Science.gov

Sample records for study objective the aim

  1. Public Library Aims and Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Frank M.

    1973-01-01

    The author examines the Statement of public library aims and objectives'' recently prepared as a basis for a nationally adopted standard by a division of the Library Association in the United Kingdom and suggests that similar definitions might be helpful for developing countries. (5 references) (Author/SJ)

  2. The Aims and Objectives of the Monitoring the Future Study and Progress toward Fulfilling Them as of 2006. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Paper 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the Future is an ongoing program of research intended to assess the changing lifestyles, values, and preferences of American youth. This publication, from the occasional paper series, describes a study that monitors drug use and potential explanatory factors among American secondary school students, college students, and young adults.

  3. The Aims and Objectives of the Monitoring the Future Study and Progress toward Fulfilling Them. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 34. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This paper presents information from the ongoing research program, Monitoring the Future. The program is designed to: (1) monitor drug use and potential explanatory factors among American secondary school students, and other young adults; (2) distinguish which of three different kinds of change--maturational, historical, and/or cohort are

  4. The Healthy Communities Study: Its Rationale, Aims, and Approach.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Crawford, Patricia B; Fawcett, Stephen B; Fishbein, Howard A; Gregoriou, Maria; John, Lisa V; Kelley, Melinda; Pate, Russell R; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Strauss, Warren J

    2015-10-01

    Communities across the U.S. are implementing programs and policies designed to address the epidemic of childhood obesity. These programs vary widely in their approaches, including the intensity level, duration, funding, target population, and implementation techniques. However, no previous studies have examined these variations and determined how such aspects of community programs and policies are related to childhood obesity outcomes. The Healthy Communities Study is an observational study that is assessing the associations between characteristics of community programs and policies and BMI, nutrition, and physical activity in children. The Healthy Communities Study was funded in 2010, field data collection and medical record abstraction will be completed in 2015, and data cleaning and analyses will be completed by mid-year 2016. One-hundred and thirty communities (defined as a high school catchment area) and approximately 5,000 children in kindergarten through eighth grade and their parents have been recruited from public elementary and middle schools across the country. The study is examining quantitative and qualitative information obtained from community-based initiatives; measures of community characteristics (e.g., school environment); and child and parent measures, including children's physical activity levels and dietary practices and children's and parents' BMI. The Healthy Communities Study employs a complex study design that includes a diverse sample of communities across the country and combines current/cross-sectional and retrospective data (abstracted from children's medical records). This paper describes the rationale for the Healthy Communities Study, the study aims and logic model, and a brief overview of the study design. PMID:26384931

  5. The EvA study: aims and strategy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Frankenberger, Marion; Heimbeck, Irene; Burggraf, Dorothe; Wjst, Matthias; Hussinger, Karl; Brightling, Chris; Gupta, Sumit; Parr, David; Subramanian, Deepak; Singh, Dave; Kolsum, Umme; Boschetto, Piera; Potena, Alfredo; Gorecka, Dorota; Nowinski, Adam; Barta, Imre; Dme, Balazs; Strausz, Janos; Greulich, Timm; Vogelmeier, Claus; Bals, Robert; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Welte, Tobias; Venge, Per; Gut, Ivo; Boland, Anne; Olaso, Robert; Hager, Jrg; Hiemstra, Pieter; Rabe, Klaus F; Unmssig, Martina; Mller-Quernheim, Joachim; Prasse, Antje

    2012-10-01

    The EvA study is a European Union-funded project under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), which aims at defining new markers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its subtypes. The acronym is derived from emphysema versus airway disease, indicating that the project targets these two main phenotypes of the disease. The EvA study is based on the concept that emphysema and airway disease are governed by different pathophysiological processes, are driven by different genes and have differential gene expression in the lung. To define these genes, patients and non-COPD controls are recruited for clinical examination, lung function analysis and computed tomography (CT) of the lung. CT scans are used to define the phenotypes based on lung density and airway wall thickness. This is followed by bronchoscopy in order to obtain samples from the airways and the alveoli. These tissue samples, along with blood samples, are then subjected to genome-wide expression and association analysis and markers linked to the phenotypes are identified. The population of the EvA study is different from other COPD study populations, since patients with current oral glucocorticoids, antibiotics and exacerbations or current smokers are excluded, such that the signals detected in the molecular analysis are due to the distinct inflammatory process of emphysema and airway disease in COPD. PMID:22441733

  6. The German National Cohort: aims, study design and organization.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The German National Cohort (GNC) is a joint interdisciplinary endeavour of scientists from the Helmholtz and the Leibniz Association, universities, and other research institutes. Its aim is to investigate the causes for the development of major chronic diseases, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/-psychiatric diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory and infectious diseases, and their pre-clinical stages or functional health impairments. Across Germany, a random sample of the general population will be drawn by 18 regional study centres, including a total of 100,000 women and 100,000 men aged 20-69 years. The baseline assessments include an extensive interview and self-completion questionnaires, a wide range of medical examinations and the collection of various biomaterials. In a random subgroup of 20 % of the participants (n = 40,000) an intensified examination ("Level 2") programme will be performed. In addition, in five of the 18 study centres a total of 30,000 study participants will take part in a magnetic resonance imaging examination programme, and all of these participants will also be offered the intensified Level 2 examinations. After 4-5 years, all participants will be invited for a re-assessment. Information about chronic disease endpoints will be collected through a combination of active follow-up (including questionnaires every 2-3 years) and record linkages. The GNC is planned for an overall duration of 25-30 years. It will provide a major, central resource for population-based epidemiology in Germany, and will help to identify new and tailored strategies for early detection, prediction, and primary prevention of major diseases. PMID:24840228

  7. Religious Studies, Religious Education and the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    This article interacts with a recent article by Denise Cush and Catherine Robinson in which they call for a new dialogue between religious studies in universities and religious education, and identify a number of developments in religious studies that have implications for the practice of religious education in schools. Cush and Robinson are…

  8. Religious Studies, Religious Education and the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    This article interacts with a recent article by Denise Cush and Catherine Robinson in which they call for a new dialogue between religious studies in universities and religious education, and identify a number of developments in religious studies that have implications for the practice of religious education in schools. Cush and Robinson are

  9. The FBI Takes Aim at AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Elliot

    1977-01-01

    The events and revelations before and since the arrest of Paul Skyhorse and Richard Mohawk (two American Indian Movement organizers charged with the 1974 murder of a taxi driver at AIM Camp 13) lead to the inevitable conclusion that these men are victims of a frame-up. (Author/JC)

  10. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  11. Parents' Views Regarding the Values Aimed to be Taught in Social Studies Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Bayram; Yildirim, Kasim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at learning parents' ideas about the values aimed to be taught in Social Studies lessons in the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education and about values education. Study data were collected by administering "the Values Education I" and "Values Education II" questionnaire forms developed by the researchers. The views of 378 and…

  12. [Aims and methods of the ISAAC study (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood)].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) is a multicentric, transversal, epidemiological study for investigating the epidemiology of asthma using a standardised methodology. In the case of Spain, centres in Almeria, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon, Valladolid and Valencia are collaborating in the study. The aim of the study is to obtain knowledge of the prevalence and seriousness of asthma amongst children living in different cities so as to compare the results between different Spanish cities and with other countries. This will make it possible to elaborate hypotheses on the aetiology of asthma. The ISAAC protocol studies two groups: children of 6 to 7 years of age, and adolescents of 13 to 14 years. The parents of the children of 6 to 7 years were sent questionnaires on asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis, while the children in the 13 to 14 year old age group received the same written questionnaire together with a video questionnaire. A minimum of 3,000 children have been studied in each centre and age group. The information obtained from the ISAAC study, besides facilitating the study of the aetiology of asthma, will provide a baseline measure for studying the world evolution of the illness. PMID:12891459

  13. Aiming for the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Times change, and pollution continues to plague cities, energy prices escalate and average temperatures creep higher, the argument that society cannot afford to squander its limited resources has been embraced by more than just environmental activists. More and more education administrators and architects are among those pushing schools and…

  14. Aiming for the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Times change, and pollution continues to plague cities, energy prices escalate and average temperatures creep higher, the argument that society cannot afford to squander its limited resources has been embraced by more than just environmental activists. More and more education administrators and architects are among those pushing schools and

  15. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The

  16. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  17. The Rotterdam Study: objectives and design update

    PubMed Central

    Breteler, Monique M. B.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Pols, Huibert A.; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, Andr G.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rotterdam Study is a prospective cohort study ongoing since 1990 in the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The study targets cardiovascular, neurological, ophthalmological and endocrine diseases. As of 2008 about 15,000 subjects aged 45years or over comprise the Rotterdam Study cohort. The findings of the Rotterdam Study have been presented in some 600 research articles and reports (see http://www.epib.nl/rotterdamstudy). This article gives the reasons for the study and its design. It also presents a summary of the major findings and an update of the objectives and methods. PMID:17955331

  18. Systematic Review of the Methodological Quality of Studies Aimed at Creating Gestational Weight Gain Charts.

    PubMed

    Ohadike, Corah O; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Ohuma, Eric O; Giuliani, Francesca; Bishop, Deborah; Kac, Gilberto; Puglia, Fabien; Maia-Schlüssel, Michael; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José; Hirst, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    A range of adverse outcomes is associated with insufficient and excessive maternal weight gain in pregnancy, but there is no consensus regarding what constitutes optimal gestational weight gain (GWG). Differences in the methodological quality of GWG studies may explain the varying chart recommendations. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality of studies that aimed to create GWG charts by scoring them against a set of predefined, independently agreed-upon criteria. These criteria were divided into 3 domains: study design (12 criteria), statistical methods (7 criteria), and reporting methods (4 criteria). The criteria were broken down further into items, and studies were assigned a quality score (QS) based on these criteria. For each item, studies were scored as either high (score = 0) or low (score = 1) risk of bias; a high QS correlated with a low risk of bias. The maximum possible QS was 34. The systematic search identified 12 eligible studies involving 2,268,556 women from 9 countries; their QSs ranged from 9 (26%) to 29 (85%) (median, 18; 53%). The most common sources for bias were found in study designs (i.e., not prospective); assessments of prepregnancy weight and gestational age; descriptions of weighing protocols; sample size calculations; and the multiple measurements taken at each visit. There is wide variation in the methodological quality of GWG studies constructing charts. High-quality studies are needed to guide future clinical recommendations. We recommend the following main requirements for future studies: prospective design, reliable evaluation of prepregnancy weight and gestational age, detailed description of measurement procedures and protocols, description of sample-size calculation, and the creation of smooth centile charts or z scores. PMID:26980814

  19. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küppers, M.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Mellab, K.; Michel, P.; AIM Team

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is ESA's contribution to an international cooperation targeting the demonstration of deflection of a hazardous nearearth asteroid as well as the first in-depth investigation of a binary asteroid. After launch in 2020, AIM will rendezvous the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022 and observe the system before, during, and after the impact of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. The AIM mission will test new technologies like optical telecommunications by laser and Cubesats with nano-payloads and will perform scientific measurements at the asteroid system.

  20. The diverse aims of science.

    PubMed

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science. PMID:26386532

  1. The Basic Aims of Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinneavy, James E.

    1969-01-01

    The author compares some systems of the aims of discourse ranging from the Aristotelian and Aquinas schools to the Buhler, Jakobsen, and Kinneavy theories, and pleads for the preservation of the liberal arts tradition with composition as a basic course. (DS)

  2. Construction of a digital and physical mouse model aimed at the study of electrical shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2014-03-01

    Optical methods have been used to investigate electrical injury on animal models such as live mice, rats, and rabbits. Here we introduce a completely digital phantom of a mouse, with the aim of investigating electrical injury through spectroscopic imaging techniques. The basis of our phantom is a three-dimensional digital mouse reconstructed from co-registered computed tomographic images and cryosection by a different group. Image processing algorithms were applied to make the model suitable to Finite Element Analysis of thermal and electrical transport. Our digital model is capable of simulating temperature, voltage, current changes along the animal body during and after electrical shocks.

  3. Aiming for the ideal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gaich, Tanja; Baran, Phil S

    2010-07-16

    The field of total synthesis has a rich history and a vibrant future. Landmark advances and revolutionary strides in the logic of synthesis have put the practicing chemist in the enviable position of being able to create nearly any molecule with enough time and effort. The stage is now set for organic chemists to aim for "ideality" in the way molecules are synthesized. This perspective presents a simple and informative definition of "ideality" and demonstrates its use during the self-evaluation of several syntheses from our laboratory. PMID:20540516

  4. Aims in Music Education: A Conceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Constantijn

    1997-01-01

    Explores the concept of aims in music education through investigating the ideas of four philosophers: Wolfgang Brezinka, Richard S. Peters, Bennett Reimer, and David Elliott. Inquires into the empirical and logical aspects of aims and clarifies the relationships between "musical behaviors." Concludes by discussing the relevance of conceptual

  5. A Comparative Investigation of the Previous and New Secondary History Curriculum: The Issues of the Definition of the Aims and Objectives and the Selection of Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinc, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on history teaching in Turkey indicate that the previous versions of the history curriculum and the pedagogy of history in the country bear many problems and deficiencies. The problems of Turkish history curriculum mainly arise from the perspectives it takes and the selection of its content. Since 2003, there have been extensive…

  6. Study of the laser induced acoustic under water source aim at imaging and detecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaotang; Xin, Jianguo; Chen, Jiabin

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses itself to the problem of interaction mechanism of laser induced acoustic source under water. The main photo-acoustic mechanisms include thermal expansion, vaporization and optical breakdown as well as the photon beam pressure. We integrate these into a compound model and compare numerical calculation and simulation results with the existing experimental data. The different energy density thresholds between different mechanisms are calculated. We optimize original thermal expansion by considering various laser pulse-shapes especially Gaussian laser. When discussing vaporization, random bubbles distribution is studied instead of single bubble alone for the first time. Detection distance, pulse duration, laser energy and spot size in heating area all have effect on sound filed intensity, which are studied through this paper.

  7. Distributed Leadership with the Aim of "Reculturing": A Departmental Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne; Jones, Doug; Campbell, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This article considers a secondary science department that has, since 2000, developed distributed leadership as a form of human capacity building. Using a longitudinal ethnographic case study allowed us to consider how distributed leadership can be nurtured and developed in a department. Our analysis centres on two key issues: the nature and

  8. Grid-based precision aim system and method for disrupting suspect objects

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwell, Thomas Scott; Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Monda, Mark J.

    2014-06-10

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system has a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a grid board positionable adjacent the suspect object (the grid board having a plurality of grid areas, the radiation from the source passing through the grid board), a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image, a weapon for deploying a discharge, and a targeting unit for displaying the image of the suspect object and aiming the weapon according to a disruption point on the displayed image and deploying the discharge into the suspect object to disable the suspect object.

  9. A 3-Month Jump-Landing Training Program: A Feasibility Study Using the RE-AIM Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Inne; Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Mathieu, Niels; Van Schuerbeeck, Sander; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Context: Evaluating the translatability and feasibility of an intervention program has become as important as determining the effectiveness of the intervention. Objective: To evaluate the applicability of a 3-month jump-landing training program in basketball players, using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National and regional basketball teams. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four teams of the second highest national division and regional basketball divisions in Flanders, Belgium, were randomly assigned (1:1) to a control group and intervention group. A total of 243 athletes (control group = 129, intervention group = 114), ages 15 to 41 years, volunteered. Intervention(s): All exercises in the intervention program followed a progressive development, emphasizing lower extremity alignment during jump-landing activities. Main Outcome Measure(s): The results of the process evaluation of the intervention program were based on the 5 dimensions of the RE-AIM framework. The injury incidence density, hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Results: The participation rate of the total sample was 100% (reach). The hazard ratio was different between the intervention group and the control group (0.40 [95% confidence interval = 0.16, 0.99]; effectiveness). Of the 12 teams in the intervention group, 8 teams (66.7%) agreed to participate in the study (adoption). Eight of the participating coaches (66.7%) felt positively about the intervention program and stated that they had implemented the training sessions of the program as intended (implementation). All coaches except 1 (87.5%) intended to continue the intervention program the next season (maintenance). Conclusions: Compliance of the coaches in this coach-supervised jump-landing training program was high. In addition, the program was effective in preventing lower extremity injuries. PMID:23675788

  10. Physics studies in Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM) related phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, R.; Ali, A.; Lallement, P.; Koert, P.; Papadopoulos, D.; Shanny, R.; Wallace, T.; Stewart, C.; Drobot, A.; Tsang, K.

    1990-02-01

    A study was made into the fundamental physics of electromagnetic induced ionization in the lower ionosphere (60 to 80 km), using a ground based radiation source. The technique of remotely controlled ionization can be used to create a layered region of ionization and to then use the Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM) to reflect HF/VHF signals for over the horizon communications and radar applications. The objective was to identify the basic physics issues controlling RF breakdown phenomena and to develop an understanding of those issues sufficient for performing quantitative prediction of AIM characteristics and the impact of those characteristics on the reflecting wave. Results of the study indicate that AIM is a viable concept and has the potential of providing important benefits over more traditional communication/radar technology.

  11. Studies Spotlight Charter Schools Aimed at Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly six decades after "Brown" v. "Board of Education," the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that ushered in an era of efforts to integrate public schools, charter school advocates and researchers are shining a light on a number of those independent public schools that are integrated by design. Two new reports--one from the National Alliance…

  12. Studies Spotlight Charter Schools Aimed at Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly six decades after "Brown" v. "Board of Education," the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that ushered in an era of efforts to integrate public schools, charter school advocates and researchers are shining a light on a number of those independent public schools that are integrated by design. Two new reports--one from the National Alliance

  13. A Study of the Ongoing Alignment of the NWEA RIT Scale with the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, John; Bowe, Branin

    2005-01-01

    Each spring, Arizona students participate in testing as part of the state's assessment program. Elementary and middle school students in grades 3 through 8 take the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards--Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) in reading, writing, and mathematics. These tests serve as an important measure of student achievement for

  14. Objectives of Financial Statements. Report of the Study Group on the Objectives of Financial Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Certified Public Accountants, New York, NY.

    This report discusses the objectives of financial statements. Emphasis is placed on the function of objectives; users, their goals, and their information needs; the primary enterprise goal and earning power; accountability and financial statements; financial statements--reporting on the goal attainment of business enterprises; financial…

  15. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  16. Search and Study of Variable Objects in the DFBS Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Lilit R.; Sargsyan, Lusine A.; Mickaelian, Areg M.; Massaro, Enrico; Nesci, Roberto; Rossi, Corinne; Gaudenzi, Silvia; Cirimele, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    The Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) is the digitized version of the famous Markarian survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS). Using the BSpec extraction software written by one of the authors (GC), we have obtained the list of the DFBS objects with their positions, B and R magnitudes, and preliminarily classification for the DFBS zones with central DEC=+39deg and DEC=+43deg, for those fields having two or more plates available. Later on, the B and R magnitudes were cross correlated with their corresponding B and R magnitudes from other plates in the same field in order to find out candidate variables. First, the systematic shift between the two plates measurements was eliminated, and then the rms was calculated for objects grouped by their B magnitudes (as the errors change in respect of the brightness due to the emulsion non-linearity). For variability selection, the 3 sigma criterion for B and R magnitudes was used. Probable variability was assigned to those objects having 3 sigma differences in the same direction in both B and R, and possible variability, to those having 2 sigma differences. Later on, cross-correlations were carried out with all available multiwavelength catalogs, and objects grouped into candidate blazars (those associated with radio sources), cataclysmic variables (blue and UV-excess objects in the DFBS), and Mira type variables (late-type stars) were distinguished. There are a number of other objects as well, and their nature must be clarified. All objects were checked in the SIMBAD and NED databases for possible identifications with known variables. This project gave an opportunity to estimate efficiency of the DFBS for variability selection. Further studies will include all DFBS fields and the comparison will be carried out with the available photometric data from MAPS and USNO-B1.0 catalogs.

  17. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Malcolm H.

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  18. The IMS satellite programme - Scientific objectives. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    The International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) will make use of a number of satellites launched by the ESA, Japan, the USA, and the USSR. The instrumentation carried by these satellites is considered, taking into account GEOS, ISEE-A, ISEE-B, ISEE-C, EXOS-A, EXOS-B, and ISS. The morphology of the magnetosphere is examined and questions regarding the origin of substorms are investigated. IMS objectives are discussed, giving attention to the macroscopic behavior of the magnetosphere, microscopic processes, approaches to be used for monitoring the state of the magnetosphere, and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  19. An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farha, Nicholas W.

    2009-01-01

    Learning objects have quickly become a widely accepted approach to instructional technology, particularly in on-line and computer-based learning environments. While there is a substantial body of literature concerning learning objects, very little of it verifies their efficacy. This research investigated the effectiveness of learning objects by

  20. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  1. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal

  2. The Cosmic Dust Experiment of AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A.; James, D.; Horanyi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Cosmic Dust Experiment (CDE) onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission is a dust impact experiment designed to monitor the variability of the cosmic dust in ux. The instrument consists of fourteen permanently polarized thin plastic film sensors that generate an electrical signal when an impacting dust particle penetrates them. The total surface area is about 0.1 square meters and the detection threshold is about a micron in particle radius. The variability of these small grains is assumed to follow the variability of the dominant 100 micron radius particles, hence the measured flux can be used in correlation studies with various Noctilucent Cloud (NLC) activity indexes. CDE has been observing the cosmic dust influx since June 2007. In this talk, we present the first nine months of reduced data, focusing on the observed temporal and spatial variability of the dust influx. Data collected after February 2008 show increased levels of background noise and preliminary work on reducing this data will also be presented.

  3. AIM: Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adventures In Movement for the Handicapped, Inc., Dayton, OH.

    The handbook on Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped (AIM) gives information about general organizational goals and suggests activities for use by volunteer teachers with blind, deaf, crippled, cerebral palsied, mentally retarded, and autistic children at five ability/age levels. General Information given about each handicap usually includes

  4. Theory of Knowledge Aims, Objectives and Assessment Criteria: An Analysis of Critical Thinking Descriptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the construct validity of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme's Theory of Knowledge course in the light of claims that it is a course in critical thinking. After discussion around critical thinking--what it is and why it is valuable educationally--the article analyses the extent to which the course aims,

  5. DMD multi-object spectroscopy in space: the EUCLID study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, P.; Zamkotsian, F.; Content, R.; Grange, R.; Robberto, M.; Valenziano, L.; Zerbi, F. M.; Sharples, R. M.; Bortoletto, F.; de Caprio, V.; Martin, L.; de Rosa, A.; Franzetti, P.; Diolaiti, E.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Leutenegger, P.; Scodeggio, M.; Vink, R.; Zamorani, G.; Cimatti, A.

    2009-08-01

    The benefits Astronomy could gain by performing multi-slit spectroscopy in a space mission is renown. Digital Micromirror Devices (DMD), developed for consumer applications, represent a potentially powerful solution. They are currently studied in the context of the EUCLID project. EUCLID is a mission dedicated to the study of Dark Energy developed under the ESA Cosmic Vision programme. EUCLID is designed with 3 instruments on-board: a Visual Imager, an Infrared Imager and an Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (ENIS). ENIS is focused on the study of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations as the main probe, based on low-resolution spectroscopic observations of a very large number of high-z galaxies, covering a large fraction of the whole sky. To cope with these challenging requirements, a highmultiplexing spectrograph, coupled with a relatively small telescope (1.2m diameter) has been designed. Although the current baseline is to perform slit-less spectroscopy, an important option to increase multiplexing rates is to use DMDs as electronic reconfigurable slit masks. A Texas Instrument 2048x1080 Cinema DMD has been selected, and space validation studies started, as a joint ESA-ENIS Consortium effort. Around DMD, a number of suited optical systems has been developed to project sky sources onto the DMD surface and then, to disperse light onto IR arrays. A detailed study started, both at system and subsystem level, to validate the initial proposal. Here, main results are shown, making clear that the use of DMD devices has great potential in Astronomical Instrumentation.

  6. The aim and philosophy of patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. S. S.

    1970-01-01

    The history of monitoring is traced from ancient times until the invention of transducers and computers. The relevance of progress in resuscitation is emphasized. The more recent evolution of electromedical apparatus is considered from single signal detection, display and alarm to multiple signal processing, trend analysis and diagnosis. The aim of patient monitoring is to give warning of early or dangerous deterioration and to achieve this by obtaining an optimal compromise involving many design factors, clinical, engineering and economic. A new philosophy is illustrated by the specification and development of the Lifeline patient monitor. The translation of clinical diagnoses into electronic switching logic is of particular importance. PMID:4920275

  7. Learning Objects in the Study of Mathematical Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Josué Antunes de; Nunes, Taise Costa de Souza; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-12-01

    This work is the result of a survey that aimed to produce Applets(animations) using the GeoGebra software applied to the study of trigonometric functions. We opted for the choice of this software, because of its easy usability, have nice interface and is very didactic, allowing the realization of a simple graphic to complex constructions. The choice of the contents of trigonometric functions, was due to the concern of many students want to learn the appropriate behavior involving these functions, because in practice beyond the calculations, the students require two-dimensional images to construct the graphics, Therefore, the use of the GeoGebra software can assist in building and viewing these charts. We used a metodology qualiquantitative to collection and data analysis, based on the application of questionnaires and observations having as use of didactic engineering for the formulation of didactic sequences. To the application of this methodology, a minicurs was given, with twenty hours, to the Mathematic and Physic students at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), Campus Januária. The results were found satisfactory, since the use of GeoGebra software provided a significant learning for the academics.

  8. Workshop aims, outline of the program.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A R; van Gennip, E M

    1992-05-01

    This workshop on the Technology Assessment of PACS has been organized as a rounding off of the Technology Assessment activities which were initiated within the Dutch PACS Project (1986-1989). It is made possible by a funding from the Dutch Ministry of Health Care (WVC). We hope it will be not only a rounding off, but will contribute to more intensive cooperations in this area. In the scope of the Dutch PACS project, the software package CAPACITY for cost analyses of PACS has been developed, to stimulate the dialogue and exchange of data. During the workshop, the data which were collected with CAPACITY are used as a framework for discussions. This paper presents the outline of the workshop, its background, its aims and the program. PMID:1634259

  9. Theoretical studies of the outer envelopes of young stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee

    1992-01-01

    With the Monte Carlo code developed by Whitney and Hartmann, a series of models was computed of scattering in disks around young stellar objects. The code calculates scattering by dust, including polarization, in arbitrary geometries. By computing model images, it was found that disk, by themselves, around young stellar objects would be very difficult to detect with present day imaging techniques. In comparing these images to observations of young stellar objects which show diffuse structure, little resemblance was found. A flared disk system will only give high polarization when viewed edge-on, and the position angle is always oriented perpendicular to the disk plane. This suggests that an envelope, perhaps the remnant infalling envelope, must be present to scatter more stellar light than a disk can, and obscure the star at many inclinations. A grid was computed of models of scattering in a disk+envelope system. Evidence is presented that the wind of the pre-main sequence object FU Orionis arises from the surface of the luminous prostellar accretion disk. A disk wind model calculated assuming radiative equilibrium explains the differential behavior of the observed asymmetrical absorption line profiles. The model predicts that strong lines should be asymmetric and blueshifted, while weak lines should be symmetric and doubled peaked due to disk rotation, in agreement with observations.

  10. The Aims of Music Education: A Preliminary Excursion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Estelle R.

    2002-01-01

    In his essay, "Aims in Music Education: A Conceptual Study," Constantijn Koopman criticizes the lack of attention to the aims of music education and the confusion of aims and methods in some music education writing. Leaving aside questions relating to the philosophical merits or otherwise of blurring boundaries between aims and methods or the

  11. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivire, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Ghysels, Mlanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Khaykin, Sergey; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Cairo, Francesco; Di Donfrancesco, Guido; Held, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small-size and fast, but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign in Bauru (22.3S) in S-E Brazil, including different phases during the wet season : March 2012 at the end of the most active convective season, a transition phase in November-December 2012 before the most active season, and January-February 2013, which corresponds to the peak of the convective activity. The campaign involves a series of light-weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser (H2O, CO2 or CH4) and FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometers, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O and BrO, an AICEP (Electric field and Lightning) sensor, and COBALD, LOAC and micro-lidar aerosol instruments, combined with ground based radar and lidar measurements, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS and adequate modeling tools, that is to say all parameters that are sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico is a two time-scale campaign: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering one complete wet season during which water vapour profiles are measured regularly for studying their seasonal variability, and ii) an intensive observation period (IOP) during the most convectively intense summer period when measurements of all above parameters are performed close to or above thunderstorms. After a short presentation of objectives and instrumentation involved, the main results from the complete TRO-pico campaign will be shown, including the most intense period of convection and the transition period between the dry and the wet seasons.

  12. Study of air masses trajectories during the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mappe, Irene; Riviere, Emmanuel; Khaykin, Sergey; Ghysels, Mélanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Amarouche, Nadir; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Water vapor directly affects the climate as greenhouse gas emissions, but also indirectly by the formation of other essential elements of radiative forcing as aerosols, clouds of ice. In addition, water has a significant role in the chemical composition, the balance of ozone and the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Transfers of water vapor in the troposphere to the stratosphere are one of the major scientific challenges in modeling the stratosphere and climate. The TRO-pico small balloon campaign took place in Bauru (22.3 ° S) in southern Brazil during two convective seasons. Its main objective was to study the exchange of water vapor between the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and better understand the role of overshooting convection in the moistening of the lower stratosphere and its variability at the local scale to infer a typical impact at a larger scale. Here we focus on the purely convective seasons of the campaign, with a first period in March 2012 and a second in Jan-Feb 2013, during which, in addition to convective tracers measurements (methane, O3…) H2O was intensively sampled by two different in situ hygrometers : Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B. Here we investigated all the measurements gathered close to deep convective events and analyze them in term of potential signature of overshooting convection in the lower stratosphere, to put to the fore possible impact at the wet season time scale. The approach is the use of a trajectory model (HYsplit) running with the GDAS analyses, the different H2O profile from both instruments, echo top from the Bauru S-Band radar highlighting any potential overshoot occurrence in the vicinity of the balloon flight earlier during the day. For each local maximum of H2O, a back trajectory is computed from the balloon position. It is checked if the back trajectory cross an overshooting cell seen by the Bauru radar, and matches it in time and maximum altitude Here we use a total of 8 vertical profiles of H2O from the campaign. At least 4 profiles were shown to be influenced by overshooting convection. Statistics for the whole campaign will be given, as well as their mean impact. Same kind of analysis will be shown using ECMWF analyses with the FLEXTRA trajectory model. The later results will be compared to the HYSPLIT/GDAS trajectory analysis.

  13. First results from the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivire, E. D.; Pommerau, J.-P.; Held, G.; Amarouche, N.; Ghysels, M.; Khaykin, S.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Renard, J.-B.; Cairo, F.; Durry, G.; Di Donfrancesco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL (Tropical Tropopause Layer) followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small in size and fast, but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, funded by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign in Bauru (22.3 S) in Southeast Brazil, from the end of January 2012 to December 2012, involving a series of light-weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser (H2O or CH4) and FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometers, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, and BrO, an AICEP (Electric field and Lightning) sensor, and COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based radar and lidar measurements, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, Megha-Tropiques and adequate modeling, that is, of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico is a two time-scale campaign: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering a complete wet season during which water vapour profiles will be measured regularly for studying its variability and seasonal change, and ii) an intensive observation period (IOP) during the most convectively intense summer period of measurements of all above parameters next or above thunderstorms. After a short presentation of objectives and instrumentation involved, the first results of the IOP campaign during the most severe convective season will be shown.

  14. Seeing is believing? A mixed-methods study exploring the quality and perceived trustworthiness of online information about chronic conditions aimed at children and young people.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Amy C; Gofine, Miriam L; Stinson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The numbers of children and young people with chronic conditions are increasing. While their information needs may vary, providing health care information can have considerable benefits, including better emotional health, less distress during treatments, and greater satisfaction with medical care. The Internet is increasingly being used to communicate health-related information to children about a range of chronic conditions. However, the quality of such websites is underexplored. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability and quality of online information for children about chronic conditions using a standardized evaluation tool, and to explore children's and young people's perceptions of quality and trustworthiness regarding online health information. The study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, websites about common pediatric chronic conditions aimed at children and containing treatment or management options were identified and the quality assessment tool DISCERN was completed. Test-retest and interrater reliability were calculated. In Phase 2, two focus groups with laptop computers were conducted with children and young people with a chronic condition to explore their perceptions of trustworthiness of online health information. In Phase 1, 165 websites were identified and 100 met the criteria and were assessed. The mean DISCERN score of all sites was 48.16 out of 75 (SD = 7.97, range 28-71, min 15 to max 75). Quality scores varied widely across the sample. The internal consistency and interrater reliability scores were both lower than previously reported in studies using the DISCERN to assess information for adults. In Phase 2, two focus groups with a total of six participants aged 11-23 years revealed a relative lack of concern about the quality and trustworthiness of online health information. Older participants reported judging the source and authorship of websites, but other participants did not question the source of the information they found online. Although personal websites were perceived to be less reliable than those from well-known medical institutions, they were still valued by many of the participants. Overall, there were relatively few websites about pediatric chronic conditions aimed at children, with variable quality and reliability. However, DISCERN's use with pediatric websites across a broad spectrum of developmental stages is limited. Children and young people demonstrated a need for more guidance around assessing trustworthiness of online information. A more appropriate quality assessment tool is warranted, which could usefully be employed by health care professionals, children, and parents. PMID:24099647

  15. Neural representations of visual words and objects: a functional MRI study on the modularity of reading and object processing.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Ron; Esopenko, Carrie; Cummine, Jacqueline; Sarty, Gordon E

    2007-01-01

    There have been several studies supporting the notion of a ventral-dorsal distinction in the primate cortex for visual object processing, whereby the ventral stream specializes in object identification, and the dorsal stream is engaged during object localization and interaction. There is also a growing body of evidence supporting a ventral stream that specializes in lexical (i.e., whole-word) reading, and a dorsal stream that is engaged during sub-lexical reading (i.e., phonetic decoding). Here, we consider the extent to which word-reading processes are located in regions either intersecting with, or unique from, regions that sub-serve object processing along these streams. Object identification was contrasted with lexical-based reading, and object interaction processing (i.e., deciding how to interact with an object) was contrasted with sub-lexical reading. Our results suggest that object identification and lexical-based reading are largely ventral and modular, showing mainly unique regions of activation (parahippocampal and occipital-temporal gyri function associated with object identification, and lingual, lateral occipital, and posterior inferior temporal gyri function associated with lexical-based reading) and very little shared activation (posterior inferior frontal gyrus). Object interaction processing and phonetic decoding are largely dorsal, and show both modular regions of activation (more lateralized to the dorsal-frontal right hemisphere for pseudohomophone naming, and more to the dorsal-frontal left hemisphere for the object interaction task) as well as significant shared regions of processing (precentral gyri, left inferior frontal cortex, left postcentral gyrus, left lateral occipital cortex, and superior posterior temporal gyri). Given that the perceptual experimental conditions show primarily modular and very little shared processing, whereas the analytical conditions show both substantial modular and shared processing, we discuss a reconsideration of "modularity of mind" which involves a continuum between strictly modular processing and varying degrees of shared processing, and which also depends on the nature of the tasks compared (i.e., perceptual versus analytical). PMID:17929158

  16. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis

  17. An objective reference system for studying rings in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelo, Guilherme P.; Irber, Luiz C.; Villas Boas, Ana B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rings are marine vortices with a scale of hundreds of kilometers that can last for months, whose associated transport and mixing play an important role in the ocean dynamics. Such features are traditionally treated as a geostrophic flow, but since the centrifugal acceleration is not negligible in the inner core, the cyclo-geostrophic balance is a better approximation for the rings. In the present work, we describe a novel objective technique to identify the ring center, which is used as the origin of a convenient framework to handle rings under the cyclo-geostrophic balance. Furthermore, we correct the velocity field by the translation to isolate the swirl movement, a procedure ignored by other methodologies. We show that the lack of such correction would lead to an error of 30 km on the center definition of a ship surveyed North Brazil Current Ring with 160 km of radius. Another distinct characteristic of our approach is the flexibility in the spatio-temporal structure of the data, because it allows for ungridded data, an important ability for in situ observations. That also enables the use of a hybrid dataset composed from different instruments. The error on the Monte Carlo experiments to identify the center of the propagating ring is less than 10 km, and depends on the level of noise, sampling strategy, and strength of the ring, among other factors. This technique was fully implemented in PyRings, an open Python library with a collection of procedures to handle oceanic rings and mesoscale eddies in general.

  18. [Gender approach to studying reproductive aims in young people].

    PubMed

    Radchenko, O R

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of estimating reproductive potential in young people. Gender characteristics have been revealed in the sexual behavior (the young men start a sexual life at significantly earlier age; different attitudes towards contraception) and reproductive aims (children rank fourth among family values; a low proportion of persons who wish to have two children or more) of the youth in the Republic of Tatarstan. Certain risk factors influencing reproductive health impairments are identified. Differential forms of prophylactic work, which are aimed at promoting reproductive health for young people, are proposed. PMID:21899107

  19. Ontological Hermeneutics and the Aims of Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bernard A.

    The dialectic of pitting reality against the perception of reality has been a proclivity of philosophers since the days of Plato and Greek civilization. Most philosophers today regard the availability of a pure reality to be impossible. The world is as it appears to be: thinkers have no access to perfect truth. Accordingly, the matter of

  20. Another Look at the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCiccio, Al

    2015-01-01

    The author was able to hear Stanley Fish speak at the annual meeting of the Association of American Colleges and Universities in January 2004. Fish, a literary critic, had become dean of arts and sciences at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)--a position he has now vacated. Fish has published widely, usually upholding the ideals of our

  1. Another Look at the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCiccio, Al

    2015-01-01

    The author was able to hear Stanley Fish speak at the annual meeting of the Association of American Colleges and Universities in January 2004. Fish, a literary critic, had become dean of arts and sciences at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)--a position he has now vacated. Fish has published widely, usually upholding the ideals of our…

  2. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gunfight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three State legislatures in 2011 considered bills to permit the carrying of firearms at their public institutions of higher education, and some public colleges in at least six states now allow weapons on college grounds or in college buildings. The lawful possession of guns on campus is a recent and limited phenomenon, but decisions by the…

  3. [Aims and background of the anticorruption law].

    PubMed

    Mhlhausen, H

    2002-01-01

    Corruption not only should be banned sociopolitically, it is a tort of law in Germany. Any employee in public duty has a special responsibility. That is the reason why the law does not tolerate any kind of corruption particularly in the public workplace. On trial the facts have to be established. A medical doctor is liable only if he abused his position to get an advantage. Doctors who are in charge of economic decisional power have to be aware that their responsibility for public money is important and that any personal advantage, which is linked to economic decisions will be problematic. Therefore the principles of transparency and rational economics have to be acknowledged. PMID:12094399

  4. A method aimed at assessing the functional consequences of the supramolecular organization of the respiratory electron transfer chain by time-resolved studies.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    A steadily increasing number of physiological, biochemical, and structural studies have provided a growing support to the notion that the respiratory electron transfer chain may contain supra-molecular edifices made of the assembly of some, if not all, of its individual links. This structure, usually referred to as the solid state model-in comparison to the liquid state model in which the electron transfer reactions between the membrane bound enzymes are diffusion controlled-is seen as conferring specific kinetic properties to the chain and thus as being highly relevant from a functional point of view. Although the assumption that structural changes are mirrored by functional adjustment is undoubtedly legitimate, experimental evidences supporting it remain scarce. Here we review a recent methodological development aimed at tackling the functional relevance of the supramolecular organization of the respiratory electron transfer chain in intact cells. PMID:25308491

  5. Rehabilitation aimed at improving outdoor mobility for people after stroke: a multicentre randomised controlled study (the Getting out of the House Study).

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Philippa A; Armstrong, Sarah; Avery, Tony J; Barer, David; Barton, Garry R; Darby, Janet; Gladman, John R F; Horne, Jane; Leach, Simon; Lincoln, Nadina B; Mehta, Samir; Newell, Ossie; O'Neil, Kathleen; Sach, Tracey H; Walker, Marion F; Williams, Hywel C; Woodhouse, Lisa J; Leighton, Mat P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND One-third of stroke patients are dependent on others to get outside their homes. This can cause people to become housebound, leading to increased immobility, poor health, isolation and misery. There is some evidence that outdoor mobility rehabilitation can reduce these limitations. OBJECTIVE To test the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an outdoor mobility rehabilitation intervention for stroke patients. DESIGN Multicentre, parallel-group randomised controlled trial, with two groups allocated at a 1 : 1 ratio plus qualitative participant interviews. SETTING Fifteen UK NHS stroke services throughout England, Scotland and Wales. PARTICIPANTS A total of 568 stroke patients who wished to get out of the house more often, mean age of 71 years: 508 reached the 6-month follow-up and 10 were interviewed. INTERVENTION Control was delivered prior to randomisation to all participants, and consisted of verbal advice and transport and outdoor mobility leaflets. Intervention was a targeted outdoor mobility rehabilitation programme delivered by 29 NHS therapists to 287 randomly chosen participants for up to 12 sessions over 4 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Primary outcome was participant health-related quality of life, measured by the Short Form questionnaire-36 items, version 2 (Social Function domain), 6 months after baseline. Secondary outcomes were functional ability, mobility, number of journeys (from monthly travel diaries), satisfaction with outdoor mobility (SWOM), psychological well-being and resource use [health care and Personal Social Services (PSS)] 6 months after baseline. Carer well-being was recorded. All outcome measures were collected by post and repeated 12 months after baseline. Outcomes for the groups were compared using statistical significance testing and adjusted for multiple membership to account for the effect of multiple therapists at different sites. Interviews were analysed using interpretive phenomenology to explore confidence. RESULTS A median of seven intervention sessions [interquartile range (IQR) 3-7 sessions], median duration of 369 minutes (IQR 170-691.5 minutes) per participant was delivered. There was no significant difference between the groups on health-related quality of life (social function). There were no significant differences between groups in functional ability, psychological well-being or SWOM at 6- or 12-month follow-ups. There was a significant difference observed for travel journeys with the intervention group being 42% more likely to make a journey compared with the control group [rate ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14 to 1.67] at 6 months and 76% more likely (rate ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.95) at 12 months. The number of journeys was affected by the therapist effect. The mean incremental cost (total NHS and PSS cost) of the intervention was £3413.75 (95% CI -£448.43 to £7121.00), with an incremental quality-adjusted life-year gain of -0.027 (95% CI -0.060 to 0.007) according to the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions and -0.003 (95% CI -0.016 to 0.006) according to the Short Form questionnaire-6 Dimensions. At baseline, 259 out of 281 (92.2%) participants in the control group were dissatisfied with outdoor mobility but at the 6-month assessment this had reduced to 77.7% (181/233), a 15% reduction. The corresponding reduction in the intervention group was slightly greater (21%) than 268 out of 287 (93.4%) participants dissatisfied with outdoor mobility at baseline to 189 out of 261 (72.4%) at 6 months. Participants described losing confidence after stroke as being detrimental to outdoor mobility. Recruitment and retention rates were high. The intervention was deliverable by the NHS but had a neutral effect in all areas apart from potentially increasing the number of journeys. This was dependent on the therapist effect, meaning that some therapists were more successful than others. The control appeared to affect change. CONCLUSIONS The outdoor mobility intervention provided in this study to these stroke patients was not clinically effective or cost-effective. However, the provision of personalised information and monthly diaries should be considered for all people who wish to get out more. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58683841. FUNDING This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 18, No. 29. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. PMID:24806825

  6. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study: objectives, materials and methods

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    An investigation into the possible causes of childhood cancer has been carried out throughout England, Scotland and Wales over the period 1991–1998. All children known to be suffering from one or other type of the disease over periods of 4–5 years have been included, and control children matched for sex, age and area of residence have been selected at random from population registers. Information about both groups of children (with and without cancer) has been obtained from parental questionnaires, general practitioners' and hospital records, and from measurement of the extent of exposure to radon gas, terrestrial gamma radiation, and electric and magnetic fields. Samples of blood have also been obtained from the affected children and their parents and stored. Altogether 3838 children with cancer, including 1736 with leukaemia, and 7629 unaffected children have been studied. Detailed accounts are given of the nature of the information obtained in sections describing the general methodology of the study, the measurement of exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, the classification of solid tumours and leukaemias, and the biological material available for genetic analysis. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10737392

  7. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study

    PubMed Central

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. Methods: A total of 484 participants aged 8789 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 57-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Results: Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P < 0.001). Conclusion: The Newcastle 85+ PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. PMID:26018999

  8. Object motion analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of optical data processing (ODP) techniques for motion analysis in two-dimensional imagery was studied. The basic feasibility of this approach was demonstrated, but inconsistent performance of the photoplastic used for recording spatial filters prevented totally automatic operation. Promising solutions to the problems encountered are discussed, and it is concluded that ODP techniques could be quite useful for motion analysis.

  9. The Use of Metaphorical Connotation of Inanimate Objects to Describe People by Speakers of Jordanian Arabic: A Pragmatic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Soudi, Layth

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the use of connotations of inanimate objects to describe people by speakers of Jordanian Arabic. Its main goal is to analyze the positive and negative connotative meanings of inanimate object used to describe people in Jordan. Besides, the contribution of gender in making connotative meanings. The study provides a

  10. Study Protocol – Diabetes and related conditions in urban Indigenous people in the Darwin, Australia region: aims, methods and participation in the DRUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan; O'Dea, Kerin; Dunbar, Terry; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasing health problem in Australia and is a designated national health priority. Diabetes and related conditions represent an even greater health burden among Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), but there are critical gaps in knowledge relating to the incidence and prevalence, aetiology, and prevention of diabetes in this group, including a lack of information on the burden of disease among Indigenous people in urban areas. The DRUID Study (Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods/design The study was conducted in a specified geographic area in and around Darwin, Australia. Eligible participants underwent a health examination, including collection of blood and urine samples, clinical and anthropometric measurements, and administration of questionnaires, with an additional assessment for people with diabetes. The study was designed to incorporate local Indigenous leadership, facilitate community engagement, and provide employment and training opportunities for local Indigenous people. A variety of recruitment methods were used. A total of 1,004 eligible people gave consent and provided at least one measurement. When compared with census data for the Indigenous population living in the study area, there was a marked under-representation of males, but no substantial differences in age, place of residence, Indigenous group, or household income. Early participants were more likely than later participants to have previously diagnosed diabetes. Discussion Despite lower than anticipated recruitment, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study ever conducted on the health of Indigenous Australians living in urban areas, a group which comprises the majority of Australia's Indigenous population but about whose health and wellbeing relatively little is known. The study is well-placed to provide new information that can be used by policy makers and service providers to improve the delivery of services and programs that affect the health of Indigenous people. It also represents a valuable opportunity to establish an urban Indigenous cohort study, provided participants can be followed successfully over time. PMID:16417641

  11. Study objectives: Will commercial avionics do the job? Improvements needed?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasr, Hatem

    1992-01-01

    Improvements in commercial avionics are covered in a viewgraph format. Topics include the following: computer architecture, user requirements, Boeing 777 aircraft, cost effectiveness, and implemention.

  12. Satellite mission Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) partners with formal and informal education programs to study clouds on the edge of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. Q.; Maggi, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    The satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM), has developed an exciting partnership of formal and informal education programs that will connect students and the public to the unique scientific aspects of the mission. The AIM satellite mission is dedicated to providing a scientific basis for understanding why Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) form and vary. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) or "night shinning" clouds because of their visibility at dawn and dusk. The visible manifestation of PMCs provides a unique opportunity for Education and Public Outreach. The AIM outreach programs will utilize the beautiful images of "clouds on the edge of space" as a tool to motivate students and the public to increase their knowledge and understanding about issues surrounding changes in our atmosphere. In an effort to provide formal and informal outreach opportunities worldwide, AIM has developed a partnership with the GLOBE program. GLOBE is a network of schools, science centers, and clubs from over 105 countries where participants collect scientific data according to precise protocols and enter the data into a central database allowing both scientists and students to utilize the data. The collaboration between AIM and GLOBE will involve participants in collecting and utilizing NLC data worldwide. This partnership will provide a mechanism for sustaining AIM education opportunities for both formal and informal education venues in the future. Included in the formal education component of AIM outreach is the implementation of two educator workshops that will establish partnerships between the mission and classrooms nationwide. The educator workshops will be held in Alaska due to the optimal location for viewing NLCs. Participants attending the workshops will be chosen from a national pool allowing teachers working with students in southern latitudes an opportunity to experience the excitement of working with data that can only be collected in northern areas. Educators selected from Alaska will be provided with cameras to photograph NLC observations for distribution on the AIM website. Teachers from rural Alaska schools will be paired with teachers from urban schools with underserved populations for the development of online cooperative student projects. By providing rural Alaska educators and urban educators across the United States with an opportunity to partner on NLC projects, students will not only gain science knowledge, but also an opportunity to develop cross-cultural awareness. Informal education materials developed by AIM will assist with educating the public about the environmental implications associated with the mission data. The Native Ways of Knowing Project is an excellent example an informal partnership established with AIM. This Alaska based project will assist native peoples of the state with photographing NLCs for the AIM website. The project will also assist AIM outreach with developing materials for informal organizations that incorporate traditional native knowledge and science, related to the sky. Another partnership that will offer citizens lasting informal education opportunities is the one established with the National Parks. AIM will work directly with the Parks to develop education materials for their Parks as Classrooms programs. This partnership will have a long-term impact reaching out to people in an informal setting for years to come.

  13. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget: first highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Khaykhin, Sergey; Ghysels, Melanie; Mappe-Fogaing, Irene; Stoeffler, Clara; Toledo-Tarasco, Daniel; Rannou, Pascal; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small size, fast but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign that took place in Bauru (22.3°S) in S-E Brazil, in March 2012 and from November 2012 to March 2013 (most of the wet season) with a peak phase in January-February 2013 (during the most active convective season). The campaign involved a series of light weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser spectrometers (H2O, CO2 or CH4), a FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometer, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based S-Band radar and an optical depth sensor so-called ODS, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, and adequate modelling tools that is of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico included a two time-scale campaign with a total of 37 balloon flights including 34 flights using H2O sensors in the flight train: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering to the full wet season during which water vapour profiles were measured regularly for studying its variability and seasonal change, and ii) an intensive observation period (IOP) during the most convectively intense period when all above-mentioned parameters were measured next or above thunderstorms. More than one year after the end of the campaign, here we give the first conclusions from this large campaign, such as the variability of water vapour in the TTL, the influence of the overshooting convection within the profiles gathered, new insights from modelling of deep convection, as well as statistics from cirrus observations and modelling.

  14. Is objective and accurate cognitive assessment across the menstrual cycle possible? A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Jo; Scally, Andy; Tuffnell, Derek; Marshall, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Variation in plasma hormone levels influences the neurobiology of brain regions involved in cognition and emotion processing. Fluctuations in hormone levels across the menstrual cycle could therefore alter cognitive performance and wellbeing; reports have provided conflicting results, however. The aim of this study was to assess whether objective assessment of cognitive performance and self-reported wellbeing during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle is feasible and investigate the possible reasons for variation in effects previously reported. Methods: The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were used to assess the cognitive performance and wellbeing of 12 women. Data were analysed by self-reported and hormone-estimated phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Recruitment to the study and assessment of cognition and wellbeing was without issue. Plasma hormone and peptide estimation showed substantial individual variation and suggests inaccuracy in self-reported menstrual phase estimation. Conclusion: Objective assessment of cognitive performance and self-assessed wellbeing across the menstrual cycle is feasible. Grouping data by hormonal profile rather by self-reported phase estimation may influence phase-mediated results. Future studies should use plasma hormone and peptide profiles to estimate cycle phase and group data for analyses. PMID:26770760

  15. Epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes in a Mediterranean country; aims, design and baseline characteristics of the Greek study of acute coronary syndromes (GREECS)

    PubMed Central

    Pitsavos, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Antonoulas, Antonis; Zombolos, Spyros; Kogias, Yannis; Mantas, Yannis; Stravopodis, Peter; Kourlaba, Georgia; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2005-01-01

    Background The present study GREECS was conducted in order to evaluate the annual incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and to delineate the role of clinical, biochemical, lifestyle and behavioral characteristics on the severity of disease. In this work we present the design, methodology of the study and various baseline characteristics of people with ACS. Methods/Design A sample of 6 hospitals located in Greek urban and rural regions was selected. In these hospitals we recorded almost all admissions due to ACS, from October 2003 to September 2004. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological and other lifestyle characteristics were recorded. 2172 patients were included in the study (76% were men and 24% women). The crude annual incidence rate was 22.6 per 10,000 people and the highest frequency of events was observed in winter. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.3%. The most common discharged diagnosis for men was Q-wave MI, while for women it was unstable angina. Discussion This study aims to demonstrate current information about the epidemiology of patients who suffer from ACS, in Greece. PMID:15771779

  16. Studying the incommensurability that unites us: persuasion across discourse communities, persuasion via boundary objects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    In the science studies literature the theoretical construct of boundary objects has been developed to explain how diverse communities clustered around a scientific subject area cooperate to advance that area. Boundary objects are 'scientific objects that inhabit several intersecting social worlds . . . and satisfy the informational requirements of each of them' (Star and Griesemer 393). Star and Griesemer's foundational article showed that these objects can be shared by communities ranging from academic researchers to amateur enthiasts, adminsitrators, philanthropists, and technicians. While each community understands the object differently, there is enough commonality in the understanding of the object to unite these distinct social worlds and facilitate cooperation among them.

  17. A case study evaluation of an intervention aiming to strengthen the midwifery professional role in Morocco: anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Abou Malham, Sabina; Hatem, Marie; Leduc, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, Morocco is strongly committed to strengthen its midwifery professional role. This study aimed to identify barriers that could potentially hinder an action plan to strengthen the midwifery professional role from achieving desired outcomes. We used a conceptual framework, which is derived from Hatem-Asmar’s (1997) framework on the interaction of educational, professional, and sociocultural systems in which a professional role evolves and from Damschroder et al’s (2009) framework for the implementation analysis. Methods This paper builds on a qualitative case study on the factors affecting the action plan’s implementation process that also revealed rich data about anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes. Data were collected through training sessions, field observations, documents, focus groups (n=20), and semistructured interviews (n=11) with stakeholders pertaining to the three systems under study. Content analysis was used to identify themes related to barriers. Results Seven barriers that may compromise the achievement of desired results were found. They relate to the legal framework, social representations, and media support in the sociocultural system and the practice environment, networks and communication mechanisms, and characteristics related to the role and the readiness in the professional system. Conclusion Disregarding sociocultural and professional system level, barriers may impede efforts to strengthen the midwife’s role and to provide qualified midwives who can improve the quality of maternal care. Making changes in the educational system cannot be thought of as an isolated process. Its success is closely tied with multiple contextual factors pertaining to the two other systems. Activities recommended to address these barriers may have great potential to build a competent midwifery workforce that contributes to positive maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:26445547

  18. Citizenship and Nationality in Changing Europe: A Comparative Study of the Aims of Citizenship Education in Russian and Finnish National Education Policy Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piattoeva, Nelli

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses how the formal aims of citizenship education, as declared in legislation and policy documents, have changed since the end of the 1980s in response to the transformation of the political scenery in Finland and the Russian Federation. One central question framing the analysis of Finnish citizenship education is whether

  19. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubhl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms. PMID:22039696

  20. Can a Box of Mailed Materials Achieve the Triple Aims of Health Care? The Mailed Chronic Disease Self-Management Tool Kit Study.

    PubMed

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L; Moreland, Courtney; Laurent, Diana D

    2015-09-01

    Not all patients with chronic conditions are able or willing to participate in small-group or Internet self-management programs. Based on the Arthritis Mailed Took Kit Program and the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, a mailed Chronic Disease Self-Management Tool Kit, delivered in a onetime mailing, was developed as an alternative mode of delivery. Kits were mailed to a national sample of 255 participants with varying chronic conditions and evaluated in a longitudinal (6-month) trial. Outcomes reflected the triple aims of health care. At 6 months, participants demonstrated better health care indicators, better health indicators, and less health care utilization. There were significant improvements in two health care indicators and six health indicators and reductions in physician visits. Follow-up response rate was high (85%). There were no significant baseline differences between responders and nonresponders. Subgroup analyses were performed for a number of subgroups, including those with arthritis (58%) and/or depression (43%), and for African Americans (14%). Subgroups demonstrated improvements equal to or better than the overall group. The Mailed Chronic Disease Self-Management Tool Kit represents a third mode, along with small groups and Internet, of delivering self-management patient education, and appears to contribute to meeting the triple aims of health care for those who actively chose this mode of delivery. PMID:25690615

  1. Cost-effectiveness analyses of self-harm strategies aimed at reducing the mortality of pesticide self-poisonings in Sri Lanka: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Suneth; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 803 900 people worldwide died as a result of self-harm in 2012. The deliberate ingestion of pesticides has been identified as the method most frequently used to commit fatal self-harm globally. In Sri Lanka, it is estimated that up to 60% of all suicides are committed using this method. The aim of the present study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing safe storage intervention currently taking place in a rural Sri Lankan district and to model the cost-effectiveness of implementing the safe storage intervention as well as four potential interventions (legislative, medical management, follow-up contact and mobile phone contact) on a national level. Methods and analysis Study design for all the strategies is a cost-effectiveness analysis. A governmental perspective is adopted. The time horizon for tracking the associated costs and health outcomes of the safe storage intervention on district level runs over 3 years. The time horizon is extended to 5 years when modelling a full national roll-out of the respective interventions. The discounting of costs and health outcomes are undertaken at the recommended real rate of 3%. Threshold analyses of the modelled strategies are employed to assess the strategies potential for cost-effectiveness, running scenarios with health outcome improvements ranging from 1% to 100%. Sensitivity analyses are also performed. The main outcome measures of the safe storage intervention are incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted for the safe storage project from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in March of 2008. An amendment for the present study was granted from Rajarata University of Sri Lanka in November of 2013. Findings will be disseminated to public and private stakeholders in local and national government in Sri Lanka as well as the wider academic audience through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. Trial registration number The safe storage cluster trial is registered with the Clinical Trials, ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT1146496). PMID:25724984

  2. Taking Aims: New CASE Study Benchmarks Advancement Investments and Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Rae

    2012-01-01

    Advancement professionals have always been thirsty for information that will help them understand how their programs compare with those of their peers. But in recent years the demand for benchmarking data has exploded as budgets have become leaner, leaders have become more business minded, and terms like "performance metrics and return on

  3. Taking Aims: New CASE Study Benchmarks Advancement Investments and Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Rae

    2012-01-01

    Advancement professionals have always been thirsty for information that will help them understand how their programs compare with those of their peers. But in recent years the demand for benchmarking data has exploded as budgets have become leaner, leaders have become more business minded, and terms like "performance metrics and return on…

  4. Objective measurement of synergistic movement patterns of the upper extremity following stroke: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Krabben, T; Prange, G B; Molier, B I; Rietman, J S; Buurke, J H

    2011-01-01

    The majority of stroke survivors have to cope with deficits in arm function, which is often monitored with subjective clinical scales during stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to examine whether robotic outcome measures obtained during circle drawing are suitable to objectively measure upper extremity function of stroke survivors, especially regarding synergistic movement patterns. Stroke survivors (n = 16) and healthy subjects (n = 20) drew circles, as big and as round as possible, above a table top. Joint angles and positions of the shoulder and elbow were measured. Synergistic movement patterns were identified based on simultaneous changes of the shoulder elevation angle and elbow angle. Stroke survivors moved significantly more within synergistic movement patterns, compared to healthy subjects. Strong correlations between the proximal upper extremity part of the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale and the use of synergistic movement patterns were found. The proposed outcome measures seem to be suitable measures to objectively quantify the occurrence of synergistic movement patterns of the upper extremity following stroke. PMID:22275631

  5. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this

  6. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  7. Determination of the object surface function by structured light: application to the study of spinal deformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendía, M.; Salvador, R.; Cibrián, R.; Laguia, M.; Sotoca, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The projection of structured light is a technique frequently used to determine the surface shape of an object. In this paper, a new procedure is described that efficiently resolves the correspondence between the knots of the projected grid and those obtained on the object when the projection is made. The method is based on the use of three images of the projected grid. In two of them the grid is projected over a flat surface placed, respectively, before and behind the object; both images are used for calibration. In the third image the grid is projected over the object. It is not reliant on accurate determination of the camera and projector pair relative to the grid and object. Once the method is calibrated, we can obtain the surface function by just analysing the projected grid on the object. The procedure is especially suitable for the study of objects without discontinuities or large depth gradients. It can be employed for determining, in a non-invasive way, the patient's back surface function. Symmetry differences permit a quantitative diagnosis of spinal deformities such as scoliosis.

  8. A chicken model for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Samantha M. W.; Wood, Justin N.

    2015-01-01

    “Invariant object recognition” refers to the ability to recognize objects across variation in their appearance on the retina. This ability is central to visual perception, yet its developmental origins are poorly understood. Traditionally, nonhuman primates, rats, and pigeons have been the most commonly used animal models for studying invariant object recognition. Although these animals have many advantages as model systems, they are not well suited for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition in the newborn brain. Here, we argue that newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) are an ideal model system for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition. Using an automated controlled-rearing approach, we show that chicks can build a viewpoint-invariant representation of the first object they see in their life. This invariant representation can be built from highly impoverished visual input (three images of an object separated by 15° azimuth rotations) and cannot be accounted for by low-level retina-like or V1-like neuronal representations. These results indicate that newborn neural circuits begin building invariant object representations at the onset of vision and argue for an increased focus on chicks as an animal model for studying invariant object recognition. PMID:25767436

  9. Goals and Objectives: The Social Studies Report [And] Social Studies Analysis and Synthesis Report [And] Social Studies Philosophy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokane School District 81, WA.

    This document contains three papers relating to the goals, objectives, and philosophy of the social studies program of District number 81, Spokane public schools. The first paper lists the competencies and skills which K-12 students should master. The scope of the social studies program includes psychology, which focuses on developing a good

  10. Topological description of the bond-breaking and bond-forming processes of the alkene protonation reaction in zeolite chemistry: an AIM study.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, María Fernanda; Peruchena, Nélida Maria

    2011-10-01

    Density functional theory and atoms in molecules theory were used to study bond breakage and bond formation in the trans-2-butene protonation reaction in an acidic zeolitic cluster. The progress of this reaction along the intrinsic reaction coordinate, in terms of several topological properties of relevant bond critical points and atomic properties of the key atoms involved in these concerted mechanisms, were analyzed in depth. At B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level, the results explained the electron density redistributions associated with the progressive bond breakage and bond formation of the reaction under study, as well as the profiles of the electronic flow between the different atomic basins involved in these electron reorganization processes. In addition, we found a useful set of topological indicators that are useful to show what is happening in each bond/atom involved in the reaction site as the reaction progresses. PMID:21193939

  11. Conscientious objection, barriers, and abortion in the case of rape: a study among physicians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristio

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion. PMID:24908465

  12. Summary of clinical and laboratory data of study subjects with and without DCE-MRI plaque measurements in the AIM-HIGH clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kevin D.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Chen, Huijun; Neradilek, Moni B.; Probstfield, Jeffrey L.; Peck, Suzanne; Isquith, Daniel A.; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Polissar, Nayak L.; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Kerwin, William S.

    2016-01-01

    This brief data article summarizes the clinical risk factors and laboratory data of a group of subjects recruited for the AIM-HIGH trial (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and an associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy. The sample is restricted to those on statin therapy at the time of enrollment and data are presented stratified by whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) markers of carotid plaque vascularity and inflammation were available or not. The data provided herein are directly related to the article “Longer Duration of Statin Therapy is Associated with Decreased Carotid Plaque Vascularity by Magnetic Resonance Imaging” [2]. PMID:26977429

  13. Assessing AIM: A Study of Grade 8 Students in an Ontario School Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-method study examines the proficiency in and perceptions of French language learning of Grade 8 students who were exposed to an instructional approach called the Accelerative Integrated Method (AIM). Six AIM classes (n = 125) and six non-AIM classes (n = 135) were observed and their students tested using a four-skills French as a second

  14. A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. Method/Design This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. Discussion The intervention package is designed to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by overcoming the barriers related to awareness, finance, transport, security etc. If proven effective, the Ministry of Health has committed to scale up the intervention package throughout the country. Trial registration number ISRCTN78892490. PMID:24646123

  15. Pyroptotic neuronal cell death mediated by the AIM2 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Adamczak, Stephanie E; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Dale, Gordon; Brand, Frank J; Nonner, Doris; Bullock, MRoss; Dahl, Gerhard P; Dietrich, W Dalton; Keane, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is an active participant in the innate immune response to infection and injury. In these studies, we show embryonic cortical neurons express a functional, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-responsive, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome that activates caspase-1. Neurons undergo pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death mechanism characterized by the following: (a) oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC); (b) caspase-1 dependency; (c) formation of discrete pores in the plasma membrane; and (d) release of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Probenecid and Brilliant Blue FCF, inhibitors of the pannexin1 channel, prevent AIM2 inflammasome-mediated cell death, identifying pannexin1 as a cell death effector during pyroptosis and probenecid as a novel pyroptosis inhibitor. Furthermore, we show activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in neurons by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and oligomerization of ASC. These findings suggest neuronal pyroptosis is an important cell death mechanism during CNS infection and injury that may be attenuated by probenecid. PMID:24398937

  16. Pyroptotic neuronal cell death mediated by the AIM2 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Adamczak, Stephanie E; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Dale, Gordon; Brand, Frank J; Nonner, Doris; Bullock, M Ross; Dahl, Gerhard P; Dietrich, W Dalton; Keane, Robert W

    2014-04-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is an active participant in the innate immune response to infection and injury. In these studies, we show embryonic cortical neurons express a functional, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-responsive, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome that activates caspase-1. Neurons undergo pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death mechanism characterized by the following: (a) oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC); (b) caspase-1 dependency; (c) formation of discrete pores in the plasma membrane; and (d) release of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Probenecid and Brilliant Blue FCF, inhibitors of the pannexin1 channel, prevent AIM2 inflammasome-mediated cell death, identifying pannexin1 as a cell death effector during pyroptosis and probenecid as a novel pyroptosis inhibitor. Furthermore, we show activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in neurons by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and oligomerization of ASC. These findings suggest neuronal pyroptosis is an important cell death mechanism during CNS infection and injury that may be attenuated by probenecid. PMID:24398937

  17. Laugh and Smile upon the Holy Quran: The Study of Analytical Objectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al-Domi, Mohammad Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the positive impact of The Holy Quran based on the laugh and smile. This kind of derivatives in which context of praise, expression the feeling of happiness and joyful in the positive senses. Everyone needs to relieve his heart so that happiness and joy on their faces can be seen. Laughter also are some of attribute…

  18. Aims in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a gastroenterologist's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Heading, R C

    1999-01-01

    Relieving heartburn and healing esophagitis may appear to be primary aims in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, but systematic consideration of the issues demonstrates that there are discrepancies between the fundamental aims of medical management and the aims selected for study in trials of drug efficacy. The initial aims of management are those concerned with diagnosis, patient assessment and the provision of explanation and advice. The therapeutic objectives are alleviating symptoms, preventing complications and, if possible, avoiding recurrence, and should ideally be judged in terms of health gain, including quality of life improvement. Obtaining value for money, by maximizing the health gain in relation to the cost of the overall medical intervention must also be acknowledged as a desirable aim of management, with the proviso that physicians must always treat each patient as an individual and individualize clinical management appropriately. PMID:10941852

  19. 'A dispassionate and objective effort:' negotiating the first study on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Jacob Darwin

    2007-01-01

    The National Academy of Science's 1956 study on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) was designed to provide an objective analysis to assess conflicting statements by leading geneticists and by officials in the Atomic Energy Commission. Largely because of its status as a detached, non-governmental evaluation by eminent scientists, no studies have had a broader impact on the development of biological thinking in regard to nuclear policies. This paper demonstrates that despite the first BEAR study's reputation as an objective and independent study, it was the product of careful negotiation between Academy scientists, the Atomic Energy Commission, and Britain's Medical Research Council. This paper also reveals the fragility of the consensus that produced the Academy's report, the range of political uses of the report, and the subsequent disaffection of the scientists who took part in it. PMID:17993170

  20. Study of Adhesion and Survival of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria on Table Olives with the Aim of Formulating a New Probiotic Food

    PubMed Central

    Lavermicocca, Paola; Valerio, Francesca; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; De Angelis, Maria; Morelli, Lorenzo; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Visconti, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    With the aim of developing new functional foods, a traditional product, the table olive, was used as a vehicle for incorporating probiotic bacterial species. Survival on table olives of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (three strains), Lactobacillus paracasei (two strains), Bifidobacterium bifidum (one strain), and Bifidobacterium longum (one strain) at room temperature was investigated. The results obtained using a selected olive sample demonstrated that bifidobacteria and one strain of L. rhamnosus (Lactobacillus GG) showed a good survival rate, with a recovery of about 106 CFU g?1 after 30 days. The Lactobacillus GG population remained unvaried until the end of the experiment, while a slight decline (to about 105 CFU g?1) was observed for bifidobacteria. High viability, with more than 107 CFU g?1, was observed throughout the 3-month experiment for L. paracasei IMPC2.1. This strain, selected for its potential probiotic characteristics and for its lengthy survival on olives, was used to validate table olives as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. L. paracasei IMPC2.1 was recovered from fecal samples in four out of five volunteers fed 10 to 15 olives per day carrying about 109 to 1010 viable cells for 10 days. PMID:16085808

  1. The Intelligence of Complexity: Do the Ethical Aims of Research and Intervention in Education Not Lead Us to a New Discourse "On the Study Methods of Our Time"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Moigne, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    To better appreciate the contribution of the "paradigm of complexity" in Educational sciences, this paper proposes a framework discussing its cultural and historical roots. First, it focuses on Giambattista Vico's (1668-1744) critique of René Descartes' method (1637), contrasting Cartesian's principles (evidence, disjunction, linear…

  2. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta

  3. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  4. Patriotism, History and the Legitimate Aims of American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaining important truths germane to the various

  5. Objective Subsurface Geological Modeling using Geological Columns - A case study for the Kisarazu Distinct, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological models of subsurface structure play an important role in disaster assessment, environmental preservation, and underground utilization. These models are often constructed subjectively based on geological data obtained from field survey. However, reliability of subjective model depends on modeler's knowledge and experience as well as on quality of basic data. In order to ensure a more stable reliability of the model, objective approach is necessary. The purpose of this study is to establish an objective geological modeling method. For the purpose of this study, we constructed a subsurface geological model focusing on mathematical treatment of stratigraphy. Study area is the Kisarazu distinct, in the middle part of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Basic data for modeling are 44 geological columns. In the modeling, firstly, we constructed a Logical Model of Geological Structure (LMGS) that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The LMGS is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. Secondly, we generated Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of geological boundary surfaces using geological columns. Thirdly, we constructed an objective geological model using the LMGS and the DEMs. Finally, we visualized the model in 2D and 3D using GRASS GIS. As a result, in the areas with high number of geological columns, geological map and geological cross-sections derived from objective model were in good agreement with the ones derived from subjective model reported in other studies. In the areas with low number of geological columns, the objective map and cross-sections were somewhat different from subjective ones. In conclusion, the results indicate that objective model may give new findings about subsurface structure. In addition, the objective model gives a more stable reliability than the subjective model because the former ensures traceability of modeling procedures. The LMGS is unfit for complicated geological structures like lens. For the solution of this problem, we need to improve theoretical base of the LMGS.

  6. Spray aiming in the bombardier beetle: photographic evidence.

    PubMed

    Eisner, T; Aneshansley, D J

    1999-08-17

    Bombardier beetles, when physically assaulted, eject a hot quinonoid spray from the tip of the abdomen. Photographic evidence is presented demonstrating that the African bombardier beetle, Stenaptinus insignis, can aim its spray in virtually any direction. It can target its individual legs, and even the individual segments of its legs. Moreover, in aiming at a leg, it takes into account the postural orientation of that leg. The beetle is able even to target sites on its back. It is postulated that the ability to aim helps the beetle mainly in defense against ants. PMID:10449758

  7. Spray aiming in the bombardier beetle: Photographic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Bombardier beetles, when physically assaulted, eject a hot quinonoid spray from the tip of the abdomen. Photographic evidence is presented demonstrating that the African bombardier beetle, Stenaptinus insignis, can aim its spray in virtually any direction. It can target its individual legs, and even the individual segments of its legs. Moreover, in aiming at a leg, it takes into account the postural orientation of that leg. The beetle is able even to target sites on its back. It is postulated that the ability to aim helps the beetle mainly in defense against ants. PMID:10449758

  8. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft - Duration: 27 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  9. Animated View of the AIM Mission - Duration: 27 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  10. What Should Religious Education in Germany Be about and How Does Religiosity Fit into This Picture? An Empirical Study of Pre-Service Religious Education Teachers' Beliefs on the Aims of RE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Ulrich; Mendl, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In secularising Germany the aim of religious education (RE) is under discussion. The churches opt for denominational education familiarising the students with their own religious tradition. Humanists claim an ethical education, giving students objective information about different religions. Which perspective do students who will become RE…

  11. What Should Religious Education in Germany Be about and How Does Religiosity Fit into This Picture? An Empirical Study of Pre-Service Religious Education Teachers' Beliefs on the Aims of RE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Ulrich; Mendl, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In secularising Germany the aim of religious education (RE) is under discussion. The churches opt for denominational education familiarising the students with their own religious tradition. Humanists claim an ethical education, giving students objective information about different religions. Which perspective do students who will become RE

  12. Clinical factors associated with high-risk carotid plaque features as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with established vascular disease (from the AIM-HIGH Study).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Hippe, Daniel S; Sun, Jie; Balu, Niranjan; Isquith, Daniel A; Crouse, John R; Anderson, Todd; Huston, John; Polissar, Nayak; O'Brien, Kevin; Yuan, Chun

    2014-11-01

    Association between clinical factors and high-risk plaque features, such as, thin or ruptured cap, intraplaque hemorrhage, presence of lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), and increased LRNC volume as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was examined in patients with established vascular disease in the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides (AIM-HIGH) trial. A total of 214 subjects underwent carotid MRI and had acceptable image quality for assessment of plaque burden, tissue contents, and MRI-modified American Heart Association lesion type by a core laboratory. We found that 77% of subjects had carotid plaques, 52% had lipid-containing plaques, and 11% had advanced American Heart Association type-VI lesions with possible surface defect, intraplaque hemorrhage, or mural thrombus. Type-VI lesions were associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6 per 5 years increase, p <0.001). After adjusting for age, these lesions were associated with history of cerebrovascular disease (OR = 4.1, p = 0.01), higher levels of lipoprotein(a) (OR = 2.0 per 1 SD increase, p = 0.02), and larger percent wall volume (PWV [OR = 4.6 per 1 SD increase, p <0.001]) but, were negatively associated with metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.2, p = 0.02). Presence of LRNC was associated with the male gender (OR = 3.2, p = 0.02) and PWV (OR = 3.8 per 1 SD, p <0.001); however, it was negatively associated with diabetes (OR = 0.4, p = 0.02) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (OR = 0.7 per 1 SD, p = 0.02). Increased percent LRNC was associated with PWV (regression coefficient = 0.36, p <0.001) and negatively associated with ApoA1 levels (regression coefficient = -0.20, p = 0.03). In conclusion, older age, male gender, history of cerebrovascular disease, larger plaque burden, higher lipoprotein(a), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or ApoA1 level have statistically significant associations with high-risk plaque features. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes showed negative associations in this population. PMID:25245415

  13. The Measurement of Logical Judgements in Adults. (A Research Study Aimed at Adaptation of Tasks for the Measurement of Logical Judgements in Adults).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearinghouse of Resources for Educators of Adults, Syracuse, NY.

    To determine the relationship between reading comprehension and the measures of logical judgement and concepts of language, forty-one adult basic education students were tested using the California Achievement Test and Peel's tests of logical judgement. The findings include the following: (1) concepts of language structure vary in adults; (2) the

  14. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],

  15. Studying the molecular ambient towards the young stellar object EGO G35.04-0.47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Sergio; Ortega, Martín; Astort, Ana; Rubio, Mónica; Fariña, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    We are performing a systematic study of the interstellar medium around extended green objects (EGOs), likely massive young stellar objects driving outflows. EGO G35.04-0.47 is located towards a dark cloud at the north-western edge of an H II region. Recently, H2 jets were discovered towards this source, mainly towards its south-west, where the H2 1-0 S(1) emission peaks. Therefore, the source was catalogued as the molecular hydrogen emission-line object MHO 2429. In order to study the molecular ambient towards this star-forming site, we observed a region around the aforementioned EGO using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 12CO J = 3-2, 13CO J = 3-2, HCO+ J = 4-3, and CS J = 7-6 lines with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1, respectively. The observations revealed a molecular clump where the EGO is embedded at vLSR ˜ 51 km s-1, in coincidence with the velocity of a Class I 95 GHz methanol maser previously detected. Analyzing the 12CO line we discovered high velocity molecular gas in the range from 34 to 47 km s-1, most likely a blueshifted outflow driven by the EGO. The alignment and shape of this molecular structure coincide with those of the south-west lobe of MHO 2429, mainly between 46 and 47 km s-1, confirming that we are mapping its CO counterpart. Performing a spectral energy distribution analysis of EGO G35.04-0.47, we found that its central object should be an intermediate-mass young stellar object accreting mass at a rate similar to those found in some massive YSOs. We suggest that this source can become a massive YSO.

  16. Mechanistic and synthetic studies aimed at the development of single-site metal alkoxide catalysts for the generation of polyesters and polycarbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Malcolm

    2010-06-30

    The work proposed herein focuses on the chemistry of metal-oxygen bonds with respect to insertion/enchainment reactions involving epoxides, cyclic esters and carbonates, acid anhydrides and carbon dioxide leading to the formation of polyethers, polyesters and polycarbonates from renewable resources. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of the biologically benign metals magnesium and calcium and the M(3+) ions of aluminum, chromium and cobalt that have a similar ionic radii but different coordination properties arising from their respective d0, d3 and d6 valence shell configurations. The work emphasizes the design and use of single-site metal catalysis involving LMOR initiating and propagating species. For M = Mg and Ca, L is a pyrazolyl borate ligand specifically tailored to the coordination properties of the metal. In addition the ligand is inert with respect to reactions of the substrates under consideration. For the M(3+) ions, L is a substituted porphyrin, namely 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin, TFPP or 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrin, which together with Lewis base co-catalysts will allow the elucidation of factors leading to polyethers, polycarbonates and cyclic carbonates in reactions involving epoxides and CO2. Specific attention is given to reactions involving propylene oxide and styrene oxide which commonly show competitive formation of products. Electronic structure calculations employing Density Functional Theory will be carried out to elucidate the ring opening of the epoxide by alkylcarbonate and alkoxide ligands and the chain growth mechanism. Polymerization of lactide will be investigated using inexpensive solid supports and catalytic routes to cyclic esters are proposed wherein complexation to metal ions may allow chemical amplification of specific rings. With an understanding of mechanisms involving the reactions of M-OR bonds the development of single-site catalysis for the production of new generation polymers from chemicals derived from renewable resources such as CO2, lactide and succinic anhydride will advance rapidly.

  17. The Study of Indicatrices of Space Object Coatings in a Controlled Laboratory Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshkin, N.; Burlak, N.; Petrov, M.; Strakhova, S.

    The indicatrices of light scattering by radiation balance coatings used on space objects (SO) were determined in the laboratory experiment in a controlled condition. The laboratory device for the physical simulation of photometric observations of space objects in orbit, which was used in this case to study optical properties of coating samples, is described. The features of light reflection off plane coating samples, including multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets, metal surfaces coated with several layers of enamel EP-140, special polyacrylate enamel AK-512 and matte finish Tp-CO-2, were determined. The indicated coatings are compound reflectors which exhibit both diffuse and specular reflections. The data obtained are to be used in the development of computer optical-geometric models of space objects or their fragments (space debris) to interpret the photometry results for real space objects.

  18. Autonomy: The Aim of Education Envisioned by Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance

    1984-01-01

    Discussing Piaget's theory of developmental stages, the author presents the theory of autonomy. He feels that, if applied by educators as a fundamental reexamination of educational objectives, it could revolutionize education. (MD)

  19. Using object oriented analysis and design to study the SSCL SDC computing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kubena, G.T.; Liao, K. ); Palounek, P.T. ); Day, C. )

    1992-01-01

    A joint study between the Computer Working Group of the SSC Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and IBM's Federal Sector Division is focusing on the use of Object Oriented Analysis and Design on the SDC Offline Computing System. One key challenge of the analysis is to discover an efficient way to store and subsequently retrieve raw and reconstructed event data, estimated to be 2 petabytes per year. The Object Oriented approach being used during the analysis and early design is intended to yield a smooth transition to detailed design, prototyping and implementation. The object oriented approach is used as a subprocess of a larger process used by IBM FSD, i.e., a systematic approach to architecting and integrating large complex systems. A description of the overall process and early results are described in a study report produced jointly by the SDC and IBM FSD. The overall process focuses on requirements analysis, operational concept development, problem domain decomposition, development and selection of candidate architectures, automated performance modeling and software architecture. This paper will focus primarily on software architecture. The high level software architecture is viewed as a layered stack consisting of: system services, common physics application framework and unique physics applications. Object oriented analysis is being used to investigate the data storage and management of the event data. An object hierarchy is being created and operational concept scenarios are being used to validate the design. Several database prototypes can then be developed, e.g. object oriented or relational, to prove the concept. The object oriented development is fundamentally different from traditional approaches to design, such as those based exclusively on data flow. Object oriented decomposition more closely models a person's perception of reality, hence the developed system is more understandable, extensible, and maintainable.

  20. Using object oriented analysis and design to study the SSCL SDC computing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kubena, G.T.; Liao, K.; Palounek, P.T.; Day, C.

    1992-02-01

    A joint study between the Computer Working Group of the SSC Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and IBM`s Federal Sector Division is focusing on the use of Object Oriented Analysis and Design on the SDC Offline Computing System. One key challenge of the analysis is to discover an efficient way to store and subsequently retrieve raw and reconstructed event data, estimated to be 2 petabytes per year. The Object Oriented approach being used during the analysis and early design is intended to yield a smooth transition to detailed design, prototyping and implementation. The object oriented approach is used as a subprocess of a larger process used by IBM FSD, i.e., a systematic approach to architecting and integrating large complex systems. A description of the overall process and early results are described in a study report produced jointly by the SDC and IBM FSD. The overall process focuses on requirements analysis, operational concept development, problem domain decomposition, development and selection of candidate architectures, automated performance modeling and software architecture. This paper will focus primarily on software architecture. The high level software architecture is viewed as a layered stack consisting of: system services, common physics application framework and unique physics applications. Object oriented analysis is being used to investigate the data storage and management of the event data. An object hierarchy is being created and operational concept scenarios are being used to validate the design. Several database prototypes can then be developed, e.g. object oriented or relational, to prove the concept. The object oriented development is fundamentally different from traditional approaches to design, such as those based exclusively on data flow. Object oriented decomposition more closely models a person`s perception of reality, hence the developed system is more understandable, extensible, and maintainable.

  1. Topics, Aims, and Constraints in English Teacher Research: A Chinese Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkhuizen, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on one aspect of a larger study which aimed to explore the context-specific experiences of English teachers at tertiary institutions in China (Wette & Barkhuizen, 2007). Data were collected during a professional development program run in the summer of 2006. The program aimed to cover recent trends in the field of second

  2. Rats' Visual-Spatial Working Memory: New Object Choice Accuracy as a Function of Number of Objects in the Study Array

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jerome; Han, Xue; Matei, Anca; Parameswaran, Varakini; Zuniga, Robert; Hlynka, Myron

    2010-01-01

    When rats had to find new (jackpot) objects for rewards from among previously sampled baited objects, increasing the number of objects in the sample (study) segment of a trial from 3 to 5 and then to 7 (Experiment 1) or from 3 to 6 and 9 (Experiments 2 and 3) or from 6 to 9 and 12 (Experiment 4) did not reduce rats' test segment performance.

  3. The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poetter, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational

  4. Spontaneous object recognition: a promising approach to the comparative study of memory

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Rachel; Heyser, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous recognition of a novel object is a popular measure of exploratory behavior, perception and recognition memory in rodent models. Because of its relative simplicity and speed of testing, the variety of stimuli that can be used, and its ecological validity across species, it is also an attractive task for comparative research. To date, variants of this test have been used with vertebrate and invertebrate species, but the methods have seldom been sufficiently standardized to allow cross-species comparison. Here, we review the methods necessary for the study of novel object recognition in mammalian and non-mammalian models, as well as the results of these experiments. Critical to the use of this test is an understanding of the organism’s initial response to a novel object, the modulation of exploration by context, and species differences in object perception and exploratory behaviors. We argue that with appropriate consideration of species differences in perception, object affordances, and natural exploratory behaviors, the spontaneous object recognition test can be a valid and versatile tool for translational research with non-mammalian models. PMID:26217207

  5. Inverting the Object of Study: Recalibrating the Frame of Reference in Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Norris W.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is concerned with study abroad experiences as opportunities for student cognitive development, using the interpretive lens of educational psychologist William G. Perry. A standard and often valuable assignment in courses on world religions is a site visit to a religious institution in one's local area. This may concretize otherwise

  6. Inverting the Object of Study: Recalibrating the Frame of Reference in Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Norris W.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is concerned with study abroad experiences as opportunities for student cognitive development, using the interpretive lens of educational psychologist William G. Perry. A standard and often valuable assignment in courses on world religions is a site visit to a religious institution in one's local area. This may concretize otherwise…

  7. Clinical Factors Associated with High-risk Carotid Plaque Features as Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Established Vascular Disease (From the AIM-HIGH Study)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Sun, Jie; Balu, Niranjan; Isquith, Daniel A.; Crouse, John R.; Anderson, Todd; Huston, John; Polissar, Nayak; OBrien, Kevin; Yuan, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Association between clinical factors and high-risk plaque features such as thin or ruptured cap, intra-plaque hemorrhage (IPH), presence of Lipid Rich Necrotic Core (LRNC) and increased LRNC volume as assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was examined in patients with established vascular disease in AIM-HIGH. A total of 214 subjects underwent carotid MRI and had acceptable image quality for assessment of plaque burden, tissue contents and MRI-modified AHA lesion type by a Core Lab. We found that 77% of subjects had carotid plaques, 52% had lipid-containing plaques, and 11% had advanced, AHA type-VI lesions with possible surface defect, IPH or mural thrombus. Type-VI lesions were associated with older age (OR=2.6 per 5 years increase, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, these lesions were associated with history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=4.1, p=0.01), higher levels of Lipoprotein(a) (OR=2.0 per 1 SD increase, p=0.02) and larger %wall volume (%WV; OR=4.6 per 1 SD increase, p<0.001), but, were negatively associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=0.2, p=0.02). Presence of LRNC was associated with male gender (OR=3.2, p=0.02) and %WV (OR=3.8 per 1 SD, p<0.001), but, was negatively associated with diabetes (OR=0.4, p=0.02) and HDL-C levels (OR=0.7 per 1 SD, p=0.02). Increased %LRNC was associated with %WV (regression coefficient=0.36, p<0.001) and negatively associated with ApoA1 levels (regression coefficient=?0.20, p=0.03). In conclusions, older age, male gender, history of cerebrovascular disease, larger plaque burden, higher Lp(a), and lower HDL-C or ApoA1 have statistically significant associations with high-risk plaque features. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes showed negative associations in this population. PMID:25245415

  8. The Study of Object-Oriented Motor Imagery Based on EEG Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lili; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guanghua; Li, Min; Xie, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Motor imagery is a conventional method for brain computer interface and motor learning. To avoid the great individual difference of the motor imagery ability, object-oriented motor imagery was applied, and the effects were studied. Kinesthetic motor imagery and visual observation were administered to 15 healthy volunteers. The EEG during cue-based simple imagery (SI), object-oriented motor imagery (OI), non-object-oriented motor imagery (NI) and visual observation (VO) was recorded. Study results showed that OI and NI presented significant contralateral suppression in mu rhythm (p < 0.05). Besides, OI exhibited significant contralateral suppression in beta rhythm (p < 0.05). While no significant mu or beta contralateral suppression could be found during VO or SI (p > 0.05). Compared with NI, OI showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in mu rhythm and weak significant difference (p = 0.0612) in beta rhythm over the contralateral hemisphere. The ability of motor imagery can be reflected by the suppression degree of mu and beta frequencies which are the motor related rhythms. Thus, greater enhancement of activation in mirror neuron system is involved in response to object-oriented motor imagery. The object-oriented motor imagery is favorable for improvement of motor imagery ability. PMID:26641241

  9. The Seeds of Artificial Intelligence. SUMEX-AIM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Resources Information Center, Rockville, MD.

    Written to provide an understanding of the broad base of information on which the artificial intelligence (AI) branch of computer science rests, this publication presents a general view of AI, the concepts from which it evolved, its current abilities, and its promise for research. The focus is on a community of projects that use the SUMEX-AIM

  10. Alienation, Art and Affirmation in the Work of Aime Cesaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    Aime Cesaire is one of the foremost French-speaking blacks in twentieth century literature. The concept of negritude--referring to the culture of French-speaking blacks--is often associated with his name. This paper discusses his life and work, and explores his life from his birth in Martinique, his early years, the years spent in Paris, and his

  11. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and

  12. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  13. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper

  14. The book availability study as an objective measure of performance in a health sciences library.

    PubMed Central

    Kolner, S J; Welch, E C

    1985-01-01

    In its search for an objective overall diagnostic evaluation, the University of Illinois Library of the Health Sciences' Program Evaluation Committee selected a book availability measure; it is easy to administer and repeat, results are reproducible, and comparable data exist for other academic and health sciences libraries. The study followed the standard methodology in the literature with minor modifications. Patrons searching for particular books were asked to record item(s) needed and the outcome of the search. Library staff members then determined the reasons for failures in obtaining desired items. The results of the study are five performance scores. The first four represent the percentage probability of a library's operating with ideal effectiveness; the last provides an overall performance score. The scores of the Library of the Health Sciences demonstrated no unusual availability problems. The study was easy to implement and provided meaningful, quantitative, and objective data. PMID:3995202

  15. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  16. Starting the Race Right: A Case Study of a First-Year Program Aimed at Increasing Persistence among Urban College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Brian Murphy

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 1990s, the City of Boston has made substantial progress in increasing the number of graduates from its school system who go on to college. However, while the Boston Public School system's postsecondary enrollment rate exceeds national averages, the system faces a serious issue in that the vast majority of its…

  17. Dewey on Rousseau: Natural Development as the Aim of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Jon

    1979-01-01

    This essay shows that Dewey's critique of Rousseau's reference to human nature as a source of educational aims fails due to Dewey's incomplete understanding of Rousseau. More broadly significant is Dewey's neglect of the crucial role assumed by the Natural in both educational theorizing and justification in general. (Author/SJL)

  18. The AEROS mission. [satellite objectives in upper atmosphere and ionosphere study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laemmerzahl, P.; Bauer, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The principal objective of the two AEROS satellites is the study of the physical and chemical processes in the earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere by means of simultaneous measurements of various parameters. The parameters include the neutral atmosphere composition and density, the ion composition and density, electron density and flux of suprathermal electrons, and the solar EUV ionizing radiation. Temperature measurements of neutral particles, ions, and electrons are also conducted. The scientific payload is discussed along with details regarding the satellite orbits.

  19. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  20. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded

  1. Reversing the relative 3MLCT-3MC order in Fe(ii) complexes using cyclometallating ligands: a computational study aiming at luminescent Fe(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Isabelle M; Alary, Fabienne; Boggio-Pasqua, Martial; Heully, Jean-Louis

    2015-08-14

    Following a computational approach, the use of strongly electron-donating cyclometallating ligands has allowed us to increase the (3)MC-(3)MLCT gap dramatically in Fe(ii) bis(tridentate) polypyridine complexes, and eventually to reverse the ordering between these states, yielding a (3)MLCT state that is clearly more stable than the (3)MC state. Simultaneously, the quintet excited states ((5)MC and (5)MLCT) are displaced away from the region (in terms of geometry and energy) where classical photophysics occur, allowing us to avoid magnetism. The situation is thus similar to that of classical ruthenium polypyridine complexes. This opens the way towards luminescent iron(ii) complexes, in particular Fe(ii)bis(6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine) Fe(NNC)(2). PMID:26079874

  2. Non-destructive analysis in a study of the religious art objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornicu, Nicoleta; Geba, Maria; Bibire, Cristina

    2009-08-01

    The icon Descending of the Saint Spirit from Bucium Church, dating in the year 1814 and was done in tempera on wood technology. The characterization of cultural heritage materials is essential for the comprehension of their degradation mechanisms. The present study aims at identifying the pigments in the various layers, establishing the possible existence of an organic binder and scientifically evaluating the state of preservation. To this end, were used non-destructive methods, as: microscopic (SEM), XRF and spectroscopic (FTIR).

  3. A New Spectroscopic and Interferometric Study of the Young Stellar Object V645 Cyg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miroshinichenko, A. S.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Manset, N.; Balega, Y. Y.; Klochkova, V. G.; Rudy, R. J.; Lynch, D. K.; Mazuk, S.; Venturini, C. C.; Grankin, K. N.; Puetter, R. C.; Perry, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. We present the results of high-resolution optical spectroscopy, low-resolution near-IR spectroscopy and near-infrared speckle interferometry of the massive young stellar object candidate V645 Cyg that were taken in order to refine its fundamental parameters and properties of its circumstellar envelope. Methods. Speckle interferometry in the H- and K-bands and an optical spectrum in the range 5200-6680 A with a spectral resolving power of R = 60000 were obtained at the 6 m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Another optical spectrum in the range 4300-10500 A with R = 79000 was obtained at the 3.6m CFHT. A low-resolution spectrum in the ranges 0.46-1.4 and 1.4-2.5 microns with a R approx. 800 and approx. 700, respectively, were obtained at the 3m Shain telescope of the Lick Observatory. Results. Using a new kinematic method based on non-linear modeling of the neutral hydrogen density profile in the direction toward the object, we suggest a new a distance D = 4.2+/-0.2 kpc. We also suggest a new estimate for the star's effective temperature, T(sub eff) approx. 25000 K. We have resolved the object in both H- and K-bands. Using a two-component ring fit, we derived a compact component size of 18 mas and 15 mas in the H- and K-band, respectively, which correspond to 37 and 33 AU at the new distance. Analysis of our and previously published data shows a approx. 2 mag drop of the near-infrared brightness of V645 Cyg in the beginning of the 1980 s. At the same time, the cometary nebular condensation N1 seems to fade in this wavelength range with respect to the N0 object, which represent the star with a nearly pole-on optically-thick disk and an optically-thin envelope. Conclusions. We conclude that V645 Cyg is a young massive main-sequence star, which recently emerged from its cocoon. and already passed the protostellar accretion stage. The presence of accretion is not necessary to account for the high observed luminosity of (2.6) x 10(exp 4) Solar Mass/yr. The receding part of a strong, mostly uniform outflow with a terminal velocity of approx.800 km/s is only blocked from view far from the star, where forbidden lines form. The near-infrared size of the source is consistent with the dust sublimation distance near this hot and luminous star and is the largest among young stellar objects observed interferometrically to-date.

  4. A rodent model for the study of invariant visual object recognition.

    PubMed

    Zoccolan, Davide; Oertelt, Nadja; DiCarlo, James J; Cox, David D

    2009-05-26

    The human visual system is able to recognize objects despite tremendous variation in their appearance on the retina resulting from variation in view, size, lighting, etc. This ability--known as "invariant" object recognition--is central to visual perception, yet its computational underpinnings are poorly understood. Traditionally, nonhuman primates have been the animal model-of-choice for investigating the neuronal substrates of invariant recognition, because their visual systems closely mirror our own. Meanwhile, simpler and more accessible animal models such as rodents have been largely overlooked as possible models of higher-level visual functions, because their brains are often assumed to lack advanced visual processing machinery. As a result, little is known about rodents' ability to process complex visual stimuli in the face of real-world image variation. In the present work, we show that rats possess more advanced visual abilities than previously appreciated. Specifically, we trained pigmented rats to perform a visual task that required them to recognize objects despite substantial variation in their appearance, due to changes in size, view, and lighting. Critically, rats were able to spontaneously generalize to previously unseen transformations of learned objects. These results provide the first systematic evidence for invariant object recognition in rats and argue for an increased focus on rodents as models for studying high-level visual processing. PMID:19429704

  5. So Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey - a population-based epidemiological study of psychiatric morbidity in the So Paulo metropolitan area: aims, design and field implementation.

    PubMed

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Teixeira, Marlene Galativicis; Beraldi, Fidel; Bassani, Indai de Santana; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2009-12-01

    The So Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey is a population-based cross-sectional survey of psychiatric morbidity, assessing a probabilistic sample of household residents in the So Paulo Metropolitan Area, aged 18 years and over. Respondents were selected from a stratified multistage clustered area probability sample of households, covering all 39 municipalities, without replacement. Respondents were assessed using the World Mental Health Survey version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), which was translated and adapted into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Data was collected between May 2005 and April 2007 by trained lay interviewers. The World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview comprises clinical and non-clinical sections, arranged as Part I and Part II, producing diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition, and the International Classification of Diseases - 10th Revision. Mood, anxiety, impulse-control and substance use disorders, and suicide-related behavior, considered core disorders, as well as socio-demographic information, were assessed in all respondents. Non-clinical modules and non-core clinical sections (obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, gambling, eating disorders, neurasthenia, pre-menstrual disorders, psychotic symptoms and personality traits) were assessed in a sub-sample (2,942 respondents), composed by all respondents with at least one core disorder and a 25% random sample of those who were non-cases. A total of 5,037 individuals were interviewed, with a global response rate of 81.3%. Saliva samples were collected from 1,801 respondents, with DNA extracted stored pending further investigations. PMID:20098829

  6. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  7. The Scope and Aims of the Information Sciences and Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Robert A.

    This paper studies the composition and scope of the information sciences. These arise, or will arise, from the dependence of the modern world upon records, and therefore upon means to facilitate discourse. Such means range from the physical to the conceptual, but all entail aspects of language, therefore they must all involve social activities,

  8. Isotopic Studies of Cr-rich Objects in the Raguli (H3.8) Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahijpal, S.; Ivanova, M. A.; Goswami, J. N.

    1993-07-01

    Cr-rich objects (chromite-rich inclusions and chondrules) have been documented in several ordinary chondrites in recent years [1]. They are most abundant in H chondrites and the dominant phases in these objects are chromite and sodic plagioclase with ilmenite, pyroxene, and phosphate occurring as accessory phases. The genesis of these objects and their interrelationship are not clearly understood as yet. Condensation from nebular gas of nonsolar composition, gas-phase metasomatism, and oxidation of metal phases are some of the proposed mechanisms for the formation of the chromite phases found in these objects [2]. We have carried out ion microprobe studies of isotopic compositions of magnesium, chromium, and iron in a set of Cr-rich objects in the Raguli (H3.8) chondrite to further address these questions. The measurements were carried out at appropriate mass resolution to resolve hydride and other isobaric interferences. The analyzed phases include two chromite-rich chondrules, one of which contains two large euhedral grains of chromite, two chromite-rich inclusions, and isolated chromite grains in matrix. The magnesium isotopic compositions of plagioclase phases in these objects were measured to look for the possible presence of excess 26Mg. The contribution from chromite toward the magnesium signal made these measurements difficult and a relatively clean signal could be seen only for the plagioclase phase in one of the chondrules (measured 27Al+/24Mg+ = 52). No evidence for excess 26Mg was found. Magnesium (24,25,26), chromium (52,53), and iron (56,57) isotopic compositions of the chromite phases in all the objects were measured to determine isotopic mass fractionation. Terrestrial chromite (USNM 117075) was used as a standard. The measured magnesium isotopic mass fractionation for the chromite phases in the inclusions and in the chondrules are similar and are also close to the measured value (-21.0 +- 0.72 permil/amu) for the terrestrial chromite. The data for the isolated chromite grain in matrix are suggestive of a small intrinsic fractionation (a few per mil per amu) favoring the lighter isotope. The measured chromium isotope mass fractionation for all the chromite phases, including the matrix grain, are similar and again these values are also close to the measured value for the terrestrial standard (-10.3 +- 1.43 permil/amu) There is no hint in the data for an intrinsic mass fractionation favoring either the lighter or heavier isotopes of magnesium and chromium for the chromite phases in both the Cr-rich chondrules and inclusions. The above results suggest that the precursor material from which the Cr-rich objects were formed had nearly unfractionated magnesium and chromium isotopic compositions and also the process(es) leading to the formation of these objects did not result in any detectable isotopic fractionation in the chromite phases. This would argue against the suggestion that the chromite phases in these objects could be of condensation origin. On the other hand, the isotopic data are not incompatible with the suggestion that incomplete melting of chromite-rich inclusions followed by rapid crystallization led to the formation of the chromite-rich chondrules. References: [1] Krot A. N. and Ivanova M. A. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 729-730. [2] Krot A. N. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 731-732.

  9. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  10. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  11. The Rational Zero Point on Incentive-Object Preference Scales: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haaf, Robert A.

    1971-01-01

    Preference judgments made by 20 males and 20 females (grades K-4) about the incentive value of 10 objects (i.e. bubble gum, Chiclet, candy corn, dried lima bean) helped determine relative and absolute scales for use of these objects as rewards. The assumption that the same object is equally rewarding at different age levels may be unwarranted.

  12. The aims of systems biology: between molecules and organisms.

    PubMed

    Noble, D

    2011-05-01

    The systems approach to biology has a long history. Its recent rapid resurgence at the turn of the century reflects the problems encountered in interpreting the sequencing of the genome and the failure of that immense achievement to provide rapid and direct solutions to major multi-factorial diseases. This paper argues that systems biology is necessarily multilevel and that there is no privileged level of causality in biological systems. It is an approach rather than a separate discipline. Functionality arises from biological networks that interact with the genome, the environment and the phenotype. This view of biology is very different from the gene-centred views of neo-Darwinism and molecular biology. In neuroscience, the systems approach leads naturally to 2 important conclusions: first, that the idea of 'programs' in the brain is confusing, and second, that the self is better interpreted as a process than as an object. PMID:21544748

  13. The cooperative study of sickle cell disease: review of study design and objectives.

    PubMed

    Gaston, M; Rosse, W F

    1982-01-01

    Although sickle cell disease has been known for years and many of its manifestations have been recognized, the "natural history" or clinical course of the disease from early childhood to death is not well understood. This is largely because of the variable degree of severity, the variability of the many manifestations, and the complexity of the interaction of the disease process with other health-related events. Therefore, information obtained to date hs been largely anecdotal, retrospective in nature, and lacking statistical stature. Consequently, there are many unanswered clinical questions about this illness. Therefore, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health has initiated a large-scale, multi-institution investigation based on an analytical and specific process, which is described. This 5-year study will provide the data base to answer existing questions and provide information to improve present medical management. Knowledge of risk factors, rates of progression, and incidence and nature of complications will directly impact on the care of sickle cell patients. In addition, this information will improve counseling related to family decisions and opportunities now available for prenatal diagnosis. Likewise, a data bank of clinical manifestations and a classification or index of severity are essential as emerging antisickling agents require clinical trials. PMID:7114401

  14. A Delphi study to curriculum modifying through the application of the course objective and competencies

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Moshki, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to incorporate new knowledge, skills and emerging concepts from dynamic fields of public health into ongoing courses reform of curriculums sounds necessary. Accordingly, this study was performed to modify health education curriculum of public health undergraduate level. Materials and Methods: Using Delphi technique, 18 health education lecturers from Tehran, Tabriz, Yazd, Shiraz, Gonabad, Ghazvin, Avhvaz and Kurdistan Universities Medical of Sciences based on their expertize in health education with PhD degree as scientific members, also 5 heads of departments according to working at health deputy for at least more than 5 years were asked during three rounds through panel experts to suggest and rate topics they deemed most important to graduate public health experts and curricula related to the areas of knowledge and skills in health education course. Results: The experts suggested that health enhancing behaviors and reduce health risks, advocate health, behavior change theories and developing a framework are key objects in the curriculum. Much more new topical outlines were related to previous course. Skills rated as important included need assessment and health communication. The most evaluators suggested that adding a practicum unit to two theory units will be helpful. Conclusion: The results from our survey suggested that changes in the course definition including new course objectives, topical outlines, and required skills were deemed important by the lecturers and were appropriately integrated into the health education course curriculum. The new curriculum should be evaluated constantly to seek and provide experiences that will best prepare students to meet challenges as a health educator. PMID:25540797

  15. The Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study: objectives, design, and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Hartert, Tina V; Deng, Xinqing; Hartman, Terryl J; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jin, Meiling; Bai, Chunxue; Gross, Myron; Roberts, L Jackson; Sheller, James R; Christman, John; Dupont, William; Griffin, Marie; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2008-06-01

    The Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study is the first population-based incidence study designed to assess the associations of dietary antioxidant intake and measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity with development of adult-onset asthma and allergic rhinitis. A total of 65,732 participants in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing cohort study in seven districts of Shanghai, People's Republic of China, were recruited to the Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study from 2003 to 2007. Dietary intake was assessed in the parent study by using a validated and quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline recruitment and at the first biennial follow-up survey. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure baseline oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nutrient levels at the baseline survey. Incident asthma and allergic rhinitis were assessed by using a modification of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire during the biennial in-person survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by either methacholine challenge testing or test of reversibility to beta-agonists. Dietary antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and urinary isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress, were measured prior to disease onset. This paper describes the study objectives, design, population demographics, and recruitment results. PMID:18397914

  16. The Shanghai Womens Asthma and Allergy Study: Objectives, Design, and Recruitment Results

    PubMed Central

    Hartert, Tina V.; Deng, Xinqing; Hartman, Terryl J.; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jin, Meiling; Bai, Chunxue; Gross, Myron; Roberts, L. Jackson; Sheller, James R.; Christman, John; Dupont, William; Griffin, Marie; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2008-01-01

    The Shanghai Womens Asthma and Allergy Study is the first population-based incidence study designed to assess the associations of dietary antioxidant intake and measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity with development of adult-onset asthma and allergic rhinitis. A total of 65,732 participants in the Shanghai Womens Health Study, an ongoing cohort study in seven districts of Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China, were recruited to the Shanghai Womens Asthma and Allergy Study from 2003 to 2007. Dietary intake was assessed in the parent study by using a validated and quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline recruitment and at the first biennial follow-up survey. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure baseline oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nutrient levels at the baseline survey. Incident asthma and allergic rhinitis were assessed by using a modification of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire during the biennial in-person survey of the Shanghai Womens Health Study. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by either methacholine challenge testing or test of reversibility to beta-agonists. Dietary antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and urinary isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress, were measured prior to disease onset. This paper describes the study objectives, design, population demographics, and recruitment results. PMID:18397914

  17. Perceived Utility of the RE-AIM Framework for Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Initiatives for Older Adults: A Case Study from the U.S. Evidence-Based Disease Prevention Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Helduser, Janet; Zhang, Chen; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation (D&I) frameworks are increasingly being promoted in public health research. However, less is known about their uptake in the field, especially for diverse sets of programs. Limited questionnaires exist to assess the ways that frameworks can be utilized in program planning and evaluation. We present a case study from the United States that describes the implementation of the RE-AIM framework by state aging services providers and public health partners and a questionnaire that can be used to assess the utility of such frameworks in practice. An online questionnaire was developed to capture community perspectives about the utility of the RE-AIM framework. Distributed to project leads in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults, 40 key stakeholders responded representing a 100% state-participation rate among the 27 funded states. Findings suggest that there is perceived utility in using the RE-AIM framework when evaluating grand-scale initiatives for older adults. The RE-AIM framework was seen as useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation with relevance for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet, the uptake was not universal, and some respondents reported difficulties in use, especially adopting the framework as a whole. This questionnaire can serve as the basis to assess ways the RE-AIM framework can be utilized by practitioners in state-wide D&I efforts. Maximal benefit can be derived from examining the assessment of RE-AIM-related knowledge and confidence as part of a continual quality assurance process. We recommend such an assessment be performed before the implementation of new funding initiatives and throughout their course to assess RE-AIM uptake and to identify areas for technical assistance. PMID:25964897

  18. Mechanical Objects and the Engineering Learner: An Experimental Study of How the Presence of Objects Affects Students' Performance on Engineering Related Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    2013-01-01

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact…

  19. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    PubMed

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent clinical condition with high impact on both morbidity and mortality. Venous thromboembolism risk is particularly high in hospitalized patients as well as in oncologic patients, being a factor of poor prognosis for the oncologic disease. Several clinical studies have shown the need to develop effective hospital strategies using a systematic and individualized assessment of venous thromboembolism risk, and additionally to optimize the institution of prophylaxis treatment and its proper use in the context of in-hospital and outpatient management. The ARTE national study is a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective study which is divided in two phases. In the first phase patients are followed in the hospital; in the second phase patients are followed in ambulatory context for a period of 6 months after discharge. Four thousand patients will be included, equally distributed over medical, surgical, oncologic and orthopaedic patients. Data will be collected from the patient's clinical files and through direct clinical evaluation of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, in the departments of medicine, oncology, surgery, and orthopaedics of the participating centres. The main objectives of the study are to assess the risk profile of venous thromboembolism of the study population using a risk assessment model adapted from the Caprini and Khorana et al models, and the validation of the score for the Portuguese population. Simultaneously, the secondary objectives are as follows: to determine the proportion of patients with venous thromboembolism risk, according to the risk assessment model, that are doing prophylaxis; to determine the duration of prophylaxis during the hospitalization; to determine the proportion of patients doing long-term prophylaxis, at the moment of the discharge; to determine the incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis; stroke; pulmonary thromboembolism; transient ischemic attack), haemorrhagic events (major and minor haemorrhages) and death at 6 months after discharge. Each patient will be contacted by telephone at 3 and 6 months after discharge, in order to assess the occurrence of thromboembolic and haemorrhagic events, as well as any readmission. This article describes the ARTE study's rationale, objectives, and methodology. PMID:22849949

  20. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan mass media campaigns can be recommended to follow marketing principles in order to improve the campaign's impact. However, they should also consider possible adverse effects of the communication strategy on the social perception of health behavior, health risks and the responsibility of certain subgroups. PMID:19911344

  1. People, technology, and process meet the triple aim.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Deborah; Reisetter, Julie A; Zismann, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Banner Health is addressing the Triple Aim (quality care and satisfaction, improved health, and reduced cost) for Medicare beneficiaries by combining the people of one of the largest nonprofit health care systems in the United States (Banner Health) with innovative telehealth technology and leveraging high-reliability, standardized processes. The program, known as Banner iCare, builds on a highly successful tele-ICU program (some of the lowest mortality and length of stay results in the country) and expands the service to progressive care, medical-surgical, and emergency departments. These successes have led to the introduction of a home-based telehealth program with the strengths of the acute care programs. The top 5% high-cost patients with multiple chronic conditions receive coordinated intensive ambulatory care managed by an integrated team of health care professionals using cost-effective telehealth technology. The benefits expected from the proposed project include a reduction in overall costs while improving patient satisfaction through delivery of more personalized and interactive care. PMID:24317028

  2. A Study of Planetary Nebulae using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A planetary nebula is formed following an intermediate-mass (1-8 solar M) star's evolution off of the main sequence; it undergoes a phase of mass loss whereby the stellar envelope is ejected and the core is converted into a white dwarf. Planetary nebulae often display complex morphologies such as waists or torii, rings, collimated jet-like outflows, and bipolar symmetry, but exactly how these features form is unclear. To study how the distribution of dust in the interstellar medium affects their morphology, we utilize the Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) to obtain well-resolved images of four planetary nebulae--NGC 7027, NGC 6543, M2-9, and the Frosty Leo Nebula--at wavelengths where they radiate most of their energy. We retrieve mid infrared images at wavelengths ranging from 6.3 to 37.1 micron for each of our targets. IDL (Interactive Data Language) is used to perform basic analysis. We select M2-9 to investigate further; analyzing cross sections of the southern lobe reveals a slight limb brightening effect. Modeling the dust distribution within the lobes reveals that the thickness of the lobe walls is higher than anticipated, or rather than surrounding a vacuum surrounds a low density region of tenuous dust. Further analysis of this and other planetary nebulae is needed before drawing more specific conclusions.

  3. Recent applications of nuclear microprobes to the study of art objects and archaeological artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, Charles P.

    1997-07-01

    This review covers the period from the 4th Nuclear Microprobe Conference held in Shanghai, China, October 10-14, 1994 to the present. As per the last review on this topic, as given by the present author, emphasis will be placed on studies using external beams with diameters in the range from 1000 to 50 ?m. A vacuum environment is not generally suitable for art objects and archaeological artifacts; howerver, a degree of spatial resolution is essential for the analysis of most materials-metal alloys, the products of metal smelting (copper and iron), multi-colored glasses, gold jewelry, pottery glazes/slips, manuscripts and paintings and, finally, human remains (bones and hair). Reference is made to investigations in many laboratories around the world which are involved in the study of such materials.

  4. A subjective study and an objective metric to quantify the granularity level of textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedar, Mahesh M.; Karam, Lina J.

    2015-03-01

    Texture granularity is an important visual characteristic that is useful in a variety of applications, including analysis, recognition, and compression, to name a few. A texture granularity measure can be used to quantify the perceived level of texture granularity. The granularity level of the textures is influenced by the size of the texture primitives. A primitive is defined as the smallest recognizable repetitive object in the texture. If the texture has large primitives then the perceived granularity level tends to be lower as compared to a texture with smaller primitives. In this work we are presenting a texture granularity database referred as GranTEX which consists of 30 textures with varying levels of primitive sizes and granularity levels. The GranTEX database consists of both natural and man-made textures. A subjective study is conducted to measure the perceived granularity level of textures present in the GranTEX database. An objective metric that automatically measures the perceived granularity level of textures is also presented as part of this work. It is shown that the proposed granularity metric correlates well with the subjective granularity scores.

  5. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours. It is a good read. But it has its serious side. Bob's career wasn't all fun. The Apollo 204 fire, which killed three astronauts, was a terrible climax to his time at NASA. As one who lived through those days with him, I can recall the trauma and special sense of responsibility he felt. His account of this period and of the sad deterioration of his relationship with his boss, Jim Webb, is both fair and generous. Those were not happy times, but they should not be allowed to overshadow the fact that in his seven years at NASA, Bob Seamans led the agency to its first successes and laid the groundwork for the great successes that came later.

  6. Romanian ancient gold objects provenance studies using micro-beam methods: the case of Pietroasa hoard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Bugoi, R.; Cojocaru, V.; Voiculescu, D.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Ceccato, D.

    2005-04-01

    Five fragments of ancient gold objects belonging to Pietroasa "Clo?ca cu Puii de Aur" ("The Golden Brood Hen with Its Chickens") Romanian hoard were analysed using the micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique. The purpose of the study was to gain some more knowledge regarding the metal provenance by determining the presence of PGE (Platinum Group Elements) and other high-temperature melting point trace elements (Ta, Nb, Cr) at a micrometric scale. Ta and Nb inclusions (micrometric areas of composition different from the surroundings) on three samples and Pd inclusions on one sample were found. The measurements led to some conclusions for the possible gold ore sources of Pietroasa treasury: the South-Ural Mountains, Nubia (Sudan) and/or Anatolian deposits and Roman imperial coins.

  7. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  8. Bridging the Digital Divide, Aiming to Become Lifelong Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachelhoffer, Annelise; Khine, Myint Swe

    Studies in the past documented that proper use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can positively impact learning. It has been shown that the use of ICT can help students develop inquiry and thinking skills, increase learning opportunities, enhance learning activities, and improve learning outcomes for students. While there are bright prospects, barriers still exist in certain areas, particularly the readiness of the teachers who will adopt the technology, administrative support and technology infrastructure in schools. This study reports the patterns of computer use and computer self-efficacy among students in a postgraduate degree in education program in the UAE. The survey from 91 students were analysed and found that most students have positive attitudes and beliefs in ICT, but lacking behind the use of such technologies. The authors suggest that it is necessary to create opportunities for them to use ICT in the classroom and further develop knowledge and skills in Web 2.0 technologies.

  9. On Aims and Methods in the Neuroimaging of Derived Relations

    PubMed Central

    Dickins, David W

    2005-01-01

    Ingenious and seemingly powerful technologies have been developed recently that enable the visualization in some detail of events in the brain concomitant upon the ongoing behavioral performance of a human participant. Measurement of such brain events offers at the very least a new set of dependent variables in relation to which the independent variables familiarly manipulated in the operant laboratory may be explored. Two related paradigms in which a start has been made in such research concern the derivation of novel or emergent relations from a baseline set of trained relations, and include the phenomenon of transitive inference (TI), observed in studies of stimulus equivalence (SE) and serial learning (SL) or seriation. This paper reviews some published and forthcoming neuroimaging studies of these and related phenomena, and considers how this line of research both demands and represents a welcome synthesis between types of question and levels of explanation in behavioral science that often have been seen as antithetical. PMID:16596975

  10. The CTA aims at the Inert Doublet Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2016-02-01

    We show that the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) can realistically challenge the Inert Doublet Model, one of the simplest and best known models of dark matter. Specifically, the CTA may exclude its heavy regime up to dark matter masses of 800 GeV and probe a large fraction of the remaining viable parameter space at even higher masses. Two features of the Inert Doublet Model make it particularly suitable for CTA searches. First, the dark matter mass (in the heavy regime) must be larger than 500 GeV. Second, the dark matter annihilation cross section, σ v, is always larger than the thermal one, reaching values as high as 10‑25 cm3s‑1. This higher value of σv is the result of the unavoidable coannihilation effects that determine the relic density via thermal freeze-out in the early Universe. We find that with 100 hours of Galactic Center exposure, CTA's expected limit widely surpasses, even after the inclusion of systematic errors, current and projected bounds from Fermi-LAT and HESS on this model.

  11. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ˜ 4 Hz, limited by the sampling frequency of the mass spectrometer. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT (CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT) in 2011, and HALO during ML-CIRRUS (Mid-Latitude CIRRUS) in 2014. The comparison of AIMS-H2O with the SHARC tunable diode laser hygrometer during ML-CIRRUS shows a correlation near to 1 in the range between 10 and 500 ppmv for the entire campaign.

  12. The Writing Cure: Psychoanalysis, Composition, and the Aims of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracher, Mark

    Asserting that psychoanalysis and writing instruction have much to offer each other, this book examines the intersection between these two fields and proposes pedagogical uses of psychoanalytic technique for writing instruction. Articulating an approach based on the work of Jacques Lacan, the book shows how a psychoanalytic perspective can offer

  13. Meeting the Aims of Honors in the Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    While little data-based research is available on the use of technology in the honors classroom, data on the nature of online honors courses are even rarer. In undergraduate education generally, enrollment in online courses has been increasing annually, outpacing enrollment in traditional, face-to-face environments. During fall 2011, more than 6.7…

  14. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Jurkat, T.; Thornberry, T.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Schlage, R.; Schäuble, D.; Zöger, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the H2O role in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present the new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ∼ 4 Hz. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where water molecules react to form hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n= 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 ppmv (mole ratio, 10-6 mol mol-1) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT (Contrail and Cirrus Experiment) in 2011, and HALO during ML-CIRRUS (Mid-Latitude Cirrus) in 2014. The comparison of AIMS-H2O with the SHARC tunable diode laser hygrometer during ML-CIRRUS shows a very good overall agreement between both instruments for the entire campaign.

  15. Aiming Low: Estimating the Scope and Predictors of Postsecondary Undermatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belasco, Andrew S.; Trivette, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary undermatch occurs when students fail to enroll at a college or university that possesses a level of selectivity their academic credentials would permit them to attend. Given the demonstrated link between selective college attendance and postsecondary and professional attainment, recent studies have attempted to examine which factors

  16. Long-term integrated radiophysical studies of the ionosphere, near space, and the propagation of radio waves from space objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misyura, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The radiophysical studies reported consist of direct measurements of certain effects induced in the propagation of radio waves from space objects. From measured effects and from data on the motion and position of space objects, physical parameters of the medium and bodies are determined.

  17. Photometric Study of the FU Orionis Object BBW 76 from the Bamberg Observatory Southern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Tsvetkov, M. K.

    2006-04-01

    The Bamberg Observatory Southern Sky Survey provided 93 photographic plates with the FU Orionis object BBW 76, clearly detectable in the time interval 1963-1976. We perform aperture photometry of BBW 76 from the 2 x 2 degrees area near target star scanned with the Epson Expression 1640 XL flatbed scanner. For each plate a transformation of plate magnitude to the GSC 2.2 magnitudes in B photographic band was found out for selected reference stars, and used for deriving B magnitudes of BBW 76. The analysis of the photometric behaviour of BBW 76 is presented.

  18. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    SciTech Connect

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-06

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  19. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [?New insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and F. Terribile. 1999. Interpretation of the spa- tial variability of soil hydraulic properties using a land system analysis. In Modelling of Transport Processes in Soils, J. Feyen and K. Wiyo, eds., p. 491-500, Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.]. A soil-landscape map was set-up and undis- turbed soil cores, spaced 50 m apart, were regularly collected from the uppermost soil horizons along transects located at the two sides of the river. All cores were subjected to laboratory measurements to determine bulk density, particle-size distribution, or- ganic carbon content, and unsaturated soil hydraulic characteristics. Other field exper- iment have been performed through a non-invasive method of monitoring the spatial 1 and temporal variations of soil water content by using soil resistivity data from elec- trical resistivity tomography and relating the soil resistivity to soil water content. The presence of two pluviometers and a hydrometer permits the evaluation of watershed inflows and outflows at different timescale. 2

  20. A molecular line study towards massive extended green object clumps in the southern sky: chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2015-08-01

    We present a molecular line study towards 31 extended green object (EGO) clumps in the southern sky using data from MALT90 (Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz). According to previous multiwavelength observations, we divide our sample into two groups: massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions. The most detected lines are N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), HCO+ (J = 1 - 0), HNC (J = 1 - 0), HCN (J = 1 - 0), HC3N (J = 10 - 9), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and SiO (J = 2 - 1), indicating that most EGOs are indeed associated with dense clumps and recent outflow activities. The velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9) lines are comparable to each other in MYSOs. However, in H II regions the velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0) and C2H (N = 1 - 0) lines tend to be narrower than those of H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9). Our results seem to support that N2H+ and C2H emissions mainly come from the gas inside quiescent clumps. In addition, we also find that the [N2H+]/[H13CO+] and [C2H]/[H13CO+] relative abundance ratios decrease from MYSOs to H II regions. These results suggest depletion of N2H+ and C2H in the late stages of massive-star formation, probably caused by the formation of H II regions inside. N2H+ and C2H might be used as chemical clocks for massive-star formation by comparing with other molecules such as H13CO+ and HC3N.

  1. DIFFERENTIAL PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DUST SHELL OF THE ENIGMATIC OBJECT, HD 179821

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Brian A.; Ueta, Toshiya

    2010-03-10

    HD 179821 is an enigmatic evolved star that possesses characteristics of both a post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star and a yellow hypergiant, and there has been no evidence that unambiguously defines its nature. These two hypotheses are products of an indeterminate distance, presumed to be 1 kpc or 6 kpc. We have obtained the two-epoch Hubble Space Telescope Wild Field Planetary Camera 2 data of its circumstellar shell, which shows multiple concentric arcs extending out to about 8''. We have performed differential proper-motion measurements on distinct structures within the circumstellar shell of this mysterious star in hopes of determining the distance to the object, and thereby distinguishing the nature of this enigmatic stellar source. Upon investigation, rather than azimuthal radially symmetric expansion, we discovered a bulk motion of the circumstellar shell of (2.41 +- 0.43, 2.97 +- 0.32) mas yr{sup -1}. This corresponded to a translational interstellar medium (ISM) flow of (1.28 +- 0.95, 7.27 +- 0.75) mas yr{sup -1} local to the star. This finding implies that the distance to HD 179821 should be rather small in order for its circumstellar shell to preserve its highly intact spherical structure in the presence of the distorting ISM flow, therefore favoring the proposition that HD 179821 is a post-AGB object.

  2. Database of topographical objects as a ground for creation The spatial development study in polish communes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medyńska-Gulij, Beata

    2013-12-01

    In connection with the duty of municipalities to create land use plans, the present article has presented opportunities for adapting BDOT. According to the proposed assumptions and methods of procedure, the author has shown the structure of the base STUDIUM_BDOT, which following the necessary operations on the attributes and geometries of objects, has become the basis for cartographic visualisation.

  3. Objective assessment of the effects of texting while driving: a simulator study.

    PubMed

    Bendak, Salaheddine

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in electronic communication technology led to many drivers opting to send and receive text messages while driving. This, inevitably, has a potential to distract drivers, impair driving performance and lead to crashes. This study aims to assess the risk involved in texting while driving through assessing the distraction caused and determining the change in key driving performance indicators. Twenty-one paid young male volunteers were recruited to participate in this study. Each participant drove a driving simulator on four different scenarios involving driving while texting and without texting on highways and town roads. Results showed that texting while driving led, on average, to five times more crashes than driving without texting. Due to distraction also, participants unnecessarily crossed lane boundaries and road boundaries more often while texting as compared to driving without texting. Moreover, distraction due to texting led to participants deviating their eyes off the road while texting 15 times per session, on average, more than without texting. Results demonstrated a high-risk level of distraction and clear impairment in drivers' ability to drive safely due to texting. Based on the results, practical recommendations to combat this phenomenon are given. PMID:25084803

  4. Experimental study on the imaging of the squeezed-state light with a virtual object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baozhu; Bi, Siwen; Feng, Fei; Kang, Menghua; Qin, Fei

    2012-11-01

    A stable amplitude squeezed-state light was generated by utilizing the nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier based on periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal at 1064 nm. We observed -4.93 dB of squeezing with a local oscillator phase locked in homodyne measurement. The imaging experiments of the resolution target have shown that the imaging resolution, which was based on squeezed-state light, is 1.41 times as much as the resolution that was acquired using coherent light as light source. In addition, the squeezed-state light was applied for imaging of the virtual object. It was found that the characters on the board were much more easily discerned with squeezed light as a light source than with coherent light. This result paves the way for further improvements of imaging resolution by use of the squeezed-state light.

  5. Developing Values for Secondary School Students through the Study of Art Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Ursu, Alexandru Marius Bodochi

    2011-01-01

    The paper begins with some issues related to aesthetics, aesthetic education, art and axiological education. The empirical research has the general assumption that secondary school students and youth have difficulties in selecting values. The objective of the research was three fold: to design, to organize and to carry learning activities from…

  6. The Potential for Adaptable Accessible Learning Objects: A Case Study in Accessible Vodcasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkatzidou, Stavroula; Pearson, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless networks and mobile technologies and the increasing adoption of mobile learning, the need for "anywhere, anytime and any device" access to information becomes more evident. This has influenced the design of learning objects. The small but developing literature on vodcasting indicates its potential as an

  7. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  8. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.

  9. The molecular mechanism of breast cancer cell apoptosis induction by absent in melanoma (AIM2)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Yong; Yi, Jian; Liu, Feng-En

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the molecular mechanism by which absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) induces breast cancer cell apoptosis. Methods: Establish Tet-OffTM model system to induce AIM2 expression in great quantities, MCF-7 tTA-AIM2 cells were the experimental group; MCF-7 tTA-Luc cells were the control group. The expression and subcellular localization of AIM2 in breast cancer cell lines were determined via Western Blotting. AIM2 protein expression was determined after the addition of interferon-? (102 U/ml). Flow cytometry was used to analyze the effects of AIM2 on the cell cycle. Apoptosis detection was performed by staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. Apoptosis mechanism was detected via Western Blotting. The XTT assay was used to analyze the effects of AIM2 on cell growth. Result: This experiment established Tet-Off guidance system. This system results which promotes AIM2 gene transcription and increased AIM2 protein expression. Four days after induction, AIM2 expression was detected. AIM2 expression increased with the number of days post-induction. AIM2 is present in cytoplasm and nuclei. Interferon-? (102 U/ml) induced AIM2 protein expression and significantly increased AIM2 expression. AIM2 expression had no significant effect on the cell cycle, With the increase of Cdk2 expression induced by days were gradually increased, and Cdk4, Cyclin E expression was no significantly difference. AIM2 expression can significantly promote the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Increased AIM2 expression can inhibit the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, increase the expression of the apoptosis proteins Bad and Bax, and activate caspases, resulting in cleavage of the DNA repair protein PARP. The XTT assay showed that AIM2 expression slows the rate of cell growth. Conclusion: In this breast cancer Tet-OffTM system, AIM2 was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus, stimulated the mitochondria to promote apoptosis, and influenced cell survival and proliferation. PMID:26628957

  10. Taking aim at the ABM Treaty: THAAD and US Security

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.; Corbin, M.

    1995-05-01

    Successful testing of the Army`s Theater High Altitude Area Defense interceptor missile leads to speculation that the technology could render meaningless the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972. The authors examine the ability of the political system to develop national strategies that incorporate the new realities created by technology.

  11. On Aims and Methods in the Neuroimaging of Derived Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickins, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Ingenious and seemingly powerful technologies have been developed recently that enable the visualization in some detail of events in the brain concomitant upon the ongoing behavioral performance of a human participant. Measurement of such brain events offers at the very least a new set of dependent variables in relation to which the independent

  12. On Aims and Methods in the Neuroimaging of Derived Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickins, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Ingenious and seemingly powerful technologies have been developed recently that enable the visualization in some detail of events in the brain concomitant upon the ongoing behavioral performance of a human participant. Measurement of such brain events offers at the very least a new set of dependent variables in relation to which the independent…

  13. What Should Be the Moral Aims of Compulsory Sex Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for

  14. a Study of the Pioneer Anomaly:. New Data and Objectives for New Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.; Kellogg, Larry R.; Lau, Eunice L.; Lee, Kyong J.

    The Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft yielded the most precise navigation in deep space to date. However, their radiometric tracking data has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue shift, uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 10-9 Hz/s and can be interpreted as a constant sunward acceleration of each particular spacecraft of aP = (8.741.33) 10-10 m/s2 (or, alternatively, a time acceleration of at = (2.920.44) 10-18 s/s2). This signal has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. We discuss the current state of the efforts to retrieve the entire data sets of the Pioneer 10 and 11 radiometric Doppler data. We also report on the availability of recently recovered telemetry files that may be used to reconstruct the engineering history of both spacecraft using original project documentation and newly developed software tools. We discuss possible ways to further investigate the discovered effect using these telemetry files in conjunction with the analysis of the much extended Pioneer Doppler data. In preparation for this new upcoming investigation, we summarize the current knowledge of the Pioneer anomaly and review some of the mechanisms proposed for its explanation. We emphasize the main objectives of this new study, namely (i) analysis of the early data that could yield the true direction of the anomaly and thus, its origin, (ii) analysis of planetary encounters, which should say more about the onset of the anomaly (e.g. Pioneer 11's Saturn flyby), (iii) analysis of the entire dataset, which should lead to a better determination of the temporal behavior of the anomaly, (iv) comparative analysis of individual anomalous accelerations for the two Pioneers with the data taken from similar heliocentric distances, (v) the detailed study of on-board systematics, and (vi) development of a thermal-electric-dynamical model using on-board telemetry. The outlined strategy may allow for a higher accuracy solution for the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft and, possibly, will lead to an unambiguous determination of the origin of the Pioneer anomaly.

  15. A New Professional: The Aims of Education Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Parker J.

    2007-01-01

    The word "professional" originally meant someone who makes a "profession of faith" in the midst of a disheartening world. That root meaning became diminished as the centuries rolled by, and today it has all but disappeared. "Professional" now means someone who possesses knowledge and techniques too esoteric for the laity to understand, whose

  16. "Our Aim Is to Put Learners in the Driving Seat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, John

    2010-01-01

    When some people think of post-18 education, they only perceive real merit in the traditional university route. The central role that further education (FE) plays in the economy and society is often overlooked and undervalued. In truth, FE for adults, whether in a college, at work, or an informal evening class, not only has the power to improve

  17. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million

  18. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  19. The Trouble with Outcomes: Pragmatic Inquiry and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Chris W.

    2012-01-01

    Although outcomes assessment (OA) has become "common sense" in higher education, this article shows that the concept of "outcomes" tends to limit and compromise teaching and learning while serving the interests of institutional management. By contrast, the pragmatic concept of consequences tends to expand our view of teaching and learning, and

  20. An ERP Study of the Processing of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Mieko; Garnsey, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Using reading times and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the processing of Japanese subject and object relative clauses (SRs/ORs). Previous research on English relative clauses shows that ORs take longer to read (King & Just, 1991) and elicit anterior negativity between fillers and gaps (King & Kutas, 1995), which is

  1. Aiming at the target: improved adjuvant medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Philippe L; Dinh, Phuong; Sotiriou, Christos; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J

    2009-10-01

    The 2007 St. Gallen Expert Panel recognized the existence of molecular tools for risk stratification, but recommended the use of high-quality standard pathological testing alone for risk allocation and treatment selection. Over the last two years, much has been learned about these novel molecular tools: they demonstrate similar prognostic power; their performance appears to be driven by improved quantification of cellular proliferation; tumour burden remains an important determinant of long-term outcome; and their prediction of responsiveness to systemic therapy is suboptimal. In the meantime, great effort has continued to be invested in evaluating individual predictive markers to guide treatment selection. A number of putative targets that showed early promise--such as HER-2 and TOP2A gene amplification for anthracyclines, Myc amplification for trastuzumab, and Tau expression for taxanes--have yielded disappointing results when subjected to subsequent validation. These failings underscore the difficulty of accurate, reproducible target measurement and the inherent complexity of early breast cancer which is unlikely to be captured by a single gene or protein alteration. Future progress in adjuvant treatment tailoring will require a fundamental shift towards multi-dimensional thinking--with the development of multi-parameter assays that integrate tumour biology, disease burden, and host-related factors. The traditional model of post hoc predictive marker validation appears unlikely to produce tangible gains in the era of targeted systemic therapy. It is hoped that coupling prospective biomarker discovery with new drug development in earlier stages of disease will yield additional targets that can be used to guide clinical decision-making in the future. PMID:19914538

  2. Future technology aim of the National Aerospace Plane Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Charles W.

    1993-06-01

    Technical areas where hypersonic technology programs outside NASP might offer assistance and participate in the NASP program are considered. These specific areas include airframe, technology opportunities for providing better performance and reduced weight, the NDV application of NASP technology, and engine propellant systems and subsystems.

  3. Future technology aim of the National Aerospace Plane Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Technical areas where hypersonic technology programs outside NASP might offer assistance and participate in the NASP program are considered. These specific areas include airframe, technology opportunities for providing better performance and reduced weight, the NDV application of NASP technology, and engine propellant systems and subsystems.

  4. The Professionalization of Management: Aims, Obstacles, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovskaia, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Management in Russia is as difficult to define as a profession as it is in other countries, and the question of what education is appropriate for a future manager is also difficult to define. Business schools in Russia need to think more carefully about their curriculums and about what they should be preparing their students for. (Contains 6

  5. The AIMS65 Score Is a Useful Predictor of Mortality in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Urgent Endoscopy in Patients with High AIMS65 Scores

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Wook; Song, Young Wook; Tak, Dae Hyun; Ahn, Byung Moo; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: To validate the AIMS65 score for predicting mortality of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to evaluate the effectiveness of urgent (<8 hours) endoscopic procedures in patients with high AIMS65 scores. Methods: This was a 5-year single-center, retrospective study. Nonvariceal, upper gastrointestinal bleeding was assessed by using the AIM65 and Rockall scores. Scores for mortality were assessed by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Patients with high AIMS65 scores (?2) were allocated to either the urgent or non-urgent endoscopic procedure group. In-hospital mortality, success of endoscopic procedure, recurrence of bleeding, admission period, and dose of transfusion were compared between groups. Results: A total of 634 patients were analyzed. The AIMS65 score successfully predicted mortality (AUROC=0.943; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.876 to 0.99) and was superior to the Rockall score (AUROC=0.856; 95% CI, 0.743 to 0.969) in predicting mortality. The group with high AIMS65 score included 200 patients. The urgent endoscopic procedure group had reduced hospitalization periods (p<0.05) Conclusions: AIMS65 score may be useful in predicting mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Urgent endoscopic procedures in patients with high scores may be related to reduced hospitalization periods. PMID:26668799

  6. Thermal Studies of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    2003-01-01

    In this proposal, we seek to apply the optical/thermal method to the measurement of the diameters and albedos of a large sample of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Whereas main-belt asteroids have been studied in large numbers, principally using thermal detections from the IRAS satellite, relatively few thermal observations of NEOs have been secured. This program capitalizes on our access to large telescopes and imaging thermal IR detectors in pursuit of the definitive set of albedo data on the NEOs.

  7. The Hispanic Community Children’s Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth): Design, objectives and procedures

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, CR; Carnethon, MR; Ayala, GX; Arredondo, E; Bangdiwala, SI; Daviglus, ML; Delamater, AM; Eckfeldt, JH; Perreira, K; Himes, JH; Kaplan, RC; Van Horn, L

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes the design and methodology of the SOL Youth study, a multicenter study of Hispanic/Latino children living in the US. Methods Participants are children aged 8–16 years whose parents/legal guardians participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a large community-based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the US. Results Between 2012 and 2014, 1600 children recruited from 4 field centers (Bronx, Chicago, Miami and San Diego) will undergo a 3.5 hour examination to collect biospecimens, obtain anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fitness level, dietary intake, and physical activity. Psychosocial and environmental characteristics are assessed by questionnaire. Primary study aims are to examine associations of youth’s lifestyle behaviors and cardiometabolic risk factors with (1) youth’s acculturation and parent-child differences in acculturation; (2) parenting strategies, family behaviors, and parental health behaviors; and (3) youth’s psychosocial functioning. Conclusions SOL Youth will determine the prevalence and distribution of obesity-promoting lifestyle behaviors, cardiometabolic risk profiles and novel biomarkers associated with obesity and insulin resistance. This paper describes the study methodology and considers advantages and limitations of embedding a cohort of children within a well characterized cohort of adults. PMID:24120345

  8. The Effects of Age on Divergent Thinking and Creative Objects Production: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massimiliano, Palmiero

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in divergent thinking and creative objects production were investigated in 150 native Italian speakers, divided into six age groups, each one comprised 25 participants: young (20-29), young adult (30-39), middle aged (40-49), adult-old (50-59), old (60-69), and old-old (70-80). Two tasks were used: the alternative uses task,

  9. A study of binary Kuiper belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Susan Diane

    2006-06-01

    About 10 5 bodies larger than 100km in diameter (Jewitt 1998) reside in the Kuiper Belt, beyond the orbit of Neptune. Since 1992 observational surveys have discovered over one thousand of these objects, believed to be fossil remnants of events that occurred nearly 4.5 billion years ago. Sixteen of these objects are currently known to be binaries, and many more are expected to be discovered. As part of the Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) I have helped catalog nearly one third of the known Kuiper Belt object (KBO) population, and used that database for further physical studies. Recovery observations for dynamical studies of newly discovered objects with the Magellan telescopes and a high resolution imager, MagIC, revealed three binaries, 88611 (2001QT297), 2003QY90, and 2005EO304. One binary was found in the discovery observations, 2003UN284. Lightcurve measurements of these, and other non-binary KBOs, were obtained to look for unique rotational characteristics. Eleven of thirty-three objects, excluding the binaries, were found to have measurable variability. One of these objects, 2002GW32 has a particularly large amplitude (> 1 magnitude) of variability, and 2002GP32 has a relatively short (~3.3 hours, single-peaked) lightcurve. Among the binary population all the observed objects showed some level of variation. The secondary of 88611 was fit with a single-peaked period of 5.50.02 hours while the primary component appears to be non-variable above the measurement errors (0.05 magnitudes). Neither component appears to be color variable. The components of 2003QY90 are both highly variable yielding single- peaked rotation periods of 3.51.1 and 7.22.9 hours with amplitudes of 0.340.06 and 0.900.18 magnitudes, respectively. The rotation periods are comparable to those of other non-binary KBOs although distinct from that of an identified contact binary. Orbits and partial orbits for Kuiper belt binaries (KBBs) show a wide range of eccentricities, and an increasing number of binaries with decreasing binary semi-major axis. These characteristics exclude the formation models proposed by Funato et al. (2003) and Weidenschilling (2002), respectively. Conversely, the formation models of Astakhov et al. (2005) and Goldreich et al. (2002) appear to describe the observations, at least in part. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  10. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  11. The IRYSS-COPD appropriateness study: objectives, methodology, and description of the prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often experience exacerbations of the disease that require hospitalization. Current guidelines offer little guidance for identifying patients whose clinical situation is appropriate for admission to the hospital, and properly developed and validated severity scores for COPD exacerbations are lacking. To address these important gaps in clinical care, we created the IRYSS-COPD Appropriateness Study. Methods/Design The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Methodology was used to identify appropriate and inappropriate scenarios for hospital admission for patients experiencing COPD exacerbations. These scenarios were then applied to a prospective cohort of patients attending the emergency departments (ED) of 16 participating hospitals. Information was recorded during the time the patient was evaluated in the ED, at the time a decision was made to admit the patient to the hospital or discharge home, and during follow-up after admission or discharge home. While complete data were generally available at the time of ED admission, data were often missing at the time of decision making. Predefined assumptions were used to impute much of the missing data. Discussion The IRYSS-COPD Appropriateness Study will validate the appropriateness criteria developed by the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Methodology and thus better delineate the requirements for admission or discharge of patients experiencing exacerbations of COPD. The study will also provide a better understanding of the determinants of outcomes of COPD exacerbations, and evaluate the equity and variability in access and outcomes in these patients. PMID:22115318

  12. A Study of the Objectives for the Theological Preparation of Lutheran Church Missouri Synod Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockrohr, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined current practice in the area of theological preparation for Lutheran elementary teachers of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS). As a church body with a well-defined doctrine, the LCMS requires a particular preparation for all ordained and commissioned workers placed on its official roster. A historical review of archival

  13. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  14. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The “model of diffusion in service organisations” was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Results Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change commitment, but relatively low change efficacy). Regarding implementation processes, the importance of (visible) senior leadership for all professions involved was identified as a critical factor. An unpredictable and hectic environment brings challenges in creating an environment in which team-based and organisational learning can thrive (system antecedents for innovation). In addition, the position of the ED as the entry-point of the hospital points to the relevance of securing buy-in from other units. Conclusions We identified several organisational factors relevant to realising change in ED management of patients who present with mild head injuries. These factors will inform the intervention design and process evaluation in a trial evaluating the effectiveness of our implementation intervention. PMID:26845772

  15. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    PubMed

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines. PMID:24934452

  16. The WellingTONNE Challenge Toolkit: Using the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate a Community Resource Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperchione, Cristina; Coulson, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The RE-AIM framework has been recognized as a tool to evaluate the adoption, delivery, and sustainability of an intervention, and estimate its potential public health impact. In this study four dimensions of the RE-AIM framework (adoption, implementation, effectiveness, and maintenance) were used to evaluate the WellingTONNE Challenge

  17. Practical Study on HVAC Control Technology Based on the Learning Function and Optimum Multiple Objective Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Haruka; Dazai, Ryota; Kaseda, Chosei; Ikaga, Toshiharu; Kato, Akihiro

    Demand among large office buildings for the energy-saving benefits of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) System are increasing as more and more people become concerned with global environmental issues. However, immoderate measures taken in the interest of energy conservation may encroach on the thermal comfort and productivity level of office workers. Building management should satisfy both indoor thermal comfort and energy conservation while adapting to the many regulatory, social, climate, and other changes that occur during the lifespan of the building. This paper demonstrates how optimal control of the HVAC system, based on data modeling and the multi-objective optimal method, achieves an efficient equilibrium between thermal comfort and energy conservation.

  18. Connecting Young Stellar Object Variability Across the Great Observatories: A Combined Spitzer and Chandra Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    We propose to monitor a cluster of young stars at 3.6 and 4.5 micron with Spitzer, as well as in the X-ray with Chandra, in order to trace infrared variability on timescales of months to years as well as connect it with known sources of X-ray variability. Previous observations have found that many young stellar objects fluctuate in as little as a few days. Possible sources of this variability include variable heating by X-ray, accretion or stellar flux, dynamical interactions with the stellar magnetic field or perturbations from a possibly planetary-mass companion embedded in the disk. Coordinated Spitzer and Chandra observations will be able to put constraints on the source of the variability and the importance of X-rays in setting the disk structure.

  19. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were

  20. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  1. The Use of Stellar Occultations to Study Trans-Neptunian Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ROSSI, GUSTAVO B.; Sicardy, Bruno; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Vieira Martins, Roberto; Camargo, Julio; Assafin, Marcelo

    2014-11-01

    The physical parameters of the Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO's) such as size, shape, density, presence of atmosphere, and rings, provide important information on their formation and evolution. At more than 30 Astronomical Units (AU) from the Sun, those objects receive low solar radiation and have low mutual collisions velocities so they can be considered as remnants of the primordial outer Solar System. Besides that, information on TNO's is of great relevance when trying to establish a general formation scenario for the recently discovered planetary systems.The problem is that such bodies have a diameter smaller than 2300 km (Eris, one of the largest TNO, has 2326 km) and, when viewed from Earth, they usually subtend angles smaller than 50 milli-arcseconds, preventing direct imaging. One method to obtain very accurate information on the TNO's is the stellar occultation technique. Sizes at kilometer accuracies and pressure at nanobar levels can be achieved with this method, as well as detection of ring systems. Shape, density, albedo and other physical parameters can also be derived from this technique.Since 2010, we observed stellar occultations of several TNO's (Eris, Makemake, 2003VS2, Quaoar, Ixion, Varuna, 2002KX14, and 2003AZ84) besides some other occultations by Pluto and Charon, and by the largest Centaur known to date, Chariklo. We also predicted future events in 2014 and 2015 for 40 TNO's and Centaurs. On this work, we present the process of our campains - predictions, follow ups, world wide cooperation, post-occutation data analysis -, the new results obtained from recent stellar occultations of TNO's, and the expectations of improvements after GAIA.

  2. An ERP Study on Self-Relevant Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyakoshi, Makoto; Nomura, Michio; Ohira, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    We performed an event-related potential study to investigate the self-relevance effect in object recognition. Three stimulus categories were prepared: SELF (participant's own objects), FAMILIAR (disposable and public objects, defined as objects with less-self-relevant familiarity), and UNFAMILIAR (others' objects). The participants' task was to…

  3. Geometry as Objective Science in Elementary School Classrooms: Mathematics in the Flesh. Routledge International Studies in the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the origins of geometry in and out of the intuitively given everyday lifeworlds of children in a second-grade mathematics class. These lifeworlds, though pre-geometric, are not without model objects that denote and come to anchor geometric idealities that they will understand at later points in their lives. Roth's analyses

  4. Geometry as Objective Science in Elementary School Classrooms: Mathematics in the Flesh. Routledge International Studies in the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the origins of geometry in and out of the intuitively given everyday lifeworlds of children in a second-grade mathematics class. These lifeworlds, though pre-geometric, are not without model objects that denote and come to anchor geometric idealities that they will understand at later points in their lives. Roth's analyses…

  5. Interventions aimed at improving the ability to use everyday technology in work after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Prellwitz, Maria; Malinowsky, Camilla; Larsson-Lund, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore and describe how client-centred occupational therapy interventions may support and improve the ability to use everyday technology (ET) in work tasks in people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Method A qualitative, descriptive multiple-case study was designed, and occupation-based interventions were provided to three working-age participants with ABI. Multiple sources were used to collect data throughout the three intervention processes, including assessments, field notes, and interviews. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment were administered before the interventions, after the interventions and at a follow-up session 2-3 months subsequent to the interventions. Results The three intervention processes initially consisted of similar actions, but subsequently the actions took on a different focus and intensity for each case. All of the goals in each of the three case processes were achieved, and both perceived and observed abilities to use ET in work tasks improved. Conclusions Client-centred occupational therapy interventions might have the potential to improve the ability to use ET in work tasks in people with ABI. PMID:26651230

  6. Orbital studies of cataclysmic binaries. II - Three objects from the Palomar-Green sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, J. R.

    1986-04-01

    I obtained radial-velocity spectra of PG 0834 + 488, PG 1003 + 678 = CH UMa, and PG 1711 + 336 = V795 Her to determine their orbital periods. PG 0834 + 488 has an apparently normal dwarf-nova type spectrum, and its orbital period is here found to be 6.4 hr with no cycle-count ambigu- ity. The present data show no visible absorption from a secondary star. PG 1003 + 678 = CH UMa most likely has a period of 8.3 hr, which is an alias of the preliminary period of 12.5 hr announced by Thorstensen (1985); the 12.5 hr period remains possible. It shows absorption features in its spectrum characteristic of a late-type secondary star, and these features appear to have velocities in antiphase to the emission lines. The velocity amplitude is small and the lines narrow, suggesting a low inclination. PG 1711 + 336 = V795 Her has a most likely period of 14.8 hr, unusually long for a cataclysmic binary; because of the weakness of the emission lines, some doubt remains about the period. The 2.75 hr photometric period determined by Baidak et al. (1985) is not indicated in the velocities. The emission lines are weak and the flux distribution very blue. The object is evidently a nova-like variable in a perpetual high state. if the photometric and spectroscopic periods are both correct, it may be a very slow DQ Her star as well.

  7. Behavioral Objectives of Mass Media Courses: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    This exploratory study attempted to determine the extent to which behavioral objectives are relevant in mass media courses at the high school level. The study elicited responses to general objectives of high school mass media or consumer media courses, objectives of post-high school courses adaptable to the high school, and objectives of units

  8. Atlas of the Messier Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Binnewies, Stefan; Friedrich, Susanne; Schroeder, Klaus-Peter

    2008-11-01

    Preface; How to use this book; The life of Charles Messier; The observations of Charles Messier; The catalog of Charles Messier; Statistics of the Messier objects; Observation of the Messier objects; Photography of the Messier objects; The objects themselves; Glossary; List of figures; Table of sources.

  9. Chicago Healthy Aging Study: Objectives and Design

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Amber; Reid, Kathryn; Kim, Daniel; Garside, Daniel B.; Lu, Brandon; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Zee, Phyllis; Liu, Kiang; Stamler, Jeremiah; Daviglus, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators in the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (CHAS) reexamined 1,395 surviving participants aged 6584 years (28% women) from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry (CHA) 19671973 cohort whose cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles were originally ascertained at ages 2544 years. CHAS investigators reexamined 421 participants who were low-risk (LR) at baseline and 974 participants who were non-LR at baseline. LR was defined as having favorable levels of 4 major CVD risk factors: serum total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL and no use of cholesterol-lowering medication; blood pressure 120/?80 mm Hg and no use of antihypertensive medication; no current smoking; and no history of diabetes or heart attack. While the potential of LR status in overcoming the CVD epidemic is being recognized, the long-term association of LR with objectively measured health in older age has not been examined. It is hypothesized that persons who were LR in 19671973 and have survived to older age will have less clinical and subclinical CVD, lower levels of inflammatory markers, and better physical performance/functioning and sleep quality. Here we describe the rationale, objectives, design, and implementation of this longitudinal epidemiologic study, compare baseline and follow-up characteristics of participants and nonparticipants, and highlight the feasibility of reexamining study participants after an extended period postbaseline with minimal interim contact. PMID:23669655

  10. Optical and Near Infrared Study of the Cepheus E Outflow, a Very Low Excitation Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreiga-Crespo, A.; Ayala, S.; Garnavich, P.; Curiel, S.; Raga, A.; Bohm, K.; Raymond, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we explore the link between the physical properties of the outflow as determined from optical imaging and spectroscopy, and compare these results with those obtained from observations in the near infrared.

  11. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al

  12. A multi-wavelength interferometric study of the massive young stellar object IRAS 13481-6124

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, Paul A.; Kraus, Stefan; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Linz, Hendrik; van Boekel, Roy; Henning, Thomas; Lacour, Sylvestre; Monnier, John D.; Stecklum, Bringfried; Tuthill, Peter G.

    2016-02-01

    We present new mid-infrared interferometric observations of the massive young stellar object IRAS 13481-6124, using VLTI/MIDI for spectrally-resolved, long-baseline measurements (projected baselines up to ~120 m) and GSO/T-ReCS for aperture-masking interferometry in five narrow-band filters (projected baselines of ~1.8-6.4 m) in the wavelength range of 7.5-13μm. We combine these measurements with previously-published interferometric observations in the K and N bands in order to assemble the largest collection of infrared interferometric observations for a massive YSO to date. Using a combination of geometric and radiative-transfer models, we confirm the detection at mid-infrared wavelengths of the disk previously inferred from near-infrared observations. We show that the outflow cavity is also detected at both near- and mid-infrared wavelengths, and in fact dominates the mid-infrared emission in terms of total flux. For the disk, we derive the inner radius (~1.8 mas or ~6.5 AU at 3.6 kpc), temperature at the inner rim (~1760 K), inclination (~48°) and position angle (~107°). We determine that the mass of the disk cannot be constrained without high-resolution observations in the (sub-)millimeter regime or observations of the disk kinematics, and could be anywhere from ~10-3 to 20M⊙. Finally, we discuss the prospects of interpreting the spectral energy distributions of deeply-embedded massive YSOs, and warn against attempting to infer disk properties from the spectral energy distribution. Based in part on observations with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer of the European Southern Observatory, under program IDs 384.C-0625, 086.C-0543, 091.C-0357.

  13. A Cuing Study of the N2pc Component: An Index of Attentional Deployment to Objects Rather Than Spatial Locations

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Arita, Jason T.; Luck, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic visual cues indicating the location of an upcoming target are believed to invoke endogenous shifts of attention to cued locations. In the present study, we investigated how visual attention is shifted during such cuing paradigms by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). We focused on a component known to index lateralized shifts of perceptual attention during visual search tasks, known as the N2pc component. The ERP data show that attention was shifted to a cued location in anticipation of a target shape when the location is marked by a placeholder-object (Experiments 1 and 2). However, when the possible locations were not marked by placeholder objects we found no evidence for an anticipatory shift of attention to the cued location (Experiment 3). These findings indicate that the perceptual-attention mechanism indexed by the N2pc is deployed to objects and not simply locations in space devoid of object structure. PMID:19682440

  14. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  15. Finding the object'' proceedings addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.; Devaney, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to discuss finding the object -- that is, how software engineers imagine, invent, design, or recycle objects and their behaviors for object-oriented software engineering. The workshop organizers (and, as we subsequently discovered, several of the workshop participants) felt that this issue is crucial to successful object-oriented software engineering (after all, finding objects is what the projects is all about, isn't it ). Unfortunately, when previous workshops have had the opportunity to review and discuss techniques practitioners use to find objects, too often the results were heated debates on what is an object '' which becomes all consuming. We believed that, given appropriate control over the question of which kind of object'' is being discussed (which meant tell us what object you are trying to find, then tell us your method), a workshop to concentrate on techniques for finding objects would be quite appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  16. The study of the thermal imaging law on several objects in winter environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan-yu; Pang, Min-hui

    2013-09-01

    Some thermal imaging experiments have been done about a building with a door made of iron, copperplate and aluminum flake, several trees, marbles, a glass window and a concrete wall under different conditions in a winter day while the environmental temperature and relative humidity are simultaneously measured by an electronic sensor. The experimental results show that the thermal imaging temperatures of the targets are related to the category of materials, and presenting some laws with the environment temperature changing. All of the thermal imaging temperature of the targets obviously varies with the atmospheric environment temperature by the large temperature difference. The changes of the surface temperature of metals are more obviously than nonmetals. The thermal imaging temperature of the door made of iron is more easily affected by the atmospheric environment temperature than copperplate while aluminum flake is more difficultly affected than copperplate under the same condition. The temperature of an ordinary concrete wall is obviously higher than the one painted by oil paint. Under the same condition, the changes of glasses are the most in all of the nonmetal targets.

  17. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  18. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey

  19. The Effects of Simultaneous Prompting on Teaching Expressive Identification of Objects: An Instructive Feedback Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Acar, Gazi; Kurt, Onur

    2003-01-01

    This study with three adolescents with mental retardation examined whether the use of a simultaneous prompting procedure would result in improved performance when expressively identifying first aid materials. All three students learned the identifications and maintained them after training. Students also acquired and maintained some of the

  20. The Objective Double Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Willis, Thomas D.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    The solar corona, supernova remnants, the hot diffuse interstellar gas in the Galaxy, galactic halos, and the hot intracluster gas in rich clusters of galaxies, are examples of extended astrophysical plasmas which emit line-rich spectra in the X-ray spectral range from 1.5 to 25 A. These phenomena represent a significant fraction of the baryonic matter in the universe. The study of the composition, structure and dynamics of these astrophysical plasmas requires observations with both high spectral and spatial resolution simultaneously. The Objective Double Crystal Spectrometer, coupled with a grazing incidence X-ray telescope, represents a stigmatic instrument which is highly efficient for the study of such sources. We describe the configuration and performance (spatial resolution, spectral resolution and efficiency) of the Objective Double Crystal spectrometer.

  1. Cognitive and Anatomical Underpinnings of the Conceptual Knowledge for Common Objects and Familiar People: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current models of face and object semantic representations in the brain. PMID:23704999

  2. The Development of the Learning Object Standard Using a Pedagogic Approach: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Yazrina; Jenkins, John; Yusoff, Mohammed

    Education is moving towards revenue generation from such channels as electronic learning, distance learning and virtual education. Hence learning technology standards are critical to the sector's success. Existing learning technology standards have focused on various topics such as metadata, question and test interoperability and others. However,…

  3. Artworks as dichotomous objects: implications for the scientific study of aesthetic experience

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue that has been studied from both scientific and art theoretical perspectives, namely the dichotomous nature of representational artworks. Representational artworks are dichotomous in that they present us with two distinct aspects at once. In one aspect we are aware of what is represented while in the other we are aware of the material from which the representation is composed. The dichotomy arises due the incompatibility, indeed contradiction, between these aspects of awareness, both of which must be present if we are to fully appreciate the artwork. Examples from art history are given to show how artists have exploited this dichotomy in a way that conditions our response to their work. I hypothesize that the degree of manifest dichotomy in a work determines the strength of its aesthetic effect, and propose this could be experimentally tested. I conclude that scientific studies of aesthetic experience should take the dichotomous nature of artworks into account. PMID:26106312

  4. A laboratory study of the diffuse reflectance spectra of frosts occurring on astronomical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. M.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical, optical, and operating properties of an experiment chamber are examined and possible sample contamination difficulty is explained. The mechanical and operational characteristics of this apparatus are well suited for the study of the reflectance spectra of frosts. The infrared energy available at the detector is low and steps to increase the energy and the responsivity of the detector were taken. The problem of a standard diffuse reflector which is useful in the far ultraviolet region is considered and it is suggested that bright gold be used as the standard.

  5. The AIM2 inflammasome is critical for innate immunity against Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes-Alnemri, Teresa; Yu, Je-Wook; Juliana, Christine; Solorzano, Leobaldo; Kang, Seokwon; Wu, Jianghong; Datta, Pinaki; McCormick, Margaret; Huang, Lan; McDermott, Erin; Eisenlohr, Laurence; Landel, Carlisle P.; Alnemri, Emad S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, infects host macrophages, which triggers production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 ? (IL-1 ?) and IL-18. We elucidate here how host macrophages recognize Francisella and elicit this pro-inflammatory response. Using mice deficient in the DNA-sensing inflammasome component AIM2, we demonstrate here that AIM2 is required for sensing Francisella. AIM2-deficient mice were extremely susceptible to Francisella infection with higher mortality and bacterial burden compared to wild-type mice. Caspase-1, activation, IL-1? secretion and cell death were absent in Aim2?/? macrophages in response to Francisella infection or presence of cytoplasmic DNA. This study identifies AIM2 as a crucial sensor of F. tularensis infection, and provides genetic proof for its critical role in the host innate immunity to intracellular pathogens. PMID:20351693

  6. A Study of the Herbig Be Binary/FU Orionis Object Z CMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Mikulášek, Z.; Schöller, M.; González, J.; Schütz, O.; Stelzer, B.; Zejda, M.; Šmelcer, L.; Brát, L.

    2010-12-01

    Z CMa is a young visual binary star with a FU Ori companion. The primary star is in an outburst state since February 2008. We acquired photometric, spectroscopic, spectropolarimetric, and X-ray Chandra observations to study the mechanism causing violent outbursts in this kind of systems.

  7. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: the role of objects.

    PubMed

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included. PMID:24148875

  8. [Studying intermediatory regulation of heart rhythm using Daphnia magna as the alternative test object].

    PubMed

    Podosinovikova, N P; Beliaev, V A; Dolgo-Saburov, V B

    2009-01-01

    A functional test using Daphnia magna Straus hydrobionts is proposed for studying the role of intermediatory relationships in the heart rate (HR) regulation. It is established that the M-cholinomimetic carbamylcholine increases for two hours and decreases after 24 hours the HR in D. magna. Caffeine (a nonselective antagonist of adenosine receptors) potentiates the action of carbamylcholine during the first hour and then ceases to influence the drug effect. Caffeine normalizes the HR rate D magna, which was decreased by the cholinolytic atropine and the beta-adrenolytic atenolol. The possibilities of using the proposed test for the investigation of intermediatory relationships in the HR regulation, rapid analysis of the cardiothropic action of xenobiotics, and the primary screening of drugs for the pharmacological correction of HR disturbances are discussed. PMID:20095402

  9. HEART (Helping Everyone Aim for the Right Target): The Lived Experiences of a Freshmen Transition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Glade Talbert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate a freshmen transition program for at-risk students at a large urban high school. The program is called HEART, which is an acronym for Helping Everyone Aim for the Right Target. This research consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative portion included a

  10. The Bangladesh Risk of Acute Vascular Events (BRAVE) Study: objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rajiv; Alam, Dewan S; Fakir, Ismail Ibrahim; Adnan, Sheikh Daud; Naheed, Aliya; Tasmin, Ishrat; Monower, Md Mostafa; Hossain, Farzana; Hossain, Fatema Mahjabin; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Afrin, Sadia; Roy, Anjan Kumar; Akter, Minara; Sume, Sima Akter; Biswas, Ajoy Kumer; Pennells, Lisa; Surendran, Praveen; Young, Robin D; Spackman, Sarah A; Hasan, Khaled; Harshfield, Eric; Sheikh, Nasir; Houghton, Richard; Saleheen, Danish; Howson, Joanna M M; Butterworth, Adam S; Raqib, Rubhana; Majumder, Abdulla Al Shafi; Danesh, John; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele

    2015-07-01

    During recent decades, Bangladesh has experienced a rapid epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Coronary heart disease (CHD), with myocardial infarction (MI) as its main manifestation, is a major cause of death in the country. However, there is limited reliable evidence about its determinants in this population. The Bangladesh Risk of Acute Vascular Events (BRAVE) study is an epidemiological bioresource established to examine environmental, genetic, lifestyle and biochemical determinants of CHD among the Bangladeshi population. By early 2015, the ongoing BRAVE study had recruited over 5000 confirmed first-ever MI cases, and over 5000 controls "frequency-matched" by age and sex. For each participant, information has been recorded on demographic factors, lifestyle, socioeconomic, clinical, and anthropometric characteristics. A 12-lead electrocardiogram has been recorded. Biological samples have been collected and stored, including extracted DNA, plasma, serum and whole blood. Additionally, for the 3000 cases and 3000 controls initially recruited, genotyping has been done using the CardioMetabochip+ and the Exome+ arrays. The mean age (standard deviation) of MI cases is 53 (10) years, with 88 % of cases being male and 46 % aged 50 years or younger. The median interval between reported onset of symptoms and hospital admission is 5 h. Initial analyses indicate that Bangladeshis are genetically distinct from major non-South Asian ethnicities, as well as distinct from other South Asian ethnicities. The BRAVE study is well-placed to serve as a powerful resource to investigate current and future hypotheses relating to environmental, biochemical and genetic causes of CHD in an important but under-studied South Asian population. PMID:25930055

  11. The Cooperative Health Research in South Tyrol (CHRIS) study: rationale, objectives, and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pattaro, Cristian; Ggele, Martin; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Melotti, Roberto; Schwienbacher, Christine; De Grandi, Alessandro; Foco, Luisa; D'Elia, Yuri; Linder, Barbara; Fuchsberger, Christian; Minelli, Cosetta; Egger, Clemens; Kofink, Lisa S; Zanigni, Stefano; Schfer, Torsten; Facheris, Maurizio F; Smrason, Sigurur V; Rossini, Alessandra; Hicks, Andrew A; Weiss, Helmuth; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    The Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study is a population-based study with a longitudinal lookout to investigate the genetic and molecular basis of age-related common chronic conditions and their interaction with life style and environment in the general population. All adults of the middle and upper Vinschgau/Val Venosta are invited, while 10,000 participants are anticipated by mid-2017. Family participation is encouraged for complete pedigree reconstruction and disease inheritance mapping. After a pilot study on the compliance with a paperless assessment mode, computer-assisted interviews have been implemented to screen for conditions of the cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, genitourinary, nervous, behavioral, and cognitive system. Fat intake, cardiac health, and tremor are assessed instrumentally. Nutrient intake, physical activity, and life-course smoking are measured semi-quantitatively. Participants are phenotyped for 73 blood and urine parameters and 60 aliquots per participant are biobanked (cryo-preserved urine, DNA, and whole and fractionated blood). Through liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis, metabolite profiling of the mitochondrial function is assessed. Samples are genotyped on 1 million variants with the Illumina HumanOmniExpressExome array and the first data release including 4570 fully phenotyped and genotyped samples is now available for analysis. Participants' follow-up is foreseen 6 years after the first visit. The target population is characterized by long-term social stability and homogeneous environment which should both favor the identification of enriched genetic variants. The CHRIS cohort is a valuable resource to assess the contribution of genomics, metabolomics, and environmental factors to human health and disease. It is awaited that this will result in the identification of novel molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:26541195

  12. The Found Object Teaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Carl Weston

    1976-01-01

    A beech leaf, garnet crystals, trilobite fossils--brought by children aged three to twelve transform the science room. Investigates the importance of learning materials that children bring to the classroom at no expense. (Author/RK)

  13. Creating the First SCORM Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Barbone, Victor; Anido-Rifon, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The creation of the first SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model) object offers some challenges and difficulties which go beyond the facilities offered by content generation applications. In particular, the creation of really reusable, searchable learning objects requires a detailed consideration of metadata, where some institutional

  14. Earth's gravity gradient and eddy currents effects on the rotational dynamics of space debris objects: Envisat case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Natalia Ortiz; Walker, Scott J. I.

    2015-08-01

    The space debris population has grown rapidly over the last few decades with the consequent growth of impact risk between current objects in orbit. Active Debris Removal (ADR) has been recommended to be put into practice by several National Agencies in order to remove objects that pose the biggest risk for the space community. The most immediate target that is being considered for ADR by the European Space Agency is the Earth-observing satellite Envisat. In order to safely remove such a massive object from its orbit, a capturing process followed by a controlled reentry is necessary. However, current ADR methods that require physical contact with the target have limitations on the maximum angular momentum that can be absorbed and a de-tumbling phase prior to the capturing process may be required. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for the ADR mission design to be able to predict accurately how the target will be rotating at the time of capture. This article analyses two perturbations that affect an object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the Earth's gravity gradient and the eddy currents induced by the Earth's magnetic field. The gravity gradient is analysed using the equation of conservation of total energy and a graphical method is presented to understand the expected behaviour of any object under the effect of this perturbation. The eddy currents are also analysed by studying the total energy of the system. The induced torque and the characteristic time of decay are presented as a function of the object's magnetic tensor. In addition, simulations were carried out for the Envisat spacecraft including the gravity gradient perturbation as well as the eddy currents effect using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field IGRF-11 to model the Earth's magnetic field. These simulations show that the combined effect of these two perturbations is a plausible explanation for the rotational speed decay observed between April 2013 and September 2013.

  15. A COMPARATIVE ASTROCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE HIGH-MASS PROTOSTELLAR OBJECTS NGC 7538 IRS 9 AND IRS 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barentine, John C.; Lacy, John H.

    2012-10-01

    We report the results of a spectroscopic study of the high-mass protostellar object NGC 7538 IRS 9 and compare our observations to published data on the nearby object NGC 7538 IRS 1. Both objects originated in the same molecular cloud and appear to be at different points in their evolutionary histories, offering an unusual opportunity to study the temporal evolution of envelope chemistry in objects sharing a presumably identical starting composition. Observations were made with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph, a sensitive, high spectral resolution (R {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx_equal} 100,000) mid-infrared grating spectrometer. Forty-six individual lines in vibrational modes of the molecules C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCN, NH{sub 3}, and CO were detected, including two isotopologues ({sup 13}CO, {sup 12}C{sup 18}O) and one combination mode ({nu}{sub 4} + {nu}{sub 5} C{sub 2}H{sub 2}). Fitting synthetic spectra to the data yielded the Doppler shift, excitation temperature, Doppler b parameter, column density, and covering factor for each molecule observed; we also computed column density upper limits for lines and species not detected, such as HNCO and OCS. We find differences among spectra of the two objects likely attributable to their differing radiation and thermal environments. Temperatures and column densities for the two objects are generally consistent, while the larger line widths toward IRS 9 result in less saturated lines than those toward IRS 1. Finally, we compute an upper limit on the size of the continuum-emitting region ({approx}2000 AU) and use this constraint and our spectroscopy results to construct a schematic model of IRS 9.

  16. Aiming for the bull's eye: Preparing for throwing investigated with event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Frmer, Romy; Hafner, Verena; Sommer, Werner

    2012-03-01

    We explored the feasibility of investigating complex goal-directed actions with event-related brain potentials by studying the aiming phase of throwing. A virtual reality environment was set up, allowing aimed throws at distant targets, with participants standing upright and moving relatively unrestrained. After a separate practice session, the contingent negative variation (CNV) was measured during preparation for a simple button release, unaimed throws, and aimed throws at targets of two levels of difficulty. Consistent with expectations, CNV amplitude was larger for all throwing conditions compared to button release. It further increased with task difficulty in the aimed throwing conditions, reflecting the increasing motor programming demands for more difficult goal-directed actions. Therefore, investigating throwing as an instance of complex goal-directed action with ERPs is feasible, opening interesting perspectives for future research. PMID:22091907

  17. Objects, events and "to be" verbs in Spanish--an ERP study of the syntax-semantics interface.

    PubMed

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A

    2012-02-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object+ser+en" is considered as incorrect, the "event+estar+en" combination is also perceived as unacceptable but to a lesser degree. In an ERP study, we evaluated the impact of a purely semantic distinction (object versus events) on the subsequent processing of these auxiliary verbs followed by locatives in Spanish. For the "ser en" predicate, the P600 component was larger when the subject was an object than when it was an event. This P600 effect is consistent with an online repair of the defining predicate when it does not fit with the adequate semantic properties of the subject. On the other hand, for the "estar en" predicate, event subjects when compared to object subjects showed more positive ongoing amplitudes between 280 and 380 ms after the presentation of the "en" preposition, followed by a longer positive wave starting around 400 ms and lasting until 700 ms after the presentation of the following determiner, with central and frontal scalp distributions respectively. Thus, the different subject-predicate combinations, depending on the semantic features of the subjects, triggered syntactic reparatory processes at a structural level. These findings are consistent with an incremental interpretation of sentence meaning based on the interaction between syntactic and semantic information. PMID:21300400

  18. The Object of Their Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishman, Shari

    2008-01-01

    Tishman argues that directing students to closely examine physical objects is an excellent way to motivate and strengthen thinking. Even simple objects reflect the social and physical contexts in which they were created and can spur deeper observations and questions. Teaching thinking through objects appeals to many different kinds of learners and

  19. A Review of Chemical Bonding Studies: Needs, Aims, Methods of Exploring Students' Conceptions, General Knowledge Claims and Students' Alternative Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents a detailed thematic review of chemical bonding studies. To achieve this, a matrix is developed to summarize and present the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methods of exploring students' conceptions, general knowledge claims,…

  20. A Review of Chemical Bonding Studies: Needs, Aims, Methods of Exploring Students' Conceptions, General Knowledge Claims and Students' Alternative Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents a detailed thematic review of chemical bonding studies. To achieve this, a matrix is developed to summarize and present the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methods of exploring students' conceptions, general knowledge claims,

  1. AIM2 inflammasome is dispensable for the host defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Pang, Z; Sun, G; Junkins, R D; Lin, T J

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of hospitalacquired pneumonia in immunecompromised individuals. Lung infection with P. aeruginosa is often associated with production of various inflammatory cytokines including IL1?. Production of IL1? requires proteolytic cleavage by a multiprotein complex termed inflammasome. AIM2 inflammasome recognizes foreign cytosolic double stranded DNA. A role of AIM2 in P. aeruginosa infection has not been reported previously. In this study, we found that P. aeruginosa infection induced degradation of AIM2 protein in macrophages and induction of AIM2 mRNA expression in macrophages and in the lung of mice. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa infection induced a similar level of IL1?, IL6 and TNF production in wildtype and AIM2deficient mice. Similarly, no significant differences in bacterial clearance, neutrophil infiltration and NF?B activation were observed between wildtype and AIM2deficient mice following P. aeruginosa lung infection. Our data suggest that AIM2 inflammasome is dispensable for the host defense against P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:26107502

  2. Object oriented studies into artificial space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, J. M.; Marshall, G.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype simulation is being developed under contract to the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE), Farnborough, England, to assist in the discrimination of artificial space objects/debris. The methodology undertaken has been to link Object Oriented programming, intelligent knowledge based system (IKBS) techniques and advanced computer technology with numeric analysis to provide a graphical, symbolic simulation. The objective is to provide an additional layer of understanding on top of conventional classification methods. Use is being made of object and rule based knowledge representation, multiple reasoning, truth maintenance and uncertainty. Software tools being used include Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) and SymTactics for knowledge representation. Hooks are being developed within the SymTactics framework to incorporate mathematical models describing orbital motion and fragmentation. Penetration and structural analysis can also be incorporated. SymTactics is an Object Oriented discrete event simulation tool built as a domain specific extension to the KEE environment. The tool provides facilities for building, debugging and monitoring dynamic (military) simulations.

  3. Beyond the "urge to move": objective measures for the study of agency in the post-Libet era.

    PubMed

    Wolpe, Noham; Rowe, James B

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of human volition is a longstanding endeavor from both philosophers and researchers. Yet because of the major challenges associated with capturing voluntary movements in an ecologically relevant state in the research environment, it is only in recent years that human agency has grown as a field of cognitive neuroscience. In particular, the seminal work of Libet et al. (1983) paved the way for a neuroscientific approach to agency. Over the past decade, new objective paradigms have been developed to study agency, drawing upon emerging concepts from cognitive and computational neuroscience. These include the chronometric approach of Libet's study which is embedded in the "intentional binding" paradigm, optimal motor control theory and most recent insights from active inference theory. Here we review these principal methods and their application to the study of agency in health and the insights gained from their application to neurological and psychiatric disorders. We show that the neuropsychological paradigms that are based upon these new approaches have key advantages over traditional experimental designs. We propose that these advantages, coupled with advances in neuroimaging, create a powerful set of tools for understanding human agency and its neurobiological basis. PMID:24999325

  4. Beyond the urge to move: objective measures for the study of agency in the post-Libet era

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of human volition is a longstanding endeavor from both philosophers and researchers. Yet because of the major challenges associated with capturing voluntary movements in an ecologically relevant state in the research environment, it is only in recent years that human agency has grown as a field of cognitive neuroscience. In particular, the seminal work of Libet et al. (1983) paved the way for a neuroscientific approach to agency. Over the past decade, new objective paradigms have been developed to study agency, drawing upon emerging concepts from cognitive and computational neuroscience. These include the chronometric approach of Libets study which is embedded in the intentional binding paradigm, optimal motor control theory and most recent insights from active inference theory. Here we review these principal methods and their application to the study of agency in health and the insights gained from their application to neurological and psychiatric disorders. We show that the neuropsychological paradigms that are based upon these new approaches have key advantages over traditional experimental designs. We propose that these advantages, coupled with advances in neuroimaging, create a powerful set of tools for understanding human agency and its neurobiological basis. PMID:24999325

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of complex mixtures aimed at the preparation of naproxen-imprinted xerogels.

    PubMed

    Concu, Riccardo; Perez, Martin; Cordeiro, M Natália D S; Azenha, Manuel

    2014-12-22

    The main objective of this study was to simulate for the first time a complex sol-gel system aimed at preparing the (S)-naproxen-imprinted xerogel with an explicit representation of all the ionic species at pH 9. For this purpose, a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of different mixtures, including species never studied before using the OPLS-AA force field, were prepared. A new parametrization for these species was developed and found to be acceptable. Three different systems were simulated, representing two types of pregelification models: the first one represented the initial mixture after complete hydrolysis and condensation to cyclic trimers (model A); the second one corresponded to the same mixture after the evaporation process (model B); and the last one was a simpler initial mixture without an explicit representation of all of the imprinting-mixture constituents (model C). The comparison of systems A and C mainly served the purpose of evaluating whether an explicit representation of all of the components (model A) was needed or if a less computationally demanding system in which the alkaline forms of the silicate species were ignored (model C) would be sufficient. The results confirmed our hypothesis that an explicit representation of all of the imprinting-mixture constituents is essential to study the molecular imprinting process because a poor representation of the ionic species present in the mixture may lead to erroneous conclusions or lost information. In general, the radial distribution function (RDF) analysis and interaction energies demonstrated a high affinity of the template molecule, 2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanoate (NAP(-), the conjugate base of (S)-naproxen), for the gel backbone, especially targeting the units containing the dihydroimidazolium moiety used as a functional group. Model B, representing a nearly gelled sol where the density of silicates and solvent polarity were much higher relative to the other models, allowed for much faster simulations. That gave us the chance to observe the templating effect through a comparative analysis and observation of the trajectories from simulations with the template- versus non-template-containing mixtures. Overall, a strong coherence between the imprinting-relevant interactions, aggregation, or the silicate network texturing effects taken out of the simulations and the experimentally high imprinting performance and porosity features of the corresponding gels was achieved. PMID:25382432

  6. The linguistic context effects on the processing of body-object interaction words: An ERP study on second language learners.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jin; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Pei, Xuna

    2015-07-10

    Embodied theories of cognition argue that the processing of both concrete and abstract concepts requires the activation of sensorimotor systems. The present study examined the time course for embedding a sensorimotor context in order to elicit sensitivity to the sensorimotor consequences of understanding body-object interaction (BOI) words. In the study, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects performed a sentence acceptability task. Target BOI words were preceded by rich or poor sensorimotor sentential contexts. The behavioural results replicated previous findings in that high BOI words received a response faster than low BOI words. In addition to this, however, there was a context effect in the sensorimotor region as well as a BOI effect in the parietal region (involved in object representation). The results indicate that the sentential sensorimotor context contributes to the subsequent BOI processing and that action-and perception-related language leads to the activation of the same brain areas, which is consistent with the embodiment theory. PMID:25858488

  7. MAXI Capabilities for Accreting Compact Object Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoro, Hitoshi

    Various transient objects have given us surprise and new insights into physics of accretion flow and outflow in compact objects since the beginning of X-ray astronomy. Since last summer, MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) on the ISS has been scanning X-ray (0.5-30 keV) sky with two kinds of slit cameras. MAXI detected outbursts of black hole candidates, XTE J1752-223, 4U 1630-47, H 1743-332, and GX 339-4, and following state transitions, including the first transition in Swift J1753.5-0127. MAXI also detected various types of bursts from neutron stars. We report some topics of these transients, and present MAXI capabilities to detect transient objects and to provide prompt alert to the world.

  8. Object links in the repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon; Eichmann, David

    1991-01-01

    Some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life-cycle of software development are explored. In particular, we wish to consider a model which provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The model we consider uses object-oriented terminology. Thus, the lattice is viewed as a data structure which contains class objects which exhibit inheritance. A description of the types of objects in the repository is presented, followed by a discussion of how they interrelate. We discuss features of the object-oriented model which support these objects and their links, and consider behavior which an implementation of the model should exhibit. Finally, we indicate some thoughts on implementing a prototype of this repository architecture.

  9. Creating objects and object categories for studying perception and perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Hauffen, Karin; Bart, Eugene; Brady, Mark; Kersten, Daniel; Hegd, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In order to quantitatively study object perception, be it perception by biological systems or by machines, one needs to create objects and object categories with precisely definable, preferably naturalistic, properties. Furthermore, for studies on perceptual learning, it is useful to create novel objects and object categories (or object classes) with such properties. Many innovative and useful methods currently exist for creating novel objects and object categories (also see refs. 7,8). However, generally speaking, the existing methods have three broad types of shortcomings. First, shape variations are generally imposed by the experimenter, and may therefore be different from the variability in natural categories, and optimized for a particular recognition algorithm. It would be desirable to have the variations arise independently of the externally imposed constraints. Second, the existing methods have difficulty capturing the shape complexity of natural objects. If the goal is to study natural object perception, it is desirable for objects and object categories to be naturalistic, so as to avoid possible confounds and special cases. Third, it is generally hard to quantitatively measure the available information in the stimuli created by conventional methods. It would be desirable to create objects and object categories where the available information can be precisely measured and, where necessary, systematically manipulated (or 'tuned'). This allows one to formulate the underlying object recognition tasks in quantitative terms. Here we describe a set of algorithms, or methods, that meet all three of the above criteria. Virtual morphogenesis (VM) creates novel, naturalistic virtual 3-D objects called 'digital embryos' by simulating the biological process of embryogenesis. Virtual phylogenesis (VP) creates novel, naturalistic object categories by simulating the evolutionary process of natural selection. Objects and object categories created by these simulations can be further manipulated by various morphing methods to generate systematic variations of shape characteristics. The VP and morphing methods can also be applied, in principle, to novel virtual objects other than digital embryos, or to virtual versions of real-world objects. Virtual objects created in this fashion can be rendered as visual images using a conventional graphical toolkit, with desired manipulations of surface texture, illumination, size, viewpoint and background. The virtual objects can also be 'printed' as haptic objects using a conventional 3-D prototyper. We also describe some implementations of these computational algorithms to help illustrate the potential utility of the algorithms. It is important to distinguish the algorithms from their implementations. The implementations are demonstrations offered solely as a 'proof of principle' of the underlying algorithms. It is important to note that, in general, an implementation of a computational algorithm often has limitations that the algorithm itself does not have. Together, these methods represent a set of powerful and flexible tools for studying object recognition and perceptual learning by biological and computational systems alike. With appropriate extensions, these methods may also prove useful in the study of morphogenesis and phylogenesis. PMID:23149420

  10. Making Geography Visible as an Object of Study in the Secondary School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article considers disciplinary-based knowledge and its recontextualisation and acquisition in the secondary school curriculum. It starts from the premise that teaching disciplinary knowledge is important. The focus is the subject of geography and the increasingly influential realist school of thought in the sociology of education and the

  11. Observations of Transneptunian Objects and Centaurs and the role of laboratory studies in facilitating their surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bergh, Catherine

    More than 1300 objects in orbit around the Sun beyond Neptune (Transneptunian Objects or TNOs) or whose orbits cross those of the giant planets (Centaurs) have now been discovered. These remnants of solar system formation that have been subjected to minimal evolution since they formed can provide important clues on physical and chemical conditions in the solar nebula. However, these objects are extremely faint and therefore hard to study. Although a relatively large sample of them have had their colors measured, spectroscopic studies, which require the use of very large telescopes, and albedo measurements, have been carried out for a much smaller number of objects. We will present an overview of the observations made thus far, and of their interpretation in terms of surface composition and properties. We will show that, while some species are clearly detected (such as ices of water, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, methanol, ethane), others remain to be confirmed (such as ammonia hydrates), or identified (silicates, refractory carbonaceous compounds). The laboratory data that have been used to model the spectra will be presented. We will then discuss what is missing (data at appropriate temperatures in some cases, data on ice mixtures and mixtures of ices with other types of materials, data on irradiated species, optical constants,...). With the new deep sky surveys (using the Pan-Starrs and LSST facilities) that will soon become available, the New Horizons space mission to Pluto (arrival in 2015) and one or more TNOs, and the building of extremely large ground-based telescopes, the study of TNOs and Centaurs will expand in an important way, reinforcing the need for well adapted laboratory studies.

  12. Interactive and Independent Associations between the Socioeconomic and Objective Built Environment on the Neighbourhood Level and Individual Health: A Systematic Review of Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background The research question how contextual factors of neighbourhood environments influence individual health has gained increasing attention in public health research. Both socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and factors of the built environment play an important role for health and health-related behaviours. However, their reciprocal relationships have not been systematically reviewed so far. This systematic review aims to identify studies applying a multilevel modelling approach which consider both neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and factors of the objective built environment simultaneously in order to disentangle their independent and interactive effects on individual health. Methods The three databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched with terms for title and abstract screening. Grey literature was not included. Observational studies from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Western European countries were considered which analysed simultaneously factors of neighbourhood SEP and the objective built environment with a multilevel modelling approach. Adjustment for individual SEP was a further inclusion criterion. Results Thirty-three studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Twenty-two studies showed an independent association between characteristics of neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual health outcomes or health-related behaviours. Twenty-one studies found cross-level or within-level interactions either between neighbourhood SEP and the built environment, or between neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual characteristics, such as sex, individual SEP or ethnicity. Due to the large variation of study design and heterogeneous reporting of results the identification of consistent findings was problematic and made quantitative analysis not possible. Conclusions There is a need for studies considering multiple neighbourhood dimensions and applying multilevel modelling in order to clarify their causal relationship towards individual health. Especially, more studies using comparable characteristics of neighbourhood SEP and the objective built environment and analysing interactive effects are necessary to disentangle health impacts and identify vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups. PMID:25849569

  13. The Relationship of Reading Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Opportunity Structure: An Object of Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freebody, Peter; Hornibrook, Margery

    2005-01-01

    Eric Hobsbawm, perhaps the preeminent historian writing in English about the 19th and 20th centuries, previewed his encyclopedic account of the last 100 years with descriptions of the organizationally, collectively, and individually brutalizing effects of the intense round of wars, revolutions, and economic fluctuations that were the hallmark of

  14. The Social Ailments of Russian Society as an Object of Sociological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryvkina, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    Social systems, like biological systems, sometimes manifest dysfunctions that could be considered forms of "social disease." The author interprets the term "social diseases" as "persistent dysfunctions of social relations" that disrupt the normal functioning of particular elements of society or the entire social system as a whole. The author cites

  15. The Social Ailments of Russian Society as an Object of Sociological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryvkina, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    Social systems, like biological systems, sometimes manifest dysfunctions that could be considered forms of "social disease." The author interprets the term "social diseases" as "persistent dysfunctions of social relations" that disrupt the normal functioning of particular elements of society or the entire social system as a whole. The author cites…

  16. Polarization studies of atmospheric objects in the low troposphere by lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, I.; Kaprielov, B.; Tatarov, B.; Trifonov, T.

    1996-12-31

    In the present work some results of polarization measurements in the planetary boundary layer are reported. The observations described were performed by a ground-based lidar over the region of the Sofia city (where various industrial enterprises exist along with a heavy transport and aerial communications). The data obtained when sounding in different meteorological situations (clear atmosphere, rain, fog, snowfall) are considered. Certain differences are established in the depolarization properties of clear atmosphere in dependence of the meteorological condition. The developments of fog and snowfall are traced; the effects of the underlying surface are sought when sounding in fog; various types of situations during a snowfall are pointed out as well. An attempt is made to follow the development of the processes which proceed during an interaction between air masses with different properties (e.g., a front advection); as a result the formation of the cloud system over the region is traced. Definite differences between the microphysical properties of the aerosol near the clouds base and top are established as well.

  17. Laboratory studies of the diffuse reflectance spectra of frosts and minerals occurring on astronomical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    A vacuum monochromator was integrated into the system and optics chosen to increase data collection in the infrared spectral region. Using a InSb detector, good reflectance data was obtained to 5.5 micron from a variety of samples including magnesium oxide, barium sulfate, water frost and Bloedite. Magnesium oxide was found to be a poorer reflector than the barium sulfate throughout the visible and near infrared region. The barium sulfate material was shown to be a Lambert reflector in the visible region and over an angular range of 60 deg. Several samples of water frost were prepared and in reflectance measured from 0.3 micron to 5.5 microm. The fine grained frosts were better reflectors than the coarse grained frosts, usually by 20 percent or more, over the entire spectral range. The minerals Bloedite and sulfur were also investigated further.

  18. Can we identify effects from the 11 year solar cycle in AIM PMC Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siskind, D. E.; Stevens, M. H.; Hervig, M. E.; Randall, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    One of the primary objectives of the AIM extended mission is to understand the solar cycle variation of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs). Complicating this problem have been two unexpected phenomena. First, it has become clear that PMCs vary greatly in response to meteorological variability propagating upwards from the stratosphere or teleconnecting from the opposite (winter) hemisphere. Second, the first 4 years of the AIM mission (2007-2010) corresponded to historically very low solar activity. Recently, solar activity has increased modestly; however, the problem remains of pulling out a weak signal (solar) against a noisy background (dynamics). There are two ways to reduce the geophysical noise. First, we note that due to the dynamically active Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter, the effects of meteorological teleconnections are greatest on Southern Hemisphere PMCs. By focusing on Northern Hemisphere PMCs, we get less dynamical variability. Second, it has been shown that by correlating PMC properties with stratospheric winter temperatures, a functional relationship between PMCs and dynamics can be established. In principle, deviations from this functional relationship could be interpreted as due to external forcing, i.e. from solar variability. Expectations are that clouds should decrease for higher levels of solar forcing. Surprisingly however, in 2011, the first year with higher solar activity, the SOFIE instrument on AIM saw more clouds in July than ever. We explore possible reasons for this anomaly, including the possibility of an enhancement in H2O from the launch of STS135 on July 8th. To date, 2012 also shows moderately higher solar activity, but without the contaminating effects of shuttle exhaust. We will evaluate whether PMCs were affected by solar activity in 2012. Acknowledgements: This work was sponsored by the NASA AIM Small Explorer program.

  19. Making CORBA objects persistent: The object database adapter approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reverbel, F.C.R.

    1997-05-01

    In spite of its remarkable successes in promoting standards for distributed object systems, the Object Management Group (OMG) has not yet settled the issue of object persistence in the Object Request Broker (ORB) environment. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification briefly mentions an Object-Oriented Database Adapter that makes objects stored in an object-oriented database accessible through the ORB. This idea is pursued in the Appendix B of the ODMG standard, which identifies a number of issues involved in using an Object Database Management System (ODBMS) in a CORBA environment, and proposes an Object Database Adapter (ODA) to realize the integration of the ORB with the ODBMS. This paper discusses the design and implementation of an ODA that integrates an ORB and an ODBMS with C++ bindings. For the author`s purposes, an ODBMS is a system with programming interfaces. It may be a pure object-oriented DBMS (an OODBMS), or a combination of a relational DBMS and an object-relational mapper.

  20. The Power of Objectives: Moving beyond Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jack J.; Phillips, Patti P.

    2010-01-01

    Although the need for project objectives is obvious, their value and role are much broader than most think. In this article, we explore the need for higher levels of objectives, along with tips and techniques to develop them properly. More important, we examine the benefits of objectives from many perspectives. In today's competitive environment,

  1. Sex Education for Teachers in Training. The Preliminary Report of a Pilot Study on Objective Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rout, Neil; Painter, Marjorie

    1972-01-01

    Students in 14 teacher colleges in Great Britian were given tests to assess their knowledge of the reproductive system, genetics, and venereal diseases. Test results indicate the necessity for intensive health education courses in Colleges of Education. (DS)

  2. The Neural Correlates of Object-Centered Processing in Reading: A Lesion Study of Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ptak, Radek; Di Pietro, Marie; Schnider, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Neglect dyslexia--a peripheral reading disorder generally associated with left spatial neglect--is characterized by omissions or substitutions of the initial letters of words. Several observations suggest that neglect dyslexia errors are independent of viewer-centered coordinates; the disorder is therefore thought to reflect impairment at the

  3. The Teacher Work Sample: A Professional Culminating Activity that Integrates General Studies Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Jean E.; Powell, David; DeLine, Mary Ann; Sautter, Alberta; Talbut, Mary Harriet; Bratberg, William; Cwick, Simin

    2012-01-01

    In response to Oregon's Teacher Standards and Practices Commission requirement that all prospective teachers document samples of their work, the Teacher Work Sample (TWS) was developed during the 1980s at Western Oregon University. The TWS was conceptualized as a method to connect meaningful teaching and learning while documenting teacher

  4. The uncrowded window of object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Pelli, Denis G; Tillman, Katharine A

    2009-01-01

    It is now emerging that vision is usually limited by object spacing rather than size. The visual system recognizes an object by detecting and then combining its features. Crowding occurs when objects are too close together and features from several objects are combined into a jumbled percept. Here, we review the explosion of studies on crowdingin grating discrimination, letter and face recognition, visual search, selective attention, and readingand find a universal principle, the Bouma law. The critical spacing required to prevent crowding is equal for all objects, although the effect is weaker between dissimilar objects. Furthermore, critical spacing at the cortex is independent of object position, and critical spacing at the visual field is proportional to object distance from fixation. The region where object spacing exceeds critical spacing is the uncrowded window. Observers cannot recognize objects outside of this window and its size limits the speed of reading and search. PMID:18828191

  5. Lateral asymmetries during responses to novel-coloured objects in the domestic chick: A developmental study.

    PubMed

    Regolin, L; Vallortigara, G

    1996-08-01

    Chicks were trained to peck on a small coloured (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a different colour (unfamiliar). Food reinforcement was delivered for pecking either box, and the right-left position of the two boxes was alternated at random between trials. The number of times chicks pecked at the novel box when it was located on their right or on their left side was recorded. Chicks showed a general tendency to peck more frequently at the novel box when it was located on their right side. The lateral asymmetry was, however, age-dependent. Maximum lateral bias with both red and green novel boxes was observed at around day 4 and day 11 in both sexes, and minimum at around days 7 8 in males and days 8 9 in females. It is suggested that these lateral asymmetries can be accounted for in terms of a head-and-body turning bias associated to preferential use of the lateral field of vision of the left eye, which arises from specializations of the contralateral brain structures (i.e. right hemisphere involvement in response to novelty). The observed changes in lateral asymmetries during development appear, in fact, to fit very well with independent behavioural and pharmacological evidence for biases to left eye use on day 11, and right eye use on day 8. PMID:24897160

  6. Further laboratory study of the diffuse reflectance spectra of frosts occurring on astronomical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    Oligoclase and bloedite, two mined samples, have been investigated, and the diffuse reflectance spectra are presented. These data are for powdered material, 50 microns to 5 microns size mixture, cooled to 160 K. The reflectivity of the oligoclase sample was also measured at room temperature, about 290 K, and the results at these two temperatures do indicate some tentative differences. A frost of ordinary water was prepared and its spectral reflectance is presented. This result compares reasonably well with measurements made by other investigators.

  7. The Neural Correlates of Object-Centered Processing in Reading: A Lesion Study of Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ptak, Radek; Di Pietro, Marie; Schnider, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Neglect dyslexia--a peripheral reading disorder generally associated with left spatial neglect--is characterized by omissions or substitutions of the initial letters of words. Several observations suggest that neglect dyslexia errors are independent of viewer-centered coordinates; the disorder is therefore thought to reflect impairment at the…

  8. Objects, Events and "to Be" Verbs in Spanish--An ERP Study of the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A.

    2012-01-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object + ser + en" is considered as incorrect,…

  9. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): initial development of a new tool for treatment outcome measurement.

    PubMed

    Kanne, Stephen M; Mazurek, Micah O; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were examined using a large sample (n=440) of children with ASD enrolled in the Autism Treatment Network. The exploratory factor analysis indicated four factors and resulted in a 25-item questionnaire with excellent overall model fit. Test-retest reliability, cross-informant reliability, and convergent validity with other measures of ASD symptoms and overall functioning were strong. The AIM is a reliable and valid measure of frequency and impact of core ASD symptoms. PMID:23748386

  10. The development of multi-objective optimization model for excess bagasse utilization: A case study for Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Buddadee, Bancha Wirojanagud, Wanpen Watts, Daniel J. Pitakaso, Rapeepan

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model is proposed as a tool to assist in deciding for the proper utilization scheme of excess bagasse produced in sugarcane industry. Two major scenarios for excess bagasse utilization are considered in the optimization. The first scenario is the typical situation when excess bagasse is used for the onsite electricity production. In case of the second scenario, excess bagasse is processed for the offsite ethanol production. Then the ethanol is blended with an octane rating of 91 gasoline by a portion of 10% and 90% by volume respectively and the mixture is used as alternative fuel for gasoline vehicles in Thailand. The model proposed in this paper called 'Environmental System Optimization' comprises the life cycle impact assessment of global warming potential (GWP) and the associated cost followed by the multi-objective optimization which facilitates in finding out the optimal proportion of the excess bagasse processed in each scenario. Basic mathematical expressions for indicating the GWP and cost of the entire process of excess bagasse utilization are taken into account in the model formulation and optimization. The outcome of this study is the methodology developed for decision-making concerning the excess bagasse utilization available in Thailand in view of the GWP and economic effects. A demonstration example is presented to illustrate the advantage of the methodology which may be used by the policy maker. The methodology developed is successfully performed to satisfy both environmental and economic objectives over the whole life cycle of the system. It is shown in the demonstration example that the first scenario results in positive GWP while the second scenario results in negative GWP. The combination of these two scenario results in positive or negative GWP depending on the preference of the weighting given to each objective. The results on economics of all scenarios show the satisfied outcomes.

  11. Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) public health programming has been widely used in Mexico; however, few studies have documented individual and organizational factors that might be used to evaluate their public health impact. The RE-AIM framework is an evaluation tool that examines individual and organizationa...

  12. Exploring Study Designs for Evaluation of Interventions Aimed to Reduce Occupational Diseases and Injuries

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Stocks, Susan J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Effective interventions to reduce work-related exposures are available for many types of work-related diseases or injuries. However, knowledge of the impact of these interventions on injury or disease outcomes is scarce due to practical and methodological reasons. Study designs are considered for the evaluation of occupational health interventions on occupational disease or injury. Latency and frequency of occurrence of the health outcomes are two important features when designing an evaluation study with occupational disease or occupational injury as an outcome measure. Controlled evaluation studies—giving strong indications for an intervention effect—seem more suitable for more frequently occurring injuries or diseases. Uncontrolled evaluation time or case series studies are an option for evaluating less frequently occurring injuries or diseases. Interrupted time series offer alternatives to experimental randomized controlled trials to give an insight into the effectiveness of preventive actions in the work setting to decision and policy makers. PMID:27014496

  13. Study on living object identification based on genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yao; Xiong, Mu-di; Jia, Si-nan

    2007-12-01

    Fast and effectual salvage can reduce accident loss, ensure people's lives and belongings safely when shipwreck occurs. It is very important that discovering objects should be timely and exactly to insure the salvage going on wheels. This text puts forward an object identification arithmetic based on Genetic Algorithms, which makes use of Genetic Algorithms to search living objects in the sea based on different infrared radiation characteristics between living objects and background, uses single point crossover method and simple mutation method with adaptive probability, ensures the global and local searching ability of Genetic Algorithms. Thus GA can accomplish searching course of optimization quickly and exactly with favorable searching ability. From identification test aiming at standard infrared image, it is seen that the image is strengthened by Genetic Algorithms, and the living objects can be identified exactly.

  14. Using the RE-AIM framework in formative evaluation and program planning for a nutrition intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is the identification of prominent themes to be considered when planning a nutrition intervention using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework. Qualitative formative research was used on women's social and civic organization...

  15. Qualification study of LiF flight crystals for the Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, F. E.; Rasmussen, I.; Schnopper, H. W.; Wiebicke, H.; Halm, I.; Geppert, U.; Borozdin, K.

    1992-10-01

    The Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OXS) on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite will carry three types of natural crystals LiF(220), Ge(111) and RAP(001). They will be used to study, among others, the H- and the He-like emission from the cosmically important elements Fe, S, Ar and O. More than 300 LiF-crystals of dimension about 23 x 63 sq mm are required to cover one side of a large (about 1000 x 600 sq mm) panel which is to be mounted in front of one of the high throughput X-ray telescopes. A qualification study examined a large sample of LiF(220) crystals at Cu-K-(alpha)2 (8.0278 keV). Data from 124 flight crystals yields an average FWHM of rocking curves of 2.3 arcmin with a standard deviation of 0.4 arcmin. For more than 80 percent of the crystals, angular deviation of the (220) planes from the actual crystal surface is less than 1.5 arcmin. These data will be used to select the best crystals for the flight panel and will determine precisely the orientation of the crystals mounted on the OXS. Eight crystals were glued onto a small test panel of the OXS and for only one crystal was there measured a significant deviation of the crystal properties, including alignment relative to the others.

  16. When Do Objects Become Landmarks? A VR Study of the Effect of Task Relevance on Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xue; Byrne, Patrick; Kahana, Michael; Becker, Suzanna

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how objects come to serve as landmarks in spatial memory, and more specifically how they form part of an allocentric cognitive map. Participants performing a virtual driving task incidentally learned the layout of a virtual town and locations of objects in that town. They were subsequently tested on their spatial and recognition memory for the objects. To assess whether the objects were encoded allocentrically we examined pointing consistency across tested viewpoints. In three experiments, we found that spatial memory for objects at navigationally relevant locations was more consistent across tested viewpoints, particularly when participants had more limited experience of the environment. When participants’ attention was focused on the appearance of objects, the navigational relevance effect was eliminated, whereas when their attention was focused on objects’ locations, this effect was enhanced, supporting the hypothesis that when objects are processed in the service of navigation, rather than merely being viewed as objects, they engage qualitatively distinct attentional systems and are incorporated into an allocentric spatial representation. The results are consistent with evidence from the neuroimaging literature that when objects are relevant to navigation, they not only engage the ventral “object processing stream”, but also the dorsal stream and medial temporal lobe memory system classically associated with allocentric spatial memory. PMID:22586455

  17. The Robust Weighted Multi-Objective Game

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies a class of multi-objective n-person non-zero sum games through a robust weighted approach where each player has more than one competing objective. This robust weighted multi-objective game model assumes that each player attaches a set of weights to its objectives instead of accessing accurate weights. Each player wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objective where the maximization is pointing to the set of weights. To address this new model, a new equilibrium concept-robust weighted Nash equilibrium is obtained. The existence of this new concept is proven on suitable assumptions about the multi-objective payoffs. PMID:26406986

  18. The core legion object model

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.; Grimshaw, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Legion project at the University of Virginia is an architecture for designing and building system services that provide the illusion of a single virtual machine to users, a virtual machine that provides secure shared object and shared name spaces, application adjustable fault-tolerance, improved response time, and greater throughput. Legion targets wide area assemblies of workstations, supercomputers, and parallel supercomputers, Legion tackles problems not solved by existing workstation based parallel processing tools; the system will enable fault-tolerance, wide area parallel processing, inter-operability, heterogeneity, a single global name space, protection, security, efficient scheduling, and comprehensive resource management. This paper describes the core Legion object model, which specifies the composition and functionality of Legion`s core objects-those objects that cooperate to create, locate, manage, and remove objects in the Legion system. The object model facilitates a flexible extensible implementation, provides a single global name space, grants site autonomy to participating organizations, and scales to millions of sites and trillions of objects.

  19. Francisella infection triggers activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in murine dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Belhocine, Kamila; Monack, Denise M

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia, a potentially fatal disease. In macrophages, Francisella escapes the initial phagosome and replicates in the cytosol, where it is detected by the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 leading to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome. However, during aerosol infection, Francisella is also taken up by dendritic cells. In this study, we show that Francisella novicida escapes into the cytosol of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) where it undergoes rapid replication. We show that F. novicida activates the AIM2 inflammasome in BMDC, causing release of large amounts of IL-1? and rapid host cell death. The Francisella Pathogenicity Island is required for bacterial escape and replication and for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells. In addition, we show that bacterial DNA is bound by AIM2, which leads to inflammasome assembly in infected dendritic cells. IFN-? is upregulated in BMDC following Francisella infection, and the IFN-? signalling pathway is partially required for inflammasome activation in this cell type. Taken together, our results demonstrate that F. novicida induces inflammasome activation in dendritic cells. The resulting inflammatory cell death may be beneficial to remove the bacterial replicative niche and protect the host. PMID:21902795

  20. Study on the Distribution of Disease-Resistant Shrimp Identified by DNA Markers in Respect to WSSV Infection in Different Seasons Along the Entire East Coast of India Aiming to Prevent White Spot Disease in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Mallik, A; Chakrabarty, U; Dutta, S; Mondal, D; Mandal, N

    2016-02-01

    White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology. This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011-2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71bp microsatellite and 457bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~10(3) copy?g(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern. This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P.monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock. PMID:24735185

  1. The Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study, finding the genes causing Tourette syndrome: objectives and methods.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Andrea; Fernandez, Thomas V; King, Robert A; State, Matthew W; Tischfield, Jay A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heiman, Gary A

    2015-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent motor and vocal tics, often accompanied by obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. While the evidence for a genetic contribution is strong, its exact nature has yet to be clarified fully. There is now mounting evidence that the genetic risks for TS include both common and rare variants and may involve complex multigenic inheritance or, in rare cases, a single major gene. Based on recent progress in many other common disorders with apparently similar genetic architectures, it is clear that large patient cohorts and open-access repositories will be essential to further advance the field. To that end, the large multicenter Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study was established. The goal of the TIC Genetics study is to undertake a comprehensive gene discovery effort, focusing both on familial genetic variants with large effects within multiply affected pedigrees and on de novo mutations ascertained through the analysis of apparently simplex parent-child trios with non-familial tics. The clinical data and biomaterials (DNA, transformed cell lines, RNA) are part of a sharing repository located within the National Institute for Mental Health Center for Collaborative Genomics Research on Mental Disorders, USA, and will be made available to the broad scientific community. This resource will ultimately facilitate better understanding of the pathophysiology of TS and related disorders and the development of novel therapies. Here, we describe the objectives and methods of the TIC Genetics study as a reference for future studies from our group and to facilitate collaboration between genetics consortia in the field of TS. PMID:24771252

  2. Critical role for the AIM2 inflammasome during acute CNS bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Hanamsagar, Richa; Aldrich, Amy; Kielian, Tammy

    2014-05-01

    Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is essential for eliciting protective immunity during the acute phase of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously demonstrated that microglial IL-1? production in response to live S. aureus is mediated through the Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, including the adapter protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-1 recruitment domain), and pro-caspase 1. Here, we utilized NLRP3, ASC, and caspase 1/11 knockout (KO) mice to demonstrate the functional significance of inflammasome activity during CNS S. aureus infection. ASC and caspase 1/11 KO animals were exquisitely sensitive, with approximately 50% of mice succumbing to infection within 24 h. Unexpectedly, the survival of NLRP3 KO mice was similar to wild-type animals, suggesting the involvement of an alternative upstream sensor, which was later identified as absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) based on the similar disease patterns between AIM2 and ASC KO mice. Besides IL-1?, other key inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly reduced in the CNS of AIM2 and ASC KO mice, implicating autocrine/paracrine actions of IL-1?, as these mediators do not require inflammasome processing for secretion. These studies demonstrate a novel role for the AIM2 inflammasome as a critical molecular platform for regulating IL-1? release and survival during acute CNS S. aureus infection. PMID:24484406

  3. Theoretical studies on 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol derivatives aimed at finding superior propellants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Lianjun; Wang, Guixiang; Du, Hongchen; Gong, Xuedong

    2012-04-01

    In an attempt to find superior propellants, 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) and its -NO(2), -NH(2), -CN, -NC, -ONO(2), and -NF(2) derivatives were studied at the B3LYP/6-311++G level of density functional theory (DFT). Sensitivity was evaluated using bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) and molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The C-NO(2) bond appears to be the trigger bond during the thermolysis process for these compounds, except for the -ONO(2) and -NF(2) derivatives. Electrostatic potential results show that electron-withdrawing substituents make the charge imbalance more anomalous, which may change the strength of the bond, especially the weakest trigger bond. Most of the DDNP derivatives have the impact sensitivities that are higher than that of DDNP, making them favorable for use as solid propellants in micro-rockets. The theoretical densities (?), heats of formation (HOFs), detonation energies (Q), detonation pressures (P), and detonation velocities (D) of the compounds were estimated. The effects of various substituent groups on ?, HOF, Q, D, and P were investigated. Some derivatives exhibit perfect detonation properties. The calculated relative specific impulses (I (r,sp)) of all compounds except for -NH(2) derivatives were higher than that of DDNP, and also meet the requirements of propellants. PMID:21805131

  4. Simulation study of radial dose due to the irradiation of a swift heavy ion aiming to advance the treatment planning system for heavy particle cancer therapy: The effect of emission angles of secondary electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2015-12-01

    A radial dose simulation model has been proposed in order to advance the treatment planning system for heavy particle cancer therapy. Here, the radial dose is the dose due to the irradiation of a heavy ion as a function of distances from this ion path. The model proposed here may overcome weak points of paradigms that are employed to produce the conventional radial dose distributions. To provide the radial dose with higher accuracy, this paper has discussed the relationship between the emission angles of secondary electrons and the radial dose. It is found that the effect of emission angles becomes stronger on the radial dose with increasing energies of the secondary electrons.

  5. From triple to quadruple aim: care of the patient requires care of the provider.

    PubMed

    Bodenheimer, Thomas; Sinsky, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The Triple Aim-enhancing patient experience, improving population health, and reducing costs-is widely accepted as a compass to optimize health system performance. Yet physicians and other members of the health care workforce report widespread burnout and dissatisfaction. Burnout is associated with lower patient satisfaction, reduced health outcomes, and it may increase costs. Burnout thus imperils the Triple Aim. This article recommends that the Triple Aim be expanded to a Quadruple Aim, adding the goal of improving the work life of health care providers, including clinicians and staff. PMID:25384822

  6. Is Objectively Measured Sitting Time Associated with Low Back Pain? A Cross-Sectional Investigation in the NOMAD study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Christiansen, Caroline Stordal; Hallman, David M.; Korshøj, Mette; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies on the association between sitting time and low back pain (LBP) have found contrasting results. This may be due to the lack of objectively measured sitting time or because socioeconomic confounders were not considered in the analysis. Objectives To investigate the association between objectively measured sitting time (daily total, and occupational and leisure-time periods) and LBP among blue-collar workers. Methods Two-hundred-and-one blue-collar workers wore two accelerometers (GT3X+ Actigraph) for up to four consecutive working days to obtain objective measures of sitting time, estimated via Acti4 software. Workers reported their LBP intensity the past month on a scale from 0 (no pain) to 9 (worst imaginable pain) and were categorized into either low (≤5) or high (>5) LBP intensity groups. In the multivariate-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis, total sitting time, and occupational and leisure-time sitting were both modeled as continuous (hours/day) and categorical variables (i.e. low, moderate and high sitting time). Results The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association between total sitting time (per hour) and high LBP intensity (odds ratio; OR=1.43, 95%CI=1.15-1.77, P=0.01). Similar results were obtained for leisure-time sitting (OR=1.45, 95%CI=1.10-1.91, P=0.01), and a similar but non-significant trend was obtained for occupational sitting time (OR=1.34, 95%CI 0.99-1.82, P=0.06). In the analysis on categorized sitting time, high sitting time was positively associated with high LBP for total (OR=3.31, 95%CI=1.18-9.28, P=0.03), leisure (OR=5.31, 95%CI=1.57-17.90, P=0.01), and occupational (OR=3.26, 95%CI=0.89-11.98, P=0.08) periods, referencing those with low sitting time. Conclusion Sitting time is positively associated with LBP intensity among blue-collar workers. Future studies using a prospective design with objective measures of sitting time are recommended. PMID:25806808

  7. The Marco Polo space mission: sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object under assessment study in the Cosmic Vision Program of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.

    2008-09-01

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission study to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO). On October 2007, this mission project passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. The aim of Marco Polo is to reach a primitive NEO, to perform a multiple scale characterization of its physical properties, and to bring samples back to the Earth for detailed analysis in laboratory. The NEO population is composed by asteroids and comets that are thought to be the primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. Due to their small sizes, their chemical composition is believed to have kept some memory of the original chemical composition of the solar nebula, contrary to larger planetary bodies who experienced major thermal processes in their interior. They may also carry some important information related to life formation as current exobiological scenarios invoke an exogeneous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth for the origin of terrestrial life. Finally, the hazard caused by these small bodies needs mitigation strategies which efficiency relies on our understanding of their physical properties. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials. This sample return space mission has therefore the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials, essential to undestand the conditions for planet formation and emergency of life. Current mission studies and expected results will be presented and discussed.

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES. DRAFT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GAGNE, ROBERT M.

    THIS PAPER DISCUSSES AIMS, EFFECTS, AND IMPLICATIONS OF SPECIFYING OBJECTIVES FOR PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, AND CITES EXAMPLES FROM THE LITERATURE. THE PAPER WAS READ AS A PORTION OF THE SYMPOSIUM ON PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, D.C., MARCH 24-26, 1963. (LH)

  9. The microtubule-associated protein EB1 links AIM2 inflammasomes with autophagy-dependent secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jie; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Meng-Pin; Liou, Willisa; Chang, Ya-Ting; Wu, Chih-Ching; Ojcius, David M; Chang, Yu-Sun

    2014-10-17

    Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that regulate chronic inflammation-associated diseases by inducing interleukin-1 ? (IL-1?) secretion. Numerous components involved in inflammasome activation have been identified, but the mechanisms of inflammasome-mediated IL-1? secretion have not yet been fully explored. Here, we demonstrate that end-binding protein 1 (EB1), which is required for activation of AIM2 inflammasome complex, links the AIM2 inflammasome to autophagy-dependent secretion. Imaging studies revealed that AIM2 inflammasomes colocalize with microtubule organizing centers and autophagosomes. Biochemical analyses showed that poly(dA-dT)-activated AIM2 inflammasomes induce autophagy and IL-1? secretion in an LC3-dependent fashion. Furthermore, depletion of EB1 decreases autophagic shedding and intracellular trafficking. Finally, we found that the 5'-AMP activated protein kinase may regulate this EB1-mediated autophagy-based inflammasome-induced secretion of IL-1?. These findings reveal a novel EB1-mediated pathway for the secretion of IL-1?. PMID:25164813

  10. Study of transneptunian objects through stellar occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Sicardy, B.; Braga-Ribas, F.

    2014-07-01

    The physical parameters of the transneptunian objects (TNO's) such as size, shape, density, presence of atmosphere, provide important information on their formation and evolution. At more than 30 astronomical units (au) from the Sun, those objects receive low solar radiation and have low mutual collisions so they can be considered as remnants of the primordial outer Solar System. Besides that, information on TNO's is of great relevance when trying to establish a general formation scenario for the recently discovered planetary systems. The problem is that such bodies have a diameter smaller than 2300 km (Eris, one of the largest TNO, has 2326 km) and, when viewed from Earth, they subtend angles smaller than 50 milli-arcseconds, a fact that makes their resolution very poor with current imaging systems. One method to obtain very accurate information on the TNO's is the stellar-occultation technique. Sizes at kilometer accuracies and pressure at nanobar levels can be achieved with this method. Shape, mass, density and other physical parameters can also be derived using this technique. Since 2010, we observed stellar occultations of several TNO's (Varuna in 2010 and 2013; Eris in 2010; 2003 AZ_{84} in 2010 and 2011; Makemake in 2011; Quaoar in 2011 and two in 2012; 2002 KX_{14} in 2013; and finally Sedna in 2013) besides some other occultations of the Pluto system and of the largest Centaurs. We also predicted future events in 2014 and 2015 for the largest 40 TNO's and Centaurs. In this work, we will present new results obtained from recent stellar occultations of TNO's.

  11. Ground-Based Near-Earth Object Studies in the post-Russian (Chelyabinsk) Meteor Airburst World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W. H.

    2013-09-01

    Public awareness of the danger of potentially hazardous asteroids has been heightened by the airburst of a meteor over Chelyabinsk, Russia, on February 15, 2013, which caused millions of dollars in damage from a shock wave that impacted structures and injured ~1500 people. Later that same day, a larger asteroid, 2012 DA14, made a close approach to the Earth, but harmlessly skimmed past. Further, other very close-approaching Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have recently posed threats to man-made space assets by passing through or very near the geosynchronous satellite zone. These events have lead to increased awareness and concern, and have subsequently served as a catalyst for deeper exploration of what is being done to mitigate such hazards, and whether more effort needs to be placed in this area of study. An NEO is designated as "potentially hazardous" when its orbit comes to within 0.05 AU of the Earth's orbit. Ground-based physical characterization studies of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) that are cataloged as potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) are very beneficial to any mitigation plan that might be devised if the risk of impact is high. After a well-defined orbit has been determined for a PHO, other physical parameters such as size, rotation rate, and composition are important. For the smallest PHOs being discovered, observational efforts must commence at or near the time of discovery to ensure favorable parameters for data collection. Otherwise, subsequent optimal apparitions for observing an asteroid or comet may be decades away. Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) 2.4-meter telescope facility are well positioned to acquire real-time physical information on PHOs since their ongoing NEO follow-up and characterization program collects data monthly throughout the year on the smallest, close-approaching NEOs being discovered. Over the past 5 years that this program has been in operation, spin rates for over 50 Near-Earth asteroids have been obtained, several of which are the fastest rotators in the Solar System. The rotation rate of an object can imply important information about its internal composition and degree of fracture, and thereby its collisional history. In particular, objects with sub-hour rotation periods are likely to have a non-negligible tensile strength. Knowing the material strength of a PHO has a direct bearing on any threat reduction plan. To address the renewed focus on asteroid threats, we will present new data obtained via photometric and spectroscopic techniques on the physical properties of several Earth-approaching asteroids that are potentially hazardous. We will discuss methods and techniques being employed to further reduce the threat of objects that may hit the Earth or airburst in the upper atmosphere, and the role ground-based telescopic monitoring plays in that endeavor.

  12. The Health-Related Quality of Life in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors Study: objectives, methods, and patient sample

    PubMed Central

    Mohler, M. Jane; Coons, Stephen Joel; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Grant, Marcia; Krouse, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe the complex mixed-methods design of a study conducted to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes and ostomy-related obstacles and adjustments among long-term (>five years) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors with ostomies (cases) and without ostomies (controls). In addition, details are provided regarding the study sample and the psychometric properties of the quantitative data collection measures used. Subsequent manuscripts will present the study findings. Research Design and Methods The study design involved a cross-sectional mail survey for collecting quantitative data and focus groups for collecting qualitative data. The study subjects were individuals identified as long-term CRC survivors within a community-based health maintenance organization's enrolled population. Focus groups comprised of cases and divided by gender and HRQOL high and low quartile contrasts (based on the mail survey data) were conducted. Main Outcome Measures The modified City of Hope Quality of Life (mCOH-QOL)-Ostomy and SF-36v2 questionnaires were used in the mail survey. An abridged version of the mCOH-QOL-Ostomy was used for the control subjects. Focus groups explored ostomy-related barriers to self-care, adaptation methods/skills, and advice for others with an ostomy. Results The survey response rate was 52% (679/1308) and 34 subjects participated in focus groups. The internal consistency reliability estimates for the mCOH-QOL-Ostomy and SF-36v2 questionnaires were very acceptable for group comparisons. In addition, evidence supports the construct validity of the abridged version of the mCOH-QOL-Ostomy. Study limitations include potential non-response bias and limited minority participation. Conclusions We were able to successfully recruit long-term CRC survivors into this study and the psychometric properties of the quantitative measures used were quite acceptable. Mixed-methods designs, such as the one used in this study, may be useful in identification and further elucidation of common problems, coping strategies, and HRQOL outcomes among long-term cancer survivors. PMID:18544186

  13. Do Children with ASD Use Referential Gaze to Learn the Name of an Object? An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported to have difficulty in learning novel word-object associations in case of discrepancy between objects in the speaker's focus and their focus (the discrepant condition). Two eye-tracking experiments investigated this difficulty by controlling and recording children's gaze fixation. In…

  14. Do Children with ASD Use Referential Gaze to Learn the Name of an Object? An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported to have difficulty in learning novel word-object associations in case of discrepancy between objects in the speaker's focus and their focus (the discrepant condition). Two eye-tracking experiments investigated this difficulty by controlling and recording children's gaze fixation. In

  15. Spectral reflectance properties of major objects in desert oasis: a case study of the Weigan-Kuqa river delta oasis in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Ding, Jianli; Sawut, Mamat; Tashpolat, Nigara; Kung, Hsiangte; Han, Guihong; Gui, Dongwei

    2012-08-01

    Aiming at the remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics. In order to further research the spectral reflectance characteristics in arid area, this study was performed in the typical delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa rivers located north of Tarim Basin. Data were collected from geo-targets at multiple sites in various field conditions. The spectra data were collected for different soil types including saline-alkaline soil, silt sandy soil, cotton field, and others; vegetations of Alhagi sparsifolia, Phragmites australis, Tamarix, Halostachys caspica, etc., and water bodies. Next, the data were processed to remove high-frequency noise, and the spectral curves were smoothed with the moving average method. The derivative spectrum was generated after eliminating environmental background noise so that to distinguish the original overlap spectra. After continuum removal of the undesirable absorbance, the spectrum curves were able to highlight features for both optical absorbance and reflectance. The spectrum information of each ground object is essential for fully utilizing the multispectrum data generated by remote sensing, which will need a representative spectral library. In this study using ENVI 4.5 software, a preliminary spectral library of surface features was constructed using the data surveyed in the study area. This library can support remote sensing activities such as feature investigation, vegetation classification, and environmental monitoring in the delta oasis region. Future plan will focus on sharing and standardizing the criteria of professional spectral library and to expand and promote the utilization of the spectral databases. PMID:21922179

  16. Effects of long-term oxygen therapy due to portable liquid oxygen tanks in disabled malnourished chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with borderline hypoxemia. Aim of the study and methods.

    PubMed

    Mitlehner, W

    1992-01-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy by light-weight portable liquid oxygen systems may improve the degree of functional handicap in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), borderline hypoxemia or exertional hypoxemia, limited walking distance and malnutrition who do not fulfill the Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial criteria for long-term oxygen therapy. The paper will discuss a proposal for a study plan to test this hypothesis. After a period of stabilization, the methods of measurements include functional tests (walking tests, cycle exercise test [FiO2 21, 35%], baseline measurements of pulmonary function, arterial blood gases, lactate, right heart catheterization, radionuclide ventriculography). The study is designed as a multicentric, controlled, parallel and randomized test for oxygen treatment and no treatment by oxygen. The main outcome will be tested on the results of functional tests (walking tests, VO2max) to demonstrate the possible benefit of long-term oxygen therapy in borderline hypoxemic COPD patients. PMID:1513972

  17. The Experience of Doctoral Studies in the UK and France: Differences in Epistemology, Research Objects and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Kuang-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how doctoral students perceive their research education in different disciplines in two higher education systems, the UK and France. It explores what underlies the diversity of doctoral students' experiences. Three theoretical positions are identified: the epistemological position, conceptualisation of research objects

  18. Representing and extracting lung cancer study metadata: study objective and study design.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gathright, Jean I; Oh, Andrea; Abarca, Phillip A; Han, Mary; Sago, William; Spiegel, Marshall L; Wolf, Brian; Garon, Edward B; Bui, Alex A T; Aberle, Denise R

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the information retrieval step in Casama (Contextualized Semantic Maps), a project that summarizes and contextualizes current research papers on driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. Casama?s representation of lung cancer studies aims to capture elements that will assist an end-user in retrieving studies and, importantly, judging their strength. This paper focuses on two types of study metadata: study objective and study design. 430 abstracts on EGFR and ALK mutations in lung cancer were annotated manually. Casama?s support vector machine (SVM) automatically classified the abstracts by study objective with as much as 129% higher F-scores compared to PubMed?s built-in filters. A second SVM classified the abstracts by epidemiological study design, suggesting strength of evidence at a more granular level than in previous work. The classification results and the top features determined by the classifiers suggest that this scheme would be generalizable to other mutations in lung cancer, as well as studies on driver mutations in other cancer domains. PMID:25618216

  19. Connecting Young Stellar Object Variability Across the Great Observatories: A Combined Spitzer and Chandra Study of Variability in IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Kevin; Muzerolle, James; Balog, Zoltan; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Robert; Herbst, William; Megeath, S. Thomas; Wolk, Scott

    2011-05-01

    While most of our knowledge of circumstellar disks is based on single snapshots of many systems, their evolution is in fact highly dynamic on short timescales. We propose to monitor a cluster of young stars at 3.6 and 4.5 micron with Spitzer, as well as in the X-ray with Chandra, in order to trace infrared variability on timescales of months to years as well as connect it with known sources of X-ray variability. Previous observations have found that many young stellar objects fluctuate in as little as a few days. Possible sources of this variability include variable heating by X-ray, accretion or stellar flux, dynamical interactions with the stellar magnetic field or perturbations from a possibly planetary-mass companion embedded in the disk. Coordinated Spitzer and Chandra observations, along with supporting data tracing the accretion and stellar flux, will be able to put strong constraints on the source of the variability and study the importance of X-rays in setting the disk structure. This type of multi-wavelength multi-epoch campaign has not been performed in the past and has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of young stellar object evolution.

  20. Double Object Constructions in L3 English: An Exploratory Study of Morphological and Semantic Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agirre, Ainara Imaz; García Mayo, María del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the acquisition of double object constructions (DOCs) ("Susan gave Peter an apple") by 90 Basque/Spanish learners of English as a third language (L3). The aim of this study was to explore whether (i) learners established a distinction when accepting DOCs vs. prepositional phrase constructions (PPCs)…

  1. Study of the Surface Heterogeneity of icy dwarf?planets and other medium size Kuiper Belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Emery, Josh P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a comprehensive analysis of the surface heterogeneity of a selected sample of dwarf-planets and candidates to be considered as dwarf-planets. The sample has been carefully selected to reach the scientific goals with a relative low cost in observing time. The research proposed here will be based on the analysis of the light-curve of these objects obtained using IRAC/Spitzer photometry. KBOs likely retain some of the most primitive material in the Solar System. Models of the retention of volatiles by small-bodies in the Solar System show that dwarf-planets can retain most of the original inventory of volatiles. A good example is Pluto. The surface of this body is formed by patches of CH4, N2 and CO and exhibits a large degree of surface heterogeneity. Our preliminary results of the IRAC/Spitzer light curves of Pluto, obtained by this group in 2004 and 2014, show the potential of these data to map the surface distribution of the different species of ices on the surface of KBOs. For this project we have selected six objects (out of a list of 15) that are ideal for this study using Spitzer photometry. Our sample covers two classes of bodies: Eris, Makemake and Haumea, all large enough to retain volatiles and so how signs of sublimation and condensation cycles on their surfaces; and Quaoar, Varuna and Ixion (D<1000 km) that may not have retained volatiles. If signs of heterogeneity are detected on IRAC data from these medium bodies (as suggested by previous studies) this could be due to a combination of collisions and irradiation. By addressing the compositional heterogeneity of this sample of KBOs the proposed work will address gaps in the scientific knowledge of the chemical and dynamical history of the outer Solar System as well as other planetary systems.}

  2. Experimental studies on the effects of a sting support on the pressure distribution around a spherical object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a spherical object, 2.5 inches in diameter, to obtain the pressure distribution around its meridan plane. In most of the tests the sphere was provided with a tail consisting of a circular cylinder that was attached directly to the rear with its axis in alignment with the center of the sphere. In some tests the tail was removed and the sphere alone was tested for comparison purposes. The main object of the tests was to obtain information on tail interference with the pressure distribution. The results of the tests show that the pressure distribution was affected by the presence of the tail to a minor extent only, while major differences occurred with the variation of the Reynolds number. The experiments were performed both in an open as well as inside a closed wind tunnel under steady flow conditions at Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.91 to 2.6 x 100000.

  3. Strength of object representation: its key role in object-based attention for determining the competition result between Gestalt and top-down objects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Yonghui; Liu, Donglai; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    It was found in previous studies that two types of objects (rectangles formed according to the Gestalt principle and Chinese words formed in a top-down fashion) can both induce an object-based effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the strength of an object representation affects the result of the competition between these two types of objects based on research carried out by Liu, Wang and Zhou [(2011) Acta Psychologica, 138(3), 397-404]. In Experiment 1, the rectangles were filled with two different colors to increase the strength of Gestalt object representation, and we found that the object effect changed significantly for the different stimulus types. Experiment 2 used Chinese words with various familiarities to manipulate the strength of the top-down object representation. As a result, the object-based effect induced by rectangles was observed only when the Chinese word familiarity was low. These results suggest that the strength of object representation determines the result of competition between different types of objects. PMID:26041271

  4. Philosophy and Objectives: Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshiva of Flatbush, Brooklyn, NY. Joel Braverman High School.

    The Yeshiva of Flatbush, a high school located in the Midwood-Flatbush section of Brooklyn, New York, teaches both secular and Judaic studies with an emphasis upon transmitting the values and traditions of Halachic Judaism. The philosophy of the school is to provide an education in which Jewish studies are taught in Hebrew and to encourage student…

  5. From Triple to Quadruple Aim: Care of the Patient Requires Care of the Provider

    PubMed Central

    Bodenheimer, Thomas; Sinsky, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The Triple Aim—enhancing patient experience, improving population health, and reducing costs—is widely accepted as a compass to optimize health system performance. Yet physicians and other members of the health care workforce report widespread burnout and dissatisfaction. Burnout is associated with lower patient satisfaction, reduced health outcomes, and it may increase costs. Burnout thus imperils the Triple Aim. This article recommends that the Triple Aim be expanded to a Quadruple Aim, adding the goal of improving the work life of health care providers, including clinicians and staff. PMID:25384822

  6. The Acute Asthma Severity Assessment Protocol (AASAP) Study: Objectives and Methods of a Study to Develop an Acute Asthma Clinical Prediction Rule

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Donald H; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Abramo, Thomas J; Sheller, James R; Resha, Donald J; Hartert, Tina V

    2013-01-01

    Acute asthma exacerbations are one of the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department (PED) visits and hospitalizations, and relapse frequently necessitates repeat urgent care. While care plans exist, there are no acute asthma prediction rules (APR)to assess severity and predict outcome. The primary objective of the Acute Asthma Severity Assessment Protocol (AASAP) study is to develop a multivariable APR for acute asthma exacerbations in the pediatric patient. We are enrolling a prospective, convenience sample aged 5 to 17 years with acute asthma exacerbations who present to an urban, academic, tertiary PED. The study protocol and data analysis plan conform to accepted biostatistical and clinical standards for clinical prediction rule development. Modeling of the APR will be performed once the entire sample size of 1,500 has accrued. We anticipate that the APR will improve resource utilization in the emergency department, aid in standardization of disease assessment, and allow physician and non-physician providers to participate in earlier objective decision making. The objective of this report is to describe the study objectives and detailed methodology of the AASAP study. PMID:21586757

  7. A study of the absorption-line spectra of six high-redshift quasi-stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. H.; Burbidge, G. R.; Crowne, A. H.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Burbidge, E. M.; Smith, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    High-resolution spectrograms of six QSOs with apparent visual magnitudes of 17.0 to 18.5 and redshifts greater than 2 are studied for absorption lines. Accurate wavelengths are measured for all the absorption lines that could be detected, attempts are made to identify redshift systems, and the redshifts in each object are examined. Analysis of the absorption-line spectra shows that: (1) a large number of redshifts covering a wide range of values are present in five of the QSOs; (2) about two-thirds of the absorption lines remain unidentified, cannot be of Galactic origin, and are not associated with existing redshift systems; (3) many comparatively small absorption redshifts exist which, if they are due to intervening galaxies, must be produced by very large halos; and (4) in one QSO there is a possible redshift system containing five lines with an absorption redshift that is significantly greater than the emission redshift.

  8. Electronic and thermal transport study of sinusoidally corrugated nanowires aiming to improve thermoelectric efficiency.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Martin, P N; Ravaioli, U

    2016-01-22

    Improvement of thermoelectric efficiency has been very challenging in the solid-state industry due to the interplay among transport coefficients which measure the efficiency. In this work, we modulate the geometry of nanowires to interrupt thermal transport with causing only a minimal impact on electronic transport properties, thereby maximizing the thermoelectric power generation. As it is essential to scrutinize comprehensively both electronic and thermal transport behaviors for nano-scale thermoelectric devices, we investigate the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductance, and the thermal conductivity of sinusoidally corrugated silicon nanowires and eventually look into an enhancement of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit [Formula: see text] from the modulated nanowires over typical straight nanowires. A loss in the electronic transport coefficient is calculated with the recursive Green function along with the Landauer formalism, and the thermal transport is simulated with the molecular dynamics. In contrast to a small influence on the thermopower and the electrical conductance of the geometry-modulated nanowires, a large reduction of the thermal conductivity yields an enhancement of the efficiency by 10% to 35% from the typical nanowires. We find that this approach can be easily extended to various structures and materials as we consider the geometrical modulation as a sole source of perturbation to the system. PMID:26650977

  9. Electronic and thermal transport study of sinusoidally corrugated nanowires aiming to improve thermoelectric efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. H.; Martin, P. N.; Ravaioli, U.

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of thermoelectric efficiency has been very challenging in the solid-state industry due to the interplay among transport coefficients which measure the efficiency. In this work, we modulate the geometry of nanowires to interrupt thermal transport with causing only a minimal impact on electronic transport properties, thereby maximizing the thermoelectric power generation. As it is essential to scrutinize comprehensively both electronic and thermal transport behaviors for nano-scale thermoelectric devices, we investigate the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductance, and the thermal conductivity of sinusoidally corrugated silicon nanowires and eventually look into an enhancement of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT from the modulated nanowires over typical straight nanowires. A loss in the electronic transport coefficient is calculated with the recursive Green function along with the Landauer formalism, and the thermal transport is simulated with the molecular dynamics. In contrast to a small influence on the thermopower and the electrical conductance of the geometry-modulated nanowires, a large reduction of the thermal conductivity yields an enhancement of the efficiency by 10% to 35% from the typical nanowires. We find that this approach can be easily extended to various structures and materials as we consider the geometrical modulation as a sole source of perturbation to the system.

  10. A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. Methods/Design A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18months implementation period will be included in the analysis, controlling for the cluster design. Our main outcome measures will be the change in perinatal mortality and in the proportion of institution-based deliveries. Discussion A unique feature of this protocol is that we are not proposing an individual intervention, but rather a package of interventions, which is designed to address the complexities and realities of maternal and perinatal mortality in developing countries. To date, many other countries, has focused its efforts to decrease maternal mortality indirectly by improving infrastructure and data collection systems rather than on implementing specific interventions to directly improve outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov,http://NCT01653626. PMID:23517050

  11. The feasibility of rapid baseline objective physical activity measurement in a natural experimental study of a commuting population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the effects of environmental interventions on physical activity should include valid measures of physical activity before and after the intervention. Baseline data collection can be difficult when the timetable for introduction of an intervention is outside researchers control. This paper reports and reflects on the practical issues, challenges and results of rapid baseline objective physical activity measurement using accelerometers distributed by post in a natural experimental study. Methods A sample of working adults enrolling for the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study and expressing willingness to wear an activity monitor was selected to undertake baseline accelerometer assessment. Each selected participant received a study pack by post containing the core study questionnaire and an accelerometer to wear for seven consecutive days, and was asked to return their accelerometer and completed questionnaire in person or by post using the prepaid special delivery envelope provided. If a pack was not returned within two weeks of issue, a reminder was sent to the participant. Each participant received up to five reminders by various methods including letter, email, telephone and letter sent by recorded delivery. Results 95% of participants registering for the study were willing in principle to undertake accelerometer assessment. Using a pool of 221 accelerometers, we achieved a total of 714 issues of accelerometers to participants during a six month period. 116 (16%) participants declined to use the accelerometer after receiving it. Three accelerometers failed, 45 (6% of 714) were lost and many were returned with insufficient data recorded, resulted in 109 (15%) participants re-wearing their accelerometer for a second week of measurement. 550 (77%) participants completed data collection, 478 (87% of 550) to the required standard. A total of 694 reminders were issued to retrieve unreturned accelerometers. More than 90% of accelerometers were retrieved after a maximum of two reminders. Conclusions It is feasible to use accelerometers to collect baseline objective physical activity data by post from a large number of participants in a limited time period. However, a substantial pool of devices is required and researchers need to be prepared to make significant efforts to recover some of the devices. PMID:23036074

  12. How affordances associated with a distractor object affect compatibility effects: a study with the computational model TRoPICALS.

    PubMed

    Caligiore, Daniele; Borghi, Anna M; Parisi, Domenico; Ellis, Rob; Cangelosi, Angelo; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Seeing an object activates both visual and action codes in the brain. Crucial evidence supporting this view is the observation of object to response compatibility effects: perception of an object can facilitate or interfere with the execution of an action (e.g., grasping) even when the viewer has no intention of interacting with the object. TRoPICALS is a computational model that proposes some general principles about the brain mechanisms underlying compatibility effects, in particular the idea that top-down bias from prefrontal cortex, and whether it conflicts or not with the actions afforded by an object, plays a key role in such phenomena. Experiments on compatibility effects using a target and a distractor object show the usual positive compatibility effect of the target, but also an interesting negative compatibility effect of the distractor: responding with a grip compatible with the distractor size produces slower reaction times than the incompatible case. Here, we present an enhanced version of TRoPICALS that reproduces and explains these new results. This explanation is based on the idea that the prefrontal cortex plays a double role in its top-down guidance of action selection producing: (a) a positive bias in favour of the action requested by the experimental task; (b) a negative bias directed to inhibiting the action evoked by the distractor. The model also provides testable predictions on the possible consequences of damage to volitional circuits such as in Parkinsonian patients. PMID:22327121

  13. Diffusion of information technology supporting the Institute of Medicine's quality chasm care aims.

    PubMed

    Burke, Darrell; Menachemi, Nir; Brooks, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the degree to which healthcare information technology (HIT) supporting the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) six care aims is utilized in the hospital setting and explores organizational factors associated with HIT use. Guided by the IOM's Crossing the quality chasm report and associated literature, 27 applications and/or capabilities are classified according to one or more of the six care aims. A structured survey of Florida hospitals identified the use of HIT. Results suggest that, on average, hospitals have not yet embraced HIT to support the IOM's care aims and that associated organizational factors vary according to care aim. PMID:16416889

  14. Objectively Measured Daily Steps and Subsequent Long Term All-Cause Mortality: The Tasped Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Terence; Pezic, Angela; Sun, Cong; Cochrane, Jenny; Venn, Alison; Srikanth, Velandai; Jones, Graeme; Shook, Robin; Sui, Xuemei; Ortaglia, Andrew; Blair, Steven; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background Selfreported physical activity has been inversely associated with mortality but the effect of objectively measured step activity on mortality has never been evaluated. The objective is to determine the prospective association of daily step activity on mortality among free-living adults. Methods and Findings Cohort study of free-living adults residing in Tasmania, Australia between 2000 and 2005 who participated in one of three cohort studies (n = 2 576 total participants). Daily step activity by pedometer at baseline at a mean of 58.8 years of age, and for a subset, repeated monitoring was available 3.7 (SD 1.3) years later (n = 1 679). All-cause mortality (n = 219 deaths) was ascertained by record-linkage to the Australian National Death Index; 90% of participants were followed-up over ten years, until June 2011. Higher daily step count at baseline was linearly associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio AHR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98 per 1 000 steps; P = 0.004). Risk was altered little by removing deaths occurring in the first two years. Increasing baseline daily steps from sedentary to 10 000 steps a day was associated with a 46% (95% CI, 18% to 65%; P = 0.004) lower risk of mortality in the decade of follow-up. In addition, those who increased their daily steps over the monitoring period had a substantial reduction in mortality risk, after adjusting for baseline daily step count (AHR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.72; P = 0.002), or other factors (AHR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.210.70; P = 0.002). Conclusions Higher daily step count was linearly associated with subsequent long term mortality among free living adults. These data are the first to quantify mortality reductions using an objective measure of physical activity in a free living population. They strongly underscore the importance of physical inactivity as a major public health problem. PMID:26536618

  15. The Objective of Financial Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermann, Kenneth R.

    1986-01-01

    Alerts public school business officials to a financial reporting concepts statement to be issued by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board in late 1986. The new directive will outline four objectives concerned with accountability procedures, resource management and compliance information, operating results, and future financial capabilities.

  16. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student

  17. Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels

    PubMed Central

    Saloum de Neves Manta, Fernanda; Pereira, Rui; Vianna, Romulo; Rodolfo Beuttenmller de Arajo, Alfredo; Leite Ges Gita, Daniel; Aparecida da Silva, Dayse; de Vargas Wolfgramm, Eldamria; da Mota Pontes, Isabel; Ivan Aguiar, Jos; Ozrio Moraes, Milton; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmo, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    There are many different studies that contribute to the global picture of the ethnic heterogeneity in Brazilian populations. These studies use different types of genetic markers and are focused on the comparison of populations at different levels. In some of them, each geographical region is treated as a single homogeneous population, whereas other studies create different subdivisions: political (e.g., pooling populations by State), demographic (e.g., urban and rural), or ethnic (e.g., culture, self-declaration, or skin colour). In this study, we performed an enhanced reassessment of the genetic ancestry of ~ 1,300 Brazilians characterised for 46 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). In addition, 798 individuals from twelve Brazilian populations representing the five geographical macro-regions of Brazil were newly genotyped, including a Native American community and a rural Amazonian community. Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population. Nevertheless, individuals with a high proportion of Native American ancestry are only found in the samples from Terena and Santa Isabel. Our results allowed us to further refine the genetic landscape of Brazilians while establishing the basis for the effective application of an autosomal AIM panel in forensic casework and clinical association studies within the highly admixed Brazilian populations. PMID:24073242

  18. A Study of the Development of Students' Visualizations of Program State during an Elementary Object-Oriented Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Jorma; Kuittinen, Marja; Tikansalo, Taina

    2008-01-01

    Students' understanding of object-oriented (OO) program execution was studied by asking students to draw a picture of a program state at a specific moment. Students were given minimal instructions on what to include in their drawings in order to see what they considered to be central concepts and relationships in program execution. Three drawing…

  19. A Study of the Development of Students' Visualizations of Program State during an Elementary Object-Oriented Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Jorma; Kuittinen, Marja; Tikansalo, Taina

    2008-01-01

    Students' understanding of object-oriented (OO) program execution was studied by asking students to draw a picture of a program state at a specific moment. Students were given minimal instructions on what to include in their drawings in order to see what they considered to be central concepts and relationships in program execution. Three drawing

  20. Perceptions of postgraduate trainees on the impact of objective structured clinical examinations on their study behavior and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Opoka, Robert O; Kiguli, Sarah; Ssemata, Andrew S; Govaerts, Marjan; Driessen, Erik W

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a commonly used method of assessing clinical competence at various levels, including at the postgraduate level. How the OSCE impacts on learning in higher education is poorly described. In this study, we evaluated the perceptions of postgraduate trainees regarding the impact of the OSCE on their study and clinical behavior. Methods We employed an explorative qualitative research design by conducting focus group discussions with 41 pediatric postgraduate trainees at the College of Health Science, Makerere University. A semi-structured tool was used to obtain the views and experiences of the trainees. Transcripts from the discussion were analyzed in an iterative manner using thematic content analysis. Results The trainees reported the OSCEs as a fair and appropriate tool for assessing clinical competency at the postgraduate level. However, they noted that whereas OSCEs assess a broad range of skills and competencies relevant to their training, there were areas that they did not adequately assess. In particular, OSCEs did not adequately assess in-depth clinical knowledge or detailed history-taking skills. Overall, the majority of the trainees reported that the OSCEs inspired them to study widely and improve their procedural and communication skills. Conclusion OSCEs are a useful tool for assessing clinical competencies in postgraduate education. However, the perceived limitations in their ability to assess complex skills raises concerns about their use as a standalone mode of assessment at the postgraduate level. Future studies should evaluate how use of OSCEs in combination with other assessment tools impacts on learning. PMID:26082673

  1. Mask CD control (CDC) using AIMS as the CD metrology data source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi, Guy; Zait, Eitan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Labovitz, Steven; Graitzer, Erez; Böhm, Klaus; Birkner, Robert; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that wafer CD uniformity can be improved via an ultrafast laser system. The system provides local CD Control (CDC) by writing inside the bulk of photomasks. Intra-field CD variation correction has been implemented effectively in mask-shops and fabs based on CD-SEM and Scatterometry (Optical CD or OCD) as the CD data source. Using wafer CD data allows correction of all wafer field CD contributors at once, but does not allow correcting for mask CD signature alone. For mask shops attempting to improve CDU of the mask regardless of the exposure tool, it is a better practice to use only mask CD data as the CD data source. In this study, we investigate the use of an aerial imaging system AIMSTM45-193i (AIMS45) as the mask CD data source for the CDC process. In order to determine the predictive value of the AIMS45 as input to the CDC process, we have created a programmed CD mask with both 45nm and 65nm node L/S and hole patterns. The programmed CD mask has CD errors of up to 20nm in 2.5nm steps (4X). The programmed CD mask was measured by AIMS45, defining the CDU map of the programmed CD mask. The CDU data was then used by Pixer CDC200TM to correct the CDU and bring it back to a flat, almost ideal CDU. In order to confirm that real CDU improvement on wafer had been achieved, the mask was printed before and after CDC on an immersion scanner at IMEC and results of pre and post CD data were compared.

  2. A role for the apoptosis inhibitory factor AIM/Spalpha/Api6 in atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoko; Shelton, John M; Chen, Mingyi; Bradley, Michelle N; Castrillo, Antonio; Bookout, Angie L; Mak, Puiying A; Edwards, Peter A; Mangelsdorf, David J; Tontonoz, Peter; Miyazaki, Toru

    2005-03-01

    Macrophages play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis through the accumulation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). AIM (Spalpha/Api6) has previously been shown to promote macrophage survival; however, its function in atherogenesis is unknown. Here we identify AIM as a critical factor that protects macrophages from the apoptotic effects of oxidized lipids. AIM protein is induced in response to oxLDL loading and is highly expressed in foam cells within atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, both expression of AIM in lesions and its induction by oxidized lipids require the action of LXR/RXR heterodimers. AIM-/- macrophages are highly susceptible to oxLDL-induced apoptosis in vitro and undergo accelerated apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Moreover, early atherosclerotic lesions in AIM-/-LDLR-/- double knockout mice are dramatically reduced when compared to AIM+/+LDLR-/- controls. We conclude that AIM production facilitates macrophage survival within atherosclerotic lesions and that loss of AIM decreases early lesion development by increasing macrophage apoptosis. PMID:16054063

  3. [Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland--the aim and current experiences].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozie?, Anna; Mi?kiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries, where smoking is widely spread and smoking-induced diseases have become a significant health and socio-economic issue. Since 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with partner organizations have been working on the implementation of the global control system known as the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS). This system expands the opportunities of individual countries in the area of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive anti-tobacco programs. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has been incorporated into the GTSS system in 2007. The aim of the work is to explain and promote the objectives of GATS and the process of its implementation in Poland based on current experiences of the WHO Country Office for Poland. GATS concentrates on monitoring of tobacco use by adults (aged over 15 years). It is a representative, national survey of households, standardized on a global scale. GATS is supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies as a part of the Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Two executive agencies, the M. Sk?odowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw and the Warsaw Medical University, have been assigned to implement the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. The prepatory works for pre-testing and further stages of the survey implementation are currently under the final phase. Data gathered by GATS will enable us to learn more about the use of tobacco by the adult population in Poland. They will also indicate the most effective methods of the tobacco control in our country. PMID:19746887

  4. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes.

    PubMed

    Maranzana, Andrea; Giordana, Anna; Indarto, Antonius; Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo; Causà, Mauro; Pavone, Michele

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔEAB. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔEAB are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A-B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [EMP2/CBS] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔECC-MP, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔEAB with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational reference of less than 1 kcal mol(-1). The zero-point vibrational energy corrected estimates Δ(EAB+ZPE), obtained with the three functionals and the 6-31G(d) and N07T basis sets, are compared with experimental D0 measures, when available. In particular, this comparison is finally extended to the naphthalene and coronene dimers and to three π-π associations of different PAHs (R, made by 10, 16, or 24 C atoms) and P (80 C atoms). PMID:24387369

  5. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maranzana, Andrea E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Giordana, Anna E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Indarto, Antonius Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Causà, Mauro E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Pavone, Michele E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔE{sub AB}. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔE{sub AB} are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A−B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E{sub MP2/CBS}] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔE{sub CC-MP}, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔE{sub AB} with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational reference of less than 1 kcal mol{sup −1}. The zero-point vibrational energy corrected estimates Δ(E{sub AB}+ZPE), obtained with the three functionals and the 6-31G(d) and N07T basis sets, are compared with experimental D{sub 0} measures, when available. In particular, this comparison is finally extended to the naphthalene and coronene dimers and to three π−π associations of different PAHs (R, made by 10, 16, or 24 C atoms) and P (80 C atoms)

  6. A kinematic analysis of the association between impulsivity and manual aiming control.

    PubMed

    Lage, Guilherme Menezes; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Neves, Fernando Silva; de Moraes, Paulo Henrique Paiva; Corra, Humberto

    2012-08-01

    Two characteristics usually found in impulsive behavior are deficits in response inhibition and the inability to delay gratification. The former behavior is called motor impulsivity, and the second is called cognitive impulsivity. This study investigates the association of motor and cognitive impulsivity with manual aiming control. We administered two neuropsychological tests to 81 healthy participants to measure their levels of motor and cognitive impulsivity. A manual aiming motor task was also applied. Subsequently, from the initial group of 81 participants, two subgroups of 27 individuals were selected by their scores on (1) motor impulsivity and (2) cognitive impulsivity, and their motor performances were compared. While a group was comprised by the top 33.3% high-impulsive participants, the other was comprised by the bottom 33.3% low-impulsives participants. The results indicate that motor impulsivity is more related to motor control than cognitive impulsivity. Differences between motor impulsivity groups were found in the duration of the primary submovement, peak velocity, score of response inhibition errors and incorrect hits score. It was found that in situations in which the temporal and spatial demands to the motor system were high, the impulsivity had a functional, adaptive effect on motor control. PMID:22221467

  7. The relation of object naming and other visual speech production tasks:A large scale voxel-based morphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Johnny King L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Douis, Hassan; Balani, Alex; Bickerton, Wai-ling; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    We report a lesionsymptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280) of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (<120days post-stroke). Performance on object naming was evaluated alongside three other tests of visual speech production, namely sentence production to a picture, sentence reading and nonword reading. A principal component analysis was performed on all these tests' scores and revealed a shared component that loaded across all the visual speech production tasks and a unique component that isolated object naming from the other three tasks. Regions for the shared component were observed in the left fronto-temporal cortices, fusiform gyrus and bilateral visual cortices. Lesions in these regions linked to both poor object naming and impairment in general visualspeech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing. PMID:25685713

  8. An Aims-Based Curriculum Illustrated by the Teaching of Science in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.; White, John

    2014-01-01

    We begin by arguing that curriculum development should start with aims rather than, as is typically the case, with subjects. We, therefore, ask what might be the fundamental aims of school education. We conclude that they are twofold, namely, to enable each learner to lead a life that is personally flourishing and to help others to do so too.

  9. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THYROID FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE SLEEP QUALITY IN OLDER MEN: THE OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES IN MEN (MROS) STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Akatsu, Haruko; Ewing, Susan K.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Fink, Howard A.; Stone, Katie L.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Mehra, Reena; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Hoffman, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between thyroid hormone levels and sleep quality in community-dwelling men. Methods Among 5,994 men aged ?65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, 682 had baseline thyroid function data, normal free thyroxine (FT4) (0.70 ? FT4 ? 1.85 ng/dL), actigraphy measurements, and were not using thyroid-related medications. Three categories of thyroid function were defined: subclinical hyperthyroid, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) <0.55 mIU/L; euthyroid (TSH, 0.55 to 4.78 mIU/L); and subclinical hypothyroid (TSH >4.78 mIU/L). Objective (total hours of nighttime sleep [TST], sleep efficiency [SE], wake after sleep onset [WASO], sleep latency [SL], number of long wake episodes [LWEP]) and subjective (TST, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score) sleep quality were measured. The association between TSH and sleep quality was examined using linear regression (continuous sleep outcomes) and log-binomial regression (categorical sleep outcomes). Results Among the 682 men examined, 15 had subclinical hyperthyroidism and 38 had subclinical hypothyroidism. There was no difference in sleep quality between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid men. Compared to euthyroid men, subclinical hyperthyroid men had lower mean actigraphy TST (adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)], ?27.4 [?63.7 to 8.9] minutes) and lower mean SE (?4.5% [?10.3% to 1.3%]), higher mean WASO (13.5 [?8.0 to 35.0] minutes]), whereas 41% had increased risk of actigraphy-measured TST <6 hours (relative risk [RR], 1.41; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.39), and 83% had increased risk of SL ?60 minutes (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 0.65 to 5.14) (all P>0.05). Conclusion Neither subclinical hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism is significantly associated with decreased sleep quality. PMID:24449663

  10. Building a forensic ancestry panel from the ground up: The EUROFORGEN Global AIM-SNP set.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C; Parson, W; Lundsberg, B; Santos, C; Freire-Aradas, A; Torres, M; Eduardoff, M; Børsting, C; Johansen, P; Fondevila, M; Morling, N; Schneider, P; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2014-07-01

    Emerging next-generation sequencing technologies will enable DNA analyses to add pigmentation predictive and ancestry informative (AIM) SNPs to the range of markers detectable from a single PCR test. This prompted us to re-appraise current forensic and genomics AIM-SNPs and from the best sets, to identify the most divergent markers for a five population group differentiation of Africans, Europeans, East Asians, Native Americans and Oceanians by using our own online genome variation browsers. We prioritized careful balancing of population differentiation across the five group comparisons in order to minimize bias when estimating co-ancestry proportions in individuals with admixed ancestries. The differentiation of European from Middle East or South Asian ancestries was not chosen as a characteristic in order to concentrate on introducing Oceanian differentiation for the first time in a forensic AIM set. We describe a complete set of 128 AIM-SNPs that have near identical population-specific divergence across five continentally defined population groups. The full set can be systematically reduced in size, while preserving the most informative markers and the balance of population-specific divergence in at least four groups. We describe subsets of 88, 55, 28, 20 and 12 AIMs, enabling both new and existing SNP genotyping technologies to exploit the best markers identified for forensic ancestry analysis. PMID:24631693

  11. The perception of concurrent sound objects through the use of harmonic enhancement: a study of auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Koulaguina, Elena; Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Alain, Claude; Grimault, Stephan; Eck, Douglas; Vachon, Franois; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    When the frequency of one harmonic, in a sound composed of many harmonics, is briefly mistuned and then returned to the 'in-tune' frequency and phase, observers report hearing this harmonic as a separate tone long after the brief period of mistuning - a phenomenon called harmonic enhancement. Here, we examined the consequence of harmonic enhancement on listeners' ability to detect a brief amplitude notch embedded in one of the harmonics after the period of mistuning. When present, the notch was either on the enhanced harmonic or on a different harmonic. Detection was better on the enhanced harmonic than on a non-enhanced harmonic. This finding suggests that attention was drawn to the enhanced harmonic (which constituted a new sound object) thereby easing the processing of sound features (i.e., a notch) within that object. This is the first evidence of a functional consequence of the after-effect of transient mistuning on auditory perception. Moreover, the findings provide support for an attention-based explanation of the enhancement phenomenon. PMID:25678273

  12. The Moral and Ethical Aims of the School Viewed through a Cosmopolitan Prism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the author proposes to imagine the aims of the school in light of a cosmopolitan philosophy of education. The first section that follows provides a summary account of what the author takes cosmopolitanism to mean. The second section frames a philosophy of education that stems from this account. The third and penultimate section

  13. General and Specific Objections to the MMPI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallucci, Nicholas T.

    1986-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which 102 undergraduate participants objected to questions on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) which referred to sex, religion, bladder and bowel functions, family relationships, and unusual thinking in comparision to degree of objection to length of the MMPI and repetition of questions.

  14. The StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts program in Pennsylvania: RE-AIM analysis.

    PubMed

    Folta, Sara C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Seguin, Rebecca A; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Corbin, Marilyn A; Wiker, Nancy; Gauker, Jodi; Chui, Kenneth; Nelson, Miriam E

    2015-03-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based programs is needed to reduce CVD risk among midlife and older women. The aim of this study is to examine the public health impact of StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts in Pennsylvania using the RE-AIM framework. Reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance were assessed using qualitative and quantitative measures; effectiveness was assessed using a pretest-posttest within-participants design. Reach into the target population was 5 in 100,000. Compared to the target population, a greater percentage of participants were white, married, middle-class, and had a graduate degree. Effectiveness was demonstrated (weight loss -2.0 kg, p < 0.001). Adoption among trained leaders was high (83.3 %), as was fidelity in implementation (average score 9.3 of 10). No leaders maintained the program. To increase impact of the StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts Program, it will be important to lower the costs and modify the recruitment and training strategies to better reach low-income and minority women. Such strategies may also improve program maintenance. PMID:25729458

  15. The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Brad; Pinkney, Frank L.; Scott, Robert; Bedard, Donald; Rody, Jim; Levesque, Martin P.; Buteau, Sylvie; Racey, Tom; Burrell, Doug; Spaans, Aaron; Hildebrand, Alan

    2004-10-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) are collaborating to place a microsatellite in low earth orbit to perform optical detection and tracking of both inner-earth orbiting asteroids and earth-orbiting satellites and debris (i.e., "Resident Space Objects", RSOs). The "Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat)" will be the first mission for the CSA multi-mission microsatellite bus program, and is intended by DRDC to demonstrate the military utility of this small and inexpensive class of spacecraft. The mission will obtain metric positions, for geosynchronous satellites, to within ±500 m, timestamps accurate to within a millisecond, and be sensitive to objects in geosynchronous orbit down to 14th magnitude. The asteroid tracking mission will repeatedly survey the area from ±45-70° solar elongation with the aim of finding >50% of all inner-earth asteroids having diameters greater than 1 km.

  16. Aiming for remission in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The primary care goal.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, Greg; Culpepper, Larry; Babcock, Thomas; Arnold, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often undiagnosed and undertreated in adults, resulting in wide-ranging problems and functional deficits in patients' lives. In addition, psychiatric comorbidities unrelated to symptom severity may be present. However, effective treatment that can alleviate symptoms and bring about meaningful improvements in functionality is available. Primary care providers can play a crucial role in recognizing and diagnosing ADHD, initiating and monitoring treatment, and obtaining consultations or arranging referrals when necessary, all with the goal of achieving and maintaining remission. Fulfillment of this role requires a practical understanding of the diverse clinical manifestations of ADHD in patients stratified by age and sex, and familiarity with current treatment guidelines. Although there is no absolute consensus on the criteria by which remission is defined, treatment response may be guided by objective ratings of global symptom severity and patients' self-reports of changes in their ability to cope with routine daily tasks, academic and vocational responsibilities, and social relationships. Although there has been much research into the genetic and neurophysiologic basis of ADHD, it is more important for primary care providers to appreciate that ADHD is a chronic condition requiring lifelong follow-up and that clinical presentation and response to treatment can vary widely among patients and over time in the same patients. Such variability makes the management of ADHD challenging, but the opportunity to bring about dramatic improvement in patients' lives makes it imperative for primary care providers to be competent in this area. This review provides primary care clinicians with a practical definition of remission in adults with ADHD, to emphasize that symptom reduction does not necessarily mean intact functionality, and to suggest a multidisciplinary approach aimed at achieving the greatest possible reduction of symptoms and normalization of functionality. PMID:25662296

  17. ACA and the Triple Aim: Musings of a Health Care Actuary.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mac

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) promulgated the Triple Aim, which advocates simultaneous improvements in patient experiences, improved population health and lower cost per capita. In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) promised quality, affordable health care for all Americans. It's fair to assume that the framers of ACA were aware of the Triple Aim, and it is likely that much of ACA was heavily influenced by IHI's positions. So it is reasonable, from time to time, to assess ACA's impact on health care against the Triple Aim principles. PMID:26540942

  18. Integrating the Institute of Medicine's six quality aims into pediatric critical care: relevance and applications.

    PubMed

    Slonim, Anthony D; Pollack, Murray M

    2005-05-01

    The Institute of Medicine's report Crossing the Quality Chasm recommends "six aims for improvement." The aims are safety, effectiveness, equity, timeliness, patient-centeredness, and efficiency. This review focuses on the quality of care information relevant to the Institute of Medicine's six aims to assess their relevance, potential impact, and affect on pediatric critical care practice. It is concluded that if the care for pediatric intensive care patients is to be fundamentally improved, an understanding of the current care environment, the existing evidence base, the opportunities for improvement, and the documentation of the improvements needs to be realized. The Institute of Medicine's six aims provide a useful framework to advance the quality of care in this pediatric subspecialty and perhaps others. PMID:15857522

  19. The Complete VT-ED Cross-Reference Index for the AIM/ARM System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jezierski, Kathleen, Comp.; Mitric, Joan, Comp.

    Developed to facilitate location and ordering of AIM/ARM (Abstracts for Instructional Materials/Abstracts for Research Materials) documents in the ERIC system, this index indicates the availability of all VT (Vocational-Technical) document numbers assigned by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Vocational and Technical Education between 1967 and 1976. More

  20. The display of molecular models with the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, J. T.; Hart, J.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A visualization of molecular models can lead to a clearer understanding of the models. Sophisticated graphics devices supported by minicomputers make it possible for the chemist to interact with the display of a very large model, altering its structure. In addition to user interaction, the need arises also for other ways of displaying information. These include the production of viewgraphs, film presentation, as well as publication quality prints of various models. To satisfy these needs, the display capability of the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS) has been enhanced to provide a wide range of graphics and plotting capabilities. Attention is given to an overview of the AIMS system, graphics hardware used by the AIMS display subsystem, a comparison of graphics hardware, the representation of molecular models, graphics software used by the AIMS display subsystem, the display of a model obtained from data stored in molecule data base, a graphics feature for obtaining single frame permanent copy displays, and a feature for producing multiple frame displays.

  1. The Role of Reachers' Shared Values and Objectives in Promoting Intercultural and Inclusive School Cultures: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miravet, Lidon Moliner; García, Odet Moliner

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of teachers' impressions of their shared objectives and values, together with their conceptions of interculturality and inclusion. The educational reality of a school in Valencia (Spain) is described, based on the exploration through semi-structured interviews. From the systematically categorized information,…

  2. The Role of Reachers' Shared Values and Objectives in Promoting Intercultural and Inclusive School Cultures: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miravet, Lidon Moliner; Garca, Odet Moliner

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of teachers' impressions of their shared objectives and values, together with their conceptions of interculturality and inclusion. The educational reality of a school in Valencia (Spain) is described, based on the exploration through semi-structured interviews. From the systematically categorized information,

  3. Photodecarbonylation mechanism of cyclopropenone in the gas phase: electronic structure calculation and AIMS dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Xia, Shuhua; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2014-10-01

    In this article, structures and energies of cyclopropenone in the low-lying electronic states have been determined by the CASSCF and MS-CASPT2 calculations with different basis sets. Two minimum-energy conical intersections (CI-1 and CI-2) between S0 and S1 were obtained and their topographic characters were characterized by the SA4-CAS(10,9) calculated energy gradients and nonadiabatic coupling vectors. The AIMS method was used to carry out nonadiabatic dynamics simulation with ab initio calculation performed at the SA4-CAS(10,9) level. On the basis of time evolution of wave functions simulated here, the S1 lifetime is fitted to be 125 fs with a pure exponential decay for the S1 electronic population. The CI-1 intersection is mainly responsible for ultrafast S1→S0 nonadiabatic transition and the photoinduced decarbonylation is a sequential process, where the first C-C bond is broken in the S1 state and fission of the second C-C bond occurs in the S0 state as a result of the S1→S0 internal conversion via the CI-1 region. As a minor channel through the CI-2 region, the decarbonylation proceeds in an asynchronous concerted way. Effects of the S1 excess energies and the S1-S0 energy gap on the nonadiabatic dynamics were examined, which reveals that the S1→S0 nonadiabatic transition occurs within a small energy gap and high-energy conical intersection regions can play an important role. The present study provides new insights into mechanistic photochemistry of cyclopropenones and reveals that the AIMS dynamics simulation at a high-accuracy ab initio level is a powerful tool for exploring a mechanism of an ultrafast photochemical reaction. PMID:24742337

  4. The object of environmental ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petulla, Joseph M.

    1989-05-01

    Since the term “environmental ethics” began to be used a generation ago, it has covered many different kinds of environmental notions, problems, ethical systems, and forms of behavior. A variety of cases are presented and examined under two terms, environmental ethics and ecological morality, in an effort to illustrate different kinds of ethical objectives. In order to understand the connections between various strands of environmental ethics, personal and social values and subcultural norms of environmental ethics are examined under Christopher Stone's concept of moral pluralism. G. J. Warnock's notion of the “general object” of morality is proposed to integrate the variegated purposes of environmental ethics.

  5. The Origin of Apollo Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, Saul

    1984-03-29

    The source of the Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids has been much debated. (This class of asteroidal bodies includes the Apollo, Aten, and some Amor objects, each with its own orbital characteristics; we shall use the term Apollo objects to mean all Earth-crossers.) It is difficult to find a mechanism which would create new Apollo objects at a sufficient rate to balance the loss due to collision with planets and ejection from the solar system, and thus explain the estimated steady-state number. A likely source is the main asteroid belt, since it has similar photometric characteristics. There are gaps in the main belt which correspond to orbits resonant with the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, and it has been shown that the resonances can perturb a body into an Earth-crossing orbit. Apollo objects could thus be generated when random collisions between asteroids in the main belt sent fragments into these resonant orbits. Calculations of the creation rate from these random collisions, however, yielcl numbers too low by a factor of four. This rate could be significantly lower given the uncertainty in the efficiency of the resonance mechanism. As an alternative, it was suggested that the evaporation of a comet's volatile mantle as it passes near the sun could provide enough non-gravitational force to move the comet into an orbit with aphelion inside of Jupiter's orbit, and thus safe from ejection from the solar system. The probability of such an event occurring is unknown, although the recent discovery of the 'asteroid' 1983 TB, with an orbit matching that of the Geminid meteor shower, suggests that such a mechanism has occurred at least once. New evidence from paleontology and geophysics, however, suggests a better solution to the problem of the source of the Apollos. M. Davis, P. Hut, and R. A. Muller recently proposed that an unseen companion to the sun passes through the Oort cloud every 28 million years, sending a shower of comets to the Earth; this provides an explanation for the periodicity of the fossil record of extinctions found by D. M. Raup and J. J. Sepkoski. W. Alvarez and R. A. Muller have shown that the craters on the earth have an age distribution with a periodicity and phase consistent with this hypothesis. These periodic comet showers would of course pass through the entire solar system, colliding with other bodies besides the earth. When the target is the asteroid belt, many small comets will have sufficient kinetic energy to disrupt large asteroids. This will generate many more fragments in the resonant orbits than would be generated by random collisions of asteroids with each other, and hence more Apollo objects. In this report, we shall calculate approximately (A) the number of comets per shower which cross the asteroid belt, (B) the probability of collisions with a single asteroid per shower, (C) the number of fragments with radius > 0.5 km which reach Apollo orbits, and (D) the current expected number of Apollos derived from comet/asteroid collisions. Given conservative assumptions, the calculated number is in agreement with observations.

  6. Increasing the number of feminist scientists: why feminist aims are not served by the Underdetermination Thesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intemann, Kristen

    2008-11-01

    Recent feminist philosophers of science have argued that feminist values can contribute to rational decisions about which scientific theories to accept. On this view, increasing the number of feminist scientists is important for ensuring rational and objective theory acceptance. The Underdetermination Thesis has played a key role in arguments for this view [Anderson (1995) Hypatia 10(3), 50 84; Hankinson Nelson (1990) Who knows? From Quine to a feminist empiricism. Temple University Press, Philadelphia; Longino (1990) Science as social knowledge. Princeton University Press, Princeton; Longino (2002) The fate of knowledge. Princeton University Press, Princeton; Kourany (2003) Philosophy of Science 70, 1 14]. This thesis is alleged to open an argumentative gap between evidence and theory acceptance and provide a rationale for filling the gap with feminist values. While I agree with the conclusion that feminist values can contribute to rational decisions about which theories to accept, I argue that the Underdetermination Thesis cannot support this claim. First, using earlier arguments [Laudan (1990) in: R. Giere (ed) Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science, vol 14, pp 267 297; Slezak (1991) International Studies in Philosophy of Science 5, 241 256; Pinnick (1994) Philosophy of Science 61, 664 657] I show that Underdetermination cannot, by itself, establish that feminist values should fill the gap in theory acceptance. Secondly, I argue that the very use of the Underdetermination Thesis concedes that feminist values are extra-scientific, a-rational, factors in theory acceptance. This concession denies feminists grounds to explain why their values contribute to rational scientific reasoning. Finally, I propose two alternative ways to explain how feminist values can contribute to rational theory acceptance that do not rely on Underdetermination.

  7. Critical Role for the DNA Sensor AIM2 in Stem Cell Proliferation and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Zhu, Qifan; Zhu, Liqin; Liu, Zhiping; Karki, Rajendra; Malik, Ankit; Sharma, Deepika; Li, Liyuan; Malireddi, R K Subbarao; Gurung, Prajwal; Neale, Geoffrey; Olsen, Scott R; Carter, Robert A; McGoldrick, Daniel J; Wu, Gang; Finkelstein, David; Vogel, Peter; Gilbertson, Richard J; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Mutations in the innate immune sensor AIM2 are frequently identified in patients with colorectal cancer, but how AIM2 modulates colonic tumorigenesis is unknown. Here, we found that Aim2-deficient mice were hypersusceptible to colonic tumor development. Production of inflammasome-associated cytokines and other inflammatory mediators was largely intact in Aim2-deficient mice; however, intestinal stem cells were prone to uncontrolled proliferation. Aberrant Wnt signaling expanded a population of tumor-initiating stem cells in the absence of AIM2. Susceptibility of Aim2-deficient mice to colorectal tumorigenesis was enhanced by a dysbiotic gut microbiota, which was reduced by reciprocal exchange of gut microbiota with healthy wild-type mice. These findings uncover a synergy between a specific host genetic factor and gut microbiota in determining the susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Therapeutic modulation of AIM2 expression and microbiota has the potential to prevent colorectal cancer. PMID:26095253

  8. The DNA Sensor AIM2 Maintains Intestinal Homeostasis via Regulation of Epithelial Antimicrobial Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuiqing; Peng, Lan; Kwak, Youn-Tae; Tekippe, Erin McElvania; Pasare, Chandrashekhar; Malter, James S; Hooper, Lora V; Zaki, Md Hasan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial pattern molecules in the intestine play immunoregulatory roles via diverse pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is unknown. Here, we show that Aim2(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis that is associated with microbial dysbiosis as represented by higher colonic burden of commensal Escherichia coli. Colonization of germ-free mice with Aim2(-/-) mouse microbiota leads to higher colitis susceptibility. In-depth investigation of AIM2-mediated host defense responses reveals that caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production are compromised in Aim2(-/-) mouse colons, consistent with defective inflammasome function. Moreover, IL-18 infusion reduces E. coli burden as well as colitis susceptibility in Aim2(-/-) mice. Altered microbiota in inflammasome-defective mice correlate with reduced expression of several antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these findings implicate DNA sensing by AIM2 as a regulatory mechanism for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. PMID:26655906

  9. Nifedipine for the poor-risk elderly patient with achalasia: objective response demonstrated by solid meal study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, E.; Lebow, R.A.; Gubler, R.J.; Bryant, L.R.

    1984-03-01

    We described an 84-year-old woman with symptomatic achalasia who refused both dilation and surgical treatment. She was treated with the calcium channel blocking drug nifedipine, with significant relief of symptoms. Objective evidence of response to the drug was confirmed by using an egg salad sandwich meal labeled with 99mTc-DTPA.

  10. Increasing the Number of Feminist Scientists: Why Feminist Aims Are Not Served by the Underdetermination Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intemann, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Recent feminist philosophers of science have argued that feminist values can contribute to rational decisions about which scientific theories to accept. On this view, increasing the number of feminist scientists is important for ensuring rational and objective theory acceptance. The Underdetermination Thesis has played a key role in arguments for…

  11. Increasing the Number of Feminist Scientists: Why Feminist Aims Are Not Served by the Underdetermination Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intemann, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Recent feminist philosophers of science have argued that feminist values can contribute to rational decisions about which scientific theories to accept. On this view, increasing the number of feminist scientists is important for ensuring rational and objective theory acceptance. The Underdetermination Thesis has played a key role in arguments for

  12. A Descriptive Study of the Pilot Implementation of Student Learning Objectives in Arizona and Utah. REL 2016-102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkonen, Reino; Tejwani, Jaclyn; Rodriguez, Fernando, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 states are now adopting teacher evaluation policies that include student learning objectives (SLOs), which are classroom-specific student test growth targets set by teachers and approved (and scored) by principals. Today state and district leaders are trying to determine the appropriate level of guidance and oversight to provide

  13. Objective speckle displacement resulting from the deformation of shaped objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrett, Thomas O. H.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes an extended theory of the displacement of the objective speckle pattern resulting from displacement and/or deformation of a coherently illuminated diffuse object where the influence of the surface shape is included via the linear surface gradients. An experimental system capable of measuring the translational scaling factors, the ratios of speckle shift to object translations, to an accuracy of +/- 0.02 and a repeatability of approximately +/- 0.008 is described which was used to experimentally measure the speckle shift for a range of detector positions and surface gradients. The original expressions developed by Yamaguchi1 and the new extended expressions2 are then compared with experimental results for measurements on zero surface gradients, i.e. the mean surface lying in the x-y plane. The divergence of Yamaguchi's expressions from experimental results for off-axis detector positions that was first observed by Sv?tlk3 was confirmed, and the new expressions shown to successfully predict translational scaling factors for off-axis positions. The new expressions are then compared to the experimental results for a range of surface gradient magnitudes and directions, as well as detector positions both on and off-axis, and shown to successfully predict the observed speckle shift.

  14. Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time <= 450 days, stay time at the NEA >= 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy <= 60 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2), total mission delta-v <= 12 km/s (including an Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit), and a maximum atmospheric re-entry speed of 12 km/s. After determining which NEAs offer at least one trajectory solution meeting the criteria, the estimated size constraint is then imposed whereby those NEAs may only be considered NHATS- qualifying NEAs if their maximum estimated size is >= 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H <= 26.5 with an assumed albedo p = 0:05. The following is a brief high-level summary of the Phase II study results. Of the 7,665 NEAs in the SBDB as of February 3rd, 2011, 765 NEAs passed the trajectory filter and yielded a total of 79,157,604 trajectory solutions. The trajectory solutions for each NEA are post-processed into Pork Chop Contour (PCC) plots which show total mission delta-v as a function of Earth departure date and total mission duration. Although the PCC plots necessarily compress a very multi-dimensional design space into a two-dimensional plot, they permit rapid assessment of the breadth and quality of an NEA's available Earth departure season and clearly indicate the regions of the trajectory design space which warrant further analysis and optimization. The PCC plot for the NEA with the greatest number of NHATS-qualifying trajectory solutions, 2000 SG-344, is shown. Of the 765 NEAs which passed the Phase II trajectory filter, a total of 590 NEAs also satisfied the further constraint of maximum estimated size >= 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion < 0.983 AU), Atens (aphelion > 0.983 AU, alpha < 1.0 AU), Apollos (perihelion < 1.017 AU, alpha > 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are Atiras, 193 are Atens (31% of known Atens), 456 are Apollos (11% of known Apollos), and 116 are Amors (4% of known Amors). While Apollos comprise 60% of the NEAs which pass the NHATS trajectory filter and Atens comprise only 25%, the percentages according to orbit family are perhaps more relevant. Note that only 11% of known Apollos passed the trajectory filter while 31% of known Atens passed. These simple statistics alone strongly suggest that Aten orbits possess features which tend to enhance their round-trip trajectory accessibility as compared to Apollos or Amors. This is significant because Atens' orbits cause them to spend considerable time in Earth's daytime sky, making them difficult to discover and track using ground-based observing assets. In this paper we will detail the NHATS analysis algorithms, present and analyze all NHATS results to date, and discuss aspects of HSF mission architecture design for future NEA missions.

  15. The Gaia Object Generator (GOG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiche, E.; Masana, E.; Julbe, F.; Borrachero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Gaia, a cornerstone ESA mission, will produce a three-dimensional map of our Galaxy. It was launched in December 2013, and it is expected to provide an important improvement in our understanding of the structure, composition and evolution of the Galaxy. During its five years of data collection, Gaia is expected to transmit to Earth some 150 terabytes of raw data, producing a catalogue of some 109 individual objects. After on-ground processing the full catalogue is expected to be in the range of one to two petabytes of data. Preparation for the explotation of this huge amount of data is essential, and work is being undertaken to model the expected output of Gaia in order to predict the content of the Gaia catalogue and to facilitate the production of tools required to effectively analyse the data. Therefore, the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has developed a set of simulators, including a simulator called the Gaia Object Generator (GOG), which simulates the end of mission and the epoch transit catalogues, including observational errors. In 2014, CU2 has delivered a GOG end of mission catalogue, containing the potential single star observable population (with G < 20 mag) using the Gaia Universe Model, showing the effect of the observational errors. The GOG catalogue is actively used inside CU9, which is responsible for providing access to the Gaia data to the scientific community through the Gaia archive. GOG has a direct impact in the Gaia real catalogue production, as the simulated Gaia data will be used to detect false-positives and a biased data set to validate that problems can been found. Moreover, GOG simulations will be used also to test the software which will maintain and preserve all the versions of the catalogue, and to become familiar with working with such a large and rich dataset.

  16. Effect evaluation of a comprehensive community intervention aimed at reducing socioeconomic health inequalities in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Abbema, E A; Van Assema, P; Kok, G J; De Leeuw, E; De Vries, N K

    2004-06-01

    To date, comprehensive community health projects have not been evaluated in terms of their effect at the individual level, because outcomes are usually not defined at this level. In a community health project in The Netherlands, evaluation outcome mapping, a technique derived from intervention mapping, was used to identify distal as well as proximal programme objectives from which outcome measures could be derived. The intervention took place in a deprived area, where community members themselves defined stress, lack of area safety and parenting problems as the health-related problems they wanted to see addressed in the project. Local organizations wrote and implemented an action plan. The effects among residents were studied in a quasi-experimental design. Although no significant effects on improved perceived health or health-related problems were found at the level of the residents, the problems identified and their assumed causes showed significant coherence. This study is believed to be of relevance to evidence-based health promotion theory and practice as it demonstrates that it is possible to conduct an individual effect evaluation in a comprehensive community approach without jeopardizing the process of the intervention. PMID:15128706

  17. A photometric study of the bright cloud B in Sagittarius. VI - 1592 new variable stars and 30 diffuse objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzan, A.; Ounnas, Ch.

    1988-12-01

    1592 new variable stars and 30 diffuse objects have been detected on B, V and R plates obtained at the Schmidt telescopes of Mount Palomar Observatory (1968) and the European Southern Observatory (1976-1983). After detection, photometry (Observatoire de Lyon) and astrometric measurement (ESO/Garching) of these objects, we have determined the parameters R. A., D, l, b, R [Max], R [Min], A. We have established that: 1) Among the 30 diffuse objects: 4 appear in the form of a nebulosity; 1 is a star surrounded by a nebulosity; 4 are suspected of being planetary nebulae; 21 others seem to be galaxies or galaxy nuclei, belonging in all probability to the Ophiuchus cluster. 2) Among the 1592 variable stars: 1 is an IR variable (No. 1593); 332 are observable only on R plates; 1221 are found on B and V plates ; 296 have an observed amplitude together between 2.1 and 3.0 mR (histogram δm/N) the number of variable stars decreases rapidly towards the high amplitudes the surface density of variable stars per square degree in this direction towards the centre of the Galaxy increases from 1.05 to 31 in the two explored fields, each of which covers an area of 5".5 × 5".5. 3) Star No. 856 is a proper motion star.

  18. Case Studies of Learning Objects Used in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilomaki, Liisa; Lakkala, Minna; Paavola, Sami

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and characteristics of virtual learning objects in selected classroom cases. Four Finnish cases represented such pedagogical approaches as student-centeredness, process orientation and collaborative inquiry. The case study approach enabled the investigation of concrete practices in using…

  19. Applying RE-AIM to the evaluation of FUEL Your Life : a worksite translation of DPP.

    PubMed

    Brace, Andrea M; Padilla, Heather M; DeJoy, David M; Wilson, Mark G; Vandenberg, Robert J; Davis, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Weight management programs are becoming increasingly common in workplace settings; however, few target middle-aged men. The purpose of this article is to describe the process evaluation of a worksite translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program in a predominantly middle-aged male population. The translated program, FUEL Your Life, was largely self-directed, with support from peer health coaches and occupational health nurses. The RE-AIM (Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance) framework was used to examine the factors that influenced program implementation using data from an environmental assessment, participant surveys, peer health coach surveys, and occupational health nurse interviews. An overwhelming majority of the employees who enrolled in the study were overweight or obese (92%). Overall, the program was effective for weight maintenance; those with higher levels of participation and engagement had better weight loss outcomes. The peer health coach and family elements of the intervention were underused. The program was successful in reaching the intended population; however, the program had limited success in engaging this population. Not surprisingly, weight loss was a function of participant engagement and participation. Increasing participant engagement and participation is important to the success of weight management interventions translated to the worksite setting. Garnering buy-in and support from management can serve to increase the perceived importance of weight management in worksites. With management support, weight management protocols could be integrated as a component of the mandatory safety and health assessments already in place, fostering promotion of healthy weight in the workforce. PMID:24942749

  20. The reliability of manual reporting of clinical events in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Cook-Sather, Scott D; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    Manual incident reports significantly under-report adverse clinical events when compared with automated recordings of intraoperative data. Our goal was to determine the reliability of AIMS and CQI reports of adverse clinical events that had been witnessed and recorded by research assistants. The AIMS and CQI records of 995 patients aged 2-12 years were analyzed to determine if anesthesia providers had properly documented the emesis events that were observed and recorded by research assistants who were present in the operating room at the time of induction. Research assistants recorded eight cases of emesis during induction that were confirmed with the attending anesthesiologist at the time of induction. AIMS yielded a sensitivity of 38 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.5-75.5 %), while the sensitivity of CQI reporting was 13 % (95 % CI 0.3-52.7 %). The low sensitivities of the AIMS and CQI reports suggest that user-reported AIMS and CQI data do not reliably include significant clinical events. PMID:22618299

  1. Telehealth and Occupational Therapy: Integral to the Triple Aim of Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Cason, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Programs and concepts included in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 are expected to transform health care in the United States from a volume-based health system to a value-based health system with increased emphasis on prevention and health promotion. The Triple Aim, a framework set forth by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, focuses on improving the health care experience, the health of populations, and the affordability of care. This article describes telehealth as an integral component in achieving the Triple Aim of health care and discusses implications for occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:26122676

  2. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have quantified levels of habitual physical activity across the entire intensity range. We aimed to describe variability in total and intensity-specific physical activity levels in UK adolescents across gender, socio-demographic, temporal and body composition strata. Methods Physical activity energy expenditure and minutes per day (min/d) spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity were assessed in 825 adolescents from the ROOTS study (43.5% boys; mean age 15.0??0.30years), by 4days of individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Measurement days were classified as weekday or weekend and according to the three school terms: summer (April-July), autumn (September-December), and spring (January-March). Gender and age were self-reported and area-level SES determined by postcode data. Body composition was measured by anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance. Variability in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed by linear multilevel modelling, and logistic multilevel regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity (<60min moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity/d). Results During awake hours (15.8??0.9hrs/d), adolescents primarily engaged in light intensity physical activity (517min/d) and sedentary time (364min/d). Boys were consistently more physically active and less sedentary than girls, but gender differences were smaller at weekends, as activity levels in boys dropped more markedly when transitioning from weekday to weekend. Boys were more sedentary on both weekend days compared to during the week, whereas girls were more sedentary on Sunday but less sedentary on Saturday. In both genders light intensity physical activity was lower in spring, while moderate physical activity was lower in autumn and spring terms, compared to the summer term; sedentary time was also higher in spring than summer term. Adolescents with higher fatness engaged in less vigorous intensity physical activity. Factors associated with increased odds of physical inactivity were female gender, both weekend days in boys, and specifically Sunday in girls. Conclusions Physical activity components vary by gender, temporal factors and body composition in UK adolescents. The available data indicate that in adolescence, girls should be the primary targets of interventions designed to increase physical activity levels. PMID:24564949

  3. The NPL Soldering Science and Technology Club: Its basis and its aims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, C.

    1982-12-01

    The activities of the Division of Material Applications are summarized emphasizing the contributions of the Surfaces and Interfaces section to metal forming technologies such as adhesive technology, diffusion bonding and friction welding as well as soldering. The origins, aims and benefits of the Soldering Science and Technology Club are described. Research goals in the printed circuit soldering technology are commented on.

  4. Social Studies at the Beginning of the New Millennium: Teach Democratic Ideals, Geography, and History or Is that Objective Outdated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villier, Paul Wayne

    Although many pressures have been brought to bear in the social studies curriculum over the past 70 years, the leaders of the country's society have maintained the middle ground. They have ensured that educators remain somewhat conservative in their approach to the social sciences, ensuring that the history of the culture be continually passed on…

  5. Value of Information Analysis Applied to the Economic Evaluation of Interventions Aimed at Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: An Illustration

    PubMed Central

    Eeren, Hester V.; Schawo, Saskia J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hakkaart, Leona

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a value of information analysis, commonly applied in health care evaluations, is feasible and meaningful in the field of crime prevention. Methods Interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency are increasingly being evaluated according to their cost-effectiveness. Results of cost-effectiveness models are subject to uncertainty in their cost and effect estimates. Further research can reduce that parameter uncertainty. The value of such further research can be estimated using a value of information analysis, as illustrated in the current study. We built upon an earlier published cost-effectiveness model that demonstrated the comparison of two interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency. Outcomes were presented as costs per criminal activity free year. Results At a societal willingness-to-pay of €71,700 per criminal activity free year, further research to eliminate parameter uncertainty was valued at €176 million. Therefore, in this illustrative analysis, the value of information analysis determined that society should be willing to spend a maximum of €176 million in reducing decision uncertainty in the cost-effectiveness of the two interventions. Moreover, the results suggest that reducing uncertainty in some specific model parameters might be more valuable than in others. Conclusions Using a value of information framework to assess the value of conducting further research in the field of crime prevention proved to be feasible. The results were meaningful and can be interpreted according to health care evaluation studies. This analysis can be helpful in justifying additional research funds to further inform the reimbursement decision in regard to interventions for juvenile delinquents. PMID:26146831

  6. THE OBJECT-PRESERVING FUNCTION OF SADOMASOCHISM.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Lee

    2015-07-01

    The terms sadism, masochism, and sadomasochism seem to have become increasingly, if loosely, associated with aggression in psychoanalytic discourse. This is due in part to the fact that Freud's changing ideas generated confusion about the relative contributions of libido and aggression. The author reviews Freud's variable usage and offers a clinical vignette to illustrate the importance of noticing how sadomasochism may maintain a tie to the object by controlling it. The author offers a developmental speculation for the role reversibility typical of sadomasochistic manifestations. He closes with a comment on the role of sadomasochistic aims in adult sexual perversion. PMID:26198604

  7. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing

  8. Guiding the Design of Lessons by Using the MAPLET Framework: Matching Aims, Processes, Learner Expertise and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Gosper, Maree

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the MAPLET framework that was developed to map and link teaching aims, learning processes, learner expertise and technologies. An experimental study with 65 participants is reported to test the effectiveness of the framework as a guide to the design of lessons embedded within larger units of study. The findings indicate the

  9. Fibreoptic fluorescent microscopy in studying biological objects

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, A N; Turchin, Il'ya V; Kamenskii, V A; Fiks, I I; Lazutkin, A A; Bezryadkov, D V; Ivanova, A A; Toptunov, D M; Anokhin, K V

    2010-11-13

    The method of fluorescent microscopy is developed based on employment of a single-mode fibreoptic channel to provide high spatial resolution 3D images of large cleared biological specimens using the 488-nm excitation laser line. The transverse and axial resolution of the setup is 5 and 13 {mu}m, respectively. The transversal sample size under investigation is up to 10 mm. The in-depth scanning range depends on the sample transparency and reaches 4 mm in the experiment. The 3D images of whole mouse organs (heart, lungs, brain) and mouse embryos obtained using autofluorescence or fluorescence of exogenous markers demonstrate a high contrast and cellular-level resolution.

  10. 'The thieving magpie'? No evidence for attraction to shiny objects.

    PubMed

    Shephard, T V; Lea, S E G; Hempel de Ibarra, N

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted in European culture that magpies (Pica pica) are unconditionally attracted to shiny objects and routinely steal small trinkets such as jewellery, almost as a compulsion. Despite the long history of this folklore, published accounts of magpies collecting shiny objects are rare and empirical evidence for the behaviour is lacking. The latter is surprising considering that an attraction to bright objects is well documented in some bird species. The present study aims to clarify whether magpies show greater attraction to shiny objects than non-shiny objects when presented at the same time. We did not find evidence of an unconditional attraction to shiny objects in either captive or free-living birds. Instead, all objects elicited responses indicating neophobia in free-living birds. We suggest that humans notice when magpies occasionally pick up shiny objects because they believe the birds find them attractive, while it goes unnoticed when magpies interact with less eye-catching items. The folklore may therefore result from observation bias and cultural inflation of orally transmitted episodic events. PMID:25123853

  11. Variational objective analysis for cyclone studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Significant accomplishments during 1987 to 1988 are summarized with regard to each of the major project components. Model 1 requires satisfaction of two nonlinear horizontal momentum equations, the integrated continuity equation, and the hydrostatic equation. Model 2 requires satisfaction of model 1 plus the thermodynamic equation for a dry atmosphere. Model 3 requires satisfaction of model 2 plus the radiative transfer equation. Model 4 requires satisfaction of model 3 plus a moisture conservation equation and a parameterization for moist processes.

  12. On the potential of multi-static SLR. Case study: orbit determination and prediction of space debris objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, O.; Wirnsberger, H.; Kirchner, G.; Schreiber, K. U.; Riede, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) has been proven to be one of the most valuable techniques to improve our understanding of the Earth's shape, gravity field and rotational motion. Apart from the ''traditional'' tasks of SLR, in the recent past the portfolio has been considerably widened. Especially the SLR-based orbit determination and orbit prediction of space debris objects is gaining increasing attention. The reliable and accurate orbit determination/prediction of debris objects is of crucial importance for any effort towards debris collision avoidance. Hitherto, this task is performed by space surveillance networks using ground-based radar tracking and passive optical tracking with telescopes. These methods, however, are characterized by low accuracy, ranging from several hundreds of meters to a few kilometers for low-Earth orbiting objects. As demonstrated successfully, SLR has the potential to considerably improve these numbers, and hence to improve debris surveillance. One of the most severe limitations of the technique is the sparse network of SLR stations, and hence the sparseness of tracking data. Against this background, we propose to extend the existing SLR network by passive telescopes in combination with multi-static observations. Multi-static observations means that an object is tracked by only one active SLR station, but the diffusely reflected photons are detected at several passive stations (in case of only one passive station the measurements are referred to as bi-static). In order to demonstrate the performance of the principle, we analyzed (i) two-way laser ranges from Graz (3 passes), and (ii) two-way laser ranges from Graz (3 passes) in combination with bi-static measurements between the SLR stations Graz and Wettzell (3 passes); our investigations focus on the defunct ENVISAT satellite. We found the orbit determination/prediction results including bi-static observations to outperform single-station results by about one order of magnitude. For scenario (ii), our orbit prediction error ranges from 40m (prediction age 1 day) to 450m (prediction age 7 days). From our first experiments we conclude that bi-/multi-static SLR is capable to meet the requirements for debris surveillance, but might also be beneficial for more ''traditional'' applications.

  13. The Subsequent Dissemination of Material Presented in Sessions of the Metallurgical Society at the 96th AIME Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    Studies of 255 authors of program material at the Metallurgical Society session of the 96th American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Annual Meeting yielded data on the subsequent dissemination of presented material during the year following the meeting. Data showed that three-fourths of the authors who made

  14. The Subsequent Dissemination of Material Presented in Sessions of the Metallurgical Society at the 96th AIME Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    Studies of 255 authors of program material at the Metallurgical Society session of the 96th American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Annual Meeting yielded data on the subsequent dissemination of presented material during the year following the meeting. Data showed that three-fourths of the authors who made…

  15. Tobacco counteradvertisements aimed at bicultural Mexican American youth: the impact of language and theme.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kathleen J; Stanley, Linda R; Comello, Maria Leonora G; Gonzalez, Gabriel R

    2006-01-01

    The growing population of Mexican American youth and the increasing smoking rates in this population present a considerable public health challenge. Tobacco counteradvertisements have demonstrated their ability to shape attitudes, behavior, and public policy, but little is known about the most effective ways to adapt messages aimed at this audience. To explore key variables that can affect success, a study was conducted with 249 Mexican American middle-school youth from a U.S./Mexico border community to examine the effectiveness of language (English, Spanish, or a combination of English and Spanish) and theme (secondhand smoke, antitobacco social norms, and tobacco industry manipulation) in print tobacco counteradvertisements. Measures included ad preferences, acculturation, and tobacco-related attitudes and behavior. Results showed that although a large percentage identified with the Mexican American rather than the Anglo American culture and spoke Spanish in selected contexts, readability was greater for ads in English, and participants rated the English ads as most effective. The social norms counteradvertisement was preferred overall. Potential implications for health communication and policy are discussed. PMID:16846948

  16. An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    This presentation purposes to show the results of the analysis that the AIM/CGE [Global] model contributed to Work Stream 1 of the AVOID programme. Three economic models participate in this WS to analyze the economic aspects of defined climate policies, and the AIM/CGE [Global] model is one of them. The reference scenario is SRES A1B and five policy scenarios (2016.R2.H, 2016.R4.L, 2016.R5.L, 2030.R2.H, and 2030.R5.L) are considered. The climate policies are expressed as emissions pathways of several gases such as greenhouse gases and aerosols. The AIM/CGE [Global] model is a recursive dynamic global CGE model with 21 industrial sectors and 24 world regions. These definitions are based on the GTAP6 database and it is used as the economic data of the base year. Some important characteristics of this model can be summarized as follows: power generation by various sources (from non-renewables to renewables) are considered; CCS technology is modeled; biomass energy (both traditional and purpose-grown) production and consumption are included; not only CO2 emissions but also other gases are considered; international markets are modeled for international trade of some fossil fuels; relationships between the costs and resource reserves of fossil fuels are modeled. The model is run with 10-year time steps until 2100. For the reference case, there are no constraints and the model is run based on the drivers (assumptions on GDP and population for A1B) and AEEI. The reference case does not have the same emissions pathways as the prescribed emissions for A1B in AVOID. For scenario cases, the model is run under emissions constraints. In particular, for each policy scenario, the constraint on each gas in each 10-year step is derived. The percentage reduction in emissions that occurs between the AVOID A1B scenario and the particular policy scenario, for each gas in each 10-year period is first calculated, and then these percentage reductions are applied to the AIM reference case to derive the constraints for each gas over the 21st century. The main results provided to AVOID were carbon prices and GDP for each scenario case. About the carbon prices, the results show that the higher the emissions reduction rate and the earlier the peak, the higher the carbon prices will be, and the prices tend to be higher over time (536/tCO2 in 2100 for 2016.R5.L). These trends are quite different from those of the E3MG model which assumes constant carbon tax for each scenario (232/tCO2 in 2100 for 2016.R5.L). In addition, the higher carbon prices are necessary in the AIM/CGE model than the E3MG model, especially in the latter half of the century. About the GDP trends, the results indicate that negative GDP changes occur for all scenarios cases, and higher GDP damage is observed as the reduction rate becomes higher and the peak comes earlier (-7.04% in 2100 for 2016.R5.L). These trends are extremely different from those of the E3MG model which shows positive GDP effects (+4.89% in 2100 for 2016.R5.L). The differences of the results among the two models are caused by (1) technological change assumptions, (2) revenue recycling methodology, (3) timing of emissions cuts, and (4) modeling approaches. We expect to have a more detailed discussion at the session.

  17. Guiding the Design of Lessons by Using the MAPLET Framework: Matching Aims, Processes, Learner Expertise and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Gosper, Maree

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the MAPLET framework that was developed to map and link teaching aims, learning processes, learner expertise and technologies. An experimental study with 65 participants is reported to test the effectiveness of the framework as a guide to the design of lessons embedded within larger units of study. The findings indicate the…

  18. Object Based Image Analysis to Support Environmental Monitoring Under the European Habitat Directive: a Case Study from Decover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, O.; Peter, B.; Vlker, A.; Donning, A.

    2011-09-01

    DeCOVER serves as a national extension of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative. It was initiated to develop land cover information services adapted to German user needs. One of its three service developments pillars is the application of Remote Sensing to support environmental monitoring schemes under the European Habitats Directive.Within two DeCOVER test sites located in North-Rhine Westphalia/Germany an object-based indicator classification approach is currently being developed to monitor heath habitats of importance under the Habitats Directive. While many previous Remote Sensing projects have focused on the discrete classification of habitat types to replace fieldwork, our approach is embedded in a strong operational context to a) focus and direct fieldwork efforts by pre-field visit assessment of habitat changes (change detection) and b) support fieldwork by contributing quality parameters and GIS-ready geometries. Using Geoeye satellite data (VHR component) and RapidEye satellite images (Multi-temporal HR component) together with existing habitat and biotope maps (knowledge and post-classification component) an image analysis approach is realised using object-based classification routines based on data mining tools to derive training information. To extract meaningful objects of heath-, sand- and grassland from the VHR-data, training sample areas have to be assigned. Thresholds and appropriate features for describing these samples are analysed by statistical algorithms and are used in the following classification. A multi-temporal approach for the acquisition of tree habitat areas integrates two RapidEye scenes into the classification process. To validate classification accuracies and potential transects were sampled in the field and analyzed for their structural composition using top view field photos of 1m2. First results demonstrate the realistic option to directly support the fieldwork or reduce its post-processing costs.

  19. Attachment to inanimate objects and early childcare: A twin study

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Keren; Baor, Liora; Israel, Salomon; Abadi, Adi; Knafo, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Extensive non-maternal childcare plays an important role in children’s development. This study examined a potential coping mechanism for dealing with daily separation from caregivers involved in childcare experience – children’s development of attachments toward inanimate objects. We employed the twin design to estimate relative environmental and genetic contributions to the presence of object attachment, and assess whether childcare explains some of the environmental variation in this developmental phenomenon. Mothers reported about 1122 3-year-old twin pairs. Variation in object attachment was accounted for by heritability (48%) and shared environment (48%), with childcare quantity accounting for 2.2% of the shared environment effect. Children who spent half-days in childcare were significantly less likely to attach to objects relative to children who attended full-day childcare. PMID:24904499

  20. Attachment to inanimate objects and early childcare: A twin study.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Keren; Baor, Liora; Israel, Salomon; Abadi, Adi; Knafo, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Extensive non-maternal childcare plays an important role in children's development. This study examined a potential coping mechanism for dealing with daily separation from caregivers involved in childcare experience - children's development of attachments toward inanimate objects. We employed the twin design to estimate relative environmental and genetic contributions to the presence of object attachment, and assess whether childcare explains some of the environmental variation in this developmental phenomenon. Mothers reported about 1122 3-year-old twin pairs. Variation in object attachment was accounted for by heritability (48%) and shared environment (48%), with childcare quantity accounting for 2.2% of the shared environment effect. Children who spent half-days in childcare were significantly less likely to attach to objects relative to children who attended full-day childcare. PMID:24904499

  1. Bats' avoidance of real and virtual objects: implications for the sonar coding of object size.

    PubMed

    Goerlitz, Holger R; Genzel, Daria; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Fast movement in complex environments requires the controlled evasion of obstacles. Sonar-based obstacle evasion involves analysing the acoustic features of object-echoes (e.g., echo amplitude) that correlate with this object's physical features (e.g., object size). Here, we investigated sonar-based obstacle evasion in bats emerging in groups from their day roost. Using video-recordings, we first show that the bats evaded a small real object (ultrasonic loudspeaker) despite the familiar flight situation. Secondly, we studied the sonar coding of object size by adding a larger virtual object. The virtual object echo was generated by real-time convolution of the bats' calls with the acoustic impulse response of a large spherical disc and played from the loudspeaker. Contrary to the real object, the virtual object did not elicit evasive flight, despite the spectro-temporal similarity of real and virtual object echoes. Yet, their spatial echo features differ: virtual object echoes lack the spread of angles of incidence from which the echoes of large objects arrive at a bat's ears (sonar aperture). We hypothesise that this mismatch of spectro-temporal and spatial echo features caused the lack of virtual object evasion and suggest that the sonar aperture of object echoscapes contributes to the sonar coding of object size. PMID:22085788

  2. The Interaction of Domain-Specific Knowledge and Domain-General Discovery Strategies: A Study with Sinking Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, David E.; Klahr, David

    1996-01-01

    Nine- through 14-year-old girls made predictions about and performed experiments involving sinking objects. Found that children initially believed that weight alone determined an object's sinking rate, older but not younger children viewed experimentation as a way of exploring object attributes other than weight, and experimentation helped

  3. AIM-Monitoring: a component of the BLM assessment, inventory, and monitoring strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “BLM Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy for Integrated Renewable Resources Management” (AIM Strategy) was completed in 2011 in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget. The strategy describes an approach for integrated, cross-program assessment, inventory, and m...

  4. The Annual Review of Information Science and Technology: Its Aims and Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadra, Carlos A.

    The major aims of the "Annual Review of Information Science and Technology" are (1) to describe and appraise progress in information science and technology; (2) to provide a systematic, dependable tool that can relieve professionals from winnowing through a wealth of literature in their field each year; (3) to direct the reader to people,

  5. R. S. Peters and J. H. Newman on the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Janis T.

    2013-01-01

    R. S. Peters never explicitly talks about wisdom as being an aim of education. He does, however, in numerous places, emphasize that education is of the whole person and that, whatever else it might be about, it involves the development of knowledge and understanding. Being educated, he claims, is incompatible with being narrowly specialized.…

  6. R. S. Peters and J. H. Newman on the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Janis T.

    2013-01-01

    R. S. Peters never explicitly talks about wisdom as being an aim of education. He does, however, in numerous places, emphasize that education is of the whole person and that, whatever else it might be about, it involves the development of knowledge and understanding. Being educated, he claims, is incompatible with being narrowly specialized.

  7. The AIME Statewide Survey of School Library Media Centers: Expenditures & Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel; Knuth, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    This report is based on an Indiana statewide survey of school library media center collections, budgets, and services which was sponsored by the Association for Indiana Media Educators (AIME). Completed and usable surveys were received from 823 public and private school library media programs representing 44% of the total possible school library

  8. A Study of the Effects of Underlying Assumptions in the Reduction of Multi-Object Photometry of Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryleigh Fitzpatrick, M.; Pearson, Kyle; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Dunn, Marina; Montiel, Nicholas John; Zellem, Robert T.; Calahan, Jenny; Chance, Quadry; Henrici, Andrew; Sanchez, Dominic; AzGOE

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ground-based photometric observations of planetary transits must treat the effects of the Earth's atmosphere, which exceed the signal of the extrasolar planet. Generally, this is achieved by dividing the signal of the host star and planet from that of nearby field stars. For bright hot Jupiter exoplanets this procedure reveals the lightcurve. The lightcurve is then fit to a model of the planet's orbit and the physical characteristics, also taking into account the characteristics of the star. The fit to the in-transit data coupled with the fit of the out-of-transit data establish the depth of the lightcurve.The question then arises, what is the best way to select and treat the reference stars such that we can best characterize and remove the shared atmospheric systematics that plague our transit signal. To explore these questions we examine the effects of several assumptions that underline the calculation of the light curve depth. Our study involves photometric observations of hot Jupiter primary transits in the U and B filters taken with the University of Arizona's Kuiper 1.55m telescope and Mont4K CCD. The data consists of repeated transit observations of a variety of exoplanets, each of which offers a unique field with stars of various brightness, spectral types, and angular distance from the host star. While these observations are part of a larger study of the Rayleigh scattering signature of hot Jupiter exoplanets, here we study the effects of various choices during the reduction phase, specifically the treatment of the reference stars and atmospheric systematics. Our study calculates the lightcurve for all permutations of the reference stars, considering several different out-of-transit assumptions (e.g. linear, quadratic or exponential). We assess the sensitivity of the transit depths based on the spread of the values and look for characteristics that minimize the scatter in the reduced lightcurve as well as analyze the effects of the treatment of individual variables on the resultant model. This research group, referred to as AzGOE, is made of primarily undergraduate students from the University of Arizona, in cooperation with the University of Arizona Astronomy Club.

  9. Guanylate-binding proteins promote activation of the AIM2 inflammasome during infection with Francisella novicida.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Etienne; Wallet, Pierre; Dreier, Roland F; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Anton, Leonie; Rühl, Sebastian; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Dick, Mathias S; Kistner, Anne; Rigard, Mélanie; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Henry, Thomas; Broz, Petr

    2015-05-01

    The AIM2 inflammasome detects double-stranded DNA in the cytosol and induces caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis as well as release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. AIM2 is critical for host defense against DNA viruses and bacteria that replicate in the cytosol, such as Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida (F. novicida). The activation of AIM2 by F. novicida requires bacteriolysis, yet whether this process is accidental or is a host-driven immunological mechanism has remained unclear. By screening nearly 500 interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA), we identified guanylate-binding proteins GBP2 and GBP5 as key activators of AIM2 during infection with F. novicida. We confirmed their prominent role in vitro and in a mouse model of tularemia. Mechanistically, these two GBPs targeted cytosolic F. novicida and promoted bacteriolysis. Thus, in addition to their role in host defense against vacuolar pathogens, GBPs also facilitate the presentation of ligands by directly attacking cytosolic bacteria. PMID:25774716

  10. Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework.

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, R E; Vogt, T M; Boles, S M

    1999-01-01

    Progress in public health and community-based interventions has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive evaluation framework appropriate to such programs. Multilevel interventions that incorporate policy, environmental, and individual components should be evaluated with measurements suited to their settings, goals, and purpose. In this commentary, the authors propose a model (termed the RE-AIM model) for evaluating public health interventions that assesses 5 dimensions: reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. These dimensions occur at multiple levels (e.g., individual, clinic or organization, community) and interact to determine the public health or population-based impact of a program or policy. The authors discuss issues in evaluating each of these dimensions and combining them to determine overall public health impact. Failure to adequately evaluate programs on all 5 dimensions can lead to a waste of resources, discontinuities between stages of research, and failure to improve public health to the limits of our capacity. The authors summarize strengths and limitations of the RE-AIM model and recommend areas for future research and application. PMID:10474547

  11. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations. PMID:16283930

  12. Evaluating the benefits of government funded R & D aimed at the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Federal funding of technological research and development is discussed with regard to the procedures for an economic analysis with the goals of (1) determining when the public sector should invest in a research and development program, (2) evaluating the likelihood of private sector participation in terms of public sector participation, and (3) considering the major factors in the formulation of a research and development program in terms of defining initiatives. Public sector investments are evaluated, noting procedures for determining whether benefits exceed costs. The role of the public sector research and development planning is described, considering the procedure for private sector implementation decisions and a methodology for evaluating the possibility of private sector commercialization. The economic value of the public sector research and development program is presented with attention given to a specific case of NASA-sponsored research and development aimed toward the commercialization of new public communications services.

  13. A Multi-Component Model for Assessing Learning Objects: The Learning Object Evaluation Metric (LOEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2008-01-01

    While discussion of the criteria needed to assess learning objects has been extensive, a formal, systematic model for evaluation has yet to be thoroughly tested. The purpose of the following study was to develop and assess a multi-component model for evaluating learning objects. The Learning Object Evaluation Metric (LOEM) was developed from a

  14. Reversing the objective: Adding guinea pig pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2004-03-01

    This article explores objectification in science and science education, i.e., the way material is turned into an object of interest to scientists. Drawing on sociological and anthropological drama theory, it examines how objectification does and does not occur in classrooms and schools. To understand the role and relationship of the object to the scientist, I look at current literature from the social studies of science concerning human and nonhuman objects as well as my own ethnographic work on the activism of politicized human research subjects. The paper concludes by how and why a more self-conscious focus on the object of science is important for those concerned with equity in science education, suggesting that such guinea pig pedagogies restore missing historical and ethical dimensions to science education.

  15. Concerted activation of the AIM2 and NLRP3 inflammasomes orchestrates host protection against Aspergillus infection.

    PubMed

    Karki, Rajendra; Man, Si Ming; Malireddi, R K Subbarao; Gurung, Prajwal; Vogel, Peter; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-03-11

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a leading cause of infection-associated mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Aspergillus fumigatus infection produces ligands that could activate inflammasomes, but the contribution of these host defenses remains unclear. We show that two inflammasome receptors, AIM2 and NLRP3, recognize intracellular A. fumigatus and collectively induce protective immune responses. Mice lacking both AIM2 and NLRP3 fail to confine Aspergillus hyphae to inflammatory foci, leading to widespread hyphal dissemination to lung blood vessels. These mice succumb to infection more rapidly than WT mice or mice lacking a single inflammasome receptor. AIM2 and NLRP3 activation initiates assembly of a single cytoplasmic inflammasome platform, composed of the adaptor protein ASC along with caspase-1 and caspase-8. Combined actions of caspase-1 and caspase-8 lead to processing of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 that critically control the infection. Thus, AIM2 and NLRP3 form a dual cytoplasmic surveillance system that orchestrates responses against A. fumigatus infection. PMID:25704009

  16. A tale of three theories: Feyerabend and Popper on progress and the aim of science.

    PubMed

    Tambolo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: (i) the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery (1935/1959); (ii) the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations (1963); (iii) the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay "Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam" (1965) and defended as late as the last edition of Against method (1993). It is argued that, contrary to what Feyerabend scholars have predominantly assumed, Feyerabend's changing attitude towards falsificationism-which he often advocated at the beginning of his career, and vociferously attacked in the 1970s and 1980s-must be explained by taking into account not only Feyerabend's very peculiar view of the aim of science, but also Popper's changing account of progress. PMID:26227229

  17. The study of control methods in opto-electronic tracking technology for fast object with horizontal gimbal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-jun; Liu, Qiong; Mao, Yao

    2015-10-01

    It is inevitable that tracking high-elevation object exists blind region with horizontal gimbal, need to take some control methods to improve the system for high-elevation target tracking capability and reduce the blind region. This paper compares several common tracking control methods, including compound axis control of dual detector, compound axis control of single detector, compound axis control of single detector with modified guidance, analyzes the principle of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and validates by experiments. The experimental results showed that it is stable and reliable using guide modified compound axis control of single detector when the target position information is more accurate. On the other hand, it is able to meet the needs to track target with high speed and high acceleration using improved compound axis control of single detector when the target position information is not very accurate.

  18. Pouring or chilling a bottle of wine: an fMRI study on the prospective planning of object-directed actions.

    PubMed

    van Elk, M; Viswanathan, S; van Schie, H T; Bekkering, H; Grafton, S T

    2012-04-01

    This fMRI study investigates the neural mechanisms supporting the retrieval of action semantics. A novel motor imagery task was used in which participants were required to imagine planning actions with a familiar object (e.g. a toothbrush) or with an unfamiliar object (e.g. a pair of pliers) based on either goal-related information (i.e. where to move the object) or grip-related information (i.e. how to grasp the object). Planning actions with unfamiliar compared to familiar objects was slower and was associated with increased activation in the bilateral superior parietal lobe, the right inferior parietal lobe and the right insula. The stronger activation in parietal areas for unfamiliar objects fits well with the idea that parietal areas are involved in motor imagery and suggests that this process takes more effort in the case of novel or unfamiliar actions. In contrast, the planning of familiar actions resulted in increased activation in the anterior prefrontal cortex, suggesting that subjects maintained a stronger goal-representation when planning actions with familiar compared to unfamiliar objects. These findings provide further insight into the neural structures that support action semantic knowledge for the functional use of real-world objects and suggest that action semantic knowledge is activated most readily when actions are planned in a goal-directed manner. PMID:22349497

  19. The Scavenger Protein Apoptosis Inhibitor of Macrophages (AIM) Potentiates the Antimicrobial Response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Enhancing Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sanjurjo, Luca; Amzaga, Nria; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cceres, Neus; Marzo, Elena; Valeri, Marta; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Sarrias, Maria-Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM), a scavenger protein secreted by tissue macrophages, is transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) heterodimer. Given that LXR exerts a protective immune response against M. tuberculosis, here we analyzed whether AIM is involved in this response. In an experimental murine model of tuberculosis, AIM serum levels peaked dramatically early after infection with M. tuberculosis, providing an in vivo biological link to the disease. We therefore studied the participation of AIM in macrophage response to M. tuberculosis in vitro. For this purpose, we used the H37Rv strain to infect THP-1 macrophages transfected to stably express AIM, thereby increasing infected macrophage survival. Furthermore, the expression of this protein enlarged foam cell formation by enhancing intracellular lipid content. Phagocytosis assays with FITC-labeled M. tuberculosis bacilli indicated that this protein was not involved in bacterial uptake; however, AIM expression decreased the number of intracellular cfus by up to 70% in bacterial killing assays, suggesting that AIM enhances macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Accordingly, M. tuberculosis-infected AIM-expressing cells upregulated the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis showed increased mRNA levels of the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and defensin 4B. These increases were concomitant with greater cellular concentrations of the autophagy-related molecules Beclin 1 and LC3II, as well as enhanced acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes and LC3 co-localization. In summary, our data support the notion that AIM contributes to key macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis. PMID:24223991

  20. SRXFA in the studies of the correlation between the element composition of human blood and environment objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutzenogii, K. P.; Savchenko, T. I.; Chankina, O. V.; Popova, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    High correlation has been revealed both between the content of chemical elements in human blood and atmospheric aerosols and between blood elements and food components. The element compositions of blood and hair have been established to be strongly related to each other. These biosubstrates can be used to estimate the health of the population of the northern hemisphere. Variability of the multielement composition of the blood and hair of the inhabitants of Novosibirsk, the Tundra Nenetz, Yakuts, Chukchi and the Eskimos, food components and aerosols in the regions where they live was determined by the SRXFA method.

  1. The Sheep Survey: What Kind of Objects Make Up the X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zezas, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    This program aims in the understanding of the objects which produce the hard X-ray back- ground. The SHEEP survey consists of objects observed in very hard X-rays in serendipitous ASCA pointings. A subset of this sample was observed with XMM-Newton in order to study their spectral properties.

  2. "Does RE Work?" An Analysis of the Aims, Practices and Models of Effectiveness of Religious Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundie, David

    2010-01-01

    Possibly the largest qualitative study in RE policy and practice in many years, the AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society project "Does RE work? An analysis of the aims, practices and models of effectiveness in religious education in the UK", headed by the University of Glasgow, seeks to map the complex processes of curriculum formation as experienced in

  3. Precision laser aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  4. The influence of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on attentional behavior and decision making. A t-DCS study on emotionally vs. functionally designed objects.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Barbara; Balzarotti, Stefania; Mazzucchelli, Nicla

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has shown that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be crucial in cognitive control of affective impulses during decision making. The present study examines whether modulation of r-DLPFC with transcranial direct current stimulation influences attentional behavior and decision-making in a purchase task requiring participants to choose either emotional/attractive or functional/useful objects. 30 participants were shown sixteen pairs of emotionally or functionally designed products while their eye-movements were recorded. Participants were asked to judge aesthetics and usefulness of each object, and to decide which object of each pair they would buy. Results revealed that participants decided to buy the functionally designed objects more often regardless of condition; however, participants receiving anodal stimulation were faster in decision making. Although stimulation of r-DLPFC did not affect the actual purchasing choice and had little effect on visual exploration during decision making, it influenced perceived usefulness and attractiveness, with temporary inhibition of r-DLPFC leading to evaluate functional objects as less attractive. Finally, anodal stimulation led to judge the objects as more useful. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26859525

  5. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Schäuble, D.; Jeßberger, P.; Ziereis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of climate-sensitive trace gas variabilities in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region (UTLS) and their impact on its radiative budget requires accurate measurements. The composition of the UTLS is governed by transport and chemistry of stratospheric and tropospheric constituents, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide and sulphur components. The Airborne chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer AIMS has been developed to accurately measure a set of these constituents on aircraft by means of chemical ionization. Here we present a setup using chemical ionization with SF5- reagent ions for the simultaneous measurement of trace gas concentrations in the pptv to ppmv (10-12 to 10-6 mol mol-1) range of HCl, HNO3 and SO2 with in-flight and online calibration called AIMS-TG. Part 1 of this paper (Kaufmann et al., 2015) reports on the UTLS water vapour measurements with the AIMS-H2O configuration. The instrument can be flexibly switched between two configurations depending on the scientific objective of the mission. For AIMS-TG, a custom-made gas discharge ion source has been developed generating a characteristic ionization scheme. HNO3 and HCl are routinely calibrated in-flight using permeation devices, SO2 is permanently calibrated during flight adding an isotopically labelled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5-. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low ten pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement in the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO. Exemplarily, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal mission with HALO in 2012 are presented, focusing on a classification of tropospheric and stratospheric influences in the UTLS region. Comparison of AIMS measurements with other measurement techniques allow to draw a comprehensive picture of the sulphur, chlorine and reactive nitrogen oxide budget in the UTLS. The combination of the trace gases measured with AIMS exhibit the potential to gain a better understanding of the trace gas origin and variability at and near the tropopause.

  6. THE AIMS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND DECAY DATA EVALUATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    NICHOLS,A.L.; TULI, J.K.

    2007-04-22

    International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators consists of a number of evaluation groups and data service centers in several countries that appreciate the merits of working together to maintain and ensure the quality and comprehensive content of the ENSDF database (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File). Biennial meetings of the network are held under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assign evaluation responsibilities, monitor progress, discuss improvements and emerging difficulties, and agree on actions to be undertaken by individual members. The evaluated data and bibliographic details are made available to users via various media, such as the journals ''Nuclear Physics A'' and ''Nuclear Data Sheets'', the World Wide Web, on CD-ROM, wall charts of the nuclides and ''Nuclear Wallet Cards''. While the ENSDF master database is maintained by the US National Nuclear Data Center at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, these data are also available from other nuclear data centers including the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, in cooperation with the IAEA, organizes workshops on NSDD at regular intervals. The primary aims of these particular workshops are to provide hands-on training in the data evaluation processes, and to encourage new evaluators to participate in NSDD activities. The technical contents of these NSDD workshops are described, along with the rationale for the inclusion of various topics.

  7. Aiming for the theoretical limit of sensitivity of Bonse-Hart USANS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, John M.; Agamalian, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The basis of the Double-Crystal Diffractometer (DCD), used for ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS), is that the reflectivity function is very near 1.0 for |y| < 1, where y = (θ - θB)/ δΘD, falls off rapidly for |y| >1, eventually decreasing as y -2. In the Bonse-Hart multi-bounce crystal the reflectivity function R(y) transforms into Rm(y) and in the wings, for large |y|, theoretically decreases as y-2m after m consecutive Bragg reflections inside the channel-cut crystal. Here θ and θB are respectively the diffraction angle and the Bragg angle (for given wavelength) and δΘD is the width of the Darwin plateau. However, the experimental reflectivity Rmexp(y) obtained for m = 3 exceeds the theoretical prediction by over two orders of magnitude in the range of the far wings, which creates limitations for USANS studies of weakly scattering objects. We used the pulsed-source neutron time-of-flight (TOF) technique to study this discrepancy in more detail. Two identical Si(111) crystals, a slab-shaped single-bounce and a channel-cut triple-bounce, were measured at the nominal Bragg angle θB = 24.4o in the TOF powder diffractometer GPPD at IPNS, in the range 0.2 < λ < 4.0 Å of the first seven Bragg reflections from Si(111) family. Cadmium shielding protected the detectors from view of the first-bounce crystal. The experimental data obtained from the single-bounce crystal shows thermal diffuse (phonon) scattering (TDS) filling the region between the Bragg reflections, and exhibiting the symmetry of the reciprocal lattice. With appropriate shielding installed, the triple-bounce Bragg reflections, in contrast, are TDS-free in the range 0.6 < λ < 3.0 Å however, the intensity of TDS grows in the range λ < 0.5 Å, reaching the level of TDS registered for the single-bounce reflections (777) and (888). The growth of TDS correlates with the increase of the Cd transmission T(λ) in the range 0.2 < λ < 0.5 Å, which in the vicinity of (888) reflection is T(λ) approx 0.9. Therefore, the Cd shielding of the triple-bounce crystal becomes ineffective and the parasitic single-bounce back-face reflection and TDS, blocked for 0.5 < λ < 3.0 Å, reappear for λ< 0.5 Å. It is practically impossible to separate this parasitic scattering from the triple-bounce reflection at steady state neutron beam lines except by the use of highly curved neutron guides. However, the TOF-USANS instrument, which is currently under construction at SNS, allows separation of the orders of Bragg reflections and the residual TDS in time-of-flight and thus the discovered parasitic effect cannot compromise its sensitivity. Thus, we expect to approach the theoretical limit of sensitivity for the SNS TOF-USANS instrument.

  8. Assessing the quality of rainfall data when aiming to achieve flood resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, C. T.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    A new EU Floods Directive entered into force five years ago. This Directive requires Member States to coordinate adequate measures to reduce flood risk. European flood management systems require reliable rainfall statistics, e.g. the Intensity-duration-Frequency curves for shorter and shorter durations and for a larger and larger range of return periods. Preliminary studies showed that the number of floods was lower when using low time resolution data of high intensity rainfall events, compared to estimates obtained with the help of higher time resolution data. These facts suggest that a particular attention should be paid to the rainfall data quality in order to adequately investigate flood risk aiming to achieve flood resilience. The potential consequences of changes in measuring and recording techniques have been somewhat discussed in the literature with respect to a possible introduction of artificial inhomogeneities in time series. In this paper, we discuss how to detect another artificiality: most of the rainfall time series have a lower recording frequency than that is assumed, furthermore the effective high-frequency limit often depends on the recording year due to algorithm changes. This question is particularly important for operational hydrology, because an error on the effective recording high frequency introduces biases in the corresponding statistics. In this direction, we developed a first version of a SERQUAL procedure to automatically detect the effective time resolution of highly mixed data. Being applied to the 166 rainfall time series in France, the SERQUAL procedure has detected that most of them have an effective hourly resolution, rather than a 5 minutes resolution. Furthermore, series having an overall 5 minute resolution do not have it for all years. These results raise serious concerns on how to benchmark stochastic rainfall models at a sub-hourly resolution, which are particularly desirable for operational hydrology. Therefore, database quality must be checked before use. Due to the fact that the multiple scales and possible scaling behaviour of hydrological data are particularly important for many applications, including flood resilience research, this paper first investigates the sensitivity of the scaling estimates and methods to the deficit of short duration rainfall data, and consequently propose a few simple criteria for a reliable evaluation of the data quality. Then we showed that our procedure SERQUAL enable us to extract high quality sub-series from longer time series that will be much more reliable to calibrate and/or validate short duration quantiles and hydrological models.

  9. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energymore » distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.« less

  10. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energy distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.

  11. Multi-wavelength Study of Flaring Activity in BL Lac Object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and ?-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energy distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. The rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.

  12. Permeability and swelling studies on free films containing inulin in combination with different polymethacrylates aimed for colonic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, A; Farahmand, F; Afrasiabi Garekani, H; Sadeghi, F; Vandamme, T F

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess some permeability and swelling characteristics of free films prepared by combination of inulin as a bacterially degradable system and time- or pH-dependent polymers as a coating formulation for colonic drug delivery. Different free films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporation method. Formulations containing inulin with Eudragit RS, Eudragit RL, Eudragit RS-Eudragit RL, Eudragit FS and Eudragit RS-Eudragit S with different ratios of inulin were prepared. After preparation, free films were evaluated by water vapor transmission test, swelling experiment and permeability to indomethacin and theophylline in different media. Formulations containing Eudragit FS had high resistance to water vapor permeation; but were unable to protect premature swelling and drug release in simulated small intestine media. Also, combination of Eudragit RS and Eudragit S had no suitable characteristics for colon delivery. However, Eudragit RS and Eudragit RL in combination with inulin made free films which had more swelling and permeation of drug in the colonic medium rather than the other media. It was shown that formulations containing sustained release polymethacrylates in combination with inulin have more potential as a coating system for specific colon delivery compared with pH-dependent polymers. PMID:16713201

  13. Individuation of Objects and Events: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Laura; Carey, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates children's ability to use language to guide their choice of individuation criterion in the domains of objects and events. Previous work (Shipley, E. F., & Shepperson, B. (1990). Countable entities: developmental changes. "Cognition," 34, 109-136.) has shown that children have a strong bias to use a spatio-temporal…

  14. "The Aims of Higher Learning and the Control of the Universities."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    Contrary to popular belief, much power is vested in university governing boards that are usually composed of individuals not professionally concerned with higher education. The Center conducted a study in 1965 of trustees at 38 member institutions of the American Association of Universities, in an effort to expand previous findings on governing

  15. Differential Effects of Language Attrition in the Domains of Verb Placement and Object Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the differential effects of language attrition in two diverse linguistic domains: verb placement and object expression. Linguistic phenomena at the syntax--discourse interface, such as object expression, have been shown to be more vulnerable to attrition than narrow syntax properties, such as verb placement. This study aims

  16. The History and Aim of LADY CATS —Simple and Beautiful Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, Masako; Okiharu, Fumiko; Yokoe, Mika; Taniguchi, Masa-aki; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kutome, Yuusuke; Kawakatsu, Hiroshi

    LADY CATS (LADY Creators of Activities for Teaching Science) is an organization of science teachers. Our group includes a lot of female teachers. We have demonstrated "Simple and beautiful experiments" since ICPE 2005. We aim to encourage both students and teachers who are not interested in physics. Our concepts of experiments are as follows: the "simple" experiments which the teachers in the world can utilize in their classes easily, the "beautiful" experiments in which children get interested, and the "essential" experiments which can demonstrate the principles of physics. We demonstrate several educational experiments of our group.

  17. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS): Design and Architecture. 3.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Schmidt, Melisa; Schulbach, Cathy; Bailey, David (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm', another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of such information can help computer and software architects to capture, and therefore, exploit behavioral variations among/within various parallel programs to take advantage of specific hardware characteristics. A software tool-set that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors has been put together at NASA Ames Research Center under the sponsorship of NASA's High Performance Computing and Communications Program over the past five years. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring Systematic has three major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into program source code before compilation; a run-time performance monitoring library which collects performance data; and a visualization tool-set which reconstructs program execution based on the data collected. Besides being used as a prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring and presenting parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware testbeds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, the execution of FORTRAN and C programs on the Intel Paragon and PALM workstations can be automatically instrumented and monitored. Performance data thus collected can be displayed graphically on various workstations. The process of performance tuning with AIMS will be illustrated using various NAB Parallel Benchmarks. This report includes a description of the internal architecture of AIMS and a listing of the source code.

  18. The Objectives of the Egyptian Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    : The aim of the Egyptsat series is to build on the experience gained from these missions to extend Egypt's space effort into scientific research and to expand its role in educational, agricultural and other development fields. The Egyptian Space Programme envisages that Egypt will be able to join the space age through the gradual establishment of the facilities needed for the manufacture of small research and remote sensing satellites, by acquiring appropriate technological knowledge and capabilities, and by building up the necessary infrastructure to enable the country to design and manufacture its own small satellites. Included in this overall vision would be the capacity to utilize space technologies And applications to serve the national development plans and contribute to the development of scientific and technological research in Egypt, as well as to the establishment of a scientific and research base for advanced industries in Egypt. To hasten the achievement of some or all of these objectives, it will be necessary to: Transfer advanced space technologies in communication, computers, programs, optics, sensors, new materials, command and control, and energy into the domain of the Egyptian scientific community. Utilize space technologies and apply these to the country's development plans. Acquire national capabilities in space technology disciplines. Establish scientific and industrial base in advanced technology fields. Enhance our human resource capabilities for space sciences fields. Promote cooperation between the country's research and industrial centres in order to bring about successful project within the national space programme.

  19. In vitro assessment of aiming bias in the frontal plane during orthopaedic drilling procedures.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, T; Heller, J; Farrell, M

    2015-04-18

    Drilling trials were performed using drilling boards incorporating pairs of 22?mm polyethylene tubes mounted horizontally. The tubes were premarked with 20, 0.5?mm deep notches along the centre of their upper surface representing the starting point for each drilling trial. Volunteers were instructed to drill 20 straight holes across the tube until they penetrated both walls. Kirschner wires were inserted through each of the drill holes until they made indentations into the base board. Deviation of each mark from mid-line was measured using digital callipers. The measured values were used to calculate deviation angles to the left (negative values) or right (positive values). Trials were performed with the drill and guide held in the surgeon's line-of-sight (LOS) and with 300?mm offset (OFF). A systematic error (aiming bias) was identified in all individuals. Overall, left-hander's drilling action was skewed to the left and right-hander's drilling action was skewed to the right. Using LOS technique, mean overall bias was 2.3 (range 0-7.7) to the left for left-handers and 1.5(o) (range 0.3-3.1) to the right for right-handers. Surprisingly, aiming bias was greater for LOS than for OFF, although the difference for this comparison was not statistically significant. PMID:25724545

  20. A Study of Parameters of the Counterpropagating Leader and its Influence on the Lightning Protection of Objects Using Large-Scale Laboratory Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syssoev, V. S.; Kostinskiy, A. Yu.; Makalskiy, L. M.; Rakov, A. V.; Andreev, M. G.; Bulatov, M. U.; Sukharevsky, D. I.; Naumova, M. U.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, the results of experiments on initiating the upward and descending leaders during the development of a long spark when studying lightning protection of objects with the help of large-scale models are shown. The influence of the counterpropagating leaders on the process of the lightning strike of ground-based and insulated objects is discussed. In the first case, the upward negative leader is initiated by the positive downward leader, which propagates from the high-voltage electrode of the "rod-rod"-type Marx generator (the rod is located on the plane and is 3-m high) in the gap with a length of 9-12 m. The positive-voltage pulse with a duration of 7500 ?s had an amplitude of up to 3 MV. In the second case, initiation of the positive upward leader was performed in the electric field created by a cloud of negatively charged aerosol, which simulates the charged thunderstorm cell. In this case, all the phases characteristic of the ascending lightnings initiated by the tall ground-based objects and the triggered lightnings during the experiments with an actual thunderstorm cloud were observed in the forming spark discharge with a length of 1.5-2.0 m. The main parameters of the counterpropagating leader, which is initiated by the objects during the large-scale model experiments with a long spark, are shown.

  1. Hydrogen Economy: The Role of Nano-scaled Support Material for Electrocatalysts Aimed for Water Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunovi?, Perica; Popovski, Orce; Dimitrov, Aleksandar T.

    The role and importance of support materials for electrocatalysts aimed for water electrolysis is given. Besides their superior support characteristics such as electroconductivity, a high developed surface area and chemical stability, support materials should be an active participant in the catalytic activity through strong metal-support interactions (SMSI) with the metallic catalytic phase. Subject of this paper are several support materials: (i) Vulcan XC-72, (ii) Vulcan XC-72 with TiO2, (iii) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and (iv) Magneli phases, i.e. nonstoichiometric titanium oxides. A comparison of catalytic activity of Co-based electrocatalysts deposited on all support materials mentioned is given.

  2. Newborn chickens generate invariant object representations at the onset of visual object experience.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2013-08-20

    To recognize objects quickly and accurately, mature visual systems build invariant object representations that generalize across a range of novel viewing conditions (e.g., changes in viewpoint). To date, however, the origins of this core cognitive ability have not yet been established. To examine how invariant object recognition develops in a newborn visual system, I raised chickens from birth for 2 weeks within controlled-rearing chambers. These chambers provided complete control over all visual object experiences. In the first week of life, subjects' visual object experience was limited to a single virtual object rotating through a 60° viewpoint range. In the second week of life, I examined whether subjects could recognize that virtual object from novel viewpoints. Newborn chickens were able to generate viewpoint-invariant representations that supported object recognition across large, novel, and complex changes in the object's appearance. Thus, newborn visual systems can begin building invariant object representations at the onset of visual object experience. These abstract representations can be generated from sparse data, in this case from a visual world containing a single virtual object seen from a limited range of viewpoints. This study shows that powerful, robust, and invariant object recognition machinery is an inherent feature of the newborn brain. PMID:23918372

  3. Motor Inhibition Affects the Speed But Not Accuracy of Aimed Limb Movements in an Insect

    PubMed Central

    Calas-List, Delphine; Clare, Anthony J.; Komissarova, Alexandra; Nielsen, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    When reaching toward a target, human subjects use slower movements to achieve higher accuracy, and this can be accompanied by increased limb impedance (stiffness, viscosity) that stabilizes movements against motor noise and external perturbation. In arthropods, the activity of common inhibitory motor neurons influences limb impedance, so we hypothesized that this might provide a mechanism for speed and accuracy control of aimed movements in insects. We recorded simultaneously from excitatory leg motor neurons and from an identified common inhibitory motor neuron (CI1) in locusts that performed natural aimed scratching movements. We related limb movement kinematics to recorded motor activity and demonstrate that imposed alterations in the activity of CI1 influenced these kinematics. We manipulated the activity of CI1 by injecting depolarizing or hyperpolarizing current or killing the cell using laser photoablation. Naturally higher levels of inhibitory activity accompanied faster movements. Experimentally biasing the firing rate downward, or stopping firing completely, led to slower movements mediated by changes at several joints of the limb. Despite this, we found no effect on overall movement accuracy. We conclude that inhibitory modulation of joint stiffness has effects across most of the working range of the insect limb, with a pronounced effect on the overall velocity of natural movements independent of their accuracy. Passive joint forces that are greatest at extreme joint angles may enhance accuracy and are not affected by motor inhibition. PMID:24872556

  4. SPOrt: an experiment aimed at measuring the large scale cosmic microwave background polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretti, Ettore; Cortiglioni, Stefano; Bernardi, Gianni; Cecchini, Stefano; Macculi, Claudio; Sbarra, Carla; Monari, Jader; Orfei, Alessandro; Poloni, Marco; Poppi, Sergio; Boella, Giuliano; Bonometto, Silvio; Gervasi, Massimo; Sironi, Giorgio; Zannoni, Mario; Tucci, Marco; Baralis, Massino; Peverini, Oscar A.; Tascone, Riccardo; Virone, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Roberto; Nicastro, Luciano; Ng, Kin-Wang; Razin, V. A.; Vinyajkin, Evgenij N.; Sazhin, Mikhail V.; Strukov, Igor A.

    2003-02-01

    SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) is a space experiment to be flown on the International Space Station during Early Utilization Phase aimed at measuring the microwave polarized emission with FWHM = 7 deg, in the frequency range 22-90 GHz. The Galactic polarized emission can be observed at the lower frequencies and the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at 90 GHz, where contaminants are expected to be less important. The extremely low level of the CMB Polarization signal calls for intrinsically stable radiometers. The SPOrt instrument is expressly devoted to CMB polarization measurements and the whole design has been optimized for minimizing instrumental polarization effects. In this contribution we present the receiver architecture based on correlation techniques, the analysis showing its intrinsic stability and the custom hardware development carried out to detect such a low signal.

  5. Spray aiming in bombardier beetles: jet deflection by the coanda effect.

    PubMed

    Eisner, T; Aneshansley, D J

    1982-01-01

    Bombardier beetles of the carabid subfamily Paussinae have a pair of flanges, diagnostic for the group, that project outward from the sides of the body. Behind each flange is a gland opening, from which the beetles discharge a hot, quinone-containing secretion when disturbed. The flanges are curved and grooved and serve as launching guides for anteriorly aimed ejections of secretion. Jets of fluid, on emergence from the gland openings, follow the curvature of the flanges and are thereby bent sharply in their trajectory and directed forward. The phenomenon is illustrative of the Coanda effect, widely applicable in engineering and responsible for the familiar tendency of liquids to curve around spouts and down the front of containers when being poured. PMID:17790472

  6. Non-invasive studies of objects from cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Vontobel, Peter; Deschler-Erb, Eckhard; Soares, Marie

    2005-04-01

    In order to preserve the objects from European cultural heritage in its structure and shape for our future generations, there is a need to perform all investigations on important samples non-destructively or with very limited amounts of material. Among the non-destructive testing (NDT) methods available for this purpose there are those that need large installations such as accelerators and reactors to provide different kinds of radiation (X-ray, protons, neutrons, gamma, etc.). Therefore, a link between the specialists working at such facilities with scientists from museums and archaeological institutes is necessary. This paper describes the status of a European network dedicated to the NDT of museum objects (COST-G8) as an overview. In more detail, the activities in Switzerland will be presented where PSI plays a role for the study with neutrons and X-rays. Most of the investigated samples of Swiss collections are from Celtic or Roman origin. The superposition of both applied methods gives the opportunity to decide about the structure of objects and artefacts from restoration work applied later to the virgin excavation status. The presented examples will give an overview about opportunities of the applied methods and their limitations in some cases. This should be motivating to adapt the demonstrated methods to other similar objects of historical relevance.

  7. The Cytokine Release Inhibitory Drug CRID3 Targets ASC Oligomerisation in the NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasomes

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Rebecca C.; O'Neill, Luke A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that regulate caspase-1 activation and the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?. Previous studies identified a class of diarylsulfonylurea containing compounds called Cytokine Release Inhibitory Drugs (CRIDs) that inhibited the post-translational processing of IL-1?. Further work identified Glutathione S-Transferase Omega 1 (GSTO1) as a possible target of these CRIDs. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the inhibitory activity of the CRID CP-456,773 (termed CRID3) in light of recent advances in the area of inflammasome activation, and to clarify the potential role of GSTO1 in the regulation of IL-1? production. Methodology and Results In murine bone marrow derived macrophages, CRID3 inhibited IL-1? secretion and caspase 1 processing in response to stimulation of NLRP3 and AIM2 but not NLRC4. CRID3 also prevented AIM2 dependent pyroptosis in contrast to the NLRP3 inhibitors glyburide and parthenolide, which do not inhibit AIM2 activation. Confocal microscopy and Western blotting assays indicated that CRID3 inhibited the formation of ASC complexes or specks in response to NLRP3 and AIM2 stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitation assays show that GSTO1 interacted with ASC. Significance These results identify CRID3 as a novel inhibitor of the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes and provide an insight into the mechanism of action of this small molecule. In addition GSTO1 may be a component of the inflammasome that is required for ASC complex formation. PMID:22216309

  8. Radioastron: Main results of the implementation of the early science program in studies of astronomical objects in the universe with ultra-high angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardashev, N. S.; Alakoz, A. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Popov, M. V.; Sobolev, A. M.; Sokolovsky, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the main results of the implementation of the Radioastron Early Science Program. Interferometric responses (fringes) were obtained for all types of studied radio sources (quasars, pulsars and cosmic masers) and in all ranges of wavelengths (from meter to centimeter range) with large spaceground baselines. Such measurements have provided a record angular resolution, in some cases reaching several tens of microseconds of arc. This brings unique scientific results concerning the nature of the processes occurring in the vicinity of the supermassive black holes, the structure of the interstellar plasma inhomogeneities and dynamics of compact objects in star-forming regions.

  9. Education in American Society: Aims for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Harry C.; Griesinger, Lawrence

    In considering the aims or purposes of education in America today, this reflective discussion first reviews the aims of education since the founding of the United States, as well as those antecedent aims in the history of the Western education experience. An overview of changing trends in educational objectives illuminates the gradual development

  10. Aim, Load, Fire: The Type VI Secretion System, a Bacterial Nanoweapon.

    PubMed

    Cianfanelli, Francesca R; Monlezun, Laura; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria utilise specialised protein secretion systems to interact with host organisms, competitor bacteria, and the environment. The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile weapon deployed by many bacterial species to target either host cells or rival bacteria. The widespread occurrence and significance of the T6SS is becoming increasingly appreciated, as is its intriguing mode of action. The T6SS delivers multiple, diverse effector proteins directly into target cells using a dynamic 'firing' mechanism related to the action of contractile bacteriophage tails. Here, we summarise the contribution of recent findings to our developing picture of how the T6SS assembles and fires, how it is loaded with different types of effectors, and how it can be aimed towards an incoming assault. PMID:26549582

  11. Symposium on "Social Education for Teenagers: Aims, Issues and Problems." (Solna, Sweden, September 15-19, 1980). The CCC's Project No. 1, "Preparation for Life."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Hugh

    This report discusses a symposium held in Sweden in 1980 by the Council of Europe to explore ways for schools to help prepare teenagers for life. The specific objectives of the symposium were to discuss the aims and objectives of and approaches to social education in schools for students in the 14-19 age group and to make recommendations which

  12. Geographic Health Information Systems: A Platform To Support The Triple Aim

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Ferranti, Jeffrey; Strauss, Benjamin; Neelon, Brian; Califf, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of electronic health data, most data systems do not connect individual patient records to data sets from outside the health care delivery system. These isolated data systems cannot support efforts to recognize or address how the physical and environmental context of each patient influences health choices and health outcomes. In this article we describe how a geographic health information system in Durham, North Carolina, links health system and social and environmental data via shared geography to provide a multidimensional understanding of individual and community health status and vulnerabilities. Geographic health information systems can be useful in supporting the Institute for Healthcare Improvements Triple Aim Initiative to improve the experience of care, improve the health of populations, and reduce per capita costs of health care. A geographic health information system can also provide a comprehensive information base for community health assessment and intervention for accountable care that includes the entire population of a geographic area. PMID:24019366

  13. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception That Heavier Objects Sink More: A Reaction Time Study with Different Levels of Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Patrice; Masson, Steve; Lafortune, Stphanie; Cyr, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Recent research efforts have argued for the "persistence" of some of students' frequent scientific misconceptions, even after correct answers are produced. Some of these studies, based on the analysis of reaction times, have recorded latencies for counter-intuitive or incongruent stimuli compared to intuitive or congruent ones. The

  14. Studies of compact objects with Einstein - Review and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray images and spectra of a wide range of systems containing compact objects were obtained with the Einstein X-ray Observatory. Accreting white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes were observed in binary systems in the Galaxy, and new constraints were derived for their formation, nature and evolution. Massive black holes were studied in active galactic nuclei, and X-ray spectra (and evolution) of AGN have led to a new model for the diffuse X-ray background.

  15. Aiming at Excellence as Our Science Evolves Amidst the Bumpiness of Modern Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furbish, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    The health and stature of an academic department are strongly influenced by how its vision and mission mesh with those of the college/school and university. Aiming at this alignment is a continuous process, as it typically involves engaging competing interests and disparate world views of all participants, and is punctuated by weighty, albeit academically normal, events with varying recurrence intervals. For example, the typical (35-year) career faculty member in the U.S. will, on average, see 8.8 department chair (re)appointments, experience 7.8 academic deans and 5.3 presidents/chancellors, be eligible for 5 sabbaticals, hear about if not undergo 3.5 NRC ranking processes, contribute to 1.8 curriculum revisions at the college/school level and to one major curriculum revision at the department level, participate in at least N - 1 faculty searches and at least 0.8N tenure reviews (where N is faculty size, assumed to be steady), and see about one full turnover of the department faculty. If affiliated with a program where securing external funding is expected, this typical academician will with luck participate, on average, in at least 11.7 external grants. These events are sources of both inertia and acceleration, stability and instability; they are triggers of change as well as tools of change. Moreover, geoscience departments in particular are facing the need to reexamine their missions in response to the rapidly evolving scope of our science -- within the context of institutional pressures driven by changing student interests, prioritization in allocation of resources, changes in emphasis on educational level, and changing societal expectations of education. No steady states exist. Strength comes in aiming at a vision centered on agreed-upon principles of excellence that possess long time constants, using shorter recurrence-interval events as tools for tuning to this vision. Important examples occur in curriculum development/revision, hiring and mentoring practices, research program development, and balancing research with educational endeavors. Strength also comes with effective (continual) articulation of departmental aims and goals at all university levels.

  16. Newborn chickens generate invariant object representations at the onset of visual object experience

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Justin N.

    2013-01-01

    To recognize objects quickly and accurately, mature visual systems build invariant object representations that generalize across a range of novel viewing conditions (e.g., changes in viewpoint). To date, however, the origins of this core cognitive ability have not yet been established. To examine how invariant object recognition develops in a newborn visual system, I raised chickens from birth for 2 weeks within controlled-rearing chambers. These chambers provided complete control over all visual object experiences. In the first week of life, subjects’ visual object experience was limited to a single virtual object rotating through a 60° viewpoint range. In the second week of life, I examined whether subjects could recognize that virtual object from novel viewpoints. Newborn chickens were able to generate viewpoint-invariant representations that supported object recognition across large, novel, and complex changes in the object’s appearance. Thus, newborn visual systems can begin building invariant object representations at the onset of visual object experience. These abstract representations can be generated from sparse data, in this case from a visual world containing a single virtual object seen from a limited range of viewpoints. This study shows that powerful, robust, and invariant object recognition machinery is an inherent feature of the newborn brain. PMID:23918372

  17. Once a myth, now an object of study - How the perception of comets has changed over the centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    In February 2004, Rosetta will be setting off on its long journey through our solar system to meet up with Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It will take the European Space Agency (ESA) space probe ten years to reach its destination. The comet, which moves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun, will at rendezvous be some 675 million kilometres from the Sun, near the point in its orbit farthest from the Sun. The meeting point was not chosen at random: at this point the comet is still barely active, it is still in fact a frozen lump of ice and interplanetary dust, in all probability the matter from which our solar system emerged four and a half billion years ago. Rosetta’s job is to find out more about these strange bodies that travel through our solar system. As it moves on, the comet will begin to change. As it approaches the Sun, it will - like all comets - become active: in the warmth of the Sun’s rays, the ices evaporate, tearing small dust particles from the surface. This produces the comet head (the coma) and tail. Only these two phenomena are visible from Earth. The comet nucleus itself is far too tiny - Churyumov-Gerasimenko measures about 4 kilometres across - to be viewed from Earth. As Dr Uwe Keller of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Kaltenburg-Lindau, the scientist responsible for the Osiris camera carried by Rosetta, explains, “Formation of the coma and tail during solar flyby skims several metres of matter off the comet’s surface. In the case of a small comet like Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the shrinkage is a good 1% each time round.” As it flies past the Sun every 6.6 years it can look forward to a short future, especially on a cosmic timescale. Comets - a mystical view Visible cometary phenomena have fascinated human beings from time immemorial - and frightened them too. Even today mystical explanations prevail among some of the Earth’s peoples. The Andaman islanders, a primitive people living in the Gulf of Bengal, see comets as burning torches hurled into the air by forest spirits - the more easily to detect humans foolish enough to stay out at night. For some Australian aborigines, comets are flaming sticks ridden by mighty shamans. Efforts to provide a scientific explanation of the ‘cometa aster’ (‘hairy star’) phenomenon stretch back to ancient times. A widely held view was that comets were in some way connected with processes at work in the atmosphere. In Meteorologica, Aristotle (384-322 BC) described how inflammable gases escape from clefts in rocks, collect in the upper layers of the sub-lunar world (‘world under the Moon’) and ignite. Rapid release of such gases produced a shooting star; when let out slowly, they gave rise to a comet. That was Aristotle’s best shot - and he was well aware of his limited insight into the question. As he himself acknowledged: “As we have no demonstrable basis for assertions about comets, I have to settle for an interpretation that does not conflict with established truths.” Admittedly such truths were thin on the ground at the time. Comets - something of a disaster As the centuries unfolded, what could be called the opposite view - that the comets were responsible for intense heat spells - also gained a considerable audience, though there was just as little truth in it. The natural philosophers went one further. They said comets lead to heat, heat to storms and storms to natural disasters. Pliny the Elder for example (born circa 23 AD) listed twelve cometary phenomena according to their external appearances. And he assigned one natural disaster to each class. The Christian Middle Ages no longer saw cometary phenomena as the blind raging of an even blinder nature, preferring to interpret them as signs from God. Theologians such as Saint Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) and Albert Magnus (1200-1280) cited holy scripture. The Book of Jeremiah for example (1:11,12), in which God caused a fearsome “rod of an almond tree” to appear in the sky, a symbol of the prophet’s empowerment. Or again Luke 21:11: “And great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and famines, and pestilences; and fearful sights and great signs shall there be from heaven.” In 1066, Halley’s Comet appeared to many as a harbinger of the Norman conquest of Britain, so vividly portrayed in the Bayeux tapestry, with its scenes from the Battle of Hastings. The decisive step towards overturning the view that comets are atmospheric phenomena was taken in 1577 by Danish astronomer, Tycho Brahe. For two and a half months he observed from his observatory in Uranienburg the progress of a comet across the heavens. Relying on the phenomenon of the daily parallax - an apparent “shuddering” motion of heavenly bodies in fact attributable to the observer’s position on the revolving Earth - he was able to establish that the comet had to be located beyond the lunar orbit. Halley discovers an elliptical orbit The scientific description of comets took another major step forward in 1705 thanks to the work of the British astronomer and physicist, Edmond Halley, a friend and patron of Isaac Newton. Investigating recorded comet measurements, he observed that the orbits of a number of bright comets were very similar: his own calculation of the orbit of a comet observed in 1682 coincided with the data recorded by Johannes Kepler in 1607 and by Apianus in 1531. He concluded that various comet observations were attributable to one and the same comet. Halley was proved right when in December 1758, the comet whose return he had predicted, thenceforth named after him, did indeed make a repeat appearance. This confirmed his theory that apparently parabolic comet orbits were in fact “simply” sections of one enormous elliptical orbit. Since then observations recorded in China in 240 BC have been identified as relating to a sighting of Halley’s comet, the oldest known document dealing with this phenomenon. What was described in the Bible as a sign from God was seen by Fred Hoyle, the British astrophysicist, as a possible explanation for the great hiatal breaks in history. He took the view that such extraordinary developments as the extinction of the mammoth were attributable to strikes by comet fragments. His views incorporated the theory advanced by British astronomers Victor Clube and Bill Napier in 1982 that a giant comet was trapped by our solar system 15000 years ago. With the return of that comet every 1600 years, the accompanying debris - so the argument goes - prompted some of the world’s great turning points. This might also be an explanation for such legends as the Flood. A lump of icy sludgew So what does the actual nucleus of a comet look like? One answer was supplied by the Giotto space probe in a mission masterminded by ESA. The probe was named after the major Italian painter Giotto di Bondone, who, in the early 14th century, portrayed a comet in his fresco in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua. On 14 March 1986, the probe succeeded in taking 100-metre-resolution pictures of the nucleus of Halley’s Comet from only 600 kilometres away. In the words of Uwe Keller: “The mission forced us to revisit our long-standing image of a comet nucleus as a ‘dirty snowball’. The pictures showed that it was more like a lump of icy sludge. The solid part of the nucleus is much larger than the icy part.” Bur hardly had Giotto trained its electronic eye on the heavenly body than the photo opportunity was already over; a dust particle measuring about a millimetre hit the probe. As the velocity differential between probe and comet was at that point 68.4 km per second, the force of the involuntary encounter was enough to put paid to any further snapshots. All the same, despite the damage to the camera, it proved possible to go on with the mission. Following two periods of “hibernation”, Giotto achieved a successful flyby of the Grigg-Skjellerup comet on 10 July 1992. Rosetta should now bring us entirely new knowledge about comet nuclei. It will orbit the comet and deposit a small lander probe on its surface. So for the first time in history a comet travelling sunwards will be investigated from close quarters. For further information on Rosetta and ESA projects, please consult our portal at : http://www.esa.int/science or http:// www.esa.int/rosetta

  18. Persistence of the Intuitive Conception That Heavier Objects Sink More: A Reaction Time Study with Different Levels of Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Patrice; Masson, Steve; Lafortune, Stéphanie; Cyr, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Recent research efforts have argued for the "persistence" of some of students' frequent scientific misconceptions, even after correct answers are produced. Some of these studies, based on the analysis of reaction times, have recorded latencies for counter-intuitive or incongruent stimuli compared to intuitive or congruent ones. The…

  19. A Taxonomic Description of the Science Integrating Learning Objectives in Career and Technical Education Programs of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spindler, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The integration of career and technical education (CTE) and academic curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for CTE professionals. The purpose of this study was to employ Bloom's revised taxonomy (Anderson, Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruiskshank, Mayer, Pintrich, Raths, & Wittrock, 2001) to

  20. The Experience of Doctoral Studies in the UK and France: Differences in Epistemology, Research Objects and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Kuang-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how doctoral students perceive their research education in different disciplines in two higher education systems, the UK and France. It explores what underlies the diversity of doctoral students' experiences. Three theoretical positions are identified: the epistemological position, conceptualisation of research objects…

  1. Do Object-Category Selective Regions in the Ventral Visual Stream Represent Perceived Distance Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amit, Elinor; Mehoudar, Eyal; Trope, Yaacov; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that scenes and objects elicit a highly selective response in specific brain regions in the ventral visual cortex. An inherent difference between these categories that has not been explored yet is their perceived distance from the observer (i.e. scenes are distal whereas objects are proximal). The current study aimed to test

  2. Do Object-Category Selective Regions in the Ventral Visual Stream Represent Perceived Distance Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amit, Elinor; Mehoudar, Eyal; Trope, Yaacov; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that scenes and objects elicit a highly selective response in specific brain regions in the ventral visual cortex. An inherent difference between these categories that has not been explored yet is their perceived distance from the observer (i.e. scenes are distal whereas objects are proximal). The current study aimed to test…

  3. The Open Learning Object Model to Promote Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulantelli, Giovanni; Gentile, Manuel; Taibi, Davide; Allegra, Mario

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of research work, that forms part of the activities of the EU-funded project SLOOP: Sharing Learning Objects in an Open Perspective, aimed at encouraging the definition, development and management of Open Educational Resources based on the Learning Object paradigm (Wiley, 2000). We present a model of Open

  4. The patient's objects in the analyst's mind.

    PubMed

    Kulish, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    In every analysis, the analyst develops an internal relationship with the patient's objects-that is, the people in the patient's life and mind. Sometimes these figures can inhabit the analyst's mind as a source of data, but at other times, the analyst may feel preoccupied with or even invaded by them. The author presents two clinical cases: one in which the seeming absence of a good object in the patient's mind made the analyst hesitate to proceed with an analysis, and another in which the patient's preoccupation with a "bad" object was shared and mirrored by the analyst's own inner preoccupation with the object. The use and experience of these two objects by the analyst are discussed with particular attention to the countertransference. PMID:25346080

  5. Drug designs fulfilling the requirements of clinical trials aiming at personalizing medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Sargent, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current era of stratified medicine and biomarker-driven therapies, the focus has shifted from predictions based on the traditional anatomic staging systems to guide the choice of treatment for an individual patient to an integrated approach using the genetic makeup of the tumor and the genotype of the patient. The clinical trial designs utilized in the developmental pathway for biomarkers and biomarker-directed therapies from discovery to clinical practice are rapidly evolving. While several issues need careful consideration, two critical issues that surround the validation of biomarkers are the choice of the clinical trial design (which is based on the strength of the preliminary evidence and marker prevalence), and biomarker assay related issues surrounding the marker assessment methods such as the reliability and reproducibility of the assay. In this review, we focus on trial designs aiming at personalized medicine in the context of early phase trials for initial marker validation, as well as in the context of larger definitive trials. Designs for biomarker validation are broadly classified as retrospective (i.e., using data from previously well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) versus prospective (enrichment, all-comers, hybrid or adaptive). We believe that the systematic evaluation and implementation of these design strategies are essential to accelerate the clinical validation of biomarker guided therapy. PMID:25414851

  6. Gravity wave variations in the polar stratosphere and mesosphere from SOFIE/AIM temperature observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Jia; Xu, Jiyao; Wang, Ling; Yuan, Wei; Russell, James M.; Hervig, Mark E.

    2014-06-01

    A 6 year (2007-2013) temperature data set from the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite is used to extract gravity waves (GWs) in the polar stratosphere and mesosphere of both hemispheres. These data are continuous in the polar regions. The monthly mean GW potential energy (PE) increases exponentially with a scale height of ~13 km in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. GWs are stronger in the winter than in the summer and exhibit strong annual variation. GWs are stronger in the southern polar region (SPR) than in the northern polar region (NPR) except in the summer months. This is likely because there are stronger and longer-lasting zonal wind jets in the SPR stratosphere, as revealed from Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) wind data. The longitudinal variations of PE in the winter polar stratosphere are consistent with the elevated regions. In the mesosphere, the longitudinal variations of PE do not vary with height significantly. The correlations between GW PE and the column ice water content (IWC, an indicator of the polar mesosphere cloud) exhibit longitudinal and annual variations.

  7. SERT D spacecraft study. [project planning and objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The SERT D (Space Electric Rocket Test - D) study defines a possible spacecraft project that would demonstrate the use of electric ion thrusters for long-term (5 yr) station keeping and attitude control of a synchronous orbit satellite. Other mission objectives included in the study were: station walking to satellite rendezvous and inspection, use of low cost attitude sensing system, use of an advanced solar array orientation and slip ring system, and an ion thruster integrated directly with a solar array power source. The SERT D spacecraft, if launched, will become SERT 3 the third space electric thruster test.

  8. The Earliest Lead Object in the Levant.

    PubMed

    Yahalom-Mack, Naama; Langgut, Dafna; Dvir, Omri; Tirosh, Ofir; Eliyahu-Behar, Adi; Erel, Yigal; Langford, Boaz; Frumkin, Amos; Ullman, Mika; Davidovich, Uri

    2015-01-01

    In the deepest section of a large complex cave in the northern Negev desert, Israel, a bi-conical lead object was found logged onto a wooden shaft. Associated material remains and radiocarbon dating of the shaft place the object within the Late Chalcolithic period, at the late 5th millennium BCE. Based on chemical and lead isotope analysis, we show that this unique object was made of almost pure metallic lead, likely smelted from lead ores originating in the Taurus range in Anatolia. Either the finished object, or the raw material, was brought to the southern Levant, adding another major component to the already-rich Late Chalcolithic metallurgical corpus known to-date. The paper also discusses possible uses of the object, suggesting that it may have been used as a spindle whorl, at least towards its deposition. PMID:26630666

  9. The Earliest Lead Object in the Levant

    PubMed Central

    Yahalom-Mack, Naama; Langgut, Dafna; Dvir, Omri; Tirosh, Ofir; Eliyahu-Behar, Adi; Erel, Yigal; Langford, Boaz; Frumkin, Amos; Ullman, Mika; Davidovich, Uri

    2015-01-01

    In the deepest section of a large complex cave in the northern Negev desert, Israel, a bi-conical lead object was found logged onto a wooden shaft. Associated material remains and radiocarbon dating of the shaft place the object within the Late Chalcolithic period, at the late 5th millennium BCE. Based on chemical and lead isotope analysis, we show that this unique object was made of almost pure metallic lead, likely smelted from lead ores originating in the Taurus range in Anatolia. Either the finished object, or the raw material, was brought to the southern Levant, adding another major component to the already-rich Late Chalcolithic metallurgical corpus known to-date. The paper also discusses possible uses of the object, suggesting that it may have been used as a spindle whorl, at least towards its deposition. PMID:26630666

  10. An enhanced electronic topology aimed at improving the phase sensitivity of GMI sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Silva, E.; Gusmo, L. A. P.; Hall Barbosa, C. R.; Costa Monteiro, E.

    2014-11-01

    The giant magnetoimpedance effect (GMI) is used in the most recent technologies developed for the detection of magnetic fields, showing potential to be applied in the measurement of ultra-weak fields. GMI samples exhibit a huge dependency of their electrical impedance on the magnetic field, which makes them excellent magnetic sensors. In spite of GMI magnetometers being mostly based on magnitude impedance characteristics, it was previously verified that sensitivity could be significantly increased by reading the impedance phase. Pursuing this idea, a phase-based GMI magnetometer has been already developed as well as an electronic configuration capable of improving the phase sensitivity of GMI samples. However, when using this topology, it was noted that the sensitivity improvement comes at the cost of reduced voltage levels in the reading terminal, degrading the signal-to-noise ratio. Another drawback of the electronic configuration was that it was not capable of enforcing a linear behavior of the impedance phase in the function of the magnetic field in a given operation region. Aiming at overcoming those issues and then optimizing the behavior of the circuit developed to improve the phase sensitivity, this paper mathematically describes a completely new methodology, presents an enhanced newly developed electronic topology and exemplifies its application.

  11. The aimed or feared professional future of medical students at the Univesity of Witten/Herdecke.

    PubMed

    Zupanic, Michaela; Hofmann, Marzellus; Osenberg, Dorothea; Gardeik, Kerstin; Jansen, Paul; Fischer, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    The current challenges of educational policy seem to be associated to changes of the health care system, to counteract concerns regarding the lack of physicians, supply shortage and migration of specialists. Therefore, expectations, wishes and concerns relevant to the anticipated everyday life as a physician of medical students at the Witten/Herdecke University (UWH) were acquired with an online questionnaire. Useful for a direct comparison the results of the online survey 'Medical Study and Future' throughout Germany have been used. Findings from this survey are common characteristics regarding the choice of the profession and planning of an establishment as a general practitioner and clear differences in reflecting on future issues in the occupational field. PMID:21818235

  12. Transfer of Object Category Knowledge across Visual and Haptic Modalities: Experimental and Computational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    We study people's abilities to transfer object category knowledge across visual and haptic domains. If a person learns to categorize objects based on inputs from one sensory modality, can the person categorize these same objects when the objects are perceived through another modality? Can the person categorize novel objects from the same…

  13. The Objective Prism Surveys of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtanidze, O. M.; Nikolashvili, M. G.

    The main results of the low dispersion objective prism surveys of the Milky Way undertaken in the last thirty years for the study of the distribution of late type stars, namely M and C stars, are considered. Among them two surveys were made at Abastumani. One of them is yellow-red (IIIa-F,IIIa-J) spectral survey (2000 A/mm at 5100 A) of the region from l=30 to l=165 and -5the region 50The limiting magnitudes of the surveys are V=16.0 and I=15.5mag. As a result more than thirteen hundred new Carbon stars were revealed in both surveys. The study of the latitude and longitude distribution of all detected C stars shows that first one is uniform and the other one - nonuniform. The mean surface density of C stars in yellow-red survey is one per sq.degree meanwhile in the near-infrared - three per sq.degree. By the nearest neighbour method it is shown that statisticaly significant number of C stars pairs and members of the open clusters are not observed. The connection of C stars with dark clouds were also studied. The C/M5 ratio has been determined for different regions of the Milky Way. Further prospects related to objective prism surveys for late type stars are discussed.

  14. Does long-term object priming depend on the explicit detection of object identity at encoding?

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carlos A; Mayes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear whether objects have to be explicitly identified at encoding for reliable behavioral long-term object priming to occur. We conducted two experiments that investigated long-term object and non-object priming using a selective-attention encoding manipulation that reduces explicit object identification. In Experiment 1, participants either counted dots flashed within an object picture (shallow encoding) or engaged in an animacy task (deep encoding) at study, whereas, at test, they performed an object-decision task. Priming, as measured by reaction times (RTs), was observed for both types of encoding, and was of equivalent magnitude. In Experiment 2, non-object priming (faster RTs for studied relative to unstudied non-objects) was also obtained under the same selective-attention encoding manipulation as in Experiment 1, and the magnitude of the priming effect was equivalent between experiments. In contrast, we observed a linear decrement in recognition memory accuracy across conditions (deep encoding of Experiment 1 > shallow encoding Experiment 1 > shallow encoding of Experiment 2), suggesting that priming was not contaminated by explicit memory strategies. We argue that our results are more consistent with the identification/production framework than the perceptual/conceptual distinction, and we conclude that priming of pictures largely ignored at encoding can be subserved by the automatic retrieval of two types of instances: one at the motor level and another at an object-decision level. PMID:25852594

  15. The quest for 'diagnostically lossless' medical image compression: a comparative study of objective quality metrics for compressed medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalik-Urbaniak, Ilona; Brunet, Dominique; Wang, Jiheng; Koff, David; Smolarski-Koff, Nadine; Vrscay, Edward R.; Wallace, Bill; Wang, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Our study, involving a collaboration with radiologists (DK,NSK) as well as a leading international developer of medical imaging software (AGFA), is primarily concerned with improved methods of assessing the diagnostic quality of compressed medical images and the investigation of compression artifacts resulting from JPEG and JPEG2000. In this work, we compare the performances of the Structural Similarity quality measure (SSIM), MSE/PSNR, compression ratio CR and JPEG quality factor Q, based on experimental data collected in two experiments involving radiologists. An ROC and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis indicates that compression ratio is not always a good indicator of visual quality. Moreover, SSIM demonstrates the best performance, i.e., it provides the closest match to the radiologists' assessments. We also show that a weighted Youden index1 and curve tting method can provide SSIM and MSE thresholds for acceptable compression ratios.

  16. Anorexia, anxiety, and the object.

    PubMed

    Desbordes, Emmanuelle Borgnis

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia among young girls is an increasingly common phenomenon, one that raises questions of psychopathology. Anorexia at the time of puberty is not so much a rejection of femininity as an attempt to limit the "feminine jouissance," in Lacan's terminology, demarcated neither by border nor by semblance. Currently, where jouissance tends to be in control, the body and its jouissances are at the foreground, a sign of the disorientation of desire. This paper examines how we can reintroduce anorexic girls to the language of their desire and separate them from the imperatives of jouissance--which put them on a path of experiencing an Other jouissance, a feminine one, that seizes them. Mastery of the body and its experiences is an attempt to counter the limitlessness of a jouissance that surpasses them, even though this dimension determines them as women. PMID:25102186

  17. Subject-Verb Agreement, Object Clitics and Wh-Questions in Bilingual French-Greek SLI: The Case Study of a French-Greek-Speaking Child with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual

  18. Taking aim at Alzheimer’s disease through the mammalian target of rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of the world’s population suffers from sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with available present therapies limited to symptomatic care that does not alter disease progression. Over the next decade, advancing age of the global population will dramatically increase the incidence of AD and severely impact health care resources, necessitating novel, safe, and efficacious strategies for AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its protein complexes mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) offer exciting and unique avenues of intervention for AD through the oversight of programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. mTOR modulates multi-faceted signal transduction pathways that involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase B (Akt), hamartin (tuberous sclerosis 1)/tuberin (tuberous sclerosis 2) (TSC1/TSC2) complex, proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa (PRAS40), and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) and can interface with the neuroprotective pathways of growth factors, sirtuins, wingless, fork-head transcription factors, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. With the ability of mTOR to broadly impact cellular function, clinical strategies for AD that implement mTOR must achieve parallel objectives of protecting neuronal, vascular, and immune cell survival in conjunction with preserving networks that determine memory and cognitive function. PMID:25105207

  19. Taking aim at Alzheimer's disease through the mammalian target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    A significant portion of the world's population suffers from sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) with available present therapies limited to symptomatic care that does not alter disease progression. Over the next decade, advancing age of the global population will dramatically increase the incidence of AD and severely impact health care resources, necessitating novel, safe, and efficacious strategies for AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its protein complexes mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) offer exciting and unique avenues of intervention for AD through the oversight of programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. mTOR modulates multi-faceted signal transduction pathways that involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase B (Akt), hamartin (tuberous sclerosis 1)/ tuberin (tuberous sclerosis 2) (TSC1/TSC2) complex, proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa (PRAS40), and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) and can interface with the neuroprotective pathways of growth factors, sirtuins, wingless, forkhead transcription factors, and glycogen synthase kinase-3?. With the ability of mTOR to broadly impact cellular function, clinical strategies for AD that implement mTOR must achieve parallel objectives of protecting neuronal, vascular, and immune cell survival in conjunction with preserving networks that determine memory and cognitive function. PMID:25105207

  20. Object similarity affects the perceptual strategy underlying invariant visual object recognition in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Federica B.; Alemi, Alireza; Ansuini, Alessio; Zoccolan, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have explored the possible use of rats as models of high-level visual functions. One central question at the root of such an investigation is to understand whether rat object vision relies on the processing of visual shape features or, rather, on lower-order image properties (e.g., overall brightness). In a recent study, we have shown that rats are capable of extracting multiple features of an object that are diagnostic of its identity, at least when those features are, structure-wise, distinct enough to be parsed by the rat visual system. In the present study, we have assessed the impact of object structure on rat perceptual strategy. We trained rats to discriminate between two structurally similar objects, and compared their recognition strategies with those reported in our previous study. We found that, under conditions of lower stimulus discriminability, rat visual discrimination strategy becomes more view-dependent and subject-dependent. Rats were still able to recognize the target objects, in a way that was largely tolerant (i.e., invariant) to object transformation; however, the larger structural and pixel-wise similarity affected the way objects were processed. Compared to the findings of our previous study, the patterns of diagnostic features were: (i) smaller and more scattered; (ii) only partially preserved across object views; and (iii) only partially reproducible across rats. On the other hand, rats were still found to adopt a multi-featural processing strategy and to make use of part of the optimal discriminatory information afforded by the two objects. Our findings suggest that, as in humans, rat invariant recognition can flexibly rely on either view-invariant representations of distinctive object features or view-specific object representations, acquired through learning. PMID:25814936

  1. Disseminating hypnosis to health care settings: Applying the RE-AIM framework

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Vivian M.; Schnur, Julie B.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2014-01-01

    Hypnosis is a brief intervention ready for wider dissemination in medical contexts. Overall, hypnosis remains underused despite evidence supporting its beneficial clinical impact. This review will evaluate the evidence supporting hypnosis for dissemination using guidelines formulated by Glasgow and colleagues (1999). Five dissemination dimensions will be considered: Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM). Reach In medical settings, hypnosis is capable of helping a diverse range of individuals with a wide variety of problems. Efficacy There is evidence supporting the use of hypnosis for chronic pain, acute pain and emotional distress arising from medical procedures and conditions, cancer treatment-related side-effects and irritable bowel syndrome. Adoption Although hypnosis is currently not a part of mainstream clinical practices, evidence suggests that patients and healthcare providers are open to trying hypnosis, and may become more so when educated about what hypnosis can do. Implementation Hypnosis is a brief intervention capable of being administered effectively by healthcare providers. Maintenance Given the low resource needs of hypnosis, opportunities for reimbursement, and the ability of the intervention to potentially help medical settings reduce costs, the intervention has the qualities necessary to be integrated into routine care in a self-sustaining way in medical settings. In sum, hypnosis is a promising candidate for further dissemination. PMID:25267941

  2. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  3. Deep-Sky Companions: The Messier Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Stephen James; Levy, Foreword by David H.

    1999-03-01

    Foreword David H. Levy; 1. Charles Messier and his catalogue David H. Levy; 2. How to observe the Messier objects; 3. The making of this book; 4. The Messier objects by number; 5. Some thoughts on Charles Messier; 6. Twenty spectacular non-Messier objects; Appendix A. Objects Messier could not find; Appendix B. Messier marathons; Appendix C. A quick guide to navigating the Coma-Virgo cluster; Appendix D. Suggested reading; Index.

  4. Behavioral methods for the study of the Ras-ERK pathway in memory formation and consolidation: passive avoidance and novel object recognition tests.

    PubMed

    d'Isa, Raffaele; Brambilla, Riccardo; Fasano, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Memory is a high-level brain function that enables organisms to adapt their behavioral responses to the environment, hence increasing their probability of survival. The Ras-ERK pathway is a key molecular intracellular signalling cascade for memory consolidation. In this chapter we will describe two main one-trial behavioral tests commonly used in the field of memory research in order to assess the role of Ras-ERK signalling in long-term memory: passive avoidance and object recognition. Passive avoidance (PA) is a fear-motivated instrumental learning task, designed by Jarvik and Essman in 1960, in which animals learn to refrain from emitting a behavioral response that has previously been associated with a punishment. We will describe here the detailed protocol and show some examples of how PA can reveal impairments or enhancements in memory consolidation following loss or gain of function genetic manipulations of the Ras-ERK pathway. The phenotypes of global mutants as Ras-GRF1 KO, GENA53, and ERK1 KO mice, as well as of conditional region-specific mutants (striatal K-CREB mice), will be illustrated as examples. Novel object recognition (NOR), developed by Ennaceur and Delacour in 1988, is instead a more recent and highly ecological test, which relies on the natural tendency of rodents to spontaneously approach and explore novel objects, representing hence a useful non-stressful tool for the study of memory in animals without the employment of punishments or starvation/water restriction regimens. Careful indications will be given on how to select the positions for the novel object, in order to counterbalance for individual side preferences among mice during the training. Finally, the methods for calculating two learning indexes will be described. In addition to the classical discrimination index (DI) that measures the ability of an animal to discriminate between two different objects which are presented at the same time, we will describe the formula of a new index that we present here for the first time, the recognition index (RI), which quantifies the ability of an animal to recognize a same object at different time points and that, by taking into account the basal individual preferences displayed during the training, can give a more accurate measure of an animal's actual recognition memory. PMID:24470023

  5. Land Use Zoning at the County Level Based on a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study from Yicheng, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecol