myocarditis was determined by calculating sensitivity plus specificity, which reached the highest combination at 13 lymphocyte profiles/mm(2) (sensitivity 68%; specificity 83%). A considerable proportion of subjects in both the myocarditis and control groups had lymphocyte profile counts below 30/mm(2), representing a diagnostic challenge due to the increased risk of creating false negative or false positive results. We found it practically impossible to obtain a reliable macrophage count. The present data add new important information on lymphocyte counts in inflamed and non-inflamed myocardium. We suggest a cut-off value in the range of 11-16 lymphocyte profiles/mm(2) for a reliable diagnosis of lymphocytic myocarditis from autopsy samples. To evaluate small inflammatory changes at low lymphocyte counts, a multidisciplinary approach should be implemented, in which diagnostic tools are used ancillary to histological examination. We advise against semi-quantification of macrophages based on cell profile counting. PMID:24631882

  4. Traffic and proliferative responses of recirculating lymphocytes in fetal calves.

    PubMed Central

    Hein, W R; Shelton, J N; Simpson-Morgan, M W; Morris, B

    1988-01-01

    The thoracic duct or efferent prescapular duct was cannulated in four fetal calves aged 121-259 days post-conception. The duration of lymph flow ranged from 2 to 20 days and the mean flow rates sustained over these collection periods varied from 5.4 to 48.8 ml/hr. Lymphocyte output ranged from 4.4 x 10(6) cells/hr in thoracic duct lymph from a 121-day fetus to 3.9 x 10(8) cells/hr in efferent prescapular lymph from a 259-day fetus. The circulating lymphocyte pool in fetal calves of about 120 and 190 days gestational age was calculated to contain, respectively, 4 x 10(8) cells and 2 x 10(10) cells. The proportion of lymphocytes bearing surface immunoglobulin detected in fetal lymph ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Recirculating lymphocytes from fetal calves produced strong proliferative responses when stimulated by T-cell mitogens but responded poorly to B-cell mitogens. Fetal lymphocytes also responded to stimulation by allogeneic cells and stimulated other cells to proliferate during mixed lymphocyte culture. When stimulated with Con A, fetal lymphocytes secreted IL-2 to a degree that was indistinguishable from the secretory behaviour of lymphocytes from adult animals. The results presented in this paper show that chronic lymphatic fistulae can be established successfully in fetal calves to give access to recirculating lymphocytes. This provides a new experimental approach for studying the development of the bovine immune system. PMID:2971606

  5. Arsenic alters monocyte superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in environmentally exposed children

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, Ana L.; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Conde, Patricia; Vera, Eunice; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Bastida, Mariana; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S.

    2010-06-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with alterations in the immune system, studies in experimental models and adults have shown that these effects involve macrophage function; however, limited information is available on what type of effects could be induced in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of As exposure, through the association of inorganic As (iAs) and its metabolites [monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] with basal levels of nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}-}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-}), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytes, and NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} produced by activated monocytes. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 87 children (6-10 years old) who had been environmentally exposed to As through drinking water. Levels of urinary As species (iAs, MMA and DMA) were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, total As (tAs) represents the sum of iAs and its species; tAs urine levels ranged from 12.3 to 1411 {mu}g/g creatinine. Using multiple linear regression models, iAs presented a positive and statistical association with basal NO{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC ({beta} = 0.0048, p = 0.049) and monocytes ({beta} = 0.0044, p = 0.044), while basal O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} had a significant positive association with DMA ({beta} = 0.0025, p = 0.046). In activated monocytes, O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} showed a statistical and positive association with iAs ({beta} = 0.0108, p = 0.023), MMA ({beta} = 0.0066, p = 0.022), DMA ({beta} = 0.0018, p = 0.015), and tAs ({beta} = 0.0013, p = 0.015). We conclude that As exposure in the studied children was positively associated with basal levels of NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC and monocytes, suggesting that As induces oxidative stress in circulating blood cells. Additionally, this study showed a positive association of O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} production with iAs and its metabolites in stimulated monocytes, supporting previous data that suggests that these cells, and particularly the O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} activation pathway, are relevant targets for As toxicity.

  6. Effects of cytochalasin D and methylamine on intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in amoebae and human monocyte-like cells.

    PubMed Central

    King, C H; Fields, B S; Shotts, E B; White, E H

    1991-01-01

    A cloned and axenically cultured strain of Hartmannella vermiformis was used as a model to study intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in amoebae. The growth of L. pneumophilia in both H. vermiformis and a human monocyte-like cell line (U937) was investigated with cytoskeletal and metabolic inhibitors. L. pneumophila replicated only intracellularly in these cellular models, and electron microscopy showed ultrastructural similarities in the initial phase of multiplication. Treatment of amoebae with an inhibitor of microfilament-dependent phagocytosis (cytochalasin D, 0.5 or 1.0 micrograms/ml) did not inhibit intracellular growth of L. pneumophila; however, intracellular multiplication was inhibited by treatment of U937 monocytes with the same concentrations of cytochalasin D. Methylamine (10 to 100 mM), an inhibitor of adsorptive pinocytosis, inhibited the replication of L. pneumophila in amoebae in a dose-dependent manner. All doses of methylamine tested (10 to 50 mM) inhibited growth of L. pneumophila in U937 monocytes. Cytochalasin D and methylamine had no effect on the multiplication of L. pneumophila in culture medium or on the viability of amoebae or U937 monocytes. Intracellular replication of L. pneumophila in H. vermiformis may be accomplished by a cytochalasin D-independent mechanism, such as adsorptive pinocytosis. In contrast, both cytochalasin D- and methylamine-sensitive mechanisms may be essential for the intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila in U937 monocytes. Images PMID:1997428

  7. TH1, TH2, and TH17 cells instruct monocytes to differentiate into specialized dendritic cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Michael N.; Wong, Michael T.; Zhang, Angela L.; Winer, Daniel; Suhoski, Megan M.; Tolentino, Lorna L.; Gaitan, Juliana; Davidson, Matthew G.; Kung, Tiffany H.; Galel, David M.; Nadeau, Kari C.; Kim, Jinah; Utz, Paul J.; Söderström, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    Monocytes and T helper (TH) cells rapidly infiltrate inflamed tissues where monocytes differentiate into inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) through undefined mechanisms. Our studies indicate that TH cells frequently interact with monocytes in inflamed skin and elicit the differentiation of specialized DC subsets characteristic of these lesions. In psoriasis lesions, TH1 and TH17 cells interact with monocytes and instruct these cells to differentiate into TH1- and TH17-promoting DCs, respectively. Correspondingly, in acute atopic dermatitis, TH2 cells interact with monocytes and elicit the formation of TH2-promoting DCs. DC formation requires GM-CSF and cell contact, whereas TH subset specific cytokines dictate DC function and the expression of DC subset specific surface molecules. Moreover, the phenotypes of T cell–induced DC subsets are maintained after subsequent stimulation with a panel of TLR agonists, suggesting that TH-derived signals outweigh downstream TLR signals in their influence on DC function. These findings indicate that TH cells govern the formation and function of specialized DC subsets. PMID:21813450

  8. Monocyte Tumor Necrosis Factor-?–Converting Enzyme Catalytic Activity and Substrate Shedding in Sepsis and Noninfectious Systemic Inflammation*

    PubMed Central

    O’Callaghan, David J. P.; O’Dea, Kieran P.; Scott, Alasdair J.; Takata, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of severe sepsis on monocyte tumor necrosis factor-?–converting enzyme baseline and inducible activity profiles. Design: Observational clinical study. Setting: Mixed surgical/medical teaching hospital ICU. Patients: Sixteen patients with severe sepsis, 15 healthy volunteers, and eight critically ill patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Monocyte expression of human leukocyte antigen-D-related peptide, sol-tumor necrosis factor production, tumor necrosis factor-?–converting enzyme expression and catalytic activity, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and 2 expression, and shedding at 48-hour intervals from day 0 to day 4, as well as p38-mitogen activated protein kinase expression. Compared with healthy volunteers, both sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients’ monocytes expressed reduced levels of human leukocyte antigen-D-related peptide and released less sol-tumor necrosis factor on in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation, consistent with the term monocyte deactivation. However, patients with sepsis had substantially elevated levels of basal tumor necrosis factor-?–converting enzyme activity that were refractory to lipopolysaccharide stimulation and this was accompanied by similar changes in p38-mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. In patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, monocyte basal tumor necrosis factor-?–converting enzyme, and its induction by lipopolysaccharide, appeared similar to healthy controls. Changes in basal tumor necrosis factor-?–converting enzyme activity at day 0 for sepsis patients correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and the attenuated tumor necrosis factor-?–converting enzyme response to lipopolysaccharide was associated with increased mortality. Similar changes in monocyte tumor necrosis factor-?–converting enzyme activity could be induced in healthy volunteer monocytes using an in vitro two-hit inflammation model. Patients with sepsis also displayed reduced shedding of monocyte tumor necrosis factor receptors upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Conclusions: Monocyte tumor necrosis factor-?–converting enzyme catalytic activity appeared altered by sepsis and may result in reduced shedding of tumor necrosis factor receptors. Changes seemed specific to sepsis and correlated with illness severity. A better understanding of how tumor necrosis factor-?–converting enzyme function is altered during sepsis will enhance our understanding of sepsis pathophysiology, which will help in the assessment of patient inflammatory status and ultimately may provide new strategies to treat sepsis. PMID:25867908

  9. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes may represent distinct monocyte subsets with unique functions. CONCLUSIONS: Whole blood culture eliminates the need to purify cell populations prior to culture and may have Significant utility for the routine monitoring of the cytokine balances of the peripheral blood T cell and monocyte populations. In addition, there are distinct advantages to performing whole-blood (WB) activation as compared to PBMC activation. These advantages would include retaining all various cell-cell interactions as well as any soluble factors present in serum that influence cell activation. In this study, alterations in cytokine production are demonstrated between whole blood and PBMC activation. It is likely that whole blood activation more accurately represents the in-vivo immune balance than PBMC activation.

  10. Binding, internalization, and lysosomal association of 125I-human growth hormone in cultured human lymphocytes: a quantitative morphological and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    125I-human growth hormone (125I-hGH) binds specifically to receptors on cultures human lymphocytes (IM-9). When this process is studied by use of quantitative EM radioautography, under conditions of incubation at 15 degrees C for 5 min, the ligand is localized to the plasma membrane of the cell. At 30 degrees and 37 degrees C, however, 125I-hGH is progressively internalized by the cell as a function of time. The internalized ligand is found predominantly in the Golgi region of the cells, with a five-fold preferential localization to membrane-bounded structures with the morphological and cytochemical characteristics of lysosomes. Up to 59% of these lysosome-like structures are positive for the acid phosphatase reaction under the conditions of incubation at 37 degrees C for 120 min. When the cell associated radioactivity after 15- 120 min of incubation at 37 degrees C is extracted in 1 M acetic acid and filtered on a Sephadex G-100 column, 58-73% of the material elutes as intact hGH. When cells are incubated with 125I-hGH at 37 degrees C for 15-120 min, separated from the incubation medium, and washed and diluted 100-fold, the percent 125I-hGH dissociable decreases as a function of increasing time of incubation. When cells are incubated with 125I-hGH for 15 min at 37 degrees C and the radioactivity that dissociates from the cells during 15-90 min is studied, the labeled material appearing in the incubation medium is progressively degraded as a function of time of incubation. When the dissociation process is studied radioautographically, grains are found both in plasma membrane and intracelluar compartments after 30 min of association, but after 30 and 120 min of dissociation a higher proportion of grains are in the intracellular compartment. After 120 min of association, there is less dissociation from either compartment and a preferential increase of grains in the intracellular compartment. These data suggest that receptor-linked internalization of a polypeptide hormone provides a mechanism that couples degradation of the ligand with loss of the cell surface receptor. PMID:6253502

  11. A new role for PGRP-S (Tag7) in immune defense: lymphocyte migration is induced by a chemoattractant complex of Tag7 with Mts1.

    PubMed

    Dukhanina, E A; Lukyanova, T I; Romanova, E A; Guerriero, V; Gnuchev, N V; Georgiev, G P; Yashin, D V; Sashchenko, L P

    2015-11-17

    PGRP-S (Tag7) is an innate immunity protein involved in the antimicrobial defense systems, both in insects and in mammals. We have previously shown that Tag7 specifically interacts with several proteins, including Hsp70 and the calcium binding protein S100A4 (Mts1), providing a number of novel cellular functions. Here we show that Tag7-Mts1 complex causes chemotactic migration of lymphocytes, with NK cells being a preferred target. Cells of either innate immunity (neutrophils and monocytes) or acquired immunity (CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes) can produce this complex, which confirms the close connection between components of the 2 branches of immune response. PMID:26654597

  12. Therapeutic siRNA silencing in inflammatory monocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, Florian; Dutta, Partha; Gorbatov, Rostic; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Donahoe, Jessica S; Courties, Gabriel; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, James I; Markmann, James F; Marinelli, Brett; Panizzi, Peter; Lee, Won Woo; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Milstein, Stuart; Epstein-Barash, Hila; Cantley, William; Wong, Jamie; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Newton, Andita; Love, Kevin; Libby, Peter; Pittet, Mikael J; Swirski, Filip K; Koteliansky, Victor; Langer, Robert; Weissleder, Ralph; Anderson, Daniel G; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Excessive and prolonged activity of inflammatory monocytes is a hallmark of many diseases with an inflammatory component. In such conditions, precise targeting of these cells could be therapeutically beneficial while sparing many essential functions of the innate immune system, thus limiting unwanted effects. Inflammatory monocytes-but not the noninflammatory subset-depend on the chemokine receptor CCR2 for localization to injured tissue. Here we present an optimized lipid nanoparticle and a CCR2-silencing short interfering RNA that, when administered systemically in mice, show rapid blood clearance, accumulate in spleen and bone marrow, and localize to monocytes. Efficient degradation of CCR2 mRNA in monocytes prevents their accumulation in sites of inflammation. Specifically, the treatment attenuates their number in atherosclerotic plaques, reduces infarct size after coronary artery occlusion, prolongs normoglycemia in diabetic mice after pancreatic islet transplantation, and results in reduced tumor volumes and lower numbers of tumor-associated macrophages. PMID:21983520

  13. Enhancement of terminal B lymphocyte differentiation in vitro by fibroblast-like stromal cells from human spleen.

    PubMed

    Skibinski, G; Skibinska, A; Stewart, G D; James, K

    1998-12-01

    Stromal elements are major components of lymphoid tissues contributing to both tissue architecture and function. In this study we report on the phenotype and function of fibroblast-like stromal cells obtained from human spleen. These cells express high levels of CD44 and ICAM-1 and moderate levels of VLA-4, VCAM, CD40 and CD21. They fail to express endothelial, epithelial, lymphocyte and monocyte/macrophage markers. We show that these cells interact with B cell blasts induced in vitro by anti-CD40 and anti-mu stimulation. As a result of these interactions both IL-6 and IgG secretion into culture medium is increased. The enhanced secretion of IgG is partly inhibited by abolishing B cell blaststromal cell contact or by anti-IL-6, anti-VCAM or anti-CD49d antibodies. Our studies also suggest that the ability of stromal cells to promote B cell survival is most likely the underlying mechanism of the enhanced immunoglobulin secretion. Comparison of stromal cells from different lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs revealed that bone marrow- and spleen-derived stromal cells are the most effective in promoting B cell blast differentiation. PMID:9862330

  14. Expression of extracellular calcium (Ca2+o)-sensing receptor in human peripheral blood monocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Olozak, I.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Butters, R. R.; Kifor, O.; Scadden, D. T.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor playing key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. Macrophage-like mononuclear cells appear at sites of osteoclastic bone resorption during bone turnover and may play a role in the "reversal" phase of skeletal remodeling that follows osteoclastic resorption and precedes osteoblastic bone formation. Bone resorption produces substantial local increases in Ca2+o that could provide a signal for such mononuclear cells present locally within the bone marrow microenvironment. Indeed, previous studies by other investigators have shown that raising Ca2+o either in vivo or in vitro stimulated the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) from human peripheral blood monocytes, suggesting that these cells express a Ca2+o-sensing mechanism. In these earlier studies, however, the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) failed to detect transcripts for the CaR previously cloned from parathyroid and kidney in peripheral blood monocytes. Since we recently found that non-specific esterase-positive, putative monocytes isolated from murine bone marrow express the CaR, we reevaluated the expression of this receptor in human peripheral blood monocytes. Immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis, performed using a polyclonal antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in human monocytes. In addition, the use of RT-PCR with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products, identified CaR transcripts in the cells. Therefore, taken together, our data show that human peripheral blood monocytes possess both CaR protein and mRNA very similar if not identical to those expressed in parathyroid and kidney that could mediate the previously described, direct effects of Ca2+o on these cells. Furthermore, since mononuclear cells isolated from bone marrow also express the CaR, the latter might play some role in the "reversal" phase of bone remodeling, sensing local changes in Ca2+o resulting from osteoclastic bone resorption and secreting osteotropic cytokines or performing other Ca2+o-regulated functions that contribute to the control of bone turnover.

  15. Serum gastrin in canine chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluates serum gastrin concentrations in dogs with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, as well as its possible relationship with the severity of lesions present in the stomach. To achieve this aim, 5 dogs without gastrointestinal disease and 15 dogs with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis were included. Serum gastrin concentrations were significantly increased in dogs with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis compared with those in dogs without gastrointestinal disease. Also, there was a positive correlation between the severity of the gastric lesion and the serum gastrin concentration. Our findings indicate the possibility that gastrin plays a role in the etiology of an accompanying chronic antral gastritis in canine chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis. PMID:16152719

  16. Imaging techniques for assaying lymphocyte activation in action.

    PubMed

    Balagopalan, Lakshmi; Sherman, Eilon; Barr, Valarie A; Samelson, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Imaging techniques have greatly improved our understanding of lymphocyte activation. Technical advances in spatial and temporal resolution and new labelling tools have enabled researchers to directly observe the activation process. Consequently, research using imaging approaches to study lymphocyte activation has expanded, providing an unprecedented level of cellular and molecular detail in the field. As a result, certain models of lymphocyte activation have been verified, others have been revised and yet others have been replaced with new concepts. In this article, we review the current imaging techniques that are used to assess lymphocyte activation in different contexts, from whole animals to single molecules, and discuss the advantages and potential limitations of these methods. PMID:21179118

  17. Type 2 Diabetes Monocyte MicroRNA and mRNA Expression: Dyslipidemia Associates with Increased Differentiation-Related Genes but Not Inflammatory Activation

    PubMed Central

    Baldeón R., Lucy; Weigelt, Karin; de Wit, Harm; Ozcan, Behiye; van Oudenaren, Adri; Sempértegui, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric; Grosse, Laura; van Zonneveld, Anton-Jan; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Leenen, Pieter J. M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that inflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue are involved in insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Due to a relative paucity of data on circulating monocytes in T2D, it is unclear whether the inflammatory changes of adipose tissue macrophages are reflected in these easily accessible cells. Objective To study the expression pattern of microRNAs and mRNAs related to inflammation in T2D monocytes. Design A microRNA finding study on monocytes of T2D patients and controls using array profiling was followed by a quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) study on monocytes of an Ecuadorian validation cohort testing the top over/under-expressed microRNAs. In addition, monocytes of the validation cohort were tested for 24 inflammation-related mRNAs and 2 microRNAs previously found deregulated in (auto)-inflammatory monocytes. Results In the finding study, 142 significantly differentially expressed microRNAs were identified, 15 having the strongest power to discriminate T2D patients from controls (sensitivity 66%, specificity 90%). However, differences in expression of these microRNAs between patients and controls were small. On the basis of >1.4 or <0.6-fold change expression 5 microRNAs were selected for further validation. One microRNA (miR-34c-5p) was validated as significantly over-expressed in T2D monocytes. In addition, we found over expression of 3 mRNAs (CD9, DHRS3 and PTPN7) in the validation cohort. These mRNAs are important for cell morphology, adhesion, shape change, and cell differentiation. Classical inflammatory genes (e.g. TNFAIP3) were only over-expressed in monocytes of patients with normal serum lipids. Remarkably, in dyslipidemia, there was a reduction in the expression of inflammatory genes (e.g. ATF3, DUSP2 and PTGS2). Conclusions The expression profile of microRNAs/mRNAs in monocytes of T2D patients indicates an altered adhesion, differentiation, and shape change potential. Monocyte inflammatory activation was only found in patients with normal serum lipids. Abnormal lipid values coincided with a reduced monocyte inflammatory state. PMID:26083362

  18. Therapeutic Inflammatory Monocyte Modulation Using Immune-Modifying Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Getts, Daniel R.; Terry, Rachael L.; Getts, Meghann Teague; Deffrasnes, Celine; Müller, Marcus; van Vreden, Caryn; Ashhurst, Thomas M.; Chami, Belal; McCarthy, Derrick; Wu, Huiling; Ma, Jin; Martin, Aaron; Shae, Lonnie D.; Witting, Paul; Kansas, Geoffrey S.; Kühn, Joachim; Hafezi, Wali; Campbell, Iain L.; Reilly, David; Say, Jana; Brown, Louise; White, Melanie Y.; Cordwell, Stuart J.; Chadban, Steven J.; Thorp, Edward B.; Bao, Shisan; Miller, Stephen D.; King, Nicholas J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory monocyte-derived effector cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. However, no treatment option exists that is capable of modulating these cells specifically. We show that infused negatively charged, immune-modifying microparticles (IMPs), derived from polystyrene, microdiamonds, or biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, were taken up by inflammatory monocytes, in an opsonin-independent fashion, via the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO). Subsequently, these monocytes no longer trafficked to sites of inflammation; rather, IMP infusion caused their sequestration in the spleen through apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms and, ultimately, caspase-3–mediated apoptosis. Administration of IMPs in mouse models of myocardial infarction, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis, thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, and lethal flavivirus encephalitis markedly reduced monocyte accumulation at inflammatory foci, reduced disease symptoms, and promoted tissue repair. Together, these data highlight the intricate interplay between scavenger receptors, the spleen, and inflammatory monocyte function and support the translation of IMPs for therapeutic use in diseases caused or potentiated by inflammatory monocytes. PMID:24431111

  19. Therapeutic inflammatory monocyte modulation using immune-modifying microparticles.

    PubMed

    Getts, Daniel R; Terry, Rachael L; Getts, Meghann Teague; Deffrasnes, Celine; Müller, Marcus; van Vreden, Caryn; Ashhurst, Thomas M; Chami, Belal; McCarthy, Derrick; Wu, Huiling; Ma, Jin; Martin, Aaron; Shae, Lonnie D; Witting, Paul; Kansas, Geoffrey S; Kühn, Joachim; Hafezi, Wali; Campbell, Iain L; Reilly, David; Say, Jana; Brown, Louise; White, Melanie Y; Cordwell, Stuart J; Chadban, Steven J; Thorp, Edward B; Bao, Shisan; Miller, Stephen D; King, Nicholas J C

    2014-01-15

    Inflammatory monocyte-derived effector cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. However, no treatment option exists that is capable of modulating these cells specifically. We show that infused negatively charged, immune-modifying microparticles (IMPs), derived from polystyrene, microdiamonds, or biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, were taken up by inflammatory monocytes, in an opsonin-independent fashion, via the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO). Subsequently, these monocytes no longer trafficked to sites of inflammation; rather, IMP infusion caused their sequestration in the spleen through apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms and, ultimately, caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. Administration of IMPs in mouse models of myocardial infarction, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis, thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, and lethal flavivirus encephalitis markedly reduced monocyte accumulation at inflammatory foci, reduced disease symptoms, and promoted tissue repair. Together, these data highlight the intricate interplay between scavenger receptors, the spleen, and inflammatory monocyte function and support the translation of IMPs for therapeutic use in diseases caused or potentiated by inflammatory monocytes. PMID:24431111

  20. MicroRNA Cargo of Extracellular Vesicles from Alcohol-exposed Monocytes Signals Naive Monocytes to Differentiate into M2 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Saha, Banishree; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-coated extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by cells can serve as vehicles for delivery of biological materials and signals. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol-treated hepatocytes cross-talk with immune cells via exosomes containing microRNA (miRNAs). Here, we hypothesized that alcohol-exposed monocytes can communicate with naive monocytes via EVs. We observed increased numbers of EVs, mostly exosomes, secreted by primary human monocytes and THP-1 monocytic cells in the presence of alcohol in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. EVs derived from alcohol-treated monocytes stimulated naive monocytes to polarize into M2 macrophages as indicated by increased surface expression of CD68 (macrophage marker), M2 markers (CD206 (mannose receptor) and CD163 (scavenger receptor)), secretion of IL-10, and TGF? and increased phagocytic activity. miRNA profiling of the EVs derived from alcohol-treated THP-1 monocytes revealed high expression of the M2-polarizing miRNA, miR-27a. Treatment of naive monocytes with control EVs overexpressing miR-27a reproduced the effect of EVs from alcohol-treated monocytes on naive monocytes and induced M2 polarization, suggesting that the effect of alcohol EVs was mediated by miR-27a. We found that miR-27a modulated the process of phagocytosis by targeting CD206 expression on monocytes. Importantly, analysis of circulating EVs from plasma of alcoholic hepatitis patients revealed increased numbers of EVs that contained high levels of miR-27a as compared with healthy controls. Our results demonstrate the following: first, alcohol increases EV production in monocytes; second, alcohol-exposed monocytes communicate with naive monocytes via EVs; and third, miR-27a cargo in monocyte-derived EVs can program naive monocytes to polarize into M2 macrophages. PMID:26527689

  1. Stretched cell cycle model for proliferating lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Mark R.; Kan, Andrey; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Wellard, Cameron J.; Markham, John F.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic variation in cell cycle time is a consistent feature of otherwise similar cells within a growing population. Classic studies concluded that the bulk of the variation occurs in the G1 phase, and many mathematical models assume a constant time for traversing the S/G2/M phases. By direct observation of transgenic fluorescent fusion proteins that report the onset of S phase, we establish that dividing B and T lymphocytes spend a near-fixed proportion of total division time in S/G2/M phases, and this proportion is correlated between sibling cells. This result is inconsistent with models that assume independent times for consecutive phases. Instead, we propose a stretching model for dividing lymphocytes where all parts of the cell cycle are proportional to total division time. Data fitting based on a stretched cell cycle model can significantly improve estimates of cell cycle parameters drawn from DNA labeling data used to monitor immune cell dynamics. PMID:24733943

  2. Effect of weightlessness on lymphocyte proliferation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to study the effect of weightlessness on lymphocyte proliferation to detect possible alteration of the cells responsible for the immune response during long-duration space flights is described. Human lymphocytes in culture medium will be delivered shortly before launch in an incubator which will be kept at 37C. Mitogen will be added to the culture. A control without mitogen will be run in parallel. After 70 hours of incubation, radioactive thymidine will be added. After two hours, cellular activity will be stopped by fixation and incubator power switched off. Later, the amount of incorporated thymidine will be determined and the cell morphology and the distribution of cell organelles will be investigated.

  3. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells identified as booster of T follicular helper cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fillatreau, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Adjuvants play an essential role in the induction of acquired immunity upon vaccination with protein antigen. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, a classical type of adjuvant made of DNA oligonucleotide containing CpG motifs, which has already been used in humans, is shown to boost humoral immunity primarily by acting on monocyte-derived dendritic cells. This study provides novel insight on the mode of action of adjuvant targeting Toll-like receptors. PMID:24803394

  4. Determination of mitogenic properties and lymphocyte target sites of Dolichos lablab lectin (DLA): comparative study with concanavalin A and galactose oxidase cell surface receptors.

    PubMed

    Favero, J; Miquel, F; Dornand, J; Mani, J C

    1988-04-01

    A mannoside-directed lectin has been isolated and purified from the seeds of Dolichos lablab L. by affinity chromatography. We have established that this glycoprotein, which displays high erythroagglutinating activity without blood group specificity, highly activates murine T lymphocytes, and we have described for the first time its mitogenic properties. Although its main properties are close to those of concanavalin A (Con A), the well-known mannoside-directed mitogen devoid of sugar moiety, several differences were found in some of the early events triggered by the two lectins during lymphocyte mitogenic stimulation: higher level of interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis, optimal dose for IL-2 synthesis at suboptimal mitogenic concentration, lack of ecto-5' nucleotidase inhibition, and lack of mitogenic inhibition at high lectin concentration. Because the two lectins did not act on the cell surface in exactly the same way, we have compared their receptors involved in mitogenesis on the plasma membrane of murine lymphocytes. We had previously established that the polyclonal activation of these cells probably occurred through high-molecular-weight receptors (200-230 kDa). Since the mitogenic stimulation of lymphocyte by galactose oxidase (GO), like that of Con A, was inhibited by DLA, we analyzed the cell surface receptors that were common to these three polyclonal mitogens. After labeling the neuraminidase/GO-treated cell surface glycoproteins with NaB3H4, we immunoprecipitated the Con A and DLA receptors which are the target of GO mitogenic action. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the precipitates demonstrated that there exist on the lymphocyte cell surface receptors common to the polyclonal mitogens DLA, Con A, and GO. Because Con A and DLA sterically inhibit GO mitogenic stimulation, the common glycoproteins which represent the necessary sites of oxidative mitogenic action are probably those which are involved in DLA and Con A-triggered mitogenesis, despite the different properties of the two lectins. These differences could be explained by the lower molecular weight receptors of the two lectins which are not identical. PMID:2833356

  5. Radiolabelled lymphocyte migration in rheumatoid synovitis.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, C; Couret, I; Bologna, C; Rossi, M; Sany, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the ability of technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amineoxime (HMPAO) labelled lymphocyte scintigraphy to quantify synovial inflammation, and to analyse the kinetics of lymphocyte retention in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--After isolation of the lymphocytes, the cells were radiolabelled in vitro with 250 MBq 99mTc-HMPAO. The scans were performed 30 minutes, three hours and 20 hours after injection. RESULTS--An increase of the scintigram signal obtained at 20 hours was associated with a high joint swelling and joint pain score (F test = 3.07, p < 0.002), but not with the radiological score. A positive joint scintigram was predictive of active synovitis. Although the scintigram variation over time did not reach statistical significance, the kinetics of the scintigram signal tended to differ according to the disease duration: in early RA, active arthritis could be clearly imaged as early as 30 minutes, increased at three hours and the signal intensity persisted at 20 hours. In contrast, in long standing disease, the affected joints were imaged at 30 minutes, persisted unchanged at three hours, and the scintigram score decreased significantly at 20 hours. CONCLUSIONS--The study shows that 99mTc-HMPAO joint scintigraphy may be used to detect and to localise active rheumatoid arthritis. Images PMID:7880120

  6. Effects induced by exercise on lymphocyte ?-adrenergic receptors and plasma catecholamine levels in performance horses.

    PubMed

    Cuniberti, B; Badino, P; Odore, R; Girardi, C; Re, G

    2012-02-01

    The effect of dynamic exercise on complete blood cell count, lymphocyte ?-adrenergic receptor and plasma catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) levels in horses performing different disciplines were investigated during rest and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from jumping horses (n=6), Arabian Endurance horses (n=6) and Standardbred trotters (n=6) before and immediately after competition. Dynamic exercise caused a significant increase in red blood cell count (Standardbred trotters: P=0.0012), haemoglobin concentration (jumping horses: P=0.001; Standardbred trotters: P=0.01), haematocrit percentage (Standardbred trotters: P=0.005), neutrophil percentage (jumping horses: P=0.0003), lymphocyte percentage (jumping horses: P=0.0003), monocyte percentage (Standardbred trotters: P=0.0008), lymphocyte ?-AR numbers (jumping horses: P=0.01; Arabian Endurance horses: P=0.016; Standardbred trotters: P=0.05), plasma adrenaline concentration (Standardbred trotters: P=0.0001) and plasma noradrenaline levels (Standardbred trotters: P=0.003). It is concluded that acute increases in plasma catecholamine concentrations depended on the exercise performed and may induce up-regulation of ?-AR in equine lymphocytes. However, the exact mechanism of ?-AR up-regulation still remains unclear. PMID:21168179

  7. Evaluation of gamma-Induced Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Baranova, Elena; Boreyko, Alla; Ravnachka, Ivanka; Saveleva, Maria

    2010-01-05

    Several experiments have been performed to study regularities in the induction of apoptotic cells in human lymphocytes by {sup 60}Cogamma-rays at different times after irradiation. Apoptosis induction by {sup 60}Cogamma-rays in human lymphocytes in different cell cycle phases (G{sub 0}, S, G{sub 1}, and G{sub 2}) has been studied. The maximal apoptosis output in lymphocyte cells was observed in the S phase. Modifying effect of replicative and reparative DNA synthesis inhibitors - 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) and hydroxyurea (Hu) - on the kinetics of {sup 60}Cogamma-rays induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes has been studied.

  8. Effects of losartan on expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in hyperuricemic nephropathy rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengyou; Ren, Qi; Wu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of progression of renal failure. This is based on the observations done both in various animal models of renal damage and in different types of human renal disease. During the development of non-infectious kidney stones, crystals are formed and deposited on the kidneys and the kidneys are surrounded by monocytes/macrophages. We have proposed that in response to crystal exposure, renal epithelial cells produce chemokines, which attract the monocytes/macrophages to the sites of crystal deposition. In this study, we investigated the expression of MCP-1 protein by SD rats exposed to oxonic acid (OA). Our study showed that hyperuricemia accelerates renal progression via a mechanism linked to high MCP-1 which may mediate the inflammation reaction of renal diseases induced by hyperuricemia. Losartan may retard the progression of advanced renal dysfunction, and the mechanism was partly due to blocking of renal inflammation induced by the uric acid. Because the number of experiments performed here is very few, results must be confirmed by more extensive studies with a larger sample size. PMID:25830624

  9. Immunosenescence in Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells: Lessons Learned from the Lung and Heart

    PubMed Central

    Thoman, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of an immune challenge, healthy, aged individuals have a significantly higher basal inflammatory state where circulating levels of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-? and IL-1?, are elevated[1]. This progressive pro-inflammatory state, termed “inflamm-aging,” affects the phenotype/function of cells present in the aged as well as renders the older individuals more susceptible to a poor prognosis after systemic insults. Although it is important to understand the mechanisms that underlie the progression of disease, most preclinical analyses of disease therapies are performed in young adult mice that have an intact, functional immune system. Oftentimes, this is not necessarily representative of the immune disposition in the aged, let alone diseased, aged. Herein, two distinct responses that are not only commonly associated with aging but that also have dendritic cells and/or monocytes and macrophages as key players are discussed: pulmonary infection and myocardial infarction. Although studies of pulmonary infection in the aged have progressed significantly, studies of monocytes and macrophages in inflammation and cardiac injury following ischemia in the aged have not been as forthcoming. Nonetheless, several elegant studies have established the dynamic role of monocytes and macrophages post infarction. These will be discussed in light of what is known with aging. PMID:25251662

  10. The role of Fc?RI expressed in dendritic cells and monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Early studies regarding the function of Fc?RI in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes have focused on its role in mediating inflammatory signaling and enhancing T cell immunity. It has been the case in part because Fc?RI is the major receptor that mediates allergic inflammatory signaling in mast cells and basophils and because DCs and monocytes are antigen presenting cells capable of activating na?ve and/or effector T cells. These studies have led to the general belief that Fc?RI-mediated DC signaling and antigen presentation promote development and activation of Th2 cells and contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases. However, this belief has long suffered from a lack of evidence. Recently, studies have emerged that provide evidence supporting an opposing role: that Fc?RI on DCs instead promotes immune homeostasis and regulation. In this review, we will update the current status of our understanding of Fc?RI biology and function, with a specific focus on DCs and monocytes. PMID:25715742

  11. Reactivity of lymphocytes from patients with syphilis towards T. pallidum antigen in the leucocyte migration and lymphocyte transformation tests.

    PubMed Central

    From, E; Thestrup-Pedersen, K; Thulin, H

    1976-01-01

    The reactivity of lymphocytes to Treponema pallidum antigen was studied before and after treatment in nine patients with early syphilis using a leucocyte migration test and a lymphocyte transformation test. Lymphocyte reactivity was also investigated in six patients treated for syphilis within the last 4 years, and in five untreated patients with a positive result to the T. pallidum immobilization test, but negative results to other serum tests for syphilis antibodies and without any known exposure to risk of infection by syphilis. Ten seronegative patients with different dermatological disorders served as a control group. A significant increase in lymphocyte reactivity to T. pallidum antigen was recorded in both tests in vitro after treatment. There was no difference in lymphocyte reactivity to T. pallidum antigen between the other patients studied and the control group. In early syphilis the spontaneous migration was found to be inhibited before treatment. Tuberculin skin tests were also performed and found to be suppressed in patients with primary and secondary syphilis. No difference in phytohaemagglutinin response was found between any of the groups. Plasma from patients with primary and secondary syphilis was found to change the in vitro reactivity of normal lymphocytes when stimulated with different mitogens. PMID:786437

  12. Elucidation of monocyte/macrophage dynamics and function by intravital imaging.

    PubMed

    Rua, Rejane; McGavern, Dorian B

    2015-09-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are a diverse population of innate immune cells that play a critical role in homeostasis and inflammation. These cells are surveillant by nature and closely monitor the vasculature and surrounding tissue during states of health and disease. Given their abundance and strategic positioning throughout the body, myeloid cells are among the first responders to any inflammatory challenge and are active participants in most immune-mediated diseases. Recent studies have shed new light on myeloid cell dynamics and function by use of an imaging technique referred to as intravital microscopy (IVM). This powerful approach allows researchers to gain real-time insights into monocytes and macrophages performing homeostatic and inflammatory tasks in living tissues. In this review, we will present a contemporary synopsis of how intravital microscopy has revolutionized our understanding of myeloid cell contributions to vascular maintenance, microbial defense, autoimmunity, tumorigenesis, and acute/chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26162402

  13. Innate immune activity conditions the effect of regulatory variants upon monocyte gene expression.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Benjamin P; Humburg, Peter; Makino, Seiko; Naranbhai, Vivek; Wong, Daniel; Lau, Evelyn; Jostins, Luke; Plant, Katharine; Andrews, Robert; McGee, Chris; Knight, Julian C

    2014-03-01

    To systematically investigate the impact of immune stimulation upon regulatory variant activity, we exposed primary monocytes from 432 healthy Europeans to interferon-? (IFN-?) or differing durations of lipopolysaccharide and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). More than half of cis-eQTLs identified, involving hundreds of genes and associated pathways, are detected specifically in stimulated monocytes. Induced innate immune activity reveals multiple master regulatory trans-eQTLs including the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), coding variants altering enzyme and receptor function, an IFN-? cytokine network showing temporal specificity, and an interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) transcription factor-modulated network. Induced eQTL are significantly enriched for genome-wide association study loci, identifying context-specific associations to putative causal genes including CARD9, ATM, and IRF8. Thus, applying pathophysiologically relevant immune stimuli assists resolution of functional genetic variants. PMID:24604202

  14. Effusanin C inhibits inflammatory responses via blocking NF-?B and MAPK signaling in monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Youn; Kim, Hyung Sook; Kim, Yeon Jin; Lee, Hong Kyung; Kim, Ji Sung; Kang, Jong Soon; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae

    2013-01-01

    Effusanin C, a constituent of Isodon japonicus, has been used in oriental countries as a traditional folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here, we investigate the inhibitory activity of effusanin C in inflammatory monocytes. Effusanin C markedly inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide, IL-1?, and TNF-? in macrophages and dendritic cells. Furthermore, molecular studies showed that effusanin C inhibited phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK, degradation of I?B?, and nuclear translocation of NF-?B p50/p65 in these cells. Taken together, these data show that effusanin C inhibits inflammatory responses by blocking NF-?B and MAPK signalings in monocytes. PMID:23159337

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA Increases Vitamin D Receptor mRNA Expression and the Production of Nitric Oxide and Cathelicidin in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    SISWANTO, Siswanto; ZUHRIYAH, Lilik; HANDONO, Kusworini; FITRI, Loeki Enggar; PRAWIRO, Sumarno Reto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The innate immune response to tuberculosis infection may involve the increased production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin due to the up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), though this proposed mechanism remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine how the exposure of human monocytes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) DNA affects the production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin, as well as the expression of VDR. Methods: This study was performed using monocytes obtained from healthy donors. After 24 h incubation, monocytes were stimulated with M. tuberculosis DNA for 18 h to determine the expression of VDR mRNA and the production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin versus non-stimulated cells (the control group). Results: The expression of VDR mRNA was higher in the monocytes exposed to M. tuberculosis DNA compared to the control group (P = 0.020). Monocytes exposed to M. tuberculosis DNA also showed significantly increased production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin compared to the control group (P = 0.0001; P = 0.028). Conclusion: The stimulation of human monocytes with M. tuberculosis DNA increases the expression of the VDR mRNA and the production of nitric oxide and cathelicidin. PMID:26715892

  16. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion production in monocytes from children exposed to arsenic and lead in region Lagunera, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Zavaleta, Ana Patricia; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Borja-Aburto, Victor H; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Vera Aguilar, Eunice; Gómez-Muñoz, Arístides; Cebrián, Mariano E; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S

    2004-08-01

    We evaluated in Mexican children environmentally exposed to arsenic and lead monocyte nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production in response to direct activation with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) + lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The integrity of Th1-regulated cellular immune response when monocytes were indirectly activated was also evaluated. Most children lived near a primary lead smelter. Lead and arsenic contamination in soil and dust by far exceeded background levels. As levels in water were between 10 and 30 ppb. Most children (93%) had urinary arsenic (AsU) concentrations above 50 microg/l (range 16.75-465.75) and 65% had lead blood levels (PbB) above 10 microg/dl (range 3.47-49.19). Multivariate analyses showed that NO production in monocytes activated indirectly was negatively associated with both PbB and AsU. Superoxide production in directly activated monocytes was negatively associated with AsU but positively associated with PbB. The models including the interaction term for AsU and PbB suggested the possibility of a negative interaction for NO production and a positive interaction for superoxide. There were indications of differential gender-based associations, NO production in indirectly activated monocytes obtained from girls was negatively associated with AsU but not with PbB. Superoxide production was positively associated with PbB in both directly and indirectly activated monocytes from boys but the latter was negatively associated with AsU. These effects are consistent with immune system abnormalities observed in human populations exposed to Pb or As. Further studies in larger populations are required to characterize As and Pb interactions and the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. PMID:15276407

  17. Potentiation of tumor cell invasion by co-culture with monocytes accompanying enhanced production of matrix metalloproteinase and fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Kamoshida, Go; Matsuda, Ayaka; Miura, Risa; Takashima, Yuri; Katsura, Arisa; Tsuji, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    Macrophages are a major population of immune cells, and those that infiltrate into tumor tissues and affect the malignant behavior of tumor cells are called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). We previously reported that human peripheral blood monocytes could be induced in vitro to differentiate into TAM-like cells by co-culture with tumor cells. In the present study, we characterized changes in the invasive phenotype of tumor cells after co-culture with monocytes, and found that MKN1 gastric carcinoma cells acquired higher invasive potential into Matrigel-reconstituted basement membranes, accompanied by enhanced production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. The increased invasiveness was inhibited in the presence of an arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid peptide, suggesting that the process is dependent on the integrin-extracellular matrix interaction. We also found that these cells secreted fibronectin into the culture medium and expressed ?5 integrin on their surface at higher levels after the co-culture with monocytes for 5 days. The conditioned medium of monocytes also potentiated MKN1 cell invasion; however, the potentiation was lowered by the depletion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? from the conditioned medium with an antibody-protein G-Sepharose conjugate. In addition, the treatment of MKN1 cells with TNF-? promoted invasion of these cells, as well as secretion of MMP-9 and fibronectin. These results suggest that TNF-? secreted from monocytes is, at least in part, involved in the changes in invasive phenotype of tumor cells during co-culture with monocytes. PMID:23053742

  18. M2 Polarization of Monocytes-Macrophages Is a Hallmark of Indian Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Mukherjee, Shibabrata; Roy, Susmita; Dalton, Jane E.; Kundu, Sunanda; Sarkar, Avijit; Das, Nilay K.; Kaye, Paul M.; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The high level of functional diversity and plasticity in monocytes/macrophages has been defined within in vitro systems as M1 (classically activated), M2 (alternatively activated) and deactivated macrophages, of which the latter two subtypes are associated with suppression of cell mediated immunity, that confers susceptibility to intracellular infection. Although the Leishmania parasite modulates macrophage functions to ensure its survival, what remains an unanswered yet pertinent question is whether these macrophages are deactivated or alternatively activated. This study aimed to characterize the functional plasticity and polarization of monocytes/macrophages and delineate their importance in the immunopathogenesis of Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a chronic dermatosis of human leishmaniasis. Monocytes from PKDL patients showed a decreased expression of TLR-2/4, along with an attenuated generation of reactive oxidative/nitrosative species. At disease presentation, an increased mRNA expression of classical M2 markers CD206, ARG1 and PPARG in monocytes and lesional macrophages indicated M2 polarization of macrophages which was corroborated by increased expression of CD206 and arginase-1. Furthermore, altered vitamin D signaling was a key feature in PKDL, as disease presentation was associated with raised plasma levels of monohydroxylated vitamin D3 and vitamin D3- associated genes, features of M2 polarization. Taken together, in PKDL, monocyte/macrophage subsets appear to be alternatively activated, a phenotype that might sustain disease chronicity. Importantly, repolarization of these monocytes to M1 by antileishmanial drugs suggests that switching from M2 to M1 phenotype might represent a therapeutic opportunity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration. PMID:26496711

  19. Concurrent Isolation of Lymphocytes and Granulocytes Using Prefocused Free Flow Acoustophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Grenvall, Carl; Magnusson, Cecilia; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Microchip-based free flow acoustophoresis (FFA) in combination with two-dimensional cell prefocusing enables concurrent multiple target outlet fractionation of leukocytes into subpopulations (lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes); we report on this method here. We also observed significantly increased accuracy in size-based fractionation of microbeads as compared to previously presented FFA multiple outlet systems. Fluorescence microscopy illustrates the importance of two-dimensional prefocusing where a sample mixture of 3-, 7- and 10-micrometer beads are separated into well-confined particle streams and collected in their respective target outlets. Flow cytometry data for lymphocytes and granulocytes, respectively, in their corresponding outlets verify concurrent isolation of leukocyte subpopulations with high purity (95.2 ± 0.6% and 98.5 ± 0.7%) and high recovery (86.5 ± 10.9% and 68.4 ± 10.6%). A relatively low purity and high recovery of monocytes (25.2% ± 5.4% and 83.1 ± 4.3%) was obtained in the third target outlet. No subpopulation bias was observed. These data demonstrate an unprecedented separation of leukocyte subpopulations at flow rates of ~100 ?l/min and ~1M cells/ml sample concentrations, not previously reported in acoustofluidic systems. Two-dimensional prefocusing FFA with multiple target outlets is a viable alternative to current methods for particle fractionation and cell isolation, requiring a minimum of sample preparation, and lowering analysis time and cost. PMID:25909882

  20. Microgravity and Cellular Consequences in Lymphocyte Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is a well-accepted analog for microgravity culture on the ground. Gene array experiments and immunoblotting identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down regulated in modeled microgravity. Thus events governing cell shape might warrant attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites that are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes

  1. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Sara; Forsberg, Magnus; Hulander, Mats; Vazirisani, Forugh; Palmquist, Anders; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Trobos, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-?, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth gold and the nanostructured gold displayed a different adhesion pattern and a more rapid oxidative burst than those cultured on polystyrene upon stimulation. We conclude that S. epidermidis decreased its viability initially when adhering to nanostructured surfaces compared with smooth gold surfaces, especially in the bacterial cell layers closest to the surface. In contrast, material surface properties neither strongly promoted nor attenuated the activity of monocytes when exposed to zymosan particles or S. epidermidis. PMID:24550671

  2. Induction of IL-12 from human monocytes after stimulation with Androctonus crassicauda scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Samahir; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Hadaddezfuli, Reza

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of venom from Androctonus crassicauda to induce expression/production of interleukin (IL)-12 by isolated human monocytes. For this purpose, isolated human monocytes were exposed to different concentrations of the venom (0.16-20 ?g/ml) for varying periods (6, 12, and 24 h). Apart from measures of venom cytotoxicity (i.e., lactase dehydrogenase activity [LDH] release), measures of IL-12 p40 mRNA (by Real-time PCR) of IL-12 release (by ELISA) were performed. The results showed that the venom produced significant concentration- and duration of incubation-dependent cytotoxicity. Expression of IL-12 p40 mRNA was significantly increased at all exposure timepoints relative to that in unexposed cells, but was maximal after 6 h of exposure. At that timepoint, the effect from a dose of 2.5 ?g venom/ml provided the maximal increase among all doses tested. At the level of the protein itself, IL-12 production remained almost consistently elevated (vs. unexposed control values) across all exposure timepoints, with the greatest formation again occurring after 6 h of incubation at a dose of 2.5 ?g venom/ml. The findings from this study demonstrated that venom from the A. crassicauda scorpion contained active constituents that could induce a sustained activation of human monocytes that was manifested, in part, as promotion of the expression/production of IL-12. PMID:26415903

  3. In vitro studies of gold and gold silica nanoparticle radiosensitization with kilovoltage x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colarch, Gregory Joseph

    Technological advances in the ability to construct and manipulate nanoscale particles have opened up the possibility of using solid metallic nanoparticles and mixed metal nanoshells as a means to increase dose enhancement and treatment efficacy to tumors. In order for nanoparticles to be an effective form of treatment, they must be delivered to tumors in sufficient concentrations so that there is a dose enhancement factor due to ionizing radiation, as well as being essentially non-toxic to healthy cells. Gold nanoparticles and silica-gold nanoshells fit these requirements. Gold has a high atomic number (Z=79), which gives a larger cross section for the photoelectric effect vs. tissue with regards to kilovoltage x-rays. Both gold and silica are also relatively inert and biocompatible. The investigation of dose enhancement to cells that have been incubated with nanoparticles and nanoshells is the focus of this thesis. The effectiveness of the treatment was determined by measuring the size of multicellular hybrid spheroids consisting of human glioma cells and murine lymphocytic monocytes. Dose enhancement effects was also examined in murine lymphocytic monocytes using an MTS assay, which measures metabolic activity in cells. A clear dose response was observed for spheroids consisting of human glioma cells only: increasing doses resulted in decreased spheroid growth. With a few exceptions, this trend was also observed in hybrid spheroids consisting of glioma cells and nanoparticle or nanoshell loaded monocytes. Contrary to the premise of utilizing the photoelectric effect, the most pronounced dose effect was observed in the pure glioma irradiated spheroids which showed greater growth suppression compared to the nanoparticle and nanoshell loaded hybrid spheroids at each dose investigated. A similar trend was found when comparing the viability of bare and nanoparticle/nanoshell loaded monocytes exposed to kilovoltage x-rays. These results are considered anomalous since kilovoltage x-rays are expected to be more damaging to cells and spheroids containing nanoparticles/nanoshells due to enhanced photoelectric absorption. The anomalous results were attributed to inaccuracies in x-ray tube output. Optimization of MTS parameters required for accurate determination of monocyte viability represents the most significant finding of this work. It was found that 50,000 cells per well yielded an accurate MTS signal. Furthermore, the MTS assay should not be performed less than 96 hours from the time of irradiation. As long as this 96 hour criterion is satisfied, any of the investigated MTS incubation times (1 - 4 hours) can be used. Finally, at the concentrations used in these studies, neither nanoparticles nor nanoshells were toxic to murine lymphocytes.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies specific for human monocytes, granulocytes and endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, N; MacDonald, S; Slusarenko, M; Beverley, P C

    1984-01-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies against antigens of human myeloid cells have been produced and thoroughly characterized in terms of their reactions with peripheral blood cells, cell lines, nine lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and the polypeptides with which they react. UCHM1 and SmO identify antigens present on the majority of blood monocytes and a variable, but lower, proportion of tissue macrophages. From their morphology and location in tissues, these cells appear to be recirculating monocytes. SMO antigen is also present on platelets. In addition, both antibodies stained endothelial cells, SMO in all tissues examined and UCHM1 variably. Biochemical investigation indicated that the UCHM1 antigen is a protein of 52,000 MW while the SMO antigen could not be indentified. The antibodies TG1 and 28 identify antigens mainly present on granulocytes. While mAb 28 reacted with neutrophils, TG1 also stained eosinophils and stained strongly a proportion of monocytes. TG1 also reacted variably with some non-haemopoietic cell lines. Both antibodies reacted predominantly with granulocytes in tissue sections. MAb TG1 precipitated a single polypeptide of 156,000 MW from monocytes and granulocytes, while mAb 28 precipitated non-convalently associated polypeptides of 83,000 and 155,000 MW from granulocytes but only a single molecule from monocytes, corresponding to the lower MW chain of 83,000. The epitope with which mAb 28 reacts appears not to be exposed on the surface of intact monocytes. This suggests that a similar or identical 83,000 MW molecule is made by both neutrophils and monocytes, but that its expression differs according to cell type. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6389324

  5. Acute myocardial infarction activates distinct inflammation and proliferation pathways in circulating monocytes, prior to recruitment, and identified through conserved transcriptional responses in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Ruparelia, Neil; Godec, Jernej; Lee, Regent; Chai, Joshua T.; Dall'Armellina, Erica; McAndrew, Debra; Digby, Janet E.; Forfar, J. Colin; Prendergast, Bernard D.; Kharbanda, Rajesh K.; Banning, Adrian P.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.; Channon, Keith M.; Haining, Nicholas W.; Choudhury, Robin P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Monocytes play critical roles in tissue injury and repair following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Specifically targeting inflammatory monocytes in experimental models leads to reduced infarct size and improved healing. However, data from humans are sparse, and it remains unclear whether monocytes play an equally important role in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the monocyte response following AMI is conserved between humans and mice and interrogate patterns of gene expression to identify regulated functions. Methods and results Thirty patients (AMI) and 24 control patients (stable coronary atherosclerosis) were enrolled. Female C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group) underwent AMI by surgical coronary ligation. Myocardial injury was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (human) and echocardiography (mice). Peripheral monocytes were isolated at presentation and at 48 h. RNA from separated monocytes was hybridized to Illumina beadchips. Acute myocardial infarction resulted in a significant peripheral monocytosis in both species that positively correlated with the extent of myocardial injury. Analysis of the monocyte transcriptome following AMI demonstrated significant conservation and identified inflammation and mitosis as central processes to this response. These findings were validated in both species. Conclusions Our findings show that the monocyte transcriptome is conserved between mice and humans following AMI. Patterns of gene expression associated with inflammation and proliferation appear to be switched on prior to their infiltration of injured myocardium suggesting that the specific targeting of inflammatory and proliferative processes in these immune cells in humans are possible therapeutic strategies. Importantly, they could be effective in the hours after AMI. PMID:25982896

  6. p53, Rb and bcl-2 expression during the cell cycle: a study in phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes and microwave irradiated lymphoid tissue sections.

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, M S; Sanchez-Beato, M; Martinez, J C; Orfao, A; Orradre, J L; Piris, M A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine the expression of p53, Rb, and bcl-2 during the cell cycle in stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and microwave heated reactive lymphoid tissue sections. METHODS--The expression of p53, Rb and bcl-2 proteins in paraffin wax embedded tonsil tissue sections was detected by immunohistochemistry using an (APAAP) technique following microwave irradiation. Flow cytometric analysis as performed on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated PBLs, with simultaneous S fraction determination. RESULTS--Expression of p53 protein was detected in reactive tonsil germinal centre cells, in some suprabasal cells in the surface and cryptic epithelium, and in some endothelial cells. Analysis of p53 in PHA stimulated PBLs revealed expression of p53 by non-tumoral activated lymphocytes. Rb protein expression was increased in PHA stimulated PBLs and was usually detected in most germinal centre B cells, in isolated paracortical cells, in a fraction of endothelial cells, and in most epithelial suprabasal cells. Expression of bcl-2 in stimulated lymphocytes was inversely correlated with proliferation. This confirms findings in reactive tonsil tissue samples, where proliferating cells located in the germinal centres and paracortical area are mostly bcl-2 negative. CONCLUSIONS--Expression of these three oncogenic and tumour suppressor proteins varies during the cell cycle in non-tumoral cells. Consequently, tumoral growth fraction must be taken into account when analysing dysregulation of these three genes in lymphomas and other tumours. The p53 protein may be detected in benign conditions, as its expression is not synonymous with malignancy or mutation of the p53 gene. Images PMID:7745116

  7. Errors generated by a point-of-care CD4+ T-lymphocyte analyser: a retrospective observational study in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Carol; Piriou, Erwan; Gueguen, Monique; Maman, David; Chaillet, Pascale; Cox, Vivian; Rumaney, Maryam B; Tunggal, Syanness; Kosack, Cara; Roberts, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the proportion of invalid results generated by a CD4+ T-lymphocyte analyser used by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in field projects and identify factors associated with invalid results. Methods We collated 25?616 CD4+ T-lymphocyte test results from 39 sites in nine countries for the years 2011 to 2013. Information about the setting, user, training, sampling technique and device repair history were obtained by questionnaire. The analyser performs a series of checks to ensure that all steps of the analysis are completed successfully; if not, an invalid result is reported. We calculated the proportion of invalid results by device and by operator. Regression analyses were used to investigate factors associated with invalid results. Findings There were 3354 invalid test results (13.1%) across 39 sites, for 58 Alere PimaTM devices and 180 operators. The median proportion of errors per device and operator was 12.7% (interquartile range, IQR: 10.3–19.9) and 12.1% (IQR: 7.1–19.2), respectively. The proportion of invalid results varied widely by country, setting, user and device. Errors were not associated with settings, user experience or the number of users per device. Tests performed on capillary blood samples were significantly less likely to generate errors compared to venous whole blood. Conclusion The Alere Pima CD4+ analyser generated a high proportion of invalid test results, across different countries, settings and users. Most error codes could be attributed to the operator, but the exact causes proved difficult to identify. Invalid results need to be factored into the implementation and operational costs of routine CD4+ T-lymphocyte testing. PMID:26478626

  8. Ginkgolide B Inhibits JAM-A, Cx43, and VE-Cadherin Expression and Reduces Monocyte Transmigration in Oxidized LDL-Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueqing; Sun, Wenjia; Zhao, Yanyang; Chen, Beidong; Wu, Wei; Bao, Li; Qi, Ruomei

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of ginkgolide B on junction proteins and the reduction of monocyte migration in oxidized low-density lipoprotein- (ox-LDL-) treated endothelial cells. Methods. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the present study. Immunofluorescence and Western blot were performed to determine the expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A), connexin 43 (Cx43), and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin). Monocyte migration was detected by the Transwell assay. Results. ox-LDL stimulation increased JAM-A expression by 35%, Cx43 expression by 24%, and VE-cadherin expression by 37% in HUVECs. Ginkgolide B (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6?mg/mL) dose-dependently abolished the expression of these junction proteins. The monocyte transmigration experiments showed that the level of monocyte migration was sixfold higher in the ox-LDL-treated group than in the control group. Ginkgolide B (0.6?mg/mL) nearly completely abolished monocyte migration. Both ginkgolide B and LY294002 suppressed Akt phosphorylation and the expression of these junction proteins in ox-LDL-treated endothelial cells. These results suggest that the ginkgolide B-induced inhibition of junction protein expression is associated with blockade of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Conclusion. Ginkgolide B suppressed junction protein expression and reduced monocyte transmigration that was induced by ox-LDL. Ginkgolide B may improve vascular permeability in atherosclerosis. PMID:26246869

  9. Human monocytes in the presence of interferons alpha2a and gamma are potent killers of serous ovarian cancer cell lines in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chase L; Green, Daniel S; Zoon, Kathryn C

    2015-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play an important role in immune surveillance of tumors; however, their efficacy in the treatment of malignancies has been limited. Monocytes are mononuclear phagocytes that are critical to the generation of an innate immune response to tumors. The authors and others have shown that treatment of tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo with human monocytes primed with type I and type II IFNs results in killing. We now expand on this work, in an extended panel of ovarian cancer cell lines. In this study, we hypothesized that there would be variable sensitivity amongst cell lines to the killing properties of monocytes and IFNs. To this end, we explored the interactions of IFN primed monocytes in conjunction with the standard of therapy for ovarian cancer, taxane, and platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Using 6 ovarian cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that there is variation from cell line to cell line in the ability of IFN-?2a and IFN-? primed monocytes to synergistically kill target tumor cells, and further, there is an additive killing effect when target cells are treated with both IFN primed monocytes and chemotherapy. PMID:25068849

  10. Glucocorticoid dexamethasone down-regulates basal and vitamin D3 induced cathelicidin expression in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Nikhil Nitin; Gunnarsson, Hörður Ingi; Yi, Zhiqian; Gudmundsdottir, Steinunn; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E; Agerberth, Birgitta; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H

    2016-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been extensively used as the mainstream treatment for chronic inflammatory disorders. The persistent use of steroids in the past decades and the association with secondary infections warrants for detailed investigation into their effects on the innate immune system and the therapeutic outcome. In this study, we analyse the effect of GCs on antimicrobial polypeptide (AMP) expression. We hypothesize that GC related side effects, including secondary infections are a result of compromised innate immune responses. Here, we show that treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) inhibits basal mRNA expression of the following AMPs; human cathelicidin, human beta defensin 1, lysozyme and secretory leukocyte peptidase 1 in the THP-1 monocytic cell-line (THP-1 monocytes). Furthermore, pre-treatment with Dex inhibits vitamin D3 induced cathelicidin expression in THP-1 monocytes, primary monocytes and in the human bronchial epithelial cell line BCi NS 1.1. We also demonstrate that treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) inhibitor RU486 counteracts Dex mediated down-regulation of basal and vitamin D3 induced cathelicidin expression in THP-1 monocytes. Moreover, we confirmed the anti-inflammatory effect of Dex. Pre-treatment with Dex inhibits dsRNA mimic poly IC induction of the inflammatory chemokine IP10 (CXCL10) and cytokine IL1B mRNA expression in THP-1 monocytes. These results suggest that GCs inhibit innate immune responses, in addition to exerting beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26358366

  11. C1q-mediated repression of human monocytes is regulated by leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor 1 (LAIR-1).

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungsun; Diamond, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal function of both the innate and the adaptive immune system, leading to a loss of tolerance to self-antigens. Monocytes are a key component of the innate immune system and are efficient producers of multiple cytokines. In SLE, inappropriate activation of monocytes is thought to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance. In this study, we demonstrate that type 1 interferon (IFN) production by CpG-challenged monocytes can be suppressed by C1q through activating leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1), which contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). The phosphorylation of LAIR-1 and the interaction of LAIR-1 with SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) were enhanced after LAIR-1 engagement by C1q. Moreover, engagement of LAIR-1 by C1q inhibited nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 and IRF5 in CpG-stimulated monocytes. These data suggest a model in which LAIR-1 engagement by C1q helps maintain monocyte tolerance, specifically with respect to Toll-like receptor-9-mediated monocyte activation. PMID:25247291

  12. Prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia from infrared spectra of lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Christian P.; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Johnston, James B.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1997-06-01

    Peripheral mononuclear cells obtained from blood of normal individuals and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were investigated by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Not only are the spectra of CLL cells different from those of normal cells, but hierarchical clustering also separated the CLL cells into a number of subclusters, based on their different DNA content, a fact which may provide a useful diagnostic tool for staging (progression of the disease) and multiple clone detection. Moreover, there is evidence for a correlation between the increased amount of DNA in the CLL cells and the in-vivo doubling time of the lymphocytes in a given patient.

  13. The Pelargonium sidoides Extract EPs 7630 Drives the Innate Immune Defense by Activating Selected MAP Kinase Pathways in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Katrin; Koch, Egon; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Wolk, Kerstin; Sabat, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pelargonium sidoides is a medical herb and respective extracts are used very frequently for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. However, the effects of Pelargonium sidoides and a special extract prepared from its roots (EPs 7630) on human immune cells are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that EPs 7630 induced a rapid and dose-dependent production of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 by human blood immune cells. This EPs 7630-induced cytokine profile was more pro-inflammatory in comparison with the profile induced by viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. The search for EPs 7630 target cells revealed that T-cells did not respond to EPs 7630 stimulation by production of TNF-?, IL-6, or IL-10. Furthermore, pretreatment of T-cells with EPs 7630 did not modulate their TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion during subsequent activation. In contrast to lymphocytes, monocytes showed clear intracellular TNF-? staining after EPs 7630 treatment. Accordingly, EPs 7630 predominantly provoked activation of MAP kinases and inhibition of p38 strongly reduced the monocyte TNF-? production. The pretreatment of blood immune cells with EPs 7630 lowered their secretion of TNF-? and IL-10 and caused an IL-6 dominant response during second stimulation with viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. In summary, we demonstrate that EPs 7630 activates human monocytes, induces MAP kinase-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines in these cells, and specifically modulates their production capacity of mediators known to lead to an increase of acute phase protein production in the liver, neutrophil generation in the bone marrow, and the generation of adaptive Th17 and Th22 cells. PMID:26406906

  14. Adenosine Modulates NR4A Orphan Nuclear Receptors To Attenuate Hyperinflammatory Responses in Monocytic Cells.

    PubMed

    Crean, Daniel; Cummins, Eoin P; Bahar, Bojlul; Mohan, Helen; McMorrow, Jason P; Murphy, Evelyn P

    2015-08-15

    Adenosine receptor-mediated regulation of monocyte/macrophage inflammatory responses is critical in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. In this study, we reveal that adenosine potently modulates the expression of NR4A1, 2, and 3 orphan nuclear receptors in myeloid cells, and this modulation is primarily through the adenosine A2a receptor subtype. We demonstrate that A2a receptor activation of NR4A1-3 receptor synthesis is further enhanced in TLR4-stimulated monocytes. After TLR4 stimulation, NR4A receptor-depleted monocyte/macrophage cells display significantly altered expression of cell-surface markers and produce increased inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion rendering the cells an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype. Exposure of TLR4 or TNF-?-stimulated monocytes to adenosine analogs directs changes in the expression of MIP-3? and IL-23p19, with NR4A2 depletion leading to significantly enhanced expression of these factors. Furthermore, we establish that nuclear levels of NF-?B/p65 are increased in TLR/adenosine-stimulated NR4A2-depleted cells. We show that, after TLR/adenosine receptor stimulation, NR4A2 depletion promotes significant binding of NF-?B/p65 to a ?B consensus binding motif within the MIP-3? proximal promoter leading to increased protein secretion, confirming a pivotal role for NF-?B activity in controlling cellular responses and gene expression outcomes in response to these mediators. Thus, these data demonstrate that during an inflammatory response, adenosine modulation of NR4A receptor activity acts to limit NF-?B-mediated effects and that loss of NR4A2 expression leads to enhanced NF-?B activity and hyperinflammatory responses in myeloid cells. PMID:26150530

  15. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1 May Be Immunologically Mediated: A Pilot Evaluation of Monocyte Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Virzì, Grazia Maria; Torregrossa, Rossella; Cruz, Dinna N; Chionh, Chang Y; de Cal, Massimo; Soni, Sachin S; Dominici, Massimo; Vescovo, Giorgio; Rosner, Mitchell H; Ronco, Claudio

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1 is characterized by a rapid worsening of cardiac function leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). An immune-mediated damage and alteration of immune response have been postulated as potential mechanisms involved in CRS type 1. In this pilot study, we examined the possible role of the immune-mediated mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The main objective was to analyze in vitro that plasma of CRS type 1 patients was able to trigger a response in monocytes resulting in apoptosis. The secondary aim was to evaluate TNF-? and IL-6 plasma levels of CRS type 1 patients. METHODS: Fifteen patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and CRS type 1 were enrolled and 20 healthy volunteers without AHF or AKI were recruited as control group. Plasma from these two groups was incubated with monocytes and, subsequently, cell apoptosis was evaluated. In addition, the activity of caspase-8 was assessed after 24 h incubation. Quantitative determination of TNF-? and IL-6 levels was performed. RESULTS: Plasma-induced apoptosis was significantly higher in CRS type 1 patients compared with healthy controls at 72 h (78 vs. 11%) and 96 h (81 vs. 11%). At 24 h, the activity of caspase-8 was significantly higher in monocytes incubated with plasma from the CRS type 1 group. TNF-? (2.39 vs. 28.49 pg/ml) and IL-6 (4.8 vs. 16.5 pg/ml) levels were significantly elevated in the CRS type 1 group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, there is a defective regulation of monocyte apoptosis in CRS type 1 patients, and inflammatory pathways may have a central role in the pathogenesis of CRS type 1 and may be fundamental in damage to distant organs. PMID:22493601

  16. Manumycin A downregulates release of proinflammatory cytokines from TNF alpha stimulated human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cecrdlova, Eva; Petrickova, Katerina; Kolesar, Libor; Petricek, Miroslav; Sekerkova, Alena; Svachova, Veronika; Striz, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    Macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin or clarithromycin are known to have potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects but these properties cannot be widely used due to a risk of bacterial resistance. We studied another polyketide antibiotic, structurally related manumycin A known as a streptomycete derived farnesyltransferase inhibitor with limited antibacterial effects, with respect to its potential regulation of mRNA expression of several genes associated with proinflammatory responses. Downregulation of mRNA for IL-6, TLR-8, IL-1 beta and IL-10 was found in THP-1 cells after 4h stimulation with TNF alpha in the presence of manumycin A and downregulated TLR-8 and EGR-1 genes were observed after 8h. Among the genes upregulated in response to manumycin were HMOX-1, TNFRSF10A, IL-1R1, TICAM2, NLRP12 after 4h and only IL-1R1 after 8h. Furthermore, manumycin A was found to inhibit IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 production in TNF alpha stimulated THP-1 cells and peripheral blood monocytes in a dose dependent manner (0.25-1?M of manumycin A) without affecting cell viability. Cell viability of blood monocytes decreased by about 30% at manumycin A doses of 2-5?M. Manumycin A also inhibited IL-18 release from THP-1 cells, while in cultures of blood monocytes, this cytokine was not detectable. That manumycin A mediated downregulation of proinflammatory genes in human monocytes confirmed by a measurement of cytokine levels in culture supernatants, together with a very limited effect on cell viability, might suggest potential anti-inflammatory properties of this polyketide antibiotic. PMID:26602157

  17. Aluminum induces inflammatory and proteolytic alterations in human monocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    Ligi, D; Santi, M; Croce, L; Mannello, F

    2015-11-01

    The increasing exposure to aluminum has been linked with the development of different human pathologies (e.g., breast cancer, myofasciitis, neurodegenerative diseases), probably due to the consistent presence of aluminum salts in widely diffused cosmetic products and vaccines. However, the mechanisms underlying immunologic and proliferative alterations still remain unknown. In the present study we investigated the ability of different aluminum compounds (i.e., aluminum chloride vs Imject® Alum, a mixture of aluminum and magnesium hydroxide) to trigger both inflammatory and proteolytic responses in U-937 human monocytic cell line. We demonstrated, by multiplex immunoassay analyses, that monocytic cells treated with both Imject Alum and aluminum chloride showed different and peculiar expression profiles of 27 inflammatory mediators and 5 matrix metalloproteinases, with respect to untreated control cells. In particular, we found dose-dependent significantly increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemoattractant chemokines; whereas among metalloproteinases, only collagenolytic protease showed a significant dose-dependent increase in Imject-treated cells with respect to controls and Al-chloride treated cells. Noteworthy, we found only in Imject Alum-treated cells the significant positive correlations among collagenolytic metalloproteinase and increased expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, suggesting a possible involvement of aluminum in regulating the acute inflammatory responses. In agreement to emerging evidences, for the first time we demonstrated that the treatment of monocyte cells with aluminum-based adjuvant is able to induce an inflammatory status and a proteolytic cascade activation. In fact, the cell treatment with Imject Alum induced increased levels of several cytokines and proteinases, suggesting these monocyte mediators as possible biomarkers for aluminum-linked diseases. The identification of the biochemical pathways involved in Al-induced cell injury pave the way for improving the knowledge on the potential impact of aluminum in human physio-pathology. PMID:26421828

  18. Gene expression profile in monocyte during in vitro mineral fiber degradation.

    PubMed

    Dika Nguea, Hermine; de Reydellet, Aymon; Lehuédé, Patrice; De Meringo, Alain; Le Faou, Alain; Marcocci, Lucia; Rihn, Bertrand H

    2008-06-01

    A human monocytes cell line, U-937, incubated in the presence of filtered medium from Escherichia coli culture (FS) has been previously reported to degrade man made mineral fiber and it has been indicated as a good paradigm of in vivo fiber biopersistence evaluation (manuscript accepted for publication). In the present paper, a study is reported aimed to define the molecular modification occurring in the U-937 monocytes during in vitro fiber degradation. The induction of gene expression was investigated in U-937 exposed to rock wool fibers (HDN) in the presence of FS by transcriptome analysis using 20 K DNA microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR. The over-expression of genes related to mobility and cellular adhesion, oxidative stress, immune system stimulation, enzymes, and ions transport protein systems were identified. Among them NCF1 gene, the gene encoding a subunit of NADPH oxidase, over-expression was detected. As the product of this gene allows the formation of superoxide anion that could lead to oxidative stress, HDN fibers were exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Fiber degradation similar to those observed upon incubation with U-937 in the presence of FS was obtained thus suggesting that reactive oxygen species production may be responsible for fiber degradation by U-937 monocytes. PMID:18026935

  19. Luteolin inhibits hyperglycemia-induced proinflammatory cytokine production and its epigenetic mechanism in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Joo; Lee, Wooje; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2014-09-01

    Hyperglycemia is a key feature in diabetes. Hyperglycemia has been implicated as a major contributor to several complications of diabetes. High glucose levels induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Luteolin is a flavone isolated from celery, green pepper, perilla leaf, and chamomile tea. Luteolin has been reported to possess antimutagenic, antitumorigenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of luteolin on proinflammatory cyt