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The monocytic population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia shows altered composition and deregulation of genes involved in phagocytosis and inflammation.  


Macrophages reside in tissues infiltrated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells and the extent of infiltration is associated with adverse prognostic factors. We studied blood monocyte population by flow cytometry and whole-genome microarrays. A mixed lymphocyte reaction was performed to evaluate proliferation of T cells in contact with monocytes from patients and normal donors. Migration and gene modulation in normal monocytes cultured with CLL cells were also evaluated. The absolute number of monocytes increased in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients compared to the number in normal controls (792 ± 86 cells/?L versus 485 ± 46 cells/?L, P=0.003). Higher numbers of non-classical CD14(+)CD16(++) and Tie-2-expressing monocytes were also detected in patients. Furthermore, we performed a gene expression analysis of monocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, showing up-regulation of RAP1GAP and down-regulation of tubulins and CDC42EP3, which would be expected to result in impairment of phagocytosis. We also detected gene alterations such as down-regulation of PTGR2, a reductase able to inactivate prostaglandin E2, indicating immunosuppressive activity. Accordingly, the proliferation of T cells in contact with monocytes from patients was inhibited compared to that of cells in contact with monocytes from normal controls. Finally, normal monocytes in vitro increased migration and up-regulated CD16, RAP1GAP, IL-10, IL-8, MMP9 and down-regulated PTGR2 in response to leukemic cells or conditioned media. In conclusion, altered composition and deregulation of genes involved in phagocytosis and inflammation were found in blood monocytes obtained from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, suggesting that leukemia-mediated "education" of immune elements may also include the establishment of a skewed phenotype in the monocyte/macrophage population. PMID:23349302

Maffei, Rossana; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Fiorcari, Stefania; Bertoncelli, Linda; Martinelli, Silvia; Guarnotta, Carla; Castelli, Ilaria; Deaglio, Silvia; Debbia, Giulia; De Biasi, Sara; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Zucchini, Patrizia; Narni, Franco; Tripodo, Claudio; Luppi, Mario; Cossarizza, Andrea; Marasca, Roberto



Receptor-mediated Modulation of Human Monocyte, Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, and Platelet Function by Phorbol Diesters  

PubMed Central

The tumor promoting phorbol diesters elicit a variety of responses from normal and leukemic blood cells in vitro by apparently interacting with cellular receptors. The biologically active ligand [20-3H] phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([3H]PDBu) bound specifically to intact human lymphocytes, monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and platelets, but not to erythrocytes. Binding, which was comparable for all four blood cell types, occurred rapidly at 23° and 37°C, reaching a maximum by 20-30 min usually followed by a 30-40% decrease in cell associated radioactivity over the next 30-60 min. The time course for binding was temperature dependent with equilibrium binding occurring after 120-150 min at 4°C, with no subsequent loss of cell-associated radioactivity at this temperature. Bound [3H]PDBu could be eluted by addition of unlabeled PDBu. Scatchard analysis of data from 4°C binding studies revealed linear plots with high affinity receptors in these cell types with dissociation constants and receptors per cell of 60 nM and 7.8 × 105/cell for lymphocytes, 51 nM and 15.5 × 105/cell for monocytes, 38 nM and 4.0 × 105/cell for PMN, and 19 nM and 2.9 × 104/cell for platelets. Structure-activity studies using unlabeled phorbol-related compounds demonstrated a close correlation between their abilities to inhibit binding of [3H]PDBu to cells and their abilities to induce cellular responses (monocyte and PMN H2O2 secretion, lymphocyte 3HTdR incorporation, and platelet tritiated serotonin release); phorbol and 4-alpha phorbol were inactive while phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), PDBu, mezerein, and phorbol 12,13-diacetate (in decreasing order of potency) inhibited [3H]PDBu binding and elicited the various responses. Thus, these high affinity, specific receptors for the phorbol diesters, present on monocytes, lymphocytes, PMN, and platelets, mediate the pleiotypic effects induced by these ligands. PMID:6956584

Goodwin, Bonnie J.; Weinberg, J. Brice



GST-M1 is transcribed moreso than AKR7A2 in AFB1-exposed human monocytes and lymphocytes.  


Abstract Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and aldo-keto reductases (AKR) are key aflatoxin (AF)-detoxifying enzymes. In this study, the expression of GST-M1, GST-T1, AKR-7A2, and AKR-7A3 genes in human monocytes and lymphocytes was analyzed after in vitro exposure to 10 or 100?ng AFB1/ml for 2?h. Unlike in pilot studies that showed that all four examined genes were present in HepG2 cells, in lymphocytes and monocytes, only GST-M1 and AKR-7A2 were detected. In fact, the induced expression of both GST-M1 and AKR-7A2 genes in human monocytes was moreso than that seen in AFB1-exposed lymphocytes. In addition, analyses of the effects of the exposures on cell cycle status were performed as, in cells lacking adequate detoxification capacities, it would be expected the cells would arrest at checkpoints in the cell cycle or progress to apoptotic/necrotic states. The results here indicated that only the high dose of AFB1 led to a change in cell cycle profiles and only in the monocytes (i.e. cells in S phase were significantly reduced). In general, the results here strongly suggest that human immune cell lineages appear to be able to increase their expression of AFB1-detoxifying enzymes (albeit to differing degrees) and, as a result, are able to counter potential toxicities from AFB1 and (likely) its metabolites. PMID:25027672

Bahari, Abbas; Mehrzad, Jalil; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Bassami, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Hesam



Quantitative and phenotypic analyses of lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by the HIV envelope proteins: Significant loss of lymphoid markers.  


Cells infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can fuse with CD4(+) cells leading to the formation of multinucleated cells. The presence of multinucleated cells infected with HIV in tissues of patients has been documented, although their cellular composition and role in AIDS pathogenesis is still under study. Here, we present evidence of in vitro heterotypic lymphocyte-monocyte fusion in cocultures of lymphocytic Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 gp120/gp41 glycoproteins (Env) and CD4(+) monocytic THP-1 cells. Using a previously characterized method that involves differential labeling of fusion partners with fluorescent probes and flow cytometry analysis after coculture, up to 20% of double fluorescent cells were detected in 48h. This double fluorescent cell population was produced by heterotypic lymphocyte-monocyte fusion as it was not observed when Jurkat T cells expressing a mutant non-fusogenic Env protein were used. Heterokaryon formation was inhibited by an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody and the HIV-fusion inhibitor peptide T-20. About 68% of heterokaryons remained alive and non-apoptotic after 2days of coculture. In heterokaryons, CD4 was barely detectable and the expression of the CD3 and CD28 lymphoid markers was greatly reduced, whereas the expression of CD32 and the intracellular antigen CD68, both markers of monocytic cells, remained unchanged. In contrast with unfused T cells, heterokaryons only expressed very low levels of the lymphoid activation marker CD25 following treatment with PMA plus ionomycin. These studies point to the possible generation of lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons with a myeloid phenotype during HIV infection, with unknown consequences for AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:21110955

Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Huerta, Leonor; Larralde, Carlos; Lamoyi, Edmundo



B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6Chi monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell–selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24037091

Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Guérin, Coralie; Vilar, José; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Mallat, Ziad



Infused autograft lymphocyte to monocyte ratio predicts survival in classical Hodgkin lymphoma  

PubMed Central

The infused autograft lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (A-LMR) as a surrogate marker of host immunity (ie, absolute lymphocyte count) and CD14+ HLA-DRlow/neg immunosuppressive monocytes (ie, absolute monocyte count) is a prognostic factor for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT). Thus, we set out to investigate if A-LMR can also affect survival post-APHSCT in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. From 1994 to 2012, 183 patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent APHSCT were studied. The patients were randomly divided into a training set (n=122) and a validation set (n=61). The receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve identified an A-LMR ?1 as the best cut-off value and validated by the k-fold cross-validation in the training set. Multivariate analysis showed A-LMR to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in the training set. Patients with an A-LMR ?1.0 experienced a superior overall survival (OS) versus patients with an A-LMR <1.0 (median OS not reached versus 40.4 months, 5-year OS rates of 86% [95% CI 72–93] versus 43% [95% CI 28–58], P<0.0001, respectively) in the training set. In the validation set, an A-LMR ?1 showed a median OS of not reached versus 41.4 months for an A-LMR <1, 5-year OS rates of 90% (95% CI 73–97) versus 48% (95% CI 28–68; P<0.0001). A-LMR provides a platform to engineer an autograft versus tumor effect to improve clinical outcomes in patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing APHSCT. PMID:25674021

Porrata, Luis F; Inwards, David J; Ansell, Stephen M; Micallef, Ivana N; Johnston, Patrick B; Hogan, William J; Markovic, Svetomir N



Flow cytometric analysis of intracellular myeloperoxidase distinguishes lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes.  


A study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of flow cytometric analysis of intracellular myeloperoxidase (MPO) in differentiating populations of lymphocytes (L), monocytes (M) and granulocytes (G), by means of lysed whole blood method. Anticoagulated blood from 23 normal individuals was lysed with FACS lysing solution and permeabilized with FACS permeabilizing solution before subjected to direct immunofluorescence staining. The geometric means of the fluorescence intensity were measured using FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson). Populations of L, M and G were gated based on their light scatter characteristics and expression of CD14 and CD45. Then, the fluorescence intensity of MPO expression was studied in these individual cell populations. The results showed that fluorescence intensity of MPO was the strongest in G and weakest in L, whereas M showed intermediate fluorescence intensity. Our findings reveal that discrimination of these three cell types is achievable based upon the sole expression of intracellular MPO. PMID:10879268

Tay, S P; Cheong, S K; Hamidah, N H; Ainoon, O



Cytomegalovirus infects human lymphocytes and monocytes: virus expression is restricted to immediate-early gene products.  

PubMed Central

In this investigation, we studied the ability of human cytomegalovirus to infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With monoclonal antibody technology, we demonstrated that cytomegalovirus could infect human lymphocytes of T- and B-cell lineage, natural killer cells, and monocytes. Furthermore, virus expression was limited to the synthesis of immediate-early cytomegalovirus polypeptides. These peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not produce infectious virus, nor were mature virions visualized by electron microscopy. This abortive infection of mononuclear cells was most convincingly shown with stocks of cytomegalovirus that had been recently isolated from infected patients and passaged minimally in fibroblasts. This argues for an increased lymphotropic effect of some isolates of cytomegalovirus, compared to strains of virus that are extensively adapted to growth in fibroblasts. Furthermore, immunocompetent cells that were shown to be abortively infected with cytomegalovirus lost selected differentiated functions. Images PMID:6091137

Rice, G P; Schrier, R D; Oldstone, M B



Preterm Infants Have Deficient Monocyte and Lymphocyte Cytokine Responses to Group B Streptococcus?  

PubMed Central

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of early- and late-onset sepsis in the newborn. Preterm infants have markedly increased susceptibility and worse outcomes, but their immunological responses to GBS are poorly defined. We compared mononuclear cell and whole-blood cytokine responses to heat-killed GBS (HKGBS) of preterm infants (gestational age [GA], 26 to 33 weeks), term infants, and healthy adults. We investigated the kinetics and cell source of induced cytokines and quantified HKGBS phagocytosis. HKGBS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion was significantly impaired in preterm infants compared to that in term infants and adults. These cytokines were predominantly monocytic in origin, and production was intrinsically linked to HKGBS phagocytosis. Very preterm infants (GA, <30 weeks) had fewer cytokine-producing monocytes, but nonopsonic phagocytosis ability was comparable to that for term infants and adults. Exogenous complement supplementation increased phagocytosis in all groups, as well as the proportion of preterm monocytes producing IL-6, but for very preterm infants, responses were still deficient. Similar defective preterm monocyte responses were observed in fresh whole cord blood stimulated with live GBS. Lymphocyte-associated cytokines were significantly deficient for both preterm and term infants compared to levels for adults. These findings indicate that a subset of preterm monocytes do not respond to GBS, a defect compounded by generalized weaker lymphocyte responses in newborns. Together these deficient responses may increase the susceptibility of preterm infants to GBS infection. PMID:21300777

Currie, Andrew J.; Curtis, Samantha; Strunk, Tobias; Riley, Karen; Liyanage, Khemanganee; Prescott, Susan; Doherty, Dorota; Simmer, Karen; Richmond, Peter; Burgner, David



HIV colonizing peripheral blood monocytes follows lymphocytic isolates in shifting from NSI to SI genotype.  


Non-syncytium inducing (NSI) and syncytium inducing (SI) variants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be definitely typed by sequence analysis of the env-gene V3 region. It was thus possible to compare the genotypes of viral variants isolated from PBMC and accompanying monocyte cultures and those derived directly from the patients' blood cells prior to cultivation. Within the investigated group of patients it was shown that HIV variants colonizing monocytes displayed a similar shift from NSI to SI as observed previously for PBMC, i.e. lymphocyte derived isolates. Lymphocytic SI variants could be isolated from the blood of patients, while simultaneously the predominant provirus in both blood and monocytic isolate was NSI. Consequently, we observed a delayed switch in the predominant provirus genotype found in blood which was associated with a synchronous change in the genotype of the corresponding monocytic isolate. The results show that monocytes/macrophages can be colonized by heterogeneous HIV variants in vivo and can therefore also function as carriers for the spread of highly virulent SI variants into the tissues. PMID:8920819

Witt, A; Kaiser, R; Mayer, A; Rolf, R; Matz, B; Schneweis, K E



Pregnancy hormones, estrogen and progesterone, prevent HIV-1 synthesis in monocytes but not in lymphocytes.  


Increase in levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy may affect intra-uterine HIV-1 infection through their effect on maternal immunocompetent cells. These hormones were examined for containing HIV-1 production from ACH-2 lymphocytes and U1 monocytes. Neither of the hormones has an effect on ACH-2, but with U1, the physiological concentrations (0.1 microgram 0.1 ng) of progesterone and estrogen demonstrate significant inhibition of HIV-1 release. Except for the highest dose of 1 microgram/ml, the dose-response to progesterone and estrogen was not correlated with the negative influence on proliferation of both types of cells. The results suggest that in vivo low doses of female steroids may display specific antiviral activity in monocytes but not in lymphocytes. PMID:1601128

Bourinbaiar, A S; Nagorny, R; Tan, X



The monocyte-macrophage system is affected in lysosomal storage diseases: an immunoelectron microscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has become an important diagnostic tool in lysosomal storage diseases.\\u000a Previous studies revealed that B and subclasses of T lymphocytes participate in the storage process, whereas the role of circulating\\u000a monocytes was not clear. In this study, the involvement of CD14+ monocytes in lysosomal diseases was investigated. Blood samples from six patients with different

B. C. Kieseier; K. E. Wisniewski; H. H. Goebel



Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), -2, and -3 are chemotactic for human T lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, -2, and -3 all have been shown to induce monocyte/macrophage migration in vitro and MCP-1, also known as MCAF, chemoattracts basophils and mast cells. We report here that natural MCP-1 as well as synthetic preparations of MCP-2 and MCP-3 stimulate significant in vitro chemotaxis of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. This MCP-induced migration was dose-dependent and directional, but not chemokinetic. Phenotypic analysis of the T cell population responsive to MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 demonstrates that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells migrated in response to these chemokines. Similar results were observed using human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. Neutralizing antisera to MCAF or MCP-2 abrogated T cell migration in response to MCP-1 and MCP-2, respectively, but not to RANTES. Subcutaneous administration of purified MCP-1 into the hind flanks of SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) induced significant human CD3+ T cell infiltration into the site of injection at 4 h. These results demonstrate that MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 are inflammatory mediators that specifically stimulate the directional migration of T cells as well as monocytes and may play an important role in immune cell recruitment into sites of antigenic challenge. Images PMID:7883984

Taub, D D; Proost, P; Murphy, W J; Anver, M; Longo, D L; van Damme, J; Oppenheim, J J



Methods for defining distinct bioenergetic profiles in platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils, and the oxidative burst from human blood  

PubMed Central

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets have long been recognized as having the potential to act as sensitive markers for mitochondrial dysfunction in a broad range of pathological conditions. However, the bioenergetic function of these cells has not been examined from the same donors, yet this is important for the selection of cell types for translational studies. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of cellular bioenergetics in isolated human monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets, including the oxidative burst from neutrophils and monocytes from individual donors. With the exception of neutrophils, all cell types tested exhibited oxygen consumption that could be ascribed to oxidative phosphorylation with each having a distinct bioenergetic profile and distribution of respiratory chain proteins. In marked contrast, neutrophils were essentially unresponsive to mitochondrial respiratory inhibitors indicating that they have a minimal requirement for oxidative phosphorylation. In monocytes and neutrophils, we demonstrate the stimulation of the oxidative burst using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and its validation in normal human subjects. Taken together, these data suggest that selection of cell type from blood cells is critical for assessing bioenergetic dysfunction and redox biology in translational research. PMID:23528848

Chacko, Balu K; Kramer, Philip A; Ravi, Saranya; Johnson, Michelle S; Hardy, Robert W; Ballinger, Scott W; Darley-Usmar, Victor M



Low preoperative lymphocyte to monocyte ratio predicts poor cancer-specific survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have shown that the lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) is a useful predictive factor in various cancers. However, the prognostic value of LMR in patients with esophageal cancer has not been reported yet. The purpose of the current study was to determine the prognostic role of LMR in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods Three-hundred and forty-eight patients who had undergone esophagectomy for ESCC were included. A receiver operating characteristic curve for survival prediction was plotted to verify the optimum cut-off point for LMR. Kaplan–Meier method was used to calculate the cancer-specific survival (CSS), the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic factors. Results A receiver operating characteristic curve for survival prediction was plotted to verify the optimum cut-off point for LMR, which was 2.93. Patients with LMR ?2.93 had a significantly worse 5-year CSS than patients with LMR >2.93 (21.2% versus 59.3%, P<0.001). For subgroup analysis, the predictive value of LMR was also significant in patients with T1-2 cancer (P=0.003), T3-4a (P<0.001), and patients with (P=0.044) or without (P<0.001) nodal metastasis. In addition, the predictive value of LMR was also significant stratified by absolute lymphocyte count (P<0.001) and absolute monocyte count (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, LMR was a significant predictive factor of CSS (P=0.010). Conclusion LMR is still a predictive factor for long-term survival in patients with ESCC. We conclude that 2.93 may be the optimum cut-off point for LMR in predicting survival in ESCC patients.

Huang, Ying; Feng, Ji-Feng



Type 1 Diabetes Therapy Beyond T Cell Targeting: Monocytes, B Cells, and Innate Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical trials, investigating type 1 diabetes (T1D), have focused mainly on newly diagnosed individuals who have developed diabetes. We need to continue our efforts to understand disease processes and to rationally design interventions that will be safe and specific for disease, but at the same time not induce undesirable immunosuppression. T cells are clearly involved in the pathogenesis of T1D, and have been a major focus for both antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific therapy, but thus far no single strategy has emerged as superior. As T1D is a multifactorial disease, in which multiple cell types are involved, some of these pathogenic and regulatory cell pathways may be important to consider. In this review, we examine evidence for whether monocytes, B cells, and innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, may be suitable targets for intervention. PMID:23804267

Wong, F. Susan; Wen, Li



Leukoreduction system chambers are an efficient, valid, and economic source of functional monocyte-derived dendritic cells and lymphocytes.  


The demand for human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), as well as for primary human B and T lymphocytes for immunological research purposes has been increased in recent years. Classically, these monocytes are isolated from blood, leukapheresis products or buffy coats of healthy donors by plastic adherence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), followed by stimulation with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, while lymphocytes are usually isolated from the non-adherent fraction (NAF) by magnetic cell sorting. However, donor-blood is a limited resource and not every blood bank offers leukapheresis products or buffy coats for laboratory use. Additionally, a leukapheresis is very expensive and also the generation/isolation of cells is time- and cost-intensive. To overcome some of these obstacles, we evaluated if low-cost leukoreduction system chambers (LRSCs), which arise after routine donor plateletpheresis procedures, and are usually discarded, would be an alternative and appropriate source of PBMCs to generate moDCs and to isolate lymphocytes. By analyzing the number and phenotype of immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs), as well as of B and T lymphocytes derived from LRSCs, we found all cells to be of high quantity and quality. Further investigations on DCs comprising transwell migration assays, allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR), cytokine secretion assays, and cytotoxic T cell induction assays revealed high migratory, as well as stimulatory capacity of these cells. In addition, DCs and T cells were efficiently electroporated with mRNA and showed characteristic cytokine production after co-culture, demonstrating LRSCs as an efficient, valid, and economic source for generation of moDCs and lymphocytes for research purposes. PMID:23932569

Pfeiffer, Isabell A; Zinser, Elisabeth; Strasser, Erwin; Stein, Marcello F; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Knippertz, Ilka



Peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte/monocyte ratio recovery during ABVD treatment cycles predicts clinical outcomes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.  


The peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte/monocyte count ratio at diagnosis (ALC/AMC-DX) predicts survival in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). However, a limitation of the ALC/AMC-DX is the inability to assess sequentially the host/tumor interaction during treatment. Therefore, we retrospectively examined the ALC/AMC ratio, as a surrogate marker of host immunity (ALC) and tumor microenvironment (AMC), at each adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine treatment cycle as a predictor for clinical outcomes. From 1990 until 2008, 190 cHL patients were diagnosed, treated and followed at Mayo Clinic Rochester and qualified for the study. The ALC/AMC ratio at each treatment cycle was a predictor for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). An ALC/AMC ratio ?1.1 versus ALC/AMC <1.1 during treatment cycles was an independent predictor for OS (hazard ratio (HR)=0.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.40; P<0.0002) and for PFS (HR=0.19; 95% CI: 0.05-0.82; P<0.03). The ALC/AMC ratio during treatment cycles is a predictor for survival and provides a platform to develop therapeutic modalities to manipulate the ALC/AMC ratio during chemotherapy to improve clinical outcomes in cHL. PMID:23599022

Porrata, L F; Ristow, K M; Habermann, T M; Macon, W R; Witzig, T E; Colgan, J P; Inwards, D J; Ansell, S M; Micallef, I N; Johnston, P B; Nowakowski, G; Thompson, C A; Markovic, S N



Comparative assessment of clinically utilized CD20-directed antibodies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells reveals divergent NK cell, monocyte, and macrophage properties.  


CD20 is a widely validated, B cell-specific target for therapy in B cell malignancies. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 Ab that prolongs survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients when combined with chemotherapy. Ofatumumab and GA101 (obinutuzumab) are CD20-directed Abs currently being developed as alternative agents to rituximab in CLL based upon different properties of enhanced direct cell death, NK cell-mediated Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, or complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Despite widespread study, ofatumumab and GA101 have not been compared with each other, nor studied for their interactions with monocytes and macrophages which are critical for the efficacy of anti-CD20 Abs in murine models. In CLL cells, we show that direct cell death and complement-dependent cytotoxicity are greatest with GA101 and ofatumumab, respectively. GA101 promotes enhanced NK cell activation and Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity at high Ab concentrations. Ofatumumab elicits superior Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis with monocyte-derived macrophages. GA101 demonstrated reduced activation of monocytes with diminished pERK, TNF-? release, and Fc?RIIa recruitment to lipid rafts. These data demonstrate that GA101 and ofatumumab are both superior to rituximab against CLL cells via different mechanisms of potential tumor elimination. These findings bear relevance to potential combination strategies with each of these anti-CD20 Abs in the treatment of CLL. PMID:23418626

Rafiq, Sarwish; Butchar, Jonathan P; Cheney, Carolyn; Mo, Xiaokui; Trotta, Rossana; Caligiuri, Michael; Jarjoura, David; Tridandapani, Susheela; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Byrd, John C



Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on reverse transcriptase activity in HIV-1 infected lymphocytes and monocytes.  


The majority of infants born to HIV-positive mothers are not infected in utero, suggesting that the pregnancy factors produced by fetal trophoblasts may provide protection against HIV-1 infection. Except for steroid female hormones, little is known of other pregnancy factors that may regulate either resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)--the major glycoprotein produced by the placental trophoblast throughout the pregnancy--was tested on reverse transcriptase activity in HIV-infected ACH-2 lymphocytes and U1 monocytes. The results suggest that low non-cytotoxic doses of hCG (0.01-1.0 IU range) may inhibit viral replication in maternal blood cells. PMID:1382034

Bourinbaiar, A S; Nagorny, R



Ratio of Monocytes to Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood Identifies Adults at Risk of Incident Tuberculosis Among HIV-Infected Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background.?Eight decades ago, the ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes (hereafter, the “ML ratio”) was noted to affect outcomes of mycobacterial infection in rabbits. Recent transcriptomic studies support a role for relative proportions of myeloid and lymphoid transcripts in tuberculosis outcomes. The ML ratio in peripheral blood is known to be governed by hematopoietic stem cells with distinct biases. Methods.?The predictive value of the baseline ML ratio was modeled in 2 prospective cohorts of HIV-infected adults starting cART in South Africa (primary cohort, 1862 participants; replication cohort, 345 participants). Incident tuberculosis was diagnosed with clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic methods per contemporary guidelines. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards modeling were conducted. Results.?The incidence rate of tuberculosis differed significantly by baseline ML ratio: 32.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.38–61.54), 16.36 (95% CI, 12.39–21.23), and 51.80 (95% CI, 23.10–101.71) per 1000 patient-years for ML ratios of less than the 5th percentile, between the 5th and 95th percentiles, and greater than the 95th percentile, respectively (P = .007). Neither monocyte counts nor lymphocyte counts alone were associated with tuberculosis. After adjustment for sex, World Health Organization human immunodeficiency virus disease stage, CD4+ T-cell counts, and previous history of tuberculosis, hazards of disease were significantly higher for patients with ML ratios of less than the 5th percentile or greater than the 95th percentile (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.39–4.40; P = .002). Conclusions.?The ML ratio may be a useful, readily available tool to stratify the risk of tuberculosis and suggests involvement of hematopoietic stem cell bias in tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:24041796

Naranbhai, Vivek; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Warimwe, George M.; McShane, Helen; Fletcher, Helen



The association between the ratio of monocytes:lymphocytes at age 3 months and risk of tuberculosis (TB) in the first two years of life  

PubMed Central

Background Recent transcriptomic studies revived a hypothesis suggested by historical studies in rabbits that the ratio of peripheral blood monocytes to lymphocytes (ML) is associated with risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. Recent data confirmed the hypothesis in cattle and in adults infected with HIV. Methods We tested this hypothesis in 1,336 infants (540 HIV-infected, 796 HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU)) prospectively followed in a randomized controlled trial of isoniazid prophylaxis in Southern Africa, the IMPAACT P1041 study. We modeled the relationship between ML ratio at enrollment (91 to 120 days after birth) and TB disease or death in HIV-infected children and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, TB disease or death in HEU children within 96 weeks (with 12 week window) of randomization. Infants were followed-up prospectively and routinely assessed for MTB exposure and outcomes. Cox proportional hazards models allowing for non-linear associations were used; in all cases linear models were the most parsimonious. Results Increasing ML ratio at baseline was significantly associated with TB disease/death within two years (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.17 per unit increase in ML ratio; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.34; P?=?0.03). Neither monocyte count nor lymphocyte counts alone were associated with TB disease. The association was not statistically dissimilar between HIV infected and HEU children. Baseline ML ratio was associated with composite endpoints of TB disease and death and/or TB infection. It was strongest when restricted to probable and definite TB disease (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.89; P?=?0.006). Therefore, per 0.1 unit increase in the ML ratio at three to four months of age, the hazard of probable or definite TB disease before two years was increased by roughly 4% (95% CI 1.7% to 6.6%). Conclusion Elevated ML ratio at three- to four-months old is associated with increased hazards of TB disease before two years among children in Southern Africa. While significant, the modest effect size suggests that the ML ratio plays a modest role in predicting TB disease-free survival; its utility may, therefore, be limited to combination with existing tools to stratify TB risk, or to inform underlying pathophysiologic determinants of TB disease. PMID:25034889



Infection of human monocytes by Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis: an in vitro comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing number of studies suggest that chlamydiae can infect immune cells. The altered immune cell function could contribute to the progression of several chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) interactions with in vitro infected human blood monocytes. Results Fresh isolated monocytes were infected with viable CP and CT elementary bodies and infectivity was evaluated by recultivating disrupted monocytes in permissive epithelial cells. The production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was studied in the presence of specific fluorescent probes. Moreover, TNF-?, INF-?, INF-? and INF-? gene expression was determined. CT clearance from monocytes was complete at any time points after infection, while CP was able to survive up to 48 hours after infection. When NADPH oxydase or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were used, CT infectivity in monocytes was restored, even if at low level, and CT recovery’s rate was comparable to CP one. CT-infected monocytes produced significantly higher levels of reactive species compared with CP-infected monocytes, at very early time points after infection. In the same meanwhile, TNF-? and INF-? gene expression was significantly increased in CT-infected monocytes. Conclusions Our data confirm that CP, but not CT, is able to survive in infected monocytes up to 48 hours post-infection. The delay in reactive species and cytokines production by CP-infected monocytes seems to be crucial for CP survival. PMID:24721461



Studies on the metabolism of triphenylphosphate by carboxylesterases and human monocytes  

SciTech Connect

Resin workers exposed to triphenylphosphate (TPP), an organophosphate (OP) flame retardant and plasticizer, had a decreased expression of carboxylesterase (CBE) activity in their peripheral blood monocytes. The mechanisms of CBE inhibition by TPP were investigated using purified hog liver CBE and intact human monocytes. TPP inactivated hog liver CBE in a time and dose dependent manner, and this inhibition was partially reversed by alkaline phosphatase (AP). Analysis of ({sup 14}C)TPP metabolites from the enzymatic reaction by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GM-C) identified phenol as the hydrolytic metabolite of TPP. Human monocytes cultured with ({sup 14}C)TPP also released phenol. In addition to phenol, several phenol metabolites, such as catechol, hydroquinone, 2,2 biphenol and 4,4 biphenol were also generated by monocytes. An identical pattern of these metabolites was also formed from monocytes incubated with radiolabelled phenol. This cellular degradation of TPP was inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), but not observed in neutrophil or lymphocyte cultures. Activation of monocytes with gamma interferon (IFN-g), f-Met-Leu-Phe, and serum treated zymosan (STZ) enhanced the levels of phenolic metabolites and, further, shifted the metabolism of TPP towards the formation of the biphenolic metabolites.

Paxman, D.G. III.



Attenuated Monocyte Apoptosis, a New Mechanism for Osteoporosis Suggested by a Transcriptome-Wide Expression Study of Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis is caused by excessive bone resorption (by osteoclasts) over bone formation (by osteoblasts). Monocytes are important to osteoporosis by serving as progenitors of osteoclasts and produce cytokines for osteoclastogenesis. Aim To identify osteoporosis-related genes, we performed microarray analyses of monocytes using Affymetrix 1.0 ST arrays in 42 (including 16 pre- and 26 postmenopausal) high hip BMD (bone mineral density) vs. 31 (including 15 pre- and 16 postmenopausal) low hip BMD Caucasian female subjects. Here, high vs. low BMD is defined as belonging to top vs. bottom 30% of BMD values in population. Method Differential gene expression analysis in high vs. low BMD subjects was conducted in the total cohort as well as pre- and post-menopausal subjects. Focusing on the top differentially expressed genes identified in the total, the pre- and the postmenopausal subjects (with a p <5E-03), we performed replication of the findings in 3 independent datasets of microarray analyses of monocytes (total N = 125). Results We identified (in the 73 subjects) and successfully replicated in all the 3 independent datasets 2 genes, DAXX and PLK3. Interestingly, both genes are apoptosis induction genes and both down-regulated in the low BMD subjects. Moreover, using the top 200 genes identified in the meta-analysis across all of the 4 microarray datasets, GO term enrichment analysis identified a number of terms related to induction of apoptosis, for which the majority of component genes are also down-regulated in the low BMD subjects. Overall, our result may suggest that there might be a decreased apoptosis activity of monocytes in the low BMD subjects. Conclusion Our study for the first time suggested a decreased apoptosis rate (hence an increased survival) of monocytes, an important osteoclastogenic cell, as a novel mechanism for osteoporosis. PMID:25659073

Liu, Yao-Zhong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jian; Tian, Qing; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Deng, Hong-Wen



A Cytofluorometric Study of Membrane Rafts in Human Monocyte Subsets in Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

The peripheral blood monocytes of atherosclerotic patients are pre-activated and have some of the features of tissue macrophages. Their adhesion to the endothelium is 1.5 times higher than that of monocytes from healthy subjects, and they express a number of receptors and antigens typical of tissue macrophages. Additionally, earlier we showed that the biosynthesis of gangliosides, whose main function is the formation of membrane rafts, is significantly activated in blood monocytes from atherosclerotic patients, as well as during the in vitro differentiation of normal monocytes into macrophages. In this study, we investigated the expression of membrane rafts on various monocyte subsets from healthy subjects and atherosclerotic patients. Based on flow cytometry results, the monocytes in the examined atherosclerotic patients were found to differ from those in healthy subjects by a twofold increase in the proportion of the intermediate subset (CD14++/CD16+) and by enhancement in the expression of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 on the intermediate and non-classical subsets (CD14++/CD16+ and CD14+/CD16++) (2.3 and 1.8 times, respectively). This suggests a pre-activated state of monocytes in atherosclerotic patients. At the same time, the expression of the membrane raft marker on the monocyte subsets was similar in both studied groups. However, a study of the in vitro differentiation of monocytes into macrophages showed that the membrane raft expression increased 2 times as early as on the 1st day of culturing and 3 times on the 7th day compared to that in freshly isolated monocytes. Therefore, it is suggested that monocytes in atherosclerosis accumulate gangliosides that are used to form membrane rafts during the macrophage differentiation after the migration of monocytes into the arterial intima.

Chelombitko, M. A.; Shishkina, V. S.; Ilyinskaya, O. P.; Kaminnyi, A. I.; Pavlunina, T. O.; Samovilova, N. N.; Gracheva, E. V.; Tararak, E. M.; Prokazova, N. V.



Induction of Th17 lymphocytes and Treg cells by monocyte-derived dendritic cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.  


Dendritic cells (DCs) have a key role in the regulation of immune response. We herein explored, in patients with inflammatory diseases, the role of monocyte derived DC's (mo-DCs) on the generation of Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Peripheral blood was obtained from thirty-five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), twelve with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and twenty healthy subjects. Mo-DCs were generated under standard (IL-4/GM-CSF) or tolerogenic (IL-4/GM-CSF plus recombinant P-selectin or PD-1 or IL-10) conditions, and their ability to induce Th17 and Treg lymphocytes was tested. We detected that mo-DCs from patients with RA showed an enhanced release of IL-6 and IL-23 as well as an increased capability to induce Th17 cells. Although mo-DCs from SLE patients also released high levels of IL-6/IL-23, it did not show an increased ability to induce Th17 lymphocytes. In addition, mo-DCs, from patients with RA and SLE generated under the engagement of PSGL-1, showed a defective capability to induce Foxp3+ Treg cells. A similar phenomenon was observed in SLE, when DC's cells were generated under PDL-1 engagement. Our data indicate that DCs from patients with rheumatic inflammatory disease show an aberrant function that may have an important role in the pathogenesis of these conditions. PMID:24288552

Estrada-Capetillo, Lizbeth; Hernández-Castro, Berenice; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Alvarez-Quiroga, Crisol; Layseca-Espinosa, Esther; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Baranda, Lourdes; Urzainqui, Ana; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; González-Amaro, Roberto



Induction of Th17 Lymphocytes and Treg Cells by Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) have a key role in the regulation of immune response. We herein explored, in patients with inflammatory diseases, the role of monocyte derived DC's (mo-DCs) on the generation of Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes. Peripheral blood was obtained from thirty-five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), twelve with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and twenty healthy subjects. Mo-DCs were generated under standard (IL-4/GM-CSF) or tolerogenic (IL-4/GM-CSF plus recombinant P-selectin or PD-1 or IL-10) conditions, and their ability to induce Th17 and Treg lymphocytes was tested. We detected that mo-DCs from patients with RA showed an enhanced release of IL-6 and IL-23 as well as an increased capability to induce Th17 cells. Although mo-DCs from SLE patients also released high levels of IL-6/IL-23, it did not show an increased ability to induce Th17 lymphocytes. In addition, mo-DCs, from patients with RA and SLE generated under the engagement of PSGL-1, showed a defective capability to induce Foxp3+ Treg cells. A similar phenomenon was observed in SLE, when DC's cells were generated under PDL-1 engagement. Our data indicate that DCs from patients with rheumatic inflammatory disease show an aberrant function that may have an important role in the pathogenesis of these conditions. PMID:24288552

Estrada-Capetillo, Lizbeth; Hernández-Castro, Berenice; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Alvarez-Quiroga, Crisol; Layseca-Espinosa, Esther; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Baranda, Lourdes; Urzainqui, Ana; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; González-Amaro, Roberto



A functional study on the migration of human monocytes to human leukemic cell lines and the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.  


In the present study the migration of human monocytes towards the supernatants of five different human myeloid leukemic cell lines, four different human lymphatic leukemic cell lines and blasts derived from three different patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was studied and the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 was established with an ELISA assay. Large differences in migration of monocytes towards the leukemic cell supernatants were shown (variation of approximately 10 to 150% compared to positive control), but high amounts of monocyte migration was always restricted to myeloid leukemic cells (cell lines or patient blasts). MCP-1 turned out to play a major role in the migration, firstly since there was a direct correlation between the amount of migration and the concentration of MCP-1 in the supernatants, and secondly since the addition of anti-hMCP-1 was able to inhibit migration to background level in all cases. Cytotoxicity experiments with a MTT test using MCP-1-stimulated monocytes against two human myeloid leukemic cell lines showed no increase in cell death compared to unstimulated monocytes. It is concluded that monocyte migration towards leukemic cells is restricted to the myeloid lineage and is regulated by MCP-1, which is produced in different amounts by the leukemic cells. Besides, MCP-1 does not increase the direct toxic effects of monocytes on leukemic cells. PMID:9369424

Legdeur, M C; Beelen, R H; Schuurhuis, G J; Broekhoven, M G; van de Loosdrecht, A A; Tekstra, J; Langenhuijsen, M M; Ossenkoppele, G J



The reticuloendothelial system and macrophage-monocyte system in thorotrast patients.  


To evaluate the function of the reticuloendothelial system and macrophage-monocyte system, blood samples from Thorotrast patients and age-matched healthy controls were used to determine the titer of plasma antibodies to lipid A and the numbers of several lymphocyte subclasses in peripheral blood and for an autoradiographic study of peripheral blood monocytes. The titer of plasma IgM class antibodies to lipid A was significantly elevated in the Thorotrast patients. Counts of CD 11-positive lymphocytes and CD 57-positive lymphocytes, which correspond to monocytes and natural killer cells, respectively, were significantly increased in the Thorotrast patients. Autoradiography showed that alpha-particle tracks were emitted from the monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of Thorotrast patients. Thus the depressed function of the reticuloendothelial system resulted in the activation of the macrophage-monocyte system in the Thorotrast patients. PMID:10564950

Abe, H; Kawahara, T; Gondou, K; Sakisaka, S; Sata, M



Allergy or tolerance: reduced inflammatory cytokine response and concomitant IL-10 production of lymphocytes and monocytes in symptom-free titanium dental implant patients.  


Hypersensitivity reactions to titanium (Ti) are very rare. Thus, we assessed the proinflammatory response and also potential tolerance favoring in vitro reactivity of human blood lymphocytes and monocytes (PBMC) to Ti in healthy individuals (14 without, 6 with complication-free dental Ti implants). The proliferation index (SI) in lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and production of cytokines linked to innate immune response (IL-1 ? , IL-6, and TNF ? ) or immune regulation (IL-10) were assessed in response to TiO2 particles or Ti discs. In both groups, the Ti-LTT reactivity was not enhanced (e.g., SI < 3). The control antigen tetanus toxoid (TT) gave adequate reactivity (median SI individuals without/with implant: 20.6 ± 5.97/19.58 ± 2.99). Individuals without implant showed higher cytokine response to Ti materials than individuals with symptom-free implants; for example, TiO2 rutile particle induced increase of IL-1 ? 70.27-fold/8.49-fold versus control medium culture. PBMC of 5 of the 6 individuals with complication-free Ti implants showed an ex vivo ongoing production of IL-10 (mean 4.18 ± 2.98?pg/mL)-but none of the 14 controls showed such IL-10 production. Thus in vitro IL-1 ? -, IL-6-, and TNF- ? production reflects "normal" unspecific immune response to Ti. This might be reduced by production of tolerogenic IL-10 in individuals with symptom-free Ti dental implants. PMID:24106709

Thomas, Peter; Iglhaut, Gerhard; Wollenberg, Andreas; Cadosch, Dieter; Summer, Burkhard



Allergy or Tolerance: Reduced Inflammatory Cytokine Response and Concomitant IL-10 Production of Lymphocytes and Monocytes in Symptom-Free Titanium Dental Implant Patients  

PubMed Central

Hypersensitivity reactions to titanium (Ti) are very rare. Thus, we assessed the proinflammatory response and also potential tolerance favoring in vitro reactivity of human blood lymphocytes and monocytes (PBMC) to Ti in healthy individuals (14 without, 6 with complication-free dental Ti implants). The proliferation index (SI) in lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and production of cytokines linked to innate immune response (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF?) or immune regulation (IL-10) were assessed in response to TiO2 particles or Ti discs. In both groups, the Ti-LTT reactivity was not enhanced (e.g., SI < 3). The control antigen tetanus toxoid (TT) gave adequate reactivity (median SI individuals without/with implant: 20.6 ± 5.97/19.58 ± 2.99). Individuals without implant showed higher cytokine response to Ti materials than individuals with symptom-free implants; for example, TiO2 rutile particle induced increase of IL-1? 70.27-fold/8.49-fold versus control medium culture. PBMC of 5 of the 6 individuals with complication-free Ti implants showed an ex vivo ongoing production of IL-10 (mean 4.18 ± 2.98?pg/mL)-but none of the 14 controls showed such IL-10 production. Thus in vitro IL-1?-, IL-6-, and TNF-? production reflects “normal” unspecific immune response to Ti. This might be reduced by production of tolerogenic IL-10 in individuals with symptom-free Ti dental implants. PMID:24106709

Thomas, Peter; Wollenberg, Andreas



Development of a novel in vitro model to study the tryptic : endothelial cells, monocytes and flow  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of a novel in vitro model of monocytes transmigration under flow and use in the study of early molecular events of atherogenesis. In this work, we focused on how endothelial dysfunction, ...

Turjman, Alexis S. (Alexis Salomon)



Stimulation of integrin-mediated adhesion of T lymphocytes and monocytes: two mechanisms with divergent biological consequences  

PubMed Central

We show that the adhesion of T lymphoid cells to immobilized fibronectin can be increased by two distinct mechanisms. The first is by increasing the affinity of the fibronectin receptor/ligand interaction using the anti-beta 1 integrin monoclonal antibody 8A2. The second is by treating the cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which alters events that occur after receptor occupancy (e.g., cell spreading) without affecting receptor affinity. The effects of these two mechanisms on adhesion in the presence of physiological concentrations of soluble fibronectin suggest that they have different biological consequences. Under these conditions, the net effect of increasing the affinity of the fibronectin receptors is to decrease cell adhesion, whereas the increase in adhesion induced by PMA is unaffected. This suggests that the high affinity receptors are not primarily available for cell adhesion under these circumstances, and that they have an alternative function. We further show that high affinity binding of soluble fibronectin can be induced by either differentiation of the monocytic cell line THP-1 or by cross-linking the T cell receptor complexes on the T lymphoid cell line HUT-78. The differentiated monocytic cells express two populations of fibronectin receptors: a minority in a high affinity state, and the majority in a low affinity state. Thus they will both continue to adhere in the presence of physiological concentrations of soluble fibronectin and bind significant amounts of soluble fibronectin at the cell surface. PMID:7511685



The human antimicrobial and chemotactic peptides LL37 and a-defensins are expressed by specific lymphocyte and monocyte populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified antibacterial components in human T and natural killer (NK) cells by using freshly isolated lymphocytes en- riched for T and NK cells as starting material. After growing these lympho- cytes for 5 days in the presence of inter- leukin (IL)-2, we isolated and charac- terized several antibacterial peptides\\/ proteins from the supernatant— a-de- fensins (HNP 1-3), LL-37, lysozyme,

Birgitta Agerberth; Jehad Charo; Joachim Werr; Berit Olsson; Farah Idali; Lennart Lindbom; Rolf Kiessling; Hans Jornvall; Hans Wigzell; Gudmundur H. Gudmundsson



Comparative Assessment of Clinically Utilized CD20-directed Antibodies in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells Reveals Divergent NK cell, Monocyte and Macrophage Properties  

PubMed Central

CD20 is a widely validated, B cell specific target for therapy in B cell malignancies. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 antibody that when combined with chemotherapy prolongs survival of CLL patients. Ofatumumab and GA101 (obinutuzumab) are CD20-directed antibodies now being developed as alternative agents to rituximab in CLL based upon different properties of enhanced direct cell death (DCD), NK cell-mediated antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), or complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Despite wide spread study, ofatumumab and GA101 have not been directly compared to one another, nor studied for interaction with monocytes and macrophages that are critical to CD20-mediated antibody efficacy in murine models. In CLL cells, we show that DCD is greatest with GA101 and CDC with ofatumumab. GA101 promotes enhanced NK cell activation and ADCC at high antibody concentrations. Ofatumumab has superior antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) with monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). GA101 demonstrated reduced activation of monocytes with diminished pERK, TNF-? release, and Fc?RIIa recruitment to lipid rafts. These data demonstrate GA101 and ofatumumab are superior to rituximab against CLL cells via different mechanisms of potential tumor elimination. These findings bear relevance to potential combination strategies with each of these anti-CD20 antibodies in the treatment of CLL. PMID:23418626

Rafiq, Sarwish; Butchar, Jonathon P.; Cheney, Carolyn; Mo, Xiaokui; Trotta, Rossana; Caligiuri, Michael; Jarjoura, David; Tridandapani, Susheela; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Byrd, John C.



Regulation of human peripheral blood monocyte DR antigen expression in vitro by lymphokines and recombinant interferons.  


The in vitro regulation of adult human monocyte DR antigen expression was studied. Normally about 75% of freshly obtained human peripheral blood monocytes express DR antigens as determined by anti-DR and complement-mediated cytotoxicity assays. DR expression on monocytes in unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures persisted to variable degrees for up to 5 d of incubation. However, when the mononuclear cells were thoroughly depleted of nonadherent cells, cultured monocytes consistently exhibited progressively decreased DR expression over 2-5 d of incubation. Readdition of nonadherent cells to the adherent cell population prevented or delayed this decrease in monocyte DR antigen expression. Thus, monocyte DR expression diminished markedly during in vitro incubation; however, the presence of nonadherent cells somehow interfered with this process. In other experiments, peripheral adherent monocytes, which had been cultured for 2-3 d to reduce their DR expression, could be induced to reexpress DR antigens after 2 d of incubation with unpurified lymphokine-containing culture supernatants, recombinant human interferon-alpha, or recombinant human gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). The reinduction of DR expression on human monocytes by lymphokines was abrogated by an antiserum produced to the synthetic N-terminal amino acids of human IFN-gamma, indicating that IFN-gamma is the active mediator in the lymphokine-containing preparations. Monocytes cultured with lymphokines or recombinant interferons also could initiate a significantly greater mixed lymphocyte response than control monocytes. Thus, IFN-gamma-containing lymphokines and recombinant interferons are required to induce human monocyte DR expression and accessory cell capacity in vitro, since in their absence monocytes become DR antigen-deficient. Finally, incubation of unfractionated human mononuclear cells with anti-human IFN-gamma also promoted the loss of monocyte DR expression. These findings suggest that resting lymphocytes are probably capable of producing sufficient IFN-gamma in vitro to result in the maintenance of the monocyte DR phenotype. PMID:6230374

Sztein, M B; Steeg, P S; Johnson, H M; Oppenheim, J J



Lymphocyte antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus: studies with heterologous antisera.  

PubMed Central

Rabbit antisera were produced against pooled living lymphocytes from 25 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lymphocytes collected at plasmapheresis or venipuncture were frozen in liquid nitrogen and later coated with rabbit antibody to normal human tonsils and normal thymocytes immediately before intravenous immunization of rabbits. Antisera were subsequently extensively absorbed with normal human tonsillar cells, thymocytes, peripheral blood lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and leukocytes from patients with myelogeneous and lymphatic leukemia until residual base-line immunofluorescent staining of normal human lymphocytes using F(ab)2' of whole antisera averaged less than 5%. Absorbed pepsin-digested antisera detected membrane antigens which were markedly increased (mean 32%) on lymphocytes from patients with active SLE (P less than 0.05). Membrane antigens reacting with absorbed, pepsin-digested antisera were present on both T and B cells but, in most instances, predominated on T cells. Control observations using absorbed pepsin-digested antisera to normal human lymphocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed no similar specificity. SLE patients treated with moderate or high dose corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents (cytoxan or azathioprine) appeared to lose lymphocyte antigens detected by these reagents. Control studies with other connective tissue disease patients, miscellaneous hospitalized subjects, or normal controls showed low levels of reactivity (2-5%). SLE lymphocyte membrane antigens uniquely increased during active disease; this may represent neoantigens or alterations associated with the disease itself. Images PMID:6153183

Williams, R C; Hughes, G R; Snaith, M L; Parry, H F; Diao, E; Greaves, M F



Peripheral blood lymphocyte/monocyte ratio at the time of first relapse predicts outcome for patients with relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the use of modern immunochemotherapy regimens, a significant proportion of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients will relapse. We proposed absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio (ALC/AMC ratio) as a new prognostic factor in relapsed or primary refractory DLBCL. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 163 patients who have been diagnosed with relapsed or primary refractory DLBCL. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were measured from the time of first relapse. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate ALC/AMC ratio as prognostic factors for OS and PFS. Results On univariate and multivariate analysis performed with factors included in the saaIPI, early relapse, prior exposure to rituximab and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT), the ALC/AMC ratio at the time of first relapse remained an independent predictor of PFS and OS (PFS: P?



Microsatellite polymorphisms in the gene promoter of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and analysis of the association between monocyte chemotactic protein-3 alleles and multiple sclerosis development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) is a chemokine that attracts mononuclear cells, including monocytes and lymphocytes, the inflammatory cell types that predominate in multiple sclerosis lesions. We studied the possible association between the presence of a CA\\/GA microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the promoter\\/enhancer region of the MCP-3 gene and the occurrence of multiple sclerosis. DNA samples from 192 Swedish multiple

Pierre Fiten; Koen Vandenbroeck; Bénédicte Dubois; Els Van Coillie; Inge Nelissen; Jo Van Damme; Arturs Ligers; Jan Hillert; Magnus Andersson; Tomas Olsson; Ghislain Opdenakker



Lymphocyte migration into atherosclerotic plaque.  


Adaptive immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but the recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to atherosclerotic lesions is not as well studied as that of monocytes. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of lymphocyte subsets in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and discuss chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in lymphocyte homing to atherosclerotic lesions. We review evidence for involvement of the chemokines CCL5, CCL19, CCL21, CXCL10, and CXCL16 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in lymphocyte homing in atherosclerosis. Also, we review the role of their receptors CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR6, and CXCR2/CXCR4 and the role of the L-selectin in mouse models of atherosclerosis. PMID:25301842

Li, Jie; Ley, Klaus



Mitogenic signal transduction in T lymphocytes in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activation by concanavalin A Con A of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in the presence of monocytes as accessory cells was investigated in cultures exposed to microgravity conditions in Spacelab. Activation of T cells was measured as incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-gamma, and expression of IL-2 receptors. Whereas, as discovered in earlier experiments, the activation of resuspended T cells is strongly inhibited, activation of cells attached to microcarrier beads is more than doubled in microgravity. The results suggest that the depression of the activation in resuspended cells may be attributed to a malfunction of monocytes acting as accessory cells. In fact, although the ultrastructure of resuspended monocytes is not altered in microgravity, the secretion of IL-1 is strongly inhibited. Our data suggest that (1) IL-2 is produced independently of IL-1, (2) IL-1 production is triggered only when monocytes (and lymphocytes?) adhere to microcarriers, (3) the expression of IL-2 receptors depends on IL-1, and (4) provided sufficient IL-1 is available, activation is enhanced in microgravity. Finally, cultures of resuspended PBLs and monocytes in microgravity constitute a complete and natural system in which monocytes are not operational. This may be useful for studies of the role of accessory cells and cell-cell interactions in T lymphocyte activation.

Cogoli, A.; Bechler, B.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Criswell, S. B.; Joller, H.; Joller, P.; Hunzinger, E.; Muller, O.



Lymphocyte Sensitization in Advanced Malignant Disease: A Study of Serum Lymphocyte Depressive Factor  

PubMed Central

Patients with advanced malignant disease show an apparent lesser degree of lymphocyte sensitization to cancer antigen when tested under standard conditions than do early cases. In the serum of cancer patients there is a lymphocyte response depressing factor whose titre rises as the neoplasm becomes more extensive. The low lymphocyte response shown by advanced cancers is not, however, directly referable to this rise in depressive factor, but to removal by the tumour mass of specifically sensitized lymphocytes so that amongst the standard number of cells under routine test an adequate number does not remain to give a full response. Increasing the number of cells under test restores the result to the level found in moderately sized cancers. The “absorptive capacity” of large tumours for circulating sensitized lymphocytes is greater than can be provided by natural immunization produced by the tumour. Active immunization with a tumour antigen can be expected therefore to increase lymphocyte-associated defence against cancer. PMID:5047140

Field, E. J.; Caspary, E. A.



Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)  


... cells in the bone marrow making too many lymphocytes. While lymphocytes help the body to fight infection when present ... tests the specimen to see if the cancerous lymphocytes originate from B or T lymphocytes. Molecular studies ...


Isolation and enumeration of peripheral blood monocytes.  


Monocytes were isolated by counterflow contrifugation from human peripheral mononuclear cells obtained from whole blood by the Ficoll-Hypaque technique. Examination of volume spectra of the monocytes showed a bimodal distribution with peaks at 330 and 370 micron3. The upper peak contained 61.4 +/- 3.3% of the total monocyte population, whereas the remainder were in the lower peak which overlaps the lymphocyte spectrum. The purity of the monocyte preparations from six normal adult donors, identified by peroxisomes observed by electron microscopy, was 90.4 +/- 1.6%. PMID:850069

Sanderson, R J; Shepperdson, R T; Vatter, A E; Talmage, D W



A New Prognostic Score for Elderly Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP: The Prognostic Role of Blood Monocyte and Lymphocyte Counts Is Absent  

PubMed Central

Background Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) have been documented as independent predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Analysis of the prognostic impact of ALC and AMC in the context of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and other significant variables in elderly population treated in the R-CHOP regime has not been carried out yet. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective study, a cohort of 443 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with age ?60 was analyzed. All patients were treated with the R-CHOP therapy. An extensive statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors of 3-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only three predictors proved significant: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), age and bulky disease presence. These predictors were dichotomized (ECOG ?1, age ?70, bulk ?7.5) to create a novel four-level score. This score predicted 3-year OS of 94.0%, 77.4%, 62.7% and 35.4% in the low-, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). Further, a three-level score was tested which stratifies the population better (3-year OS: 91.9%, 67.2%, 36.2% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively) but is more difficult to interpret. Both the 3- and 4-level scores were compared to standard scoring systems and, in our population, were shown to be superior in terms of patients risk stratification with respect to 3-year OS prediction. The results were successfully validated on an independent cohort of 162 patients of similar group characteristics. Conclusions The prognostic role of baseline ALC, AMC or their ratio (LMR) was not confirmed in the multivariate context in elderly population with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. The newly proposed age-specific index stratifies the elderly population into risk groups more precisely than the conventional IPI and its existing variants. PMID:25058337

Procházka, Vít; Pytlík, Robert; Janíková, Andrea; Belada, David; Šálek, David; Papajík, Tomáš; Campr, Vít; Fürst, Tomáš; Furstova, Jana; Trn?ný, Marek



Adhesion molecules mediating recruitment of monocytes to inflamed tissue.  


Three families of cell-surface proteins are largely responsible for the adherence of leukocytes to cells and matrices: integrins, immunoglobulin (Ig)-related molecules and selectins. Blood monocytes express beta 1 integrins VLA-4, -5 and -6 and beta 2 integrins CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18 and CD11c/CD18. These cells also express the Ig-related molecules ICAM-1, -2 and -3, ligands for the beta 2 integrins. In addition, monocytes express L-selectin and the oligosaccharides Lex and sialyl Lex, ligands for the endothelial selectins E- and P-. In vitro studies with blocking antibodies have identified adhesion molecules participating in the adherence of monocytes to one another, to T lymphocytes and to vascular endothelial cells. These antibodies also block adhesion-dependent monocyte activities, such as cytotoxicity of tumor cells, antigen presentation, phagocytosis of large particles, induction of cytokine secretion, formation of multinucleated giant cells and HIV-induced syncytium formation. In vivo studies in animals have demonstrated participation of L-selectin and CD11b/CD18 in monocyte accumulation in inflamed peritoneum. Moreover, treatment with anti-CD11b antibodies potentiates primary listeriosis and inhibits the macrophage recruitment and granuloma formation, and anti-CD18 antibodies block ear swelling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-immunized animals following challenge with PPD. Adhesion molecules may also play key roles in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and AIDS. PMID:7713561

Patarroyo, M



Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity.  


Heterogeneity of the macrophage lineage has long been recognized and, in part, is a result of the specialization of tissue macrophages in particular microenvironments. Circulating monocytes give rise to mature macrophages and are also heterogeneous themselves, although the physiological relevance of this is not completely understood. However, as we discuss here, recent studies have shown that monocyte heterogeneity is conserved in humans and mice, allowing dissection of its functional relevance: the different monocyte subsets seem to reflect developmental stages with distinct physiological roles, such as recruitment to inflammatory lesions or entry to normal tissues. These advances in our understanding have implications for the development of therapeutic strategies that are targeted to modify particular subpopulations of monocytes. PMID:16322748

Gordon, Siamon; Taylor, Philip R



HIV-1 Tat clade-specific cytokine induction in monocytes/macrophages is not evidenced in total or V?9V?2 T lymphocytes.  


HIV-1 Tat exhibits clade-specific cytokine induction in monocytes. We investigated if Tat clades A-D can alter tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? production by total and V?9V?2 T cells in vitro. Tat clade B, but not C, augmented TNF-? production by THP-1 cells. However, Tat clades A-D did not affect TNF-? or IFN-? production or secretion by resting or activated conventional and V?9V?2 T cells. Therefore, transactivation of cytokines by Tat is immune cell-specific. PMID:24275254

Kennedy, Alan; Petrasca, Andreea; Doherty, Derek G; Hennessy, Martina; Spiers, J Paul



Sulfated polyanions prevent HIV infection of lymphocytes by disruption of the CD4-gpl2O interaction, but do not inhibit monocyte infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfated polyanions (SPs) bind variably to lymphocyte-expressed CD4 and inhibit binding of monoclonal antibodies to the first two domains of CD4. To further define this interaction, soluble recombinant CD4 (sCD4; four extracellular domains), its truncated amino-terminal two-domain derivative, and three linear peptide analogues spanning residues 6-60 (6-24, 20-40, 41-60) in the first domain were investigated for SP bind- ing. Dextran

G. Lynch; L. Low; S. Li; A. Sloane; S. Adams; C. Parish; B. Kemp


Prion protein induced signaling cascades in monocytes  

SciTech Connect

Prion proteins play a central role in transmission and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}), whose physiological function remains elusive, is anchored to the surface of a variety of cell types including neurons and cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this study, we investigated the response of a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line to exposure with PrP{sup C} fusion proteins synthesized with a human Fc-tag. PrP{sup C} fusion proteins showed an attachment to the surface of monocyte/macrophages in nanomolar concentrations. This was accompanied by an increase of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation as a result of activated signaling pathways. Detailed investigations exhibited activation of downstream pathways through a stimulation with PrP fusion proteins, which include phosphorylation of ERK{sub 1,2} and Akt kinase. Macrophages opsonize and present antigenic structures, contact lymphocytes, and deliver cytokines. The findings reported here may become the basis of understanding the molecular function of PrP{sup C} in monocytes and macrophages.

Krebs, Bjarne [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Muenchen (Germany); Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia [CNS Research III, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach/Riss (Germany); Schmalzbauer, Ruediger [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Vassallo, Neville [Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Herms, Jochen [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Kretzschmar, Hans A. [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail:




Microsoft Academic Search

The scqucntial transformation of chickcn monocytcs into macrophages, cpithelioid cells, and multinucleatcd giant cells in vitro was studied by electron microscopy after fixation and cmbcdment in situ. The following changes occur. In the nucleus, margination of chro- matin, cvidcnt in monocytes, decreases in later forms. Nucleoli become more complcx and nuclear pores increase in number. In cytoplasm, a progressive increase




Collagen XIII Induced in Vascular Endothelium Mediates ?1?1 Integrin-Dependent Transmigration of Monocytes in Renal Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Alport syndrome is a common hereditary basement membrane disorder caused by mutations in the collagen IV ?3, ?4, or ?5 genes that results in progressive glomerular and interstitial renal disease. Interstitial monocytes that accumulate in the renal cortex from Alport mice are immunopositive for integrin ?1?1, while only a small fraction of circulating monocytes are immunopositive for this integrin. We surmised that such a disparity might be due to the selective recruitment of ?1?1-positive monocytes. In this study, we report the identification of collagen XIII as a ligand that facilitates this selective recruitment of ?1?1 integrin-positive monocytes. Collagen XIII is absent in the vascular endothelium from normal renal cortex and abundant in Alport renal cortex. Neutralizing antibodies against the binding site in collagen XIII for ?1?1 integrin selectively block VLA1-positive monocyte migration in transwell assays. Injection of these antibodies into Alport mice slows monocyte recruitment and protects against renal fibrosis. Thus, the induction of collagen XIII in endothelial cells of Alport kidneys mediates the selective recruitment of ?1?1 integrin-positive monocytes and may potentially serve as a therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases in which lymphocyte/monocyte recruitment involves the interaction with ?1?1 integrin. PMID:20864678

Dennis, Jameel; Meehan, Daniel T.; Delimont, Duane; Zallocchi, Marisa; Perry, Greg A.; O'Brien, Stacie; Tu, Hongmin; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Cosgrove, Dominic



Lymphocyte/monocyte ratio and cycles of rituximab-containing therapy are risk factors for hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and resolved hepatitis B.  


Abstract Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) following rituximab-containing chemotherapy for lymphoma is a major concern, and risk factors remain to be defined. We enrolled 190 patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and resolved hepatitis B, receiving first-line rituximab-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone)-based regimens. Twenty-seven patients (14.2%) developed HBV reactivation during a median follow-up of 23.6 months. Two independent risk factors were identified: cycles of rituximab > 8 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.797; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.184 to 6.612) and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) < 2.50 (HR, 2.733; 95% CI, 1.122 to 6.657). Two-year overall survival in patients with or without HBV reactivation was 53.8% vs. 77.6% (p = .025). Regarding the negative impact on clinical outcome, patients at a super high risk of HBV reactivation, including those receive more than eight cycles of rituximab and has low LMR at diagnosis, may warrant the first priority of antiviral prophylaxis. PMID:25459444

Wu, Chia-Yun; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Yi-Tsui; Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Man-Hsin; Chen, Po-Min; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai



Scrotal cutaneous verruciform xanthoma with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 immunohistochemical study: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Verruciform xanthoma is a rare, benign lesion characterized by hyperkeratosis and aggregates of foam cell macrophages. Here, we describe a case of verruciform xanthoma on the scrotum, in which the immunohistochemical localization of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a chemokine of the C-C or beta family that has been shown to induce the recruitment of monocytes for injured tissue, was analyzed to determine which cells release chemoattractants for macrophages. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese man with a well-defined nodule on the left scrotum was admitted to the hospital. An excision biopsy revealed epidermal papillary proliferation with parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, and infiltration of foam cell macrophages, whereby a pathological diagnosis of benign cutaneous verruciform xanthoma was made. Immunohistochemically, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was observed predominantly on cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive differentiating keratinocytes in the prickle cell layer. However, while infiltrating macrophages were densely stained for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers were almost negative. Conclusions We demonstrated that keratinocyte-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays an important role in the establishment of particular histological features of verruciform xanthoma. However, in the present case, unlike in previous reports, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 immunostaining in keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers was not prominent. We speculate that in the active phase of verruciform xanthoma, when continuous stimuli that release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from keratinocytes to the surrounding stromal area are present, the apparent immunostaining of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 can be underestimated because of the void created by accelerated keratinocyte release from the cytoplasmic fraction. PMID:22937911



IFN-stimulated gene LY6E in monocytes regulates the CD14/TLR4 pathway but inadequately restrains the hyperactivation of monocytes during chronic HIV-1 infection.  


Owing to ongoing recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, immune activation and upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) are sustained in the chronically infected host. Albeit most ISGs are important effectors for containing viral replication, some might exert compensatory immune suppression to limit pathological dysfunctions, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we report that the ISG lymphocyte Ag 6 complex, locus E (LY6E) is a negative immune regulator of monocytes. LY6E in monocytes negatively modulated CD14 expression and subsequently dampened the responsiveness to LPS stimulation in vitro. In the setting of chronic HIV infection, the upregulation of LY6E was correlated with reduced CD14 level on monocytes; however, the immunosuppressive effect of LY6E was not adequate to remedy the hyperresponsiveness of activated monocytes. Taken together, the regulatory LY6E pathway in monocytes represents one of negative feedback mechanisms that counterbalance monocyte activation, which might be caused by LPS translocation through the compromised gastrointestinal tract during persistent HIV-1 infection and may serve as a potential target for immune intervention. PMID:25225669

Xu, Xuan; Qiu, Chao; Zhu, Lingyan; Huang, Jun; Li, Lishuang; Fu, Weihui; Zhang, Linxia; Wei, Jun; Wang, Ying; Geng, Yunqi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Qiao, Wentao; Xu, Jianqing



Interferon-Beta Induces Distinct Gene Expression Response Patterns in Human Monocytes versus T cells  

PubMed Central

Background Monocytes, which are key players in innate immunity, are outnumbered by neutrophils and lymphocytes among peripheral white blood cells. The cytokine interferon-? (IFN-?) is widely used as an immunomodulatory drug for multiple sclerosis and its functional pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been previously described. The aim of the present study was to identify novel, cell-specific IFN-? functions and pathways in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-activated monocytes that may have been missed in studies using PBMCs. Methodology/Principal Findings Whole genome gene expression profiles of human monocytes and T cells were compared following in vitro priming to TNF-? and overnight exposure to IFN-?. Statistical analyses of the gene expression data revealed a cell-type-specific change of 699 transcripts, 667 monocyte-specific transcripts, 21 T cell-specific transcripts and 11 transcripts with either a difference in the response direction or a difference in the magnitude of response. RT-PCR revealed a set of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), exhibiting responses to IFN-? that are modulated by TNF-? in monocytes, such as RIPK2 and CD83, but not in T cells or PBMCs. Known IFN-? promoter response elements, such as ISRE, were enriched in T cell DEGs but not in monocyte DEGs. The overall directionality of the gene expression regulation by IFN-? was different in T cells and monocytes, with up-regulation more prevalent in T cells, and a similar extent of up and down-regulation recorded in monocytes. Conclusions By focusing on the response of distinct cell types and by evaluating the combined effects of two cytokines with pro and anti-inflammatory activities, we were able to present two new findings First, new IFN-? response pathways and genes, some of which were monocytes specific; second, a cell-specific modulation of the IFN-? response transcriptome by TNF-?. PMID:23626809

Henig, Noa; Avidan, Nili; Mandel, Ilana; Staun-Ram, Elsebeth; Ginzburg, Elizabeta; Paperna, Tamar; Pinter, Ron Y.; Miller, Ariel



T lymphocyte function in hairy cell leukaemia.  

PubMed Central

The high incidence of infections characteristic of impaired cell-mediated immunity in patients with hairy cell leukemia led us to study T lymphocyte function in sixteen patients with the lymphocyte transformation test. All patients showed imparied responses to mitogens, attributable to one or more of the following causes: dilution of responsive T cells by inert hairy cells, shortage of monocytes to give adequate interaction with the T cells and a significant decrease in the number of T cells with Fcmu receptors proportional to the percentage of hairy cells in the peripheral blood. The response to antigens was severely depressed; PPD was one of the few antigens that induced positive reactions in half the cases. We conclude that in patients with hairy cell leukaemia, T lymphocyte function, as tested in a proliferative assay, is severely impaired and that this may contribute to the deficient resistance to infection. PMID:6970640

Sabbe, L J; Meijer, C J; Jansen, J



Studies on the syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. II. Decline in he syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction with age.  

PubMed Central

The syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (SMLR) is the proliferative response of T lymphocytes cultured with syngeneic non-T lymphocytes. In previous studies, we found that the SMLR reaches adult level of activity at 4 weeks of age in BALB/c mice. We now report that the SMLR declines with age in this strain. The decline was first documented at 12 months of age, when non-T spleen cells were less able to stimulate young adult T cells than were non-T cells from 2 to 3 month-old mice. Splenic T cells from 12 month old mice were as responsive as splenic T cells from 2 to 3 months old mice. By 24 months of age, mice had no significant SMLR activity. Splenic T cells from 24 month old mice did not respond and splenic non-T cells did not stimulate SMLR when cultured with cells from young adult mice. Finally, suppressor cells were demonstrated in spleen cells preparations from 24 month old mice and may explain or contribute to the impaired SMLR in these animals. PMID:6213555

Gutowski, J K; Weksler, M E



Early apoptosis of monocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory response and of bacterial translocation in an experimental model of multiple trauma  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of apoptosis of monocytes in an experimental model of multiple trauma and its probable correlation to bacterial translocation. Thirty-two rabbits were applied in three groups: A, controls; B, myotomy of the right femur; and C, myotomy and fracture of the right femur. Blood was sampled for the estimation of endotoxins [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)], tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, malondialdehyde (MDA) and isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs, derived after centrifugation over Ficoll, were incubated in flasks and apoptosis of non-adherent lymphocytes and adherent monocytes was estimated after staining for Annexin-V and flow cytometry. TNF-? of supernatants of cultured monocytes was also determined. Tissue segments were cultured after death. Median survival of groups A, B and C was > 14, > 14 and 9·00 days, respectively. Apoptosis of lymphocytes in group C was higher than group A at 2, 4 and 48 h and of monocytes in group C higher than group A at 2 and 4 hours. LPS in group C was higher than group A at 2, 4 and 48 h. Apoptosis of lymphocytes and monocytes was correlated positively with serum TNF-? and negatively with TNF-? of monocyte supernatants. Cultures of organ segments of group A were sterile. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from liver, lung and spleen in five animals in group B (45·45%) and in six in group C (54·54%). Early apoptosis of blood monocytes supervened after multiple trauma; the phenomenon was accompanied by apoptosis of blood lymphocytes and subsequent bacterial translocation. PMID:16792684

Efstathopoulos, N; Tsaganos, T; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E J; Kaldis, P; Nicolaou, V; Papalois, A; Koutoukas, P; Papachristou, G; Giamarellou, H



Large-scale immunomagnetic selection of CD14+ monocytes to generate dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy: a phase I study.  


Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are widely used in the experimental immunotherapy of cancer. For clinical use GMP-like protocols for the preparation of functionally active dendritic cells (DC) in large numbers and at high purity are needed. However, the currently available protocols have certain disadvantages. In this study we tested the generation and clinical applicability of DC from monocyte preparations produced by immunomagnetic CD14(+) selection using a semiautomated clinical scale immunomagnetic column. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 10 patients with metastatic solid tumors were used. With the immunomagnetic separation, we obtained a cell suspension of high CD14(+) purity (median 97.4%, range 94.9-99.0) with a high monocyte yield (median 82.3%, range 63.9-100.0). Differentiation of CD14(+) cells into mature monocyte-derived DC was induced by incubation with IL-4, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, PGE(2), IL-1 beta, and IL-6. Mature DC showed a high expression of CD83, HLA-DR, and the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. Overall CD83(+) yield was 12.1% (range 4.0-29.4). Allogeneic T stimulatory capacity could be demonstrated for all DC preparations in proliferation assays. No significant differences in marker expression or T cell stimulation was detected between fresh DC and those derived from cryopreserved immature DC. Clinical administration of autologous DC by three different parenteral routes was tolerated by all 10 patients without systemic signs of toxicity. Our results indicate that immunomagnetic isolation of CD14(+) monocytes using the CliniMACS device is a suitable method for clinical-scale generation of functional DC under GMP-grade conditions. The selection can be performed in a closed system. Therefore, immunomagnetic CD14(+) selection can be seen as an alternative way to generate DC for clinical tumor vaccination protocols. PMID:14594508

Babatz, J; Röllig, C; Oelschlägel, U; Zhao, S; Ehninger, G; Schmitz, M; Bornhäuser, M



Study of splenic irradiation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study was performed to assess the effect of splenic irradiation (SI) on splenomegaly, splenic pain, anemia, and thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Twenty-two patients received 32 courses of SI. Of 31 courses of SI given for splenomegaly there were 19 responders (61%). Ten courses of SI were given for splenic pain resulting in partial relief of pain in 4 courses and complete relief in 4 courses. Only 4 of 16 courses given for anemia resulted in elevations of hemoglobin of 2 g/dL or more. Of the 14 courses of SI given for thrombocytopenia there were only 2 responses with platelet counts decreasing further in another 9 courses. The median duration of response was 14 months (range: 3-116 months). There was no dose-response relationship detected for SI in CLL. Treatment related toxicity was hematologic and secondary to leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. We recommend the use of small fraction sizes of 25 cGy to 50 cGy and close monitoring of hematological parameters. Splenic irradiation effectively palliates splenomegaly and reduces spleen size in CLL. It was of limited value in correcting anemia and thrombocytopenia in this patient population.

Guiney, M.J.; Liew, K.H.; Quong, G.G.; Cooper, I.A.



Changes in Monocyte Functions of Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monocyte cell numbers and functions, including phagocytosis, oxidative burst capacity, and degranulation and expression of related surface molecules, were studied in blood specimens from 25 astronauts and 9 healthy control subjects. Blood samples were obtained 10 days before a space flight, 3 hours after landing and 3 days after landing. The number of monocytes in astronauts did not change significantly among the three sample collection periods. Following space flight, the monocytes ability to phagocytize Escherichia coli, to exhibit an oxidative burst, and to degranulate was reduced as compared to monocytes from control subjects. These alterations in monocyte functions after space flight correlated with alterations in the expression of CD32 and CD64.

Kaur, I.; Simons, E.; Castro, V.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.



Expression and localization of IL1? mRNA is interrelated with cytoskeletal rearrangement in monocytes stimulated by adherence: A light microscopy in situ hybridization study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in IL-1? mRNA expression, stability and translation between non-adherent monocytes and those stimulated by adherence suggest that cytokine regulation is coupled to the function and assembly of cytoskeletal structures. In situ hybridization studies were performed to visualize expression and positioning of IL-1? mRNA in adherently cultivated monocytes. IL-1? mRNA expression was heterogeneous with high transcript levels found in spread

U Böcker; OI Sirenko; JS Morris; RB Sartor; MV Singer; JS Haskill; JM Watson



Activation signals of T lymphocytes in microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes were activated with concanavalin A with or without exogenous recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1) alone or IL-1 + interleukin 2 (IL-2) under microgravity conditions to test the hypothesis that lack of production of IL-1 by monocytes is the cause of the near total loss of activation observed earlier on several Spacelab flights. The 60 min

Proto Pippia; Luigi Sciola; Marianne Cogoli-greuter; Maria Antonia Meloni; alessandra Spano; Augusto Cogoli



Granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders: A multicenter study of 20 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A series of 20 patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPD) is reported. The criterion of inclusion was presence of persistent (=6 months) granular lymphocytosis in the absence of any causative illness. Diagnoses made upon analytical control in half the patients of splenomegaly (25%) and hepatomegaly (25%) were infrequent. Clinical course was nonprogressive in 17\\/20 patients, but two developed

S. Woessner; E. Feliu; N. Villamor; M. A. Zarco; A. Domingo; F. Millá; L. Florensa; M. Rozman; E. Abella; J. Soler; T. Vallespí; M. D. Irriguible; F. Solé



Changes in T-Cell and Monocyte Phenotypes In Vitro by Schistosoma mansoni Antigens in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients  

PubMed Central

High levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-? and TNF are associated with tissue lesions in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We previously demonstrated that Schistosoma mansoni antigens downmodulate the in vitro cytokine response in CL. In the current study we evaluated whether S. mansoni antigens alter monocyte and T-lymphocyte phenotypes in leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CL patients were cultured with L. braziliensis antigen in the presence or absence of the S. mansoni antigens rSm29, rSmTSP-2- and PIII. Cells were stained with fluorochrome conjugated antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry. The addition of rSm29 to the cultures decreased the expression of HLA-DR in nonclassical (CD14+CD16++) monocytes, while the addition of PIII diminished the expression of this molecule in classical (CD14++CD16?) and intermediate (CD14++CD16+) monocytes. The addition of PIII and rSmTSP-2 resulted in downmodulation of CD80 expression in nonclassical and CD86 expression in intermediate monocytes, respectively. These two antigens increased the expression of CTLA-4 in CD4+ T cells and they also expanded the frequency of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ T cells. Taken together, we show that S. mansoni antigens, mainly rSmTSP-2 and PIII, are able to decrease the activation status of monocytes and also to upregulate the expression of modulatory molecules in T lymphocytes. PMID:23209879

Bafica, Aline Michelle Barbosa; Cardoso, Luciana Santos; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Loukas, Alex; Góes, Alfredo; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma



Studies on the inhibitory effects of caffeoylquinic acids on monocyte migration and superoxide ion production.  


Three caffeoylquinic acids, isolated from the Peruvian plants Tessaria integrifolia and Mikania cordifolia that are used medicinally as anti-inflammatory agents, were tested for their activities on monocyte migration and superoxide anion production. 3,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acids exhibited an appreciable anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, while the tricaffeoyl derivative was inactive. PMID:7623043

Peluso, G; De Feo, V; De Simone, F; Bresciano, E; Vuotto, M L



Protease inhibitor monotherapy is associated with a higher level of monocyte activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Monotherapy with protease-inhibitors (MPI) may be an alternative to cART for HIV treatment. We assessed the impact of this strategy on immune activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing patients on successful MPI (n=40) with patients on cART (n=20). Activation, senescence, exhaustion and differentiation stage in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets, markers of monocyte activation, microbial translocation, inflammation, coagulation and low-level viremia were assessed. Results CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte subset parameters were not significantly different between both groups. Conversely, as compared with triple cART, MPI patients showed a higher proportion of activated monocytes (CD14+ CD16?CD163+ cells, p=0.031), soluble markers of monocyte activation (sCD14 p=0.004, sCD163 p=0.002), microbial translocation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein; LBP p=0.07), inflammation (IL-6 p=0.04) and low-level viremia (p=0.035). In a multivariate model, a higher level of CD14+ CD16?CD163+ cells and sCD14, and presence of very low-level viremia were independently associated with MPI. Monocyte activation was independently associated with markers of inflammation (IL-6, p=0.006), microbial translocation (LBP, p=0.01) and low-level viremia (p=0.01). Conclusions Patients on MPI showed a higher level of monocyte activation than patients on standard therapy. Microbial translocation and low-level viremia were associated with the high level of monocyte activation observed in patients on MPI. The long-term clinical consequences of these findings should be assessed. PMID:25280865

Torres, Berta; Guardo, Alberto C; Leal, Lorna; Leon, Agathe; Lucero, Constanza; Alvarez-Martinez, Míriam J; Martinez, Miguel J; Vila, Jordi; Martínez-Rebollar, María; González-Cordón, Ana; Gatell, Josep M; Plana, Montserrat; García, Felipe



The interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism is associated with elevated leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts and reduced physical fitness in young healthy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking and interleukin-6 are important factors in driving inflammation. This study assessed the relationship between smoking, interleukin-6 genotype, physical fitness, and peripheral blood count in healthy young men. For this interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism -174 genotype-phenotype association study 1,929 healthy German male aviators recruited at the central German Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine were stratified by smoking habits. Cardiovascular fitness

J. R. Ortlepp; J. Metrikat; K. Vesper; V. Mevissen; F. Schmitz; M. Albrecht; P. Maya-Pelzer; P. Hanrath; C. Weber; K. Zerres; R. Hoffmann



Toxicity of cylindrospermopsin in human lymphocytes: proliferation, viability and cell cycle studies.  


The global expansion of cylindrospermopsin (CYN) producing cyanobacteria in surface freshwater increases the risk of human exposure and poisoning. Following ingestion, CYN is transported with blood in general circulation to the liver and kidneys, and can potentially interact with immune system cells. In the present study, we investigated whether CYN (0.01-1.0 ?g ml(-1)) can alter the function of human peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from healthy donors. It was found that CYN demonstrates significant antiproliferative activity in lymphocytes during different phases of their activation. The most remarkable effects (decrease by>90%) were observed in lymphocytes exposed to 1 ?g ml(-1) CYN at the beginning of activation. Further analyses revealed a cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 and prolonged S phase in lymphocytes undergoing activation and significant apoptosis inducement in activated cells. Reduced abilities to fight pathogenic microorganisms or malignant cells should be taken into consideration in CYN exposure and risk assessments. PMID:24780216

Poniedzia?ek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof



[Study of lymphocyte subpopulations by means of monoclonal antibodies in acute hepatitis A and B].  


We studied T3, T4 and T8 lymphocyte populations in peripheral blood by monoclonal antibodies in 40 patients with acute viral hepatitis (Type A 20; Type B 20) who underwent outcome to complete recovery. We compared the results with 20 healthy subjects (control group). We found a decrease in total lymphocytes measured by T3 monoclonal antibodies and a significant increase in T8 lymphocyte populations compared with control groups. In the early stage the T4/T8 ratio was decreased. Lymphocyte populations and T4/T8 ratio was normal in 3-6 month follow-up for the acute A hepatitis group and 3.6 month to a year follow-up for the B hepatitis group. Results were related to the humoral and clinical outcome. PMID:2616985

Collazo, L; Sotto, A; Morales, M G; Borbolla, E



Therapeutic granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) for treatment refractory sarcoidosis: a pilot study of clinical effects and possible mechanisms of action.  


Sarcoidosis is a systemic, inflammatory disorder, which in a proportion of patients runs a chronic progressive course despite immunosuppressive treatment. Therapeutic granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) has been shown to be an effective treatment option for other systemic inflammatory disorders, but has not yet been investigated in sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to GMA in sarcoidosis. Seven patients with sarcoidosis refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy received 10 GMA sessions. All patients underwent chest X-ray, spirometry, a Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ-SAS), blood tests and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) before treatment and at 2-4 weeks and 3 months (except bronchoscopy) after the last treatment session. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell differential counts were recorded and T cells from blood and BALF were analysed for markers of activity, differentiation and T regulatory function. Compared to baseline, five of seven patients reported an improvement in dyspnoea score. In BALF there was an increase in the percentage of macrophages and a decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells. Furthermore, the decrease in BALF CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells correlated significantly with an improvement in dyspnoea score. In peripheral blood there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /CD27(-) T cells and a trend towards an initial increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells, followed by a statistically significant decrease. The effects of GMA on regulatory T cells are consistent with those observed in other inflammatory disorders and could potentially translate into a clinical benefit. PMID:24773420

Olsen, H H; Muratov, V; Cederlund, K; Lundahl, J; Eklund, A; Grunewald, J



Clonally related Histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma: A study of 7 cases  

PubMed Central

Histiocytic and interdigitating dendritic cell sarcomas are rare tumors originating from bone marrow derived myeloid stem cells. Recent studies have shown evidence of cross-lineage transdifferentiation of B-cells in follicular lymphoma to histiocytic and dendritic cell sarcomas. In this study, we report the morphologic, molecular and cytogenetic analysis of 7 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma associated with histiocytic and dendritic cell sarcomas. All seven patients were elderly males (median age, 71 years). The B-cell neoplasms preceded the development of the histiocytic and dendritic cell sarcomas in 6 of 7 patients, and one patient had both tumors diagnosed at the same time. The tumors included 4 interdigitating dendritic cell sarcomas; 1 Langerhans cell sarcoma, 1 histiocytic sarcoma, and 1 immature neoplasm with evidence of histiocytic origin. Laser-capture microdissection and PCR analysis showed identical clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in the two phenotypically distinct components in all cases. There was a preferential usage of IGHV4-39 by the V-D-J gene rearrangement. By FISH analysis two cases showed deletion 17p in both components, while 4 cases had normal cytogenetic findings by FISH in the CLL/SLL cells, but acquired cytogenetic abnormalities in the corresponding histiocytic and dendritic tumors. Chromosome 17p abnormalities were the most common cytogenetic abnormality detected in the sarcomas, seen in 5 of 6 cases studied. Compared with the CLL/SLL cells, the histiocytic/dendritic cells were largely negative for PAX5, but showed strong expression of PU.1 and variable and weak expression of CEBP?. Our study provides evidence for transdifferentiation of CLL/SLL B-cells to tumors of dendritic and less often histiocytic lineage, and suggests that secondary genetic events may play a role in this phenomenon. PMID:21666687

Shao, Haipeng; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Feldman, Andrew L.; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Knudson, Ryan; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hanson, Jeffrey; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S



Phase I Study of Ofatumumab, a Human Anti-CD20 Antibody, in Japanese Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives Ofatumumab is a human IgG1? monoclonal antibody that targets a membrane proximal epitope encompassing the small and large loops of CD20. This Phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of ofatumumab monotherapy in Japanese patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. Methods Ofatumumab was administered intravenously weekly for a total of eight doses (dose escalation: 500 and 1000 mg). Six patients (two chronic lymphocytic leukemia and four small lymphocytic lymphoma) were enrolled into two dose cohorts (500 mg, three patients; 1000 mg, three patients). All six patients received 300 mg ofatumumab at the first infusion and either 500 or 1000 mg at seven subsequent weekly infusions. Results No dose-limiting toxicities or serious adverse events were observed. Grade 3–4 adverse events observed were grade 3 lymphocytopenia (n = 1) and neutropenia (n = 1). Grade 1–2 infusion-related adverse events leading to temporary interruption of ofatumumab infusion were observed in all six patients on the first infusion day, and all patients completed the planned eight infusions. The overall response rate was 50% (3/6). Conclusions Ofatumumab was well tolerated at doses up to 1000 mg and showed preliminary evidence of activity in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, warranting further investigations. This study was registered at (NCT00742144). PMID:23456745

Ogura, Michinori; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Tobinai, Kensei; Uchida, Toshiki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Terui, Yasuhito; Yokoyama, Masahiro; Maruyama, Dai; Mori, Masakazu; Jewell, Roxanne C.; Katsura, Koichi; Hotta, Tomomitsu



[Kinetic study of human lymphocytes transformation in culture by lectin from Pisum sativum (author's transl)].  


Some vegetable extract have haemagglutinating activity and are able to transform lymphocytes in culture. The comparative activities of lectin from Pisum sativum and other lectins already used (phytohaere shown. This lectin can be isolated in a highly purified form which is described. Purification of the human blood lymphocytes is obtained through nylon columns and measurement of transformation and proliferation by means of 3 H thymidine incorporation. Normal lymphocyte stimulation can be obtained within a range of concentrations of stimulants can be obtained within a range of concentrations of stimulants and the curves with PHA or lectin from Pisum show a peak of blastogenic activity. The activity of lectin from Pisum sativum was studied in this way on blood cultures of 8 chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and 5 immunodeficient patients. It appeared that lectin from Pisum and PHA have the same activity. The response of human peripheral lymphocytes to various mitogenic agents in vitro does not point out the proliferative abnormal cell and may not be used to detect different populations of human lymphocytes. PMID:790278

Bernard-Griffiths, I; Betail, G; Godeneche, D; Coulet, M; Herzog, C; Binet, J L



HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host. PMID:24759213

Kumar, Amit; Abbas, Wasim; Herbein, Georges



Interferon-? increases monocyte migration via platelet–monocyte interaction in murine intestinal microvessels  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of interferon (IFN)-? on recruitment of platelets and monocytes within the murine small intestinal venular endothelium. Monocytes were isolated from bone marrow of C57B6 mice. Platelets were collected from murine blood. Rolling and adhesion to submucosal microvessels in the small intestine were examined under an intravital fluorescence microscope after injection of fluorescein-labelled monocytes or platelets. In some mice, IFN-? (5 × 105U/kg) was administered intraperitoneally. After treatment with an antibody against P-selectin, changes in monocyte and platelet migration were also investigated. Changes in monocyte migration under the condition of thrombocytopenia were also investigated. Platelets and monocytes interacted with murine intestinal microvessels, although only few platelets and monocytes showed migration behaviour. Intraperitoneal injection of IFN-? enhanced the migration of both platelets and monocytes in the intestinal microvessels. Pretreatment with anti-P-selectin attenuated the increase in migration of platelets and monocytes induced by administration of IFN-?. Thrombocytopenia decreased the rolling ratio of monocytes, suggesting that the effect of IFN-? on migration was P-selectin-dependent, derived from both the endothelium of microvessels and platelets. The results of this study suggest that IFN-? acts as a potent proinflammatory agent via its stimulatory effect on the endothelium–platelet–monocyte interaction in intestinal microvessels by a P-selectin-dependent mechanism. PMID:20659125

Higashiyama, M; Hokari, R; Kurihara, C; Ueda, T; Nakamura, M; Komoto, S; Okada, Y; Watanabe, C; Kawaguchi, A; Nagao, S; Miura, S



Effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes  

PubMed Central

The adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells is one of the early stages in the development of atherosclerosis. The expression of type IV collagenases, which include matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, in monocytes is hypothesized to play an important role in monocyte infiltration and transformation into foam cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression levels of type IV collagenases and their specific inhibitors in monocytes, and to investigate the roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? in this process. Monocytes were single-cultured or co-cultured with endothelial cells. The expression of the type IV collagenases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their specific inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2, in monocytes was determined by immunohistochemistry followed by image analysis. The expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be low in the single-culture monocytes, but increased significantly when the monocytes and endothelial cells were co-cultured. However, treatment with monoclonal TNF-? or IL-1? antibodies partially inhibited the upregulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the co-cultured monocytes. Expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was observed in the single monocyte culture, and a small increase in the expression levels was observed when the monocytes were co-cultured with endothelial cells. Therefore, monocyte-endothlium interactions were shown to increase the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes, resulting in the loss of balance between MMP-2 and -9 with TIMP-1 and -2. In addition, TNF-? and IL-1? were demonstrated to play important roles in this process.




Activation profile of Toll-like receptors of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.  


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease associated with aberrant activation of T and B lymphocytes for the production of inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. Animal studies of SLE have indicated that Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in the pathogenesis of murine lupus. In the present clinical study, differential protein expressions of TLR-1-9 of monocytes and different lymphocyte subsets from patients with SLE and normal control subjects were determined by flow cytometry. Results showed that the expression of intracellular TLRs (TLR-3, -8, -9) and extracellular TLRs (TLR-1, -2, -4, -5, -6) were elevated in monocytes, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes of SLE patients compared to control subjects (all P < 0.001). Moreover, cell surface expression of TLR-4 on CD4(+) T lymphocytes and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, and TLR-6 on B lymphocytes, were correlated positively with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (TLR-4 on CD4(+) T lymphocytes and CD8(+) T lymphocytes: r = 0.536, P = 0.04; r = 0.713, P = 0.003; TLR-6 in B lymphocytes: r = 0.572, P = 0.026). In concordance with the above results, there is an observable increased relative induction (%) of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12, chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, CCL5 and CXCL10 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon differential stimulation by PolyIC (TLR-3 ligand), lipopolysaccharide (TLR-4 ligand), peptidoglycan (TLR-2 ligand), flagellin (TLR-5 ligand), R837 (TLR-7 ligand) and CpG DNA (TLR-9 ligand) in SLE patients compared to controls. These results suggest that the innate immune response for extracellular pathogens and self-originated DNA plays immunopathological roles via TLR activation in SLE. PMID:19843090

Wong, C K; Wong, P T Y; Tam, L S; Li, E K; Chen, D P; Lam, C W K



Activation profile of Toll-like receptors of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease associated with aberrant activation of T and B lymphocytes for the production of inflammatory cytokines and autoreactive antibodies. Animal studies of SLE have indicated that Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in the pathogenesis of murine lupus. In the present clinical study, differential protein expressions of TLR-1–9 of monocytes and different lymphocyte subsets from patients with SLE and normal control subjects were determined by flow cytometry. Results showed that the expression of intracellular TLRs (TLR-3, -8, -9) and extracellular TLRs (TLR-1, -2, -4, -5, -6) were elevated in monocytes, CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes of SLE patients compared to control subjects (all P < 0·001). Moreover, cell surface expression of TLR-4 on CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and TLR-6 on B lymphocytes, were correlated positively with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (TLR-4 on CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes: r = 0·536, P = 0·04; r = 0·713, P = 0·003; TLR-6 in B lymphocytes: r = 0·572, P = 0·026). In concordance with the above results, there is an observable increased relative induction (%) of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12, chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, CCL5 and CXCL10 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon differential stimulation by PolyIC (TLR-3 ligand), lipopolysaccharide (TLR-4 ligand), peptidoglycan (TLR-2 ligand), flagellin (TLR-5 ligand), R837 (TLR-7 ligand) and CpG DNA (TLR-9 ligand) in SLE patients compared to controls. These results suggest that the innate immune response for extracellular pathogens and self-originated DNA plays immunopathological roles via TLR activation in SLE. PMID:19843090

Wong, C K; Wong, P T Y; Tam, L S; Li, E K; Chen, D P; Lam, C W K



Inflammatory dysregulation of blood monocytes in Parkinson's disease patients.  


Despite extensive effort on studying inflammatory processes in the CNS of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, implications of peripheral monocytes are still poorly understood. Here, we set out to obtain a comprehensive picture of circulating myeloid cells in PD patients. We applied a human primary monocyte culture system and flow cytometry-based techniques to determine the state of monocytes from PD patients during disease. We found that the classical monocytes are enriched in the blood of PD patients along with an increase in the monocyte-recruiting chemoattractant protein CCL2. Moreover, we found that monocytes from PD patients display a pathological hyperactivity in response to LPS stimulation that correlates with disease severity. Inflammatory pre-conditioning was also reflected on the transcriptome in PD monocytes using next-generation sequencing. Further, we identified the CD95/CD95L as a key regulator for the PD-associated alteration of circulating monocytes. Pharmacological neutralization of CD95L reverses the dysregulation of monocytic subpopulations in favor of non-classical monocytes. Our results suggest that PD monocytes are in an inflammatory predisposition responding with hyperactivation to a "second hit". These results provide the first direct evidence that circulating human peripheral blood monocytes are altered in terms of their function and composition in PD patients. This study provides insights into monocyte biology in PD and establishes a basis for future studies on peripheral inflammation. PMID:25284487

Grozdanov, Veselin; Bliederhaeuser, Corinna; Ruf, Wolfgang P; Roth, Valerie; Fundel-Clemens, Kathrin; Zondler, Lisa; Brenner, David; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Hengerer, Bastian; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Danzer, Karin M



M-ficolin is expressed on monocytes and is a lectin binding to N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and mediates monocyte adhesion and phagocytosis of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Ficolins are a group of multimeric proteins that contain collagen-like and fibrinogen-like (FBG) sequences. Three types of ficolins have been characterized: H-, L- and M-ficolins. Both H- and L-ficolins have demonstrated lectin activities. In the present study, the FBG domain of M-ficolin was expressed and shown to bind to N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. M-ficolin mRNA was expressed in monocytes but not in the more differentiated macrophages and dendritic cells. By flow cytometry, surface biotinylation and immunoprecipitation, we showed that M-ficolin was associated with the surface of promonocytic U937 cells. M-ficolin transiently expressed in COS-7 cells was also clearly detected on the cell surface by immunoprecipitation. By flow cytometry, M-ficolin was detected on peripheral blood monocytes but not on lymphocytes or granulocytes. Immobilized rabbit anti-M-ficolin F(ab?)2 mediated U937 cell adhesion, and the antibody also inhibited phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K-12 by U937 cells. Therefore, M-ficolin might act as a phagocytic receptor or adaptor on circulating monocytes for micro-organism recognition and may potentially mediate monocyte adhesion. PMID:11012776

Teh, C; Le, Y; Lee, S H; Lu, J



Monocyte Subpopulations in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Growing understanding of the role of the tumor microenvironment in angiogenesis has brought monocyte-derived cells into focus. Monocyte subpopulations are an increasingly attractive therapeutic target in many pathologic states, including cancer. Before monocyte-directed therapies can be fully harnessed for clinical use, understanding of monocyte-driven angiogenesis in tissue development and homeostasis, as well as malignancy, is required. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which monocytic subpopulations contribute to angiogenesis in tissue and tumor development, highlight gaps in our existing knowledge, and discuss opportunities to exploit these cells for clinical benefit. PMID:24556724

Dalton, Heather J.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Villasana, Vianey; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Sood, Anil K.



Sources of heterogeneity in human monocyte subsets  

PubMed Central

Human monocytes are commonly defined and discriminated by the extent of their cell surface expression of CD14 and CD16, with associated differences in function and phenotype related to the intensity of expression of these markers. With increasing interest into the function and behaviour of monocytes, it is important to have a clear understanding of how differing strategies of analysis can affect results and how different protocols and population backgrounds can affect this highly morphogenic cell type. Using PBMCs from populations with differing ethnicities and histories of parasite exposure we have characterized monocyte phenotype based on intensity of CD14 and CD16 expression. Using the surface markers HLA-DR, CCR2 and CX3CR1, we compared monocyte phenotype between populations and further assessed changes in monocytes with freezing and thawing of PBMCs. Our results reveal that there is a progression of surface marker expression based on intensity of CD14 or CD16 expression, stressing the importance of careful gating of monocyte subtypes. Freezing and thawing of the PBMCs has no effect generally on the monocytes, although it does lead to a decrease in CD16 and CX3CR1 expression. We show that there are differences in the monocyte populations based on ethnicity and history of exposure to the common parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium. This study highlights that blood monocytes consist of a continuous population of cells, within which the dominant phenotype may vary dependent on the background of the study population. Comparing results from monocyte studies therefore needs to be done with great care, as ethnic background of donor population, gating strategy and processing of PBMCs may all have an effect on outcome of monocyte phenotype. PMID:23557598

Appleby, Laura J.; Nausch, Norman; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Allen, Judith E.; Mutapi, Francisca



An in vivo genome wide gene expression study of circulating monocytes suggested GBP1, STAT1 and CXCL10 as novel risk genes for the differentiation of peak bone mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak bone mass (PBM) is an important determinant of osteoporosis. Circulating monocytes serve as early progenitors of osteoclasts and produce important molecules for bone metabolism. To search for genes functionally important for PBM variation, we performed a whole genome gene differential expression study of circulating monocytes in human premenopausal subjects with extremely low (N=12) vs. high (N=14) PBM. We used

Shu-Feng Lei; Shan Wu; Li-Ming Li; Fei-Yan Deng; Su-Mei Xiao; Cheng Jiang; Yuan Chen; Hui Jiang; Fang Yang; Li-Jun Tan; Xiao Sun; Xue-Zhen Zhu; Man-Yuan Liu; Yao-Zhong Liu; Xiang-Ding Chen; Hong-Wen Deng



Monocyte Adhesion Molecules Expression in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic viral hepatitis is histologically characterized by predominantly periportal infiltration of mononuclear cells, including lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Intralobular infiltration of these inflammatory cells is an ominous sign of deterioration and a criterion for disease activity. Objective To assess the monocyte inflammatory milieu, monocytes adhesion molecules, their endothelial receptors, cytokines and chemokines in patients with HCV induced chronic liver disease, in an attempt to clarify the role of blood monocytes in induction of inflammation and fibrogenesis in chronic hepatitis C liver disease. Subjects and Methods The current study included 60 patients with chronic liver disease categorized into 2groups: Patients chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), 15 patients each; 15 healthy subjects were included as normal controls. Immunophenotype characterization was carried out by flowcytometric analysis for identification of CD11a, CD11b and CD49d monocyte surface antigen expression in different groups studied. The circulating levels of the soluble adhesion molecules (sE-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1), cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1) and chemokines (MCP-1) were also assessed by immunoassays. Results Data demonstrated a significant increase (p<0.01) in the surface expression of CD11a on peripheral blood monocytes and in the circulating levels sE-selectins, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and TNF-? in both groups of patients compared to healthy subjects. Data also revealed a significant increase (p<0.01) in the surface expression of each of CD11b and CD49d on peripheral blood monocytes and in the circulating levels sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and TNF-? in patients with LC compared to those with CHC. Moreover, data demonstrated that the increase in surface antigen expression of each CD11a (p<0.01), CD11b (p<0.05) and CD49d (p<0.01) on circulating peripheral blood monocytes is positively correlated with the increase in the circulating levels of each of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in the both groups of patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that the modulation of monocyte-subset recruitment into the liver via adhesion molecules or cytokines/cytokine receptors may represent promising approaches for therapeutic interventions in human liver fibrosis. Measurement of serum soluble adhesion molecules may be useful for monitoring progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis during CHC. PMID:24106604

El-Bassiouni, Nora E.I.; Mahmoud, Ola M.; El Ahwani, Eman G; Ibrahim, Raafat A.; El Bassiouny, Azza E.I.




Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted on 10 patients with pulmonary and mammary cancer, ; Hodgkin's disease, or leukemia who were recovering from 200-kv x-ray therapy ; (single daily doses of 100 to 200 r andtotal doses of 1100 to 15000 r). ; Lymphocyte polysaccharide content was determined in peripheral cells by the ; periodic acid-Schiff histochemical techninue, and serum glycoprotein were ;

L. Verga; M. Garofano; F. Coucourde



Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3 Is a Most Effective Basophil and Eosinophil-activating Chemokine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary CC chemokines constitute a novel class of cytokines that attract and activate monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as basophil and eosinophil lenkocytes, with distinct target cell profiles, and are believed to be involved in the regulation of different types of inflammation. The action of the recently identified monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) on human basophil and eosinophil function was

Clemens A. Dahinden; Thomas Geiser; Thomas Brunner; Daniel Caput; Pascual Ferrara; Adrian Minty; Marco BaggioliniS



Monocytes in the rat.  


We review our methods for definition and phenotypical characterisation of normal and activated rat monocytes. To obtain a comprehensive sample of all blood monocytes including cells from the marginal pool of the blood stream, we extensively perfuse the extrapulmonary circulation with cold PBS/EDTA. Normal rat monocytes are isolated from untreated specified pathogen-free male LEW rats. In vivo activated monocytes are investigated after three days of infusion of recombinant IFN-gamma or during acute renal allograft rejection. Rat monocytes are defined by reactivity with mAbs ED1 and ED9, detecting a lysosomal membrane antigen and a member of the signal-regulatory protein family, respectively, as well as by expression of CD11b. Concomitantly rat monocytes are characterized by the absence of CD5, the absence of the B cell form of CD45R, and the absence of reactivity with mAb RP-1. The majority of the monocytes from untreated LEW rats are CD4+, CD11a(high), CD18high, CD43high, CD62-L-, CD161-, and MHC class II-. Upon stimulation of the immune system in vivo, a second monocyte population increases in number. These cells have a larger diameter and an increased granularity. They are CD4-, CD11a(int), CD18int, CD43low, CD62-L+, CD161int, and MHC class II+. Although some reagents are not yet available (e.g. antibodies against rat CD14 and CD16), rat monocytes can be defined and their state of activation can be characterized. The functionally important population of monocytes, which have already marginated, is accessible by perfusion and relatively high monocyte numbers are isolated per rat. As specified pathogen-free rats are available and numerous experimental systems involving acute or chronic inflammation have been established in rats, differentially activated monocytes may be investigated. The rat is thus a suitable experimental animal for basic research on monocytes. PMID:10879693

Grau, V; Scriba, A; Stehling, O; Steiniger, B



A phase I study of escalated dose subcutaneous alemtuzumab given weekly with rituximab in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the safety and preliminary efficacy of escalated dose subcutaneous alemtuzumab in combination with rituximab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Twenty-eight patients with relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia were treated on four dosing cohorts of weekly rituximab at 375 mg/m2 and alemtuzumab doses that started at 30 mg three times per week and escalated to weekly dosing over four weeks, culminating with 90 mg weekly. One dose limiting toxicity of a rituximab infusion reaction was seen in cohort 2, but the regimen was otherwise well tolerated without evidence of differential toxicity by cohort. The overall response rate by National Cancer Institute-Working Group criteria was 61%, and the rate of complete bone marrow response was 43%, most of whom were negative for minimal residual disease. The addition of CT scan evaluation per International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 2008 criteria reduced the overall response rate to 14%. Median overall survival was 35 months, with 12 patients able to proceed to stem cell transplantation. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that chronic lymphocytic leukemia involving more than 80% of the bone marrow at study start was associated with lower trough concentrations of alemtuzumab and rituximab, and that higher trough serum concentrations of alemtuzumab were associated with complete bone marrow clearance. We conclude that escalated subcutaneous doses of alemtuzumab given weekly are well tolerated and result in excellent bone marrow clearance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, helping patients to proceed to stem cell transplantation. This study is registered at (Identifier:00330252). PMID:23645694

Brown, Jennifer R.; Messmer, Bradley; Werner, Lillian; Davids, Matthew S.; Mikler, Evgeny; Supko, Jeffrey G.; Fisher, David C.; LaCasce, Ann S.; Armand, Philippe; Jacobsen, Eric; Dalton, Virginia; Tesar, Bethany; Fernandes, Stacey M.; McDonough, Sean; Ritz, Jerome; Rassenti, Laura; Kipps, Thomas J.; Neuberg, Donna; Freedman, Arnold S.



Studies of T- and B-Lymphocytes in Patients with Connective Tissue Diseases  

PubMed Central

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal subjects as well as patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and active tuberculosis were studied for the relative distribution of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (B-cells) and thymic-derived T-cells. B-cells were identified by direct immunofluorescence of surface Ig markers; T-cells were studied using rabbit antisera to pooled human fetal thymocytes absorbed with chronic lymphatic leukemia lymphocytes as a source of B-cells. In normal subjects, the sum of percentages of peripheral blood lymphocytes staining for surface Ig (B-cells) plus the percentage of cells staining with the absorbed antithymocyte antiserum closely approximated 100%. The mean value for percent B-cells among 51 normals tested was 22.9%±7.1; mean T-cells value was 75.3±13.95%. T-cell-specific antiserum stained 18% of normal human bone marrow lymphocytes, 42.5% of lymphocytes from normal spleens, and 98% of cells obtained from thoracic duct drainage of patients with RA. Specificity of antihuman thymocyte antiserum appeared to depend on the use of living cells. When patients with RA were examined, a wide range (14-98%) of peripheral blood T-cell values was found. Values for low percentages of peripheral blood T-cells appeared to correlate to some extent with severe clinical disease. In 11 of 36 RA patients, the sum of identifiable B- plus T-cells accounted for only 34-55% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The identity of the remaining “null” cells could not be identified. 3 of 24 SLE patients studied showed low percentages of peripheral blood T-cells, but no correlation could be drawn between T- to B-cell ratios and clinical disease activity. Among 21 patients with active tuberculosis, one had a low value for identifiable T-cells. No significant differences from normals in range or proportion of B-cells was identified in patients with active tuberculous infection. Images PMID:4567306

Williams, Ralph C.; DeBoard, James R.; Mellbye, Ove J.; Messner, Ronald P.; Lindström, Folke D.



The appearance of transition forms between monocytes and Kupffer cells in the liver of rats treated with glucan. A cytochemical and ultrastructural study  

PubMed Central

A massive accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes in the rat liver was found after the injection of glucan, a beta-1,3-polyglucose. Portal vessels and central veins contained large numbers of rounded and elongated cells which were adherent to the endothelium. By scanning electron microscopy most of these cells exhibited prominent lemellopodia, raised ridge-like profiles and blebs, the typical features of mononuclear phagocytes. Peroxidase cytochemistry revealed that whereas most cells in portal vessels were monocytes with peroxidase positive and negative granules, the majority of cells in central veins were macrophages exhibiting peroxidase activity in nuclear envelope (NE) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In sinusoids monocytes and macrophages were seen side by side. The major finding of the present study was that some cells, adherent to the endothelium or portal vessels or to the lining of sinusoids, exhibited a peroxidase pattern intermediate between monocytes and Kupffer cells, i.e. strong peroxidase activity in cytoplasmic granules, as well as a weak to moderately positive peroxidase reaction in NE and ER. These intermediate cells also contained peroxidase-negative granules with halo, which are usually seen in monocytes. Furthermore, examination of serial ultrathin sections of typical Kupffer cells revealed numerous peroxidase-positive granules and peroxidase-negative granules with halo in their cytoplasm. Finally, dividing Kupffer cells with positive peroxidase reaction in ER were found. These in vivo observations provide ultrastructural and cytochemical evidence in support of the concept of derivation of Kupffer cells from monocytes, demonstrating in addition that Kupffer cells are capable of self-replication in situ. PMID:429964



TLR4-Mediated Expression of Mac-1 in Monocytes Plays a Pivotal Role in Monocyte Adhesion to Vascular Endothelium  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is known to mediate monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, however, its role on the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR4 on the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules, and determined the functional role of TLR4-induced adhesion molecules on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. When THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA), a specific TLR4 agonist, Mac-1 expression was markedly increased in association with an increased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. These were attenuated by anti-Mac-1 antibody, suggesting a functional role of TLR4-induced Mac-1 on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. In monocytes treated with MK886, a 5-lipoxygenase (LO) inhibitor, both Mac-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by KLA were markedly attenuated. Moreover, KLA increased the expression of mRNA and protein of 5-LO, suggesting a pivotal role of 5-LO on these processes. In in vivo studies, KLA increased monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelium of wild-type (WT) mice, which was attenuated in WT mice treated with anti-Mac-1 antibody as well as in TLR4-deficient mice. Taken together, TLR4-mediated expression of Mac-1 in monocytes plays a pivotal role on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, leading to increased foam cell formation in the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:25116953

Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae



Monocyte Scintigraphy in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Dynamics of Monocyte Migration in Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Macrophages are principal drivers of synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a prototype immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Conceivably, synovial macrophages are continuously replaced by circulating monocytes in RA. Animal studies from the 1960s suggested that macrophage replacement by monocytes is a slow process in chronic inflammatory lesions. Translation of these data into the human condition has been hampered by the lack of available techniques to analyze monocyte migration in man. Methods/Principal Findings We developed a technique that enabled us to analyze the migration of labelled autologous monocytes in RA patients using single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT). We isolated CD14+ monocytes by CliniMACS in 8 patients and labeled these with technetium-99m (99mTc-HMPAO). Monocytes were re-infused into the same patient. Using SPECT we calculated that a very small but specific fraction of 3.4×10?3 (0.95?5.1×10?3) % of re-infused monocytes migrated to the inflamed joints, being detectable within one hour after re-infusion. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate monocytes migrate continuously into the inflamed synovial tissue of RA patients, but at a slow macrophage-replacement rate. This suggests that the rapid decrease in synovial macrophages that occurs after antirheumatic treatment might rather be explained by an alteration in macrophage retention than in monocyte influx and that RA might be particularly sensitive to treatments targeting inflammatory cell retention. PMID:19924229

Thurlings, Rogier M.; Wijbrandts, Carla A.; Bennink, Roelof J.; Dohmen, Serge E.; Voermans, Carlijn; Wouters, Diana; Izmailova, Elena S.; Gerlag, Danielle M.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Tak, Paul P.



Study of zinc-induced changes in lymphocyte membranes using atomic force microscopy, luminescence, and light scattering methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the surface structure of lymphocyte membranes exposed to various concentrations of zinc ions are studied. It is found by atomic force microscopy that increasing the concentration of zinc ions leads to a reduction in the correlation length of the autocorrelation function of the roughness profile of a lymphocyte compared to control samples; this may indicate the existence of fine structure in the membrane surface. Fluorescence markers are used to observe a reduction in the microviscosity of the lipids in the outer monolayer of the lipid bilayer after lymphocytes are exposed to Zn ions, as well as the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface membrane, and the oxidation of HS-groups of membrane proteins. Calculations of the absorption coefficients of lymphocytes modified with zinc reveal the existence of absorption bands owing to the formation of metal-protein complexes and zinc oxide nanoparticles. These results indicate significant changes in the structural and functional state of lymphocyte membranes exposed to zinc ions.

Filimonenko, D. S.; Khairullina, A. Ya.; Yasinskii, V. M.; Kozlova, N. M.; Zubritskaja, G. P.; Slobozhanina, E. I.



Monocyte and T-cell responses to exercise training in elderly subjects.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise training on age-related impairment of immune parameters related to T-cell activation in elderly individuals. Twenty-four elderly subjects were assigned to an exercise training group (EXC: 3 men, 9 women; age 61-76 years) or a nonexercise control group (CON: 4 men, 8 women; age 62-79 years). Subjects in EXC participated in exercise sessions 2 d·wk(-1) for 12 weeks. The training session included stretching and endurance exercise (10 minutes), resistance training comprised leg extension, leg press, hip abduction, and hip adduction using exercise machine and each subject's body weight. Subjects in CON maintained their normal physical activity levels during the study period. Blood samples were collected before and after the training period. Samples were measured for the numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and for CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD28(+)CD4(+), CD28(+)CD8(+), TRL-4(+)CD14(+), and CD80(+)CD14(+) cells. The number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) cells did not change after 12 weeks in either EXC or CON. The number of CD28(+)CD8(+) cells increased significantly after training in EXC (p ? 0.05), although CON showed no significant change. In the EXC group, CD80(+)CD14(+) cell counts were significantly higher after training (p ? 0.05), but the TLR-4(+)CD14(+) cell counts were unchanged. In the CON group, no significant alteration existed in TLR-4(+)CD14(+) and CD80(+)CD14(+) cell numbers. In conclusion, exercise training in elderly people is associated with increased CD28-expressing Tc cells and CD80-expressing monocytes. Therefore, exercise training might upregulate monocyte and T-cell-mediated immunity in elderly people. PMID:21685807

Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Natsumi; Imai, Tomoko; Aizawa, Katsuji; Nanba, Hideyuki; Hanaoka, Yukichi; Kuno, Shinya; Mesaki, Noboru; Kono, Ichiro; Akama, Takao



Histamine inhibits high mobility group box 1-induced adhesion molecule expression on human monocytes.  


Cell-cell interaction through binding of adhesion molecules on monocytes to their ligands on T-cells plays roles in cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an abundant and conserved nuclear protein, acts in the extracellular environment as a primary pro-inflammatory signal. HMGB1 induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 on monocytes, resulting in production of interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production and lymphocyte proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Histamine inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production via histamine H2-receptors; however, it is not known whether histamine inhibits HMGB1 activity. This study was designed to study the inhibitory effect of histamine on HMGB1 activity. We examined the effect of histamine on HMGB1-induced expression of ICAM-1, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 on monocytes, production of IFN-? and TNF-? and lymphocyte proliferation in PBMCs. Histamine inhibited HMGB1 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of histamine were partially ablated by the H2-receptor antagonist, famotidine, and mimicked by the H2/H4-receptor agonists, dimaprit and 4-methylhistamine. Histamine induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in the presence and absence of HMGB1. The effects of histamine were reversed by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, and mimicked by the membrane-permeable cAMP analog, dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), and the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin. These results together indicated that histamine inhibited HMGB1 activity. PMID:24012904

Takahashi, Hideo; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Teshigawara, Kiyoshi; Niwa, Atsuko; Liu, Keyue; Wake, Hidenori; Mori, Shuji; Yoshino, Tadashi; Nishibori, Masahiro



Platelet—monocyte pro-coagulant interactions in on-pump coronary surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Platelets and monocytes possess haemostatic properties, but the clinical effect of platelet—monocyte interactions on haemostasis following coronary surgery is not known. The study characterises the platelet and monocyte responses in cardiac surgery and its impact on haemostasis. Methods: In 1342 patients, changes in white blood cell counts (WBC), monocyte counts and platelet counts were measured. PMC formation was analysed

Arjuna Weerasinghe; Thanos Athanasiou; Pandelis Philippidis; Jonathan Day; Kaushik Mandal; Oliver Warren; Jonathan Anderson; Kenneth Taylor



Platelet–monocyte pro-coagulant interactions in on-pump coronary surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Platelets and monocytes possess haemostatic properties, but the clinical effect of platelet–monocyte interactions on haemostasis following coronary surgery is not known. The study characterises the platelet and monocyte responses in cardiac surgery and its impact on haemostasis. Methods: In 1342 patients, changes in white blood cell counts (WBC), monocyte counts and platelet counts were measured. PMC formation was analysed

Arjuna Weerasinghe; Thanos Athanasiou; Pandelis Philippidis; Jonathan Day; Kaushik Mandal; Oliver Warren; Jonathan Anderson; Kenneth Taylor



Freeze fracture through the cytoskeleton, nucleus and nuclear matrix of lymphocytes studied by scanning electron microscopy.  


The technique of delaying fixation until after freeze-fracture and thawing, described in an earlier paper (Haggis & Bond, 1979), has been developed further for study of cells in culture, principally mouse lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A. Using a thin layer of cells, a cryoprotectant concentration of either 10% glycerol or dimethylsulphoxide, is sufficient to give good structural preservation after rapid freezing and thawing. Nuclear matrices and Triton-permeabilized cells have been prepared from stimulated lymphocytes for comparative study. Polylysine-coated fibrin support films have been found to provide a convenient means of handling cells and subcellular preparations during freeze fracture, critical point drying and mounting for high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. PMID:6685772

Haggis, G H; Schweitzer, I; Hall, R; Bladon, T



Engineered Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Lymphocytes to Study In Vivo Trafficking and Immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived natural killer (NK) cells are a promising source of antitumor lymphocytes for immunotherapeutics. They also provide a genetically tractable platform well suited for the study of antitumor immunotherapies in preclinical models. We have previously demonstrated the potency of hESC-derived NK cells in vivo. Here we use both bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging to demonstrate trafficking of hESC-derived NK cells to tumors in vivo. Our dual-imaging approach allowed us to more specifically define the kinetics of NK cell trafficking to tumor sites. NK cell persistence and trafficking were further evaluated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. This integrated approach provides a unique system to apply the use of human pluripotent stem cells to study the kinetics and biodistribution of adoptively transferred lymphocytes, advances broadly applicable to the field of immunotherapy. PMID:23421330

Knorr, David A.; Bock, Allison; Brentjens, Renier J.



Honeybee apisimin and plant arabinogalactans in honey costimulate monocytes.  


Here we determined whether immunostimulatory plant-derived arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and the honeybee-derived protein apisimin are present in varieties of New Zealand honey. Apisimin is a protein of unknown function secreted from the glands of honeybees into Royal Jelly, forming a complex with apalbumin1 capable of stimulating lymphocyte proliferation. AGPs were abundant in kanuka honey with lesser amounts in manuka, kowhai and clover honeys, but absent from Royal Jelly. Apisimin was present in all honeys, as well as Royal Jelly. We report that apisimin shares with honey AGPs the ability to stimulate the release of TNF-? from blood monocytes. Further, it synergizes with AGPs to enhance the release of TNF-?, via a mechanism not involving the formation of a complex with AGPs. In summary, this study provides evidence that AGPs and apisimin are commonly present in different floral varieties of honey, and hence contribute to their immunostimulatory properties. PMID:25172680

Gannabathula, Swapna; Krissansen, Geoffrey W; Skinner, Margot; Steinhorn, Gregor; Schlothauer, Ralf



Radiation effects on cultured human monocytes and on monocyte-derived macrophages  

SciTech Connect

Prior to administration, leukocyte transfusions are commonly irradiated with up to 5,000 R to eliminate lymphocytes and thereby prevent graft-versus-host disease in the recipient. It has been widely believed that phagocytes are resistant to this irradiation. In a recent report, it was noted that phagocyte oxidative metabolism was compromised during preparation of white cells for transfusion. As part of the effort to examine the basis for this inhibition of phagocyte function during white cell preparation, an assessment was made of the effects of irradiation on the long-lived monocytes that have been shown to persist at inflammatory foci posttransfusion. Human monocytes were irradiated for up to 3 min, receiving 2,500-5,000 R. This irradiation damaged human monocytes, significantly decreasing their in vitro survival for the first 3 wk of culture, and growth as assessed by two-dimensional cell size measurements during the first 2 wk of culture. Despite smaller cell size, total cell protein was significantly increased over time in irradiated cultures. Extracellular release of lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase per cell was not affected by irradiation, but extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was significantly increased after irradiation. Irradiated monocytes killed Listeria monocytogenes at a slower rate than the nonirradiated controls. Thus, the data indicate that irradiation in doses used to prevent graft-versus-host disease in leukocyte transfusion recipients has a deleterious effect on in vitro human monocyte survival and function.

Buescher, E.S.; Gallin, J.I.



Human Monocytic Cell Lines Transformed In Vitro by Epstein-Barr Virus Display a Type II Latency and LMP-1-Dependent Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) classically infects and transforms B lymphocytes in vitro, yielding lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In contrast to other herpesviruses, EBV is not described as an infectious agent for monocytes. However, recent papers described in vitro infection of monocytes leading to abortive or transient viral expression. In the present study, we report the characterization of E1, a monocytic cell line infected and transformed by EBV. This cell line was derived from an LCL by a drastic electroporation and selection of neomycin-resistant cells, unfavorable to B-cell outgrowth. E1 expressed surface molecules of monocytic lineage (CD14, major histocompatibility complex class II, and CD80) and the c-fms gene, a highly specific marker for the monocytic lineage. This cell line is able to phagocytose and secrete proinflammatory monokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-8. E1 cells are tumorigenic after injection in nude mice, and a monocytic cell line obtained from one of these tumors (TE1) displayed immunophenotype and functional properties similar to those of E1. We detected the presence of the EBV genome in both cell lines, as well as expression of the EBNA-1 and LMP-1, but not EBNA-2, viral genes, characteristic of a type II latency. LMP-1 influences the phenotype of these monocytic cell lines, as demonstrated by down-regulation of cell proliferation and membrane intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression due to an LMP-1 antisense strategy. This is the first description of a latently infected human monocytic cell line and the first direct demonstration of an instrumental role for LMP-1 in the proliferation of EBV-transformed cell lines expressing a type II latency. PMID:12050358

Masy, Eric; Adriaenssens, Eric; Montpellier, Claire; Crépieux, Pascale; Mougel, Alexandra; Quatannens, Brigitte; Goormachtigh, Gautier; Faumont, Nathalie; Meggetto, Fabienne; Auriault, Claude; Groux, Hervé; Coll, Jean



In vitro studies on organophosphate pesticides induced oxidative DNA damage in rat lymphocytes.  


Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used for agricultural and household pest control. We studied the genotoxicity of the commonly used OP pesticides chlorpyrifos (CPF), methyl parathion (MPT), and malathion (MLT), individually and in combination, in Wistar rat peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks were measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay). To test whether the DNA lesions were caused by oxidative stress, the DNA repair enzymes formamidoaminopyrimidineglycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease (Endo III), which convert base damages to strand breaks, were used. Significant increases in strand breaks and in levels of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide were observed in lymphocytes treated with pesticides. MPT exposure caused the greatest DNA damage and ROS production, followed by CPF and ML. Our results demonstrate genotoxic potential of these OP pesticides. PMID:24468856

Ojha, A; Srivastava, N



[Study of lymphocyte subpopulations with monoclonal antibodies in acute hepatitis A and B].  


Using monoclonal antibodies, it was determined the T3, T4 and T8 1ym phocyte populations in the blood samples of 40 patients with acute viral hepatitis (20 type A and 20 type B). al patients showed complete remission from it. The results of this study were compared with those of a control group of 20 healthy subjects. There was a non significant decreased of the total number of lymphocytes measured with the T3 monoclonal antibody in both types of hepatitis. The number of T8 lymphocytes was significantly increased (p less than 0.05) when the results were compared with those of the control group. The quotient T4/T8 was diminished in the initial phase of the disease (p less than 0.05). There were no other differences between hepatitis A and hepatitis B. In the follow up of the disease, the results tend to normal values in the whole group of patients. PMID:1840845

Collazo, L; Sotto, A; Morales, M G; Borbolla, E



Multi-parametric phospho-flow cytometry: a crucial tool for T lymphocyte signaling studies.  


Tools such as protein immunoblotting have proven benefits for investigating T lymphocyte signaling but have several drawbacks such as the number of cells required and the difficulty of distinguishing subset-specific differences without expensive and invasive cell sorting. Recent advances in immunology and the identification of T lymphocyte sub-populations making up only a very small fraction of the total population highlight the importance of studying signaling in those small subsets in a feasible, cost-effective, high-throughput manner. To this end, we have developed a simplified protocol to study both intracellular phosphorylation patterns of important signal transduction molecules concomitantly with T cell surface marker expression. A multi-parametric analysis may allow the quantification of the phosphorylation of up to five signaling molecules in CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes and their naïve, central memory, effector memory, and TEMRA subsets. This enables precise identification of subset-specific signaling and alterations of signaling pathways in physiological and pathological situations. The importance of such detailed analysis is discussed. PMID:23359365

Goldeck, David; Low, Ivy; Shadan, Nurhidaya Binte; Mustafah, Seri; Pawelec, Graham; Larbi, Anis



Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance study of 17O from H217O in rat lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Lymphocytes obtained from thymus glands of normal rats and culture lines of malignant rat thymocytes were enriched with H217O. The longitudinal and transverse relaxations of the 17O were determined separately in samples of packed cells and supernatant solutions. The longitudinal relaxation of intracellular 17O of fresh viable lymphocytes was nonexponential, becoming simply exponential with eventual necrosis. The rate of spin-lattice relaxation (1/T1) was fitted by a sum of two exponentials. The average mole fraction of the molecules subject to the slower relaxation rate (1/T1s) was two-thirds of the total water. Lowering the Larmor frequency (omega) from 7.72 to 4.36 MHZ increased the faster component (1/T1f) by 12% without altering (1/T1s). The value of the single exponential decay of the nonviable cells was not appreciably different from the initial rate of relaxation of the fresh cells. Similar results were obtained in studies of the transverse relaxation rates. The simplest interpretation is that two-thirds of the cell water is located within the nucelus and is characterized by a slower rate of relaxation than the one-third of the cell water in the cytoplasm because of the different macromolecular compositions of the two-subcellular compartments. The malignant lymphocytes were characterized by prolonged values for the slow and fast components of both the longitudinal and transverse relaxations of 17O. PMID:1084165

Shporer, M; Haas, M; Civan, M M



Combined Cytogenotoxic Effects of Bee Venom and Bleomycin on Rat Lymphocytes: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of bee venom (BV) and/or the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin (BLM) on healthy isolated rat lymphocytes utilizing morphometric and molecular techniques. Using the Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient centrifugation technique, lymphocytes were isolated, divided into groups, and subjected to BV and/or BLM at incubation medium concentrations of 10 or 20??g/mL respectively for 24 and 72?hrs. An MTT assay and fluorescent microscopy examinations were used to assess the cytotoxic effects. To determine the predominant type of BV and/or BLM-induced cell death, LDH release assay was employed beside quantitative expression analyses of the apoptosis-related genes (Caspase-3 and Bcl-2). The genotoxic effects of the tested compounds were evaluated via DNA fragmentation assay. The results of these assays demonstrated that BV potentiates BLM-induced cytotoxicity through increased LDH release and diminished cell viability. Nevertheless, BV significantly inhibited the BLM-induced DNA damage. The results verify that BV significantly attenuates the genotoxic effects of BLM on noncancerous isolated rat lymphocytes but does not diminish BLM cytotoxicity. PMID:24822179

Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M.; Khalil, Samah R.; Awad, Ashraf; AL-Ayadhi, Laila Y.



Monocyte fate in atherosclerosis.  


Monocytes and their descendant macrophages are essential to the development and exacerbation of atherosclerosis, a lipid-driven inflammatory disease. Lipid-laden macrophages, known as foam cells, reside in early lesions and advanced atheromata. Our understanding of how monocytes accumulate in the growing lesion, differentiate, ingest lipids, and contribute to disease has advanced substantially over the last several years. These cells' remarkable phenotypic and functional complexity is a therapeutic opportunity: in the future, treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease and its complications may involve specific targeting of atherogenic monocytes/macrophages and their products. PMID:25538208

Hilgendorf, Ingo; Swirski, Filip K; Robbins, Clinton S



Role of the ERK Pathway for Oxidant-Induced Parthanatos in Human Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed by myeloid cells as a defense strategy against microorganisms. ROS however also trigger poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1- (PARP-1) dependent cell death (parthanatos) in adjacent lymphocytes, which has been forwarded as a mechanism of immune escape in several forms of cancer. The present study assessed the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), in particular the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in ROS-induced signal transduction leading to lymphocyte parthanatos. We report that inhibitors of ERK1/2 phosphorylation upheld natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity under conditions of oxidative stress and rescued NK cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes from cell death induced by ROS-producing monocytes. ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibition also protected lymphocytes from cell death induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and from ROS generated by xanthine oxidase or glucose oxidase. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was observed in lymphocytes shortly after exposure to ROS. ROS-generating myeloid cells and exogenous H2O2 triggered PARP 1-dependent accumulation of poly ADP-ribose (PAR), which was prevented by ERK pathway inhibitors. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was induced by ROS independently of PARP-1. Our findings are suggestive of a role for ERK1/2 in ROS-induced lymphocyte parthanatos, and that the ERK axis may provide a therapeutic target for the protection of lymphocytes against oxidative stress. PMID:24586933

Akhiani, Ali A.; Werlenius, Olle; Aurelius, Johan; Movitz, Charlotta; Martner, Anna; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Thorén, Fredrik B.



Role of the ERK pathway for oxidant-induced parthanatos in human lymphocytes.  


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed by myeloid cells as a defense strategy against microorganisms. ROS however also trigger poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1- (PARP-1) dependent cell death (parthanatos) in adjacent lymphocytes, which has been forwarded as a mechanism of immune escape in several forms of cancer. The present study assessed the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), in particular the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in ROS-induced signal transduction leading to lymphocyte parthanatos. We report that inhibitors of ERK1/2 phosphorylation upheld natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity under conditions of oxidative stress and rescued NK cells and CD8(+) T lymphocytes from cell death induced by ROS-producing monocytes. ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibition also protected lymphocytes from cell death induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and from ROS generated by xanthine oxidase or glucose oxidase. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was observed in lymphocytes shortly after exposure to ROS. ROS-generating myeloid cells and exogenous H2O2 triggered PARP 1-dependent accumulation of poly ADP-ribose (PAR), which was prevented by ERK pathway inhibitors. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was induced by ROS independently of PARP-1. Our findings are suggestive of a role for ERK1/2 in ROS-induced lymphocyte parthanatos, and that the ERK axis may provide a therapeutic target for the protection of lymphocytes against oxidative stress. PMID:24586933

Akhiani, Ali A; Werlenius, Olle; Aurelius, Johan; Movitz, Charlotta; Martner, Anna; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Thorén, Fredrik B



Anti-CD20 B-cell depletion enhances monocyte reactivity in neuroimmunological disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical trials evaluating anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) generated encouraging results. Our recent studies in the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) attributed clinical benefit to extinction of activated B-cells, but cautioned that depletion of naïve B-cells may be undesirable. We elucidated the regulatory role of un-activated B-cells in EAE and investigated whether anti-CD20 may collaterally diminish regulatory B-cell properties in treatment of neuroimmunological disorders. Methods Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-immunized C57Bl/6 mice were depleted of B-cells. Functional consequences for regulatory T-cells (Treg) and cytokine production of CD11b+ antigen presenting cells (APC) were assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 22 patients receiving anti-CD20 and 23 untreated neuroimmunological patients were evaluated for frequencies of B-cells, T-cells and monocytes; monocytic reactivity was determined by TNF-production and expression of signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM). Results We observed that EAE-exacerbation upon depletion of un-activated B-cells closely correlated with an enhanced production of pro-inflammatory TNF by CD11b+ APC. Paralleling this pre-clinical finding, anti-CD20 treatment of human neuroimmunological disorders increased the relative frequency of monocytes and accentuated pro-inflammatory monocyte function; when reactivated ex vivo, a higher frequency of monocytes from B-cell depleted patients produced TNF and expressed the activation marker SLAM. Conclusions These data suggest that in neuroimmunological disorders, pro-inflammatory APC activity is controlled by a subset of B-cells which is eliminated concomitantly upon anti-CD20 treatment. While this observation does not conflict with the general concept of B-cell depletion in human autoimmunity, it implies that its safety and effectiveness may further advance by selectively targeting pathogenic B-cell function. PMID:22027448



Effect of antihypertensive treatments on insulin signalling in lympho-monocytes of essential hypertensive patients: A pilot study.  


Abstract It was previously demonstrated that metabolic syndrome in humans is associated with an impairment of insulin signalling in circulating mononuclear cells. At least in animal models of hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) may correct alterations of insulin signalling in the skeletal muscle. In the first study, we investigated the effects of a 3-month treatment with an ARB with additional PPAR? agonist activity, telmisartan, or with a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, on insulin signalling in patients with mild-moderate essential hypertension. Insulin signalling was evaluated in mononuclear cells by isolating them through Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation and protein analysis by Western Blot. An increased expression of mTOR and of phosphorylated (active) mTOR (p-mTOR) was observed in patients treated with telmisartan, but not in those treated with nifedipine, while both treatments increased the cellular expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4). We also investigated the effects of antihypertensive treatment with two drug combinations on insulin signalling and oxidative stress. Twenty essential hypertensive patients were included in the study and treated for 4 weeks with lercanidipine. Then they were treated for 6 months with lercanidipine + enalapril or lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. An increased expression of insulin receptor, GLUT-4 and an increased activation of p70S6K1 were observed during treatment with lercanidipine + enalapril but not with lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. In conclusion, telmisartan and nifedipine are both effective in improving insulin signalling in human hypertension; however, telmisartan seems to have broader effects. The combination treatment lercanidipine + enalapril seems to be more effective than lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide in activating insulin signalling in human lympho-monocytes. PMID:24786779

De Ciuceis, Carolina; Flati, Vincenzo; Rossini, Claudia; Rufo, Anna; Porteri, Enzo; Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Petroboni, Beatrice; La Boria, Elisa; Donini, Carlotta; Pasini, Evasio; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano



Maturation of bone marrow lymphocytes. II. Development of fc and complement receptors and surface immunoglobulin studied by rosetting and radioautography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many small lymphocytes in mouse bone marrow display surface IgM molecules and receptors for Fc and complement (1-3). Cytocentrifuge rosetting studies demon- strate well-defined Fc and complement receptors on certain marrow small lympho- cytes, but the incidence of these cells relative to IgM-bearing lymphocytes is lower than in the peripheral lymphoid tissues (1, 2). These findings suggest that the Fc

W. C. Yang; S. C. MILLER; D G Osmond



Clinical and immunological evaluation of primary splenic irradiation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a study of 24 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effects of primary splenic irradiation (SI) in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) on subpopulations of lymphocytes, immunoglobulins, and the induction of autoantibodies against erythrocytes and platelets. Twenty-four untreated patients with B-CLL were studied prospectively. One patient was excluded from analysis because of intercurrent death. Of the remaining 23 patients, 7 were female and 16 were

W. N. K. A. van Mook; M. M. F. Fickers; T. A. M. Verschueren



Tolerance to Lipopolysaccharide in Human Blood Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

When monocytes are stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), they efficiently produce cytokines like tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Upon secondary stimulation, this response is only minimal, and there is little TNF mRNA transcription, mRNA accumulation, and protein production. Studies with the monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 have shown that in such tolerant cells the CD14 LPS receptor is still present, and

H. W. Löms Ziegler-Heitbrock; Marion Frankenberger; Angela Wedel



The anti-idiotypic antibody 1F7 stimulates monocyte interleukin-10 production and induces endotoxin tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogens that establish chronic infection elicit immune responses with suppressive cytokines dominating over pro-inflammatory cytokines. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection are associated with high levels of antiviral antibodies expressing a common idiotype specifically recognized by the 1F7 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The 1F7 mAb is a murine IgM? antibody raised against immunoglobulin pooled from the plasma of multiple HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we investigated direct effects of the 1F7 mAb itself on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods Isolated monocytes or PBMC from healthy controls were incubated with the 1F7 mAb or IgM? mAb control. Cytokine production was measured in cell culture supernatants by ELISA and cells producing interleukin-10 (IL-10) were identified by subset depletion and intracellular flow cytometry. Endotoxin tolerance was assessed by exposing monocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following 1F7 mAb or IgM? mAb control pre-treatment and comparing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels in cell culture supernatants. Results The 1F7 mAb stimulated monocytes and CD36+ lymphocytes to produce IL-10 in a time and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of monocytes with 1F7 mAb also reduced their subsequent responsiveness to LPS stimulation. Conclusions Induction of antibodies expressing the 1F7 idiotype by chronic pathogens may facilitate IL-10 production and progression to chronic infection. Direct effects of IL-10 from human monocytes stimulated by 1F7-like antibodies, followed by monocyte transition to an alternatively activated phenotype illustrated by endotoxin tolerance, are two complementary features favouring a tolerogenic or non-responsive immunological environment. PMID:23561395



Characterization of the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp1) gene, mRNA isoforms and basal promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blimp-1 is a transcriptional repressor that is both required and sufficient to trigger terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes and monocyte\\/macrophages. Here we report the organization of the mouse Blimp-1 gene, an analysis of Blimp-1 homologs in different species, the characterization of Blimp-1 mRNA isoforms and initial studies on the transcription of Blimp-1. The murine Blimp-1 gene covers ~23 kb and

Chainarong Tunyaplin; Miriam A. Shapiro; Kathryn L. Calame



Lymphocytic gastritis: a newly described entity: a retrospective endoscopic and histological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytic gastritis is a histopathological entity characterised by the accumulation of small lymphocytes in the surface and foveolar epithelium. In order to investigate the correlation between endoscopy and histology in this condition, 192 observations selected on the basis of a presumed diagnosis of erosive or varioliform gastritis were reviewed. Ninety two instances corresponded to lymphocytic gastritis, while 100 did not

J Haot; L Hamichi; L Wallez; P Mainguet



Glatiramer acetate treatment effects on gene expression in monocytes of multiple sclerosis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic peptides used in the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GA therapy on the gene expression of monocytes. Methods Monocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of eight RRMS patients. The blood was obtained longitudinally before the start of GA therapy as well as after one day, one week, one month and two months. Gene expression was measured at the mRNA level by microarrays. Results More than 400 genes were identified as up-regulated or down-regulated in the course of therapy, and we analyzed their biological functions and regulatory interactions. Many of those genes are known to regulate lymphocyte activation and proliferation, but only a subset of genes was repeatedly differentially expressed at different time points during treatment. Conclusions Overall, the observed gene regulatory effects of GA on monocytes were modest and not stable over time. However, our study revealed several genes that are worthy of investigation in future studies on the molecular mechanisms of GA therapy. PMID:24134771



CX3CR1 receptor is up-regulated in monocytes of coronary artery diseased patients: impact of pre-inflammatory stimuli and renin-angiotensin system modulators.  


Fractalkine/CX3CR1 pathway is considered a major modulator of atherosclerosis. In the present study, expression of CX3CR1 on PBMCs/monocytes of healthy individuals and coronary artery diseased patients was initially assessed by flow cytometry. Effects of pre-inflammatory cytokines interferon (INF)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on expression of CX3CR1 and a single representative of each major chemokine family (CCR5 and CXCR4) were further assessed in three cell models: THP-1 monocytes, Jurkat T lymphocytes and primary monocytes isolated from healthy donors. Finally, effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors captopril, lisinopril and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) losartan on chemokine receptor expression were evaluated in the same cell models either in a naive or stimulated state. INF-gamma significantly affected the chemokine receptor phenotype of THP-1 cells by increasing the rate of CX3CR1-positive cells. Pre-treatment with the ACE inhibitors, captopril and lisinopril, and the ARB, losartan, did not influence these effects. Captopril and lisinopril similarly had no effect on either stimulated or naive primary monocytes. Yet, a small but repeatable increase in CX3CR1 expression after treatment with losartan was noted. Nevertheless, the latter observation did not retain statistical significance after applying the Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, our data did not indicate any significant effect of the ACE inhibitors on the chemokine receptor phenotype of monocytes. PMID:17521710

Apostolakis, Stavros; Krambovitis, Elias; Vlata, Zaharenia; Kochiadakis, Georgios E; Baritaki, Stavroula; Spandidos, Demetrios A



Setae from Larvae of the Northern Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) Stimulate Proliferation of Human Blood Lymphocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Larvae of the Northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP) carry microscopic needles (setae), which by penetrating skin and mucous membranes, may cause inflammatory/immune derived symptoms in man. In the present study the stimulatory effects of setae on human blood lymphocytes in vitro was investigated. Blood mononuclear cells were separated from venous blood or buffy coat of ten healthy individuals, six previously exposed to setae and four with no known exposure. Lymphoproliferation was measured as uptake of 3H-thymidine. Setae were prepared from TP larvae. Setae and saline setae extracts stimulated proliferation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of monocytic cells. Stimulation was pronounced in cells from persons who had been exposed to setae, and weak in cells from non-exposed donors. Chitin also induced lymphocyte proliferation in most donors, but to a lesser extent and independently of donor's previous exposure to setae. In conclusion, setae contain molecules that in the presence of monocytes activate human T-lymphocytes to proliferation. The antigenic nature of stimulatory molecules was supported by the significantly stronger lymphocyte response in persons previously exposed to setae than in non-exposed donors. The nature of such molecules remains to be defined. PMID:25531291

Holm, Göran; Andersson, Margareta; Ekberg, Monica; Fagrell, Bengt; Sjöberg, Jan; Bottai, Matteo; Björkholm, Magnus



Effects of environmental toxins on lymphocyte function: studies in rhesus and man  

SciTech Connect

The immune system is a potential target of environmental toxins. Impairment of immune function could have a disastrous effect upon the affected individual. We had the unique opportunity to study the results of a prolonged exposure to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin) in rhesus monkeys and their offspring. Subsequently, we performed similar studies on humans exposed to the nematode pesticide, Aldicarb. This report summarizes those previous studies. In the monkeys, no major deficits of the immune system were found and the animals did not have excessive numbers of infections. However, at higher doses of dietary TCDD (25 ppt), only 22% of the offspring survived to 1 year of age. Thus, the failure to demonstrate effects on the young may simply relate to the essential equivalence of the lethal to an immunosuppressive dose. In humans, exposure to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Aldicarb, was received through contaminated well water. The known exposure was for at least 1 year and could have been as long as 5 years. Various tests of the immune system, including lymphocyte subset counts, proliferative responses, total immunoglobulin levels and specific antibody responses did not reveal immunodeficiency. Increases in the numbers of CD8 positive T lymphocytes was observed. There was no evidence of any increase in clinical illness in the exposed compared with the control group.

Hong, R. (University of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatrics, Madison (USA))



Monocytes Control Second-Phase Neutrophil Emigration in Established Lipopolysaccharide-induced Murine Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with no currently effective pharmacological therapies. Neutrophils have been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of ALI, and there has been significant research into the mechanisms of early neutrophil recruitment, but those controlling the later phases of neutrophil emigration that characterize disease are poorly understood. Objectives: To determine the influence of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) in established ALI. Methods: In a murine model of LPS-induced ALI, three separate models of conditional monocyte ablation were used: systemic liposomal clodronate (sLC), inducible depletion using CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor (CD11b DTR) transgenic mice, and antibody-dependent ablation of CCR2hi monocytes. Measurements and Main Results: PBMs play a critical role in regulating neutrophil emigration in established murine LPS-induced lung injury. Gr1hi and Gr1lo PBM subpopulations contribute to this process. PBM depletion is associated with a significant reduction in measures of lung injury. The specificity of PBM depletion was demonstrated by replenishment studies in which the effects were reversed by systemic PBM infusion but not by systemic or local pulmonary infusion of mature macrophages or lymphocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that PBMs, or the mechanisms by which they influence pulmonary neutrophil emigration, could represent therapeutic targets in established ALI. PMID:22822022

Scholefield, Emma; Ferenbach, David; Gibbons, Michael; Duffin, Rodger; Dorward, David A.; Morris, Andrew Conway; Humphries, Duncan; MacKinnon, Alison; Wilkinson, Tom S.; Wallace, William A. H.; van Rooijen, Nico; Mack, Matthias; Rossi, Adriano G.; Davidson, Donald J.; Hirani, Nik; Hughes, Jeremy; Haslett, Chris; Simpson, A. John



Regulation of icam-1 in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity.  


Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Unverdorben, Felix; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Buttron, Isabell; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Thiel, Cora S; Ullrich, Oliver



Defects in mitochondrial clearance predispose human monocytes to interleukin-1? hypersecretion.  


Most hereditary periodic fever syndromes are mediated by deregulated IL-1? secretion. The generation of mature IL-1? requires two signals: one that induces synthesis of inflammasome components and substrates and a second that activates inflammasomes. The mechanisms that mediate autoinflammation in mevalonate kinase deficiency, a periodic fever disease characterized by a block in isoprenoid biosynthesis, are poorly understood. In studying the effects of isoprenoid shortage on IL-1 ? generation, we identified a new inflammasome activation signal that originates from defects in autophagy. We find that hypersecretion of IL-1? and IL-18 requires reactive oxygen species and is associated with an oxidized redox status of monocytes but not lymphocytes. IL-1? hypersecretion by monocytes involves decreased mitochondrial stability, release of mitochondrial content into the cytosol and attenuated autophagosomal degradation. Defective autophagy, as established by ATG7 knockdown, results in prolonged cytosolic retention of damaged mitochondria and increased IL-1? secretion. Finally, activation of autophagy in healthy but not mevalonate kinase deficiency patient cells reduces IL-1? secretion. Together, these results indicate that defective autophagy can prime monocytes for mitochondria-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, thereby contributing to hypersecretion of IL-1? in mevalonate kinase deficiency. PMID:24356959

van der Burgh, Robert; Nijhuis, Lotte; Pervolaraki, Kalliopi; Compeer, Ewoud B; Jongeneel, Lieneke H; van Gijn, Marielle; Coffer, Paul J; Murphy, Michael P; Mastroberardino, Pier G; Frenkel, Joost; Boes, Marianne



Regulation of ICAM-1 in Cells of the Monocyte/Macrophage System in Microgravity  

PubMed Central

Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M.; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.; Thiel, Cora S.



Activation of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus expression during maturation of monocytes to macrophages.  


Lentiviruses, which cause arthritis-encephalitis and maedi-visna in goats and sheep, respectively, cause persistent infections in these animals. The viruses replicate productively at low levels in macrophages in diseased organs such as the "maedi lung" and nonproductively in other cell types such as leukocytes in peripheral blood. Nonproductive infections become productive during in vitro cultivation of the cells. This study showed that monocytes were the only cells in the peripheral blood leukocytes of an infected animal in which virus was detected and that virus activation occurred only when these cells matured into macrophages. Only a minute fraction of cultured monocytes matured into macrophages, and viral infectivity was associated exclusively with this fraction. Antiglobulin-coated glass wool fragments were lethal for monocyte macrophages because of toxic phagocytosis, but had no effect on B or T lymphocytes. The simultaneous addition of the glass fragments and leukocytes to culture dishes resulted in no macrophage maturation and no virus production. The addition of the fragments to virus-producing macrophages caused the death of the cells and a decline in virus production. Virus production in less avidly phagocytic cells was unaffected by the glass. Thus, although macrophages may be permissive for virus replication, one mechanism for restricted virus expression in vivo may be physiological factors controlling the maturation of these cells. PMID:6862634

Narayan, O; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S; Sheffer, D; Griffin, D E; Clements, J E



Rapid Detection of Dendritic Cell and Monocyte Disorders Using CD4 as a Lineage Marker of the Human Peripheral Blood Antigen-Presenting Cell Compartment  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes are critical regulators and effectors of innate and adaptive immune responses. Monocyte expansion has been described in many pathological states while monocyte and DC deficiency syndromes are relatively recent additions to the catalog of human primary immunodeficiency disorders. Clinically applicable screening tests to diagnose and monitor these conditions are lacking. Conventional strategies for identifying human DCs and monocytes have been based on the use of a lineage gate to exclude lymphocytes, thus preventing simultaneous detection of DCs, monocytes, and lymphocyte subsets. Here we demonstrate that CD4 is a reliable lineage marker for the human peripheral blood antigen-presenting cell compartment that can be used to identify DCs and monocytes in parallel with lymphocytes. Based on this principle, simple modification of a standard lymphocyte phenotyping assay permits simultaneous enumeration of four lymphocyte and five DC/monocyte populations from a single sample. This approach is applicable to clinical samples and facilitates the diagnosis of DC and monocyte disorders in a wide range of clinical settings, including genetic deficiency, neoplasia, and inflammation. PMID:24416034

Jardine, Laura; Barge, Dawn; Ames-Draycott, Ashley; Pagan, Sarah; Cookson, Sharon; Spickett, Gavin; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Collin, Matthew; Bigley, Venetia



Polarity and sensitivity of T lymphocyte studied by an optical trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lymphocytes are the central players in the human adaptive immune response. In the body, individual T helper lymphocytes need to be activated first by physical contact with antigen- presenting cells (APC). T-cell contact with APCs initiated an activation cascade, which includes an increase in T-cell intracellular calcium, leading to T-cell proliferation, differentiation and lymphokine production. Calcium imaging are combined with optical manipulation to investigate the physical properties of T-cell activation. We study cell-cell contact requirements for T-cell activation using optical tweezers to control the orientation of T-cell/APC pairs and fluorescence microscopy to measure the subsequent T-cell intracellular calcium level [(Ca2+)i] response. APCs or beads coated with antibodies to the T-cell receptor (TCR) are trapped with a near-infrared titanium-sapphire laser and placed at different locations along the T-cell, which has a polarized appearance defined by the shape and direction of crawling. T cells which are presented with antigen at the leading edge have a higher probability of responding and a shorter latency of response than those contacting APCs or beads with their trailing end. Alterations in antibody density and bead size are used to determine the spatial requirements for T cell activation and the minimum number of receptors which must be engaged in order to transmit a positive signal.

Wei, Xunbin; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Cahalan, Michael D.; Tromberg, Bruce J.



Sex Differences in Monocyte Activation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)  

PubMed Central

Introduction TLR7/8 and TLR9 signaling pathways have been extensively studied in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as possible mediators of disease. Monocytes are a major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are understudied in SLE. In the current project, we investigated sex differences in monocyte activation and its implications in SLE disease pathogenesis. Methods Human blood samples from 27 healthy male controls, 32 healthy female controls, and 25 female patients with SLE matched for age and race were studied. Monocyte activation was tested by flow cytometry and ELISA, including subset proportions, CD14, CD80 and CD86 expression, the percentage of IL-6-producing monocytes, plasma levels of sCD14 and IL-6, and urine levels of creatinine. Results Monocytes were significantly more activated in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls in vivo. We observed increased proportions of non-classic monocytes, decreased proportions of classic monocytes, elevated levels of plasma sCD14 as well as reduced surface expression of CD14 on monocytes comparing women to men and lupus patients to controls. Plasma levels of IL-6 were positively related to sCD14 and serum creatinine. Conclusion Monocyte activation and TLR4 responsiveness are altered in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls. These sex differences may allow persistent systemic inflammation and resultant enhanced SLE susceptibility. PMID:25485543

Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Lumin; Lang, Ren; Li, Zihai; Gilkeson, Gary



Differential induction of human monocyte transforming growth factor ?1 production and its regulation by interleukin 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that trauma patients' monocytes which arein vivo activated by multiple injury-induced mediators have elevated transforming growth factor-beta (TGFß) bioactivity. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a Th2 and B lymphocyte stimulatory factor, has been shown to inhibit monocyte production of a number of mediators both after lipopolysaccharide stimulation and after trauma-induced stimulation. However, IL-4 inhibitory effects appears to vary, depending

Carol L. Miller-Graziano; Di Zhu; Karen Kodys



Were monocytes responsible for initiating the cytokine storm in the TGN1412 clinical trial tragedy?  


The precise biological mechanisms that caused the TGN1412 clinical trial tragedy (also known as 'The Elephant Man Clinical Trial') in March 2006 remain a mystery to this day. It is assumed widely that the drug used in this trial (TGN1412) bound to CD28 on T lymphocytes and following activation of these cells, a massive 'cytokine storm' ensued, leading ultimately to multi-organ failure in all recipients. The rapidity of this in vivo response (within 2 h), however, does not fit well with a classical T lymphocyte response, suggesting that other 'faster-acting' cell types may have been involved. In this study we have activated purified human peripheral blood leucocyte populations using various clones of mouse monoclonal anti-CD28 presented to cells in the form of a multimeric array. Cytokines were measured in cell-free supernatants at 2 h, and specific mRNA for tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, thought to be the initiator of the cytokine storm, was also measured in cell lysates by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Monocytes were the only cell type found to show significant (P < 0·05) up-regulation of TNF-? at 2 h. Eleven other monocyte cytokines were also up-regulated by anti-CD28 within this time-frame. It therefore seems likely that monocytes and not T cells, as widely believed, were probably responsible, at least in part, for initiating the cytokine storm. Furthermore, we propose that a multimeric antibody array may have formed in vivo on the vascular endothelium via an interaction between TGN1412 and CD64 (Fc?RI), and we provide some evidence in support of this hypothesis. PMID:20964641

Sandilands, G P; Wilson, M; Huser, C; Jolly, L; Sands, W A; McSharry, C



Monocyte-derived dendritic cells: development of a cellular processor for clinical applications.  


Since dendritic cells (DCs) are the most professional antigen-presenting cells, (Schuler et al., 1997), increasing interest in their use in clinical approaches has been observed. (Nestle et al., 1998; Murphy G. et al., 1996). We have developed an ex vivo standardized process for the generation of dendritic-like cells (MAC-DCs) from human blood circulating monocytes. Human monocytes can differentiate into very different functional cells according to the conditions of culture, media and cytokines used. In the present study, we demonstrate that both pure monocytes and mononuclear cells differentiate into DCs when they are grown in defined medium AIM-V in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus IL13 and in approved biocompatible non-adherent bags. Quality and functional controls of the immature DCs obtained rely on bacterial sterility, viability, morphology and recovery. The MAC-DCs also present an immature DC phenotype with a low expression of CD14 and CD64, and high expression of MHC-I, MHC-II and CD40. They also express B7 costimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86), CD83, and CD1a molecules. They induce strong allogenic T-cell proliferation (mixed lymphocyte reaction as well as proliferation of autologous memory T lymphocytes when incubated in the presence of recall antigens (tuberculosis, Candida albicans, and tetanus toxoid). They also show an increase in phagocytic uptake of yeast, tumour cells and debris. The global closed system which, under reproducible good medical practice (GMP) conditions, enables the production of dendritic cells of clinical quality, has been optimized ("Vac Cell Processor"). It contains all bags, connections, media, reagents, washing solutions, control antibodies, standard operating procedures, data management, traceability and help in the form of dedicated software. PMID:9851516

Goxe, B; Latour, N; Bartholeyns, J; Romet-Lemonne, J L; Chokri, M



Increased monocyte tissue factor expression in coronary disease.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether monocyte expression of tissue factor is increased in patients with acute coronary syndromes and chronic stable angina. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of monocyte tissue factor expression in patients with ischaemic heart disease and control subjects. BACKGROUND--Unstable angina and myocardial infarction are associated with enhanced mononuclear cell procoagulant activity. Procoagulant activity of blood monocytes is principally mediated by tissue factor expression. Tissue factor initiates the coagulation cascade and monocyte tissue factor expression may therefore be increased in these syndromes. METHODS--Monocyte tissue factor expression was measured cytometrically in whole blood flow using a polyclonal rabbit antihuman tissue factor antibody. PATIENTS--30 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 17 with unstable angina, 13 with chronic stable angina, and 11 normal control subjects. RESULTS--Increased proportions of monocytes expressing tissue factor (> 2.5%) were found in none of 11 (0%) normal subjects, five 13 (38%) patients with stable angina, 11 of 17 (64%) patients with unstable angina, and 16 of 30 (53%) patients with myocardial infarction (2P = 0.006). Blood from all subjects showed similar monocyte tissue factor expression similar monocyte tissue factor expression (46.1 (15.1)%) after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. CONCLUSION--Hypercoagulability associated with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and chronic stable angina may be induced by tissue factor expressed on circulating monocytes. PMID:7888247

Leatham, E. W.; Bath, P. M.; Tooze, J. A.; Camm, A. J.



Insect-bite-like reaction in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a study from the Israeli Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Study Group.  


An insect-bite-like reaction is known to occur in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Most of the literature, however, consists of isolated case reports or small case series. The aim of this retrospective study was to review the national experience with insect-bite-like reaction in a large group of patients with CLL. The study cohort of patients with these skin reactions consisted of 48 patients (25 males, 23 females) of mean age 64.8 yr (range 33-89) at skin eruption. Data on clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic characteristics, treatment, and outcome were collected from the medical files. Mean time between diagnosis of CLL and appearance of the skin lesions was 3.1 yr (range -4 to 14 yr). The eruption was not related to disease activity or the course of the hematological disease. The eruption preceded the diagnosis of CLL in 10 patients (by 0-4 yr); and followed the diagnosis in 36; in 11 patients, it occurred during therapy for CLL and in nine after therapy. Mean duration of the skin findings was 21.5 months (range 0.3-132). The eruption usually presented in summer, although it occurred also at other times of the year, and predominantly affected the upper and lower limbs, although it also appeared on unexposed areas. Treatment included local ointments, antihistaminics, oral steroids, antibiotics, phototherapy, and dapsone with varying responses. Insect-bite-like reactions is a relatively common and disturbing skin reaction in CLL patients, it may be related to the immune dysregulation accompanying CLL and further exacerbated by external factors, including actual insect bites, chemoimmunotherapy, and pyogenic infection. PMID:23033927

Bairey, Osnat; Goldschmidt, Neta; Ruchlemer, Rosa; Tadmor, Tamar; Rahimi-Levene, Neomi; Yuklea, Mona; Shvidel, Lev; Berrebi, Alain; Polliack, Aaron; Herishanu, Yair



Monocytes from Wiskott-Aldrich patients display reduced chemotaxis and lack of cell polarization in response to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine.  


Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by trombocytopenia, eczema, and progressive decline of the immune function. In addition, lymphocytes and platelets from WAS patients have morphologic abnormalities. Since chemokines may induce morphologic changes and migration of leukocytes, we investigated the monocyte response to chemoattractants in cells from WAS patients with an identified mutation in the WAS protein gene. Here, we report that monocytes derived from four patients with molecularly defined typical WAS have a severely impaired migration in response to FMLP and to the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha compared with normal donors. Conversely, neither MCP-1 binding to monocytes nor induction of the respiratory burst by MCP-1 and FMLP is significantly different between WAS patients and normal donors. Within a few minutes of stimulation, monocytes respond to chemokines with increased expression of adhesion molecules and with morphologic changes such as cell polarization. Although up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 expression following stimulation with FMLP or MCP-1 is preserved in WAS patients, cell polarization is dramatically decreased. Staining of F-actin by FITC-phalloidin in monocytes stimulated with chemoattractants shows F-actin to have a rounded shape in WAS patients, as opposed to the polymorphic distribution of F-actin in the polarized monocytes from healthy donors. These results suggest that WAS protein is involved in the monocyte response to the chemokines MCP-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha. PMID:9670984

Badolato, R; Sozzani, S; Malacarne, F; Bresciani, S; Fiorini, M; Borsatti, A; Albertini, A; Mantovani, A; Ugazio, A G; Notarangelo, L D



Simvastatin impairs mitogen-induced proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes from humans— in vitro and in vivo studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells express lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity and higher 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA\\u000a (HMG-CoA) reductase activity than normal mononuclear blood cells indicating that CLL cells may depend on cholesterol synthesis\\u000a for their proliferation. We studied the effects of competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase on malignant lymphocyte proliferation\\u000a in vitro and in vivo. Tumor B-cells from 13 patients

S. Vitols; B. Angelin; G. Juliusson



A dose escalation feasibility study of lenalidomide for treatment of symptomatic, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  


Adequate dosing of lenalidomide in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) remains unclear. This study determined maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in relapsed CLL patients (Cohort A) and patients achieving a partial response (PR) or better to recent therapy (Cohort B). Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD was 2.5mg followed by 5.0mg continuous. In Cohort A, tumor flare grade 1-2 occurred in 15 patients (50%) and grade 3 in 1 patient (3%). Cohort A had 19 of 23 evaluable (83%) patients, 4 PR (17%) and 15 (65%) stable disease (SD), Cohort B had 6 of 7 patients (86%) with SD. Despite overall response rate not being high, many patients remained on therapy several months with SD. PMID:25082342

Maddocks, Kami; Ruppert, Amy S; Browning, Rebekah; Jones, Jeffrey; Flynn, Joseph; Kefauver, Cheryl; Gao, Yue; Jiang, Yao; Rozewski, Darlene M; Poi, Ming; Phelps, Mitch A; Harper, Erica; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C; Andritsos, Leslie A



A dose escalation feasibility study of lenalidomide for treatment of symptomatic, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia?  

PubMed Central

Adequate dosing of lenalidomide in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) remains unclear. This study determined maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in relapsed CLL patients (Cohort A) and patients achieving a partial response (PR) or better to recent therapy (Cohort B). Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD was 2.5 mg followed by 5.0 mg continuous. In Cohort A, tumor flare grade 1–2 occurred in 15 patients (50%) and grade 3 in 1 patient (3%). Cohort A had 19 of 23 evaluable (83%) patients, 4 PR (17%) and 15 (65%) stable disease (SD), Cohort B had 6 of 7 patients (86%) with SD. Despite overall response rate not being high, many patients remained on therapy several months with SD. PMID:25082342

Maddocks, Kami; Ruppert, Amy S.; Browning, Rebekah; Jones, Jeffrey; Flynn, Joseph; Kefauver, Cheryl; Gao, Yue; Jiang, Yao; Rozewski, Darlene M.; Poi, Ming; Phelps, Mitch A.; Harper, Erica; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.; Andritsos, Leslie A.



Detection of minimal malignant clone in lymphocytes and bone marrow cells by cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies in healthy atomic bomb survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the minimal malignant clone (MMC) for the development of leukemia, we studied the bone marrow and lymphocytes of total 44 healthy atomic - bomb survivors by cytogenetic technique. In the cytogenetic study, we compared the frequencies of chromosome aberration and quality of chromosome aberrations detected in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphocytes from 13 and 39

Kimio Tanaka; Ahmed M. Mansoor; Nanao Kamada; Chome Asakita-ku



Activated human monocytes inhibit the intracellular multiplication of legionnaires’ disease bacteria  

PubMed Central

We have examined the interaction between virulent egg yolk-grown L. pneumophila, Philadelphia 1 strain, and in vitro-activated human monocytes, under antibiotic-free conditions. Freshly explanted human monocytes activated by incubation with concanavalin A (Con A) and human lymphocytes inhibited the intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila. Both Con A and lymphocytes were required for activation. Con A was consistently maximally effective at greater than or equal to 4 ?g/ml. Monocytes activated by incubation with cell-free filtered supernatant from Con A-sensitized mononuclear cell cultures also inhibited the intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophil a. The most potent supernatant was obtained from mononuclear cell cultures incubated with greater than or equal to 15 ?g/ml Con A for 48 h. The degree of monocyte inhibition of L. pneumophila multiplication was proportional to the length of time monocytes were preincubated with supernatant (48 {greater than} 24 {greater than} 12 h) and to the concentration of supernatant added (40 percent {greater than} 20 percent {greater than} 10 percent {greater than} 5 percent). Monocytes treated with supernatant daily were more inhibitory than monocytes treated initially only. With time in culture, monocytes progressively lost a limited degree of spontaneous inhibitory capacity and also lost their capacity to respond to supernatant with inhibition of L. pneumophila multiplication. Supernatant-activated monocytes inhibited L. pneumophila multiplication in two ways. They phagocytosed fewer bacteria, and they slowed the rate of intracellular multiplication of bacteria that were internalized. As was the case with nonactivated monocytes, antibody had no effect on the rate of intracellular multiplication in supernatant-activated monocytes. Neither supernatant-activated nor nonactivated monocytes killed L. pneumophila in the absence of antibody. Both killed a limited proportion of these bacteria in the presence of antibody and complement. We have previously reported that anti-L, pneumophila antibody and complement neither promote effective killing of L. pneumophila by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes nor inhibit the rate of L. pneumophila multiplication in monocytes. These findings and our present report that activated monocytes do inhibit L. pneumophila multiplication indicate that cell-mediated immunity plays a major role in host defense against Legionnaires’ disease. PMID:7299350

Horwitz, MA; Silverstein, SC



LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS [endotoxin]) is the principal component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Recent studies have elucidated how LPS is recognized by monocytes and macrophages of the innate immune system. Human monocytes are exquisitely sensitive to LPS and respond by expressing many inflammatory cytokines. LPS binds to LPS-binding protein (LBP) in plasma and is delivered to the cell surface

Mausumee Guha; Nigel Mackman



Differential infection outcome of Chlamydia trachomatis in human blood monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacteria which consist of three biovariants; trachoma (serovars A-C), urogenital (serovars D-K) and lymphogranuloma venereum (L1-L3), causing a wide spectrum of disease in humans. Monocytes are considered to disseminate this pathogen throughout the body while dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in mediating immune response against bacterial infection. To determine the fate of C. trachomatis within human peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived DCs, these two sets of immune cells were infected with serovars Ba, D and L2, representative of the three biovariants of C. trachomatis. Results Our study revealed that the different serovars primarily infect monocytes and DCs in a comparable fashion, however undergo differential infection outcome, serovar L2 being the only candidate to inflict active infection. Moreover, the C. trachomatis serovars Ba and D become persistent in monocytes while the serovars predominantly suffer degradation within DCs. Effects of persistence gene Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) was not clearly evident in the differential infection outcome. The heightened levels of inflammatory cytokines secreted by the chlamydial infection in DCs compared to monocytes seemed to be instrumental for this consequence. The immune genes induced in monocytes and DCs against chlamydial infection involves a different set of Toll-like receptors, indicating that distinct intracellular signalling pathways are adopted for immune response. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the host pathogen interaction in chlamydia infection is not only serovar specific but manifests cell specific features, inducing separate immune response cascade in monocytes and DCs. PMID:25123797



Study of KIR expression and HLA ligands in CD56+ lymphocytes of drug resistant tuberculosis patients.  


Analysis of receptor-ligand interactions in the context of diseases necessitates to understand how HLA-KIR genotypes function in diseases. Although CD56+ lymphocytes are derived from multiple lineages, they share a functional association with immunosurviellance and antimicrobial responses. The present study aimed to determine whether KIR phenotype in CD56 lymphocytes and corresponding HLA-class 1 ligands are associated with multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We compared the frequencies of HLA-C and HLA-BW4 genes, the expression of KIRs 2DL1/2DS1, 2DL2/2DL3, 3DL1, and 2DS4 and the combinations of HLA/KIR in 32 Nifamycin and Isoniazid-resistant TB with those in 68 drug non resistant (NR) sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients. PCR-SSP and flow cytometry were performed for HLA and KIRs typing, respectively. We showed no significant differences between inhibitory or activating KIRs as well as HLA ligands in MDR TB patients compared with NR-TB . The combinations of inhibitory KIR-HLA ligands in MDR-TB were much more prevalent, but not statistically significant than in NR patients (p=0.07). The frequency of MDR patients with all HLA-C and HLA-BW4 ligands was higher than NR-TB (p<0.009). Conversely, the percentage of MDR patients having only one kind of HLA gene was significantly lower than NR-TB (p<0.01). We conclude that the expression of inhibitory KIRs with corresponding HLA ligands genes, and/or co-existence of three HLA class 1 ligands for inhibitory KIRs may be associated with drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:21891825

Mousavi, Tahereh; Shahsavar, Farhad; Farnia, Parisa; Tajik, Nader; Soofi, Mahbubeh



Jacalin: a lectin mitogenic for human CD4 T lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

The major protein component of seeds from jackfruit is the lectin jacalin. Jackfruit crude extracts are known to stimulate human lymphocytes, but the mitogenic properties of purified jacalin have not been studied in detail so far. Study of the proliferative response of cell populations from normal human peripheral blood to purified jacalin showed it to be mitogenic through an interaction with lymphocytes by its lectin-binding site, as shown by inhibition by IgA. Jacalin failed to stimulate B cells to proliferate and to undergo plasma cell maturation. It induced a proliferation of CD4 (and not CD8) lymphocytes, as shown by phenotypic analysis of cells recovered after culture and by studies of the response of isolated T cell subpopulations. The proliferative response to jacalin was autologous monocyte-dependent. The kinetics of jacalin-induced DNA synthesis, expression of CD25 and interleukin-2 secretion was shifted by comparison with that induced by phytohaemagglutinin. The reason for the restricted responsiveness of CD4 T cells is presently unclear; jacalin bound to all blood cells and did not significantly co-cap with CD1, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD38, and jacalin response was neither enhanced nor inhibited by antibodies to these surface antigens. PMID:2372991

Pineau, N; Aucouturier, P; Brugier, J C; Preud'homme, J L



Molecular phenotype of monocytes at the maternal–fetal interface  

PubMed Central

Objective To gain insight into the pathways associated with inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface, this study examined the molecular characteristics of monocytes derived from the maternal circulation and the placental of obese women. Study design Mononuclear cells were isolated from placenta, venous maternal and umbilical cord blood at term delivery and, activated monocytes were separated using CD14 immunoselection. The genotype and expression pattern of the monocytes were analyzed by microarray and real time RT-PCR. Results The transcriptome of the maternal blood and placental CD14 monocytes exhibited 73 % homology with 10 % (1800 common genes) differentially expressed. Genes for immune sensing and regulation, matrix remodeling and lipid metabolism were enhanced 2–2006 fold in placenta compared to maternal monocytes. The CD14 placental monocytes exhibited a maternal genotype (9 % DYS14 expression) as opposed to the fetal genotype (90 % DYS14 expression) of the trophoblast cells. Conclusion CD14 monocytes from the maternal blood and the placenta share strong phenotypic and genotypic similarities with enhanced inflammatory pattern in the placenta. The functional traits of the CD14 blood and placental monocytes suggest that they both contribute to propagation of inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:22071058

Basu, S; Leahy, P; Challier, JC; Minium, J; Catalano, PM; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S.



Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16?), intermediate (CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++). The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-?, and TGF-? was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R) between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers. PMID:24757288

Fernandes, Jamille Souza; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Lopes, Diego Mota; de Souza, Robson da Paixão; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Cardoso, Luciana Santos



Effect of infection with BHV-1 on peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in calves with subclinical BVD.  


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) are important cattle pathogens that induce a broad immunosuppression on cell-mediated immune response on its own participating in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). The aim of our study was to evaluate the quantitative changes in immunocompetent cells in healthy calves and calves with subclinical bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), both inoculated with BHV-1. Total leukocyte counts exhibited changes mainly in neutrophils and lymphocytes that can contribute to the BVDV immunosuppression, thus accounting for some of the intergroup differences. Monocytes did not display numerical changes in either group. Regarding lymphocyte subpopulations, even though CD4+ T lymphocytes and B cells were depleted around 4 dpi in both infected groups, the main difference observed between both groups was in CD8+ T cells which displayed an earlier depletion in BVDV inoculated calves that can promote a greater BHV-1 dissemination, thus aggravating the course of the disease. PMID:23541923

Molina, V; Risalde, M A; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Pedrera, M; Romero-Palomo, F; Luzzago, C; Gómez-Villamandos, J C



Insulin resistance in platelets and monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and suffer from thrombotic complications. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis is to elucidate the cause of the prothrombotic situation in type 2 diabetes patients. The studies were focused on platelets and monocytes, two important cell types involved in thrombosis. Normally, insulin inhibits platelets by

J. Gerrits



miR128 up-regulation correlates with impaired amyloid ?(1-42) degradation in monocytes from patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia in elderly individuals, is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid-? (A?) plaques and neuroinflammation. New evidence has shown that the lysosomal system might be a crossroad in which etiological factors in AD pathogenesis converge. This study shows that several lysosomal enzymes, including Cathepsin B, D, S, ?-Galactosidase, ?-Mannosidase, and ?-Hexosaminidase, were less expressed in monocytes and lymphocytes from patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD dementia compared with cells from healthy controls. In vitro experiments of gain and loss of function suggest that down-regulation is a direct consequence of miR-128 up-regulation found in AD-related cells. The present study also demonstrates that miR-128 inhibition in monocytes from AD patients improves A?(1-42) degradation. These results could contribute to clarify the molecular mechanisms that affect the imbalanced A? production/clearance involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24064186

Tiribuzi, Roberto; Crispoltoni, Lucia; Porcellati, Serena; Di Lullo, Martina; Florenzano, Fulvio; Pirro, Matteo; Bagaglia, Francesco; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Zampolini, Mauro; Orlacchio, Aldo; Orlacchio, Antonio



Alterations in Monocyte CD16 in Association with Diabetes Complications  

PubMed Central

Monocytes express many cell surface markers indicative of their inflammatory and activation status. Whether these markers are affected by diabetes and its complications is not known and was investigated in this study. Blood was obtained from 22 nondiabetic and 43 diabetic subjects with a duration of diabetes >10 years, including 25 without and 18 with clinically significant complications. The number of CD45+CD14+ monocytes and the percentage expressing the proinflammatory marker CD16 were determined by flow cytometry. Other markers of monocyte activation and expression of chemokine receptors were also examined. The relationship between monocyte CD16 and clinical data, selected cytokines, and chemokines was also investigated. Diabetes had no effect on total white cell number but increased monocyte number. Diabetes also significantly decreased the number of CD16+ monocytes but only in those with diabetic complications. Other markers of monocyte activation status and chemokine receptors were not affected by diabetes or complications status. Diabetes induced plasma proinflammatory cytokines and they were lower in diabetic subjects with complications compared to those without complications. These results suggest that the circulating monocyte phenotype is altered by diabetic complications status. These changes may be causally related to and could potentially be used to predict susceptibility to diabetic complications. PMID:23316106

Min, Danqing; Brooks, Belinda; Wong, Jencia; Salomon, Robert; Bao, Wensheng; Harrisberg, Brian; Twigg, Stephen M.; Yue, Dennis K.; McLennan, Susan V.



Secretion of monocyte chemotactic activity by alveolar macrophages.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine if alveolar macrophages (AMs) are a source of monocyte chemoattractants and the role bleomycin interaction with AMs may play in the recruitment of monocytes to the lung in a rodent model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. AMs isolated from rats with bleomycin-induced fibrosis secreted significantly greater amounts of monocyte chemoattractants than those isolated from normal rats. When AMs from normal rats were stimulated with bleomycin in vitro, monocyte chemotactic activity was secreted into the medium. Chemotactic activity secretion by AM stimulated with 0.01 to 0.1 micrograms/ml bleomycin was significantly higher than that of cells incubated in medium alone. This activity was truly chemotactic for monocytes, but caused only minimal migration of normal AMs. Bleomycin itself at concentrations of 1 pg/ml to 10 micrograms/ml had no monocyte chemoattractant activity. Characterization of the chemotactic activity in conditioned media (CM) from bleomycin-stimulated AM demonstrated that the major portion of the activity bound to gelatin, was heterogeneous, with estimated molecular weights of 20 to 60 kd, and was inactivated by specific antifibronectin antibody. These findings suggest that fibronectin fragments are primarily responsible for the monocyte chemotactic activity secreted by AMs. Through increased secretion of such chemotactic substances, AMs could play a key role in the recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes into the lung in inflammatory lung disease and fibrosis. PMID:2476935

Denholm, E. M.; Wolber, F. M.; Phan, S. H.



Programming of Human Monocytes by the Uteroplacental Environment  

PubMed Central

During human pregnancy, monocytes recruited to the uterus (decidua) are modified to promote immune defense and semiallogeneic pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to identify decidual factors involved in programming of monocytes into decidual macrophages by comparing the surface and secretory phenotypes of resting and interferon-? (IFN-?)–activated monocytes, unfractionated decidual cells, purified term decidual macrophages, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Surface markers for antigen presentation (HLA-DR, CD86), a membrane-bound cytokine interleukin (IL)–15, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRB1, LILRB2), and secreted anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]–?1 and IL-10) were assessed. The results demonstrate that differentiated, activated monocytes closely resemble but are not identical to decidual macrophages. In addition to differential IFN-? responsiveness, decidual macrophages were smaller than monocyte-derived macrophages and produced IL-10, which monocyte-derived macrophages did not. Only the unfractionated decidual cells secreted TGF-?1. These results suggest that activation, differentiation, and decidual signals cooperate to program monocytes into the decidual macrophage phenotype. PMID:18579853

McIntire, Ramsey H.; Ganacias, Karen G.; Hunt, Joan S.



[Study of collagen sponge extracts on mouse splenic lymphocyte transformation in vitro].  


Immunogenicity for medical devices of animal origin is the key and difficult point during immune safety evaluation for these devices. This paper firstly investigated the effect of collagen sponge of animal origin on mouse splenic lymphocyte transformation and proliferation, and then analyzed the influence factors on the MTT method and CFSE method. The results showed that collagen sponge extract cannot significantly induce transformation and proliferation of mouse splenic lymphocyte in vitro. PMID:25330619

Wu, Shifu; Liu, Chenghu; Hou, Li; Sun, Xiaoxia; Gai, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Yanping




PubMed Central

The lymphocyte receptor for complexed immunoglobulin was shown not to bind heat-aggregated human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, transferrin, F(ab')2, reduced and alkylated Ig, and mildly oxidized Ig, which indicated that the receptor is specific for a site dependent on disulfide bond(s) on the Fc portion of complexed Ig. Inhibition experiments provided evidence that the same receptor binds both heat-aggregated Ig and antigen-antibody complexes. Lymphocytes treated with pronase were no longer able to bind Ig complexes, which suggested that the receptor is a protein or glycoprotein. Additional evidence was obtained that lymphocyte surface Ig and the receptor for complexed Ig are distinct since the former could be capped without affecting the distribution of the latter, and surface Ig was not detectable after trypsinization of lymphocytes, whereas the binding of Ig complexes was unaffected by such treatment. Incubation of lymphocytes which had bound Ig complexes in tissue culture medium at 37°C revealed that the complexes remained on the surface membrane for several hours, and that only a minority of lymphocytes binding complexes showed cap formation. Lymphocytes which had heat-aggregated IgG specifically bound to their receptors for complexed Ig were markedly inhibited in their ability to mediate antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, thus providing strong evidence for the necessity of the receptor in this immune activity. Titration of this inhibition with varying amounts of complexes revealed distinct plateaus in the dose-response curve. This suggested that there may be more than one kind of receptor and/or different populations of lymphocytes which bear the receptor. PMID:4603014

Dickler, Howard B.



The influence of aminophylline on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes: an AFM study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although much progress has been made in the illustration of the mechanism of aminophylline (AM) treating asthma, there is no data about its effect on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes. Here, we presented atomic force spectroscopy (AFM)-based investigations at the nanoscale level to address the above fundamental biophysical questions. As increasing AM treatment time, T lymphocytes' volume nearly double increased and then decreased. The changes of nanostructural features of the cell membrane, i.e., mean height of particles, root-mean-square roughness (Rq), crack and fragment appearance, increased with AM treatment time. T lymphocytes were completely destroyed with 96-h treatment, and they existed in the form of small fragments. Analysis of force-distance curves showed that the adhesion force of cell surface decreased significantly with the increase of AM treatment time, while the cell stiffness increased firstly and then decreased. These changes were closely correlated to the characteristics and process of cell oncosis. In total, these quantitative and qualitative changes of T lymphocytes' structure and nanomechanical properties suggested that AM could induce T lymphocyte oncosis to exert anti-inflammatory effects for treating asthma. These findings provide new insights into the T lymphocyte oncosis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism and immune regulation actions of AM.

Huang, Xun; He, Jiexiang; Liu, Mingxian; Zhou, Changren



Enzymatic digestion of the milk protein ?-casein releases potent chemotactic peptide(s) for monocytes and macrophages  

PubMed Central

Proteins in the milk release biologically active peptides upon enzymatic digestion. In the present study, we report the identification of novel monocyte/macrophage chemotactic peptides derived from enzymatically digested bovine ?-casein, a casein family member that is a major constituent of the milk. ?-casein fragments generated by actinase E showed potent chemotactic activity for human and mouse monocytes/macrophages, but not neutrophils, T lymphocytes or dendritic cells. The fragment-induced migration of human monocytes was inhibited by pertussis toxin and was not desensitized by a variety of known chemoattractants, suggesting that the digests activate a unique G protein-coupled receptor(s). The digests were further fractionated and purified to yield 3 small peptides. One peptide Q1 designated as “?-casochemotide-1” with the amino acid sequence of YPVEP (f114-118 of ?-casein) induced high levels of macrophage chemotaxis. It also promoted calcium mobilization in macrophages, another indication of cell activation. Our study suggests that biologically active peptides released by actinase-digested milk ?-casein may promote innate host immune responses by inducing macrophage migration and activation. PMID:17630193

Kitazawa, Haruki; Yonezawa, Kumiko; Tohno, Masanori; Shimosato, Takeshi; Kawai, Yasushi; Saito, Tadao; Wang, Ji Ming



Automated image analysis in the study of lymphocyte subpopulation in eosinophilic oesophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by the presence of eosinophils in oesophageal mucosa. Other inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells may also play an important role in this disease. The aim of this study is to compare the inflammatory pattern of the mucosa between EoE and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), using automatic image analysis in digital slides, and to assess treatment response after elimination diet and food challenge test. Methods From 2010 to 2013, 35 oesophageal biopsies from EoE and GERD patients were randomly selected. In six EoE biopsies, patients had been treated with selective food exclusion diet. Immunohistochemical study with CD3, CD20, CD4, and CD8 for lymphocyte populations, CD1a for dendritic cells, and CD117/c-kit for mast cells was performed. Slides were scanned using Leica Aperio Scanscope XT with 40× magnification. Immunohistochemical expression was quantified in 245 immunohistochemistry digital slides with Leica Aperio positive pixel count algorithm using two different approaches: whole slide analysis versus selection of a 2 mm2 hot spot area. Results Average eosinophil cell count was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the first biopsy of EoE patients before treatment (30.75 eosinophils per high power field - HPF) than in GERD patients (0.85 eosinophils/HPF) or in EoE patients after treatment with elimination diet (1.60 eosinophils/HPF). In the immunohistochemical study, manual count and automatic image analysis showed a significant increase in the number of CD3 and CD8 cells in EoE patients, compared with GERD patients. However, the increase of CD117/c-kit was only statistically significant when manual counting procedures were used. CD20 positive cell count also showed a non-statistically significant tendency to reduce after elimination diet treatment. Manual eosinophil count correlated much better with CD3 and CD8 count using hot spot approach than with a whole slide approach. Conclusions Positive pixel count algorithm can be a useful tool to quantify the immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory cells in the diagnosis and follow up of eosinophilic oesophagitis. PMID:25565117



Endogenous production of interleukin 15 by activated human monocytes is critical for optimal production of interferon-gamma by natural killer cells in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes that constitutively express functional IL-2 receptors. We have shown that recombinant human IL-15 uses the IL-2 receptor to activate human NK cells and can synergize with recombinant human IL-12 to stimulate NK cell production of IFN-gamma in vitro. IFN-gamma production by NK cells is critical in the prevention of overwhelming infection by obligate intracellular microbial pathogens in several experimental animal models. Herein, we demonstrate that human monocytes produce IL-15 protein within 5 h of activation with LPS. Using an IL-15-neutralizing antiserum in a coculture of LPS-activated monocytes and NK cells, we demonstrate that monocyte-derived IL-15 is critical for optimal NK cell production of IFN-gamma. Endogenous IL-15 activates NK cells through the IL-2 receptor, and with endogenous IL-12, regulates NK cell IFN-gamma after monocyte activation by LPS. These in vitro studies are the first to characterize a function for endogenous IL-15, and as such, suggest an important role for IL-15 during the innate immune response. IL-15 may be an important ligand for the NK cell IL-2 receptor in vivo. Images PMID:8675621

Carson, W E; Ross, M E; Baiocchi, R A; Marien, M J; Boiani, N; Grabstein, K; Caligiuri, M A



Eosinophil Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Bacteremia: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is scarce evidence on the use of eosinophil count as a marker of outcome in patients with infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in eosinophil count, as well as the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), could be used as clinical markers of outcome in patients with bacteremia.MethodsWe performed a retrospective study of patients with a

Roser Terradas; Santiago Grau; Jordi Blanch; Marta Riu; Pere Saballs; Xavier Castells; Juan Pablo Horcajada; Hernando Knobel



T Cells Augment Monocyte and Neutrophil Function in Host Resistance against Oropharyngeal Candidiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocytes were inactivated with the cytotoxic chemical carrageenan. Mice were infected with 108 C. albicans yeast cells and monitored for 21 days. Systemic depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes alone did not increase the severity of oral infection compared to that of controls. Oral colonization persisted in animals treated with head and neck irradiation and depleted of CD4 T

C. S. Farah; S. Elahi; G. Pang; T. Gotjamanos; G. J. Seymour; R. L. Clancy; R. B. Ashman



Reverse genetic studies of homologous DNA recombination using the chicken B-lymphocyte line, DT40.  

PubMed Central

DT40 is an avian leucosis virus-transformed chicken B-lymphocyte line which exhibits high ratios of targeted to random integration of transfected DNA constructs. This efficient targeted integration may be related to the ongoing diversification of the variable segment of the immunoglobulin gene through homologous DNA recombination-controlled gene conversion. DT40s are a convenient model system for making gene-targeted mutants. Another advantage is the relative tractability of these cells, which makes it possible to disrupt multiple genes in a single cell and to generate conditionally gene-targeted mutants including temperature-sensitive mutants. There are strong phenotypic similarities between murine and DT40 mutants of various genes involved in DNA recombination. These similarities confirm that the DT40 cell line is a reasonable model for the analysis of vertebrate DNA recombination, despite obvious concerns associated with the use of a transformed cell line, which may have certain cell-line-specific characteristics. Here we describe our studies of homologous DNA recombination in vertebrate somatic cells using reverse genetics in DT40 cells. PMID:11205323

Sonoda, E; Morrison, C; Yamashita, Y M; Takata, M; Takeda, S



Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Childhood Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukemia: Findings from the SETIL Study  

PubMed Central

Background Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL) were investigated. Methods Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 1998–2001. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene. Results Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ?11 cigarettes/day ?=?1.79, 95% CI 1.01–3.15; P trend 0.05). An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day ?=?1.85, 95%CI 0.97–3.52; P trend 0.07). No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates. PMID:25401754

Mattioli, Stefano; Farioli, Andrea; Legittimo, Patrizia; Miligi, Lucia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Ranucci, Alessandra; Salvan, Alberto; Rondelli, Roberto; Magnani, Corrado



MEK inhibition, alone or in combination with BRAF inhibition, affects multiple functions of isolated normal human lymphocytes and dendritic cells.  


Combination therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibition is currently in clinical development for the treatment of BRAF-mutated malignant melanoma. BRAF inhibitors are associated with enhanced antigen-specific T-lymphocyte recognition in vivo. Consequently, BRAF inhibition has been proposed as proimmunogenic and there has been considerable enthusiasm for combining BRAF inhibition with immunotherapy. MEK inhibitors inhibit ERK phosphorylation regardless of BRAF mutational status and have been reported to impair T-lymphocyte and modulate dendritic cell function. In this study, we investigate the effects on isolated T lymphocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) of a MEK (trametinib) and BRAF (dabrafenib) inhibitor combination currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The effects of dabrafenib and trametinib, alone and in combination, were studied on isolated normal T lymphocytes and moDCs. Lymphocyte viability, together with functional assays including proliferation, cytokine production, and antigen-specific expansion, were assessed. MoDC phenotype in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation was evaluated by flow cytometry, as were effects on antigen cross-presentation. Dabrafenib did not have an impact on T lymphocytes or moDCs, whereas trametinib alone or in combination with dabrafenib suppressed T-lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and antigen-specific expansion. However, no significant decrease in CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-lymphocyte viability was observed following kinase inhibition. MoDC cross-presentation was suppressed in association with enhanced maturation following combined inhibition of MEK and BRAF. The results of this study demonstrate that MEK inhibition, alone or in combination with BRAF inhibition, can modulate immune cell function, and further studies in vivo will be required to evaluate the potential clinical impact of these findings. PMID:24764582

Vella, Laura J; Pasam, Anupama; Dimopoulos, Nektaria; Andrews, Miles; Knights, Ashley; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Louahed, Jamila; Chen, Weisan; Woods, Katherine; Cebon, Jonathan S



Factors predicting response and graft-versus-host disease after donor lymphocyte infusions: a study on 593 infusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we analyze factors predicting graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and response after donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI). A total of 100 patients received 593 DLI between June 1990 and December 2000 in a bulk dose (n=14) or in escalating dose infusions (n=86). Patients were analyzed after stratification for type of relapse: (1) molecular relapse (n=6), (2) cytogenetic relapse (n=20),

A M Raiola; M T Van Lint; M Valbonesi; T Lamparelli; F Gualandi; D Occhini; S Bregante; C di Grazia; A Dominietto; M Soracco; C Romagnani; F Vassallo; M Casini; B Bruno; F Frassoni; A Bacigalupo




Microsoft Academic Search

The binding of an immunoglobulin ? light chain (IgLC) to synthetic and biological membranes was monitored in real-time using a recently developed, time-resolved fluorescence technique. ? IgLC purified from the urine of patients with multiple myeloma, were used in studies of protein-membr ane interactions. The association of the ? IgLC dimer with B-lymphocytes was shown to be stabilised predominantly by

Jonathan S. Wall; Fayad M. Ayoub; Paul S. O'Shea


Initial posttraumatic translocation of NF-kappaB and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes of trauma patients with multiple injuries: a pilot study.  


Post-traumatic inflammation is connected to monocyte dysfunction characterized by reduced NF-kappaB translocation during the first post-traumatic days. Because the exact dynamic of monocytic NF-kappaB translocation in patients directly after trauma remains unclear, the aim of this pilot study was to measure the intranuclear presence of NF-kappaB in monocytes from patients with multiple injuries initially after the trauma and during the early post-traumatic period and to compare these results with downstream-placed mRNA expression alteration of TNF-alpha, as well as with clinical data. Eleven patients were enrolled with an Injury Severity Score of 16 to 66 points, and blood samples were drawn on admission within 90 min and at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after trauma. NF-kappaB translocation of monocytic nuclear protein was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and was quantified by densitometry as arbitrary units. In addition, monocytes of healthy volunteers were analyzed either native (-, control) or after LPS stimulation (+, control). For determination of downstream mRNA encoding for TNF-alpha, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR was performed. For both parameters, the negative control values were set as baseline (=1) and results from positive controls and patients were given as a relative alteration ratio without unit. Initial post-traumatic NF-kappaB translocation was significantly increased in trauma patients on admission (88 +/- 37) and 6 h after trauma (59 +/- 28) compared with the baseline level. In contrast, TNF-alpha mRNA was not increased on admission (1.7 +/- 0.9) and decreased even below baseline after 12 h. The substantial information of our study arises from the analysis of the dynamic of NF-kappaB translocation of monocytes. Enabled by closely matched sequential blood sampling strictly standardized to the traumatic event, an essential increase of monocytic signal transduction and transcription could be elucidated in the very early post-traumatic period, which precedes the down-regulation of the innate immune system. PMID:15545823

Biberthaler, Peter; Stegmaier, Julia; Mayer, Verena; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Neth, Peter; Mussack, Thomas; Mutschler, Wolf; Jochum, Marianne



Monocyte transferrin-iron uptake in hereditary hemochromatosis  

SciTech Connect

Transferrin-iron uptake by peripheral blood monocytes was studied in vitro to test the hypothesis that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hereditary hemochromatosis results from a defect in uptake of iron from transferrin. Monocytes from nine control subjects and 17 patients with hemochromatosis were cultured in the presence of 59Fe-labelled human transferrin. There was no difference in 59Fe uptake between monocytes from control subjects and monocytes from patients with hemochromatosis who had been treated by phlebotomy and who had normal body iron stores. However, 59Fe uptake by monocytes from iron-loaded patients with hemochromatosis was significantly reduced compared with either control subjects or treated hemochromatosis patients. It is likely that this was a secondary effect of iron loading since iron uptake by monocytes from treated hemochromatosis patients was normal. Assuming that monocytes in culture reflect mononuclear phagocyte iron metabolism in vivo, this study suggests that the relative paucity of mononuclear phagocyte iron loading in hemochromatosis is not related to an abnormality in transferrin-iron uptake by these cells.

Sizemore, D.J.; Bassett, M.L.



Candida albicans infection affords protection against reinfection via functional reprogramming of monocytes.  


Immunological memory in vertebrates is often exclusively attributed to T and B cell function. Recently it was proposed that the enhanced and sustained innate immune responses following initial infectious exposure may also afford protection against reinfection. Testing this concept of "trained immunity," we show that mice lacking functional T and B lymphocytes are protected against reinfection with Candida albicans in a monocyte-dependent manner. C. albicans and fungal cell wall ?-glucans induced functional reprogramming of monocytes, leading to enhanced cytokine production in vivo and in vitro. The training required the ?-glucan receptor dectin-1 and the noncanonical Raf-1 pathway. Monocyte training by ?-glucans was associated with stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4, which suggests the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in this phenomenon. The functional reprogramming of monocytes, reminiscent of similar NK cell properties, supports the concept of "trained immunity" and may be employed for the design of improved vaccination strategies. PMID:22901542

Quintin, Jessica; Saeed, Sadia; Martens, Joost H A; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Ifrim, Daniela C; Logie, Colin; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Jansen, Trees; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Joosten, Leo A B; Xavier, Ramnik J; van der Meer, Jos W M; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Netea, Mihai G



Candida albicans Infection Affords Protection against Reinfection via Functional Reprogramming of Monocytes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Immunological memory in vertebrates is often exclusively attributed to T and B cell function. Recently it was proposed that the enhanced and sustained innate immune responses following initial infectious exposure may also afford protection against reinfection. Testing this concept of “trained immunity,” we show that mice lacking functional T and B lymphocytes are protected against reinfection with Candida albicans in a monocyte-dependent manner. C. albicans and fungal cell wall ?-glucans induced functional reprogramming of monocytes, leading to enhanced cytokine production in vivo and in vitro. The training required the ?-glucan receptor dectin-1 and the noncanonical Raf-1 pathway. Monocyte training by ?-glucans was associated with stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4, which suggests the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in this phenomenon. The functional reprogramming of monocytes, reminiscent of similar NK cell properties, supports the concept of “trained immunity” and may be employed for the design of improved vaccination strategies. PMID:22901542

Martens, Joost H.A.; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Ifrim, Daniela C.; Logie, Colin; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Jansen, Trees; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Netea, Mihai G.



Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.



Comparison of hprt variant frequencies and chromosome aberration frequencies in lymphocytes from radiotherapy and chemotherapy patients: A prospective study  

SciTech Connect

The autoradiographic 6-thioguanine-resistant mutant lymphocyte assay and a chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the time-course of appearance and persistence of elevated frequencies of hprt variants and dicentric chromosomes in patients receiving x-irradiation therapy. The hprt mutation assays were done with frozen/thawed lymphocytes isolated from aliquots of the same blood samples used for the chromosome aberration assays. Five multiple sclerosis patients were also studied before and at 2 and 4 wk intervals after treatment with monthly i.v. doses of 750 mg/m{sup 2} of cyclophosphamide (CP). There were no significant elevations in chromosome aberrations at these post-treatment sample times. The results demonstrate the complementary nature of these two human monitoring assays and emphasize the importance of careful selection of optimal sampling times.

Ammenheuser, M.M.; Au, W.W.; Whorton, E.B. Jr.; Belli, J.A.; Ward, J.B. Jr. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston (United States))



A study of the Interaction Between Cetirizine and Plasma Membrane of Eosinophils, Neutrophils, Platelets and Lymphocytes using A fluorescence Technique  

PubMed Central

The effect of cetirizine on plasma membrane fluidity and heterogeneity of human eosinophils, neutrophils, platelets and lymphocytes was investigated using a fluorescence technique. Membrane fluidity and heterogeneity were studied by measuring the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence decay of 1-(4- trimethylammonium-phenyl)-6-phenyl-1, 3, 5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) incorporated in the membrane. The results demonstrate that cetirizine (1 ?g/ml) induced a significant increase in the Hpid order in the exterior part of the membrane and a decrease in membrane heterogeneity in eosinophils, neutrophils and platelets. Moreover, cetirizine blocked the PAF induced changes in membrane fluidity in these cells. Cetirizine did not influence significantly the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. These data may partially explain the effect ofcetirizine on inflammatory cell activities. PMID:18472948

Oggiano, N.; Giorgi, P. L.; Rihoux, J-P.



Antigen Presentation by Monocytes and Monocyte-derived Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Monocytes are circulating mononuclear phagocytes with a fundamental capacity to differentiate into macrophages. This differentiation can, in the presence of the right environmental cues, be re-directed instead to dendritic cells (DCs). Recent advances have been made in understanding the role of monocytes and their derivatives in presenting antigen to drive immune responses, and we review this topic herein. We briefly discuss the heterogeneity of monocytes in the blood and subsequently raise the possibility that one of the major monocyte phenotypes in the blood corresponds with a population of “blood DCs” previously proposed to drive T-independent antibody reactions in the spleen. Then we evaluate the role of monocytes in T-dependent immunity, considering their role in acquiring antigens for presentation prior to exiting the bloodstream and their ability to differentiate into macrophages versus antigen-presenting DCs. Finally, we review recent literature on the role of monocyte-derived cells in cross-presentation and discuss the possibility that monocyte-derived cells participate critically in processing antigen for cross-priming, even if they do not present that antigen to T cells themselves. PMID:18160272

Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Jakubzick, Claudia; Qu, Chunfeng



A Pilot Study on Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-4 Gene Polymorphisms in Urinary Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma haematobium, characterized by accumulation of eggs in the genitourinary tract. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) can play an important role in parasitic infection due to its major role as a negative regulator of T-cell activation and proliferation. This study was performed in patients with schistosomiasis and healthy controls to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of four CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms. The CTLA-4 gene was amplified using Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction, and allele and genotypes of 49 patients with schistosomiasis were analyzed using allelic discrimination analysis followed by subsequent direct sequencing. The results were compared with healthy control subjects. The frequencies of CTLA-4 rs733618 A allele at position ?1722 (p=0.001), rs11571316 C allele at position ?1577 (p<0.001), and rs231775 A allele at position +49 (p=0.002) in the patient group were significantly higher than the control group. The rs733618 AA genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CC genotype (p<0.001), and rs231775 AA genotype (p=0.007) were also significantly overrepresented. Meanwhile, rs733618 AG genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CT genotype (p=0.02), and rs231775 GG genotype (p=0.029) were significantly decreased in the patients with schistosomiasis, as compared with the controls. No significant difference was observed in both allele and genotype of rs16841252. The results of this study suggest that the rs733618, rs11571316, and rs231775 polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene may influence susceptibility to schistosomiasis infection in the Gabonese children. PMID:22288822

Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou



A pilot study on cytotoxic T lymphocyte-4 gene polymorphisms in urinary schistosomiasis.  


Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma haematobium, characterized by accumulation of eggs in the genitourinary tract. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) can play an important role in parasitic infection due to its major role as a negative regulator of T-cell activation and proliferation. This study was performed in patients with schistosomiasis and healthy controls to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of four CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms. The CTLA-4 gene was amplified using Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction, and allele and genotypes of 49 patients with schistosomiasis were analyzed using allelic discrimination analysis followed by subsequent direct sequencing. The results were compared with healthy control subjects. The frequencies of CTLA-4 rs733618 A allele at position -1722 (p=0.001), rs11571316 C allele at position -1577 (p<0.001), and rs231775 A allele at position +49 (p=0.002) in the patient group were significantly higher than the control group. The rs733618 AA genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CC genotype (p<0.001), and rs231775 AA genotype (p=0.007) were also significantly overrepresented. Meanwhile, rs733618 AG genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CT genotype (p=0.02), and rs231775 GG genotype (p=0.029) were significantly decreased in the patients with schistosomiasis, as compared with the controls. No significant difference was observed in both allele and genotype of rs16841252. The results of this study suggest that the rs733618, rs11571316, and rs231775 polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene may influence susceptibility to schistosomiasis infection in the Gabonese children. PMID:22288822

Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou; Noordin, Rahmah



Human CD68 promoter GFP transgenic mice allow analysis of monocyte to macrophage differentiation in vivo  

PubMed Central

The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo, we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human CD68 promoter. CD68-GFP mice express high levels of GFP in both monocyte and embryo-derived tissue resident macrophages in adult animals. The human CD68 promoter drives GFP expression in all CD115+ monocytes of adult blood, spleen, and bone marrow; we took advantage of this to directly compare the trafficking of bone marrow–derived CD68-GFP monocytes to that of CX3CR1GFP monocytes in vivo using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model. Unlike CX3CR1GFP monocytes, which downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages in this model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP expression for 72 hours after differentiation into macrophages, allowing continued cell tracking during resolution of inflammation. In summary, this novel CD68-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource for analyzing monocyte mobilization and monocyte trafficking as well as studying the fate of recruited monocytes in models of acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:25030063

Iqbal, Asif J.; McNeill, Eileen; Kapellos, Theodore S.; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Norman, Sophie; Burd, Sarah; Smart, Nicola; Machemer, Daniel E. W.; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Channon, Keith M.; Chawla, Ajay



Enhancement of the antigen-presenting function of monocytes by cholesterol: possible relevance to inflammatory mechanisms in extrinsic allergic alveolitis and atherosclerosis.  

PubMed Central

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (synonym: hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is a hypersensitivity lung disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltrates in the pulmonary interstitial tissues. We have previously reported that the numbers of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in this disease correlate with levels of cholesterol and neutral lipid-laden 'foamy' macrophages. We have also reported that the macrophages express an increased density of MHC class II antigens (in particular HLA-DQ) which are known to be essential for antigen recognition by T lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether cholesterol is capable of enhancing the antigen-presenting function of mononuclear phagocytes by modulating the expression of HLA-D region products. Incubation of purified monocytes from healthy volunteers with cholesterol in serum-free medium induced a significant increase in both the percentages of monocytes expressing HLA-DQ (P less than 0.02) and in the intensity of expression of the three HLA-D sub-region products, HLA-DQ, -DP and -DR (P less than 0.02, less than 0.01, less than 0.05, respectively). The cholesterol pre-incubated monocytes also exhibited enhanced antigen-presenting function (P less than 0.05), compared with controls pre-incubated without cholesterol. These findings indicate that increases in cholesterol in the extracellular milieu may augment antigen presentation by modulating the expression of HLA-D region products on antigen-presenting cells. Apart from EAA, this observation may also have relevance to inflammatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis, where 'foamy' macrophages also occur in association with hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:1370928

Hughes, D A; Townsend, P J; Haslam, P L



Isolation and intravenous injection of murine bone marrow derived monocytes.  


As a subtype of leukocytes and progenitors of macrophages, monocytes are involved in many important processes of organisms and are often the subject of various fields in biomedical science. The method described below is a simple and effective way to isolate murine monocytes from heterogeneous bone marrow. Bone marrow from the femur and tibia of Balb/c mice is harvested by flushing with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Cell suspension is supplemented with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cultured on ultra-low attachment surfaces to avoid adhesion-triggered differentiation of monocytes. The properties and differentiation of monocytes are characterized at various intervals. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), with markers like CD11b, CD115, and F4/80, is used for phenotyping. At the end of cultivation, the suspension consists of 45%± 12% monocytes. By removing adhesive macrophages, the purity can be raised up to 86%± 6%. After the isolation, monocytes can be utilized in various ways, and one of the most effective and common methods for in vivo delivery is intravenous tail vein injection. This technique of isolation and application is important for mouse model studies, especially in the fields of inflammation or immunology. Monocytes can also be used therapeutically in mouse disease models. PMID:25591000

Wagner, Martin; Koester, Helen; Deffge, Christian; Weinert, Soenke; Lauf, Johannes; Francke, Alexander; Lee, Jerry; Braun-Dullaeus, R C; Herold, Joerg



Comparative studies by comet test and SCE analysis in human lymphocytes from 200 healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comet test (single cell gel electrophoresis, SCGE) appears to be a promising tool to estimate DNA damage at the single cell level and it provides information on the presence of damage among individual cells. Previously, we analyzed the degree of DNA damage in peripheral human lymphocytes from 100 healthy subjects living in Pisa (Italy) taking into account age, gender

Cecilia Betti; Tania Davini; Liliana Giannessi; Nicola Loprieno; Roberto Barale



Cellular Activation and Intracellular HCV Load in Peripheral Blood Monocytes Isolated from HCV Monoinfected and HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients  

PubMed Central

Background During HCV infection, the activation status of peripheral blood monocytes and its impact on HCV replication are poorly understood. We hypothesized that a modified activation of peripheral blood monocytes in HIV-HCV coinfected compared to HCV monoinfected patients may contribute to different monocytes reservoirs of HCV replication. Methods We performed a case-control analysis involving HCV-infected patients with and without HIV coinfection. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and peripheral blood monocytes isolated from HCV monoinfected and HIV-HCV coinfected patients, intracellular HCV load and a marker of cellular activation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) activation, were quantified using intracellular detection of HCV-core protein and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Results Intracellular HCV loads were higher in monocytes isolated from HIV-HCV coinfected patients than in those of monoinfected patients. Among PBMCs isolated from HIV-HCV coinfected patients, intracellular HCV loads were higher in monocytes compared to PBLs. Cellular activation as measured by NF-?B activation was higher in monocytes isolated from HIV-HCV coinfected patients than in those of monoinfected patients. Conclusions Our results reveal the peripheral blood monocytes as an important extrahepatic reservoir for HCV in HIV-HCV coinfected patients and indicate a potential association between the activation state of monocytes and the size of the HCV reservoir in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. PMID:24809719

Dichamp, Isabelle; Di Martino, Vincent; Herbein, Georges



Further studies on progeny T lymphocytes after in utero insult by benzo(a)pyrene  

SciTech Connect

Reasons are sought for early and sustained immunodeficiency in benzo(a)pyrene (BP) exposed progeny. Quantitative assay of lymphoid tissue at 15-19 days gestation and 0-5 postnatal (PN) days showed; a striking depletion of thymic cell numbers (CN) at day 19 and PN, normal CN in fetal liver (FL) and spleen, but depression in PN spleen. Depleted THETA/sup +/ and Ly 1/sup +/ cells reflected subnormal thymic CN, while reduced amounts of Ly 2/sup +/ cells did not initiate until after birth. Spleens revealed: a) reductions in THETA/sup +/ and Ly 1/sup +/ cells at gestation, b) enhanced THETA/sup +/ cells PN and c) elevated Ly 2/sup +/ pre- and postnatally. In FL, THETA/sup +/ cells decreased, Ly 1/sup +/ did not change; in contrast, Ly 2/sup +/ were markedly elevated. The thymic Ly 1/Ly 2 ratio was > 1, while it was < 1 for spleen and FL indicating increased Ly 1/sup -/2/sup +/ cells. These data suggest disruptions in T cell ontogenesis. In preliminary experiments analysis of T cell function shows FL cells from BP-exposed progeny either as deficient in supporting in vitro proliferation of syngeneic normal spleen cells, or to induce a 3-fold inhibition of the one-way mixed lymphocyte response. Further studies should reveal: a) evidence for T suppressors (by the elevated Ly 2/sup +/ cells.); b) other suppressor action, if any; and c) capabilities of Ly 1/sup +/ cells. The data should help explain the deficiency of progeny in combatting syngeneic tumor growth after sc or iv transfers.

Urso, P.; Johnson, R.A.



An in vitro co-infection model to study Plasmodium falciparum-HIV-1 interactions in human primary monocyte-derived immune cells.  


Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) are among the most important health problems worldwide, being responsible for a total of 4 million deaths annually. Due to their extensive overlap in developing regions, especially Sub-Saharan Africa, co-infections with malaria and HIV-1 are common, but the interplay between the two diseases is poorly understood. Epidemiological reports have suggested that malarial infection transiently enhances HIV-1 replication and increases HIV-1 viral load in co-infected individuals. Because this viremia stays high for several weeks after treatment with antimalarials, this phenomenon could have an impact on disease progression and transmission. The cellular immunological mechanisms behind these observations have been studied only scarcely. The few in vitro studies investigating the impact of malaria on HIV-1 have demonstrated that exposure to soluble malarial antigens can increase HIV-1 infection and reactivation in immune cells. However, these studies used whole cell extracts of P. falciparum schizont stage parasites and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), making it hard to decipher which malarial component(s) was responsible for the observed effects and what the target host cells were. Recent work has demonstrated that exposure of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells to the malarial pigment hemozoin increased their ability to transfer HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells, but that it decreased HIV-1 infection of macrophages(8). To shed light on this complex process, a systematic analysis of the interactions between the malaria parasite and HIV-1 in different relevant human primary cell populations is critically needed. Several techniques for investigating the impact of HIV-1 on the phagocytosis of micro-organisms and the effect of such pathogens on HIV-1 replication have been described. We here present a method to investigate the effects of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes on the replication of HIV-1 in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The impact of parasite exposure on HIV-1 transcriptional/translational events is monitored by using single cycle pseudotyped viruses in which a luciferase reporter gene has replaced the Env gene while the effect on the quantity of virus released by the infected macrophages is determined by measuring the HIV-1 capsid protein p24 by ELISA in cell supernatants. PMID:22929299

Andreani, Guadalupe; Gagnon, Dominic; Lodge, Robert; Tremblay, Michel J; Richard, Dave



Immunosuppresive effect of a human hepatic glycoferroprotein, alpha2H globulin. A study on the transformation of normal human lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

A macroglycoferroprotein of hepatic orgin, alpah2H globulin, the serum level of which increases a few weeks or months before local recurrence of metastases, has been essayed for its immunosuppressive activity. The study was carried out using the lymphoblastic transformation test and was judged by tritiated thymidine incorporation and microscopic examination. PHA-induced blast transformation of 97 per cent of normal donor lymphocytes is inhibited by 100 mug/ml of alpha2H globulin. This inhibitory effect is proportional to the quantity of added alpha2H globulin. In is obvious with a concentration of 2-5 mug/ml, a frequently observed level in the serum of patient with tumours. Preincubation of lymphocytes with alpha2H globulin renders more effective the inhibitory action on PHA-induced transformation. A mechanism of competition between PHA and alpha2H globulin is suggested by preincubation and the inhibitory effect related to the doses. However, microscopic observation shows that alpha2H globulin acts on the earliest events occurring to the stimulated lymphocytes, by inhibiting cytoplasmic RNA and protein synthesis. The alpha2H globulin effect may not only have an immunosuppresive activity but it may have a more general effect, for example blocking or modifying cellular respiration. PMID:49295

Buffe, D; Rimbaut, C



Photochemotherapy induces the apoptosis of monocytes without impairing their function  

PubMed Central

Background Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a powerful therapy currently used to treat various haematological disorders as in graft versus host disease (GVHD). Clinical data clearly demonstrate its efficacy and immunomodulation towards the pathogenic T cells. However, ECP mechanism of action is still poorly understood. Monocytes represent up to 30% of the total amount of treated cells and are known to play an important role in adaptive immunity. However, data from previous reports analyzing the effect of PUVA (psoralen and UV-A irradiation) on their functions are heterogeneous. In this study, we focused on the effect of PUVA on human monocytes functions in adaptive immunity. Design and Methods Purified human monocytes were treated in vitro by PUVA. We measured their kinetic of apoptosis following the treatment. We also determine if their phenotype and functionalities were modified. Finally we assessed the functionalities of PUVA-treated monocytes-derived dendritic cells (DC). Results PUVA treatment sentenced purified monocytes to die in six days and immediately altered their migratory capacities without impairing their ability of endocytosis. It also up-regulated co-stimulatory molecules and production of inflammatory cytokines upon activation and consequently stimulated allogeneic or autologous T cells as efficiently as untreated monocytes. Moreover, PUVA-treated monocytes retained their ability to differentiate into fully functional DC that maturated and stimulated T cells as well as normal DC. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that monocytes undergo apoptosis and loose a part of their migratory capacity following ECP and the surviving cell functionalities are not impaired, suggesting that monocytes have a minor effect on ECP-mediated immunomodulation. PMID:20124954

Hannani, Dalil; Gabert, Françoise; Laurin, David; Sall, Mariam; Molens, Jean-Paul; Hequet, Olivier; Chaperot, Laurence; Plumas, Joel



Human peripheral blood monocytes versus THP-1 monocytes for in vitro biocompatibility testing of dental material components.  


Monocytes play a central role in the response of tissues to biomaterials. Monocytic cell lines such as the THP-1 cell line have been used extensively as models for primary monocytes (directly from blood) in biocompatibility research. However, little information exists about the appropriateness of these cell lines as models. Thus, the current study compared the biological response of both primary peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) and the THP-1 cell line to four common components of dental materials known to be released into the oral environment: nickel ions, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and 2,2-bis[4(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloloxy)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA). Comparisons were made by constructing dose-response curves for each type of monocyte and the four components. The 50% cytotoxicity values (TC50 values) were then statistically compared. In addition, the response of the monocytes to the materials with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were assessed by measuring TNF-alpha secretion from the monocytes. The results showed that the PBMs were 5-10 times less sensitive than the THP-1 monocytes to these dental components, but that both cell lines ranked the components identically. TNF-alpha secretion from both types of monocytes often showed similar trends, although some inconsistent results were noted. The current study supports the use of THP-1s as a model for ranking the cytotoxicity of components of dental biomaterials. Furthermore, the secretory activity of PBMs appears to be generally well represented by the THP-1s. However, sufficient differences between these cell types exist to recommend confirmation of any critical results obtained with THP-1s using PBMs. PMID:12028485

Heil, T L; Volkmann, K R; Wataha, J C; Lockwood, P E



Immunological characterization and transcription profiling of peripheral blood (PB) monocytes in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD): case study  

PubMed Central

Introduction There exists a small subset of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by fluctuating behavioral symptoms and cognitive skills following immune insults. Some of these children also exhibit specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD), resulting in frequent infection caused by encapsulated organisms, and they often require supplemental intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (ASD/SPAD). This study assessed whether these ASD/SPAD children have distinct immunological findings in comparison with ASD/non-SPAD or non-ASD/SPAD children. Case description We describe 8 ASD/SPAD children with worsening behavioral symptoms/cognitive skills that are triggered by immune insults. These ASD/SPAD children exhibited delayed type food allergy (5/8), treatment-resistant seizure disorders (4/8), and chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (5/8) at high frequencies. Control subjects included ASD children without SPAD (N = 39), normal controls (N = 37), and non-ASD children with SPAD (N = 12). Discussion and Evaluation We assessed their innate and adaptive immune responses, by measuring the production of pro-inflammatory and counter-regulatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in responses to agonists of toll like receptors (TLR), stimuli of innate immunity, and T cell stimulants. Transcription profiling of PB monocytes was also assessed. ASD/SPAD PBMCs produced less proinflammatory cytokines with agonists of TLR7/8 (IL-6, IL-23), TLR2/6 (IL-6), TLR4 (IL-12p40), and without stimuli (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-?) than normal controls. In addition, cytokine production of ASD/SPAD PBMCs in response to T cell mitogens (IFN-?, IL-17, and IL-12p40) and candida antigen (Ag) (IL-10, IL-12p40) were less than normal controls. ASD/non-SPAD PBMDs revealed similar results as normal controls, while non-ASD/SPAD PBMCs revealed lower production of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-23 with a TLR4 agonist. Only common features observed between ASD/SPAD and non-ASD/SPAD children is lower IL-10 production in the absence of stimuli. Transcription profiling of PB monocytes revealed over a 2-fold up (830 and 1250) and down (653 and 1235) regulation of genes in ASD/SPAD children, as compared to normal (N = 26) and ASD/non-SPAD (N = 29) controls, respectively. Enriched gene expression of TGFBR (p < 0.005), Notch (p < 0.01), and EGFR1 (p < 0.02) pathways was found in the ASD/SPAD monocytes as compared to ASD/non-SPAD controls. Conclusions The Immunological findings in the ASD/SPAD children who exhibit fluctuating behavioral symptoms and cognitive skills cannot be solely attributed to SPAD. Instead, these findings may be more specific for ASD/SPAD children with the above-described clinical characteristics, indicating a possible role of these immune abnormalities in their neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:22226452



Influence of GSM signals on human peripheral lymphocytes: study of genotoxicity.  


Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) is continuously increasing worldwide. Yet, conflicting results of a possible genotoxic effect of RF EMF continue to be discussed. In the present study, a possible genotoxic effect of RF EMF (GSM, 1,800 MHz) in human lymphocytes was investigated by a collaboration of six independent institutes (institutes a, b, c, d, e, h). Peripheral blood of 20 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers of two age groups (10 volunteers 16-20 years old and 10 volunteers 50-65 years old) was taken, stimulated and intermittently exposed to three specific absorption rates (SARs) of RF EMF (0.2 W/kg, 2 W/kg, 10 W/kg) and sham for 28 h (institute a). The exposures were performed in a setup with strictly controlled conditions of temperature and dose, and randomly and automatically determined waveguide SARs, which were designed and periodically maintained by ITIS (institute h). Four genotoxicity tests with different end points were conducted (institute a): chromosome aberration test (five types of structural aberrations), micronucleus test, sister chromatid exchange test and the alkaline comet assay (Olive tail moment and % DNA). To demonstrate the validity of the study, positive controls were implemented. The genotoxicity end points were evaluated independently by three laboratories blind to SAR information (institute c = laboratory 1; institute d = laboratory 2; institute e = laboratory 3). Statistical analysis was carried out by institute b. Methods of primary statistical analysis and rules to adjust for multiple testing were specified in a statistical analysis plan based on a data review before unblinding. A linear trend test based on a linear mixed model was used for outcomes of comet assay and exact permutation test for linear trend for all other outcomes. It was ascertained that only outcomes with a significant SAR trend found by at least two of three analyzing laboratories indicated a substantiated suspicion of an exposure effect. On the basis of these specifications, none of the nine end points tested for SAR trend showed a significant and reproducible exposure effect. Highly significant differences between sham exposures and positive controls were detected by each analyzing laboratory, thus validating the study. In conclusion, the results show no evidence of a genotoxic effect induced by RF EMF (GSM, 1,800 MHz). PMID:23316708

Waldmann, Petra; Bohnenberger, Susanne; Greinert, Rüdiger; Hermann-Then, Beate; Heselich, Anja; Klug, Stefanie J; Koenig, Jochem; Kuhr, Kathrin; Kuster, Niels; Merker, Mandy; Murbach, Manuel; Pollet, Dieter; Schadenboeck, Walter; Scheidemann-Wesp, Ulrike; Schwab, Britt; Volkmer, Beate; Weyer, Veronika; Blettner, Maria



A Biomarker Panel (Bioscore) Incorporating Monocytic Surface and Soluble TREM-1 Has High Discriminative Value for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) increases mortality in critical illness. However, clinical diagnostic uncertainty persists. We hypothesised that measuring cell-surface and soluble inflammatory markers, incorporating Triggering Receptor Expressed by Myeloid cells (TREM)-1, would improve diagnostic accuracy. Methods A single centre prospective observational study, set in a University Hospital medical-surgical intensive Care unit, recruited 91 patients into 3 groups: 27 patients with VAP, 33 ventilated controls without evidence of pulmonary sepsis (non-VAP), and 31 non-ventilated controls (NVC), without clinical infection, attending for bronchoscopy. Paired samples of Bronchiolo-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood from each subject were analysed for putative biomarkers of infection: Cellular (TREM-1, CD11b and CD62L) and soluble (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, sTREM-1, Procalcitonin). Expression of cellular markers on monocytes and neutrophils were measured by flow cytometry. Soluble inflammatory markers were determined by ELISA. A biomarker panel (‘Bioscore’), was constructed, tested and validated, using Fisher’s discriminant function analysis, to assess its value in distinguishing VAP from non VAP. Results The expression of TREM-1 on monocytes (mTREM-1) and neutrophils (nTREM-1) and concentrations of IL-1?, IL-8, and sTREM-1 in BALF were significantly higher in VAP compared with non-VAP and NVC (p<0.001). The BALF/blood mTREM-1 was significantly higher in VAP patients compared to non-VAP and NVC (0.8 v 0.4 v 0.3 p<0.001). A seven marker Bioscore (BALF/blood ratio mTREM-1 and mCD11b, BALF sTREM-1, IL-8 and IL-1?, and serum CRP and IL-6) correctly identified 88.9% of VAP cases and 100% of non-VAP cases. Conclusion A 7-marker bioscore, incorporating cellular and soluble TREM-1, accurately discriminates VAP from non-pulmonary infection. PMID:25289689

Grover, Vimal; Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Soni, Neil; Takata, Masao; Shah, Pallav L.; Wells, Athol U.; Henderson, Don C.; Kelleher, Peter; Singh, Suveer



Monocytes in sterile inflammation: recruitment and functional consequences  

PubMed Central

Monocytes play an important role in initiating innate immune responses. Three subsets of these cells have been defined in mice including classical, nonclassical and intermediate monocytes. Each of these cell types has been extensively studied for their role in infectious diseases. However, their role in sterile injury as occurs during ischemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, and trauma has only recently been the focus of investigations. Here we review mechanisms of monocyte recruitment to sites of sterile injury, their modes of action, and their effect on disease outcome in murine models with some references to human studies. Therapeutic strategies to target these cells must be developed with caution since each monocyte subset is capable of mediating either anti- or pro-inflammatory effects depending on the setting. PMID:24310705

Spahn, Jessica H.; Kreisel, Daniel



Studies on the interaction of the Sophora japonica lectin and concanavalin A with erythrocytes and lymphocytes.  


The agglutinating activity of lectins from the seeds of Sophora japonica and Canavalia ensiformis (concanavalin A) with human and murine erythrocytes and lymphocytes have been compared to one another and related to the mitogenic and immunosuppressive properties of these purified proteins. The S. japonica lectin, which demonstrates blood group specificity, is more active than concanavalin A with human erythrocytes, but has a much lower reactivity than concanavalin A with murine red blood cells. Ficin treatment of human erythrocytes results in an increase in agglutinability by both lectins as well as causing the appearance of S. japonica lectin receptors on type O cells. Treatment of murine reythrocytes with ficin alone or followed by beta-galactosidase causes the cells to be more reactive with concanavalin A. Beta-Galactosidase alone has no observable affect on the cells. In contrast, the agglutinability of cells by the S. japonica lectin increases after ficin treatment but is not affected by beta-galaetosidose treatment either after or in the absence of ficinization. Murine lymphocytes react with both lectins in a manner paralleling the agglutination patterns of murine erythrocytes. The S. japonica lectin appears to be devoid of mitogenic and immuno-suppressive activity, in contrast to concanavalin A which suppresses the T helper-dependent antibody response to sheep erythrocytes. These results are discussed in terms of the types of lectin receptors on lymphocytes related to agglutination, induction of blastogenesis and immuno-suppression. PMID:955676

Poretz, R D; Barth, R F



Wear particles from studded tires and granite pavement induce pro-inflammatory alterations in human monocyte-derived macrophages: a proteomic study.  


Airborne particulate matter is considered to be one of the environmental contributors to the mortality in cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases. For future preventive actions, it is of major concern to investigate the toxicity of defined groups of airborne particles and to clarify their pathways in biological tissues. To expand the knowledge beyond general inflammatory markers, this study examined the toxicoproteomic effects on human monocyte derived macrophages after exposure to wear particles generated from the interface of studded tires and a granite-containing pavement. As comparison, the effect of endotoxin was also investigated. The macrophage proteome was separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Detected proteins were quantified, and selected proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Among analyzed proteins, seven were significantly decreased and three were increased by exposure to wear particles as compared to unexposed control cells. Endotoxin exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of six proteins: four decreased and two increased. For example, macrophage capping protein was significantly increased after wear particle exposure only, whereas calgizzarin and galectin-3 were increased by both wear particle and endotoxin exposure. Overall, proteins associated with inflammatory response were increased and proteins involved in cellular functions such as redox balance, anti-inflammatory response, and glycolysis were decreased. Investigating the effects of characterized wear particles on human macrophages with a toxicoproteomic approach has shown to be useful in the search for more detailed information about specific pathways and possible biological markers. PMID:21117676

Karlsson, Helen; Lindbom, John; Ghafouri, Bijar; Lindahl, Mats; Tagesson, Christer; Gustafsson, Mats; Ljungman, Anders G



Effects of Gamma Interferon and Nitric Oxide on the Interaction ofMycobacterium aviumsubsp.paratuberculosis with Bovine Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the effects of recombinant bovine gamma interferon (rIFN-g) and nitric oxide (NO) on the interaction ofM. aviumsubsp.paratuberculosiswith bovine monocytes. Monocytes pretreated with rIFN-gexhibited slightly increased phagocytosis ofM. aviumsubsp.paratuberculosisand modest inhibition of the intracellular growth of this microorganism. The number of viable intracellular bacilli decreased earlier in rIFN-g-pretreated monocytes than in control monocytes. After infection withM.




Dramatic decrease of circulating levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in Kawasaki disease after gamma globulin treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis preferentially affecting coronary arter- ies. Extensive monocytes\\/macrophages infiltrate in the vascular lesions, implying the involvement of a chemotactic cytokine in their recruitment. We investigated the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also termed monocyte chemotac- tic and activating factor) in KD. In the immunohis- tochemical studies using the cardiac tissues of patients with

Masaru Terai; Toshiaki Jibiki; Akihisa Harada; Yuya Terashima; Kumi Yasukawa; Shigeru Tateno; Hiromichi Hamad; Shinji Oana; Hiroo Niimi; Kouji Matsushima


Induction of intracellular cytokine production in human monocytes\\/macrophages stimulated with ligands of pattern recognition receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study addressed the role of the pattern recognition receptors (PRR), which recognize different molecular structures present on microorganisms, apoptotic, senescent and tumor cells, in the stimulation of human monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) for the production of intracellular cytokines. Materials and methods: Monocytes and MDM were stimulated with different ligands of scavenger receptors (SR) and mannose receptor (MR).

B. Mytar; M. Gawlicka; R. Szatanek; M. Wo?oszyn; I. Ruggiero; B. Piekarska; M. Zembala



Decreased expression of T lymphocyte co-stimulatory molecule CD26 on invariant natural killer T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus.  


CD26, a T cell co-stimulatory molecule and dipeptidyl peptidase IV for the degradation of interferon-gamma-induced chemokine, participates in multiple immunopathological roles in leukocyte homing and inflammation. Decreased circulating concentration of soluble (s)CD26 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis and murine model of arthritis and encephalomyelitis have been reported. In the present study, the plasma concentration of sCD26 and chemokines, and cell surface expression of CD26 on monocytes, CD4+T lymphocytes, CD8+T lymphocytes, CD19+B lymphocytes and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) lymphocytes were analyzed using ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, in 23 SLE patients and 14 sex- and age-matched control subjects. Although there was no significant difference between plasma concentrations of soluble CD26 in SLE patients with controls (p > 0.05), there was significant elevated Th1 chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL9 but not Th2 chemokine CCL2, and down-regulation in iNKT lymphocytes number and cell surface expression of CD26 on CD4+T and iNKT lymphocytes of SLE patients compared with controls (all p < 0.05). Decreased circulating number of iNKT cells and CD26 on iNKT cells can be important for the immunopathogenesis by exacerbating Th1-related inflammation in SLE. PMID:19811413

Wong, P T Y; Wong, C K; Tam, L S; Li, E K; Chen, D P; Lam, C W K



Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the first study of stiffness/deformability changes of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, demonstrating that at the single cell level, leukemic metastasis progresses are accompanied by biophysical property alterations. A microfluidic device was utilized to electrically measure cell volume and transit time of single lymphocytes from healthy and CLL patients. The results from testing thousands of cells reveal that lymphocytes from CLL patients have higher stiffness (i.e., lower deformability), as compared to lymphocytes in healthy samples, which was also confirmed by AFM indentation tests. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known knowledge on other types of metastatic cells (e.g., breast and lung cancer cells) whose stiffness becomes lower as metastasis progresses.

Zheng, Yi; Wen, Jun; Nguyen, John; Cachia, Mark A.; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu



Detection of Celiac Disease and Lymphocytic Enteropathy by Parallel Serology and Histopathology in a Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Although serological analysis is used in diagnosis of celiac disease, histopathology is considered most reliable. We performed a prospective study to determine the clinical, pathological and serological spectrum of celiac disease in a general population (Kalixanda study). Methods A random sample of an adult general population (n=1000) was analyzed by upper endoscopy, duodenal biopsy, and serological analysis of tissue transglutaminase (tTg) levels; endomysial antibody (EMA) levels were analyzed in samples that were tTg+. The cutoff values for diagnosis of celiac disease were villous atrophy with 40 intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)/100 enterocytes (ECs). Results Samples from 33 subjects were tTg+ and 16 were EMA+. Histological analysis identified 7/1000 subjects (0.7%) with celiac disease; all were tTg+ and 6/7 were EMA+. Another 26 subjects were tTg+ (7/26 EMA+). This was addressed by a second quantitative pathology study, (nested case-control design) using a threshold of 25 IELS/100 ECs. In this analysis, all 13 samples that were tTg+ and EMA+ had ?25 IELs/100ECs. In total, 16 subjects (1.6%) had serological and histological evidence of gluten-sensitive enteropathy. IELs were quantified in duodenal biopsy samples from seronegative individuals (n=500); 19 (3.8%) had >25 IELs and lymphocytic duodenosis (LD). Conclusions Measurement of ?25 IELs/100 ECs correlated with serological indicators of celiac disease; a higher IEL threshold could miss 50% of cases. Quantification of tTg is a sensitive test for celiac disease; diagnosis can be confirmed by observation of ?25 IELs/100ECs in duodenal biopsies. Lymphocytic enteropathy (celiac disease and LD) is common in the population (5.4%). PMID:20398668

Walker, Marjorie M.; Murray, Joseph A.; Ronkainen, Jukka; Aro, Pertti; Storskrubb, Tom; D’Amato, Mauro; Lahr, Brian; Talley, Nicholas J.; Agreus, Lars



Correlation between induction of lymphocyte apoptosis and prostaglandin E2 production by macrophages infected with HIV.  


Several data indicate that HIV infection of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and apoptosis of lymphocytes play important roles in pathogenesis of AIDS. We have recently demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can cause thymocyte apoptosis in vivo. In the present study we have investigated the possibility that the intercellular contacts between HIV-infected APCs and lymphocytes could induce apoptosis in the latter population and that PGE2-production by HIV-infected APCs could be involved in the hypothesized phenomenon. Monocytes/macrophages separated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM phi) of healthy donors were infected in vitro and maintained in culture. PGE2 was promptly produced by HIV-infected PBM phi and values of PGE2 concentrations in supernatants over the background noninfected controls persisted for more than 2 weeks. HIV-infected PBM phi or cell-free supernatants from their cultures were then added to autologous uninfected lymphocytes and apoptosis was assessed by morphological criteria and by looking to the expression of tissue transglutaminase, one of the effector elements of the program of cell death. In both culture conditions the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes was significantly increased in respect to values obtained in control cultures. When a cyclooxygenase inhibitor was added to the HIV-infected PBM phi cultures, the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes was reduced at levels similar to those observed after cocultivation with uninfected PBM phi or exposure to supernatants from uninfected PBM phi. In addition, a substantial increase in apoptosis in lymphocytes from healthy donors was found following PGE2 treatment in vitro. PMID:8242755

Mastino, A; Grelli, S; Piacentini, M; Oliverio, S; Favalli, C; Perno, C F; Garci, E



The effects of prednisone and azathioprine on circulating immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs.  

PubMed Central

This study investigates serum immunoglobulin (SIg) levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs in response to putative immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and/or azathioprine. The objectives were to quantify SIg levels and lymphocyte subpopulations, including Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8+ and B cells, in normal dogs both before and after the administration of prednisone and/or azathioprine at 2 mg/kg, PO, each. Eighteen beagles were divided into 3 groups of 6 dogs each. Blood samples for radial immunodiffusion assay of IgG, IgM and IgA, complete blood count (CBC)and flow cytometry were collected prior to the administration of any drugs and again after 14 d of azathioprine, prednisone or azathioprine and prednisone. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated using density centrifugation and were incubated with monoclonal antibodies reacting with CD4+, CD8+, Thy-1+ and membrane immunoglobulin. Lymphocyte subsets were quantified using flow cytometry. Azathioprine-treated dogs had no significant changes in SIg levels or lymphocyte subpopulations. Prednisone-treated dogs had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in all SIg levels, all lymphocyte subpopulations and erythrocyte numbers, and had an increase in neutrophil counts. Prednisone and azathioprine-treated dogs had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in serum IgG levels and Thy-1+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subpopulations, with an increase in the CD4:CD8. These dogs also had a significant decrease in erythrocyte number and a significant increase in the monocyte count. These findings suggest that azathioprine and prednisone in combination or prednisone alone may be useful for the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases since decreased circulating T cell levels were demonstrated following treatment. The combination of drugs or azathioprine alone may not be appropriate for treatment of acute or autoantibody-mediated immune disease, because SIg levels were minimally affected by treatment. PMID:9918329

Rinkardt, N E; Kruth, S A; Kaushik, A



Pharmacodynamic modeling of lymphocytopenia and whole blood lymphocyte cultures in prednisolone-treated individuals.  


In this study, we describe the time course of the influence of a single oral dose of prednisolone (10 mg) in man on the proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes in whole blood. The data were fitted to an integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model, relating the plasma concentrations of prednisolone to its effect. The determination of prednisolone-induced lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia in vivo and the assessment of the influence of varying lymphocyte and monocyte numbers on proliferative responses in vitro enabled us to calculate the relative contributions of several prednisolone-induced effects to the diminished lymphoproliferative responses in whole blood after administration of prednisolone in vivo. We demonstrate that the decrease of the proliferative response in whole blood lymphocyte cultures stimulated with a monoclonal antibody directed against CD3 is mainly determined by the time course of the prednisolone-induced lymphocytopenia. The time course of the monocytopenia and the relative changes in the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subpopulations induced by prednisolone and the direct inhibitory effect of the changing plasma concentrations of the drug also contribute to the decrease of aCD3-stimulated whole blood lymphocyte cultures to some extent. The decrease of the proliferative response in whole blood lymphocyte cultures stimulated with a horse anti-human lymphocyte serum closely followed the time course of the lymphocytopenia induced by prednisolone. However, this response remained decreased for a longer period of time than could be expected on the basis of the prednisolone-induced lymphocytopenia in vivo. A possible mechanism which might explain this discrepancy between the prednisolone-induced effects in vivo and in vitro will be discussed. PMID:2147133

Bloemena, E; Koopmans, R P; Weinreich, S; van Boxtel, C J; Schellekens, P T



A longitudinal study of circulating lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood during the acute stage of Guillain-Barré syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated T cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Blood samples from 16 patients with GBS were studied with flow cytometry during the acute stage of their disease to define circulating lymphocyte populations. During the progressive phase of GBS the T-suppressor\\/inducer (CD4\\/CD45RA) subset was decreased (10.3±4.4%, P<0.05) and the T-helper\\/inducer (CD4\\/CD29) subset was increased (34.9±9.2%, P<0.05) compared

Eckhart Sindern; Celia Oreja-Guevara; Monika Raulf-Heimsoth; Xaver Baur; Jean Pierre Malin



Human mesenchymal stem cells require monocyte-mediated activation to suppress alloreactive T cells.  


Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (MSCs) are precursors of nonhematopoietic mesenchymal cells of the bone marrow microenvironment. MSCs were shown to inhibit alloreactive T lymphocytes, but the mechanism and mediators of this effect are not fully understood. Here we describe a novel interaction between blood monocytes and bone marrow-derived, culture-expanded MSCs, which results in inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation. We found that CD14+ monocytes from blood activate MSCs to secrete inhibitory molecules that lead to inhibition of alloreactive T cells. This cellular communication is not contact-dependent, but rather is mediated by soluble factors that include interleukin (IL)-1beta. MSC-mediated inhibition of alloreactive T lymphocytes is associated with downregulation of activation markers CD25, CD38, and CD69 detected both in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. The cytokines secreted by MSCs that mediate T-cell inhibition include transforming growth factor-beta1, but not IL-10. The interaction between blood monocytes and the MSCs represents a unique immune regulatory paradigm that can potentially be exploited in clinic. PMID:16038786

Groh, Margaret E; Maitra, Basabi; Szekely, Emese; Koç, Omer N



Endocarditis-Associated Oral Streptococci Promote Rapid Differentiation of Monocytes into Mature Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Endocarditis is frequently attributable to oral streptococci, but mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well understood, although monocytes appear to be important. High titers of interleukin-12 (IL-12) are produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after engaging Streptococcus mutans, but monocytes in developing endocardial vegetations tend to disappear rather than become macrophages. These data prompted the hypothesis that streptococcus-infected monocytes differentiate into short-lived IL-12-producing dendritic cells (DCs) rather than macrophages. PBMC from healthy subjects were stimulated with six isolates of oral streptococci, three nonstreptococcal oral bacteria, or IL-4 plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and the appearance of cells with markers typical of mature DCs (CD83+, CD86+, CD11c+, and CD14?) was monitored. Supernatant fluids from the PBMC cultures were harvested and IL-12 p70 levels were determined. S. mutans-stimulated monocytes were analyzed for their ability to elicit allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reactions. All streptococci examined, except one strain of Streptococcus oralis (35037), rapidly induced up-regulation of CD83 and CD86 and a loss of CD14 in the CD11c+ monocyte population within 20 h. Induction of IL-12 was CD14 dependent and correlated with streptococcal isolates that promoted the DC phenotype. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression was up-regulated by S. mutans, and these cells were short-lived and elicited potent allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reactions typical of DCs. In summary, monocytes stimulated with endocarditis-associated oral streptococci rapidly exhibited the DC phenotype and functions. These data suggest that the initiation of bacterial endocarditis by oral streptococci may involve monocyte-to-DC differentiation, and this may help explain the low levels of macrophages in the site. PMID:16041016

Hahn, Chin-Lo; Schenkein, Harvey A.; Tew, John G.



Distinct immunologic effects of different intravenous iron preparations on monocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Iron deficiency contributes to anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. I.v. iron is therefore widely used for anaemia treatment, although it may induce oxidative stress and activate monocytes. Different i.v. iron preparations are available, but interestingly their substance-specific immunologic effects are poorly studied. Methods We analysed the effect of iron sucrose, ferric carboxymaltose, iron isomaltoside 1000, low-molecular-weight iron dextran and ferumoxytol on classical, intermediate and nonclassical monocyte biology. We therefore stimulated in vitro mature monocytes and haematopoietic CD34+ stem cells during their differentiation into monocytes with different concentrations (0.133, 0.266, 0.533 mg/mL) of i.v. iron preparations. Alterations of monocyte subset distribution, expression of surface markers (CD86, CCR5, CX3CR1), as well as production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?) and reactive oxygen species were measured using flow cytometry. Additionally, we analysed phagocytosis and antigen presentation capacity. Results We found specific immunologic effects after stimulation with iron sucrose which were not induced by the other iron preparations. Iron sucrose activated monocyte subsets leading to significantly increased CD86 expression. Simultaneously CD16 and CX3CR1 expression and monocytic phagocytosis capacity were decreased. Additionally, differentiation of monocytes from haematopoietic CD34+ stem cells was almost completely abolished after stimulation with iron sucrose. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that specific immunologic effects of distinct i.v. iron preparations exist. The clinical relevance of these findings requires further investigation. PMID:24523357

Fell, Lisa H.; Zawada, Adam M.; Rogacev, Kyrill S.; Seiler, Sarah; Fliser, Danilo; Heine, Gunnar H.



A comprehensive study on neurobehavior, neurotransmitters and lymphocyte subsets alteration of Chinese manganese welding workers.  


The neurotoxicity of manganese has been demonstrated by many researches. But few reports have been found on its immunotoxicity in manganese-exposed workers. Here we selected welding workers (aged 34 years) as Mn-exposed subjects. They have been exposed to manganese for 16 years. The control group was from a flour plant. The average concentrations of Mn, Cd, Fe and Ni in work place were 138.40 +/- 11.60 microg/m3, 581.40 +/- 45.32 microg/m3, 3.84 +/- 0.53 microg/m3 and 12.64 +/- 2.80 ng/m3, respectively. Blood Mn (4.84 mug/dl) of welding workers was higher than that of the control group (1.92 microg/dl). Neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) recommended by WHO was conducted on the subjects and found that the scores of negative emotions, such as confusion-bewilderment, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, and tension-anxiety, were higher in welding workers. Visual simple reaction time and the fast simple reaction time were shorter than that of the control group. The numbers of digital span, forward digital span, backward digital span and digital symbol decreased in welding workers compared with control group. Monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolism substances in urine were tested by HPLC-ultraviolet. NE, E, MHPG, HVA, DA, DOPAC and 5-HT in the urine of Mn-exposed group had no significant changes while 5-HIAA in Mn-exposed group had significantly decreased compared with that of the control group. Lymphocyte subsets of the subjects were determined by Flow Cytometer. CD3+ T cell, CD4+CD8- T cell, CD4-CD8+ T cell, CD4+CD45RO- "virgin" lymphocytes, CD4+CD45RO+ "memory" lymphocytes, and CD3-CD19+ B cell had no significant changes compared with the control group. The results showed that long-term exposure to manganese in welding might have adverse effects on mood state, neurobehavior, and peripheral neurotransmitters. However, they had no effects on lymphocyte subsets parameters. PMID:16243361

Yuan, Hong; He, Shuchang; He, Mingwei; Niu, Qiao; Wang, Lei; Wang, Sheng



Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Induces Differentiation and Adhesion of Human Monocytes and the Monocytic Cell Line U937  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for development of atherosclerosis. In experimental animals fed a high-cholesterol diet, monocytes adhere to the arterial endothelium and penetrate into the intima where they differentiate into macrophages and ingest lipids thus giving rise to fatty streaks, the earliest type of atherosclerotic plaque. Macrophages express few receptors for normal low density lipo-protein (LDL) but can take up oxidized LDL by way of a scavenger receptor. The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of oxidized LDL in recruitment of resident intimal macrophages. We found that oxidized LDL induced enhanced expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on human monocytes and U937 cells, a well-established system for studies of monocytic differentiation. Oxidized LDL also induced enhanced expression of the surface antigen LEuM3 but caused decreased expression of CD4 antigen, a pattern compatible with expression of a more differentiated macrophage-like phenotype. Oxidized LDL also initiated aggregation of monocytes and U937 cells and stimulated adhesion of U937 cells to cultured endothelial cells. The results indicate that oxidized LDL may contribute to development of atherosclerosis by inducing adhesion of monocytes to the arterial intima and by stimulating intimal monocytes to differentiate into resident macrophages.

Frostegard, Johan; Nilsson, Jan; Haegerstrand, Anders; Hamsten, Anders; Wigzell, Hans; Gidlund, Magnus



Microwell Devices with Finger-like Channels for Long-Term Imaging of HIV-1 Expression Kinetics in Primary Human Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

A major obstacle in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a sub-population of latently infected CD4+ T lymphocytes. The cellular and viral mechanisms regulating HIV-1 latency are not completely understood, and a promising technique for probing the regulation of HIV-1 latency is single-cell time-lapse microscopy. Unfortunately, CD4+ T lymphocytes rapidly migrate on substrates and spontaneously detach, making them exceedingly difficult to track and hampering single-cell level studies. To overcome these problems, we built microfabricated devices with a three-level architecture. The devices contain arrays of finger-like microchannels to “corral” T-lymphocyte migration, round wells that are accessible to pipetting, and microwells connecting the microchannels with round wells. T lymphocytes that are loaded into a well first settle into the microwells and then to microchannels by gravity. Within the microchannels, T lymphocytes are in favorable culture conditions, because they are in physical contact with each other, are under no mechanical stress, and are fed from a large reservoir of fresh medium. Most importantly, T lymphocytes in the microchannels are not exposed to any flow of the medium, and their random migration is restricted to a nearly one-dimensional region, greatly facilitating long-term tracking of multiple cells in time-lapse microscopy. The devices have up to nine separate round wells, making it possible to test up to nine different cell lines or medium conditions in a single experiment. Activated primary CD4+ T lymphocytes, resting primary CD4+ T lymphocytes, and THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells loaded into the devices maintained viability over multiple days. The devices were used to track the fluorescence level of individual primary CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) for up to 60 hours and to quantify single-cell gene-expression kinetics of four different HIV-1 variants in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes. The kinetics of GFP expression from the lentiviruses in the primary CD4+ T lymphocytes agree with previous measurements of these lentiviral vectors in the immortalized Jurkat T lymphocyte cell line. These devices offer a simple, robust approach to long-term single-cell studies of environmentally sensitive primary lymphocytes. PMID:22976503

Razooky, Brandon; Gutierrez, Edgar; Terry, Valeri H.; Spina, Celsa A.; Groisman, Alex; Weinberger, Leor



Inflammatory status of transmigrating primary rat monocytes in a novel perfusion model simulating blood flow  

PubMed Central

It remains unclear whether monocyte infiltration plays a protective or detrimental role in neurodegenerative disease. The present study characterizes the inflammatory status of primary monocytes in a novel in vitro perfusion model. Monocytes under perfusion do not undergo elevated cell death. However, perfusion does lead to altered morphology, which can be counteracted by anti-inflammatory drugs. Functional studies indicate that cytokine levels are significantly reduced in perfusion compared to stationary conditions and enhanced with brain slices or capillary endothelial cells. Understanding monocyte properties could lead to refined treatment and new ways to interfere with inflammation in diseased brains. PMID:23499257

Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Ammann, Christoph G.; Humpel, Christian



?2Adrenergic receptor stimulation inhibits LPS-induced IL18 and IL12 production in monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR) agonists on monocyte-derived cytokines, interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-12 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as in vitro model of sepsis. The study found that ?2-AR agonists inhibited IL-18 and IL-12 production in monocytes, and that AR agonist activity was antagonized by the selective ?2-AR antagonist,

Kenji Mizuno; Hideo Kohka Takahashi; Hiromi Iwagaki; Goutaro Katsuno; Huda A. S. M. Kamurul; Satoru Ohtani; Shuji Mori; Tadashi Yoshino; Masahiro Nishibori; Noriaki Tanaka



Helicobacter pylori Lipopolysaccharide Binds to CD14 and Stimulates Release of Interleukin8, Epithelial Neutrophil Activating Peptide 78, and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 by Human Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori gastritis is characterized by leukocyte infiltration of the gastric mucosa. The aims of this study were to determine whether H. pylori-derived factors stimulate chemokine release from human monocytes and to ascertain whether H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may be responsible for this effect. Human peripheral blood monocytes were exposed to an H. pylori water extract (HPE) or to purified




Lack of utility of chimerism studies obtained two to three months after myeloablative haematopoietic cell transplantation for acute lymphocytic leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Lineage specific chimerism studies are commonly obtained at several time points after nonmyeloablative haematopoietic cell transplantation to assess the tempo and degree of engraftment, and to monitor graft rejection. For patients who receive myeloablative transplants, the value of frequent chimerism analyses using sensitive molecular techniques is less certain. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed to assess the transplant outcome of 89 adult patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia who had chimerism studies of unfractionated bone marrow cells or peripheral blood subsets performed approximately 80 days after transplantation. These patients received unmanipulated, myeloablative transplants using either HLA-identical or HLA-mismatched, related or unrelated donor stem cells. Incomplete donor engraftment was present only in the CD3+ peripheral blood T-cells in a small percentage of patients. There was no correlation of mixed chimerism with transplant outcome. Routine “Day 80” chimerism studies in this group of patients who receive intensive, myeloablative conditioning regimens are not recommended. PMID:18500370

Doney, Kristine C.; Loken, Michael R.; Bryant, Eileen M.; Smith, Anajane G.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.



Microsatellite polymorphisms in the gene promoter of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and analysis of the association between monocyte chemotactic protein-3 alleles and multiple sclerosis development.  


Monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) is a chemokine that attracts mononuclear cells, including monocytes and lymphocytes, the inflammatory cell types that predominate in multiple sclerosis lesions. We studied the possible association between the presence of a CA/GA microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the promoter/enhancer region of the MCP-3 gene and the occurrence of multiple sclerosis. DNA samples from 192 Swedish multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 129 healthy controls were analysed by an automated fluorescent technique. In the whole sample population, five MCP-3 allele variants (MCP-3*A1 to MCP-3*A5) were detected with an allele frequency ranging between 0.3% and 46%. The individual MCP-3 allele frequencies did not differ significantly between MS patients and control individuals. The relative MS risk, attributable to HLA-DRB1*15 was 3.05 (chi2 = 22.25, p < 0.0001). The phenotype frequency (PF) of none of the MCP-3 alleles was significantly altered in the population of controls versus unselected MS patients. When MS patients and control subjects were stratified according to positivity for HLA-DRB1*15, the MCP-3*A4-associated risk for developing MS decreased to 0.36 (p = 0.011). In the stratified groups of patients who were negative for both HLA-DRB1*15 and HLA-DRB1*03, and hence possessed a lower risk to develop MS, the MCP-3*A2-associated risk for MS development decreased significantly (p = 0.018). We conclude that the MCP-3*A4 allele might protect against MS development on the background of the increased risk in HLA-DRB1*15+ individuals and the MCP-3*A2 allele seems protective in low-risk individuals, who are both negative for DRB1*03 and DRB1*15. PMID:10229131

Fiten, P; Vandenbroeck, K; Dubois, B; Van Coillie, E; Nelissen, I; Van Damme, J; Ligers, A; Hillert, J; Andersson, M; Olsson, T; Opdenakker, G



Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  


Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14(+) mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14(+) monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana



Studies on Shiga toxin type 1 mediated tumor necrosis factor synthesis in a human monocytic cell line  

E-print Network

. . . . 38 . . . 46 . . . 63 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Kinetics of TNF production by THP-1 cells stimulated with Stx1, LPS or a combination of both. Page . . . 29 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1. Dose response of TNF production by Stx1 treated THP-1... then activate protein kinase C (PKC), a serine threonine specific protein kinase [22-25]. It has also been recently reported that LPS activates Protein kinase A (PKA) in a mouse macrophage cell line, J774 [26]. Several studies have suggested that LPS also...

Sakiri, Ramesh



Cytomegalovirus impairs antiviral CD8+ T cell immunity by recruiting inflammatory monocytes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Inflammatory monocytes are key early responders to infection that contribute to pathogen-host interactions in diverse ways. Here, we report that the murine cytomegalovirus-encoded CC chemokine, MCK2, enhanced CCR2-dependent recruitment of these cells to modulate antiviral immunity, impairing virus-specific CD8+ T cell expansion and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes, thus reducing the capacity to eliminate viral antigen-bearing cells and slowing viral clearance. Adoptive transfer of inflammatory monocytes into Ccr2?/? Ccl2?/? mice impaired virus antigen-specific clearance. Cytomegalovirus therefore enhances a natural CCR2-dependent immune regulatory network to modulate adaptive immunity via nitric oxide production, reminiscent of the monocytic subtype of myeloid-derived suppressor cells primarily implicated in cancer immunomodulation. PMID:22840843

Daley-Bauer, Lisa P.; Wynn, Grace M.; Mocarski, Edward S.



Original article Comparative analysis of canine monocyte-  

E-print Network

directly from monocytes in a granulo- cyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent mannerOriginal article Comparative analysis of canine monocyte- and bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells capacity. DC were derived from monocytes (MoDC) and from bone marrow hematopoietic cells cultured

Boyer, Edmond


Use of whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls.  


Mitogen-induced whole blood lymphocyte stimulation tests for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were developed. Combinations of incubation times, blood dilutions, concentrations of [3H]thymidine and [125I]2-deoxyuridine, antibiotics, phytohemagglutinin-P, and concanavalin A were tested for their effects on the stimulation index (SI). An antibiotic combination of gentamicin plus amphotericin B yielded low SI with lymphocytes from bald eagles, but not with lymphocytes from great horned owls or red-tailed hawks. Penicillin plus streptomycin caused no such depression of SI. Lymphocytes from all 3 species yielded maximum responses with a 48-hour prelabel and 12- to- 16 hour postlabel incubation period at 41 C and 1:20 blood dilution. Optimal mitogen concentrations for lymphocytes from bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls were 25 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of phytohemagglutinin-P/well, respectively, and 2.5 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of concanavalin A/well, respectively. Differences in SI were not seen between the 2 radioactive labels. The optimal concentration of the [3H]thymidine label ranged from 0.06 to 0.125 microCi/well. PMID:6524727

Redig, P T; Dunnette, J L; Sivanandan, V



Cytometric analysis of surface molecules of leucocytes and phagocytic activity of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in cows with pyometra.  


Pyometra is a serious problem in dairy cow herds, causing large economic losses due to infertility. The development of pyometra depends mainly on the immunological status of the cow. The aim of the study was a comparative evaluation of selected indicators involving non-specific and specific immunity in cows with pyometra and in cows without inflammation of the uterus. The study was performed in 20 cows, which were divided into two groups: pyometra group and healthy group, each comprising 10 cows, based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests. A flow cytometric analysis was performed for the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD14, CD21, CD25 and CD4(+) CD25(+) on leucocytes, and the phagocytic activity was determined from granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in the peripheral blood and uterine washings, respectively. It was demonstrated that the percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in both the peripheral blood and uterine washings was significantly lower in cows with pyometra compared with the healthy group (p < 0.001). Significantly (p ? 0.001) lower percentage of CD4(+) , CD14(+) , CD25(+) and CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype leucocytes was also observed in the peripheral blood of cows from the pyometra group, along with a significantly higher (p < 0.001) percentage of CD8(+) and CD21(+) lymphocytes as compared to the healthy group. The results of work indicate that disfunction of cell immunity coexisting with pyometra may be caused by a bacterial infection and the presence of blocking agents (IL-10), released by the increasing number of CD8(+) lymphocytes what leads to the advanced inflammation of uterus. PMID:25124985

Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Niemczuk, K; Lisiecka, U



Altered cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes across the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea: a case-control study.  


Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase), and the first (menstrual phase) and the fifth (regenerative phase) days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased), 14 (five increased and nine decreased), and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased) genes with ? 2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05) in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8) were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-? superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN) were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-? superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-? superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23390521

Ma, Hongyue; Hong, Min; Duan, Jinao; Liu, Pei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping



CD14+CD16+ and CD14+CD163+ monocyte subpopulations in kidney allograft transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Monocytes represent a heterogeneous population of cells subdivided according to the expression level of membrane antigens. A pro-inflammatory (intermediate/nonclassical) subpopulation of monocytes is defined by expression of CD16. CD163 seems to be characteristically preferentially expressed by immunosuppressive monocytes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the distribution of monocyte subpopulations in 71 patients with kidney allograft transplantation. Results The phenotype was evaluated by flow cytometry in defined time points. The proportions of peripheral CD14+CD16+ monocytes were downregulated immediately after the kidney transplantation and basiliximab treatment partially attenuated this trend. The transient downregulation of the CD14+CD16+ subpopulation was adjusted to basal values in two months. The proportions of CD14+CD163+ monocytes were transiently upregulated early after the kidney transplantation and remained higher during the first month in most patients. In ATG treated patients, the expansion of CD14+CD163+ monocytes was delayed but their upregulation lasted longer. In vitro data showed the direct effect of ATG and methylprednisolone on expression of CD16 and CD163 molecules while basiliximab did not affect the phenotype of cultured monocytes. Conclusions We assume from our data that kidney allograft transplantation is associated with modulation of monocyte subpopulations (CD14+CD16+ and CD14+CD163+) partially affected by an immunosuppressive regime used. PMID:24499053



Control of TH2 polarization by the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated T lymphocytes differentiate into effector cells tailored to meet disparate challenges to host integrity. For example, type 1 and type 2 helper (TH1 and TH2) cells secrete cytokines that enhance cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) can stimulate interleukin-4 production and its overexpression is associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, indicating that it might

Long Gu; Susan Tseng; Renée M. Horner; Carmen Tam; Massimo Loda; Barrett J. Rollins



Carcinoma origin dictates differential skewing of monocyte function  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are versatile cells, which phenotype is profoundly influenced by their environment. Pro-inflammatory classically activated or M1 macrophages, and anti-inflammatory alternatively-activated or M2 macrophages represent two extremes of a continuum of functional states. Consequently, macrophages that are present in tumors can exert tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing activity, depending on the tumor milieu. In this study we investigated how human monocytes—the precursors of macrophages—are influenced by carcinoma cells of different origin. We demonstrate that monocytes, stimulated with breast cancer supernatant, showed increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-8 and chemokines CCL17 and CCL22, which are associated with an alternatively-activated phenotype. By contrast, monocytes that were cultured in supernatants of colon cancer cells produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12 and TNF?) and reactive oxygen species. Secretome analysis revealed differential secretion of proteins by colon and breast cancer cell lines, of which the proteoglycan versican was exclusively secreted by colon carcinoma cell lines. Reducing active versican by blocking with monoclonal antibodies or shRNA diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. Thus, colon carcinoma cells polarize monocytes toward a more classically-activated anti-tumorigenic phenotype, whereas breast carcinomas predispose monocytes toward an alternatively activated phenotype. Interestingly, presence of macrophages in breast or colon carcinomas correlates with poor or good prognosis in patients, respectively. The observed discrepancy in macrophage activation by either colon or breast carcinoma cells may therefore explain the dichotomy between patient prognosis and macrophage presence in these different tumors. Designing new therapies, directing development of monocytes toward M1 activated tumor macrophages in cancer patients, may have great clinical benefits. PMID:23162747

Bögels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Nijland, Philip G.; Gül, Nuray; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Fijneman, Remond J.A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Beelen, Robert H.J.; van Egmond, Marjolein



Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites induce monocyte extracellular trap formation.  


Extracellular trap (ET) formation has been demonstrated as an important novel effector mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages acting extracellularly against pathogens. In the present study, we show that tachyzoites of the emerging apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti, that have recently been reported as potent inducers of PMN-derived ETosis, also trigger the release of ETs in an additional cell type, namely in monocytes. Fluorescence illustrations as well as scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM) showed monocyte-promoted ET formation to be rapidly induced upon exposure to viable tachyzoites of B. besnoiti. Classical characteristics of ETs were confirmed by the co-localization of extracellular DNA with histones (H3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) in parasite-entrapping structures. Monocyte-derived ETs were efficiently abolished by DNase I treatment and significantly reduced by treatments with inhibitors of MPO and NADPH oxidase, thus strengthening the key roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MPO in monocyte ET formation. For comparative reasons, we additionally tested sporozoite stages of the closely related parasite Eimeria bovis for their capacity to induce monocyte-derived ETs and showed that these stages indeed induce ETs. To our best knowledge, we here report for the first time on monocyte ETs against the apicomplexan parasites B. besnoiti and E. bovis. Our results indicate that monocyte-triggered ETs may represent an important effector mechanism of the host early innate immune response against B. besnoiti and add a new cell type to the list of cells capable to release ETs. PMID:25193048

Muñoz-Caro, Tamara; Silva, Liliana M R; Ritter, Christin; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos



Modulation by interferons of the expression of monocyte complement genes.  

PubMed Central

Interferons-alpha, -beta and -gamma (IFNs-alpha, -beta and -gamma) stimulated the synthesis of the second complement component (C2), Factor B (B) and C1 inhibitor (C1-inh) by human monocytes in vitro. The degree of increase of the secretion rates of C2, B and C1-inh was dose-dependent and proportional to increases in the abundances of their respective mRNAs. IFN-gamma was the most effective at stimulating monocyte C1-inh synthesis, whereas IFN-alpha and IFN-beta were marginally more effective at stimulating monocyte C2 and B synthesis. Kinetic studies showed that the effect of the IFNs was rapid, with maximum stimulation occurring within 1-2 h for all three proteins. After the removal of IFNs from cultures the C1-inh mRNA abundance remained elevated for over 24 h in IFN-gamma-treated monocytes but returned to control levels within 8 h in IFN-alpha-treated and IFN-beta-treated monocytes. The abundances of C2 mRNA and B mRNA also returned to basal values within 8 h after removal of any of the three cytokines from the cultures. Both IFN-alpha and IFN-beta acted synergistically with IFN-gamma to stimulate synthesis of C1-inh and B. This synergistic effect only occurred when the cytokines were present in the cultures simultaneously. The effects of IFN-gamma plus IFN-alpha or IFN-beta on C2 synthesis appeared to be additive rather than synergistic. IFN-gamma inhibited synthesis of C3 by monocytes, but IFN-alpha and IFN-beta had no effect on the synthesis of this protein. Furthermore, none of the three cytokines had any effect on the expression of actin mRNA in monocytes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:1694661

Lappin, D F; Birnie, G D; Whaley, K



Carbon Black Particle Exhibits Size Dependent Toxicity in Human Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Increased levels of particulate air pollution are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Some epidemiologic and toxicological researches suggest ultrafine particles (<100?nm) to be more harmful per unit mass than larger particles. In the present study, the effect of particle size (nano and micro) of carbon black (CB) particle on viability, phagocytosis, cytokine induction, and DNA damage in human monocytes, THP-1 cells, was analysed. The cells were incubated with nanosize (~50?nm) and micron (~500?nm) size of CB particles in a concentration range of 50–800?µg/mL. The parameters like MTT assay, phagocytosis assay, ELISA, gene expression, and DNA analysis were studied. Exposure to nano- and micron-sized CB particles showed size- and concentration dependent decrease in cell viability and significant increase in proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6 as well as chemokine IL-8 release. Gene expression study showed upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene while cyclooxygenase-2 gene remained unaffected. Nano CB particles altered the phagocytic capacity of monocytes although micron CB had no significant effect. CB particles did not show any significant effect on DNA of monocytes. The investigations indicate that CB particles in nanosize exhibit higher propensity of inducing cytotoxicity, inflammation, and altered phagocytosis in human monocytes than their micron size. PMID:24669321

Kannan, G. M.; Vijayaraghavan, R.



Caffeine sensitization of cultured mammalian cells and human lymphocytes irradiated with gamma rays and fast neutrons: a study of relative biological effectiveness in relation to cellular repair  

SciTech Connect

The sensitizing effects of caffeine were studied in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells and human lymphocytes following irradiation with gamma rays and fast neutrons. Caffeine sensitization occurred only when log-phase BHK cells and mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes were exposed to the two radiations. Noncycling (confluent) cells of BHK resulted in a shouldered survival curve following gamma irradiation while a biphasic curve was obtained with the log-phase cells. Survival in the case of lymphocytes was estimated by measurement of (TH)thymidine uptake. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons was found to be greater at survival levels corresponding to the resistant portions of the survival curves (shoulder or resistant tail). In both cell types, no reduction in RBE was observed when caffeine was present, because caffeine affected both gamma and neutron survival by the same proportion.

Hannan, M.A.; Gibson, D.P.



Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy  

PubMed Central

Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-? and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-? and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. PMID:23401741

Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lúcia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa



Primary monocytes regulate endothelial cell survival through secretion of Angiopoietin-1 and activation of endothelial Tie2  

PubMed Central

Objective Monocyte recruitment and interaction with the endothelium is imperative to vascular recovery. Tie2 plays a key role in endothelial health and vascular remodeling. We studied monocyte-mediated Tie2/Angiopoietin signaling following interaction of primary monocytes with endothelial cells and its role in endothelial cell survival. Methods and results The direct interaction of primary monocytes with subconfluent endothelial cells resulted in transient secretion of Angiopoietin-1 from monocytes and the activation of endothelial Tie2. This effect was abolished by preactivation of monocytes with TNF?. While primary monocytes contained high levels of both Angiopoietin 1 and 2, endothelial cells contained primarily Angiopoietin 2. Seeding of monocytes on serum starved endothelial cells reduced caspase-3 activity by 46% ± 5.1%, and 52% ± 5.8% after TNF? treatment, and decreased detected single strand DNA levels by 41% ± 4.2% and 40± 3.5% respectively. This protective effect of monocytes on endothelial cells was reversed by Tie2 silencing with specific siRNA. The anti-apoptotic effect of monocytes was further supported by the activation of cell survival signaling pathways involving PI3K, STAT3 and AKT. Conclusions Monocytes and endothelial cells form a unique Tie2/Angiopoietin-1 signaling system which effects endothelial cell survival and may play critical a role in vascular remodeling and homeostasis. PMID:21273558

Schubert, Shai Y.; Benarroch, Alejandro; Monter-Solans, Juan; Edelman, Elazer R.



Monocyte Trafficking to Hepatic Sites of Bacterial Infection Is Chemokine Independent and Directed by Focal Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Recruitment of CCR2+Ly6Chigh monocytes to sites of infection is essential for efficient clearance of microbial pathogens. Although CCR2-mediated signals promote monocyte emigration from bone marrow, the contribution of CCR2 to later stages of monocyte recruitment remains unresolved. In this article, we show that CCR2 deficiency markedly worsens hepatic Listeria monocytogenes infection because Ly6Chigh monocytes are retained in the bone marrow. Intravenously transferred, CCR2-deficient Ly6Chigh monocytes traffic normally to hepatic foci of infection and contribute to bacterial clearance. Pertussis toxin treatment of adoptively transferred monocytes does not impair their intrahepatic trafficking, suggesting that chemokine signaling, once CCR2+ Ly6Chigh monocytes emigrate from the bone marrow, is not required for monocyte localization to sites of bacterial infection in the liver. Expression of ICAM-1 is induced in close proximity to foci of bacterial infection in the liver, including on CD31+ endothelial cells, and blockade of CD11b and CD44 diminishes monocyte localization to these hepatic foci. Our studies demonstrated that Ly6Chigh monocyte recruitment from the bloodstream to the L. monocytogenes-infected liver does not require chemokine receptor-mediated signals but instead is principally dependent on integrin- and extracellular matrix-mediated monocyte adhesion. PMID:20435926

Shi, Chao; Velázquez, Peter; Hohl, Tobias M.; Leiner, Ingrid; Dustin, Michael L.; Pamer, Eric G.



Bacille Calmette-Guerin induces NOD2-dependent nonspecific protection from reinfection via epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes.  


Adaptive features of innate immunity, recently described as "trained immunity," have been documented in plants, invertebrate animals, and mice, but not yet in humans. Here we show that bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination in healthy volunteers led not only to a four- to sevenfold increase in the production of IFN-?, but also to a twofold enhanced release of monocyte-derived cytokines, such as TNF and IL-1?, in response to unrelated bacterial and fungal pathogens. The enhanced function of circulating monocytes persisted for at least 3 mo after vaccination and was accompanied by increased expression of activation markers such as CD11b and Toll-like receptor 4. These training effects were induced through the NOD2 receptor and mediated by increased histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation. In experimental studies, BCG vaccination induced T- and B-lymphocyte-independent protection of severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice from disseminated candidiasis (100% survival in BCG-vaccinated mice vs. 30% in control mice). In conclusion, BCG induces trained immunity and nonspecific protection from infections through epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells. PMID:22988082

Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank; Joosten, Leo A B; Ifrim, Daniela C; Saeed, Sadia; Jacobs, Cor; van Loenhout, Joke; de Jong, Dirk; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Xavier, Ramnik J; van der Meer, Jos W M; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G



Bacille Calmette-Guérin induces NOD2-dependent nonspecific protection from reinfection via epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes  

PubMed Central

Adaptive features of innate immunity, recently described as “trained immunity,” have been documented in plants, invertebrate animals, and mice, but not yet in humans. Here we show that bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination in healthy volunteers led not only to a four- to sevenfold increase in the production of IFN-?, but also to a twofold enhanced release of monocyte-derived cytokines, such as TNF and IL-1?, in response to unrelated bacterial and fungal pathogens. The enhanced function of circulating monocytes persisted for at least 3 mo after vaccination and was accompanied by increased expression of activation markers such as CD11b and Toll-like receptor 4. These training effects were induced through the NOD2 receptor and mediated by increased histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation. In experimental studies, BCG vaccination induced T- and B-lymphocyte–independent protection of severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice from disseminated candidiasis (100% survival in BCG-vaccinated mice vs. 30% in control mice). In conclusion, BCG induces trained immunity and nonspecific protection from infections through epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells. PMID:22988082

Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Ifrim, Daniela C.; Saeed, Sadia; Jacobs, Cor; van Loenhout, Joke; de Jong, Dirk; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G.



Use of Single-Cycle Infectious Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus To Study Hemorrhagic Fever Arenaviruses ?  

PubMed Central

Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV) and Junin virus in West Africa and Argentina, respectively, cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans that is associated with high morbidity and significant mortality. The investigation of antiviral strategies to combat HF arenaviruses is hampered by the requirement of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) facilities to work with these viruses. These biosafety hurdles could be overcome by the use of recombinant single-cycle infectious arenaviruses. To explore this concept, we have developed a recombinant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) (rLCMV?GP/GFP) where we replaced the viral glycoprotein (GP) with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). We generated high titers of GP-pseudotyped rLCMV?GP/GFP via genetic trans complementation using stable cell lines that constitutively express LCMV or LASV GPs. Replication of these GP-pseudotyped rLCMV?GP/GFP viruses was restricted to GP-expressing cell lines. This system allowed us to rapidly and reliably characterize and quantify the neutralization activities of serum antibodies against LCMV and LASV within a BSL-2 facility. The sensitivity of the GFP-based microneutralization assay we developed was similar to that obtained with a conventionally used focus reduction neutralization (FRNT) assay. Using GP-pseudotyped rLCMV?GP/GFP, we have also obtained evidence supporting the feasibility of this approach to identify and evaluate candidate antiviral drugs against HF arenaviruses without the need of BSL-4 laboratories. PMID:21123370

Rodrigo, W. W. Shanaka I.; de la Torre, Juan C.; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis



Immunogenetic studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: revelations and speculations about ontogeny and clinical evolution.  


Over the last decade, immunogenetic analysis of B-cell receptor immunoglobulins (BcR IG) has proved instrumental in dissecting chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis. Initially, it was the finding that the level of somatic hypermutations in rearranged IG heavy-chain genes could define two CLL subtypes associated with a different clinical course that drew attention. As the years ensued, this not only continued to hold strong, but also revealed an unprecedented BcR restriction (aptly coined as "stereotypy"), thus cementing the idea that antigenic elements select the leukemic clones. With all this in mind, in the present review, we focus on the CLL BcR IG, a molecule that clearly lies at the heart of disease pathogenesis, and attempt to distil from past and emerging biologic knowledge the most relevant aspects in the context of the immunogenetics of CLL, while at the same time provoking questions that remain unanswered. We juxtapose CLL with mutated BcR IGs against CLL with unmutated BcR IGs due to their striking clinicobiologic differences; however, when considering ontogeny, common derivation of the two mutational subtypes cannot be excluded. The issue of stereotypy is intertwined throughout and we also raise the subject of isotype-switched CLL, which, despite its rarity, contributes intriguing ontogenetic hints. PMID:25074616

Vardi, Anna; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Sutton, Lesley-Ann; Ghia, Paolo; Rosenquist, Richard; Stamatopoulos, Kostas



Lymphocyte Adhesion and Interactions with Biomaterial Adherent Macrophages and Foreign Body Giant Cells  

PubMed Central

To characterize the effects of adherent macrophages and biomaterial surface chemistries on lymphocyte adhesion and activation, lymphocytes were co-cultured with monocytes alone and together, directly and separated by a porous membrane transwell on hydrophobic, hydrophilic/neutral, hydrophilic/anionic, and hydrophilic/cationic biomaterial surfaces. Surface adherent cells were quantitatively analyzed after 3 days utilizing immunofluorescence and phase contrast imaging. After periods of 3, 7, and 10 days, secreted interferon-? (IFN-?) was quantified by ELISA. Limited direct biomaterial-adherent lymphocytes were identified regardless of the presence of macrophages or foreign body giant cells (FBGC). The majority of adherent lymphocytes, which were T cells (> 95%) rather than natural killer cells, predominantly interacted with adherent macrophages and FBGCs; greater than 90% were interacting on surfaces with higher levels of adherent macrophages and FBGCs and greater than 55% were interacting on surfaces with lower levels of macrophages and FBGCs. The hydrophilic/anionic surface promoted higher levels of macrophage- and FBGC-adherent lymphocytes but was nonselective for lymphocyte subtype interactions. The hydrophilic/neutral surface was selective for CD4+ T lymphocyte interactions while the hydrophobic surface was selective for CD8+ T lymphocyte interactions. IFN-? was produced in direct and indirect co-cultures but not in lymphocyte- and monocyte-only cultures suggesting that lymphocytes are activated via macrophage-derived cytokines rather than direct biomaterial contact. Direct lymphocyte interactions with adherent macrophages/FBGCs enhanced IFN-? production relative to indirect co-cultures. These results suggest that lymphocytes prefer interactions with adherent macrophages and FBGCs, resulting in lymphocyte activation, and these interactions can be influenced by biomaterial surface chemistries. PMID:19148923

Chang, David T.; Colton, Erica; Matsuda, Takehisa; Anderson, James M.



Monocyte trafficking in acute and chronic inflammation  

PubMed Central

Environmental signals at the site of inflammation mediate rapid monocyte mobilization and dictate differentiation programs whereby these cells give rise to macrophages or dendritic cells. Monocytes participate in tissue healing, clearance of pathogens and dead cells, and initiation of adaptive immunity. However, recruited monocytes can also contribute to the pathogenesis of infection and chronic inflammatory disease, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we explore monocyte trafficking in the context of acute inflammation, relying predominantly on data from microbial infection models. These mechanisms will be compared to monocyte trafficking during chronic inflammation in experimental models of atherosclerosis. Recent developments suggest that monocyte trafficking shares common themes in diverse inflammatory diseases; however, important differences exist between monocyte migratory pathways in acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:21664185

Ingersoll, Molly A.; Platt, Andrew M.; Potteaux, Stephane; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.



IL10 Inhibits Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Dependent Human Monocyte Survival at the Early Stage of the Culture and Inhibits the Generation of Macrophages1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that IL-10 alone does not stimulate growth and differentiation of human monocytes, but enhances those of monocytes stimulated with M-CSF. We studied here the effect of IL-10 on human monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF. Monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF alone survived and developed into macrophages. Monocytes cultured with GM-CSF plus IL-10, however, died through apoptosis. IL-10 decreased expression of

Shin-ichi Hashimoto; Iwao Komuro; Muneo Yamada; Kiyoko S. Akagawa


Magnesium contents of leukemic lymphocytes.  


In this study, magnesium concentrations were measured in lymphocytes from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), chronic megalositer leukemia (KML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) before and after chemotherapy management, and results were compared with those of control subjects. Magnesium concentrations were higher in the patient groups compared with control values. However, no meaningful differences were found among magnesium concentrations of the patient groups themselves. Similarly, no statistically meaningful differences were found between lymphocyte magnesium concentrations before and after chemotherapy management in the patient groups. In the inter-correlation analysis, we observed no correlations between pre- and post-magnesium concentrations in patients' lymphocytes. It has been suggested that magnesium concentrations of leukemic lymphocytes might increase due to the high ATP requirement of the leukemic cells since magnesium is known to play an important part as a cofactor in most of the energy-producing reactions. PMID:7812116

Canbolat, O; Kavutcu, M; Durak, I



Whole-blood lymphocyte cultures.  


A simple and reproducible method is described for the measurement of proliferative responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes in whole blood upon stimulation with horse anti-human lymphocyte serum (ALS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against CD3. Only small aliquots of blood are needed and separation procedures are not necessary. Since the method proved to be very reproducible and showed little variation, reference values of proliferation, expressed in cpm per 15 microliters blood and cpm per 10(3) CD3+ lymphocytes, were determined based upon the 5th and the 2.5th percentile of the distribution of the values in our reference population. In addition, the use of whole blood lymphocyte cultures in longitudinal studies of immunocompromised individuals is demonstrated. PMID:2529314

Bloemena, E; Roos, M T; Van Heijst, J L; Vossen, J M; Schellekens, P T



Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia,\\u000a and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia\\u000a as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent\\u000a variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

Eiji Oda; Ryu Kawai; Yoshifusa Aizawa


Cytogenetic study of the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and the role of ?-carotene and vitamin E in modulating this effect.  


This study has been made to determine the potential genotoxicity of Schistosoma mansoni on lymphocytes of infected patients using different mutagenic end points. The protective role of antioxidants pro vitamin ?-carotene and vitamin E in minimizing these genotoxic effect was also studied. The study focused on the effect of schistosomiasis on the induction of sister chromatid exchange (SCEs) and other chromosomal aberrations. This work was conducted on 24 Schistosoma mansoni infected patients and 10 healthy adults as a control group. Lymphocytes from peripheral blood of patients and control group were used for culture and subsequent cytogenetic studies. The results indicated that schistosomiasis was genotoxic in all examined tests. It induced a significant increase in the percentage of structural chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of SCEs. It also inhibited cell division and caused cell cycle delay. Lymphocyte cultures of S. mansoni patients treated with 10 ?g/ml ?-carotene or 20 mg/ml vitamin E showed a significant decrease in the percentage of structural chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of SCEs. Schistosomiasis has a genotoxic effect on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The use of the antioxidants ?-carotene and vitamin E can be considered a promising approach not only toward inhibiting the genetic damage of schistosomiasis but also as prophylactic agents against infection with S mansoni. Furthermore, higher doses of antioxidant drugs, ?-carotene and vitamin E, should be tried as an adjuvants to conventional therapy in a trial to improve treatment of schistosomiasis. PMID:21107709

Khaled, Iman A; El-Ansary, Mervat S; Saleh, Abeya F; Mahmoud, Ola M; Baioumi, Emad A; Bakr, Heba A



Infl uence of bifl orin on the labelling of red blood cells, plasma protein, cell protein, and lymphocytes with technetium-99m: in vitro study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the results of an in vitro study involving the infl uence of bifl orin (an o-quinone isolated from Capraria bifl ora L. that has potent antimicrobial activity) on the Tc-99m labeling of red blood cells, plasma protein, cells protein, and lymphocytes. Blood was withdrawn from Wistar rats and incubated with various concentrations of bifl orin,

Thiago M. Aquino; Elba L. C. Amorim; Gláucio Diré Feliciano; Elaine A. C. Lima; Maria L. Gomes; Cláudia S. A. Lima; Ulysses P. Albuquerque; Mário Bernardo-Filho


Increased IL6 Production by Monocytes and Keratinocytes in Patients with Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional inflammatory cytokine that is produced by monocytes and keratinocytes upon stimulation. Because psoriasis is a skin disease characterized by a hyperproliferative activity of keratinocytes and an inflammatory infiltrate, in the present study IL-6 production of monocytes and keratinocytes of patients with psoriasis was investigated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from psoriatics, atopics, and healthy

Peter Neuner; Agatha Urbanski; Franz Trautinger; Annelie Möller; Reinhard Kirnbauer; Alexander Kapp; Erwin Schöpf; Thomas Schwarz; Thomas A. Luger



A new role for monocytes in modulating myometrial inflammation during human labor.  


Here we fully characterize the cytokine profile of laboring human myometrium using Luminex analysis of 48 cytokine proteins, and stereologically quantified infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils into the myometrium. We hypothesized that monocytes can regulate their accumulation in the myometrium by disruption of proinflammatory cytokines to prevent an uncontrolled inflammatory response after labor onset. We isolated primary human myometrial cells (HMCs) from term, nonlaboring myometrial biopsies. Confluent HMCs were cocultured directly with human monocytic (THP-1) or lymphocytic (U937) cells, and with the same cells spatially separated by a membrane insert. After 72 h, HMCs and THP-1 were harvested separately, and RNA was extracted and analyzed by quantitative PCR. Coculture supernatants were collected and analyzed by Luminex assay and ELISA. We found that the laboring human myometrium produces significantly higher amounts of interleukin (IL) 6, IL9, IL18, IL1RA, CCL2, CCL7, CXCL8, CSF3, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which coincides with the influx of immune cells. The direct contact or presence of THP-1 monocytes (but not U937 cells) significantly decreased CCL2 protein levels and increased IL1RA protein levels secreted by HMCs. This time-dependent decrease of CCL2 was greater with increasing number of monocytes being in direct contact with HMCs. We suggest a novel mechanism by which monocytes are first recruited to the myometrium by multiple cytokines and contribute to the physiologic inflammation of labor. After completing transmigration, activated monocytes disrupt locally established CCL2 gradients (possible by CCR2-mediated consumption) to limit their accumulation in the uterus. This mechanism may serve as a negative feedback loop to control the local inflammation and promote a return to homeostasis. PMID:24829032

Srikhajon, Khetsopon; Shynlova, Oksana; Preechapornprasert, Anyarin; Chanrachakul, Boonsri; Lye, Stephen



Fatal spleen rupture during induction chemotherapy with rh GM-CSF priming for acute monocytic leukemia. Clinical case report and in vitro studies.  


Recombinant human (rh) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-SCF) is currently being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemias with two main intentions: reduction of neutropenia and recruitment of leukemic blasts into cell cycle to enhance cytarabine (ara-C) mediated cytotoxicity. We report a case of a fatal spleen rupture in a patient with acute monocytic leukemia (AML M5b) who was treated according to a clinical phase I/II protocol with rh GM-CSF priming and standard induction chemotherapy TAD 9 (thioguanine/ara-C/daunorubicin). During treatment we observed rapidly rising peripheral blast counts and the development of an acute abdomen. Ultrasound examination revealed splenomegaly due to diffuse cellular infiltration and spleen rupture. The patient died 17 days later due to pneumonia and renewed spleen hemorrhage. Bone marrow progenitor assays before treatment showed exclusive growth of monocytoid blast cell colonies (CFU-L). Colony growth could be stimulated with rh GM-CSF and blocked dose-dependently by a monoclonal anti-GM-CSF antibody. CFU-L proliferation also increased after stimulation with rh interleukin-3 (rh IL-3) and supra-additively with rh granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh G-CSF) combined with rh GM-CSF. Furthermore, rh GM-CSF induced surface marker expression of CDw 65 and CD 11b on isolated CFU-L blasts. After short-term suspension culture, rh GM-CSF enhanced the expression of CD 29- and CD 11b-adhesion molecules on peripheral blast cells. In summary, this case represents a fatal spleen rupture occurring during rh GM-CSF priming and induction chemotherapy for acute monocytic leukemia. Although the etiology of this spleen rupture remains uncertain, in view of our data we suggest special caution, when further testing this therapy protocol in acute leukemias with monocytic subtype and high peripheral blast cell counts. PMID:8450676

Zimmer, B M; Berdel, W E; Ludwig, W D; Notter, M; Reufi, B; Thiel, E



Generation of alloreactive cytolytic T lymphocytes by immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of requirements for human cytolytic T-lymphocyte differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Requirements for the induction of human cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity were studied in a monocyte-free T-cell activation system that uses immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as a stimulus. Alloreactive CTL with specificity for HLA-A and -B locus antigens could be demonstrated within 2 days after the initiation of activation. CTL induction in purified T cells initiated by an optimal concentration of immobilized anti-CD3 mAb was not enhanced by the addition of monocytes or exogeneous cytokines, whereas addition of anti-CD25 mAb largely blocked the response. Upon suboptimal anti-CD3 mAb stimulation, addition of recombinant interleukin (rIL)-2, rIL-1 and rIL-4, but not recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or rIL-6, potentiated the development of CTL activity. Finally it was shown that immobilized anti-CD3 mAb induced significant levels of CTL activity in both purified CD4+ and CD8+ cells. This study indicates that the requirement for cytokines in the differentiation of CTL precursors depends on the strength of the activation signal delivered through the T-cell receptor. PMID:2143171

De Jong, R; Brouwer, M; Rebel, V I; Van Seventer, G A; Miedema, F; Van Lier, R A



Periodontitis-activated monocytes/macrophages cause aortic inflammation  

PubMed Central

A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-? concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-?B activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-? signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-?B/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages. PMID:24893991

Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki



Periodontitis-activated monocytes/macrophages cause aortic inflammation.  


A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-? concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-?B activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-? signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-?B/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages. PMID:24893991

Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki



Lymphocyte infiltration and activation in iris-ciliary body and anterior chamber of mice in corneal allograft rejection  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the infiltration and activation of lymphocyte in iris-ciliary body and anterior chamber after allogenic penetrating keratoplasty (PK), for further revealing the role of iris-ciliary body in corneal allograft immune rejection. METHODS In the mice models of PK, BALB/C mice received orthotopic isografts (n =35) or C57BL/6 donor allografts (n =25). Grafts were examined daily for 3 weeks by slit-lamp microscopy and scored for opacity. The infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocyte in iris-ciliary body and anterior chamber was examined by immunohistology and the mRNA of CD80 and CD86 in both cornea graft and iris-ciliary body by RT-PCR was analyzed in allograft recipient at days 3, 6, 10 and the day when graft rejection occurred. Isograft recipients were examined as control at the corresponding time points. Transmission electron microscope was used to study the ultrastructure, especially cell infiltration, of iris-cilary body and corneal graft at day 3, 7 and the day when rejection occurred after allogenic PK. RESULTS Rejection was observed in all the allograft recipients followed more than 10 days, at a median time of 15 days (range 12-18 days), but not in any of isografts. CD4+ T cells were first detected at day 6 after transplantation in limbus and Ciliary body, and then in the stroma of recipient, iris, anterior chamber and corneal allograft with an increased number until graft rejection occurred. CD80 and CD86 mRNA were detected under RT-PCR examination in both graft and iris-ciliary body of allograft recipient, but not in any of isograft recipient. Three days after operation, lymphocytes and monocytes macrophages were visible in iris blood vessels and the anterior chamber, and vascular endothelial cell proliferation and activation were significant under transmission electron microscopy examination. At day 7, corneal endothelial cells became thinner. Lymphocytes and mononuclear macrophages were found with great number in the anterior chamber and adhered to the corneal endothelium. Blood vessels in iris increased and were filled with lymphocytes. And lymphocytes were detected to migrate through endothelial cell gap out of vessels. When allograft rejection occurred, macrophages attached to endothelial cells with large number of lymphocytes and macrophages infiltrating in iris. CONCLUSION Lymphocyte infiltration and activation occurred in iris-ciliary body after allogenic PK, and the lymphocytes could migrate from iris blood vessel to the anterior chamber, which might play an important role in corneal allograft immune rejection. PMID:23275901

Wang, Fu-Hua; Chen, Min; Liu, Ting; Zang, Xin-Jie; Gong, Hua-Qing; Shi, Wei-Yun



Clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic lymphocytes: ex vivo studies and an in vitro co-culture model.  


Lymphocytes are very sensitive to radiation. Our aim was to test the possibility of detecting apoptosis in lymphocytes as a potential short-term biomarker of ionizing radiation exposure. Our in vitro data confirmed the dose-time-effect relationships involved in radiation-induced apoptosis. The detection of in vivo induction of apoptosis in circulating lymphocytes after exposure of animals to radiation appears to depend critically on the technique used to measure apoptosis. Among the different techniques we investigated, mitochondrial modification was the most appropriate; they allowed establishment of dose-time-effect relationships when animals were observed for 72 h. A model of in vitro phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes by macrophages was developed to mimic clearance of apoptotic cells occurring in vivo. Together, our data show that mitochondrial labeling may make it possible to detect ex vivo radiation-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes before macrophage ingestion occurs. We propose the measurement of apoptosis in lymphocytes as a potential short-term biomarker of ionizing radiation exposure. PMID:12236814

Benderitter, M; Durand, V; Caux, C; Voisin, P



Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio Is Associated with Non-Calcified Plaque Burden in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Elevations in soluble markers of inflammation and changes in leukocyte subset distribution are frequently reported in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Lately, the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio has emerged as a potential marker of both CAD severity and cardiovascular prognosis. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate whether neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and other immune-inflammatory markers were related to plaque burden, as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in patients with CAD. Methods Twenty patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and 30 patients with stable angina (SA) underwent CCTA at two occasions, immediately prior to coronary angiography and after three months. Atherosclerotic plaques were classified as calcified, mixed and non-calcified. Blood samples were drawn at both occasions. Leukocyte subsets were analyzed by white blood cell differential counts and flow cytometry. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin(IL)-6 were measured in plasma. Blood analyses were also performed in 37 healthy controls. Results Plaque variables did not change over 3 months, total plaque burden being similar in NSTE-ACS and SA. However, non-calcified/total plaque ratio was higher in NSTE-ACS, 0.25(0.09–0.44) vs 0.11(0.00–0.25), p<0.05. At admission, levels of monocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios, CD4+ T cells, CRP and IL-6 were significantly elevated, while levels of NK cells were reduced, in both patient groups as compared to controls. After 3 months, levels of monocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and CD4+ T cells remained elevated in patients. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and neutrophil counts correlated significantly with numbers of non-calcified plaques and also with non-calcified/total plaque ratio (r?=?0.403, p?=?0.010 and r?=?0.382, p?=?0.024, respectively), but not with total plaque burden. Conclusions Among immune-inflammatory markers in NSTE-ACS and SA patients, neutrophil counts and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios were significantly correlated with non-calcified plaques. Data suggest that these easily measured biomarkers reflect the burden of vulnerable plaques in CAD. PMID:25268632

Nilsson, Lennart; Wieringa, Wouter G.; Pundziute, Gabija; Gjerde, Marcus; Engvall, Jan; Swahn, Eva; Jonasson, Lena



Distinct functions of chemokine receptor axes in the atherogenic mobilization and recruitment of classical monocytes  

PubMed Central

We used a novel approach of cytostatically induced leucocyte depletion and subsequent reconstitution with leucocytes deprived of classical (inflammatory/Gr1hi) or non-classical (resident/Gr1lo) monocytes to dissect their differential role in atheroprogression under high-fat diet (HFD). Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe?/?) mice lacking classical but not non-classical monocytes displayed reduced lesion size and macrophage and apoptotic cell content. Conversely, HFD induced a selective expansion of classical monocytes in blood and bone marrow. Increased CXCL1 levels accompanied by higher expression of its receptor CXCR2 on classical monocytes and inhibition of monocytosis by CXCL1-neutralization indicated a preferential role for the CXCL1/CXCR2 axis in mobilizing classical monocytes during hypercholesterolemia. Studies correlating circulating and lesional classical monocytes in gene-deficient Apoe?/? mice, adoptive transfer of gene-deficient cells and pharmacological modulation during intravital microscopy of the carotid artery revealed a crucial function of CCR1 and CCR5 but not CCR2 or CX3CR1 in classical monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic vessels. Collectively, these data establish the impact of classical monocytes on atheroprogression, identify a sequential role of CXCL1 in their mobilization and CCR1/CCR5 in their recruitment. PMID:23417922

Soehnlein, Oliver; Drechsler, Maik; Döring, Yvonne; Lievens, Dirk; Hartwig, Helene; Kemmerich, Klaus; Ortega-Gómez, Almudena; Mandl, Manuela; Vijayan, Santosh; Projahn, Delia; Garlichs, Christoph D; Koenen, Rory R; Hristov, Mihail; Lutgens, Esther; Zernecke, Alma; Weber, Christian



Quantitative proteomics reveals a role for epigenetic reprogramming during human monocyte differentiation.  


The differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells involves mechanisms for activation of the innate immune system in response to inflammatory stimuli, such as pathogen infection and environmental cues. Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play an important role during monocyte differentiation. Complementary to cell surface markers, the characterization of monocytic cell lineages by mass spectrometry based protein/histone expression profiling opens a new avenue for studying immune cell differentiation. Here, we report the application of mass spectrometry and bioinformatics to identify changes in human monocytes during their differentiation into macrophages and dendritic cells. Our data show that linker histone H1 proteins are significantly down-regulated during monocyte differentiation. Although highly enriched H3K9-methyl/S10-phos/K14-acetyl tri-modification forms of histone H3 were identified in monocytes and macrophages, they were dramatically reduced in dendritic cells. In contrast, histone H4 K16 acetylation was found to be markedly higher in dendritic cells than in monocytes and macrophages. We also found that global hyperacetylation generated by the nonspecific histone deacetylase HDAC inhibitor Apicidin induces monocyte differentiation. Together, our data suggest that specific regulation of inter- and intra-histone modifications including H3 K9 methylation, H3 S10 phosphorylation, H3 K14 acetylation, and H4 K16 acetylation must occur in concert with chromatin remodeling by linker histones for cell cycle progression and differentiation of human myeloid cells into macrophages and dendritic cells. PMID:25316709

Nicholas, Dequina; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Qiongyi; Rudra, Jai; Xu, Feng; Langridge, William; Zhang, Kangling



Macrophage plasticity and interaction with lymphocyte subsets: cancer as a paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasticity is a hallmark of cells of the myelomonocytic lineage. In response to innate recognition or signals from lymphocyte subsets, mononuclear phagocytes undergo adaptive responses. Shaping of monocyte-macrophage function is an essential component of resistance to pathogens, tissue damage and repair. The orchestration of myelomonocytic cell function is a key element that links inflammation and cancer and provides a paradigm

Subhra K Biswas; Alberto Mantovani



The monocyte to macrophage transition in the murine sterile wound.  


The origin of wound repair macrophages is incompletely defined and was examined here in sterile wounds using the subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponge implantation model in mice. Phenotypic analysis identified F4/80(+)Ly6C(hi)CD64(+)MerTK(-) monocytes and F4/80(+)Ly6C(low)CD64(+)MerTK(+) macrophages in the wound. Circulating monocytes were the precursors of inflammatory Ly6C(hi) wound monocytes. Ly6C(low)MerTK(+) macrophages appeared later, expressed CD206, CD11c, and MHC class II, produced cytokines consistent with repair function, and lacked a gene expression profile compatible with mesenchymal transition or fibroblastic transdifferentiation. Data also demonstrated that Ly6C(hi) wound cells were precursors of Ly6C(low) macrophages, although monocytes did not undergo rapid maturation but rather persisted in the wound as Ly6C(hi)MerTK(-) cells. MerTK-deficient mice were examined to determine whether MerTK-dependent signals from apoptotic cells regulated the maturation of wound macrophages. MerTK-deficient mice had day 14 cell compositions that resembled more immature wounds, with a smaller proportion of F4/80(+) cells and higher frequencies of Ly6G(+) neutrophils and Ly6C(hi) monocytes. The cytokine profile and number of apoptotic cells in day 14 wounds of MerTK-deficient mice was unaffected despite the alterations in cell composition. Overall, these studies identified a differentiation pathway in response to sterile inflammation in which monocytes recruited from the circulation acquire proinflammatory function, persist in the wound, and mature into repair macrophages. PMID:24466192

Crane, Meredith J; Daley, Jean M; van Houtte, Olivier; Brancato, Samielle K; Henry, William L; Albina, Jorge E



The detection of monocytes in human glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of monocytes in human glomerulonephritis. Renal biosy specimens from 343 patients with primary or secondary glomerulonephritis (GN) were examined for monocytes by the non-specific esterase reaction. Large numbers of monocytes per glomerulus (M\\/G) were found in essential cryoglobulinemia GN (29 pts, M\\/G 30.6 ± 22.4), in acute post-infectious GN (27 pts, M\\/G 9.1 ± 8.3), in rapidly progressive

Franco Ferrario; Aldo Castiglione; Guiliano Colasanti; Giovanni Barbiano di Belgioioso; Silvio Bertoli; Giuseppe D'Amico; Stefania Nava



Differential Responses Between Monocytes and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages for Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation of Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment Toll-like receptor expression pattern in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation was examined. Jugular venous blood was collected from four Japanese calves, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. The cells were directly used for collecting monocytes by magnetic cell sorting or cultured for 7 days to collect monocyte-derived macrophages in Repcell. Then

Yijie Guo; Guoqi Zhao; Sachi Tanaka; Takahiro Yamaguchi



Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia  


... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...


Cryopreservation of human monocytes for pharmacopeial monocyte activation test.  


EU Directive 2010/63/EU regarding the protection of experimental animals came into force in November 2010 with an obligation for EU member states to incorporate its requirements into their respective national legislations by 1st of January 2013. The directive stipulates the application of in vitro methods to replace animal experiments whenever such an in vitro method exits and is recognized by EU legislation. The monocyte activation test (MAT) for the detection and quantification of pyrogenic contamination in medicines is recognized by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care (EDQM) and was published in the European Pharmacopeia (Pharm. Eur.) in April 2010. The methodology described here facilitates the use of the MAT by making monocytes available, in the form of cryopreserved human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We have developed and qualified a procedure to prepare functional monocytes in the form of PBMCs from the leukocyte filters that are used for the separation of blood in blood donation centers. Once used, these filters are normally treated as biological waste. Here we describe the procedures that are critical for the successful cryopreservation of PBMCs, demonstrate protection of PBMC functionality using various ligands for the toll-like receptors (TLRs) that mediate pyrogenic responses, report validation of the methodology for linearity, precision and robustness and show examples of the practical application of cryopreserved in MATs with samples of drugs and vaccines. Another application of cryopreserved PBMCs, only mentioned here, is to serve as an alternative to freshly isolated PBMCs in tests for unwanted intrinsic pro-inflammatory activities of new biological therapeutics. Such tests use PBMCs or PBMCs over a layer of endothelial cells to detect (unwanted) cytokine release, PBMCs being more suited to this purpose than tests using whole blood. PMID:24456627

Koryakina, Anna; Frey, Esther; Bruegger, Peter



Identification of Markers that Distinguish Monocyte-Derived Fibrocytes from Monocytes, Macrophages, and Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe processes that drive fibrotic diseases are complex and include an influx of peripheral blood monocytes that can differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Monocytes can also differentiate into other cell types, such as tissue macrophages. The ability to discriminate between monocytes, macrophages, fibrocytes, and fibroblasts in fibrotic lesions could be beneficial in identifying therapies that target either stromal fibroblasts

Darrell Pilling; Ted Fan; Donna Huang; Bhavika Kaul; Richard H. Gomer; Laurent Rénia



Benefit from B-Lymphocyte Depletion Using the Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. A Double-Blind and Placebo-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disease of unknown aetiology. Major CFS symptom relief during cancer chemotherapy in a patient with synchronous CFS and lymphoma spurred a pilot study of B-lymphocyte depletion using the anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab, which demonstrated significant clinical response in three CFS patients.Methods and FindingsIn this double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study (NCT00848692), 30 CFS patients were randomised

Øystein Fluge; Ove Bruland; Kristin Risa; Anette Storstein; Einar K. Kristoffersen; Dipak Sapkota; Halvor Næss; Olav Dahl; Harald Nyland; Olav Mella; Markus Reindl



Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a paradigm of innate immune cross-tolerance.  


Infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The pathogenesis of infections is multifactorial and includes hypogammaglobulinemia, conventional therapy with alkylating drugs, and recently, purine analogs and mAb-associated T cells. Patients without these risk factors also suffer from infections, although the mechanism remains unknown. In a cohort of 70 patients with CLL, we demonstrated that their monocytes were locked into a refractory state and were unable to mount a classic inflammatory response to pathogens. In addition, they exhibited the primary features of endotoxin tolerance, including low cytokine production, high phagocytic activity, and impaired Ag presentation. The involvement of miR-146a in this phenomenon was suspected. We found miR-146a target genes, such as IRAK1 and TRAF6, were manifestly downregulated. Our study provides a new explanation for infections in patients with CLL and describes a cross-tolerance between endotoxins and tumors. PMID:25505275

Jurado-Camino, Teresa; Córdoba, Raúl; Esteban-Burgos, Laura; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Toledano, Victor; Hernandez-Rivas, Jose-Angel; Ruiz-Sainz, Elena; Cobo, Teresa; Siliceo, María; Perez de Diego, Rebeca; Belda, Cristobal; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; López-Collazo, Eduardo



Lipopolysaccharide induces the expression of an autocrine prolactin loop enhancing inflammatory response in monocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Prolactin from pituitary gland helps maintain homeostasis but it is also released in immune cells where its function is not completely understood. Pleiotropic functions of prolactin (PRL) might be mediated by different isoforms of its receptor (PRLr). Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the eventual synthesis of PRL and PRLr isoforms with the inflammatory response in monocytes. We used THP-1 and monocytes isolated from healthy subjects stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western blot, real time PCR and immunocytochemistry were performed to identify both molecules. The bioactivity of the PRL was assessed using a bioassay and ELISA to detect pro inflammatory cytokines. Results PRLr mRNA and PRL mRNA were synthesized in THP-1 monocytes activated with LPS with peaks of 300-fold and 130-fold, respectively. The long (100 kDa) and the intermediate (50 kDa) isoforms of PRLr and big PRL (60 kDa) were time-dependent upregulated for monocytes stimulated with LPS. This expression was confirmed in monocytes from healthy subjects. The PRLr intermediate isoform and the big PRL were found soluble in the culture media and later in the nucleus in THP-1 monocytes stimulated with LPS. Big PRL released by monocytes showed bioactivity in Nb2 Cells, and both PRL and PRLr, synthesized by monocytes were related with levels of nitrites and proinflammatory citokines. Conclusions Our results suggest the expression of a full-autocrine loop of PRL enhances the inflammatory response in activated monocytes. This response mediated by big PRL may contribute to the eradication of potential pathogens during innate immune response in monocytes but may also contribute to inflammatory disorders. PMID:23731754



Platelets induce a proinflammatory phenotype in monocytes via the CD147 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis.  


IntroductionActivated platelets exert a proinflammatory action that can be largely ascribed to their ability to interact with monocytes. However, the mechanisms that promote dynamic changes in monocyte subsets in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been clearly identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether platelet activation and the consequent formation of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPA) might induce a proinflammatory phenotype in circulating monocytes in RA.MethodsThe surface phenotype of platelets and the frequencies of monocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of RA patients were determined using flow cytometry. Platelets were sorted and co-cultured with monocytes. In addition, monocyte activation was assessed by measuring the nuclear factor ¿B (NF-¿B) pathway. The disease activity was evaluated using the 28-joint disease activity score.ResultsPlatelet activation, circulating intermediate monocytes (Mon2) and MPA formation were significantly elevated in RA, especially in those with active disease status. Furthermore, Mon2 monocytes showed higher CD147 expression and responded to direct cell contact with activated platelets with higher cytokine production and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) secretion, which increased the expression of CD147. After the addition of specific antibodies for CD147, those effects were abolished. Furthermore, the NF-¿B¿driven inflammatory pathway may be involved in this process.ConclusionThese findings indicate an important role of platelet activation and the consequent formation of MPA in the generation of the proinflammatory cytokine milieu and for the promotion and maintenance of the pathogenically relevant Mon2 monocyte compartment in RA, which is likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:25404518

Rong, Meng-Yao; Wang, Cong-Hua; Wu, Zhen-Biao; Zeng, Wen; Zheng, Zhao-Hui; Han, Qing; Jia, Jun-Feng; Li, Xue-Yi; Zhu, Ping



HSV-2 Regulates Monocyte Inflammatory Response via the Fas/FasL Pathway  

PubMed Central

Monocytic cells represent important cellular elements of the innate and adaptive immune responses in viral infections. We assessed the role of Fas/FasL in promoting monocyte apoptosis during HSV-2 infection by using an in vitro model based on the murine RAW 264.7 monocytic cell line and an in vivo murine model of HSV-2 infection applied to C57BL6, MRL-Faslpr/J (Fas?/?) and C3-Faslgld/J (FasL?/?) mice. HSV-2 infection of the monocytic cell line led to early induction of apoptosis, with no protective expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. HSV-2 infected monocytes up-regulated Fas and FasL expression early during in vitro infection but were susceptible to Fas induced apoptosis. The vaginal monocytes in the HSV-2 murine model of infection up-regulated FasL expression and were susceptible to Fas induced apoptosis. HSV-2 infection of Fas and FasL- deficient mice led to decreased apoptosis of monocytes and impaired recruitment of NK, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells within the infection sites. The vaginal lavages of HSV-2 infected Fas and FasL- deficient showed decreased production of CXCL9, CXCL10 and TNF-? in comparison to HSV-2 infected wild-type mice strain. The decreased recruitment of immune competent cells was accompanied by delayed virus clearance from the infected tissue. Triggering of the Fas receptor on HSV-2 infected monocytes in vitro up-regulated the expression of CXCL9 chemokines and the cytokine TNF-?. Our study provides novel insights on the role of Fas/FasL pathway not only in apoptosis of monocytes but also in regulating local immune response by monocytes during HSV-2 infection. PMID:23922974

Krzyzowska, Malgorzata; Baska, Piotr; Orlowski, Piotr; Zdanowski, Robert; Winnicka, Anna; Eriksson, Kristina; Stankiewicz, Wanda



Acetyl-Boswellic Acids Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated TNF Induction in Monocytes by Direct Interaction with IB Kinases1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes is tightly regulated by transcription factors such as NF-B. In this study, we show that, in LPS-stimulated human peripheral monocytes, the pentacyclic triterpenes acetyl--boswellic acid (ABA) and acetyl-11-keto--boswellic acid (AKBA) down-regulate the TNF- expression. ABA and AKBA inhibited NF-B signaling both in LPS-stimulated monocytes as detected by EMSA, as well as in a NF-B-dependent

Tatiana Syrovets; Berthold Buchele; Christine Krauss; Yves Laumonnier; Thomas Simmet


Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 concentration in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and its modulation of expression in mesothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate monocyte chemotactic protein-1 concentrations in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with or without endometriosis, then assess peritoneal mesothelial cells as a potential source of monocyte chemotactic protein-1.Design: Prospective study.Setting: University medical center.Patient(s): Women with (n = 60) or without (n = 18) endometriosis.Intervention(s): First monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in PF were measured, then mesothelial cells in

Aydin Arici; Engin Oral; Erkut Attar; Salli I. Tazuke; David L. Olive



Presenting features and outcome of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients diagnosed at age 80 years or more. An ICLLSG study.  


Although the incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) increases exponentially with age, data on patients 80 years or older at diagnosis are sparse. The records of patients diagnosed with CLL at age ?80 years at seven medical centers in Israel during 1979-2009 were reviewed. Patients included 118 men and 96 women with a mean age of 84 years (range 80-94). Diagnosis was established in 56.5% due to routine blood count; 56% had Rai stage 0 disease and 25% of the patients received treatment. By June 2010, 72% had died. Mean survival was 67.7 months (median 56±5.4 months) and 5-year survival rate 47.2±3.6%. On univariate analysis, factors associated with better survival were age <84 years (p=0.002), early Rai and Binet stages (p=0.023, 0.003), low white blood cell count at time of diagnosis (p=0.015), low ?2 microglobulin level (p=0.006), diagnosis by routine blood test (p<0.001), and low CD38 level (p=0.036). Multivariate analysis using Cox regression revealed that younger age, low white cell count, and diagnosis by routine blood test were independent predictors of good prognosis (hazards ratios 1.8, 1.6, and 1.9, respectively). Patients diagnosed with CLL at age ?80 years may expect to live a long life. This study identifies several factors predicting good prognosis which are easy to obtain. PMID:21614458

Bairey, Osnat; Ruchlemer, Rosa; Rahimi-Levene, Neomy; Herishanu, Yair; Braester, Andre; Berrebi, Alain; Polliack, Aaron; Klepfish, Avraham; Shvidel, Lev



The cellular infiltrate in Hashimoto's disease and focal lymphocytic thyroiditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymphoid cells infiltrating the thyroid in three examples of Hashimoto's disease and three examples of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis have been studied by light and electron microscopy. The cell types found were small lymphocytes, plasma cells and plasmablasts, immunoblasts, and cells morphologically intermediate between immunoblasts and small lymphocytes. The infiltrate was similar in the two conditions studied and resembled the

M. Harris



Expression of CD147 on monocytes\\/macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis: its potential role in monocyte accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocytes\\/macrophages play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. They can activate fibroblasts through many molecules, including IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but there have been very few reports on the role of CD147 in RA. In our study, the results of flow cytometry reveal that the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD147 expression on CD14+ monocytes of peripheral

Ping Zhu; Jin Ding; Jun Zhou; Wei-Jia Dong; Chun-Mei Fan; Zhi-Nan Chen



The effects of alpha tocopherol supplementation on monocyte function. Decreased lipid oxidation, interleukin 1 beta secretion, and monocyte adhesion to endothelium.  

PubMed Central

Low levels of alpha tocopherol are related to a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and increased intake appears to afford protection against cardiovascular disease. In addition to decreasing LDL oxidation, alpha tocopherol may exert intracellular effects on cells crucial in atherogenesis, such as monocytes. Hence, the aim of this study was to test the effect of alpha tocopherol supplementation on monocyte function relevant to atherogenesis. Monocyte function was assessed in 21 healthy subjects at baseline, after 8 wk of supplementation with d-alpha tocopherol (1,200 IU/d) and after a 6-wk washout phase. The release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide), lipid oxidation, release of the potentially atherogenic cytokine, interleukin 1 beta, and monocyte-endothelial adhesion were studied in the resting state and after activation of the monocytes with lipopolysaccharide at 0, 8, and 14 wk. There was a 2.5-fold increase in plasma lipid-standardized and monocyte alpha tocopherol levels in the supplemented phase. After alpha tocopherol supplementation, there were significant decreases in release of reactive oxygen species, lipid oxidation, IL-1 beta secretion, and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, both in resting and activated cells compared with baseline and washout phases. Studies with the protein kinase C inhibitor, Calphostin C, suggest that the inhibition of reactive oxygen species release and lipid oxidation is due to an inhibition of protein kinase C activity by alpha tocopherol. Thus, this study provides novel evidence for an intracellular effect of alpha tocopherol in monocytes that is antiatherogenic. PMID:8698868

Devaraj, S; Li, D; Jialal, I



Serum amyloid A chemoattracts immature dendritic cells and indirectly provokes monocyte chemotaxis by induction of cooperating CC and CXC chemokines.  


Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein that is upregulated in inflammatory diseases and chemoattracts monocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes via its G protein-coupled receptor formyl peptide receptor like 1/formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPRL1/FPR2). Here, we demonstrated that the SAA1? isoform also chemoattracts monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (DCs) in the Boyden and ?-slide chemotaxis assay and that its chemotactic activity for monocytes and DCs was indirectly mediated via rapid chemokine induction. Indeed, SAA1 induced significant amounts (?5 ng/mL) of macrophage inflammatory protein-1?/CC chemokine ligand 3 (MIP-1?/CCL3) and interleukin-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8 (IL-8/CXCL8) in monocytes and DCs in a dose-dependent manner within 3 h. However, SAA1 also directly activated monocytes and DCs for signaling and chemotaxis without chemokine interference. SAA1-induced monocyte migration was nevertheless significantly prevented (60-80% inhibition) in the constant presence of desensitizing exogenous MIP-1?/CCL3, neutralizing anti-MIP-1?/CCL3 antibody, or a combination of CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) and CCR5 antagonists, indicating that this endogenously produced CC chemokine was indirectly contributing to SAA1-mediated chemotaxis. Further, anti-IL-8/CXCL8 antibody neutralized SAA1-induced monocyte migration, suggesting that endogenous IL-8/CXCL8 acted in concert with MIP-1?/CCL3. This explained why SAA1 failed to synergize with exogenously added MIP-1?/CCL3 or stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?)/CXCL12 in monocyte and DC chemotaxis. In addition to direct leukocyte activation, SAA1 induces a chemotactic cascade mediated by expression of cooperating chemokines to prolong leukocyte recruitment to the inflammatory site. PMID:25345597

Gouwy, Mieke; De Buck, Mieke; Pörtner, Noëmie; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Proost, Paul; Struyf, Sofie; Van Damme, Jo



Myxoma viral serpin, Serp-1, inhibits human monocyte adhesion through regulation of actin-binding protein filamin B.  


Serp-1 is a secreted myxoma viral serine protease inhibitor (serpin) with proven, highly effective, anti-inflammatory defensive activity during host cell infection, as well as potent immunomodulatory activity in a wide range of animal disease models. Serp-1 binds urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the tissue-type PA, plasmin, and factor Xa, requiring uPA receptor (uPAR) for anti-inflammatory activity. To define Serp-1-mediated effects on inflammatory cell activation, we examined the association of Serp-1 with monocytes and T cells, effects on cellular migration, and the role of uPAR-linked integrins and actin-binding proteins in Serp-1 cellular responses. Our results show that Serp-1 associates directly with activated monocytes and T lymphocytes, in part through interaction with uPAR (P<0.001). Serp-1, but not mammalian serpin PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), attenuated cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Serp-1 and PAI-1 reduced human monocyte and T cell adhesion (P<0.001) and migration across endothelial monolayers in vitro (P<0.001) and into mouse ascites in vivo (P<0.001). Serp-1 and an inactive Serp-1 mutant Serp-1(SAA) bound equally to human monocytes and T cells, but a highly proinflammatory mutant, Serp-1(Ala(6)), bound less well to monocytes. Serp-1 treatment of monocytes increased expression of filamin B actin-binding protein and reduced CD18 (beta-integrin) expression (P<0.001) in a uPAR-dependent response. Filamin colocalized and co-immunoprecipitated with uPAR, and short interference RNA knock-down of filamin blocked Serp-1 inhibition of monocyte adhesion. We report here that the highly potent, anti-inflammatory activity of Serp-1 is mediated through modification of uPAR-linked beta-integrin and filamin in monocytes, identifying this interaction as a central regulatory axis for inflammation. PMID:19052145

Viswanathan, Kasinath; Richardson, Jakob; Togonu-Bickersteth, Babajide; Dai, Erbin; Liu, Liying; Vatsya, Pracha; Sun, Yun-ming; Yu, Jeff; Munuswamy-Ramanujam, Ganesh; Baker, Henry; Lucas, Alexandra R



Ligation of CD23 triggers cAMP generation and release of inflammatory mediators in human monocytes.  


Transduction through the CD23 molecule (Fc epsilon RII) was analyzed in normal human monocytes using monoclonal antibodies to CD23 (MHM6 and 135) and IgE/anti-IgE immune complexes. Monocytes expressing an increased amount of CD23 molecules were obtained by stimulation with IL-4 (30 U/ml). Anti-CD23 mAb as well as IgE/anti-IgE immune complexes were unable to induce any significant calcium mobilization [Ca2+]i in CD23-bearing monocytes whereas they elicited [Ca2+]i increase in B lymphocytes of the same donors. Despite their failure to induce calcium mobilization, the same CD23 ligands triggered a dose-dependent increase of intracellular cAMP, with a maximum 20 to 30 min after the onset of stimulation. This effect is mediated via CD23 inasmuch as: 1) F(ab)'2 fragments are as active as intact anti-CD23 mAb and 2) it is not observed in CD23- monocytes. The increase in cAMP was only partially altered in the presence of 1 microM indomethacin suggesting that it was not due to the release of PG. The possible role of CD23 in the activation of human monocytes was next documented by showing that anti-CD23 mAb and IgE/anti-IgE immune complexes induced the generation of IL-6 and of thromboxane B2 by CD23+ but not by CD23- monocytes. In addition, the IgE/anti-IgE-induced IL-6 production was potentiated in the presence of cAMP inducer such as the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol. These results indicate that ligation of CD23 induces cAMP generation in CD23+ human monocytes and that CD23 may regulate the IgE-dependent functions in normal human monocytes. PMID:1328391

Paul-Eugene, N; Kolb, J P; Abadie, A; Gordon, J; Delespesse, G; Sarfati, M; Mencia-Huerta, J M; Braquet, P; Dugas, B



Comparison of lymphocyte apoptotic index and qualitative DNA damage in yoga practitioners and breast cancer patients: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background: Yoga is found to be effective in reducing stress levels and radiation-induced DNA damage, and improving the quality of life, in breast cancer patients. The present study was aimed at comparing the apoptotic index (AI) and DNA damage of advanced yoga practitioners with those of breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional pilot study compared three groups (n = 9 each) of age-matched subjects viz. (1) Carcinoma breast patients in stage II or III undergoing radiation therapy after completing three cycles of chemotherapy; (2) Senior yoga practitioners who were practicing asanas, pranayama and meditation daily for more than 10 years; and (3) Normal healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated, and qualitative DNA damage (QDD) and AI were evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Approximately 500 cells were counted in each case. Number of cells that were normal, undergoing apoptosis, and with DNA damage were categorized and percentages were calculated. Results: Data being normally distributed, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant interaction between groups in AI (P = 0.016) and QDD (P = 0.045). On post-hoc analysis using Scheffe test, AI was significantly lower in non-yoga volunteers as compared with the breast cancer group (P = 0.019) and QDD was significantly lower in yoga practitioners when compared with non-yoga volunteers (P = 0.047). Conclusion: Cellular dysfunction (QDD) requires restorative mechanisms (AI) to restore the system to a balance. The results of this pilot study show trends, which indicate that in ill-health, there is inadequate restorative mechanisms (AI) although dysfunction (QDD) is high. Through regular practice of yoga, cellular dysfunction can be lowered, thus necessitating reduced restorative mechanisms. AI and QDD could also be useful indicators for predicting the three zones of health viz. disease, health, and positive health. PMID:23440089

Ram, Amritanshu; Banerjee, Birendranath; Hosakote, Vadiraja S; Rao, Raghavendra M; Nagarathna, Raghuram



Pleiotropic effects of atorvastatin on monocytes in atherosclerotic patients.  


The objective of this study was to investigate the gene expression signature of monocyte/macrophages and the pleiotropic effects of atorvastatin on monocytes in atherosclerotic patients. Forty patients with coronary heart diseases were randomly assigned to double-blind therapy with either 20 or 80 mg per day of atorvastatin. Follow-up visits occurred at weeks 6 and 12, including complete chemistry and lipid analyses and quantification of 14 target genes in monocytes. After 12 weeks of therapy, both groups gained beneficial alterations in lipid profiles. Both groups experienced significant reductions in gene expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, CD13, leptin receptor, matrix metalloproteases-1, legumain, and prolyl oligopeptidase after 12 weeks of therapy. Only tumor protein 53 was increased in the atorvastatin 80-mg group. Moreover, nonsignificant interactions between dosage and duration of therapy were found. The pleiotropic effects of statins in atherosclerotic patients include increased expression of genes involved in apoptosis of monocyte/macrophage, inhibition of inflammatory responses, antioxidant properties, prevention of foam cell formation, and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. This property fuels potential clinical significance. PMID:19808950

Wang, Zhi-hao; Liu, Xiao-lin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Li-ping; Shang, Yuan-yuan; Hu, Xiao-yan; Li, Li; Zhang, Yun; Deng, Jing-ti; Zhang, Wei



[The effects of PEMF on the activation of human monocytes].  


The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the activation of human monocytes (THP-1). Cultured THP-1 cells were exposed to PEMF stimulation with radiation of 32Hz or 64Hz respectively, using sinusoidal wave, and 1mT, twice a day, 30 minutes each time, with an interval of 8 hours, for 3 days. Those with 0Hz stimulation served as the controls. Monocytes activation was monitored by measuring both the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) from monocytes and their adhesion to monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs was evaluated by cell counting method. The secretion of MCP-1 from THP-1 cells was detected by ELISA and MCP-1 mRNA expression was assessed by real time quantitative RT-PCR. The data showed that exposure to PEMF with above parameters could significantly inhibit the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs and decrease the MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. The results demonstrated that exposure to PEMF of 1mT, 32Hz or 64Hz for 3 days could significantly inhibit the activation of THP-1 cells. PMID:23016400

Chen, Xiaoying; Han, Xiaoyu; Wang, Qian; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing



NF?B2/p100 is a key factor for endotoxin tolerance in human monocytes: a demonstration using primary human monocytes from patients with sepsis.  


Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a state of reduced responsiveness to endotoxin stimulation after a primary bacterial insult. This phenomenon has been described in several pathologies, including sepsis, in which an endotoxin challenge results in reduced cytokine production. In this study, we show that the NF? L chain enhancer of activated B cells 2 (NF?B2)/p100 was overexpressed and accumulated in a well-established in vitro human monocyte model of ET. The p100 accumulation in these cells inversely correlated with the inflammatory response after LPS stimulation. Knocking down NF?B2/p100 using small interfering RNA in human monocytes further indicated that p100 expression is a crucial factor in the progression of ET. The monocytes derived from patients with sepsis had high levels of p100, and a downregulation of NF?B2/p100 in these septic monocytes reversed their ET status. PMID:25225662

Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Toledano, Víctor; Esteban-Burgos, Laura; Fernández-Ruíz, Irene; Gómez-Piña, Vanesa; Del Fresno, Carlos; Siliceo, María; Prieto-Chinchiña, Patricia; Pérez de Diego, Rebeca; Boscá, Lisardo; Fresno, Manuel; Arnalich, Francisco; López-Collazo, Eduardo



Response to chronic exposure to hexavalent chromium in human monocytes.  


Elevated circulating levels of metal ions, particularly chromium, have been measured in the blood of patients with metal hip implants, and this has lead to concerns about the long term safety of the prostheses. For example, depletion of lymphocytes has been reported in vivo in patients with metallic prostheses, and correlated with elevated chromium and cobalt concentrations in blood. However, the implications for immune function are unclear. We have assessed the in vitro responses of U937 human monocytes to chronic exposure (4 weeks) to Cr (VI) ions at concentrations which have been measured in patients with metal artificial hip implants (0.05-0.5 microM). Chronic exposure to these low clinically relevant concentrations of Cr (VI) induced a potent adaptive response with elevated glutathione-S-transferase (pi) expression and increased activities and expression of reactive oxygen scavengers, superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Such direct toxicity of Cr ions may contribute to the effects of metal implants on lymphocyte populations in vivo. PMID:19289165

Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Ellis, Elizabeth M; Grant, M Helen



In Vivo Imaging Reveals a Pioneer Wave of Monocyte Recruitment into Mouse Skin Wounds  

PubMed Central

The cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system are essential for the correct healing of adult skin wounds, but their specific functions remain ill-defined. The absence of granulation tissue immediately after skin injury makes it challenging to study the role of mononuclear phagocytes at the initiation of this inflammatory stage. To study their recruitment and migratory behavior within the wound bed, we developed a new model for real-time in vivo imaging of the wound, using transgenic mice that express green and cyan fluorescent proteins and specifically target monocytes. Within hours after the scalp injury, monocytes invaded the wound bed. The complete abrogation of this infiltration in monocyte-deficient CCR2?/? mice argues for the involvement of classical monocytes in this process. Monocyte infiltration unexpectedly occurred as early as neutrophil recruitment did and resulted from active release from the bloodstream toward the matrix through microhemorrhages rather than transendothelial migration. Monocytes randomly scouted around the wound bed, progressively slowed down, and stopped. Our approach identified and characterized a rapid and earlier than expected wave of monocyte infiltration and provides a novel framework for investigating the role of these cells during early stages of wound healing. PMID:25272047

Rodero, Mathieu P.; Licata, Fabrice; Poupel, Lucie; Hamon, Pauline; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Combadiere, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre



Activation of human monocytes via their sIgA receptors.  

PubMed Central

We have studied the interaction of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) derived from human breast milk with human monocytes. The presence of specific sIgA receptors on the monocyte membrane was confirmed by dose-dependent inhibition of E-sIgA rosette formation and by the binding of iodinated sIgA to monocyte monolayers. Binding was dependent on both the number of monocytes, as well as the amount of [125I]sIgA, and could be inhibited by unlabelled sIgA. Incubation of monocyte monolayers in the presence of increasing concentrations of secretory IgA and F(ab')2 anti-IgA resulted in a dose-dependent increase of the oxidative burst, as measured by H2O2 production. Neither sIgA or anti-IgA alone, nor incubation of IgG with anti-IgA, had any effect on the oxidative burst. These studies indicate that human monocytes have a receptor for sIgA and that specific activation of the monocytes occurs via these receptors. PMID:2016119

Padeh, S; Jaffe, C L; Passwell, J H



CD300c is an activating receptor expressed on human monocytes.  


Human CD300 molecules comprise a family of receptors that regulate many immune cell processes. They are mostly expressed on myeloid cells, although expression of two members, CD300a and CD300c, has also been described on lymphocytes. However, due to the lack of specific antibodies that distinguish between these two receptors, it has been difficult to determine the expression pattern and function of CD300a and CD300c in primary cells. Here, we have identified a specific monoclonal antibody, clone TX45, that recognizes only CD300c and show that within freshly isolated blood leukocytes, monocytes are the only cells that express CD300c on the cell surface. In vitro differentiation experiments revealed that CD300c is differentially expressed on different monocyte-derived cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells. Furthermore, TLR ligands LPS and flagellin dynamically regulate the expression of CD300c. Cross-linking of this receptor with clone TX45 monoclonal antibody induced calcium mobilization, upregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and the production of inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, LPS-mediated production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes was further enhanced if CD300c was simultaneously engaged by the agonist antibody. Altogether, our results show that human CD300c is an activating receptor expressed on monocytes and that it has a potential role in inflammatory responses. PMID:23571507

Simhadri, Venkateswara R; Mariano, John L; Gil-Krzewska, Aleksandra; Zhou, Qing; Borrego, Francisco



The generation of NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes: a comparison of different transfer methods.  


Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is responsible for the maintenance and survival of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. The degeneration of cholinergic neurons and reduced acetycholine levels are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as associated with learning and memory deficits. Thus far, NGF has proven the most potent neuroprotective molecule against cholinergic neurodegeneration. However, delivery of this factor into the brain remains difficult. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the potential use of monocytes as vehicles for therapeutic delivery into the brain. In this study, we employed different transfection and transduction methods to generate NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes. Specifically, we compared five methods for generating NGF-secreting monocytes: (1) cationic lipid-mediated transfection (Effectene and FuGene), (2) classical electroporation, (3) nucleofection, (4) protein delivery (Bioporter) and (5) lentiviral vectors. Here, we report that classical transfection methods (lipid-mediated transfection, electroporation, nucleofection) are inefficient tools for proper gene transfer into primary rat monocytes. We demonstrate that lentiviral infection and Bioporter can successfully transduce/load primary rat monocytes and produce effective NGF secretion. Furthermore, our results indicate that NGF is bioactive and that Bioporter-loaded monocytes do not appear to exhibit any functional disruptions (i.e. in their ability to differentiate and phagocytose beta-amyloid). Taken together, our results show that primary monocytes can be effectively loaded or transduced with NGF and provides information on the most effective method for generating NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes. This study also provides a basis for further development of primary monocytes as therapeutic delivery vehicles to the diseased AD brain. PMID:23474426

Hohsfield, Lindsay A; Geley, Stephan; Reindl, Markus; Humpel, Christian



Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)



Response of lymphocytes to a mitogenic stimulus during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several studies were performed that demonstrate that immunological activities of lymphocytes can be affected by spaceflight or by models that attempt to simulate some aspects of weightlessness. Included among these are the responses of lymphocytes to external stimuli such as mitogens and viruses. When cultures of lymphocytes were flown in space, the ability of the lymphocytes to respond to mitogens was inhibited. Similar results were obtained when lymphocytes from astronauts or animals just returned from space were placed into culture immediately upon return to earth, and when models of hypogravity were used. Lymphocytes placed in culture during spaceflights produced enhanced levels of interferon compared to control cultures. When cultures of lymphocytes were prepared for cosmonauts or rodents immediately upon return to earth, interferon production was inhibited. These results suggest that space flight can have profound effects on lymphocyte function, and that effects on isolated cells may be different from that on cells in the whole organism.

Sonnenfeld, Gerald



Human Monocytes Infected with Yersinia pestis Express Cell Surface TLR9 and Differentiate into Dendritic Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

TLR9 recognizes DNA sequences containing hypomethylated CpG motifs and is a component of the innate immune system highly conserved during eukaryotic evolution. Previous reports suggested that the expression of TLR9 is restricted to plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B lymphocytes. Our results indicate that low levels of TLR9 are present on the cell surface of freshly isolated human monocytes, and expression

Kamal U. Saikh; Teri L. Kissner; Afroz Sultana; Gordon Ruthel; Robert G. Ulrich


Reduced constitutive cytokine transcription in isolated monocytes of clinically healthy cats, infected with an FIV strain of low pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five barrier-maintained cats had been experimentally infected for 9.5 months with an FIV strain of low pathogenicity, FIV Zurich 2. Animals were clinically healthy and did not exhibit any haematological changes. FIV proviral DNA was demonstrated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of all cats and in monocytes of most animals, identifying FIV Zurich 2 as a both lympho- and monocytotropic strain.

A. Kipar; F. S. Boretti; M. M. Meli; K. Failing; M. Reinacher; H. Lutz



Ursolic Acid Protects Diabetic Mice Against Monocyte Dysfunction and Accelerated Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Aims Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major diabetic complication initiated by the enhanced recruitment of monocytes into the vasculature. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of the phytonutrients ursolic acid (UA) and resveratrol (RES) in preventing monocyte recruitment and accelerated atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Dietary supplementation with either RES or UA (0.2%) protected against accelerated atherosclerosis induced by streptozotocin in high-fat diet-fed LDL receptor-deficient mice. However, mice that received dietary UA for 11 weeks were significantly better protected and showed a 53% reduction in lesion formation while mice fed a RES-supplemented diet showed only a 31% reduction in lesion size. Importantly, UA was also significantly more effective in preventing the appearance of proinflammatory GR-1high monocytes induced by these diabetic conditions and reducing monocyte recruitment into MCP-1-loaded Matrigel plugs implanted into these diabetic mice. Oxidatively-stressed THP-1 monocytes mimicked the behavior of blood monocytes in diabetic mice and showed enhanced responsiveness to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) without changing MCP-1 receptor (CCR2) surface expression. Pretreatment of THP-1 monocytes with RES or UA (0.3 – 10 ?M) for 15 h resulted in the dose-dependent inhibition of H2O2-accelerated chemotaxis in response to MCP-1, but with an IC50 of 0.4 ?M, UA was 2.7-fold more potent than RES. Conclusion Dietary UA is a potent inhibitor of monocyte dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis induced by diabetes. These studies identify ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetic complications, including accelerated atherosclerosis, and provide a novel mechanism for the anti-atherogenic properties of ursolic acid. PMID:21752377

Ullevig, Sarah L.; Zhao, Qingwei; Zamora, Debora; Asmis, Reto



Detection and quantification methods of monocyte homing in coronary vasculature with an imaging cryomicrotome.  


Cellular imaging modalities are important for revealing the behavior and role of monocytes in response to neovascularization progression in coronary artery disease. In this study we aimed to develop methods for high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging and quantification of monocytes relative to the entire coronary artery network using a novel episcopic imaging modality. In a series of ex vivo experiments, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and CD14+ monocytes were labeled with fluorescent live cell tracker probes and infused into the coronary artery network of excised rat hearts by a Langendorff perfusion method. Coronary arteries were subsequently infused with fluorescent vascular cast material and processed with an imaging cryomicrotome, whereby each heart was consecutively cut (5 ?m slice thickness) and block face imaged at appropriate excitation and emission wavelengths. The resulting image stacks yielded 3D reconstructions of the vascular network and the location of cells administered. Successful detection and quantification of single cells and cell clusters were achieved relative to the coronary network using customized particle detection software. These methods were then applied to an in vivo rabbit model of chronic myocardial ischemia in which autologous monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, labeled with a fluorescent live cell tracker probe and re-infused into the host animal. The processed 3D image stacks revealed homing of monocytes to the ischemic myocardial tissue. Monocytes detected in the ischemic tissue were predominantly concentrated in the mid-myocardium. Vessel segmentation identified coronary collateral connections relative to monocyte localization. This study established a novel imaging platform to efficiently determine the localization of monocytes in relation to the coronary microvascular network. These techniques are invaluable for investigating the role of monocyte populations in the progression of coronary neovascularization in animal models of chronic and sub-acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:25179912

Hakimzadeh, Nazanin; van Horssen, Pepijn; van Lier, Monique G J T B; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M; Belterman, Charly; Coronel, Ruben; Piek, Jan J; Verberne, Hein J; Spaan, Jos A E; Siebes, Maria



Increased miR-21 expression during human monocyte differentiation into DCs.  


Differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DCs) is characterised by marked changes in gene expression. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs), a new class of small endogenous non-coding regulatory RNAs, in this process is still unclear. We identified miR-223, miR-16, miR-191, miR-24, let-7b, and miR-21 as differentially expressed between monocytes and monocyte derived DCs. We evaluated the expression levels of computationally predicted target genes of miR-21 in human monocytes following stimulation with GM-CSF and IL-4. Moreover, transfection of monocytes with synthetic miR-21 inhibited the expression of a set of genes that were also repressed during monocyte differentiation to DCs in response to GM-CSF and IL-4. Among these, we identified genes that are involved in cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation such as PDE4B, PDCD4, ANXA1, ING3, STAG2, TGFBI, S100A12, LAT2 and NRIP1. Collectively, the present study highlights the involvement of miRNAs, particularly miR-21 in monocyte differentiation to DCs and identifies potential miR-21 target genes. PMID:20515755

Cekaite, Lina; Clancy, Trevor; Sioud, Mouldy



Use of phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes to study effects of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) deficiency on polynucleotide and protein synthesis in the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.  


The incorporation of [14C]thymidine and [14C]uridine into the nucleoprotein, and [14C]phenylalanine into the protein by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated lymphocytes from a patient with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome [hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (EC HGPRT) deficiency] and controls, was studied over 72 hours of incubation, with and without azaserine to block de novo purine biosynthesis. No difference was observed between the values obtained for Lesch-Nyhan and control lymphocytes, when PHA-stimulated without added azaserine. The percentage reduction in the incorporation of precursors into nucleoprotein and protein after PHA stimulation in the presence of azaserine was more obvious in the lymphocytes of the patient with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome than in the controls after the shorter incubation periods at the lower rates of synthesis. Blocking the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway, in control PHA stimulated lymphocytes, inhibited transformation, whereas loss of the purine salvage enzyme HGPRT did not have this effect. These results are compatible with the view that the brain and bone-marrow damage that occur in the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome are the result of lack of HGPRT in tissues with little de novo purine biosynthetic capability. Other tissues with both pruine biosynthetic and salvage pathways are less vulnerable to the enzyme defect. Some possible mechanisms by which HGPRT deficiency could act are discussed. We suggest that inability to increase the supply of guanylic acid (GMP) in response to a mitotic stimulus may mediate the effect of HGPRT deficiency. PMID:933118

McKeran, R O; Watts, R W



Preliminary studies of the effects of psychological stress on circulating lymphocytes analyzed by synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychological stress is a condition that not only generates behavioral disorders but also disrupts homeostasis and immune activity that can exacerbate or lead to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this work was to study biochemical changes in circulating immune cells from rats under psychological stress by using vibrational spectroscopy. A stress model was used, where exposure to a stressor was repeated for 5 days. Subsequently, circulating lymphocytes were examined for their biomolecular vibrational fingerprints with synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed an increased absorption at the ester lipid region (1720-1755 cm-1) in lymphocytes from stressed rats, suggesting lipid peroxidation. Statistical significant changes in wavenumber peak position and absorbance in the nucleic acid region were also observed (915-950 cm-1 Z-DNA, 1090-1150 cm-1 symmetric stretching of Psbnd Osbnd C, 1200-1260 cm-1 asymmetric PO2 and 1570-1510 cm-1 methylated nucleotides) which suggest a reduction of transcriptional activity in lymphocytes from stressed rat. These results unravel part of the mechanisms by which psychological stress may affect the immune system leading to systemic consequences.

Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Mejia-Carmona, Gloria Erika; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Cotte, Marine; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro



Polyamines in lymphocyte activation  

SciTech Connect

New features of polyamine metabolism have been identified in both the acid-soluble and the acid-insoluble fraction of activated murine splenic lymphocytes. Lymphocytes activated by the B cell mitogen LPS and simultaneously exposed to either 3H-putrescine or /sup 3/H-spermidine show a differential level of metabolism of the two radioactive polyamines. The percent uptake of isotope from the medium is the same for either putrescine or spermidine during the 48 hour activation period. Intracellularly, only 12% of the label take up as putrescine remains as putrescine and the rest is primarily metabolized to spermidine (47%) and spermine (22%). By contrast, 69% of the initial radioactive spermidine remains as spermidine, again a similar percentage is metabolized to spermine (22%), and a small amount appears as putrescine (2.5%). In these studies the authors have demonstrated the presence of two new small radioactive conjugates (5-7%). Radioactive spermidine is 3 times more effective than radioactive putrescine as a precursor of label in acid-insoluble material. Acid-insoluble label derived from putrescine represents 1.8% of the total cell-associated radioactivity whereas that derived from spermidine is 6.0%. HPLC molecular sieving reveals three distinct radioactive macromolecules.

Canellakis, Z.N.; Marsh, L.L.; Bondy, P.K.



Lenalidomide and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Asymptomatic Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma



Selective proliferation of natural killer cells among monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a result of stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B.  

PubMed Central

In vitro stimulation of monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) resulted in selective proliferation of cells which express the phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells. This culture system provides an easy method for obtaining highly purified NK cells, by sequential incubation of monocyte-depleted cells with SEB and then with interleukin-2 (IL-2). After culture for 4 to 5 days in the presence of SEB, 98 to 100% of the cells expressed the CD16 (Leu11) and HNK-1 (Leu19) antigens. This purification occurred through the death of lymphocytes lacking NK cell markers and marked proliferation of NK cells themselves, which leads to an enrichment of the NK cell population. Activation of NK cells was detected by the appearance of the gamma interferon receptor and IL-2 receptor antigens. This homogeneous population showed the morphology of large granular lymphocytes, were potent effectors of cell-mediated cytotoxicity against K562 and Daudi tumor cell lines, and were able to kill gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. IL-2 was necessary to maintain the activation and proliferation after SEB stimulation for 4 days. Moreover, the maximum frequency of binding to K562 cells (60.6%) was similar to that recently found (58 +/- 3%) (P. Garcia-Peñarrubia, F. T. Koster, and A. D. Bankhurst, J. Immunol. Methods 118:199-208, 1989) with fresh and highly purified NK cells. This method can be used as a source of highly purified NK cells to study their functional properties and applications to the treatment of cancer. Images PMID:2731983

Garcia-Peñarrubia, P; Lennon, M P; Koster, F T; Kelley, R O; Bankhurst, A D



Interleukin-8 secretion of human epithelial and monocytic cell lines induced by middle ear pathogens.  


Otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the most common diseases in children. Alloiococcus otitidis, a new gram-positive bacterial species, was isolated from the middle ear fluid of children with OME; however, the pathogenic role of this bacteria is yet unknown. In this study, the ability of cultured epithelial cell lines (Hep-2 and Hela) and monocytic cell lines (THP-1 and U 937) to secrete chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) in response to the A. otitidis organism and three bacterial organisms mainly detected from middle ear fluid in OME, and bacterial cell components was investigated. When stimulated with four viable bacterial cells, epithelial cells and monocytes secreted IL-8 in a time-dependent manner. The monocytes produced significantly higher levels of IL-8 than the epithelial cells. Compared with that by viable bacterial cells, IL-8 secretion by stimulated epithelial cells and monocytes was reduced when the bacteria were heated and treated with glutaraldehyde. With bacterial stimulations, cell treatment of interferon-gamma caused monocytes to increase the induction of IL-8 production, however, the induction of monocyte differentiation caused monocytes to reduce the induction of IL-8 production. Furthermore, epithelial cells and monocytes stimulated by four viable bacterial organisms physically separated from cultured cells reduced the induction of IL-8 compared with directly stimulated cells, and monocytes stimulated with soluble extracts prepared from A. otitidis organisms produced IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that part of the IL-8 stimulation of the A. otitidis organism may exist in a diffusable factor released by the bacteria or soluble components of the bacteria itself. PMID:10941934

Kita, H; Himi, T; Fujii, N; Ylikoski, J



New therapy via targeting androgen receptor in monocytes/macrophages to battle atherosclerosis.  


The male sex has a higher risk to develop coronary artery diseases, including atherosclerosis. The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in several atherosclerosis-associated cell types, including monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells (ECs), and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but its pathophysiological role in each cell type during the development of atherosclerotic lesions remains unclear. Using the Cre-loxP system, we selectively knocked out AR in these 3 cell types and the resultant AR knockout (ARKO) mice, monocyte/macrophage ARKO, EC-ARKO, and SMC-ARKO, were then crossed with the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice to develop monocyte/macrophage ARKO-LDLR(-/-), EC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-), and SMC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice for the study of atherosclerosis. The results showed that the monocyte/macrophage ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice had reduced atherosclerosis compared with the wild-type-LDLR(-/-) control mice. However, no significant difference was detected in EC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-) and SMC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice compared with wild-type-LDLR(-/-) mice, suggesting that the AR in monocytes/macrophages, and not in ECs and SMCs, plays a major role to promote atherosclerosis. Molecular mechanism dissection suggested that AR in monocytes/macrophages upregulated the tumor necrosis factor-?, integrin ?2, and lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 molecules that are involved in 3 major inflammation-related processes in atherosclerosis, including monocytes/macrophages migration and adhesion to human umbilical vein ECs, and subsequent foam cell formation. Targeting AR via the AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, in wild-type-LDLR(-/-) mice showed similar effects as seen in monocyte/macrophage ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice with little influence on lipid profile. In conclusion, the AR in monocytes/macrophages plays key roles in atherosclerosis and targeting AR with ASC-J9 may represent a new potential therapeutic approach to battle atherosclerosis. PMID:24688120

Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Pang, Haiyan; Wang, Lin; Niu, Yuanjie; Luo, Jie; Chang, Eugene; Sparks, Janet D; Lee, Soo Ok; Chang, Chawnshang



Alvocidib in Treating Patients With B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma



Characterization of a human blood monocyte subset with low peroxidase activity.  

PubMed Central

Two human monocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of healthy donors have been isolated in greater than 90% purity by countercurrent centrifugal elutration and human serum albumin gradients and their functional capabilities have been assessed. We have demonstrated that one subset ("regular" monocytes, RM) showed intense cytoplasmic peroxidase staining and contained substantial peroxidase activity. In contrast, another subset ("intermediate" monocytes, IM) stained poorly for peroxidase and had low peroxidase activity. By electron microscopic analysis combined with peroxidase localization, it was found that IM had fewer peroxidase-positive granules per cell than did RM. IM coelutriated with some lymphocytes and by cell sizing analysis were shown to be slightly smaller than RM. Functional and cytochemical analysis of these subsets indicated that IM had less activity than RM in assays such as accessory cell function for mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and that fewer IM expressed OKM1 antigen and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) receptors on their membranes than did RM. The subset of IM not bearing either the PWM receptor or the OKM1 antigen had very low peroxidase activity. IM also were found to have a greater sensitivity to polyriboinosinic and polyribocytidilic acid (100 micrograms/ml)-induced secretion of interferon. There was no significant difference in the phagocytic capability, the percentage of Fc receptor-positive cells, 5'-nucleotidase activity, DR antigen expression, or the responsiveness to migration inhibitory factor of IM as compared with RM. Furthermore, it was found that the ratio of IM to RM increased after prolonged cytapheresis, which suggests that IM are more mobilizable than RM from the extravascular reservoirs of human monocytes. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:6193141

Akiyama, Y; Miller, P J; Thurman, G B; Neubauer, R H; Oliver, C; Favilla, T; Beman, J A; Oldham, R K; Stevenson, H C



Factors Secreted by Untreated Psoriatic Monocytes Enhance Neutrophil Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocytes stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) release mediators that induce increased responses of human granulocytes. Recently we showed that psoriatic monocytes can stimulate neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and O2? production without addition of LPS and this effect is inhibited by cyclosporin A. We have now investigated the presence of cytokines in supernatants from cultures of psoriatic monocytes (resting monocytes). These cells

Paolo Daniele Pigatto; Laura Bersani Pigatto; Andrea Bigardi; Gianfranco Altomare; Aldo Fabrizio Finzi



Phosphatidylinositol response and proliferation of oxidative enzyme-activated human T lymphocytes: suppression by plasma lipoproteins  

SciTech Connect

The phosphatidylinositol (PI) response and DNA synthesis of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase (NAGO)-stimulated human T lymphocytes are suppressed by low density lipoproteins (LDL). To understand the mechanism of lymphocyte activation more fully, the PI response and DNA synthesis and suppression of these events by LDL in NAGO-stimulated T lymphocytes were characterized. Between 30 min and 6 hr after NAGO stimulation, there was an increase of /sup 32/Pi incorporation into PI without increased incorporation into the phosphorylated forms of PI or into other phospholipids. DNA synthesis as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation depended on the lymphocyte-accessory monocyte ratio and total cell density. Optimal stimulation of the PI response and DNA synthesis occurred at the same concentration of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase. While the PI response was only partially suppressed by LDL with optimal suppression at 10 to 20 micrograms of protein/ml, DNA synthesis was completely suppressed although at much higher LDL concentrations, greater than 100 micrograms protein/ml. As monocyte numbers are increased, LDL suppression of DNA synthesis is decreased. The ability of NAGO to stimulate the PI response and DNA synthesis in a similar way, and the suppression of both events by LDL, suggests the PI response is important for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Stimulation of human T lymphocytes by oxidative mitogens, neuraminidase, and galactose oxidase caused increased phosphatidylinositol metabolism and increased DNA synthesis. Both responses were suppressed by low density lipoproteins.

Akeson, A.L.; Scupham, D.W.; Harmony, J.A.



Morphological studies of peripheral blood cells of the Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripheral blood cells of one-year-old Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) have been studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The erythrocyte count was 84.86 × 104 cell mm?3 in the peripheral blood of the fish and that of leukocytes was 2.24 × 104 cell mm?3. The erythrocytes and four main types of leucocyte—thrombocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes (including neutrophils and eosinophils),\\u000a and monocytes, were identified in the peripheral blood.

Gao Zexia; Wang Weimin; Yang Yi; Khalid Abbas; Li Dapeng; Zou Guiwei; James S. Diana



Mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin production by chronic lymphocytic leukaemic lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

The capacity of B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) to produce and secrete immunoglobulin following mitogen stimulation was investigated using sensitive radioimmunoassays for mu, gamma, alpha, kappa, and lambda immunoglobulin chains. Lymphocytes from seven of the 11 patients studied secreted immunoglobulin in response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). IgM was always the major immunoglobulin and in five of the seven responders it was the only class detected; only one type of light chain was observed in most cases. This was in contrast to normal lymphocytes which secreted all classes of immunoglobulin (IgM was invariably the lowest) containing both types of light chain. Lipopolysaccharide induced immunoglobulin secretion in only one of four CLL cases. This was again IgM with only one type of light chain. The assays are therefore most probably measuring a response by the leukaemic cells. In most CLL cases, immunoglobulin secretion by the residual normal cells, which proliferate in response to mitogen, was not observed. This inability of the normal lymphocytes to differentiate fully into immunoglobulin secreting cells and the block in switching from IgM production to other classes in the leukaemic cells may both be attributable to a defect in the regulatory system of the immune response in CLL patients. PMID:6805990

Johnstone, A P; Jensenius, J C; Millard, R E; Hudson, L



Lymphocyte compartments in human spleen. An immunohistologic study in normal spleens and uninvolved spleens in Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed Central

A panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against T and B lymphocyte antigens was used to analyze the presence and localization of several lymphocyte subsets in 13 normal human spleens (3 of newborns) and 17 uninvolved spleens of patients with Hodgkin's disease. The distribution of cells in the white pulp corresponded with findings in other secondary lymphoid organs, except for the presence of a marginal zone, a unique compartment localized at the border of white and red pulp. The phenotype of the marginal zone cells indicates that it is likely that the marginal zone contains nonrecirculating as well as recirculating B cells, while T cells (of the T helper type) are also represented. Therefore, the notion that marginal zone cells are nonrecirculating IgM+, IgD- cells, appears to be an oversimplification. No clear differences were observed between spleens of patients with and without Hodgkin's disease. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:3898859

Timens, W.; Poppema, S.



What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?  


... years. But chronic leukemias are generally harder to cure than acute leukemias. What is a lymphocytic leukemia? Whether leukemia is myeloid or lymphocytic depends on which bone marrow cells the cancer starts in. Lymphocytic leukemias (also known as lymphoid ...


Study from MD Anderson and Ohio State finds B cell receptor inhibitor causes remission in chronic lymphocytic leukemia:

A new, targeted approach to treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has produced durable remissions in a Phase I/II clinical trial for patients with relapsed or resistant disease, investigators report at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology... The agent, called PCI-32765, is the first drug designed to target Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation.


MD Anderson study finds weekly dose reduces a targeted drug's side effects but not its activity against acute lymphocytic leukemia

A potent chemotherapy agent wrapped within a monoclonal antibody selectively destroys the malignant cells responsible for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in either weekly or monthly dosing, researchers report at the 54th ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition. This "Trojan horse" assault on the cancer cells has significantly increased the response rate among patients with ALL, and now an MD Anderson Cancer Center clinical trial finds that weekly dosing works well and reduces side effects.


CD14+ Blood Monocytes can Differentiate into Functionally Mature CD83+ Dendritic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells that initiate primary immune responses. Although dendritic cells derive from bone marrow stem cells, the intermediate stages in their development remain unknown. In this study, plastic-adherent blood monocytes (CD14+, CD1a-) cultured for 7 days with granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin 4, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were shown to differentiate into CD1a+ CD83+ dendritic cells.

Liang-Ji Zhou; Thomas F. Tedder



Intracellular signals triggered during association of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with human monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain a better understanding of mycobacteria–host cell interaction, the present study compared the signal transduction events triggered during the interaction of Mycobacterium leprae (the causative agent of leprosy) and of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (an attenuated strain used as a vaccine against leprosy and tuberculosis) with human monocytes. The assays consisted of pre-treating or not THP-1 cells (a human monocytic

C. S. Lima; M. L. Ribeiro; L. A. Souza; A. B. Sardella; V. M. A. Wolf; M. C. V. Pessolani



IL18 gene polymorphisms affect IL18 production capability by monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated a significant association between IL-18 gene polymorphism 105A\\/C and asthma. In this study, we investigated the relationship of IL-18 gene polymorphism to IL-18 production capability by monocytes. The frequency of gene polymorphisms including IL-18-105A\\/C and IL-18-?137G\\/C was determined by PCR analyses. The IL-18 production by monocytes stimulated without or with LPS or A23187+PMA for 1day was measured

Junsuke Arimitsu; Toru Hirano; Shinji Higa; Mari Kawai; Tetsuji Naka; Atsushi Ogata; Yoshihito Shima; Minoru Fujimoto; Tomoki Yamadori; Keisuke Hagiwara; Tomoharu Ohgawara; Yusuke Kuwabara; Ichiro Kawase; Toshio Tanaka



Gene expression results in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes depend significantly on the choice of reference genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes is mainly studied by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) using GAPDH (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) or ACTB (beta-actin) as reference gene for normalization. Expression of traditional reference genes has been shown to vary substantially under certain conditions leading to invalid results. To investigate whether traditional reference genes are stably expressed in LPS-stimulated monocytes

Armin P. Piehler; Runa M. Grimholt; Reidun Øvstebø; Jens P. Berg



Enhanced expression of monocyte tissue factor in patients with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Previous studies have shown that cirrhotic patients produce increased amounts of thrombin but the underlying mechanism is still unknown.Aims—To analyse the relation between the rate of thrombin generation and monocyte expression of tissue factor (TF) in cirrhosis.Patients—Thirty three cirrhotic patients classified as having low (n=7), moderate (n=17), or severe (n=9) liver failure according to Child-Pugh criteria.Methods—Prothrombin fragment F1+2, monocyte TF

M Saliola; R Lorenzet; D Ferro; S Basili; C Caroselli; A Di Santo; M Sallese; F Violi



Monocyte and macrophage regulation of pulmonary fibrosis   

E-print Network

In this thesis I examined the role of circulating monocytes and lung macrophages in the pathogenesis of the early fibrotic, progressive fibrotic and resolution phases of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis with ...

Gibbons, Michael A.



Serum suppression of lymphocyte activation in vitro in acquired immunodeficiency disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from nine men and one woman having the recently described acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AID) were studied for effects on healthy control lymphocyte activationin vitro by two T-lymphocyte activators, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and allogeneic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) reaction. Selected sera were also tested for blocking of endogenous natural killer (NK) activity against the K562 tumor target.

Susanna Cunningham-Rundles; Mary Ann Michelis; Henry Masur



Studies of Vascular Permeability Factor derived from T Lymphocytes and Inhibitory Effect of Plasma on Its Production in Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral T lymphocytes from patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and controls were treated for their ability to produce vascular permeability factors (VPF) without concanavalin A stimulation. In vitro cultures of T lymphocytes from active MCNS produced VPF in the supernatant, whereas T lymphocytes from inactive MCNS or normal subjects did not. Furthermore, the plasma from patients with active

S. Tomizawa; K. Maruyama; N. Nagasawa; S. Suzuki; T. Kuroume



Proteomic profiling of lymphocytes in autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer  

PubMed Central

Lymphocytes play important roles in the balance between body defense and noxious agents involved in a number of diseases, e.g. autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer. The proteomic analyses have been applied to identify and validate disease-associated and disease-specific biomarkers for therapeutic strategies of diseases. The proteomic profiles of lymphocytes may provide more information to understand their functions and roles in the development of diseases, although proteomic approaches in lymphocytes are still limited. The present review overviewed the proteomics-based studies on lymphocytes to headlight the proteomic profiles of lymphocytes in diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer, with a special focus on lung diseases. We will explore the potential significance of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets from the current status in proteomic studies of lymphocytes and discuss the value of the currently available proteomic methodologies in the lymphocytes research. PMID:24397796



Supportive Care for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  


... lymphocytic leukemia Radiation therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Leukapheresis for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Supportive care for chronic ... treatment information about chronic lymphocytic leukemia Previous Topic Leukapheresis for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Next Topic Stem cell ...


Regulation of epithelial and lymphocyte cell adhesion by adenosine deaminase-CD26 interaction.  

PubMed Central

The extra-enzymic function of cell-surface adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme mainly localized in the cytosol but also found on the cell surface of monocytes, B cells and T cells, has lately been the subject of numerous studies. Cell-surface ADA is able to transduce co-stimulatory signals in T cells via its interaction with CD26, an integral membrane protein that acts as ADA-binding protein. The aim of the present study was to explore whether ADA-CD26 interaction plays a role in the adhesion of lymphocyte cells to human epithelial cells. To meet this aim, different lymphocyte cell lines (Jurkat and CEM T) expressing endogenous, or overexpressing human, CD26 protein were tested in adhesion assays to monolayers of colon adenocarcinoma human epithelial cells, Caco-2, which express high levels of cell-surface ADA. Interestingly, the adhesion of Jurkat and CEM T cells to a monolayer of Caco-2 cells was greatly dependent on CD26. An increase by 50% in the cell-to-cell adhesion was found in cells containing higher levels of CD26. Incubation with an anti-CD26 antibody raised against the ADA-binding site or with exogenous ADA resulted in a significant reduction (50-70%) of T-cell adhesion to monolayers of epithelial cells. The role of ADA-CD26 interaction in the lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion appears to be mediated by CD26 molecules that are not interacting with endogenous ADA (ADA-free CD26), since SKW6.4 (B cells) that express more cell-surface ADA showed lower adhesion than T cells. Adhesion stimulated by CD26 and ADA is mediated by T cell lymphocyte function-associated antigen. A role for ADA-CD26 interaction in cell-to-cell adhesion was confirmed further in integrin activation assays. FACS analysis revealed a higher expression of activated integrins on T cell lines in the presence of increasing amounts of exogenous ADA. Taken together, these results suggest that the ADA-CD26 interaction on the cell surface has a role in lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion. PMID:11772392

Ginés, Silvia; Mariño, Marta; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Morimoto, Chikao; Callebaut, Christian; Hovanessian, Ara; Casadó, Vicent; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael



Glycodelin A, an immunomodulatory protein in the endometrium, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in monocytic cells.  


Glycodelin A (GdA), is a lipocalin with an immunomodulatory role, secreted by the endometrium under progesterone regulation and proposed to play a role in protecting the fetus from maternal immune attack. Glycodelin A has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of T cells and B cells and also on the activity of natural killer cells. We have earlier demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of glycodelin A on T cell proliferation is due to apoptosis induced in these cells through the caspase-dependent intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Studies reported until now have shown that glycodelin modulates the adaptive immune responses. We, therefore, decided to look at its effect, if any, on the innate immune system. The effect of glycodelin on monocytes was studied using human monocytic cell lines, THP1 and U937, and primary human monocytes as model systems. We demonstrated that glycodelin inhibited the proliferation of THP1 and U937 and induced apoptosis in these cells as well as in primary monocytes. We found that this signaling was caspase-independent but followed the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. No effect of glycodelin was seen on the phagocytic ability of monocytes post-differentiation into macrophages. These observations suggest that, at the fetomaternal interface, glycodelin plays a protective role by deleting the monocytes that could become pro-inflammatory. Importantly, leaving the macrophages untouched to carry on with efficient clearance of the apoptotic cells. PMID:18996219

Alok, Anshula; Mukhopadhyay, Debaditya; Karande, Anjali A



Monocyte recruitment to endothelial cells in response to oscillatory shear stress  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte recruitment to endothelial cells is a critical event in inflammatory responses. The spatial, temporal gradients of shear stress, topology, and outcome of cellular interactions that underlie these responses have so far been inferred from static imaging of tissue sections or studies of statically cultured cells. In this report, we developed micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, comparable to a single endothelial cell (EC) in size, to link real-time shear stress with monocyte/EC binding kinetics in a complex flow environment, simulating the moving and unsteady separation point at the arterial bifurcation with high spatial and temporal resolution. In response to oscillatory shear stress (?) at ± 2.6 dyn/cm2 at a time-averaged shear stress (?ave) = 0 and 0.5 Hz, individual monocytes displayed unique to-and-fro trajectories undergoing rolling, binding, and dissociation with other monocyte, followed by solid adhesion on EC. Our study quantified individual monocyte/EC binding kinetics in terms of displacement and velocity profiles. Oscillatory flow induces up-regulation of adhesion molecules and cytokines to mediate monocyte/EC interactions over a dynamic range of shear stress ± 2.6 dyn/cm2 (P= 0.50, n= 10).—Hsiai, T. K., Cho, S. K., Wong, P. K., Ing, M., Salazar, A., Sevanian, A., Navab, M., Demer, L. L., Ho, C.-M. Monocyte recruitment to endothelial cells in response to oscillatory shear stress. FASEB J. 17, 1648–1657 (2003) PMID:12958171

Hsiai, Tzung K.; Cho, Sung K.; Wong, Pak K.; Ing, Mike; Salazar, Adler; Sevanian, Alex; Navab, Mohamad; Demer, Linda L.; Ho, Chih-Ming



The CD14+CD16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity and Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium vivax Malaria  

PubMed Central

Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax–infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14+CD16? (classical), CD14+CD16+ (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16+ (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16+ cells, in particular the CD14+CD16+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14+CD16+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-? and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14+CD16+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection. PMID:25233271

Antonelli, Lis R. V.; Leoratti, Fabiana M. S.; Costa, Pedro A. C.; Rocha, Bruno C.; Diniz, Suelen Q.; Tada, Mauro S.; Pereira, Dhelio B.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.



Monocyte migration into the subendothelial space of a coculture of adult human aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed Central

Human aortic endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) were isolated and used to form a multilayer of EC-SMC separated by a layer of collagen. SMC and/or collagen layers exerted minimal effects on Na+ transport but impeded the transport of LDL. The presence of an endothelial monolayer markedly reduced the transport of Na+ and LDL. When monocytes were presented to the complete coculture, in the absence of added chemoattractant, one monocyte entered the subendothelial space for every one to three EC present. In contrast, neither collagen nor SMC plus collagen nor EC plus collagen induced comparable monocyte migration. Despite massive migration of monocytes into the coculture, no significant alteration in Na+ transport was observed. LDL transport into the preparation during massive monocyte migration increased modestly, but this was far less than the amount of LDL transported in the absence of an endothelial monolayer. We conclude that (a) the endothelial monolayer was the principal permeability barrier, (b) a substantial migration of monocytes occurred in the absence of added chemoattractant when both EC and SMC were present in the coculture, (c) endothelial barrier function was largely maintained after monocyte migration; and (d) these experiments indicate the need to study all three cell types (monocytes, EC, and SMC) together to understand the complex interactions that occur between these cells. Images PMID:3198759

Navab, M; Hough, G P; Stevenson, L W; Drinkwater, D C; Laks, H; Fogelman, A M



Cytokine modulated cell-membrane bound tumour necrosis factor expression is associated with enhanced monocyte-mediated killing of human leukaemic targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines such as interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activate monocytes both in vitro and in vivo. We therefore studied whether the anti-leukaemic activity of monocytes could be augmented by IL-3 alone or in combination with GM-CSF. Using normal human monocytes stimulated with IL-3, GM-CSF, LPS or combinations of growth factor and LPS, we studied their cytotoxic activity against

Marc A. Williams; Adrian C. Newland; Stephen M. Kelsey



VLA-4 integrin can mediate CD11/CD18-independent transendothelial migration of human monocytes.  

PubMed Central

The migration of human monocytes across unactivated and activated human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVE) in response to chemotactic factors was studied, and the adhesion molecules involved were characterized. Migration of blood monocytes or U937 cell line-derived monocytes across unactivated HUVE induced by C5a, was partially inhibited (by 75%) by mAbs (R15.7 or 60.3) to CD18 of the CD11/CD18 complex on the monocyte. However, when the HUVE was pretreated for 5 h with IL-1 alpha (0.1 ng/ml), TNF-alpha (100 U/ml), or LPS (1 ng/ml), migration induced by C5a was no longer inhibited; i.e., migration became CD18 independent. The monocyte CD18-independent migration was completely blocked by mAbs against alpha 4 or beta 1 integrin chains of VLA-4. This migration was also partially inhibited by mAbs against vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a major counter-receptor on HUVE for VLA-4, but not by mAbs to E-selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The significant CD18-independent migration across "unactivated" HUVE was also inhibited by mAbs against alpha 4 or beta 1 chains of VLA-4, although mAbs against VCAM-1 did not inhibit under these conditions. Finally, considerable VLA-4-dependent transendothelial migration to C5a was also observed with monocytes from a patient with CD18 deficiency (leukocyte adhesion deficiency). These results suggest that (a) there is a major CD18-independent component in monocyte chemotactic factor-dependent migration across activated and unactivated endothelium; (b) that VLA-4 integrin on the monocyte has a major role in this migration; and (c) that VCAM-1 on activated endothelium functions as a counter-receptor in this process, but other ligands for VLA-4, especially on unactivated endothelium, may also be involved. Images PMID:7902847

Chuluyan, H E; Issekutz, A C



Simplexide Induces CD1d-Dependent Cytokine and Chemokine Production from Human Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Monocytes are major effector cells of innate immunity and recognize several endogenous and exogenous molecules due to the expression of wide spectrum of receptors. Among them, the MHC class I-like molecule CD1d interacts with glycolipids and presents them to iNKT cells, mediating their activation. Simplexide belongs to a novel class of glycolipids isolated from marine sponges and is structurally distinct from other immunologically active glycolipids. In this study we have examined the effects of simplexide on cytokine and chemokine release from human monocytes. Simplexide induces a concentration- and time-dependent release of IL-6, CXCL8, TNF-? and IL-10 and increases the expression of IL6, CXCL8 and IL10 mRNA. Cytokine and chemokine release induced by simplexide from monocytes is dependent on CD1d since: i) a CD1d antagonist, 1,2-bis (diphenylphosphino) ethane [DPPE]- polyethylene glycolmonomethylether [PEG], specifically blocks simplexide-induced activation of monocytes; ii) CD1d knockdown inhibits monocyte activation by simplexide and iii) simplexide induces cytokine production from CD1d-transfected but not parental C1R cell line Finally, we have shown that simplexide also induces iNKT cell expansion in vitro. Our results demonstrate that simplexide, apart from activating iNKT cells, induces the production of cytokines and chemokines from human monocytes by direct interaction with CD1d. PMID:25390653

Loffredo, Stefania; Staiano, Rosaria I.; Granata, Francescopaolo; Costantino, Valeria; Borriello, Francesco; Frattini, Annunziata; Lepore, Maria Teresa; Mangoni, Alfonso; Marone, Gianni; Triggiani, Massimo



Dexamethasone prevents monocyte-induced tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HK-2 cells.  


Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key cellular event in the early stage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF). Monocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of TIF. We have previously demonstrated that monocytes can directly induce HK-2 cell transition by direct contact. Dexamethasone, an important anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant agent, has been widely used in renal disease for decades. Whether it could influence the monocyte and HK-2 cell interaction and prevent EMT is still uncertain. In this study, we found that the typical epithelial cell morphology of HK-2 cells disappeared 24?h after co-culture with monocytes, and dexamethasone significantly prevented this change in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we found that dexamethasone prevented monocytes from binding to HK-2 cells by inhibiting ICAM-1 expression on HK-2 cells. Further analysis demonstrated that there was increased E-cadherin expression and decreased ?-SMA and fibronectin expression after co-culture with dexamethasone, suggesting that dexamethasone prevents monocyte-induced HK-2 cell transition. The nuclear transcription factor ?B (NF-?B) pathway played an important role in this process. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which corticosteroids may delay the progression of TIF via preventing EMT. PMID:23060286

Li, Qing; Lv, Lin-Li; Wu, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Liu, Hong; Liu, Bi-Cheng



Fish Monocytes as a Model for Mycobacterial Host-Pathogen Interactions†  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium marinum, a relatively rapid-growing fish and human pathogen, has become an important model for the investigation of mycobacterial pathogenesis. M. marinum is closely related to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and causes a disease in fish and amphibians with pathology similar to tuberculosis. We have developed an in vitro model for the study of M. marinum virulence mechanisms using the carp monocytic cell line CLC (carp leukocyte culture). We found that fish monocytes can differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Interestingly, M. marinum enters fish monocytes at a 40- to 60-fold-higher rate than Mycobacterium smegmatis. In addition, M. marinum survives and replicates in fish monocytes while M. smegmatis is killed. We also found that M. marinum inhibits lysosomal fusion in fish monocytes, indicating that these cells may be used to dissect the mechanisms of intracellular trafficking in mycobacteria. We conclude from these observations that monocytic cells from fish, a natural host for M. marinum, provide an extremely valuable model for the identification and characterization of mycobacterial virulence determinants in the laboratory. PMID:11705902

El-Etr, Sahar H.; Yan, Ling; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.



The Physiology of Lymphocyte Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

White blood cells (lymphocytes) are the mobile cells that make up the recognition and response component of the acquired immune system. There are pools of lymphocytes that recirculate the blood stream and the lymphatic system, there are lymphocytes that selectively home to tissues close to where the cells were created, and there are pools lymphocytes that are recruited to sites




Studies on the immune status of children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. I. Early phase before and after first remission.  

PubMed Central

Seventeen children of 2-15 years of age with newly diagnosed untreated acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL) were evaluated with a number of immunological tests: for humoral immunity serum immunoglobulins and reactive antibody formation against three antigens (diphtheria, tetanus, KLH); for cell-mediated immunity in vitro response of blood lymphocytes against PHA; membrane characteristics of blood lymphocytes and lymphoid blasts for both B and T cells. The tests were repeated in thirteen patients who attained full remission. In the majority (twelve cases) no surface markers were detected (null-cell leukaemia), one patient fulfilled the criteria for a T-cell leukaemia with thymoma. Four patients had rather high absolute B-cell counts, but did not fulfill all the criteria for B-cell leukaemia; three of them died before remission. Immune globulin concentrations were only slightly changed, antibody formation, both primary and anamnestic, was possible. PHA response was extremely low in the initial phase, but normal immediately after remission. During remission all patients were markedly depleted in both their B- and T-cell compartment. PMID:1087593

Hitzig, W H; Plüss, H J; Joller, P; Pilgrim, U; Tacier-Eugster, H; Jakob, M



In vivo tracking and immunological properties of pulsed porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells.  


Cellular therapies using immune cells and in particular dendritic cells (DCs) are being increasingly applied in clinical trials and vaccines. Their success partially depends on accurate delivery of cells to target organs or migration to lymph nodes. Delivery and subsequent migration of cells to regional lymph nodes is essential for effective stimulation of the immune system. Thus, the design of an optimal DC therapy would be improved by optimizing technologies for monitoring DC trafficking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a powerful tool for non-invasive imaging of DC migration in vivo. Domestic pigs share similarities with humans and represent an excellent animal model for immunological studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility using pigs as models for DC tracking in vivo. Porcine monocyte derived DC (MoDC) culture with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles was standardized on the basis of SPIO concentration and culture viability. Phenotype, cytokine production and mixed lymphocyte reaction assay confirmed that porcine SPIO-MoDC culture were similar to mock MoDCs and fully functional in vivo. Alike, similar patterns were obtained in human MoDCs. After subcutaneous inoculation in pigs, porcine SPIO-MoDC migration to regional lymph nodes was detected by MRI and confirmed by Perls staining of draining lymph nodes. Moreover, after one dose of virus-like particles-pulsed MoDCs specific local and systemic responses were confirmed using ELISPOT IFN-? in pigs. In summary, the results in this work showed that after one single subcutaneous dose of pulsed MoDCs, pigs were able to elicit specific local and systemic immune responses. Additionally, the dynamic imaging of MRI-based DC tracking was shown using SPIO particles. This proof-of-principle study shows the potential of using pigs as a suitable animal model to test DC trafficking with the aim of improving cellular therapies. PMID:25282042

Crisci, Elisa; Fraile, Lorenzo; Novellas, Rosa; Espada, Yvonne; Cabezón, Raquel; Martínez, Jorge; Cordoba, Lorena; Bárcena, Juan; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; Montoya, María



Ibrutinib plus rituximab for patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, phase 2 study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), is an effective therapy for patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We investigated the activity and safety of the combination of ibrutinib with the monoclonal antibody rituximab (iR) in patients with high-risk CLL. Methods In this single-arm, phase 2 studywe enrolled 40 patients with high-risk CLL at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. Patients with symptomatic CLL requiring therapy received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg , together with rituximab (weekly during cycle 1, then once per cycle until cycle 6), followed by continuous single-agent ibrutinib. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with, number NCT01520519 and is no longer accruing patients. Findings Between February 28, 2012 and September 11, 2012, we enrolled 40 CLL patients with high-risk disease features. 20 patients had del17p or TP53 mutations (16 previously treated, 4 untreated), 13 had relapsed CLL with del11q, and 7 patients a PFS < 36 months after frontline chemo-immunotherapy. Toxicity was mainly of mild to moderate severity (grade 1–2). 10 (25%) patients had diarrhea (grade 1 in 9 [22.5%] patients, grade 2 in 1 [2.5%]), bleeding events occurred in 14 (35%) patients (8 [20%] patients with grade 1, 5 [12.5%] patients grade 2, and 1 [2.5%] grade 3), nausea in 15 (37.5) patients (10 [25%] grade 1, 5 [12.5%] grade 2), and fatigue in 7 (17.5%) patients (4 [10%] grade 1, 3 [7.5%] grade 2). Grade 3 infections occurred in 4 patients (10%), no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. At 18 months, the Kaplan Meier estimate of progression-free survival was 78% (95% CI 60.6–88.5) (del[17p] or TP53 mutation: 72%, 95% CI: 45.6–87.6) Interpretation Ibrutinib in combination with rituximab is a well-tolerated regimen for patients with high-risk CLL. It induces high rates of remissions and has positive impact on QOL in this difficult-to-treat patient population. These encouraging data merit further investigation of the added benefit of rituximab as combination partner for ibrutinib in an ongoing randomized trial, in which single-agent ibrutinib is compared to iR combination therapy (NCT02007044). Funding Pharmacyclics, Inc., Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT), Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, NCI Grant P30 CA016672, MD Anderson’s Moon Shot Program in CLL, and MD Anderson Cancer Center Support Grant CA016672. PMID:25150798

Burger, Jan A.; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.; Hartmann, Elena; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Rosin, Nathalie Y.; de Weerdt, Iris; Jeyakumar, Ghayathri; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Lerner, Susan; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Nogueras-González, Graciela M.; Zacharian, Gracy; Huang, Xuelin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garg, Naveen; Rosenwald, Andreas; O’Brien, Susan



Exposure to radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz, GSM signal) does not affect micronucleus frequency and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: an interlaboratory study.  


The objective of this study was to investigate whether 24 h exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields similar to those emitted by mobile phones induces genotoxic effects and/or effects on cell cycle kinetics in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The effect of 900 MHz exposure (GSM signal) was evaluated at four specific absorption rates (SARs, 0, 1, 5 and 10 W/kg peak values). The exposures were carried out in wire patch cells under strictly controlled conditions of both temperature and dosimetry, and the induction of genotoxic effects was evaluated in lymphocyte cultures from 10 healthy donors by applying the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Positive controls were provided by using mitomycin C. Two research groups were involved in the study, one at ENEA, Rome, and the other at CNR-IREA, Naples. Each laboratory tested five donors, and the resulting slides were scored by both laboratories. Following this experimental scheme, it was also possible to compare the results obtained by cross-scoring of slides. The results obtained provided no evidence for the existence of genotoxic or cytotoxic effects in the range of SARs investigated. These findings were confirmed in the two groups of five donors examined in the two laboratories and when the same slides were scored by two operators. PMID:16802865

Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Fresegna, Anna Maria; Villani, Paola; Pinto, Rosanna; Marino, Carmela; Sarti, Maurizio; Altavista, Pierluigi; Sannino, Anna; Lovisolo, Giorgio A



An evaluation of the role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of experimentally induced corneal vascularization. III. Studies related to the vasoproliferative capability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Studies in the past have suggested that leukocytes are a prerequisite to corneal vascularization. To test this hypothesis further, experiments were conducted to determine whether the intracorneal instillation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, or components of leukocytes would induce a corneal vascular ingrowth. These cells or cellular fractions were injected intracorneally into Fisher albino rats whose circulating leukocytes had been depleted by total body x-irradiation. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from glycogen-induced peritoneal exudates caused a corneal vascular invasion, but lymphocytes obtained from thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes failed to do so. To learn whether an extractable factor could be isolated from polymorphonuclear leukocytes these cells were suspended in isotonic saline, ultrasonified and then centrifuged at 101,952g for 1 hour. Aliquots of the resulting sediment and supernatant were injected intracorneally into rats with radiation-induced leukopenia. The nonsedimentable supernatant caused corneal vascularization, but the sediment did not provoke the phenomenon. These studies not only provide further support for the hypothesis that leukocytes initiate corneal vascularization, possibly by the release of one or more heat labile chemical mediators, but directly implicate the polymorphonuclear leukocyte in this process. Images Figures 1-3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1247083

Fromer, C. H.; Klintworth, G. K.



Role of Lung-marginated Monocytes in an In Vivo Mouse Model of Ventilator-induced Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Recruited leukocytes play an important role in ventilator-induced lung injury, although studies have focused predominantly on neutrophils. Inflammatory subset Gr-1high monocytes are recruited to sites of inflammation and have been implicated in acute lung injury induced by systemic endotoxin. Objectives: To investigate the recruitment and role of Gr-1high monocytes in an in vivo mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury. Methods: Anesthetized mice were ventilated with low or high stretch. Flow cytometry was used to quantify monocyte subset margination to the lungs, and to assess their in situ cellular activation in response to mechanical stretch. To investigate monocyte involvement in lung injury progression, a two-hit model was used, with a subclinical dose of lipopolysaccharide (intraperitoneal) given 2 hours prior to high-stretch ventilation. In some animals, monocytes were depleted using intravenous clodronate liposomes. Development of lung injury was assessed in ventilated animals by peak inspiratory pressure and respiratory system mechanics. Measurements and Main Results: High-stretch ventilation induced significant pulmonary margination of Gr-1high but not Gr-1low monocytes compared with nonventilated mice. These monocytes displayed increased activation status, with higher CD11b (vs. nonventilated mice) and lower L-selectin expression (vs. low-stretch ventilation). Lipopolysaccharide challenge led to enhanced lung margination of Gr-1high monocytes and neutrophils, and sensitized the lungs to high stretch–induced pulmonary edema. Clodronate-liposome pretreatment depleted lung monocytes (but not neutrophils) and significantly attenuated lung injury. Conclusions: High-stretch mechanical ventilation promotes pulmonary margination of activated Gr-1high monocytes, which play a role in the progression of ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:19218195

Wilson, Michael R.; O'Dea, Kieran P.; Zhang, Da; Shearman, Alexander D.; van Rooijen, Nico; Takata, Masao



Brugia malayi Microfilariae Induce a Regulatory Monocyte/Macrophage Phenotype That Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Background Monocytes and macrophages contribute to the dysfunction of immune responses in human filariasis. During patent infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive. Aim To determine whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses. Methodology and principal findings Monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages from filaria non-endemic normal donors were stimulated in vitro with Brugia malayi microfilarial (Mf) lysate. We could show that monocytes stimulated with Mf lysate develop a defined regulatory phenotype, characterised by expression of the immunoregulatory markers IL-10 and PD-L1. Significantly, this regulatory phenotype was recapitulated in monocytes from Wuchereria bancrofti asymptomatically infected patients but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. Monocytes from non-endemic donors stimulated with Mf lysate directly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-?, IL-13 and IL-10). IFN-? responses were restored by neutralising IL-10 or PD-1. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with Mf lysate expressed high levels of IL-10 and had suppressed phagocytic abilities. Finally Mf lysate applied during the differentiation of macrophages in vitro interfered with macrophage abilities to respond to subsequent LPS stimulation in a selective manner. Conclusions and significance Conclusively, our study demonstrates that Mf lysate stimulation of monocytes from healthy donors in vitro induces a regulatory phenotype, characterized by expression of PD-L1 and IL-10. This phenotype is directly reflected in monocytes from filarial patients with asymptomatic infection but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. We suggest that suppression of T cell functions typically seen in lymphatic filariasis is caused by microfilaria-modulated monocytes in an IL-10-dependent manner. Together with suppression of macrophage innate responses, this may contribute to the overall down-regulation of immune responses observed in asymptomatically infected patients. PMID:25275395

Venugopal, Gopinath; Rao, Gopala B.; Lucius, Richard; Srikantam, Aparna; Hartmann, Susanne



Monocyte-derived dendritic cells have a phenotype comparable to that of dermal dendritic cells and display ultrastructural granules distinct from Birbeck granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) display CD1a, like Langerhans cells (LC) and some dermal DC, but their relationship with these skin DC remains unclear. To address this issue, we studied the expression of different antigens charac- teristic of skin DC and of monocyte\\/macrophages in CD1a1 and CD1a2 monocyte-derived DC. Their phenotype indicated that they may be related to dermal DC

Fernanda Grassi; Colette Dezutter-Dambuyant; Dorian McIlroy; Christelle Jacquet; Kozo Yoneda; Sadao Imamura; Laurence Boumsell; Daniel Schmitt; Brigitte Autran; Patrice Debre; Anne Hosmalin


Fc? receptor profile of monocytes and macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patients and their response to immune complexes formed with autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo analyse Fc? receptor (Fc?R) expression on monocytes and macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients versus healthy controls (HC), and to compare their responses to immune complexes containing RA-specific anti-citrullinated proteins auto antibodies (ACPA).MethodsMonocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were obtained from the peripheral blood of 34 RA patients and 69 HC. Fc?R expression was studied by flow cytometry. Cells were stimulated

Lætitia Laurent; Cyril Clavel; Olivia Lemaire; Florence Anquetil; Martin Cornillet; Laurent Zabraniecki; Leonor Nogueira; Bernard Fournié; Guy Serre; Mireille Sebbag



Protein tyrosine kinase and p38 MAP kinase pathways are involved in stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by TNF-? in human monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), through its catalytic and non-catalytic activities, plays critical roles in inflammation, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Human monocytes actively involved in inflammatory and tumoral states secrete proMMP-9 (92kDa). Endogenous TNF-? stimulates MMP-9 gene transcription in monocytes through NF-?B activation. In this study, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways underlying TNF-?\\/NF-?B-dependent expression of MMP-9 in monocytes using chemical inhibitors

Juliette Nguyen; Jean Gogusev; Perrine Knapnougel; Brigitte Bauvois



Live Brugia malayi microfilariae inhibit transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes.  


Lymphatic filariasis is a major tropical disease caused by the parasite Brugia malayi. Microfilariae (Mf) circulate in the peripheral blood for 2-3 hours in synchronisation with maximal feeding of the mosquito vector. When absent from the peripheral blood, Mf sequester in the capillaries of the lungs. Mf are therefore in close contact with vascular endothelial cells (EC) and may induce EC immune function and/or wound repair mechanisms such as angiogenesis. In this study, Mf were co-cultured with human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) or human lung microvascular EC (HLMVEC) and the transendothelial migration of leukocyte subsets was analysed. In addition, the protein and/or mRNA expression of chemokine, cytokine and angiogenic mediators in endothelial cells in the presence of live microfilariae were measured by a combination of cDNA arrays, protein arrays, ELISA and fluorescence antibody tests.Surprisingly, our findings indicate that Mf presence partially blocked transendothelial migration of monocytes and neutrophils, but not lymphocytes. However, Mf exposure did not result in altered vascular EC expression of key mediators of the tethering stage of extravasation, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and various chemokines. To further analyse the immunological function of vascular EC in the presence of Mf, we measured the mRNA and/or protein expression of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators. We found that expression levels of the mediators tested were predominantly unaltered upon B. malayi Mf exposure. In addition, a comparison of angiogenic mediators induced by intact Mf and Wolbachia-depleted Mf revealed that even intact Mf induce the expression of remarkably few angiogenic mediators in vascular EC. Our study suggests that live microfilariae are remarkably inert in their induction and/or activation of vascular cells in their immediate local environment. Overall, this work presents important insights into the immunological function of the vascular endothelium during an infection with B. malayi. PMID:23209856

Schroeder, Jan-Hendrik; Simbi, Bigboy H; Ford, Louise; Cole, Sara R; Taylor, Mark J; Lawson, Charlotte; Lawrence, Rachel A



A proteomic investigation of B lymphocytes in an autistic family: a pilot study of exposure to natural rubber latex (NRL) may lead to autism.  


Autism is a multi-factorial neurodevelopmental disorder. We have investigated the molecular mechanism involved in a Chinese family with autism by a proteomic approach. Antibody chips containing 500 spots of human protein antibodies were used to screen for differentially expressed proteins in the peripheral B lymphocytes between autistic and non-autistic siblings in this family. Four proteins relevant to immuno-pathway, including IKK? that was up-regulated and Tyk2, EIF4G1 and PRKCI that were down-regulated, were identified differentially expressed in autistic versus non-autistic siblings. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction validated the differential expression of these four proteins. Based on the function of these differentially expressed proteins, relevant studies on immunoglobulin E (IgE) level, nuclear factor kappa B signaling activation and cell cycle were conducted in both autistic and non-autistic children of this family. Considering the fact that the family members were in close contact with natural rubber latex (NRL) and that IgE-mediated cross-reactions could be triggered by Hevea brasiliensis (Hev-b) proteins in NRL, we hypothesize that immune reactions triggered by close contact with NRL might influence the functions of B lymphocytes by altering expression of certain proteins identified in our experiments thus contributing to the occurrence of autism. PMID:20957522

Shen, Chen; Zhao, Xin-liang; Ju, Weina; Zou, Xiao-bing; Huo, Li-rong; Yan, Wu; Zou, Jun-hua; Yan, Guo-di; Jenkins, Edmund C; Brown, W Ted; Zhong, Nanbert



Lessons learned and concepts formed from study of the pathogenesis of the two negative-strand viruses lymphocytic choriomeningitis and influenza  

PubMed Central

Viruses have unique lifestyles. To describe the pathogenesis and significance of viral infection in terms of host responses, resultant injury, and therapy, we focused on two RNA viruses: lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) and influenza (Flu). Many of the currently established concepts and consequences about viruses and immunologic tolerance, virus-induced immunosuppression, virus-induced autoimmunity, immune complex disease, and virus–lymphocyte and virus–dendritic cell interactions evolved through studies of LCMV in its natural murine host. Similarly, the mechanisms, aftermath, and treatment of persistent RNA viruses emerged, in large part, from research on LCMV. Analysis of acute influenza virus infections uncovered the prominent direct role that cytokine storm plays in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and mortality from this disease. Cytokine storm of influenza virus infection is initiated via a pulmonary endothelial cell amplification loop involving IFN-producing cells and virus-infected pulmonary epithelial cells. Importantly, the cytokine storm is chemically treatable with specific agonist therapy directed to the sphingosphine 1 phosphate receptor 1, which is located on pulmonary endothelial cells, pointing to the endothelial cells as the gatekeepers of this hyperaggressive host immune response. PMID:23341590

Oldstone, Michael B. A.



Whole Blood Activation Results in Enhanced Detection of T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production by Flow Cytometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a wholeblood activation culture has been described. We compared whole blood culture to standard PBMC culture and determined the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells and monocytes via flow cytometry. For T cells cytokine assessment following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture; (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. In addition, a four-color cytometric analysis was used to allow accurate phenotyping and quantitation of cytokine producing lymphocyte populations. Using this technique we found IFNgamma production to be significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines in conjunction with CD 14. The cytokine pairs used for analysis were IL-1a/IL-12, and IL-10ITNFa. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFalpha equally well in both culture systems. Monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated following whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes may represent functionally different monocyte subsets with distinct functions. Whole blood culture eliminates the need to purify cell populations prior to culture and may have significant utility for the routine monitoring of the cytokine balances of the peripheral blood T cell and monocyte populations. In addition, there are distinct advantages to performing whole-blood (WB) activation as compared to PBMC activation. These advantages would include retaining all various cell-cell interactions as well as any soluble factors present in serum that influence cell activation. It is likely that the altered cytokine production observed following whole blood culture more accurately represents the in-vivo immune balance.

Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.



Acute transplant glomerulopathy with monocyte rich infiltrate.  


Acute transplant glomerulopathy refers to alloimmune mediated endothelial injury and glomerular inflammation that typically occurs early post-kidney transplantation. We report a case of a 48-year old woman with end stage renal disease from lupus nephritis who developed an unexplained rise in serum creatinine 2 months after renal transplant. As immunosuppression, she received alemtuzumab induction followed by a tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone maintenance regimen. Her biopsy revealed severe glomerular endothelial injury associated with monocyte/macrophage-rich infiltrate in addition to mild acute tubulointerstitial cellular rejection. We briefly discuss acute transplant glomerulitis, its pathology and association with chronic/overt transplant glomerulopathy, C4d negative antibody-mediated rejection and the significance of monocytes in rejection. We also postulate that alemtuzumab induction may have contributed to the unusual pattern of monocyte-rich transplant glomerulitis. PMID:24056179

Lenihan, Colin R; Tan, Jane C; Kambham, Neeraja



A morphological and immunohistochemical study of the effects of prednisolone or ursodeoxycholic acid on liver histology in feline lymphocytic cholangitis.  


Feline lymphocytic cholangitis (LC) has been commonly treated with prednisolone, and more recently with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Previously, we found that prednisolone treatment resulted in a statistically longer survival time than treatment with UDCA. In order to explain this difference, we compared the effects of prednisolone and UDCA treatment on hepatic tissue by evaluating consecutive liver biopsies. Archival serial biopsy materials from cats with LC treated with prednisolone (n = 5) or UDCA (n = 4) were evaluated. We employed haematoxylin and eosin staining to evaluate inflammation, and reticulin staining for fibrosis. Immunohistochemical stainings for Ki-67, K19 (Cytokeratin 19) and ?-smooth muscle actin were used to evaluate cell type-specific proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells. Inflammation decreased more in the group treated with prednisolone, while the number of cholangiocytes, progenitor cells and fibroblasts did not differ between the treatment groups. Additionally, no difference was found for the amount of fibrosis in both treatment groups. PMID:24496321

Otte, Corma Ma; Rothuizen, Jan; Favier, Robert P; Penning, Louis C; Vreman, Sandra



Late effects of endotoxin on the accumulation and function of monocytes in rabbit lungs.  


Recent studies from our laboratory show that the lung contains a marginated pool of monocytes. The present study was designed to investigate monocyte accumulation in this pool 4 to 28 h after a single dose of endotoxin when the endotoxin had disappeared from the circulation. This was accomplished by administering a single intravenous dose of endotoxin (Escherichia coli, 50 micrograms/rabbit) to unanesthetized animals (n = 6) and saline to controls (n = 5) at time 0. Four hours after this dose of endotoxin, 111In-monocytes (93.5% pure) isolated from donors were injected intravenously, and, at 27 h, the rabbits were anesthetized and colloidal carbon (CC, 1 ml/kg body weight) was injected intraarterially to provide a phagocytic stimulus. The animals were sacrificed at 28 h, and the lungs were fixed in situ with glutaraldehyde. The data show that lungs from the endotoxin-treated rabbits contained 4.8 times more 111In-monocytes than controls, that 92% of these radiolabeled monocytes were in the alveolar capillaries, and that 72% of these labeled cells had phagocytosed CC. The histologic studies of unlabeled cells confirmed that this endotoxin treatment caused a 3-5-fold increase in unlabeled mononuclear cells and neutrophils (PMN) in the microvasculature and that many of the unlabeled monocytes in the endotoxin-treated group had also phagocytosed colloidal carbon. The behavior of the donor monocytes injected after the endotoxin had time to disappear from the circulation suggests that they accumulate in the lung in response to the indirect effects of endotoxin on endothelial cells. PMID:1626802

Ohgami, M; Doerschuk, C M; Gie, R P; English, D; Hogg, J C



Phenotype and function of myeloid dendritic cells derived from African green monkey blood monocytes.  


Myeloid dendritic cells probably play an important role in the immune response against HIV and SIV, and in the enhancement of CD4+ T cell infection. Here, we have investigated phenotypic and functional features of myeloid monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) from African green monkeys (AGMs). AGMs are natural hosts of SIV and exhibit no signs of abnormal T cell activation despite high SIV plasma viremia. We identified mAbs that cross-react specifically with homologous molecules expressed on AGM DC. We adapted a protocol to derive AGM MDDC by culture in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. The differentiated cells possessed a typical dendritic morphology and the majority were CD11c+ DC-SIGN+. AGM MDDC displayed a high expression of typical maturation markers, such as CD83, CD86 and DC-LAMP, and moderate immunostimulatory capacity, suggesting that the cells were in a semi-mature state. Stimulation resulted in further maturation, as shown by up-regulation of CD80 and decrease of endocytosis ability. However, neither increase of HLA-DR or CD40 expression nor enhanced immunostimulatory capacity was observed. The latter was associated with a low pro-inflammatory cytokine production during mixed lymphocyte reactions and a cytokine balance in favour of IL-10 in contrast to human MDDC. This is the first characterization of AGM MDDC. The tools described here are a crucial step for future studies in vivo or in vitro on the function of myeloid DC using the AGM animal model. PMID:16325847

Mortara, Lorenzo; Ploquin, Mickaël J-Y; Faye, Abdourahmane; Scott-Algara, Daniel; Vaslin, Bruno; Butor, Cécile; Hosmalin, Anne; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Diop, Ousmane M; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C



Disease features in horses with induced equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever).  


Fifty-five horses were inoculated IV and/or SC with materials containing Ehrlichia risticii, ie, infected whole blood, buffy coat cells, or cell culture, to study clinical and hematologic features of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever). Major clinical and hematologic features of induced E risticii infection were biphasic increase in rectal temperature with peak increases of 38.9 C and 39.3 C on postinoculation days (PID) 5 and 12, respectively; depression; anorexia; decreased WBC count (maximal decrease of 47% on PID 12); and diarrhea from PID 14 to PID 18. Increased WBC count was an inconsistent feature, with a maximal increase of 51.5% on PID 20. During times of decreased and increased WBC counts, lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios remained fairly constant. However, not all horses had all clinical and hematologic features, and these features were present in different degrees among horses. Increased rectal temperature, depression, anorexia, and decreased WBC count were more consistent features, whereas diarrhea developed in 73% of the horses. Of 55 horses, 39 (71%) had all clinical and hematologic features of the disease (classic disease), whereas 16 (29%) horses did not have greater than or equal to 1 of these features (nonclassic disease). The E risticii titer in the blood (ehrlichemia) was maximum during the peak increase in rectal temperature. In 55 horses, mortality was 9%. Significant differences (P greater than 0.5) in clinical and hematologic features were not detected between horses that survived and those that died of E risticii infection. PMID:3189992

Dutta, S K; Penney, B E; Myrup, A C; Robl, M G; Rice, R M



Quantifying T Lymphocyte Turnover  

PubMed Central

Peripheral T cell populations are maintained by production of naive T cells in the thymus, clonal expansion of activated cells, cellular self-renewal (or homeostatic proliferation), and density dependent cell life spans. A variety of experimental techniques have been employed to quantify the relative contributions of these processes. In modern studies lymphocytes are typically labeled with 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU), deuterium, or the fluorescent dye carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), their division history has been studied by monitoring telomere shortening and the dilution of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) or the dye CFSE, and clonal expansion has been documented by recording changes in the population densities of antigen specific cells. Proper interpretation of such data in terms of the underlying rates of T cell production, division, and death has proven to be notoriously difficult and involves mathematical modeling. We review the various models that have been developed for each of these techniques, discuss which models seem most appropriate for what type of data, reveal open problems that require better models, and pinpoint how the assumptions underlying a mathematical model may influence the interpretation of data. Elaborating various successful cases where modeling has delivered new insights in T cell population dynamics, this review provides quantitative estimates of several processes involved in the maintenance of naive and memory, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell pools in mice and men. PMID:23313150

De Boer, Rob J.; Perelson, Alan S.



Adiponectin links adipose tissue function and monocyte inflammatory responses during bovine metabolic stress.  


The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipid mobilization from adipose tissue leading to increased plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). High NEFA are a predisposing factor for inflammatory based diseases. A major component of these diseases is uncontrolled macrophage/monocyte inflammatory responses. Changes in the endocrine activity of adipose tissue during the periparturient period could impact macrophage function by modifying the secretion of adipokines including adiponectin. Currently, the effects of adiponectin on monocyte activation in dairy cattle are unknown. In humans and rodents, this adipokine regulates monocyte phenotype and alterations in its plasma levels are linked with the development of inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to establish associations between plasma adiponectin expression dynamics and different markers of lipid mobilization during the periparturient period of dairy cows and to characterize the effects of adiponectin on the inflammatory response of bovine monocytes. Plasma adiponectin, NEFA, BHB, albumin, and subcutaneous and retroperitoneal fat depots depth were measured during the periparturient period of dairy cows. In vitro, bovine monocytes were cultured with adiponectin to assess changes in pro-inflammatory responses following LPS stimulation. Results from this study demonstrate that alterations in plasma adiponectin levels in periparturient cattle are inversely correlated with the concentrations of plasma NEFA, an important marker of lipid mobilization. Furthermore, adiponectin exposure significantly decreased monocyte expression of TNF? after LPS stimulation thus markedly reducing their inflammatory response. Reduced plasma adiponectin during the periparturient period could predispose dairy cows to the development of uncontrolled monocyte inflammatory responses. PMID:24296305

Kabara, Ed; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Holcombe, Sue; Contreras, G Andres



PKC-Dependent Human Monocyte Adhesion Requires AMPK and Syk Activation  

PubMed Central

PKC plays a pivotal role in mediating monocyte adhesion; however, the underlying mechanisms of PKC-mediated cell adhesion are still unclear. In this study, we elucidated the signaling network of phorbol ester PMA-stimulated human monocyte adhesion. Our results with pharmacological inhibitors suggested the involvement of AMPK, Syk, Src and ERK in PKC-dependent adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to culture plates. Biochemical analysis further confirmed the ability of PMA to activate these kinases, as well as the involvement of AMPK-Syk-Src signaling in this event. Direct protein interaction between AMPK and Syk, which requires the kinase domain of AMPK and linker region of Syk, was observed following PMA stimulation. Notably, we identified Syk as a novel downstream target of AMPK; AICAR can induce Syk phosphorylation at Ser178 and activation of this kinase. However, activation of AMPK alone, either by stimulation with AICAR or by overexpression, is not sufficient to induce monocyte adhesion. Studies further demonstrated that PKC-mediated ERK signaling independent of AMPK activation is also involved in cell adhesion. Moreover, AMPK, Syk, Src and ERK signaling were also required for PMA to induce THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells as well as to induce adhesion response of human primary monocytes. Taken together, we propose a bifurcated kinase signaling pathway involved in PMA-mediated adhesion of monocytes. PKC can activate LKB1/AMPK, leading to phosphorylation and activation of Syk, and subsequent activation of Src and FAK. In addition, PKC-dependent ERK activation induces a coordinated signal for cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. For the first time we demonstrate Syk as a novel substrate target of AMPK, and shed new light on the role of AMPK in monocyte adhesion, in addition to its well identified functions in energy homeostasis. PMID:22848421

Chang, Mei-Ying; Huang, Duen-Yi; Ho, Feng-Ming; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Lin, Wan-Wan



Dopamine Increases CD14+CD16+ Monocyte Migration and Adhesion in the Context of Substance Abuse and HIV Neuropathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Drug abuse is a major comorbidity of HIV infection and cognitive disorders are often more severe in the drug abusing HIV infected population. CD14+CD16+ monocytes, a mature subpopulation of peripheral blood monocytes, are key mediators of HIV neuropathogenesis. Infected CD14+CD16+ monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier mediates HIV entry into the brain and establishes a viral reservoir within the CNS. Despite successful antiretroviral therapy, continued influx of CD14+CD16+ monocytes, both infected and uninfected, contributes to chronic neuroinflammation and the development of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse increases extracellular dopamine in the CNS. Once in the brain, CD14+CD16+ monocytes can be exposed to extracellular dopamine due to drug abuse. The direct effects of dopamine on CD14+CD16+ monocytes and their contribution to HIV neuropathogenesis are not known. In this study, we showed that CD14+CD16+ monocytes express mRNA for all five dopamine receptors by qRT-PCR and D1R, D5R and D4R surface protein by flow cytometry. Dopamine and the D1-like dopamine receptor agonist, SKF38393, increased CD14+CD16+ monocyte migration that was characterized as chemokinesis. To determine whether dopamine affected cell motility and adhesion, live cell imaging was used to monitor the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes on the surface of a tissue culture dish. Dopamine increased the number and the rate at which CD14+CD16+ monocytes in suspension settled to the dish surface. In a spreading assay, dopamine increased the area of CD14+CD16+ monocytes during the early stages of cell adhesion. In addition, adhesion assays showed that the overall total number of adherent CD14+CD16+ monocytes increased in the presence of dopamine. These data suggest that elevated extracellular dopamine in the CNS of HIV infected drug abusers contributes to HIV neuropathogenesis by increasing the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes in dopamine rich brain regions. PMID:25647501

Coley, Jacqueline S.; Calderon, Tina M.; Gaskill, Peter J.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.



Bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-induced release of lactoferrin from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: role of monocyte-derived tumor necrosis factor alpha.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the role played by human peripheral blood monocytes in mediating responses of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. When incubated with Salmonella typhimurium LPS at 37 degrees C, human PMN suspended in serum-free buffer released the specific granule constituent lactoferrin into the surrounding medium. Release of lactoferrin from PMN varied with the concentration of LPS (1 to 1,000 ng/ml) as well as with the duration of incubation (2 to 60 min) and was not accompanied by significant release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. LPS-induced release of lactoferrin from PMN was augmented significantly when cell suspensions were supplemented with additional monocytes and lymphocytes. Only monocytes, however, secreted significant amounts of lactoferrin-releasing activity (in a time- and concentration-dependent manner) when incubated separately with LPS. Lactoferrin-releasing activity was heat (80 degrees C for 15 min) labile, eluted after chromatography on Sephadex G-100 with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 60,000, and was inhibited by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alpha. Thus, LPS-induced noncytotoxic release of lactoferrin from human PMN suspended in serum-free buffer is mediated, at least in part, by tumor necrosis factor alpha derived from contaminating monocytes. PMID:3679539

Koivuranta-Vaara, P; Banda, D; Goldstein, I M



Serotonin Uptake Is Largely Mediated by Platelets versus Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood Cells  

PubMed Central

The serotonin transporter (SERT), a primary target for many antidepressants, is expressed in the brain and also in peripheral blood cells. Although platelet SERT function is well accepted, lymphocyte SERT function has not been definitively characterized. Due to their small size, platelets often are found in peripheral blood mononuclear cell preparations aimed at isolating lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. The presence of different cells makes it difficult to assign SERT expression and function to specific cell types. Here, we use flow cytometry and IDT307, a monoamine transporter substrate that fluoresces after uptake into cells, to investigate SERT function in lymphocyte and platelet populations independently, as well as simultaneously without prior isolation. We find that murine lymphocytes exhibit temperature-dependent IDT307 transport but uptake is independent of SERT. Lack of measurable SERT function in lymphocytes was corroborated by chronoamperometry using serotonin as a substrate. When we examined rhesus and human mixed blood cell populations, we found that platelets, and not lymphocytes, were primary contributors to SERT function. Overall, these findings indicate that lymphocyte SERT function is minimal. Moreover, flow cytometry, in conjunction with the fluorescent transporter substrate IDT307, can be widely applied to investigate SERT in platelets from populations of clinical significance. PMID:23336055



Transcriptome analysis of primary monocytes from HIV-positive patients with differential responses to antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the significant contributions of monocytes to HIV persistence, the HIV-monocyte interaction remains elusive. For patients on antiretroviral therapy, previous studies observed a virological suppression rate of >70% and suggested complete viral suppression as the primary goal. Although some studies have reported genetic dysregulations associated with HIV disease progression, research on ex vivo-derived monocytic transcriptomes from HIV+ patients with differential responses to therapy is limited. This study investigated the monocytic transcriptome distinctions between patients with sustained virus suppression and those with virological failure during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods Genome-wide transcriptomes of primary monocytes from five HIV+ patients on HAART who sustainably controlled HIV to below detection level (BDL), five HIV+ patients on HAART who consecutively experienced viremia, and four healthy HIV sero-negative controls were analyzed using Illumina microarray. Pairwise comparisons were performed to identify differentially expressed genes followed by quantitative PCR validation. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to check the consistency of our dataset with previous studies, as well as to detect the global dysregulations of the biological pathways in monocytes between viremic patients and BDLs. Results Pairwise comparisons including viremic patients versus controls, BDL versus controls, and viremic patients versus BDLs identified 473, 76, and 59 differentially expressed genes (fold change?>?2 and FDR?monocytes including antigen processing and presentation, Fc?R mediated phagocytosis, and chemokine signaling were significantly up-regulated in viremic patients. Conclusions This study revealed the first transcriptome distinctions in monocytes between viremic patients and BDLs on HAART. Our results reflected the outcome balanced between the subversion of the monocyte transcriptome by HIV and the compensatory effect adapted by host cells. The up-regulation of antigen presentation pathway in viremic patients particularly highlighted the role of the interface between innate and adaptive immunity in HIV disease progression. PMID:24370116



Monocytes from familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome patients are activated by mild hypothermia  

PubMed Central

Background Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) is characterized by rash, fever, and arthralgia in response to cold exposure. CIAS1, the gene that codes for cryopyrin, is mutated in FCAS. Treatment with anakinra (IL-1 receptor antagonist) prevents symptoms, indicating a crucial role for IL-1 in this disease. Objective To study cytokine responses to cold exposure in monocytes from subjects with FCAS. Methods Adherence-enriched monocytes were incubated at 32°C or 37°C. Transcription and release of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? were monitored by quantitative PCR and ELISA. Results The FCAS monocytes but not control cells responded to 4 h incubation at 32°C with significant secretion of IL-1?. At 16 h, IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? were all significantly elevated in FCAS monocytes at 32°C. Increased cytokine transcription was observed in all monocytes at 4 hours, but at 16 hours it was only seen in FCAS monocytes incubated at 32°C. Incubation at 32°C for as little as 1 hour sufficed to induce measurable IL-1? release. Caspase-1 inhibitors prevented the cold-induced IL-1? release, whereas a purinergic antagonist did not. Anakinra had no effect on the early IL-1? release but significantly reduced the late-phase transcription and release of all cytokines. Conclusion FCAS monocytes respond to mild hypothermia with IL-1? release, which in turn induces autocrine transcription and secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? as well as stimulation of further IL-1? production. Clinical implications These results confirm the central role of IL-1? in FCAS and support the use of IL-1 targeted therapy in these patients. PMID:17320940

Rosengren, Sanna; Mueller, James L.; Anderson, Justin P.; Niehaus, Brian L.; Misaghi, Amirhossein; Anderson, Scott; Boyle, David L.; Hoffman, Hal M.



Apoptosis as a mechanism of lectin-dependent monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity.  


In this study we investigated the mechanisms of cytotoxicity mediated by pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-activated human peripheral blood monocytes. By using DNA electrophoresis and propidium iodide (PI)-DNA staining flow cytometry, we demonstrated that apoptotic cell death of target U937 cells and Raji cells was induced in lectin (PWM)-dependent monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity (LDMC). The LDMC-mediated DNA fragmentation in U937 cells and Raji cells was induced in lectin (PWM)-dependent monocyte mediated cytotoxicity(LDMC). The LDMC-mediated DNA fragmentation in U937 cells was completely inhibited by anti-TNF alpha monoclonal antibody (mAb), but not by the addition of monosaccharide (N-acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc, a sugar specifically recognized by PWM and a lectin-like receptor on monocytes). In contrast, GlcNAc inhibited the DNA fragmentation in Raji cells induced by LDMC which the anti-TNF alpha mAb had no effect. PWM was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO) from monocytes. The NO-production was enhanced in the presence of target Raji cells, while the enhancement was abolished by the treatment with GlcNAc. By flow cytometry, we found that PWM bound to tumour cells as well as monocytes, and inhibited the expression of HLA-DR antigen on tumour cells. These results suggest that the presence of lectin molecules on the surface of monocytes and tumour cells may bring the two cells together, thus facilitating the induction of apoptosis in target cells by triggering the production of cytolytic factors (TNF and NO) and the modification of target cell surface antigen (HLA-DR). PMID:8675235

Dong, H D; Kimoto, Y; Takai, S; Taguchi, T



CCR2+Ly6Chi Inflammatory Monocyte Recruitment Exacerbates Acute Disability Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating type of stroke that lacks a specific treatment. An intense immune response develops after ICH, which contributes to neuronal injury, disability, and death. However, the specific mediators of inflammation-induced injury remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine whether blood-derived CCR2+Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes contribute to disability. ICH was induced in mice and the resulting inflammatory response was quantified using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and neurobehavioral testing. Importantly, blood-derived monocytes were distinguished from resident microglia by differential CD45 staining and by using bone marrow chimeras with fluorescent leukocytes. After ICH, blood-derived CCR2+Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes trafficked into the brain, outnumbered other leukocytes, and produced tumor necrosis factor. Ccr2?/? mice, which have few circulating inflammatory monocytes, exhibited better motor function following ICH than control mice. Chimeric mice with wild-type CNS cells and Ccr2?/? hematopoietic cells also exhibited early improvement in motor function, as did wild-type mice after inflammatory monocyte depletion. These findings suggest that blood-derived inflammatory monocytes contribute to acute neurological disability. To determine the translational relevance of our experimental findings, we examined CCL2, the principle ligand for the CCR2 receptor, in ICH patients. Serum samples from 85 patients were collected prospectively at two hospitals. In patients, higher CCL2 levels at 24 h were independently associated with poor functional outcome at day 7 after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Together, these findings suggest that inflammatory monocytes worsen early disability after murine ICH and may represent a therapeutic target for patients. PMID:24623768

Hammond, Matthew D.; Taylor, Roslyn A.; Mullen, Michael T.; Ai, Youxi; Aguila, Hector L.; Mack, Matthias; Kasner, Scott E.; McCullough, Louise D.



Human blood monocytes support persistence, but not replication of the intracellular pathogen C. pneumoniae.  


BackgroundIntracellular pathogens have devised various mechanisms to subvert the host immune response in order to survive and replicate in host cells. Here, we studied the infection of human blood monocytes with the intracellular pathogen C. pneumoniae and the effect on cytokine and chemokine profiles in comparison to stimulation with LPS.ResultsMonocytes purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by negative depletion were infected with C. pneumoniae. While immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cytoplasm of infected monocytes, real-time PCR did not provide evidence for replication of the intracellular pathogen. Complementary to PCR, C. pneumoniae infection was confirmed by an oligonucleotide DNA microarray for the detection of intracellular pathogens. Raman microspectroscopy revealed different molecular fingerprints for infected and non-infected monocytes, which were mainly due to changes in lipid and fatty acid content. Stimulation of monocytes with C. pneumoniae or with LPS induced similar profiles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-¿) and interleukin (IL)-6, but higher levels of IL-1ß, IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 for C. pneumoniae which were statistically significant. C. pneumoniae also induced release of the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1¿ and MIP-1ß, and CXCL-8, which correlated with TNF-¿ secretion.ConclusionInfection of human blood monocytes with intracellular pathogens triggers altered cytokine and chemokine pattern as compared to stimulation with extracellular ligands such as LPS. Complementing conventional methods, an oligonucleotide DNA microarray for the detection of intracellular pathogens as well as Raman microspectroscopy provide useful tools to trace monocyte infection. PMID:25488836

Buchacher, Tanja; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert; Vierlinger, Klemens; Rüger, Beate M; Stanek, Gerold; Fischer, Michael B; Weber, Viktoria



Response of THP-1 monocytes to blue light from dental curing lights.  


Blue light curing units (wavelengths of 400-500 nm) are a mainstay of restorative dentistry, and several high-intensity light sources have been developed to polymerize resin composites more rapidly. The biological safety of visible light has been assumed, but some reports of adverse biological effects of blue light in non-dental contexts support further evaluation of the biological safety of high-intensity blue light. The current study tested the hypothesis that blue light provokes cell stress responses resulting in the secretion of cytokines or expression of heat-shock proteins (HSP) in monocytes. Human monocytic cells were irradiated with three light sources (quartz-tungsten-halogen, plasma-arc and laser), then cellular proliferation, secretion of the inflammatory cytokine TNFalpha and induction of HSP72 were measured. Results indicated that although all three light sources significantly inhibited proliferation of monocytes, the secretion of TNFalpha was not induced following exposure to blue light and was not potentiated with administration of the activator lipopolysaccharide. Similarly, treatment with the plasma-arc light, which caused the largest temperature increase in previous studies, did not induce HSP72. The current results do not support activation of monocytes by blue light as an inflammatory risk factor in dental tissues during curing of composites. However, the results of the current study should be further verified in primary monocytes and an animal model before decisions about clinical risks are made. PMID:18197843

Wataha, J C; Lewis, J B; Lockwood, P E; Noda, M; Messer, R L; Hsu, S



A critical role of nitric oxide in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced hyperresponsiveness of cultured monocytes.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection leads to a general exhaustion of the immune system. Prior to this widespread decline of immune functions, however, there is an evident hyperactivation of the monocyte/macrophage arm. Increased levels of cytokines and other biologically active molecules produced by activated monocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV disease both by activating expression of HIV-1 provirus and by direct effects on cytokine-sensitive tissues, such as lung or brain. In this article, we investigate mechanisms of hyperresponsiveness of HIV-infected monocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed on monocyte cultures infected in vitro with a monocytetropic strain HIV-1ADA. Cytokine production was induced by stimulation of cultures with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and measured by ELISA. To study involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of cytokine expression, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or chemical donors of NO were used. RESULTS: We demonstrate that infection with HIV-1 in vitro primes human monocytes for subsequent activation with LPS, resulting in increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). This priming effect can be blocked by Ca(2+)-chelating agents and by the NOS inhibitor L-NMMA, but not by hemoglobin. It could be reproduced on uninfected monocyte cultures by using donors of NO, but not cGMP, together with LPS. CONCLUSIONS: NO, which is expressed in HIV-1-infected monocyte cultures, induces hyperresponsiveness of monocytes by synergizing with calcium signals activated in response to LPS stimulation. This activation is cGMP independent. Our findings demonstrate the critical role of NO in HIV-1-specific hyperactivation of monocytes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 4 PMID:8827716

Bukrinsky, M.; Schmidtmayerova, H.; Zybarth, G.; Dubrovsky, L.; Sherry, B.; Enikolopov, G.



Liver myofibroblasts up-regulate monocyte CD163 expression via PGE2 during hepatitis B induced liver failure  

PubMed Central

Background Although patients with liver failure exhibit a generalized inflammatory-imbalance status, substantial evidence indicates that this immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory state may be deleterious. Increased expression of CD163 (known to be involved in several anti-inflammatory functions of the immune system) in patients with liver failure is significantly correlated with a fatal outcome. However, little is known of the regulatory mechanisms that influence the expression of CD163. Methods We assessed the expression of CD163 on monocytes from both circulating cells and the liver tissues of patients with hepatitis B induced liver failure using flow cytometry and isolated the myofibroblasts from diseased livers. The ability of human liver myofibroblasts to regulate CD163 expression on monocytes was studied in vitro. Results We showed that CD163+ monocytes were enriched primarily in diseased livers and that they were associated with liver myofibroblasts in the same area. Accordingly, liver myofibroblasts were significantly superior to normal skin fibroblasts in inducing the expression of CD163 on monocytes in vitro. Moreover, we found that liver myofibroblasts triggered the activation of monocytes by secreting PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production in liver myofibroblasts using NS-398 markedly reduced CD163 expression in vitro. Conclusion These results suggest that liver myofibroblasts play a direct role in regulating the expression of CD163 on monocytes in human liver tissues and thereby may regulate monocyte function during hepatitis B induced liver failure. PMID:24597777



The role of complement C3 and fibrinogen in monocyte adhesion to PEO like plasma deposited tetraglyme  

PubMed Central

The role of complement C3 in mediating adhesion of monocytes to plasma deposited tetraglyme surfaces was studied. Although fibrinogen (Fg) is usually considered the main factor in mediating phagocyte attachment, plasma deposited PEO-like tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (tetraglyme) coatings that have ultra-low Fg adsorption (< 10 ng/cm2) from low concentration solutions and low monocyte adhesion in vitro still show high phagocyte adhesion after short implantations and later become encapsulated when tested in vivo. To test whether higher Fg adsorption under in vivo conditions could explain the higher in vivo reactivity, we again measured the resistance of tetraglyme films to Fg adsorption. We found a surprising and previously unreported increased amount of adsorbed Fg on tetraglyme surfaces from higher concentration protein solutions. However, monocyte adhesion to tetraglyme did not markedly increase despite the increased Fg adsorption. We thus suspected proteins other than Fg must be responsible for the increased in vivo reactivity. We found that on tetraglyme pre-adsorbed with C3-depleted serum, monocyte adhesion was greatly reduced as compared to samples adsorbed with normal serum. Addition of exogenous pure C3 to the serum used to pre-adsorb the surfaces restored monocyte adhesion to tetraglyme coatings. While Fg clearly plays an important role in mediating monocyte adhesion to tetraglyme surfaces, the results show an additional role for adsorbed C3 in monocyte adhesion. PMID:20939050

Szott, Luisa M.; Horbett, Thomas A.




Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation effects on lymphocyte polysaccharides and serum glycoproteins ; were investigated in guinea pigs. The animals were given a single, whole-body ; 500-r dose of 180-kv x irradiation and humoral changes were examined before, ; immediately after, and 10, 20, and 30 days after irradiation. The number of ; circulating lymphocytes fell to 10 to 15% of the initial value

L. Verga; F. Coucourde; B. Bonferoni



Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) in Obesity and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is the first discovered and most extensively studied CC chemokine, and the amount of studies on its role in the etiologies of obesity- and diabetes-related diseases have increased exponentially during the past 2 decades. This review attempted to provide a panoramic perspective of the history, regulatory mechanisms, functions, and therapeutic strategies of this chemokine. The highlights of this review include the roles of MCP-1 in the development of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, insulitis, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Therapies that specifically or non-specifically inhibit MCP-1 overproduction have been summarized. PMID:22766373

Panee, Jun



Analysis of human blood monocyte activation at the level of gene expression. Expression of alpha interferon genes during activation of human monocytes by poly IC/LC and muramyl dipeptide  

PubMed Central

Human monocytes were activated to secrete alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) by poly IC/LC but not by other monocyte activators, such as muramyl dipeptide (MDP). In contrast, monocytes were activated to secrete fibroblast growth factor (FGF) release by MDP but not by poly IC/LC. The amount of total RNA present in unactivated and activated human monocytes was similar. Using two 32P-labeled cDNA probes (pLM001 and HuIFN-alpha 2) for human IFN-alpha genes in hybridization studies, we analyzed messenger RNA species from this gene family in activated human monocytes. After activation with poly IC/LC, two other mRNA species (2.8 and 5.5 kb) were detected in addition to the 1.0 kb mRNA normally associated with IFN-alpha secretion. Unexpectedly, monocytes activated with MDP also contained 2.8 kb IFN-alpha mRNA. There was associated with this 2.8 kb IFN-alpha mRNA, found in MDP-activated monocytes, appreciable levels of intracellular IFN-alpha activity in the absence of detectable secreted IFN-alpha. Thus the secretion of IFN-alpha in activated human monocytes can be correlated with the appearance of a 1.0 kb mRNA species after poly IC/LC exposure. Secretion appears to be defective in MDP-stimulated monocytes even though they contain active intracellular IFN-alpha apparently translated from the 2.8 kb mRNA. PMID:3838335



A case of ataxia telangiectasia with unbalanced glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase mosaicism in the granulocytic/monocytic lineages.  

PubMed Central

Ataxia telangiectasia is a genetically determined disease with multi-system abnormalities and a high incidence of neoplasia. In order to define the nature of the association between ataxia telangiectasia and malignancy, we investigated a patient with the disease and heterozygote for the Mediterranean variant of the X-linked marker glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Enzymatic mosaicism in hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cells was evaluated with the 2-deoxy glucose 6-phosphate technique. While erythrocytes, platelets, and lymphocytes expressed the same double-enzyme phenotype as tissues of nonhemopoietic origin, granulocytes and monocytes expressed almost exclusively the Mediterranean-type enzyme. We suggest that, as the result of genetic instability at the hemopoietic stem-cell level, the granulocytic/monocytic progeny enjoyed a proliferative advantage and became the predominant clone. PMID:3812485

Ferraris, A M; Melani, C; Canepa, L; Meloni, T; Forteleoni, G; Gaetani, G F



Expression of 67-kDa elastin receptor in annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma: elastin peptides induce monocyte-derived dendritic cells or macrophages to form granuloma in vitro.  


Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is characterized by non-palisading granuloma and elastophagocytic giant cells. Granulomas consist of structured masses of macrophages, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes which play an essential role in granuloma formation. Two lineage systems of dendritic cells and macrophages originated from peripheral blood monocytes have been established in vitro. To know how elastin fragments are involved in the granuloma formation in AEGCG, we tested in vitro whether elastin fragments potentially induce monocyte-derived macrophages or dendritic cells to form granuloma and multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemical studies of the lesional skins of AEGCG (n = 5) revealed that the 67-kDa elastin receptor was specifically expressed in the epithelioid or multinucleated giant cells. Proliferation of factor XIIIa(+) cells and CD68(+) cells was also seen in the lesional skins of AEGCG. Factor XIIIa(+) dendritic cells or CD68(+) macrophages were established by the treatment of granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin-4 or M-CSF, respectively. Further treatments of these dendritic cells or macrophages with elastin peptide resulted in the formation of granuloma or multinucleated giant cells which were immunoreactive with anti-67-kDa elastin receptor antibody. These findings suggest that elastic tissue induces factor XIIIa(+) cells and CD68(+) macrophages to form granuloma or multinucleated giant cells and plays an essential role in the formation of granuloma in AEGCG. PMID:14987258

Fujimoto, Norihiro; Akagi, Atsushi; Tajima, Shingo



Obinutuzumab (GA101) in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: final data from the phase 1/2 GAUGUIN study.  


GAUGUIN evaluated the safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab (GA101) monotherapy in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In phase 1 (dose escalation), 13 patients received obinutuzumab 400 to 1200 mg (days 1 and 8 of cycle 1; day 1 of cycles 2-8). In phase 2, 20 patients received a fixed dose of 1000 mg (days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1; day 1 of cycles 2-8). Infusion-related reactions occurred in nearly all patients, but few were grade 3/4. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 7 patients in phase 1 (but was not dose-related) and in 4 patients in phase 2. Overall end-of-treatment response (all partial responses) was 62% (phase 1) and 15% (phase 2); best overall response was 62% and 30%, respectively. Phase 2 median progression-free survival was 10.7 months and median duration of response was 8.9 months. In summary, obinutuzumab monotherapy is active in patients with heavily pretreated relapsed/refractory CLL. PMID:25143487

Cartron, Guillaume; de Guibert, Sophie; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Morschhauser, Franck; Leblond, Veronique; Dupuis, Jehan; Mahe, Beatrice; Bouabdallah, Reda; Lei, Guiyuan; Wenger, Michael; Wassner-Fritsch, Elisabeth; Hallek, Michael



Phase II Study of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor MGCD0103 in Patients with Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

MGCD0103, an orally available class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, was examined for pre-clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). A phase II clinical trial was performed, starting at a dose of 85 mg/day, three times per week. Dose escalation to 110 mg or the addition of rituximab was permitted in patients without a response after 2 or more cycles. MGCD0103 demonstrated pre-clinical activity against CLL cells with a LC50 (concentration lethal to 50%) of 0.23 ?M and increased acetylation of the HDAC class I specific target histone H3. Twenty-one patients received a median of 2 cycles of MGCD0103 (range, 0–12). All patients had previously received fludarabine, 33% were fludarabine refractory, and 71% had del(11q22.3) or del(17p13.1). No responses according to the National Cancer Institutes 1996 criteria were observed. Three patients received 110 mg and 4 patients received concomitant rituximab, with no improvement in response. Grade 3–4 toxicity consisted of infections, thrombocytopenia, anemia, diarrhea, and fatigue. HDAC inhibition was observed in 6 out of 9 patients on day 8. Limited activity was observed with single agent MGCD0103 in high risk patients with CLL. Future investigations in CLL should focus on broad HDAC inhibition, combination strategies, and approaches to diminish constitutional symptoms associated with this class of drugs. PMID:19747365

Blum, Kristie A.; Advani, Anjani; Fernandez, Louis; Van Der Jagt, Richard; Brandwein, Joseph; Kambhampati, Suman; Kassis, Jeannine; Davis, Melanie; Bonfils, Claire; Dubay, Marja; Dumouchel, Julie; Drouin, Michel; Lucas, David M.; Martell, Robert E.; Byrd, John C.



Alleviation of radiation-induced genomic damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by active principles of Podophyllum hexandrum: an in vitro study using chromosomal and CBMN assay.  


This study was aimed to evaluate the protection against radiation of human peripheral blood lymphocytic DNA by a formulation of three isolated active principles of Podophyllum hexandrum (G-002M). G-002M in various concentrations was administered 1h prior to irradiation in culture media containing blood. Radioprotective efficacy of G-002M to lymphocytic DNA was estimated using various parameters such as dicentrics, micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) and nuclear buds (NuB) in binucleated cells. Certain experiments to ascertain the G2/M arrest potential of G-002M were also conducted. It was effective in arresting the cells even at half of the concentration of colchicine used. Observations demonstrated a radiation-dose-dependent increase in dicentric chromosomes (DC), acentric fragments, MN, NPB and NuB upto 5Gy. These changes were found significantly decreased by pre-administration of G-002M. A highly significant dose modifying factor (DMF) 1.43 and 1.39 based on dicentric assay and cytokinesis block micronuclei assay, respectively, was observed against 5Gy exposure in the current experiments. G-002M alone in its effective dose did not induct any change in any of the parameters mentioned above. Observations on cell cycle arrest by G-002M showed that the formulation has potential in arresting cells at G2/M, compared with colchicine. Based on significant DMF at highest radiation dose (5Gy) studied currently and meaningful reduction in radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations, we express that G-002M has a potential of minimising radiation-induced DNA (cytogenetic) damage. PMID:24476717

Dutta, Sangeeta; Gupta, Manju Lata



Thrombin-induced expression of endothelial CX3CL1 potentiates monocyte CCL2 production and transendothelial migration.  


CX3CL1 (fractalkine, neurotactin) is the sole CX3C chemokine. It induces monocyte locomotion in its cleaved form, but in its membrane-anchored form, it also acts as an adhesion molecule. The expression of CX3CL1 is up-regulated in endothelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 or TNF-alpha. Here, we studied the effect of the serine protease thrombin on endothelial CX3CL1 induction and its putative relevance for monocyte function. In HUVEC, thrombin triggered a time- and concentration-dependent expression of CX3CL1 at the mRNA and the protein level as shown by RT-PCR, Western immunoblotting, and flow cytometric analysis. Thrombin induced CX3CL1 by activating protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) as demonstrated by the use of PAR1-activating peptide and the PAR1-specific antagonist SCH 79797. The thrombin-induced CX3CL1 expression was NF-kappaB-dependent, as shown by EMSA, ELISA, and by inhibition of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway by the IkappaB kinase inhibitor acety-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid or by transient overexpression of a transdominant-negative form of IkappaBalpha. Upon cocultivation of human monocytes with HUVEC, the thrombin-dependent induction of membrane-anchored CX3CL1 in HUVEC triggered monocyte adhesion and an enhanced release of the MCP-1/CCL2 by monocytes and potentiated the monocyte transendothelial migration. Accordingly, the recombinant extracellular domain of CX3CL1 induced CCL2 release by monocytes. Thus, the thrombin-induced monocyte/endothelial cell cross-talk mediated by increased CX3CL1 expression potentiates the CCL2 chemokine generation that might contribute to the recruitment of monocytes into inflamed areas. PMID:18436581

Popovic, Milan; Laumonnier, Yves; Burysek, Ladislav; Syrovets, Tatiana; Simmet, Thomas



CCR2 on CD14+CD16+ monocytes is a biomarker of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) on monocyte subsets as a prognostic peripheral blood biomarker of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods: We characterized monocyte populations in HIV-infected individuals with and without HAND from 2 cohorts and assessed their transmigration across an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). We examined CCR2 expression among the monocyte populations as a prognostic/predictive biomarker of HAND and its functional consequences in facilitating monocyte diapedesis. Results: We determined that CCR2 was significantly increased on CD14+CD16+ monocytes in individuals with HAND compared to infected people with normal cognition. CCR2 remained elevated irrespective of the severity of cognitive impairment, combined antiretroviral therapy status, viral load, and current or nadir CD4 T-cell count. There was no association between CCR2 on other monocyte populations and HAND. There was a functional consequence to the increase in CCR2, as CD14+CD16+ monocytes from individuals with HAND transmigrated across our model of the human BBB in significantly higher numbers in response to its ligand chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 2 (CCL2) compared to the cell migration that occurred in people with no cognitive deficits. It should be noted that our study had the limitati