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  1. The Aims and Objectives of the Monitoring the Future Study and Progress toward Fulfilling Them as of 2006. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Paper 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the Future is an ongoing program of research intended to assess the changing lifestyles, values, and preferences of American youth. This publication, from the occasional paper series, describes a study that monitors drug use and potential explanatory factors among American secondary school students, college students, and young adults.…

  2. The EvA study: aims and strategy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Frankenberger, Marion; Heimbeck, Irene; Burggraf, Dorothe; Wjst, Matthias; Häussinger, Karl; Brightling, Chris; Gupta, Sumit; Parr, David; Subramanian, Deepak; Singh, Dave; Kolsum, Umme; Boschetto, Piera; Potena, Alfredo; Gorecka, Dorota; Nowinski, Adam; Barta, Imre; Döme, Balazs; Strausz, Janos; Greulich, Timm; Vogelmeier, Claus; Bals, Robert; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Welte, Tobias; Venge, Per; Gut, Ivo; Boland, Anne; Olaso, Robert; Hager, Jörg; Hiemstra, Pieter; Rabe, Klaus F; Unmüssig, Martina; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Prasse, Antje

    2012-10-01

    The EvA study is a European Union-funded project under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), which aims at defining new markers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its subtypes. The acronym is derived from emphysema versus airway disease, indicating that the project targets these two main phenotypes of the disease. The EvA study is based on the concept that emphysema and airway disease are governed by different pathophysiological processes, are driven by different genes and have differential gene expression in the lung. To define these genes, patients and non-COPD controls are recruited for clinical examination, lung function analysis and computed tomography (CT) of the lung. CT scans are used to define the phenotypes based on lung density and airway wall thickness. This is followed by bronchoscopy in order to obtain samples from the airways and the alveoli. These tissue samples, along with blood samples, are then subjected to genome-wide expression and association analysis and markers linked to the phenotypes are identified. The population of the EvA study is different from other COPD study populations, since patients with current oral glucocorticoids, antibiotics and exacerbations or current smokers are excluded, such that the signals detected in the molecular analysis are due to the distinct inflammatory process of emphysema and airway disease in COPD. PMID:22441733

  3. Religious Studies, Religious Education and the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    This article interacts with a recent article by Denise Cush and Catherine Robinson in which they call for a new dialogue between religious studies in universities and religious education, and identify a number of developments in religious studies that have implications for the practice of religious education in schools. Cush and Robinson are…

  4. Taking Triple Aim at the Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction to the USA, the Triple Aim is now being adopted in the healthcare systems of other advanced economies. Verma and Bhatia (2016) (V&B) argue that provincial governments in Canada now need to step up to the plate and lead on the implementation of a Triple Aim reform program here. Their proposals are wide ranging and ambitious, looking for governments to act as the "integrators" within the healthcare system, and lead the reforms. Our view is that, as a vision and set of goals for the healthcare system, the Triple Aim is all well and good, but as a pathway for system reform, as articulated by V&B, it misses the mark in at least three important respects. First, the emphasis on improvement driven by performance measurement and pay-for-performance is troubling and flies in the face of emerging evidence. Second, we know that scarcity can be recognized and managed, even in politically complex systems, and so we urge the Triple Aim proponents to embrace more fully notions of resource stewardship. Third, if we want to take seriously "population health" goals, we need to think very differently and consider broader health determinants; Triple Aim innovation targeted at healthcare systems will not deliver the goals. PMID:27009583

  5. The FBI Takes Aim at AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Elliot

    1977-01-01

    The events and revelations before and since the arrest of Paul Skyhorse and Richard Mohawk (two American Indian Movement organizers charged with the 1974 murder of a taxi driver at AIM Camp 13) lead to the inevitable conclusion that these men are victims of a frame-up. (Author/JC)

  6. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  7. Parents' Views Regarding the Values Aimed to be Taught in Social Studies Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Bayram; Yildirim, Kasim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at learning parents' ideas about the values aimed to be taught in Social Studies lessons in the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education and about values education. Study data were collected by administering "the Values Education I" and "Values Education II" questionnaire forms developed by the researchers. The views of 378 and…

  8. Aiming for the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Times change, and pollution continues to plague cities, energy prices escalate and average temperatures creep higher, the argument that society cannot afford to squander its limited resources has been embraced by more than just environmental activists. More and more education administrators and architects are among those pushing schools and…

  9. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  10. Cross-cultural exchange: How students can frustrate the aims of study abroad programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Leslie R.

    1982-09-01

    Readily accepting that study abroad programmes may have as many differing forms and aims as there are participating institutions, and that by no means all programmes include academic content in their goals, I would nevertheless maintain: 1. that a sociological perspective is as necessary as the hitherto predominantly psychological approach in obtaining a balanced assessment of study abroad programmes;

  11. Systematic Review of the Methodological Quality of Studies Aimed at Creating Gestational Weight Gain Charts.

    PubMed

    Ohadike, Corah O; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Ohuma, Eric O; Giuliani, Francesca; Bishop, Deborah; Kac, Gilberto; Puglia, Fabien; Maia-Schlüssel, Michael; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José; Hirst, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    A range of adverse outcomes is associated with insufficient and excessive maternal weight gain in pregnancy, but there is no consensus regarding what constitutes optimal gestational weight gain (GWG). Differences in the methodological quality of GWG studies may explain the varying chart recommendations. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality of studies that aimed to create GWG charts by scoring them against a set of predefined, independently agreed-upon criteria. These criteria were divided into 3 domains: study design (12 criteria), statistical methods (7 criteria), and reporting methods (4 criteria). The criteria were broken down further into items, and studies were assigned a quality score (QS) based on these criteria. For each item, studies were scored as either high (score = 0) or low (score = 1) risk of bias; a high QS correlated with a low risk of bias. The maximum possible QS was 34. The systematic search identified 12 eligible studies involving 2,268,556 women from 9 countries; their QSs ranged from 9 (26%) to 29 (85%) (median, 18; 53%). The most common sources for bias were found in study designs (i.e., not prospective); assessments of prepregnancy weight and gestational age; descriptions of weighing protocols; sample size calculations; and the multiple measurements taken at each visit. There is wide variation in the methodological quality of GWG studies constructing charts. High-quality studies are needed to guide future clinical recommendations. We recommend the following main requirements for future studies: prospective design, reliable evaluation of prepregnancy weight and gestational age, detailed description of measurement procedures and protocols, description of sample-size calculation, and the creation of smooth centile charts or z scores. PMID:26980814

  12. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küppers, M.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Mellab, K.; Michel, P.; AIM Team

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is ESA's contribution to an international cooperation targeting the demonstration of deflection of a hazardous nearearth asteroid as well as the first in-depth investigation of a binary asteroid. After launch in 2020, AIM will rendezvous the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022 and observe the system before, during, and after the impact of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. The AIM mission will test new technologies like optical telecommunications by laser and Cubesats with nano-payloads and will perform scientific measurements at the asteroid system.

  13. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  14. The Aims of College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eble, Kenneth E.

    The aims of college teaching are discussed, and a comparison of higher education in 1960 and two decades later is provided. After considering the development of a teaching style and the importance of the teacher's character, the joyful and spontaneous side of teaching are considered. The nature of teaching (i.e., art, science, or craft) is also…

  15. Construction of a digital and physical mouse model aimed at the study of electrical shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2014-03-01

    Optical methods have been used to investigate electrical injury on animal models such as live mice, rats, and rabbits. Here we introduce a completely digital phantom of a mouse, with the aim of investigating electrical injury through spectroscopic imaging techniques. The basis of our phantom is a three-dimensional digital mouse reconstructed from co-registered computed tomographic images and cryosection by a different group. Image processing algorithms were applied to make the model suitable to Finite Element Analysis of thermal and electrical transport. Our digital model is capable of simulating temperature, voltage, current changes along the animal body during and after electrical shocks.

  16. New Seismic Hazard study in Spain Aimed at the revision of the Spanish Building Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Cabañas, L.; Martínez-Solares, J. M.; Ruíz, S.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Carreño, E.; Crespo, M.; García-Mayordomo, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through a logic tree and the aleatory ones linked to variability of parameters by means of probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations. In a first phase, the inputs have been prepared, which essentially are: 1) a project catalogue update and homogenization at Mw 2) proposal of zoning models and source characterization 3) calibration of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE's) with actual data and development of a local model with data collected in Spain for Mw < 5.5. In a second phase, a sensitivity analysis of the different input options on hazard results has been carried out in order to have criteria for defining the branches of the logic tree and their weights. Finally, the hazard estimation was done with the logic tree shown in figure 1, including nodes for quantifying uncertainties corresponding to: 1) method for estimation of hazard (zoning and zoneless); 2) zoning models, 3) GMPE combinations used and 4) regression method for estimation of source parameters. In addition, the aleatory uncertainties corresponding to the magnitude of the events, recurrence parameters and maximum magnitude for each zone have been also considered including probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations The main conclusions of the study are presented here, together with the obtained results in terms of PGA and other spectral accelerations

  17. A Comparative Investigation of the Previous and New Secondary History Curriculum: The Issues of the Definition of the Aims and Objectives and the Selection of Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinc, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on history teaching in Turkey indicate that the previous versions of the history curriculum and the pedagogy of history in the country bear many problems and deficiencies. The problems of Turkish history curriculum mainly arise from the perspectives it takes and the selection of its content. Since 2003, there have been extensive…

  18. The use of HIV-1 integration site analysis information in clinical studies aiming at HIV cure.

    PubMed

    Kiselinova, Maja; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms for the establishment and the persistence of the latent HIV-1 reservoir remain to be completely defined. HIV-1 infection is characterised by the integration of the reverse transcribed proviral DNA into the host's genome. This integrated proviral DNA can remain replication silent, but a small part of it is fully competent to restart viral replication when treatment is interrupted. Hence, this replication-competent provirus is the cause of viral rebound and is called the viral reservoir. The exact site of proviral integration within the host's cellular chromosome may affect the transcriptional activity of HIV. Thanks to recent technological advances, HIV-1 integration site analysis has been used to assess HIV-1 reservoirs in HIV-infected individuals. Analysis of HIV-1 integration sites in infected individuals undergoing suppressive ART led to identification of expanded clonal cell populations, indicating that clonal proliferation of the proviral reservoir may contribute to the long-term persistence of viral reservoirs. Here we describe the findings of several clinical studies, where a comprehensive HIV-1 integration site analysis was performed. PMID:27482458

  19. Grid-based precision aim system and method for disrupting suspect objects

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwell, Thomas Scott; Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Monda, Mark J.

    2014-06-10

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system has a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a grid board positionable adjacent the suspect object (the grid board having a plurality of grid areas, the radiation from the source passing through the grid board), a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image, a weapon for deploying a discharge, and a targeting unit for displaying the image of the suspect object and aiming the weapon according to a disruption point on the displayed image and deploying the discharge into the suspect object to disable the suspect object.

  20. A 3-Month Jump-Landing Training Program: A Feasibility Study Using the RE-AIM Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Inne; Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Mathieu, Niels; Van Schuerbeeck, Sander; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Context: Evaluating the translatability and feasibility of an intervention program has become as important as determining the effectiveness of the intervention. Objective: To evaluate the applicability of a 3-month jump-landing training program in basketball players, using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National and regional basketball teams. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four teams of the second highest national division and regional basketball divisions in Flanders, Belgium, were randomly assigned (1:1) to a control group and intervention group. A total of 243 athletes (control group = 129, intervention group = 114), ages 15 to 41 years, volunteered. Intervention(s): All exercises in the intervention program followed a progressive development, emphasizing lower extremity alignment during jump-landing activities. Main Outcome Measure(s): The results of the process evaluation of the intervention program were based on the 5 dimensions of the RE-AIM framework. The injury incidence density, hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Results: The participation rate of the total sample was 100% (reach). The hazard ratio was different between the intervention group and the control group (0.40 [95% confidence interval = 0.16, 0.99]; effectiveness). Of the 12 teams in the intervention group, 8 teams (66.7%) agreed to participate in the study (adoption). Eight of the participating coaches (66.7%) felt positively about the intervention program and stated that they had implemented the training sessions of the program as intended (implementation). All coaches except 1 (87.5%) intended to continue the intervention program the next season (maintenance). Conclusions: Compliance of the coaches in this coach-supervised jump-landing training program was high. In addition, the program was effective in preventing lower extremity injuries. PMID:23675788

  1. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male) across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A

  2. Programmed defects study on masks for 45nm immersion lithography using the novel AIMS 45-193i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherübl, Thomas; Dürr, Arndt C.; Böhm, Klaus; Birkner, Robert; Richter, Rigo; Strößner, Ulrich

    2007-02-01

    Mask manufacturing for the 45nm node for hyper NA lithography requires tight defect and printability control at small features sizes. The AIMS TM1 technology is a well established methodology to analyze printability of mask defects, repairs and critical features by scanner emulation. With the step towards hyper NA imaging by immersion lithography the AIMS TM technology has been faced with new challenges like vector effects, polarized illumination and tighter specs for repeatability and tool stability. These requirements pushed the development of an entirely new AIMS TM generation. The AIMS TM 45-193i has been designed and developed by Carl Zeiss to address these challenges. A new mechanical platform with a thermal and environmental control unit enables high tool stability. Thus a new class of specification becomes available. The 193nm optical beam path together with an improved beam homogenizer is dedicated to emulate scanners up to 1.4 NA. New features like polarized illumination and vector effect emulation make the AIMS TM 45- 193i a powerful tool for defect disposition and scanner emulation for 45nm immersion lithography. In this paper results from one of the first production tools will be presented. Aerial images from phase shifting and binary masks with different immersion relevant settings will be discussed. Also, data from a long term repeatability study performed on masks with programmed defects will be shown. This study demonstrates the tool's ability to perform defect disposition with high repeatability. It is found that the tool will fulfill the 45nm node requirements to perform mask qualification for production use.

  3. Studies Spotlight Charter Schools Aimed at Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly six decades after "Brown" v. "Board of Education," the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that ushered in an era of efforts to integrate public schools, charter school advocates and researchers are shining a light on a number of those independent public schools that are integrated by design. Two new reports--one from the National Alliance…

  4. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  5. Objectives of Financial Statements. Report of the Study Group on the Objectives of Financial Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Certified Public Accountants, New York, NY.

    This report discusses the objectives of financial statements. Emphasis is placed on the function of objectives; users, their goals, and their information needs; the primary enterprise goal and earning power; accountability and financial statements; financial statements--reporting on the goal attainment of business enterprises; financial…

  6. Absorption and thermal study of dental enamel when irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the aim of caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boari, H. G. D.; Ana, P. A.; Eduardo, C. P.; Powell, G. L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2009-07-01

    It is widely recognized that Nd:YAG can increase enamel resistance to demineralization; however, the safe parameters and conditions that enable the application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in vivo are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine a dye as a photoabsorber for Nd:YAG laser and to verify in vitro a safe condition of Nd:YAG irradiation for caries prevention. Fifty-eight human teeth were selected. In a first morphological study, four dyes (waterproof India ink., iron oxide, caries indicator and coal paste) were tested before Nd:YAG laser irradiation, under two different irradiation conditions: 60 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (84.9 J/cm2); 80 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (113.1 J/cm2). In a second study, the enamel surface and pulp chamber temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiations. All dyes produced enamel surface melting, with the exception of the caries indicator, and coal paste was the only dye that could be completely removed. All irradiation conditions produced temperature increases of up to 615.08°C on the enamel surface. Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 60 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and 84.9 J/cm2 promoted no harmful temperature increase in the pulp chamber (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Among all dyes tested, the coal paste was an efficient photoabsorber for Nd:YAG irradiation, considered feasible for clinical practice. Nd:YAG laser at 84.9 J/cm2 can be indicated as a safe parameter for use in caries prevention.

  7. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  8. The Effectiveness of an Innovative Intervention Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among Young People: Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Ramm, Josephine; Cooke, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a digital-story intervention (short videos made by young people) seeking to reduce the prevalence of young people's binge drinking in Caerphilly. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with three intervention sites and one control site providing the sample (mainly aged 14-15 years). Three rounds of…

  9. Towards Formulating Goals, Aims, and Objectives of Secondary Education for the Twenty-First Century. Final Report of a Regional Seminar on Goals, Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education in Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, October 16-31, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A regional seminar examined and defined the goals of secondary education in countries of the Asia and Pacific region seminar; it also analyzed causes for changes in secondary education goals and emerging trends. A total of 20 participants from the following countries--Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New…

  10. Aims and Control of the Universities: A Comparative Study of Academic Governance in Sweden and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    This is a comparative study of university control in Sweden and the United States with particular attention to the question of what difference it makes as to which segment of the university community controls a particular aspect of university life and university function. It is an exploration of the problem of the relationship between the…

  11. Animated View of the AIM Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  12. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    Results of a seismic risk assessment study are often applied and interpreted by users unspecialised on the topic or lacking a scientific background. In this context, the availability of tools that help translating essentially scientific contents to broader audiences (such as decision makers or civil defence officials) as well as representing and managing results in a user-friendly fashion, are on indubitable value. On of such tools is the visualization tool VISOR-RISNA, a web tool developed within the RISNA project (financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre, Spain) for regional seismic risk assessment of Navarre and the subsequent development of emergency plans. The RISNA study included seismic hazard evaluation, geotechnical characterization of soils, incorporation of site effects to expected ground motions, vulnerability distribution assessment and estimation of expected damage distributions for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The main goal of RISNA was the identification of higher risk area where focusing detailed, local-scale risk studies in the future and the corresponding urban emergency plans. A geographic information system was used to combine different information layers, generate tables of results and represent maps with partial and final results. The visualization tool VISOR-RISNA is intended to facilitate the interpretation and representation of the collection of results, with the ultimate purpose of defining actuation plans. A number of criteria for defining actuation priorities are proposed in this work. They are based on combinations of risk parameters resulting from the risk study (such as expected ground motion and damage and exposed population), as determined by risk assessment specialists. Although the values that these parameters take are a result of the risk study, their distribution in several classes depends on the intervals defined by decision takers or civil defense officials. These criteria provide a ranking of

  13. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Malcolm H.

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  14. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  15. An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farha, Nicholas W.

    2009-01-01

    Learning objects have quickly become a widely accepted approach to instructional technology, particularly in on-line and computer-based learning environments. While there is a substantial body of literature concerning learning objects, very little of it verifies their efficacy. This research investigated the effectiveness of learning objects by…

  16. AIM: Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adventures In Movement for the Handicapped, Inc., Dayton, OH.

    The handbook on Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped (AIM) gives information about general organizational goals and suggests activities for use by volunteer teachers with blind, deaf, crippled, cerebral palsied, mentally retarded, and autistic children at five ability/age levels. General Information given about each handicap usually includes…

  17. Fire First, Aim Later: A Qualitative Meta-Analytic Study of the Assessment Methods of Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Flores, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Research has been conducted to identify and analyze how schools are determining that the activities of their Professional Learning Community (PLC) are directly tied to student achievement as there is currently a gap in the existing literature with regards to this topic. For the purpose of this study, a "successful" PLC was defined as one…

  18. Researchers Weigh Benefits of One Computer per Lap: Studies Aim to Determine the Impact the Technology Has on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of school districts nationwide and nine states have invested millions of dollars in "one-to-one" laptop programs, hoping the availability of a computer for every student will improve achievement and other skills. They made those investments despite the fact that research on the impact of such technology on student achievement is…

  19. Theory of Knowledge Aims, Objectives and Assessment Criteria: An Analysis of Critical Thinking Descriptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the construct validity of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme's Theory of Knowledge course in the light of claims that it is a course in critical thinking. After discussion around critical thinking--what it is and why it is valuable educationally--the article analyses the extent to which the course aims,…

  20. The whole of intramolecular H-bonding in the isolated DNA nucleoside thymidine. AIM electron density topological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurenko, Yevgen P.; Zhurakivsky, Roman O.; Samijlenko, Svitlana P.; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Hovorun, Dmytro M.

    2007-10-01

    Based on comprehensive conformational analysis at the DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory [Ye.P. Yurenko et al., J. Phys. Chem. B, 111 (2007) 9655] 13 types of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (171 in total number, from 1 to 3 H-bonds per conformer) were identified in the 92 allowed conformers of isolated thymidine, a DNA canonical nucleoside. Weak interactions CH⋯ O, OH⋯ HC and CH⋯ HC were analyzed by all the Koch and Popelier criteria of H-bonding. Quite satisfactory linear correlation was found between Grabowski complex measure of H-bond strength Δcom and Iogansen H-bond energy -Δ H for 17 OH⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  1. Aiming Instruments On The Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Laskin, Robert; Lin, Yu-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses capabilities and requirements for aiming scientific instruments carried aboard proposed Space Station. Addresses two issues: whether system envisioned for pointing instruments at celestial targets offers sufficiently low jitter, high accuracy, and high stability to meet scientific requirements; whether it can do so even in presence of many vibrations and other disturbances on Space Station. Salient conclusion of study, recommendation to develop pointing-actuator system including mechanical/fluid base isolator underneath reactionaless gimbal subsystem. This kind of system offers greatest promise of high performance, cost-effectiveness, and modularity for job at hand.

  2. Aims, methods and preliminary findings of the Physical Activity, Nutrition and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens (PANACEA) epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Priftis, Kostas N; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Nicolaidou, Polyxeni

    2007-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a sample of Greek children aged 10–12 years, and to evaluate these rates in relation to anthropometric, lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits. Methods During 2006, 700 schoolchildren (323 male and 377 female), aged 10–12 years (4th to 6th school grade), were selected from 18 schools located in the greater Athens area. The schools were randomly selected from a list provided by the regional educational offices. To achieve a representative sample the schools enrolled were selected from various region of the Athens area. For each child a questionnaire was completed that was developed for the purposes of the study to retrieve information on: age, sex, school class, other socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary habits (through a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire) and physical activity status; the presence of asthma and allergies was assessed by the standard ISAAC questionnaire. Results The prevalence of wheezing in the past was 25% in boys and 19% in girls, while the prevalence of current wheezing was 9.0% in boys and 5.8% in girls. The prevalence of any asthma symptoms was 27.6% in boys and 20.4% in girls. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased body weight and sedentary lifestyle is associated with asthma symptoms only in boys. Conclusion The present cross-sectional study cannot establish causal relationships between asthma and increased body weight of schoolchildren; however, our findings underline the associations between asthma, increased body weight, and physical activity at population level, and urge for actions that should be taken by public health policy makers in order to prevent these conditions among children. PMID:17610743

  3. The aim and philosophy of patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. S. S.

    1970-01-01

    The history of monitoring is traced from ancient times until the invention of transducers and computers. The relevance of progress in resuscitation is emphasized. The more recent evolution of electromedical apparatus is considered from single signal detection, display and alarm to multiple signal processing, trend analysis and diagnosis. The aim of patient monitoring is to give warning of early or dangerous deterioration and to achieve this by obtaining an optimal compromise involving many design factors, clinical, engineering and economic. A new philosophy is illustrated by the specification and development of the Lifeline patient monitor. The translation of clinical diagnoses into electronic switching logic is of particular importance. PMID:4920275

  4. Development of tag-free photoprobes for studies aimed at identifying the target of novel Group A Streptococcus antivirulence agents

    PubMed Central

    Yestrepsky, Bryan D.; Kretz, Colin A.; Xu, Yuanxi; Holmes, Autumn; Sun, Hongmin; Ginsburg, David; Larsen, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the identification and development of novel inhibitors of streptokinase (SK) expression by Group A Streptococcus (GAS), originating from a high throughput cell-based phenotypic screen. Although phenotypic screening is well-suited to identifying compounds that exert desired biological effects in potentially novel ways, it requires follow-up experiments to determine the macromolecular target(s) of active compounds. We therefore designed and synthesized several classes of chemical probes for target identification studies, guided by previously established structure-activity relationships. The probes were designed to first irreversibly photolabel target proteins in the intact bacteria, followed by cell lysis and click ligation with fluorescent tags to allow for visualization on SDS-PAGE gels. This stepwise, “tag-free” approach allows for a significant reduction in molecular weight and polar surface area compared to full-length fluorescent or biotinylated probes, potentially enhancing membrane permeability and the maintenance of activity. Of the seven probes produced, the three most biologically active were employed in preliminary target identification trials. Despite the potent activity of these probes, specific labeling events were not conclusively observed due to a considerable degree of nonspecific protein binding. Nevertheless, the successful synthesis of potent biologically active probe molecules will serve as a starting point for initiating more sensitive methods of probe-based target identification. PMID:24559768

  5. The European Atherosclerosis Research Study (EARS): design and objectives.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The European Atherosclerosis Research Study--EARS--is a multicentre collaborative project sponsored by the European Community. Its main objective is to study, in young people, the biological expression of a paternal history of premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the relative share of heredity and environment in this expression. In 14 centres in 11 European countries, the offspring of fathers who suffered from a documented AMI before the age of 55 years (cases) are compared with age- and sex-matched control individuals. Genetic variables (restriction fragment length polymorphisms of candidate genes), lifestyle variables and biochemical variables that are known or suspected to play a role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD), are studied. The cultural and ethnic diversity within Europe allows a thorough investigation of the relative importance and the potential interactions of genetics and environment in the pathogenesis of CHD. A standardized core methodology and centralized storage of blood samples with particular types of analyses systematically carried out in one or a few specialized laboratories, from a strong basis for valid cross-cultural analyses. The results of this study will offer new clues for the modelling of individual risk for developing CHD. PMID:7960370

  6. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  7. The functional neuroanatomy of object agnosia: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Konen, Christina S.; Behrmann, Marlene; Nishimura, Mayu; Kastner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cortical re-organization of visual and object representations following neural injury was examined using fMRI and behavioral investigations. We probed the visual responsivity of the ventral visual cortex of an agnosic patient who was impaired at object recognition following a lesion to the right lateral fusiform gyrus. In both hemispheres, retinotopic mapping revealed typical topographic organization and visual activation of early visual cortex. However, visual responses, object-related and -selective responses were reduced in regions immediately surrounding the lesion in the right hemisphere, and also, surprisingly, in corresponding locations in the structurally intact left hemisphere. In contrast, hV4 of the right hemisphere showed expanded response properties. These findings indicate that the right lateral fusiform gyrus is critically involved in object recognition and that an impairment to this region has widespread consequences for remote parts of cortex. Finally, functional neural plasticity is possible even when a cortical lesion is sustained in adulthood. PMID:21745637

  8. Learning Objects in the Study of Mathematical Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Josué Antunes de; Nunes, Taise Costa de Souza; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-12-01

    This work is the result of a survey that aimed to produce Applets(animations) using the GeoGebra software applied to the study of trigonometric functions. We opted for the choice of this software, because of its easy usability, have nice interface and is very didactic, allowing the realization of a simple graphic to complex constructions. The choice of the contents of trigonometric functions, was due to the concern of many students want to learn the appropriate behavior involving these functions, because in practice beyond the calculations, the students require two-dimensional images to construct the graphics, Therefore, the use of the GeoGebra software can assist in building and viewing these charts. We used a metodology qualiquantitative to collection and data analysis, based on the application of questionnaires and observations having as use of didactic engineering for the formulation of didactic sequences. To the application of this methodology, a minicurs was given, with twenty hours, to the Mathematic and Physic students at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), Campus Januária. The results were found satisfactory, since the use of GeoGebra software provided a significant learning for the academics.

  9. A Pilot Study Aiming to Promote Parents' Understanding of Learning Assessments at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, Rollande; Rivard, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The new Québec curriculum is different from other curriculum reforms in that it is based on a competency approach, both cross-curricular and disciplinary. It thus means a move from knowledge-based to competency-based assessments which represents a real challenge to parents who may find it hard to understand learning assessments and their…

  10. Aims, Modes, and the Continuum of Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Walter H.

    A framework for the study of discourse, based on the analysis of three superordinate features of discourse (asymmetry, hierarchy, and continuum), is proposed in this paper. The paper begins by noting the confusion in terminology that exists in the world of composition pedagogy and theory; pointing to the need for a framework for testing,…

  11. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Ghysels, Mélanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Khaykin, Sergey; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Cairo, Francesco; Di Donfrancesco, Guido; Held, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    (SMOP) covering one complete wet season during which water vapour profiles are measured regularly for studying their seasonal variability, and ii) an intensive observation period (IOP) during the most convectively intense summer period when measurements of all above parameters are performed close to or above thunderstorms. After a short presentation of objectives and instrumentation involved, the main results from the complete TRO-pico campaign will be shown, including the most intense period of convection and the transition period between the dry and the wet seasons.

  12. Theoretical studies of the outer envelopes of young stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee

    1992-01-01

    With the Monte Carlo code developed by Whitney and Hartmann, a series of models was computed of scattering in disks around young stellar objects. The code calculates scattering by dust, including polarization, in arbitrary geometries. By computing model images, it was found that disk, by themselves, around young stellar objects would be very difficult to detect with present day imaging techniques. In comparing these images to observations of young stellar objects which show diffuse structure, little resemblance was found. A flared disk system will only give high polarization when viewed edge-on, and the position angle is always oriented perpendicular to the disk plane. This suggests that an envelope, perhaps the remnant infalling envelope, must be present to scatter more stellar light than a disk can, and obscure the star at many inclinations. A grid was computed of models of scattering in a disk+envelope system. Evidence is presented that the wind of the pre-main sequence object FU Orionis arises from the surface of the luminous prostellar accretion disk. A disk wind model calculated assuming radiative equilibrium explains the differential behavior of the observed asymmetrical absorption line profiles. The model predicts that strong lines should be asymmetric and blueshifted, while weak lines should be symmetric and doubled peaked due to disk rotation, in agreement with observations.

  13. Study of air masses trajectories during the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mappe, Irene; Riviere, Emmanuel; Khaykin, Sergey; Ghysels, Mélanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Amarouche, Nadir; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Water vapor directly affects the climate as greenhouse gas emissions, but also indirectly by the formation of other essential elements of radiative forcing as aerosols, clouds of ice. In addition, water has a significant role in the chemical composition, the balance of ozone and the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Transfers of water vapor in the troposphere to the stratosphere are one of the major scientific challenges in modeling the stratosphere and climate. The TRO-pico small balloon campaign took place in Bauru (22.3 ° S) in southern Brazil during two convective seasons. Its main objective was to study the exchange of water vapor between the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and better understand the role of overshooting convection in the moistening of the lower stratosphere and its variability at the local scale to infer a typical impact at a larger scale. Here we focus on the purely convective seasons of the campaign, with a first period in March 2012 and a second in Jan-Feb 2013, during which, in addition to convective tracers measurements (methane, O3…) H2O was intensively sampled by two different in situ hygrometers : Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B. Here we investigated all the measurements gathered close to deep convective events and analyze them in term of potential signature of overshooting convection in the lower stratosphere, to put to the fore possible impact at the wet season time scale. The approach is the use of a trajectory model (HYsplit) running with the GDAS analyses, the different H2O profile from both instruments, echo top from the Bauru S-Band radar highlighting any potential overshoot occurrence in the vicinity of the balloon flight earlier during the day. For each local maximum of H2O, a back trajectory is computed from the balloon position. It is checked if the back trajectory cross an overshooting cell seen by the Bauru radar, and matches it in time and maximum altitude Here we use a total of 8 vertical profiles of H2O from

  14. First results from the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, E. D.; Pommerau, J.-P.; Held, G.; Amarouche, N.; Ghysels, M.; Khaykin, S.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Renard, J.-B.; Cairo, F.; Durry, G.; Di Donfrancesco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL (Tropical Tropopause Layer) followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small in size and fast, but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, funded by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign in Bauru (22.3 S) in Southeast Brazil, from the end of January 2012 to December 2012, involving a series of light-weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser (H2O or CH4) and FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometers, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, and BrO, an AICEP (Electric field and Lightning) sensor, and COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based radar and lidar measurements, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, Megha-Tropiques and adequate modeling, that is, of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico is a two time-scale campaign: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering a complete wet season during which water vapour profiles will be measured regularly for studying its variability and seasonal change, and ii) an intensive observation period (IOP) during the most

  15. Nutrition education aimed at toddlers: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Weight problems in children are increasing at an alarming rate, especially among low-income populations. This concern requires effective strategies to promote healthy eating. A quasi-experiment was used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, Nutrition Education Aimed at Toddlers (NEAT), aimed at enhancing parent-toddler feeding practices. The NEAT intervention comprises four nutrition lessons and structured reinforcements over 6 months. A convenience sample of 135 low-income families participated in the study up to the first data collection wave. Complete data were available for 43 parent-toddler dyads in the intervention and 53 dyads in the control group. The results show that, compared to the controls, caregivers exposed to the intervention had significantly higher knowledge scores concerning toddler feedings. No statistically significant differences were found for measures of child and parent mealtime behaviors. Because it is generally easier to change knowledge than actual behaviors, our study results demonstrate the need to focus on other avenues to enhance parents' ability to feed toddlers appropriately. PMID:16295151

  16. Seeing is believing? A mixed-methods study exploring the quality and perceived trustworthiness of online information about chronic conditions aimed at children and young people.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Amy C; Gofine, Miriam L; Stinson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The numbers of children and young people with chronic conditions are increasing. While their information needs may vary, providing health care information can have considerable benefits, including better emotional health, less distress during treatments, and greater satisfaction with medical care. The Internet is increasingly being used to communicate health-related information to children about a range of chronic conditions. However, the quality of such websites is underexplored. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability and quality of online information for children about chronic conditions using a standardized evaluation tool, and to explore children's and young people's perceptions of quality and trustworthiness regarding online health information. The study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, websites about common pediatric chronic conditions aimed at children and containing treatment or management options were identified and the quality assessment tool DISCERN was completed. Test-retest and interrater reliability were calculated. In Phase 2, two focus groups with laptop computers were conducted with children and young people with a chronic condition to explore their perceptions of trustworthiness of online health information. In Phase 1, 165 websites were identified and 100 met the criteria and were assessed. The mean DISCERN score of all sites was 48.16 out of 75 (SD = 7.97, range 28-71, min 15 to max 75). Quality scores varied widely across the sample. The internal consistency and interrater reliability scores were both lower than previously reported in studies using the DISCERN to assess information for adults. In Phase 2, two focus groups with a total of six participants aged 11-23 years revealed a relative lack of concern about the quality and trustworthiness of online health information. Older participants reported judging the source and authorship of websites, but other participants did not question the source of the

  17. Experimental stand for studying the impact of laser-accelerated protons on biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdonov, K. F.; Eremeev, A. A.; Ignatova, N. I.; Osmanov, R. R.; Sladkov, A. D.; Soloviev, A. A.; Starodubtsev, M. V.; Ginzburg, V. N.; Kuz'min, A. A.; Maslennikova, A. V.; Revet, G.; Sergeev, A. M.; Fuchs, J.; Khazanov, E. A.; Chen, S.; Shaykin, A. A.; Shaikin, I. A.; Yakovlev, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    An original experimental stand is presented, aimed at studying the impact of high-energy protons, produced by the laser-plasma interaction at a petawatt power level, on biological objects. In the course of pilot experiments with the energy of laser-accelerated protons up to 25 MeV, the possibility is demonstrated of transferring doses up to 10 Gy to the object of study in a single shot with the magnetic separation of protons from parasitic X-ray radiation and fast electrons. The technique of irradiating the cell culture HeLa Kyoto and measuring the fraction of survived cells is developed. The ways of optimising the parameters of proton beams and the suitable methods of their separation with respect to energy and transporting to the studied living objects are discussed. The construction of the stand is intended for the improvement of laser technologies for hadron therapy of malignant neoplasms.

  18. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  19. Another Look at the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCiccio, Al

    2015-01-01

    The author was able to hear Stanley Fish speak at the annual meeting of the Association of American Colleges and Universities in January 2004. Fish, a literary critic, had become dean of arts and sciences at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)--a position he has now vacated. Fish has published widely, usually upholding the ideals of our…

  20. The Origins and Aims of Epistemics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, G. Patrick

    1972-01-01

    First of two articles describing the nature and historical development of the author's work on Epistemics" which he originally conceived as the science of the structure and transmission of human knowledge" and later elaborated to enable separate emphasis to be given to the human and instrumental aspect of knowledge transmission. (Editor/MB)

  1. The Future of Vocational Psychology: Aiming High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Nadya A.

    2001-01-01

    The strengths of vocational psychology include quantitative foundations, theory-driven research, and focus on vocational assessment. Weaknesses are overemphasis on quantitative methods, lack of context, and class-bound perceptions of work. Threats include appropriation by related disciplines and the practice of vocational counseling by those…

  2. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gunfight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three State legislatures in 2011 considered bills to permit the carrying of firearms at their public institutions of higher education, and some public colleges in at least six states now allow weapons on college grounds or in college buildings. The lawful possession of guns on campus is a recent and limited phenomenon, but decisions by the…

  3. An objective reference system for studying rings in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelão, Guilherme P.; Irber, Luiz C.; Villas Boas, Ana B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rings are marine vortices with a scale of hundreds of kilometers that can last for months, whose associated transport and mixing play an important role in the ocean dynamics. Such features are traditionally treated as a geostrophic flow, but since the centrifugal acceleration is not negligible in the inner core, the cyclo-geostrophic balance is a better approximation for the rings. In the present work, we describe a novel objective technique to identify the ring center, which is used as the origin of a convenient framework to handle rings under the cyclo-geostrophic balance. Furthermore, we correct the velocity field by the translation to isolate the swirl movement, a procedure ignored by other methodologies. We show that the lack of such correction would lead to an error of 30 km on the center definition of a ship surveyed North Brazil Current Ring with 160 km of radius. Another distinct characteristic of our approach is the flexibility in the spatio-temporal structure of the data, because it allows for ungridded data, an important ability for in situ observations. That also enables the use of a hybrid dataset composed from different instruments. The error on the Monte Carlo experiments to identify the center of the propagating ring is less than 10 km, and depends on the level of noise, sampling strategy, and strength of the ring, among other factors. This technique was fully implemented in PyRings, an open Python library with a collection of procedures to handle oceanic rings and mesoscale eddies in general.

  4. Social Studies Objectives, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Six objectives which form the framework of a K-12 social studies program of Department of Defense Dependents Schools are outlined. The objectives are to evaluate the relationship between human beings and their social, natural, and man-made environment; analyze the origins and interrelationships of beliefs, values, and behavior patterns; solve…

  5. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study: objectives, materials and methods

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    An investigation into the possible causes of childhood cancer has been carried out throughout England, Scotland and Wales over the period 1991–1998. All children known to be suffering from one or other type of the disease over periods of 4–5 years have been included, and control children matched for sex, age and area of residence have been selected at random from population registers. Information about both groups of children (with and without cancer) has been obtained from parental questionnaires, general practitioners' and hospital records, and from measurement of the extent of exposure to radon gas, terrestrial gamma radiation, and electric and magnetic fields. Samples of blood have also been obtained from the affected children and their parents and stored. Altogether 3838 children with cancer, including 1736 with leukaemia, and 7629 unaffected children have been studied. Detailed accounts are given of the nature of the information obtained in sections describing the general methodology of the study, the measurement of exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, the classification of solid tumours and leukaemias, and the biological material available for genetic analysis. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10737392

  6. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study

    PubMed Central

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. Methods: A total of 484 participants aged 87–89 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 5–7-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Results: Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P < 0.001). Conclusion: The Newcastle 85+ PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. PMID:26018999

  7. The Use of Metaphorical Connotation of Inanimate Objects to Describe People by Speakers of Jordanian Arabic: A Pragmatic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Soudi, Layth

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the use of connotations of inanimate objects to describe people by speakers of Jordanian Arabic. Its main goal is to analyze the positive and negative connotative meanings of inanimate object used to describe people in Jordan. Besides, the contribution of gender in making connotative meanings. The study provides a…

  8. Object motion analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of optical data processing (ODP) techniques for motion analysis in two-dimensional imagery was studied. The basic feasibility of this approach was demonstrated, but inconsistent performance of the photoplastic used for recording spatial filters prevented totally automatic operation. Promising solutions to the problems encountered are discussed, and it is concluded that ODP techniques could be quite useful for motion analysis.

  9. Study Protocol – Diabetes and related conditions in urban Indigenous people in the Darwin, Australia region: aims, methods and participation in the DRUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan; O'Dea, Kerin; Dunbar, Terry; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasing health problem in Australia and is a designated national health priority. Diabetes and related conditions represent an even greater health burden among Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), but there are critical gaps in knowledge relating to the incidence and prevalence, aetiology, and prevention of diabetes in this group, including a lack of information on the burden of disease among Indigenous people in urban areas. The DRUID Study (Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods/design The study was conducted in a specified geographic area in and around Darwin, Australia. Eligible participants underwent a health examination, including collection of blood and urine samples, clinical and anthropometric measurements, and administration of questionnaires, with an additional assessment for people with diabetes. The study was designed to incorporate local Indigenous leadership, facilitate community engagement, and provide employment and training opportunities for local Indigenous people. A variety of recruitment methods were used. A total of 1,004 eligible people gave consent and provided at least one measurement. When compared with census data for the Indigenous population living in the study area, there was a marked under-representation of males, but no substantial differences in age, place of residence, Indigenous group, or household income. Early participants were more likely than later participants to have previously diagnosed diabetes. Discussion Despite lower than anticipated recruitment, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study ever conducted on the health of Indigenous Australians living in urban areas, a group which comprises the majority of Australia's Indigenous population but about whose health and wellbeing relatively little is known. The study is well-placed to provide new

  10. Numerical Study of the Location of the Microwave Imaging Reflectometer Object Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatenko, Maxim; Mase, Atsushi; Bruskin, Leonid; Kogi, Yuichiro; Hojo, Hitoshi

    This paper is devoted to numerical study of the location of the imaging optics object plane. The simulation shows that in the case of the plane plasma cutoff, the object plane is located at the virtual cutoff position defined by E. Mazzucato [Nuclear Fusion 45, 203 (2001)], while in the case of cylindrical plasma, the object plane is shifted toward the cutoff position.

  11. An intervention program with the aim to improve and maintain work productivity for workers with rheumatoid arthritis: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often experience restrictions in functioning at work and participation in employment. Strategies to maintain work productivity exist, but these interventions do not involve the actual workplace. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the (cost)effectiveness of an intervention program at the workplace on work productivity for workers with RA. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in specialized rheumatology treatment centers in or near Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Randomisation to either the control or the intervention group is performed at patient level. Both groups will receive care as usual by the rheumatologist, and patients in the intervention group will also take part in the intervention program. The intervention program consists of two components; integrated care, including a participatory workplace intervention. Integrated care involves a clinical occupational physician, who will act as care manager, to coordinate the care. The care manager has an intermediate role between clinical and occupational care. The participatory workplace intervention will be guided by an occupational therapist, and involves problem solving by the patient and the patients’ supervisor. The aim of the workplace intervention is to achieve consensus between patient and supervisor concerning feasible solutions for the obstacles for functioning at work. Data collection will take place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months by means of a questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is work productivity, measured by hours lost from work due to presenteeism. Secondary outcome measures include sick leave, quality of life, pain and fatigue. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated from the societal perspective. Discussion Usual care of primary and outpatient health services is not aimed at improving work productivity. Therefore it is desirable to develop interventions aimed at

  12. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget: first highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Khaykhin, Sergey; Ghysels, Melanie; Mappe-Fogaing, Irene; Stoeffler, Clara; Toledo-Tarasco, Daniel; Rannou, Pascal; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small size, fast but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign that took place in Bauru (22.3°S) in S-E Brazil, in March 2012 and from November 2012 to March 2013 (most of the wet season) with a peak phase in January-February 2013 (during the most active convective season). The campaign involved a series of light weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser spectrometers (H2O, CO2 or CH4), a FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometer, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based S-Band radar and an optical depth sensor so-called ODS, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, and adequate modelling tools that is of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico included a two time-scale campaign with a total of 37 balloon flights including 34 flights using H2O sensors in the flight train: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering to the full wet season

  13. Satellite mission Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) partners with formal and informal education programs to study clouds on the edge of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. Q.; Maggi, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    The satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM), has developed an exciting partnership of formal and informal education programs that will connect students and the public to the unique scientific aspects of the mission. The AIM satellite mission is dedicated to providing a scientific basis for understanding why Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) form and vary. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) or "night shinning" clouds because of their visibility at dawn and dusk. The visible manifestation of PMCs provides a unique opportunity for Education and Public Outreach. The AIM outreach programs will utilize the beautiful images of "clouds on the edge of space" as a tool to motivate students and the public to increase their knowledge and understanding about issues surrounding changes in our atmosphere. In an effort to provide formal and informal outreach opportunities worldwide, AIM has developed a partnership with the GLOBE program. GLOBE is a network of schools, science centers, and clubs from over 105 countries where participants collect scientific data according to precise protocols and enter the data into a central database allowing both scientists and students to utilize the data. The collaboration between AIM and GLOBE will involve participants in collecting and utilizing NLC data worldwide. This partnership will provide a mechanism for sustaining AIM education opportunities for both formal and informal education venues in the future. Included in the formal education component of AIM outreach is the implementation of two educator workshops that will establish partnerships between the mission and classrooms nationwide. The educator workshops will be held in Alaska due to the optimal location for viewing NLCs. Participants attending the workshops will be chosen from a national pool allowing teachers working with students in southern latitudes an opportunity to experience the excitement of working with data that can only

  14. Study objectives: Will commercial avionics do the job? Improvements needed?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasr, Hatem

    1992-01-01

    Improvements in commercial avionics are covered in a viewgraph format. Topics include the following: computer architecture, user requirements, Boeing 777 aircraft, cost effectiveness, and implemention.

  15. Objectively determined habitual physical activity in South African adolescents: the PAHL study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited data on objectively determined habitual physical activity (PA) in 16-year old South African adolescents. The purpose of this study was to objectively determine the habitual PA of adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa by race and gender. Methods Adolescents (137 girls, 89 boys) from the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHL study), participated in the present study. Habitual PA was objectively recorded by means of the Actiheart® over a period of 7 days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed. Results Average MVPA for the study sample was 50.9 ± 40.3 minutes/day. Girls were significantly more active than boys expending more time in MVPA (61.13 ± 52.2 minutes/day; p < 0.05) than boys (35.0 ± 32.9 minutes/day). Although white adolescents spent more time in MVPA than black adolescents, there was no significant difference in MVPA between black (47.87 ± 39.6 minutes/day; p = 0.58) and white adolescents (59.5 ± 41.8 minutes/day). Conclusion Physical activity varies by both gender and race in adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa. Objectively determined data from our study indicates that girls habitually spend more time in MVPA per day than boys, and that white adolescents habitually engage in more MVPA than black adolescents. Seeing as the average MVPA per day for the entire study sample falls below the recommended daily average of 60minutes/day, adolescents should be the foremost targets of interventions aimed at enhancing habitual PA. PMID:24885503

  16. Is objective and accurate cognitive assessment across the menstrual cycle possible? A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Jo; Scally, Andy; Tuffnell, Derek; Marshall, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Variation in plasma hormone levels influences the neurobiology of brain regions involved in cognition and emotion processing. Fluctuations in hormone levels across the menstrual cycle could therefore alter cognitive performance and wellbeing; reports have provided conflicting results, however. The aim of this study was to assess whether objective assessment of cognitive performance and self-reported wellbeing during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle is feasible and investigate the possible reasons for variation in effects previously reported. Methods: The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were used to assess the cognitive performance and wellbeing of 12 women. Data were analysed by self-reported and hormone-estimated phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Recruitment to the study and assessment of cognition and wellbeing was without issue. Plasma hormone and peptide estimation showed substantial individual variation and suggests inaccuracy in self-reported menstrual phase estimation. Conclusion: Objective assessment of cognitive performance and self-assessed wellbeing across the menstrual cycle is feasible. Grouping data by hormonal profile rather by self-reported phase estimation may influence phase-mediated results. Future studies should use plasma hormone and peptide profiles to estimate cycle phase and group data for analyses. PMID:26770760

  17. Psychophysiological and physiological aspects of T-wave amplitude in the objective study of behavior.

    PubMed

    Furedy, J J; Heslegrave, R J; Scher, H

    1984-01-01

    The objective study of behavior, which is the stated aim of our society, does not impose restrictions on the levels of explanatory constructs that are used. The only restriction is that the evidence concerning those constructs be stated in an objective or scientifically communicable way. Thus the concepts that we employ to explain behavior range from the sociologic to the biochemical. This article's underlying thesis is that behavior needs to be investigated at various levels, and that these levels should be clearly differentiated in order to bring these investigations into a scientifically meaningful relationship. The thesis is here illustrated by examining evidence and arguments concerning the utility and status of a noninvasive index of myocardial performance: T-wave amplitude (TWA). The examination begins at a psychophysiological-index level, wherein TWA is considered in terms of how well this noninvasive physiological index differentiates psychological processes. Secondly, at a lower physiological-index level, we consider the assumption that TWA reflects a relatively unitary physiological process, myocardial beta-adrenergic sympathetic influence. Both the grounds for and implications of this assumption are discussed. Finally, at the physiological-index level of discourse, brief reference is made to the mechanism by which changes in beta-adrenergic sympathetic innervation may produce correlated changes in TWA. The overall aim of the article is to differentiate these three levels of investigation, and yet also to consider the interrelationship among these three levels in order to provide a fuller scientific understanding of the phenomena involved. PMID:6504582

  18. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months), tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva), environmental (fluoride exposure) and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions). 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and progression of early

  19. [The importance of using biological test objects in studying the toxicity of surface-active substances].

    PubMed

    Mudryĭ, I V; Debrivnaia, I E

    1996-01-01

    The Azotobacter agilis [correction of azobacter agile] culture appeared to be the most sensitive one among the studied test objects. Buckwheat as a test plant can be recommended in studying the toxicity of surface-active substances. PMID:9035856

  20. The General Aims of Educational Development -- A Comparative Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    The inconsistency between norms prescribed by international agencies and the educational strategies suggested to put these norms into practice has created problems as is evident in the case studies of India and Egypt and the general aims of educational development in these two countries. In Egypt a policy of basic education had the support of…

  1. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms. PMID:22039696

  2. A case study evaluation of an intervention aiming to strengthen the midwifery professional role in Morocco: anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Abou Malham, Sabina; Hatem, Marie; Leduc, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, Morocco is strongly committed to strengthen its midwifery professional role. This study aimed to identify barriers that could potentially hinder an action plan to strengthen the midwifery professional role from achieving desired outcomes. We used a conceptual framework, which is derived from Hatem-Asmar’s (1997) framework on the interaction of educational, professional, and sociocultural systems in which a professional role evolves and from Damschroder et al’s (2009) framework for the implementation analysis. Methods This paper builds on a qualitative case study on the factors affecting the action plan’s implementation process that also revealed rich data about anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes. Data were collected through training sessions, field observations, documents, focus groups (n=20), and semistructured interviews (n=11) with stakeholders pertaining to the three systems under study. Content analysis was used to identify themes related to barriers. Results Seven barriers that may compromise the achievement of desired results were found. They relate to the legal framework, social representations, and media support in the sociocultural system and the practice environment, networks and communication mechanisms, and characteristics related to the role and the readiness in the professional system. Conclusion Disregarding sociocultural and professional system level, barriers may impede efforts to strengthen the midwife’s role and to provide qualified midwives who can improve the quality of maternal care. Making changes in the educational system cannot be thought of as an isolated process. Its success is closely tied with multiple contextual factors pertaining to the two other systems. Activities recommended to address these barriers may have great potential to build a competent midwifery workforce that contributes to positive maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:26445547

  3. Studying the incommensurability that unites us: persuasion across discourse communities, persuasion via boundary objects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    In the science studies literature the theoretical construct of boundary objects has been developed to explain how diverse communities clustered around a scientific subject area cooperate to advance that area. Boundary objects are 'scientific objects that inhabit several intersecting social worlds . . . and satisfy the informational requirements of each of them' (Star and Griesemer 393). Star and Griesemer's foundational article showed that these objects can be shared by communities ranging from academic researchers to amateur enthiasts, adminsitrators, philanthropists, and technicians. While each community understands the object differently, there is enough commonality in the understanding of the object to unite these distinct social worlds and facilitate cooperation among them.

  4. Objectivity and History in the Study of Higher Education: A Note on the Methodology of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodysh, Henry W.

    1987-01-01

    The pursuit of objectivity is among the most critical yet unresolved problems confronting the study of higher education. The entire process of research is theory-laden, putting into question the possibility of objectivity in historical investigation. A change of approach to address this issue is recommended. (MSE)

  5. The neural and cognitive correlates of aimed throwing in chimpanzees: a magnetic resonance image and behavioural study on a unique form of social tool use.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Russell, Jamie L; Schaeffer, Jennifer A

    2012-01-12

    It has been hypothesized that neurological adaptations associated with evolutionary selection for throwing may have served as a precursor for the emergence of language and speech in early hominins. Although there are reports of individual differences in aimed throwing in wild and captive apes, to date there has not been a single study that has examined the potential neuroanatomical correlates of this very unique tool-use behaviour in non-human primates. In this study, we examined whether differences in the ratio of white (WM) to grey matter (GM) were evident in the homologue to Broca's area as well as the motor-hand area of the precentral gyrus (termed the KNOB) in chimpanzees that reliably throw compared with those that do not. We found that the proportion of WM in Broca's homologue and the KNOB was significantly higher in subjects that reliably throw compared with those that do not. We further found that asymmetries in WM within both brain regions were larger in the hemisphere contralateral to the chimpanzee's preferred throwing hand. We also found that chimpanzees that reliably throw show significantly better communication abilities than chimpanzees that do not. These results suggest that chimpanzees that have learned to throw have developed greater cortical connectivity between primary motor cortex and the Broca's area homologue. It is suggested that during hominin evolution, after the split between the lines leading to chimpanzees and humans, there was intense selection on increased motor skills associated with throwing and that this potentially formed the foundation for left hemisphere specialization associated with language and speech found in modern humans. PMID:22106425

  6. Cost-effectiveness analyses of self-harm strategies aimed at reducing the mortality of pesticide self-poisonings in Sri Lanka: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Suneth; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 803 900 people worldwide died as a result of self-harm in 2012. The deliberate ingestion of pesticides has been identified as the method most frequently used to commit fatal self-harm globally. In Sri Lanka, it is estimated that up to 60% of all suicides are committed using this method. The aim of the present study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing safe storage intervention currently taking place in a rural Sri Lankan district and to model the cost-effectiveness of implementing the safe storage intervention as well as four potential interventions (legislative, medical management, follow-up contact and mobile phone contact) on a national level. Methods and analysis Study design for all the strategies is a cost-effectiveness analysis. A governmental perspective is adopted. The time horizon for tracking the associated costs and health outcomes of the safe storage intervention on district level runs over 3 years. The time horizon is extended to 5 years when modelling a full national roll-out of the respective interventions. The discounting of costs and health outcomes are undertaken at the recommended real rate of 3%. Threshold analyses of the modelled strategies are employed to assess the strategies potential for cost-effectiveness, running scenarios with health outcome improvements ranging from 1% to 100%. Sensitivity analyses are also performed. The main outcome measures of the safe storage intervention are incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted for the safe storage project from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in March of 2008. An amendment for the present study was granted from Rajarata University of Sri Lanka in November of 2013. Findings will be disseminated to public and private stakeholders in local and national government in Sri Lanka as well as the wider academic audience through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. Trial

  7. A Discussion of Research Aims and Strategies for Studying Education in the Inner-City (A Critique of Non-Participant Observations). Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Carol

    The objective of naturalistic observations conducted in schools and homes in the inner city was to relate teacher expectation to pupil behavior. Following kindergarten observations, selected black children predicted as potentially successful and black children predicted as poor achievers were observed in their homes along with their mothers. This…

  8. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations during Action Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects being brought either to a correct or to an…

  9. The Distinctive Features of a Feasibility Study: Objectives and Guiding Questions.

    PubMed

    Orsmond, Gael I; Cohn, Ellen S

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we highlight the distinctive features of a feasibility study, identify the main objectives and guiding questions of a feasibility study, and illustrate the use of these objectives. We synthesized the research methods literature related to feasibility studies to identify five overarching objectives of feasibility studies that focus on social and behavioral interventions. Feasibility studies are designed to answer the overarching question: Can it work? The main objectives of feasibility include the assessment of recruitment capability and resulting sample characteristics, data collection procedures and outcome measures, acceptability of the intervention and study procedures, resources and ability to manage and implement the study and intervention, and preliminary evaluation of participant responses to the intervention. For each objective, we identified follow-up questions designed to assist the researchers to understand barriers to the ultimate success of the research. PMID:26594739

  10. Taking Aims: New CASE Study Benchmarks Advancement Investments and Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Rae

    2012-01-01

    Advancement professionals have always been thirsty for information that will help them understand how their programs compare with those of their peers. But in recent years the demand for benchmarking data has exploded as budgets have become leaner, leaders have become more business minded, and terms like "performance metrics and return on…

  11. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  12. Determination of the object surface function by structured light: application to the study of spinal deformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendía, M.; Salvador, R.; Cibrián, R.; Laguia, M.; Sotoca, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The projection of structured light is a technique frequently used to determine the surface shape of an object. In this paper, a new procedure is described that efficiently resolves the correspondence between the knots of the projected grid and those obtained on the object when the projection is made. The method is based on the use of three images of the projected grid. In two of them the grid is projected over a flat surface placed, respectively, before and behind the object; both images are used for calibration. In the third image the grid is projected over the object. It is not reliant on accurate determination of the camera and projector pair relative to the grid and object. Once the method is calibrated, we can obtain the surface function by just analysing the projected grid on the object. The procedure is especially suitable for the study of objects without discontinuities or large depth gradients. It can be employed for determining, in a non-invasive way, the patient's back surface function. Symmetry differences permit a quantitative diagnosis of spinal deformities such as scoliosis.

  13. A chicken model for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Samantha M. W.; Wood, Justin N.

    2015-01-01

    “Invariant object recognition” refers to the ability to recognize objects across variation in their appearance on the retina. This ability is central to visual perception, yet its developmental origins are poorly understood. Traditionally, nonhuman primates, rats, and pigeons have been the most commonly used animal models for studying invariant object recognition. Although these animals have many advantages as model systems, they are not well suited for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition in the newborn brain. Here, we argue that newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) are an ideal model system for studying the emergence of invariant object recognition. Using an automated controlled-rearing approach, we show that chicks can build a viewpoint-invariant representation of the first object they see in their life. This invariant representation can be built from highly impoverished visual input (three images of an object separated by 15° azimuth rotations) and cannot be accounted for by low-level retina-like or V1-like neuronal representations. These results indicate that newborn neural circuits begin building invariant object representations at the onset of vision and argue for an increased focus on chicks as an animal model for studying invariant object recognition. PMID:25767436

  14. MonitorNet: the Italian multi-centre observational study aimed at estimating the risk/benefit profile of biologic agents in real-world rheumatology practice.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, P; Salaffi, F; Montecucco, C M; Bombardieri, S; Todesco, S

    2009-01-01

    MonitorNet is a database established by the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) in January 2007 and funded by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), for the active long-term follow-up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis treated with biologic agents. All hospital Rheumatology Units in Italy were invited to participate in a non-interventional, observational, epidemiological study. The study is conducted in a routine clinical setting (real-world practice) where biologics are prescribed on the basis of current recommendations. In this report we describe the design, methodology, and present preliminary data of the study. At the time of the analysis (April 2009) the database included 3510 patients: 2469 (70.3%) with established RA, 675 (19.2%) with PsA and 366 (10.4%) with AS. The cumulative follow up period was 8,787 patient-years (RA: 8,388, PsA: 157; AS: 242). There were 1,538 adverse events in 938 (26.7%) patients. Infections were recorded in 630 patients, skin-related adverse events in 142 and post-infusion reactions in 90. A total of 30 malignancies were reported. An interim analysis of efficacy was conducted on 2,148 RA patients. Seven hundred and thirty-one patients (35.8%) achieved EULAR remission (defined as DAS28<2.4). When assessed with the more restrictive CDAI and SDAI criteria, the frequency of remission was lower (17.9% and 14.7% respectively). Availability of funding for this study provided an opportunity to organize a collaborative national network of rheumatology clinics to develop a large multicentre observational study. PMID:19633800

  15. Summary of clinical and laboratory data of study subjects with and without DCE-MRI plaque measurements in the AIM-HIGH clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kevin D.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Chen, Huijun; Neradilek, Moni B.; Probstfield, Jeffrey L.; Peck, Suzanne; Isquith, Daniel A.; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Polissar, Nayak L.; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Kerwin, William S.

    2016-01-01

    This brief data article summarizes the clinical risk factors and laboratory data of a group of subjects recruited for the AIM-HIGH trial (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and an associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy. The sample is restricted to those on statin therapy at the time of enrollment and data are presented stratified by whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) markers of carotid plaque vascularity and inflammation were available or not. The data provided herein are directly related to the article “Longer Duration of Statin Therapy is Associated with Decreased Carotid Plaque Vascularity by Magnetic Resonance Imaging” [2]. PMID:26977429

  16. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  17. A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. Method/Design This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. Discussion The intervention package is designed to

  18. Conscientious objection, barriers, and abortion in the case of rape: a study among physicians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion. PMID:24908465

  19. Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The release of "The New Zealand Curriculum" causes us to rethink the aims of education. Dr Cavanagh offers an alternative set of aims to the vision outlined in the Ministry of Education document, which is based, at least in part, on socialisation into the corporate industrial world. Dr Cavanagh's position is focused on putting relationships at the…

  20. Laugh and Smile upon the Holy Quran: The Study of Analytical Objectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al-Domi, Mohammad Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the positive impact of The Holy Quran based on the laugh and smile. This kind of derivatives in which context of praise, expression the feeling of happiness and joyful in the positive senses. Everyone needs to relieve his heart so that happiness and joy on their faces can be seen. Laughter also are some of attribute…

  1. Benchmark integration test for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, H.; Labuda, L.

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) studies and solves systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This systems integration approach to addressing human capability barriers will yield validation of advanced concepts and technologies, establish baselines for further development, and help identify opportunities for system-level breakthroughs. Early ground-based testing of mission capability will identify successful system implementations and operations, hidden risks and hazards, unexpected system and operations interactions, mission mass and operational savings, and can evaluate solutions to requirements-driving questions; all of which will enable NASA to develop more effective, lower risk systems and more reliable cost estimates for future missions. This paper describes the first in the series of integration tests proposed for AIM (the Benchmark Test) which will bring in partners and technology, evaluate the study processes of the project, and develop metrics for success.

  2. The Intelligence of Complexity: Do the Ethical Aims of Research and Intervention in Education Not Lead Us to a New Discourse "On the Study Methods of Our Time"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Moigne, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    To better appreciate the contribution of the "paradigm of complexity" in Educational sciences, this paper proposes a framework discussing its cultural and historical roots. First, it focuses on Giambattista Vico's (1668-1744) critique of René Descartes' method (1637), contrasting Cartesian's principles (evidence, disjunction, linear…

  3. Patriotism, History and the Legitimate Aims of American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaining important truths germane to the various…

  4. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  5. 'A dispassionate and objective effort:' negotiating the first study on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Jacob Darwin

    2007-01-01

    The National Academy of Science's 1956 study on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) was designed to provide an objective analysis to assess conflicting statements by leading geneticists and by officials in the Atomic Energy Commission. Largely because of its status as a detached, non-governmental evaluation by eminent scientists, no studies have had a broader impact on the development of biological thinking in regard to nuclear policies. This paper demonstrates that despite the first BEAR study's reputation as an objective and independent study, it was the product of careful negotiation between Academy scientists, the Atomic Energy Commission, and Britain's Medical Research Council. This paper also reveals the fragility of the consensus that produced the Academy's report, the range of political uses of the report, and the subsequent disaffection of the scientists who took part in it. PMID:17993170

  6. An Empirical Study of Block Matching Techniques for the Detection of Moving Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Love, N S; Kamath, C

    2006-01-09

    The basis of surveillance, event detection, and tracking applications is the detection of moving objects in complex scenes. Complex scenes are difficult to analyze because of camera noise and lighting conditions. Currently, moving objects are detected primarily using background subtraction. We analyze block matching as an alternative for detecting moving objects. Block matching has been extensively utilized in compression algorithms for motion estimation. Besides detection of moving objects, block matching also provides motion vectors (location of motion) which can aide in tracking objects. Block matching techniques consist of three main components: block determination, search methods, and matching criteria. We compare various options for each of the components with moving object detection as the performance goal. Publicly available sequences of several different traffic and weather conditions are used to evaluate the techniques. A coherence metric and the average magnitude of object motion vector error are used to evaluate block determination approaches and search methods. To compare the matching criteria we use precision-recall curves to evaluate the performance of motion detection. We present an empirical study of the block matching techniques using these metrics of performance as well as process timing. We found the hierarchical block determination approach has an overall higher coherence of object motion vectors than the simple block determination approach, but with a significant increase in process timing. The average magnitude of object motion vector for the search methods evaluated were comparable, with the cross search method having a better coherence of object motion vectors. Overall the three step search (TSS) detects more moving objects than the cross and 2D-logarithmic search methods. And the mean square difference (MSD) matching criterion has the best precision-recall as well as process timing when using zero motion biasing.

  7. The Florida State Twin Registry: research aims and design.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jeanette E; James, Lisa M; Reeves, Mark D; Bobadilla, Leonardo

    2006-12-01

    Relatively little is known about the relationship of most personality disorders to executive cognitive functioning despite their associations with frontal cortex activity. Research on genetic influence is lacking for most personality disorders, and research on genetic influences associated with executive cognitive functioning is sparse and mixed. The Florida State Twin Registry was created to conduct a pilot twin study aimed at examining genetic influence on personality disorders and executive cognitive functioning. Measures included structured clinical interviews for symptoms and diagnoses of personality disorders (borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, and dependent), depression, substance abuse/dependence, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop Color-Word Test were administered to assess executive cognitive functioning. Self-report questionnaires were included to assess maladaptive personality traits. Data sharing and future directions for growing the Florida State Twin Registry are discussed. PMID:17254436

  8. What Should Religious Education in Germany Be about and How Does Religiosity Fit into This Picture? An Empirical Study of Pre-Service Religious Education Teachers' Beliefs on the Aims of RE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Ulrich; Mendl, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In secularising Germany the aim of religious education (RE) is under discussion. The churches opt for denominational education familiarising the students with their own religious tradition. Humanists claim an ethical education, giving students objective information about different religions. Which perspective do students who will become RE…

  9. Objective Subsurface Geological Modeling using Geological Columns - A case study for the Kisarazu Distinct, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological models of subsurface structure play an important role in disaster assessment, environmental preservation, and underground utilization. These models are often constructed subjectively based on geological data obtained from field survey. However, reliability of subjective model depends on modeler's knowledge and experience as well as on quality of basic data. In order to ensure a more stable reliability of the model, objective approach is necessary. The purpose of this study is to establish an objective geological modeling method. For the purpose of this study, we constructed a subsurface geological model focusing on mathematical treatment of stratigraphy. Study area is the Kisarazu distinct, in the middle part of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Basic data for modeling are 44 geological columns. In the modeling, firstly, we constructed a Logical Model of Geological Structure (LMGS) that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The LMGS is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. Secondly, we generated Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of geological boundary surfaces using geological columns. Thirdly, we constructed an objective geological model using the LMGS and the DEMs. Finally, we visualized the model in 2D and 3D using GRASS GIS. As a result, in the areas with high number of geological columns, geological map and geological cross-sections derived from objective model were in good agreement with the ones derived from subjective model reported in other studies. In the areas with low number of geological columns, the objective map and cross-sections were somewhat different from subjective ones. In conclusion, the results indicate that objective model may give new findings about subsurface structure. In addition, the objective model gives a more stable reliability than the subjective model because the former ensures traceability of modeling

  10. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

  11. Mechanistic and synthetic studies aimed at the development of single-site metal alkoxide catalysts for the generation of polyesters and polycarbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Malcolm

    2010-06-30

    The work proposed herein focuses on the chemistry of metal-oxygen bonds with respect to insertion/enchainment reactions involving epoxides, cyclic esters and carbonates, acid anhydrides and carbon dioxide leading to the formation of polyethers, polyesters and polycarbonates from renewable resources. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of the biologically benign metals magnesium and calcium and the M(3+) ions of aluminum, chromium and cobalt that have a similar ionic radii but different coordination properties arising from their respective d0, d3 and d6 valence shell configurations. The work emphasizes the design and use of single-site metal catalysis involving LMOR initiating and propagating species. For M = Mg and Ca, L is a pyrazolyl borate ligand specifically tailored to the coordination properties of the metal. In addition the ligand is inert with respect to reactions of the substrates under consideration. For the M(3+) ions, L is a substituted porphyrin, namely 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin, TFPP or 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrin, which together with Lewis base co-catalysts will allow the elucidation of factors leading to polyethers, polycarbonates and cyclic carbonates in reactions involving epoxides and CO2. Specific attention is given to reactions involving propylene oxide and styrene oxide which commonly show competitive formation of products. Electronic structure calculations employing Density Functional Theory will be carried out to elucidate the ring opening of the epoxide by alkylcarbonate and alkoxide ligands and the chain growth mechanism. Polymerization of lactide will be investigated using inexpensive solid supports and catalytic routes to cyclic esters are proposed wherein complexation to metal ions may allow chemical amplification of specific rings. With an understanding of mechanisms involving the reactions of M-OR bonds the development of single-site catalysis for the

  12. Ecological studies of disturbed landscapes: a compendium of the results of five years of research aimed at the restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, A.J.

    1984-09-01

    Results of a research program which investigates some of the fundamental environmental questions associated with coal extraction as part of DOE's broad mission to understand the environmental consequences of energy development are described. This document summarizes that program. The report is divided into 12 chapters which cover topics including revegetation of disturbed land in arid ecosystems; microbial ecology and nutrient cycling; amelioration of acid waste materials; effects of mining on watershed hydrology and water quality; etc. Each chapter has been separately indexed and is included in the EDB. (MDF)

  13. Mechanical objects and the engineering learner: An experimental study of how the presence of objects affects students' performance on engineering related tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact that practicing engineers work with mechanical objects as they design, test and improve devices. It is possible that mechanical objects can facilitate learning by providing opportunities to authenticate the teaching and learning experience. More importantly, mechanical objects can serve as an instrument in transferring the knowledge of abstract concepts to practical applications. What remains unclear is how individual differences in interests and aptitudes are related to these interactions in engineering students. This study investigated how individual differences related to thing orientation and mechanical aptitude affect interaction with mechanical objects in engineering education instruction. The study introduces a task designed to replicate a real-world engineering application and uses this task to examine the effect of these aptitudes, interests, and direct manipulation of mechanical objects on performance.

  14. Provider Burnout and Patient Engagement: The Quadruple and Quintuple Aims.

    PubMed

    Epperson, William Jackson; Childs, Susan Fink; Wilhoit, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The Triple Aim has become the guiding light and benchmark by which healthcare organizations plan their future efforts. It has been adopted into healthcare policies with little regard for including the skill sets of compassion and emotional intelligence. The multiple increasing demands on providers of healthcare are unsustainable and will cripple the system, resulting in outcomes that are counter to the Triple Aim goals. Patient engagement with shared decision-making should become the primary focus of care delivery. New delivery models and care plans are unaffordable to far too many patients and payers, despite the efforts of futurists who seek to advance quality and lower costs. Clinical care delivery and patient engagement efforts must be drastically redirected to innovative and sustainable value-based delivery models that support the goals of the Triple Aim. PMID:27443059

  15. Rats' Visual-Spatial Working Memory: New Object Choice Accuracy as a Function of Number of Objects in the Study Array

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jerome; Han, Xue; Matei, Anca; Parameswaran, Varakini; Zuniga, Robert; Hlynka, Myron

    2010-01-01

    When rats had to find new (jackpot) objects for rewards from among previously sampled baited objects, increasing the number of objects in the sample (study) segment of a trial from 3 to 5 and then to 7 (Experiment 1) or from 3 to 6 and 9 (Experiments 2 and 3) or from 6 to 9 and 12 (Experiment 4) did not reduce rats' test segment performance.…

  16. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  17. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  18. Comment on "Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the Aims of Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This commentary presents the author's response to an article published in the last version of "Kairaranga" entitled "Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the aims of education," written by Dr. Tom Cavanagh. He found it refreshing to read Cavanagh's article that focuses educators' energies onto re-visiting the wider socio-cultural goals of…

  19. Alienation, Art and Affirmation in the Work of Aime Cesaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    Aime Cesaire is one of the foremost French-speaking blacks in twentieth century literature. The concept of negritude--referring to the culture of French-speaking blacks--is often associated with his name. This paper discusses his life and work, and explores his life from his birth in Martinique, his early years, the years spent in Paris, and his…

  20. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  1. Clinical Factors Associated with High-risk Carotid Plaque Features as Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Established Vascular Disease (From the AIM-HIGH Study)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Sun, Jie; Balu, Niranjan; Isquith, Daniel A.; Crouse, John R.; Anderson, Todd; Huston, John; Polissar, Nayak; O’Brien, Kevin; Yuan, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Association between clinical factors and high-risk plaque features such as thin or ruptured cap, intra-plaque hemorrhage (IPH), presence of Lipid Rich Necrotic Core (LRNC) and increased LRNC volume as assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was examined in patients with established vascular disease in AIM-HIGH. A total of 214 subjects underwent carotid MRI and had acceptable image quality for assessment of plaque burden, tissue contents and MRI-modified AHA lesion type by a Core Lab. We found that 77% of subjects had carotid plaques, 52% had lipid-containing plaques, and 11% had advanced, AHA type-VI lesions with possible surface defect, IPH or mural thrombus. Type-VI lesions were associated with older age (OR=2.6 per 5 years increase, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, these lesions were associated with history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=4.1, p=0.01), higher levels of Lipoprotein(a) (OR=2.0 per 1 SD increase, p=0.02) and larger %wall volume (%WV; OR=4.6 per 1 SD increase, p<0.001), but, were negatively associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=0.2, p=0.02). Presence of LRNC was associated with male gender (OR=3.2, p=0.02) and %WV (OR=3.8 per 1 SD, p<0.001), but, was negatively associated with diabetes (OR=0.4, p=0.02) and HDL-C levels (OR=0.7 per 1 SD, p=0.02). Increased %LRNC was associated with %WV (regression coefficient=0.36, p<0.001) and negatively associated with ApoA1 levels (regression coefficient=−0.20, p=0.03). In conclusions, older age, male gender, history of cerebrovascular disease, larger plaque burden, higher Lp(a), and lower HDL-C or ApoA1 have statistically significant associations with high-risk plaque features. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes showed negative associations in this population. PMID:25245415

  2. AN OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. PART I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the development of an objective analysis program for the mesoscale gridding of wind and temperature for the Regional Air Pollution Study being conducted in St. Louis by the Environmental Protection Agency. The program is designed to produce a 5-km spaced hor...

  3. The Development of Object Function and Manipulation Knowledge: Evidence from a Semantic Priming Study.

    PubMed

    Collette, Cynthia; Bonnotte, Isabelle; Jacquemont, Charlotte; Kalénine, Solène; Bartolo, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Object semantics include object function and manipulation knowledge. Function knowledge refers to the goal attainable by using an object (e.g., the function of a key is to open or close a door) while manipulation knowledge refers to gestures one has to execute to use an object appropriately (e.g., a key is held between the thumb and the index, inserted into the door lock and then turned). To date, several studies have assessed function and manipulation knowledge in brain lesion patients as well as in healthy adult populations. In patients with left brain damage, a double dissociation between these two types of knowledge has been reported; on the other hand, behavioral studies in healthy adults show that function knowledge is processed faster than manipulation knowledge. Empirical evidence has shown that object interaction in children differs from that in adults, suggesting that the access to function and manipulation knowledge in children might also differ. To investigate the development of object function and manipulation knowledge, 51 typically developing 8-9-10 year-old children and 17 healthy young adults were tested on a naming task associated with a semantic priming paradigm (190-ms SOA; prime duration: 90 ms) in which a series of line drawings of manipulable objects were used. Target objects could be preceded by three priming contexts: related (e.g., knife-scissors for function; key-screwdriver for manipulation), unrelated but visually similar (e.g., glasses-scissors; baseball bat-screwdriver), and purely unrelated (e.g., die-scissors; tissue-screwdriver). Results showed a different developmental pattern of function and manipulation priming effects. Function priming effects were not present in children and emerged only in adults, with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects sharing the same function. In contrast, manipulation priming effects were already present in 8-year-olds with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects

  4. The Development of Object Function and Manipulation Knowledge: Evidence from a Semantic Priming Study

    PubMed Central

    Collette, Cynthia; Bonnotte, Isabelle; Jacquemont, Charlotte; Kalénine, Solène; Bartolo, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Object semantics include object function and manipulation knowledge. Function knowledge refers to the goal attainable by using an object (e.g., the function of a key is to open or close a door) while manipulation knowledge refers to gestures one has to execute to use an object appropriately (e.g., a key is held between the thumb and the index, inserted into the door lock and then turned). To date, several studies have assessed function and manipulation knowledge in brain lesion patients as well as in healthy adult populations. In patients with left brain damage, a double dissociation between these two types of knowledge has been reported; on the other hand, behavioral studies in healthy adults show that function knowledge is processed faster than manipulation knowledge. Empirical evidence has shown that object interaction in children differs from that in adults, suggesting that the access to function and manipulation knowledge in children might also differ. To investigate the development of object function and manipulation knowledge, 51 typically developing 8-9-10 year-old children and 17 healthy young adults were tested on a naming task associated with a semantic priming paradigm (190-ms SOA; prime duration: 90 ms) in which a series of line drawings of manipulable objects were used. Target objects could be preceded by three priming contexts: related (e.g., knife-scissors for function; key-screwdriver for manipulation), unrelated but visually similar (e.g., glasses-scissors; baseball bat-screwdriver), and purely unrelated (e.g., die-scissors; tissue-screwdriver). Results showed a different developmental pattern of function and manipulation priming effects. Function priming effects were not present in children and emerged only in adults, with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects sharing the same function. In contrast, manipulation priming effects were already present in 8-year-olds with faster naming responses for targets preceded by objects

  5. Spontaneous object recognition: a promising approach to the comparative study of memory

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Rachel; Heyser, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous recognition of a novel object is a popular measure of exploratory behavior, perception and recognition memory in rodent models. Because of its relative simplicity and speed of testing, the variety of stimuli that can be used, and its ecological validity across species, it is also an attractive task for comparative research. To date, variants of this test have been used with vertebrate and invertebrate species, but the methods have seldom been sufficiently standardized to allow cross-species comparison. Here, we review the methods necessary for the study of novel object recognition in mammalian and non-mammalian models, as well as the results of these experiments. Critical to the use of this test is an understanding of the organism’s initial response to a novel object, the modulation of exploration by context, and species differences in object perception and exploratory behaviors. We argue that with appropriate consideration of species differences in perception, object affordances, and natural exploratory behaviors, the spontaneous object recognition test can be a valid and versatile tool for translational research with non-mammalian models. PMID:26217207

  6. Inverting the Object of Study: Recalibrating the Frame of Reference in Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Norris W.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is concerned with study abroad experiences as opportunities for student cognitive development, using the interpretive lens of educational psychologist William G. Perry. A standard and often valuable assignment in courses on world religions is a site visit to a religious institution in one's local area. This may concretize otherwise…

  7. Rethinking Trends in Instructional Objectives: Exploring the Alignment of Objectives with Activities and Assessment in Higher Education--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamanaka, Akio; Wu, Leon Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    This study explored higher education level syllabi to identify trends in educational objectives. Bloom's Taxonomy and various strategic models were used to classify 714 objectives from 114 sections of courses administered through a Midwest teacher education institution in the United States. 1229 verbs and verb phrases were classified through the…

  8. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  9. A method for real-time visual stimulus selection in the study of cortical object perception.

    PubMed

    Leeds, Daniel D; Tarr, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    The properties utilized by visual object perception in the mid- and high-level ventral visual pathway are poorly understood. To better establish and explore possible models of these properties, we adopt a data-driven approach in which we repeatedly interrogate neural units using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to establish each unit's image selectivity. This approach to imaging necessitates a search through a broad space of stimulus properties using a limited number of samples. To more quickly identify the complex visual features underlying human cortical object perception, we implemented a new functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol in which visual stimuli are selected in real-time based on BOLD responses to recently shown images. Two variations of this protocol were developed, one relying on natural object stimuli and a second based on synthetic object stimuli, both embedded in feature spaces based on the complex visual properties of the objects. During fMRI scanning, we continuously controlled stimulus selection in the context of a real-time search through these image spaces in order to maximize neural responses across pre-determined 1cm(3) rain regions. Elsewhere we have reported the patterns of cortical selectivity revealed by this approach (Leeds et al., 2014). In contrast, here our objective is to present more detailed methods and explore the technical and biological factors influencing the behavior of our real-time stimulus search. We observe that: 1) Searches converged more reliably when exploring a more precisely parameterized space of synthetic objects; 2) real-time estimation of cortical responses to stimuli is reasonably consistent; 3) search behavior was acceptably robust to delays in stimulus displays and subject motion effects. Overall, our results indicate that real-time fMRI methods may provide a valuable platform for continuing study of localized neural selectivity, both for visual object representation and beyond. PMID

  10. AN OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the application of objective analysis techniques to the computation of trajectories from surface wind observations of the Regional Air Pollution Study in St. Louis. Trajectories were computed over a 100-kilometer square grid centered on St. Louis for two 5-h...

  11. The Study of Object-Oriented Motor Imagery Based on EEG Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lili; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guanghua; Li, Min; Xie, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Motor imagery is a conventional method for brain computer interface and motor learning. To avoid the great individual difference of the motor imagery ability, object-oriented motor imagery was applied, and the effects were studied. Kinesthetic motor imagery and visual observation were administered to 15 healthy volunteers. The EEG during cue-based simple imagery (SI), object-oriented motor imagery (OI), non-object-oriented motor imagery (NI) and visual observation (VO) was recorded. Study results showed that OI and NI presented significant contralateral suppression in mu rhythm (p < 0.05). Besides, OI exhibited significant contralateral suppression in beta rhythm (p < 0.05). While no significant mu or beta contralateral suppression could be found during VO or SI (p > 0.05). Compared with NI, OI showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in mu rhythm and weak significant difference (p = 0.0612) in beta rhythm over the contralateral hemisphere. The ability of motor imagery can be reflected by the suppression degree of mu and beta frequencies which are the motor related rhythms. Thus, greater enhancement of activation in mirror neuron system is involved in response to object-oriented motor imagery. The object-oriented motor imagery is favorable for improvement of motor imagery ability. PMID:26641241

  12. Aiming for Positive Washback: A Case Study of International Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saif, Shahrzad

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of creating positive washback by focusing on factors in the background of the test development process and anticipating the conditions most likely to lead to positive wash-back. The article reports on a multiphase empirical study investigating the washback effects of a needs-based test of spoken…

  13. Non-destructive analysis in a study of the religious art objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornicu, Nicoleta; Geba, Maria; Bibire, Cristina

    2009-08-01

    The icon Descending of the Saint Spirit from Bucium Church, dating in the year 1814 and was done in tempera on wood technology. The characterization of cultural heritage materials is essential for the comprehension of their degradation mechanisms. The present study aims at identifying the pigments in the various layers, establishing the possible existence of an organic binder and scientifically evaluating the state of preservation. To this end, were used non-destructive methods, as: microscopic (SEM), XRF and spectroscopic (FTIR).

  14. A New Spectroscopic and Interferometric Study of the Young Stellar Object V645 Cyg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miroshinichenko, A. S.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Manset, N.; Balega, Y. Y.; Klochkova, V. G.; Rudy, R. J.; Lynch, D. K.; Mazuk, S.; Venturini, C. C.; Grankin, K. N.; Puetter, R. C.; Perry, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. We present the results of high-resolution optical spectroscopy, low-resolution near-IR spectroscopy and near-infrared speckle interferometry of the massive young stellar object candidate V645 Cyg that were taken in order to refine its fundamental parameters and properties of its circumstellar envelope. Methods. Speckle interferometry in the H- and K-bands and an optical spectrum in the range 5200-6680 A with a spectral resolving power of R = 60000 were obtained at the 6 m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Another optical spectrum in the range 4300-10500 A with R = 79000 was obtained at the 3.6m CFHT. A low-resolution spectrum in the ranges 0.46-1.4 and 1.4-2.5 microns with a R approx. 800 and approx. 700, respectively, were obtained at the 3m Shain telescope of the Lick Observatory. Results. Using a new kinematic method based on non-linear modeling of the neutral hydrogen density profile in the direction toward the object, we suggest a new a distance D = 4.2+/-0.2 kpc. We also suggest a new estimate for the star's effective temperature, T(sub eff) approx. 25000 K. We have resolved the object in both H- and K-bands. Using a two-component ring fit, we derived a compact component size of 18 mas and 15 mas in the H- and K-band, respectively, which correspond to 37 and 33 AU at the new distance. Analysis of our and previously published data shows a approx. 2 mag drop of the near-infrared brightness of V645 Cyg in the beginning of the 1980 s. At the same time, the cometary nebular condensation N1 seems to fade in this wavelength range with respect to the N0 object, which represent the star with a nearly pole-on optically-thick disk and an optically-thin envelope. Conclusions. We conclude that V645 Cyg is a young massive main-sequence star, which recently emerged from its cocoon. and already passed the protostellar accretion stage. The presence of accretion is not necessary to account for the high observed luminosity of (2.6) x 10(exp 4) Solar Mass

  15. Use of the argon aiming beam in visual function testing.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J S

    1978-12-01

    The aiming beam of the argon laser photocoagulator can be a useful tool in visual function testing. Applied with the slit lamp delivery system and fundus contact lens, it clearly documents the size of the blind spot surrounding the optic nerve head and the normal area of nonfunctional retina in the periphery. The size of pathologic field defects can be recorded on fundus photographs or retinal drawings by an observer. Safety precautions must be taken to protect all patients from excessive laser energy. PMID:736394

  16. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  17. The Scope and Aims of the Information Sciences and Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Robert A.

    This paper studies the composition and scope of the information sciences. These arise, or will arise, from the dependence of the modern world upon records, and therefore upon means to facilitate discourse. Such means range from the physical to the conceptual, but all entail aspects of language, therefore they must all involve social activities,…

  18. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  19. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  20. Quantifying the Reuse of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Kristine; Sweeney, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of one case study from a larger project, which aims to quantify the claimed efficiencies of reusing learning objects to develop e-learning resources. The case study describes how an online inquiry project "Diabetes: A waste of energy" was developed by searching for, evaluating, modifying and then integrating as many…

  1. The Rational Zero Point on Incentive-Object Preference Scales: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haaf, Robert A.

    1971-01-01

    Preference judgments made by 20 males and 20 females (grades K-4) about the incentive value of 10 objects (i.e. bubble gum, Chiclet, candy corn, dried lima bean) helped determine relative and absolute scales for use of these objects as rewards. The assumption that the same object is equally rewarding at different age levels may be unwarranted.…

  2. The "Profiles" document: a modern revision of the objectives of undergraduate medical studies in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Jucker-Kupper, Patrick; The Profiles Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Commission of the Swiss Medical Schools (SMIFK/CIMS) decided in 2000 to establish a Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives (SCLO) for undergraduate medical training, which was adapted from a similar Dutch blueprint. A second version of the SCLO was developed and launched in 2008. The catalogue is a prerequisite for the accreditation of the curricula of the six Swiss medical faculties and defines the contents of the Federal Licensing Examination (FLE). Given the evolution of the field of medicine and of medical education, the SMIFK/CIMS has decided to embark on a total revision of the SCLO. This article presents the proposed structure and content of Profiles, a new document which, in the future, will direct the format of undergraduate studies and of the FLE. Profiles stands for the Principal Relevant Objectives for Integrative Learning and Education in Switzerland. It is currently being developed by a group of experts from the six Swiss faculties as well as representatives of other institutions involved in these developments. The foundations of Profiles are grounded in the evolution of medical practice and of public health and are based on up-to-date teaching concepts, such as EPAs (entrustable professional activities). An introduction will cover the concepts and a tutorial will be displayed. Three main chapters will provide a description of the seven 2015 CanMEDS roles, a list of core EPAs and a series of ≈250 situations embracing the most frequent and current conditions affecting health. As Profiles is still a work in progress, it is hoped that this paper will attract the interest of all individuals involved in the training of medical students. PMID:26829005

  3. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  4. Perceived Utility of the RE-AIM Framework for Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Initiatives for Older Adults: A Case Study from the U.S. Evidence-Based Disease Prevention Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ory, Marcia G; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Helduser, Janet; Zhang, Chen; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation (D&I) frameworks are increasingly being promoted in public health research. However, less is known about their uptake in the field, especially for diverse sets of programs. Limited questionnaires exist to assess the ways that frameworks can be utilized in program planning and evaluation. We present a case study from the United States that describes the implementation of the RE-AIM framework by state aging services providers and public health partners and a questionnaire that can be used to assess the utility of such frameworks in practice. An online questionnaire was developed to capture community perspectives about the utility of the RE-AIM framework. Distributed to project leads in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults, 40 key stakeholders responded representing a 100% state-participation rate among the 27 funded states. Findings suggest that there is perceived utility in using the RE-AIM framework when evaluating grand-scale initiatives for older adults. The RE-AIM framework was seen as useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation with relevance for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet, the uptake was not universal, and some respondents reported difficulties in use, especially adopting the framework as a whole. This questionnaire can serve as the basis to assess ways the RE-AIM framework can be utilized by practitioners in state-wide D&I efforts. Maximal benefit can be derived from examining the assessment of RE-AIM-related knowledge and confidence as part of a continual quality assurance process. We recommend such an assessment be performed before the implementation of new funding initiatives and throughout their course to assess RE-AIM uptake and to identify areas for technical assistance. PMID:25964897

  5. Perceived Utility of the RE-AIM Framework for Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Initiatives for Older Adults: A Case Study from the U.S. Evidence-Based Disease Prevention Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Helduser, Janet; Zhang, Chen; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation (D&I) frameworks are increasingly being promoted in public health research. However, less is known about their uptake in the field, especially for diverse sets of programs. Limited questionnaires exist to assess the ways that frameworks can be utilized in program planning and evaluation. We present a case study from the United States that describes the implementation of the RE-AIM framework by state aging services providers and public health partners and a questionnaire that can be used to assess the utility of such frameworks in practice. An online questionnaire was developed to capture community perspectives about the utility of the RE-AIM framework. Distributed to project leads in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults, 40 key stakeholders responded representing a 100% state-participation rate among the 27 funded states. Findings suggest that there is perceived utility in using the RE-AIM framework when evaluating grand-scale initiatives for older adults. The RE-AIM framework was seen as useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation with relevance for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet, the uptake was not universal, and some respondents reported difficulties in use, especially adopting the framework as a whole. This questionnaire can serve as the basis to assess ways the RE-AIM framework can be utilized by practitioners in state-wide D&I efforts. Maximal benefit can be derived from examining the assessment of RE-AIM-related knowledge and confidence as part of a continual quality assurance process. We recommend such an assessment be performed before the implementation of new funding initiatives and throughout their course to assess RE-AIM uptake and to identify areas for technical assistance. PMID:25964897

  6. Promoting the perception of two and three concurrent sound objects: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Winkler, István; Bendixen, Alexandra; Alain, Claude

    2016-09-01

    The auditory environment typically comprises several simultaneously active sound sources. In contrast to the perceptual segregation of two concurrent sounds, the perception of three simultaneous sound objects has not yet been studied systematically. We conducted two experiments in which participants were presented with complex sounds containing sound segregation cues (mistuning, onset asynchrony, differences in frequency or amplitude modulation or in sound location), which were set up to promote the perceptual organization of the tonal elements into one, two, or three concurrent sounds. In Experiment 1, listeners indicated whether they heard one, two, or three concurrent sounds. In Experiment 2, participants watched a silent subtitled movie while EEG was recorded to extract the object-related negativity (ORN) component of the event-related potential. Listeners predominantly reported hearing two sounds when the segregation promoting manipulations were applied to the same tonal element. When two different tonal elements received manipulations promoting them to be heard as separate auditory objects, participants reported hearing two and three concurrent sounds objects with equal probability. The ORN was elicited in most conditions; sounds that included the amplitude- or the frequency-modulation cue generated the smallest ORN amplitudes. Manipulating two different tonal elements yielded numerically and often significantly smaller ORNs than the sum of the ORNs elicited when the same cues were applied on a single tonal element. These results suggest that ORN reflects the presence of multiple concurrent sounds, but not their number. The ORN results are compatible with the horse-race principle of combining different cues of concurrent sound segregation. PMID:27374254

  7. Study of the impact of gas temperature and pressure on image quality of lithography objective lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Xing, Tingwen

    2013-08-01

    The aim of present work is to estimate the impact of gas refractive index shift on the image quality of projection lens caused by the change of environment condition. This work in the paper consists of two parts: a)when temperature rises or reduces, how gas refractive index changes and the wave front error comes up; b)when gas pressure changes. The model objective lens developed for simulation is a US patent lens whose NA <1 and wave front RMS < 5nm in all fields. This paper includes an illustration of the impact of gas refractive index shift on optical system data, wave front, and aberration. According to the analysis, wave front RMS of projection lens will increase about 10nm if the temperature changed by 0.1K or the gas pressure by 100 Pa. Comparing to origin wave front RMS of the patent lens, 5nm, the change caused by gas temperature and pressure can't be neglected. It proves the necessary of compensating or controlling the optical path change resulted from gas refractive index shift during the lithography projection lens work process.

  8. A Delphi study to curriculum modifying through the application of the course objective and competencies

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Moshki, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to incorporate new knowledge, skills and emerging concepts from dynamic fields of public health into ongoing courses reform of curriculums sounds necessary. Accordingly, this study was performed to modify health education curriculum of public health undergraduate level. Materials and Methods: Using Delphi technique, 18 health education lecturers from Tehran, Tabriz, Yazd, Shiraz, Gonabad, Ghazvin, Avhvaz and Kurdistan Universities Medical of Sciences based on their expertize in health education with PhD degree as scientific members, also 5 heads of departments according to working at health deputy for at least more than 5 years were asked during three rounds through panel experts to suggest and rate topics they deemed most important to graduate public health experts and curricula related to the areas of knowledge and skills in health education course. Results: The experts suggested that health enhancing behaviors and reduce health risks, advocate health, behavior change theories and developing a framework are key objects in the curriculum. Much more new topical outlines were related to previous course. Skills rated as important included need assessment and health communication. The most evaluators suggested that adding a practicum unit to two theory units will be helpful. Conclusion: The results from our survey suggested that changes in the course definition including new course objectives, topical outlines, and required skills were deemed important by the lecturers and were appropriately integrated into the health education course curriculum. The new curriculum should be evaluated constantly to seek and provide experiences that will best prepare students to meet challenges as a health educator. PMID:25540797

  9. The Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study: objectives, design, and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Hartert, Tina V; Deng, Xinqing; Hartman, Terryl J; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jin, Meiling; Bai, Chunxue; Gross, Myron; Roberts, L Jackson; Sheller, James R; Christman, John; Dupont, William; Griffin, Marie; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2008-06-01

    The Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study is the first population-based incidence study designed to assess the associations of dietary antioxidant intake and measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity with development of adult-onset asthma and allergic rhinitis. A total of 65,732 participants in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing cohort study in seven districts of Shanghai, People's Republic of China, were recruited to the Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study from 2003 to 2007. Dietary intake was assessed in the parent study by using a validated and quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline recruitment and at the first biennial follow-up survey. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure baseline oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nutrient levels at the baseline survey. Incident asthma and allergic rhinitis were assessed by using a modification of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire during the biennial in-person survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by either methacholine challenge testing or test of reversibility to beta-agonists. Dietary antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and urinary isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress, were measured prior to disease onset. This paper describes the study objectives, design, population demographics, and recruitment results. PMID:18397914

  10. The Shanghai Women’s Asthma and Allergy Study: Objectives, Design, and Recruitment Results

    PubMed Central

    Hartert, Tina V.; Deng, Xinqing; Hartman, Terryl J.; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jin, Meiling; Bai, Chunxue; Gross, Myron; Roberts, L. Jackson; Sheller, James R.; Christman, John; Dupont, William; Griffin, Marie; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2008-01-01

    The Shanghai Women’s Asthma and Allergy Study is the first population-based incidence study designed to assess the associations of dietary antioxidant intake and measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity with development of adult-onset asthma and allergic rhinitis. A total of 65,732 participants in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, an ongoing cohort study in seven districts of Shanghai, People’s Republic of China, were recruited to the Shanghai Women’s Asthma and Allergy Study from 2003 to 2007. Dietary intake was assessed in the parent study by using a validated and quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline recruitment and at the first biennial follow-up survey. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure baseline oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nutrient levels at the baseline survey. Incident asthma and allergic rhinitis were assessed by using a modification of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire during the biennial in-person survey of the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by either methacholine challenge testing or test of reversibility to beta-agonists. Dietary antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and urinary isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress, were measured prior to disease onset. This paper describes the study objectives, design, population demographics, and recruitment results. PMID:18397914

  11. Mechanical Objects and the Engineering Learner: An Experimental Study of How the Presence of Objects Affects Students' Performance on Engineering Related Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    2013-01-01

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact…

  12. The Friendly Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangnell, Peter

    1969-01-01

    If buildings and cities are made as friendly objects, they will invite and precipitate participation. They will stimulate our creative powers, which are the basis of growth in all our activities. (CK)

  13. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  14. A Study of Planetary Nebulae using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A planetary nebula is formed following an intermediate-mass (1-8 solar M) star's evolution off of the main sequence; it undergoes a phase of mass loss whereby the stellar envelope is ejected and the core is converted into a white dwarf. Planetary nebulae often display complex morphologies such as waists or torii, rings, collimated jet-like outflows, and bipolar symmetry, but exactly how these features form is unclear. To study how the distribution of dust in the interstellar medium affects their morphology, we utilize the Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) to obtain well-resolved images of four planetary nebulae--NGC 7027, NGC 6543, M2-9, and the Frosty Leo Nebula--at wavelengths where they radiate most of their energy. We retrieve mid infrared images at wavelengths ranging from 6.3 to 37.1 micron for each of our targets. IDL (Interactive Data Language) is used to perform basic analysis. We select M2-9 to investigate further; analyzing cross sections of the southern lobe reveals a slight limb brightening effect. Modeling the dust distribution within the lobes reveals that the thickness of the lobe walls is higher than anticipated, or rather than surrounding a vacuum surrounds a low density region of tenuous dust. Further analysis of this and other planetary nebulae is needed before drawing more specific conclusions.

  15. Perceived environment in relation to objective and self-reported physical activity in Spanish youth. The UP&DOWN study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cervantes, Laura; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Cabanas-Sanchez, Verónica; Delgado-Alfonso, Álvaro; Castro-Piñero, José; Veiga, Óscar L

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the association of environmental perception with objective and self-reported physical activity (PA) and the relation between environmental perception and meeting PA recommendations on children and adolescents. A sample of 1520 youth (770 boys) aged 8-18 years (12.1 ± 2.5 years) from the UP&DOWN study were included in the data analyses. Environmental perception was assessed with the short adapted version of the ALPHA environmental questionnaire. PA was objectively (accelerometers) and self-reported measured (PA Questionnaire for Children, Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise Questionnaire and Finnish PA Index). Linear regression models were used to assess the association of environmental perception with PA. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to assess differences between environmental perception and meeting PA recommendations. Environmental perception was positively associated with both objective and self-reported PA. Some differences were found in the association of environmental perception and PA between sex- and age-specific groups. Youth who perceived a more favourable environment were more likely to meet PA recommendations (at least 60 min · day(-1) of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA)). Results suggest that environmental perceptions of children and adolescents may play an important role in achieving higher levels of PA. PMID:26641935

  16. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  17. Bridging the Digital Divide, Aiming to Become Lifelong Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachelhoffer, Annelise; Khine, Myint Swe

    Studies in the past documented that proper use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can positively impact learning. It has been shown that the use of ICT can help students develop inquiry and thinking skills, increase learning opportunities, enhance learning activities, and improve learning outcomes for students. While there are bright prospects, barriers still exist in certain areas, particularly the readiness of the teachers who will adopt the technology, administrative support and technology infrastructure in schools. This study reports the patterns of computer use and computer self-efficacy among students in a postgraduate degree in education program in the UAE. The survey from 91 students were analysed and found that most students have positive attitudes and beliefs in ICT, but lacking behind the use of such technologies. The authors suggest that it is necessary to create opportunities for them to use ICT in the classroom and further develop knowledge and skills in Web 2.0 technologies.

  18. Space Object Characterization Studies and the Magdalena Ridge Observatory's 2.4-meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory's (MRO) fast-tracking 2.4-meter telescope is located at 10,612 feet atop the Magdalena Mountains in Central New Mexico, and is presently transitioning to an operational status. The MRO 2.4-meter is one of the largest telescopes in the world that has as its primary mission the physical characterization of small bodies (both natural and artificial) in the Solar System. The 2.4-meter's control system is designed to provide convenient and accurate non-sidereal tracking, and the telescope is capable of rapid movement (slew rates are up to 15 degrees/sec) making it an ideal instrument for non-resolved imaging of low-Earth orbit (LEO) space objects. The 2.4-meter telescope can accommodate a wide variety of instrument systems, and support the fabrication, integration, and operation of new instrumentation as well as the development of new and innovative techniques in space object identification studies. Currently, we are investigating various methods to enhance and improve existing capabilities for unique discrimination of resident space objects. The temporal brightness variations (i.e., lightcurves) of unresolved targets such as artificial satellites can be used to develop a powerful tool for general characterization studies. Analysis of these temporal signatures permits the extraction of pertinent distinguishing features, and may also be an indicator for a change in general health status of a satellite. Payne (2005) and Gregory (2005) have demonstrated what can be obtained by adding multi-color information to traditional photometric intensity measurements for geosynchronous satellites. Our current focus is to introduce supplementary discriminators, including polarization data and simultaneously obtained spectral and temporal data. We will discuss new methods for incorporating such data, with a specific emphasis toward LEOs as our target objects. Our observing strategy will be to choose a statistically robust target set with know properties

  19. Meeting the Aims of Honors in the Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    While little data-based research is available on the use of technology in the honors classroom, data on the nature of online honors courses are even rarer. In undergraduate education generally, enrollment in online courses has been increasing annually, outpacing enrollment in traditional, face-to-face environments. During fall 2011, more than 6.7…

  20. The Writing Cure: Psychoanalysis, Composition, and the Aims of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracher, Mark

    Asserting that psychoanalysis and writing instruction have much to offer each other, this book examines the intersection between these two fields and proposes pedagogical uses of psychoanalytic technique for writing instruction. Articulating an approach based on the work of Jacques Lacan, the book shows how a psychoanalytic perspective can offer…

  1. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ˜ 4 Hz, limited by the sampling frequency of the mass spectrometer. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS

  2. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Jurkat, T.; Thornberry, T.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Schlage, R.; Schäuble, D.; Zöger, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the H2O role in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present the new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ∼ 4 Hz. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where water molecules react to form hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n= 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 ppmv (mole ratio, 10-6 mol mol-1) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT

  3. A subjective study and an objective metric to quantify the granularity level of textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedar, Mahesh M.; Karam, Lina J.

    2015-03-01

    Texture granularity is an important visual characteristic that is useful in a variety of applications, including analysis, recognition, and compression, to name a few. A texture granularity measure can be used to quantify the perceived level of texture granularity. The granularity level of the textures is influenced by the size of the texture primitives. A primitive is defined as the smallest recognizable repetitive object in the texture. If the texture has large primitives then the perceived granularity level tends to be lower as compared to a texture with smaller primitives. In this work we are presenting a texture granularity database referred as GranTEX which consists of 30 textures with varying levels of primitive sizes and granularity levels. The GranTEX database consists of both natural and man-made textures. A subjective study is conducted to measure the perceived granularity level of textures present in the GranTEX database. An objective metric that automatically measures the perceived granularity level of textures is also presented as part of this work. It is shown that the proposed granularity metric correlates well with the subjective granularity scores.

  4. Surgeons' aims and pain assessment strategies when managing paediatric post-operative pain: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Twycross, Alison M; Williams, Anna M; Finley, G Allen

    2015-12-01

    Children experience moderate to severe pain post-operatively. Nurses have been found to have a variety of aims in this context. Surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain have not been explored. This qualitative study set out to explore paediatric surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain in one paediatric hospital in Canada. Consultant surgeons (n = 8) across various specialities took part in semi-structured interviews. Surgeons' overarching aim was to keep the child comfortable. Various definitions of comfortable were given, relating to the child's experience of pain itself and their ability to undertake activities of daily living. Children's behavioural pain cues seem to be a primary consideration when making treatment decisions. Parents' views regarding their child's pain were also seen as important, suggesting children may not be seen as competent to make decisions on their own behalf. The need to maintain a realistic approach was emphasised and pain management described as a balancing act. Surgeons may draw on both tacit and explicit knowledge when assessing children's pain. There appears to be an expectation among surgeons that some pain is to be expected post-operatively and that the diagnostic value of pain may, in some cases, supersede concerns for the child's pain experience. PMID:24728398

  5. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [ŞNew insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and

  6. Objective sleep of older primiparous Japanese women during the first 4 months postpartum: an actigraphic study.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroko; Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Sakajo, Akiko; Saeki, Akiko; Maehara, Kunie; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko

    2015-03-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to examine objective sleep parameters of older primiparous Japanese women during the first 4 months postpartum using actigraphy. The participants were 18 older primiparae (Mean (SD) = 37.06 (2.62) years, range 35-44 years) who gave birth to healthy neonates at one of three urban Japanese hospitals. Objective sleep quality was measured using actigraphy for 48 h at 1, 2 and 4 months postpartum. The Friedman test was used to test for differences in sleep parameters across time. Sleep duration (SMIN) increased significantly from 2 months (Mean (M) = 301.94 min) to 4 months (M = 372.78 min). Sleep efficiency (SE) increased significantly from 1 month (73.52%) to 2 (86.66%) and 4 months (89.05%). Waking after sleep onset (WASO) decreased significantly from 1 month (M = 114.64 min) to 2 (M = 40.18 min) and 4 months (M = 38.36 min) and long waking episodes (LWEP) significantly decreased from 1 month (4.67) to 2 (2.69) and 4 months (3.12). Persistent postpartum sleep problems can be a sign of postpartum depression as well as health problems among infants. PMID:25759196

  7. Long-term integrated radiophysical studies of the ionosphere, near space, and the propagation of radio waves from space objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misyura, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The radiophysical studies reported consist of direct measurements of certain effects induced in the propagation of radio waves from space objects. From measured effects and from data on the motion and position of space objects, physical parameters of the medium and bodies are determined.

  8. Criteria for the Evaluation of Learning Objectives in the Education of Health Personnel. Report of a WHO Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Because there is a growing interest in improving the efficiency, effectiveness, and relevance of health personnel education, the World Health Organization formed a Study Group to discuss the uses of learner-oriented objectives, to examine the bases for identifying and selecting educational objectives, and to devise guidelines for evaluating such…

  9. Arthroscopic verification of objectivity of the orthopaedic examination and magnetic resonance imaging in intra-articular knee injury. Retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Skowronek, Michał; Skowronek, Paweł; Dutka, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Arthroscopy of the knee joint is regarded as the most objective diagnostic method in intra-articular knee joint lesions. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the objectivity and diagnostic value of orthopaedic examination (OE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in reference to the arthroscopic result. Material and methods In a group of 113 patients treated by arthroscopic surgery for post-traumatic knee pathology between 2008 and 2010 in our department, accuracy of clinical and MRI findings that preceded surgery were studied retrospectively using a statistical method. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and predictive negative and positive values were the subject of analysis. Results In the presented trial, sensitivity values of the orthopaedic examination for injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), meniscus medialis (MM), meniscus lateralis (ML) and chondral injuries (ChI) were 86%, 65%, 38% and 51%, respectively. Specificity values were 90%, 65%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The MR sensitivity and specificity values were 80%, 88%, 44% and 32%, and 86%, 64%, 93% and 97%, respectively. Conclusions Assessment of intra-articular knee joint lesions is a difficult diagnostic problem. In making a decision about arthroscopy of the knee joint, an appropriate sequence of examinations should be carried out: OE, MRI and arthroscopy. The improvement in the effectiveness of the orthopaedic examination and MRI can limit the too high frequency of diagnostic arthroscopies, which generates the risk of operation treatment and costs. PMID:23255995

  10. Objective sleep, a novel risk factor for alterations in kidney function: the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Megan E.; Kim, Yongin; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Lewis, Cora E.; Reis, Jared P.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Glasser, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between objectively measured sleep and 10-year changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Methods From 2003 to 2005, an ancillary sleep study was conducted at the Chicago site of the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Community-based black and white adults (aged 32–51 years) wore a wrist actigraph up to six nights to record sleep duration and fragmentation. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Participants without history of cardiovascular or chronic kidney diseases, proteinuria, or hypertension at the 2000–2001 CARDIA examination were followed over 10 years (n = 463). eGFR was estimated from serum creatinine (eGFRCr) at the 2000–2001, 2005–2006, and 2010–2011 CARDIA examinations, whereas cystatin-C-estimated eGFR (eGFRCys) was measured at the 2000–2001 and 2005–2006 examinations. Generalized estimating equation regression and linear models estimated the associations of each sleep parameter with changes in eGFRCr and eGFRCys, controlling for cardiovascular and renal risk. Results Sleep parameters were not related to 5-year change in eGFRCys. However, each 1 h decrease in sleep duration was significantly associated with a 1.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher eGFRCr [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2–2.7], and each one-point increase in PSQI was significantly associated with a 0.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher eGFRCr (95% CI, 0.04–0.9) over 10 years. Conclusion In this community-based sample, shorter sleep and poorer sleep quality were related to higher kidney filtration rates over 10 years. PMID:25037841

  11. A STUDY OF THE IMAGE QUALITY OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY ADAPTIVE STATISTICAL ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTED BRAIN IMAGES USING SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE METHODS.

    PubMed

    Mangat, J; Morgan, J; Benson, E; Båth, M; Lewis, M; Reilly, A

    2016-06-01

    The recent reintroduction of iterative reconstruction in computed tomography has facilitated the realisation of major dose saving. The aim of this article was to investigate the possibility of achieving further savings at a site with well-established Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR™) (GE Healthcare) brain protocols. An adult patient study was conducted with observers making visual grading assessments using image quality criteria, which were compared with the frequency domain metrics, noise power spectrum and modulation transfer function. Subjective image quality equivalency was found in the 40-70% ASiR™ range, leading to the proposal of ranges for the objective metrics defining acceptable image quality. Based on the findings of both the patient-based and objective studies of the ASiR™/tube-current combinations tested, 60%/305 mA was found to fall within all, but one, of these ranges. Therefore, it is recommended that an ASiR™ level of 60%, with a noise index of 12.20, is a viable alternative to the currently used protocol featuring a 40% ASiR™ level and a noise index of 11.20, potentially representing a 16% dose saving. PMID:27103646

  12. Photometric Study of the FU Orionis Object BBW 76 from the Bamberg Observatory Southern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Tsvetkov, M. K.

    2006-04-01

    The Bamberg Observatory Southern Sky Survey provided 93 photographic plates with the FU Orionis object BBW 76, clearly detectable in the time interval 1963-1976. We perform aperture photometry of BBW 76 from the 2 x 2 degrees area near target star scanned with the Epson Expression 1640 XL flatbed scanner. For each plate a transformation of plate magnitude to the GSC 2.2 magnitudes in B photographic band was found out for selected reference stars, and used for deriving B magnitudes of BBW 76. The analysis of the photometric behaviour of BBW 76 is presented.

  13. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  14. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    SciTech Connect

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-06

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  15. A Study of the Variability of Water Maser Emission in a Sample of Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinidad, M. A.; Rojas, V.; Plascencia, J. C.; Ricalde, A.; Curiel, S.; Rodríguez, L. F.

    We present results of water maser observations in a sample of young stellar objects. The observations were made using the Haystack 37 m antenna during a span of time of about eight months. The sample was selected to study the variability of the water maser emission in young sources with far-infrared luminosities between 260 and 2.5×10^4 L[sun]. The results are shown in a series of plots that allow the analysis of the variation of the maser emission and to discuss the global properties of the sample. The results show that in all the observed sources the water maser emission varies with time. Based on the observed variability, the sample shows two kinds of behavior. About half of the sources show large variations in the peak flux density of at least one feature (by more than an order of magnitude) in time spans between one and several months, while in all the sources there is more than one feature where the changes in peak flux density are smaller (by less than a factor of 10) but in similar time scales. Finally, the variability of the observed water maser emission does not show a clear periodicity pattern in time and we do not find a clear relationship between the luminosity of the sources and the water maser variability. >From a statistical point of view, the H[2]O maser variability can be described as due to small (10%) Gaussian fluctuations in the line opacity.

  16. A molecular line study towards massive extended green object clumps in the southern sky: chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2015-08-01

    We present a molecular line study towards 31 extended green object (EGO) clumps in the southern sky using data from MALT90 (Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz). According to previous multiwavelength observations, we divide our sample into two groups: massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions. The most detected lines are N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), HCO+ (J = 1 - 0), HNC (J = 1 - 0), HCN (J = 1 - 0), HC3N (J = 10 - 9), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and SiO (J = 2 - 1), indicating that most EGOs are indeed associated with dense clumps and recent outflow activities. The velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9) lines are comparable to each other in MYSOs. However, in H II regions the velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0) and C2H (N = 1 - 0) lines tend to be narrower than those of H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9). Our results seem to support that N2H+ and C2H emissions mainly come from the gas inside quiescent clumps. In addition, we also find that the [N2H+]/[H13CO+] and [C2H]/[H13CO+] relative abundance ratios decrease from MYSOs to H II regions. These results suggest depletion of N2H+ and C2H in the late stages of massive-star formation, probably caused by the formation of H II regions inside. N2H+ and C2H might be used as chemical clocks for massive-star formation by comparing with other molecules such as H13CO+ and HC3N.

  17. The gas environment of the young stellar object GL 2591 studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, George F.; Curry, Charles; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Allen, Mark

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution M band (4.6 microns) spectroscopy of GL 2591 is presented. Physical structures noted include an absorption feature with an outflow velocity of about 17 km/s, cold gas (identified with the core of the molecular cloud within which the object is embedded), and very broad C-12O lines formed in a neutral wind. The detection of hot low-velocity gas together with warm high-velocity gas suggests the scenario of a warm neutral wind accelerating from an accretion disk.

  18. The gas environment of the young stellar object GL 2591 studied by infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.F.; Curry, C.; Maillard, J.; Allen, M.; CNR, Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1989-06-01

    High-resolution M band (4.6 microns) spectroscopy of GL 2591 is presented. Physical structures noted include an absorption feature with an outflow velocity of about 17 km/s, cold gas (identified with the core of the molecular cloud within which the object is embedded), and very broad C-12O lines formed in a neutral wind. The detection of hot low-velocity gas together with warm high-velocity gas suggests the scenario of a warm neutral wind accelerating from an accretion disk. 32 refs.

  19. The Healthy Brains and Behavior Study: objectives, design, recruitment, and population coverage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Richmond, Therese S; Raine, Adrian; Cheney, Rose; Brodkin, Edward S; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E

    2013-09-01

    Violence is increasingly viewed as a public health issue that may be ameliorated by health-based interventions. The Healthy Brains and Behavior Study (HBBS) aims to identify environmental and biological risk factors for aggression in late childhood and to reduce aggression through psychological and nutritional treatments. Utilizing a cross-disciplinary collaborative research approach, the HBBS has both human and animal components. The human component has two stages consisting of risk assessment followed by treatment. The risk assessment is based on 451 community-residing children aged 11-12 years and their caregivers, during which genetic, brain imaging, neuroendocrine, psychophysiology, environment toxicology, neurocognitive, nutrition, psychological, social and demographic risk variables are collected. Children who met criteria (N = 219) for problematic aggressive behaviors were assigned to one of four treatment groups: cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone, nutritional supplements alone, both CBT and nutrition, or treatment-as-usual. Treatment duration was 12 weeks and all children whether in treatment or not were followed-up at three, six, and 12 months. The animal component assessed the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on the development of aggression. This study contributes knowledge on how biological factors interact with social factors in shaping proactive and reactive aggression and assesses the efficacy of treatment approaches to reduce childhood aggression. PMID:25931327

  20. DIFFERENTIAL PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DUST SHELL OF THE ENIGMATIC OBJECT, HD 179821

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Brian A.; Ueta, Toshiya

    2010-03-10

    HD 179821 is an enigmatic evolved star that possesses characteristics of both a post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star and a yellow hypergiant, and there has been no evidence that unambiguously defines its nature. These two hypotheses are products of an indeterminate distance, presumed to be 1 kpc or 6 kpc. We have obtained the two-epoch Hubble Space Telescope Wild Field Planetary Camera 2 data of its circumstellar shell, which shows multiple concentric arcs extending out to about 8''. We have performed differential proper-motion measurements on distinct structures within the circumstellar shell of this mysterious star in hopes of determining the distance to the object, and thereby distinguishing the nature of this enigmatic stellar source. Upon investigation, rather than azimuthal radially symmetric expansion, we discovered a bulk motion of the circumstellar shell of (2.41 +- 0.43, 2.97 +- 0.32) mas yr{sup -1}. This corresponded to a translational interstellar medium (ISM) flow of (1.28 +- 0.95, 7.27 +- 0.75) mas yr{sup -1} local to the star. This finding implies that the distance to HD 179821 should be rather small in order for its circumstellar shell to preserve its highly intact spherical structure in the presence of the distorting ISM flow, therefore favoring the proposition that HD 179821 is a post-AGB object.

  1. Taking aim at the ABM Treaty: THAAD and US Security

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.; Corbin, M.

    1995-05-01

    Successful testing of the Army`s Theater High Altitude Area Defense interceptor missile leads to speculation that the technology could render meaningless the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972. The authors examine the ability of the political system to develop national strategies that incorporate the new realities created by technology.

  2. What Should Be the Moral Aims of Compulsory Sex Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for…

  3. The Seeds of Artificial Intelligence. SUMEX-AIM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Resources Information Center, Rockville, MD.

    Written to provide an understanding of the broad base of information on which the artificial intelligence (AI) branch of computer science rests, this publication presents a general view of AI, the concepts from which it evolved, its current abilities, and its promise for research. The focus is on a community of projects that use the SUMEX-AIM…

  4. "Our Aim Is to Put Learners in the Driving Seat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, John

    2010-01-01

    When some people think of post-18 education, they only perceive real merit in the traditional university route. The central role that further education (FE) plays in the economy and society is often overlooked and undervalued. In truth, FE for adults, whether in a college, at work, or an informal evening class, not only has the power to improve…

  5. A New Professional: The Aims of Education Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Parker J.

    2007-01-01

    The word "professional" originally meant someone who makes a "profession of faith" in the midst of a disheartening world. That root meaning became diminished as the centuries rolled by, and today it has all but disappeared. "Professional" now means someone who possesses knowledge and techniques too esoteric for the laity to understand, whose…

  6. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  7. The Trouble with Outcomes: Pragmatic Inquiry and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Chris W.

    2012-01-01

    Although outcomes assessment (OA) has become "common sense" in higher education, this article shows that the concept of "outcomes" tends to limit and compromise teaching and learning while serving the interests of institutional management. By contrast, the pragmatic concept of consequences tends to expand our view of teaching and learning, and…

  8. Aiming at the target: improved adjuvant medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Philippe L; Dinh, Phuong; Sotiriou, Christos; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J

    2009-10-01

    The 2007 St. Gallen Expert Panel recognized the existence of molecular tools for risk stratification, but recommended the use of high-quality standard pathological testing alone for risk allocation and treatment selection. Over the last two years, much has been learned about these novel molecular tools: they demonstrate similar prognostic power; their performance appears to be driven by improved quantification of cellular proliferation; tumour burden remains an important determinant of long-term outcome; and their prediction of responsiveness to systemic therapy is suboptimal. In the meantime, great effort has continued to be invested in evaluating individual predictive markers to guide treatment selection. A number of putative targets that showed early promise--such as HER-2 and TOP2A gene amplification for anthracyclines, Myc amplification for trastuzumab, and Tau expression for taxanes--have yielded disappointing results when subjected to subsequent validation. These failings underscore the difficulty of accurate, reproducible target measurement and the inherent complexity of early breast cancer which is unlikely to be captured by a single gene or protein alteration. Future progress in adjuvant treatment tailoring will require a fundamental shift towards multi-dimensional thinking--with the development of multi-parameter assays that integrate tumour biology, disease burden, and host-related factors. The traditional model of post hoc predictive marker validation appears unlikely to produce tangible gains in the era of targeted systemic therapy. It is hoped that coupling prospective biomarker discovery with new drug development in earlier stages of disease will yield additional targets that can be used to guide clinical decision-making in the future. PMID:19914538

  9. Aiming for benchmark accuracy with the many-body expansion.

    PubMed

    Richard, Ryan M; Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus The past 15 years have witnessed an explosion of activity in the field of fragment-based quantum chemistry, whereby ab initio electronic structure calculations are performed on very large systems by decomposing them into a large number of relatively small subsystem calculations and then reassembling the subsystem data in order to approximate supersystem properties. Most of these methods are based, at some level, on the so-called many-body (or "n-body") expansion, which ultimately requires calculations on monomers, dimers, ..., n-mers of fragments. To the extent that a low-order n-body expansion can reproduce supersystem properties, such methods replace an intractable supersystem calculation with a large number of easily distributable subsystem calculations. This holds great promise for performing, for example, "gold standard" CCSD(T) calculations on large molecules, clusters, and condensed-phase systems. The literature is awash in a litany of fragment-based methods, each with their own working equations and terminology, which presents a formidable language barrier to the uninitiated reader. We have sought to unify these methods under a common formalism, by means of a generalized many-body expansion that provides a universal energy formula encompassing not only traditional n-body cluster expansions but also methods designed for macromolecules, in which the supersystem is decomposed into overlapping fragments. This formalism allows various fragment-based methods to be systematically classified, primarily according to how the fragments are constructed and how higher-order n-body interactions are approximated. This classification furthermore suggests systematic ways to improve the accuracy. Whereas n-body approaches have been thoroughly tested at low levels of theory in small noncovalent clusters, we have begun to explore the efficacy of these methods for large systems, with the goal of reproducing benchmark-quality calculations, ideally meaning complete

  10. Future technology aim of the National Aerospace Plane Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Technical areas where hypersonic technology programs outside NASP might offer assistance and participate in the NASP program are considered. These specific areas include airframe, technology opportunities for providing better performance and reduced weight, the NDV application of NASP technology, and engine propellant systems and subsystems.

  11. The Relationship of Independent Study, Object Visualization, and Anxiety to Hypothesis Formation by College Freshmen in the Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dorothy McKenna

    Reported is a study of the relationship of independent study, object visualization, and anxiety to hypothesis formation by college freshmen in the biological sciences. The participants of the study were 108 undergraduate females who had no previous science instruction and who were enrolled in introductory biology classes. The subjects, randomly…

  12. Achieving the prediction results by visualized treatment objective following anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, V; Kumar, K A Jeevan; Mohan, A P; Kumar, B Pavan; Kunusoth, Ramesh; Kumar, M Pavan

    2013-06-01

    This study used the manual visualized treatment objectives (VTO) as a tool to evaluate the predictive value of the computer-assisted VTO. Presurgical cephalometric tracing predictions generated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons and computer-assisted VTOs were compared with the postsurgical outcome as seen on lateral cephalometric tracings. Ten measurements of the predicted and actual postsurgical hard tissue landmarks were compared statistically. A paired Student's t test showed that in nine of ten measurements, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of manual VTO (MVTO). Statistically significant differences were found in one of the four linear measurements (cant of upper lip P - 0.0001). For computer assisted (CAVTO) Student's t test showed that in nine of ten measurements, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean values. Statistically significant differences were found in one of the four linear measurements (nasolabial angle, P  - 0.0001). From these data, it appears that both VTOs demonstrated good predictive comparative outcome, and are equally predictive, but CAVTO is precise. PMID:24431838

  13. Creating a Reconciliatory Discourse on the Diverse Aims of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Pamela; Sockett, Hugh

    This paper develops a moral approach to educational controversy, examining a collaborative research project that promotes reconciliation between diverse perspectives and laying out the foundations of a reconciliatory discourse. Section 1 discusses problems in education that contribute to unproductive discourse (conflict of educational purposes,…

  14. The Professionalization of Management: Aims, Obstacles, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovskaia, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Management in Russia is as difficult to define as a profession as it is in other countries, and the question of what education is appropriate for a future manager is also difficult to define. Business schools in Russia need to think more carefully about their curriculums and about what they should be preparing their students for. (Contains 6…

  15. The Influence of Action Perception on Object Recognition: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounoud, Pierre; Duscherer, Katia; Moy, Guenael; Perraudin, Sandrine

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments explored the existence and the development of relations between action representations and object representations. A priming paradigm was used in which participants viewed an action pantomime followed by the picture of a tool, the tool being either associated or unassociated with the preceding action. Overall, we observed that the…

  16. Developing Values for Secondary School Students through the Study of Art Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Ursu, Alexandru Marius Bodochi

    2011-01-01

    The paper begins with some issues related to aesthetics, aesthetic education, art and axiological education. The empirical research has the general assumption that secondary school students and youth have difficulties in selecting values. The objective of the research was three fold: to design, to organize and to carry learning activities from…

  17. Satellite studies on the use of electric fields for shielding biological objects against cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, E E; Riabova, T Y

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of measurements of conduction currents in strong electric fields of an electrostatic radiation shield apparatus aboard the Cosmos 690 artificial satellite. Power, dose and weight-size characteristics were calculated for an electrostatic shield and it was concluded that with available high-voltage technology it is possible to create an efficient low-weight electrostatic shield against cosmic radiation for biological objects. The development of an electric field system for in-flight radiation protection of biological objects could solve a number of other technological problems, such as protection of equipment and instruments against electric inductions, discharges and surface breakdowns. PMID:12596812

  18. The AIMS65 Score Is a Useful Predictor of Mortality in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Urgent Endoscopy in Patients with High AIMS65 Scores

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Wook; Song, Young Wook; Tak, Dae Hyun; Ahn, Byung Moo; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: To validate the AIMS65 score for predicting mortality of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to evaluate the effectiveness of urgent (<8 hours) endoscopic procedures in patients with high AIMS65 scores. Methods: This was a 5-year single-center, retrospective study. Nonvariceal, upper gastrointestinal bleeding was assessed by using the AIM65 and Rockall scores. Scores for mortality were assessed by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Patients with high AIMS65 scores (≥2) were allocated to either the urgent or non-urgent endoscopic procedure group. In-hospital mortality, success of endoscopic procedure, recurrence of bleeding, admission period, and dose of transfusion were compared between groups. Results: A total of 634 patients were analyzed. The AIMS65 score successfully predicted mortality (AUROC=0.943; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.876 to 0.99) and was superior to the Rockall score (AUROC=0.856; 95% CI, 0.743 to 0.969) in predicting mortality. The group with high AIMS65 score included 200 patients. The urgent endoscopic procedure group had reduced hospitalization periods (p<0.05) Conclusions: AIMS65 score may be useful in predicting mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Urgent endoscopic procedures in patients with high scores may be related to reduced hospitalization periods. PMID:26668799

  19. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  20. An ERP Study of the Processing of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Mieko; Garnsey, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Using reading times and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the processing of Japanese subject and object relative clauses (SRs/ORs). Previous research on English relative clauses shows that ORs take longer to read (King & Just, 1991) and elicit anterior negativity between fillers and gaps (King & Kutas, 1995), which is…

  1. The HST Object Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Budavari, T.

    2012-05-01

    We have created a catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross-matching all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe source detections within a visit. As a biproduct of the cross-matching, we obtain improved relative astrometry of the HST images. We apply a Bayesian method to help determine which source detections likely match. The catalog provides information about which source detections match together across visits. For each source detection, the catalog contains information that includes the corrected position, the name of the image, the filter, the exposure time, the exposure start and stop times, and the source magnitude. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. The catalog will be made publicly available.

  2. Thermal Studies of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    2003-01-01

    In this proposal, we seek to apply the optical/thermal method to the measurement of the diameters and albedos of a large sample of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Whereas main-belt asteroids have been studied in large numbers, principally using thermal detections from the IRAS satellite, relatively few thermal observations of NEOs have been secured. This program capitalizes on our access to large telescopes and imaging thermal IR detectors in pursuit of the definitive set of albedo data on the NEOs.

  3. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): With the aim of the drug interactions probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy.

  4. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): with the aim of the drug interactions probing.

    PubMed

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-25

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy. PMID:25300043

  5. The study on gear transmission multi-objective optimum design based on SQP algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quancai; Qiao, Xuetao; Wu, Cuirong; Wang, Xingxing

    2011-12-01

    Gear mechanism is the most popular transmission mechanism; however, the traditional design method is complex and not accurate. Optimization design is the effective method to solve the above problems, used in gear design method. In many of the optimization software MATLAB, there are obvious advantage projects and numerical calculation. There is a single gear transmission as example, the mathematical model of gear transmission system, based on the analysis of the objective function, and on the basis of design variables and confirmation of choice restrictive conditions. The results show that the algorithm through MATLAB, the optimization designs, efficient, reliable, simple.

  6. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  7. A focus group study of the use of video-recorded simulated objective structured clinical examinations in nurse practitioner education.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Julian

    2010-05-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a common method of clinical skills assessment used for advanced nurse practitioner students across the United Kingdom. The purpose of an advanced nursing OSCE is to assess a nurse practitioner student's competence and safety in the performance of commonly used advanced clinical practice skills. Students often feel nervous when preparing for and participating in an OSCE. Consideration of these identified anxieties led to the development of an alternative method of meeting students' OSCE learning and preparation needs; namely video-recorded simulated OSCEs. Video-recording was appealing for the following reasons: it provides a flexible usage of staff resources and time; OSCE performance mistakes can be rectified; it is possible to use the same video-recordings with multiple cohorts of students, and the recordings can be made conveniently available for students with video streaming on internet-based video-sharing sites or virtual learning environments. The aim of the study was to explore the value of using such recordings amongst nurse practitioner students, via online and face-to-face focus groups, to see if they are a suitable OSCE educational preparation technique. The study findings indicate that simulated OSCE video-recordings are an effective method for supporting nurse practitioner educational development. PMID:20202909

  8. The Effects of Age on Divergent Thinking and Creative Objects Production: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massimiliano, Palmiero

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in divergent thinking and creative objects production were investigated in 150 native Italian speakers, divided into six age groups, each one comprised 25 participants: young (20-29), young adult (30-39), middle aged (40-49), adult-old (50-59), old (60-69), and old-old (70-80). Two tasks were used: the alternative uses task,…

  9. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    PubMed

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines. PMID:24934452

  10. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  11. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The “model of diffusion in service organisations” was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Results Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change

  12. The IRYSS-COPD appropriateness study: objectives, methodology, and description of the prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often experience exacerbations of the disease that require hospitalization. Current guidelines offer little guidance for identifying patients whose clinical situation is appropriate for admission to the hospital, and properly developed and validated severity scores for COPD exacerbations are lacking. To address these important gaps in clinical care, we created the IRYSS-COPD Appropriateness Study. Methods/Design The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Methodology was used to identify appropriate and inappropriate scenarios for hospital admission for patients experiencing COPD exacerbations. These scenarios were then applied to a prospective cohort of patients attending the emergency departments (ED) of 16 participating hospitals. Information was recorded during the time the patient was evaluated in the ED, at the time a decision was made to admit the patient to the hospital or discharge home, and during follow-up after admission or discharge home. While complete data were generally available at the time of ED admission, data were often missing at the time of decision making. Predefined assumptions were used to impute much of the missing data. Discussion The IRYSS-COPD Appropriateness Study will validate the appropriateness criteria developed by the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Methodology and thus better delineate the requirements for admission or discharge of patients experiencing exacerbations of COPD. The study will also provide a better understanding of the determinants of outcomes of COPD exacerbations, and evaluate the equity and variability in access and outcomes in these patients. PMID:22115318

  13. A Study of the Objectives for the Theological Preparation of Lutheran Church Missouri Synod Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockrohr, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined current practice in the area of theological preparation for Lutheran elementary teachers of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS). As a church body with a well-defined doctrine, the LCMS requires a particular preparation for all ordained and commissioned workers placed on its official roster. A historical review of archival…

  14. The WellingTONNE Challenge Toolkit: Using the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate a Community Resource Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperchione, Cristina; Coulson, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The RE-AIM framework has been recognized as a tool to evaluate the adoption, delivery, and sustainability of an intervention, and estimate its potential public health impact. In this study four dimensions of the RE-AIM framework (adoption, implementation, effectiveness, and maintenance) were used to evaluate the WellingTONNE Challenge…

  15. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  16. The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study: objectives and methods of a study investigating causality, course, and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    De Win, Maartje M L; Jager, Gerry; Vervaeke, Hylke K E; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Den Heeten, Gerard J; Ramsey, Nick F; Korf, Dirk J; Van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and methods of The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study focussing on the causality, course, and clinical relevance of ecstasy neurotoxicity. Previous studies suggest that ecstasy (3,4 methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC) is toxic toward brain serotonin axons, but most of these studies have serious methodological limitations. The current study is a combination of different approaches with three substudies: (1) a crosssectional substudy among heavy ecstasy users and controls with variation in drug use, which will provide information about potential neurotoxic consequences of ecstasy in relation to other drugs; (2) a prospective cohort substudy in ecstasy-naive subjects with high risk for future ecstasy use, which will provide information on the causality and short-term course of ecstasy use and potential neurotoxicity, and (3) a retrospective cohort substudy in lifetime ecstasy users and matched controls of an existing epidemiological sample that will provide information on long-term course and outcome of ecstasy use in the general population. Neurotoxicity is studied using (a) different imaging techniques (beta-CIT SPECT, 1H-MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion weighted imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging), and (b) neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments of memory, depression, and personality. The combined results will lead to conclusions that can be used in prevention messages, clinical decision making, and the development of an (inter)national ecstasy policy. PMID:16395871

  17. Long-term study of water maser emission associated with young stellar objects. I. The database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdettaro, R.; Palla, F.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Comoretto, G.; Felli, M.; Palagi, F.

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of more than 10 years of monitoring of the water vapor maser emission in 14 star forming regions obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope. The sample of objects covers a large range of luminosities of the associated FIR sources. In order to present in a compact and representative way the large amount of data available, we give for each source: a time-velocity-flux density plot, the time dependent integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the frequency of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity, and the mean velocity averaged over the observing period. A brief morphological description of the environment of the maser source is also given. The present data form the basis for a discussion of the main properties of the water vapor maser emission to be presented in a forthcoming paper.

  18. The Intervening Galaxies Hypothesis of the Absorption Spectra of Quasi-Stellar Objects: Some Statistical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duari, Debiprosad; Narlikar, Jayant V.

    This paper examines, in the light of the available data, the hypothesis that the heavy element absorption line systems in the spectra of QSOs originate through en-route absorption by intervening galaxies, halos etc. Several statistical tests are applied in two different ways to compare the predictions of the intervening galaxies hypothesis (IGH) with actual observations. The database is taken from a recent 1991 compilation of absorption line systems by Junkkarinen, Hewitt and Burbidge. Although, prima facie, a considerable gap is found between the predictions of the intervening galaxies hypothesis and the actual observations despite inclusion of any effects of clustering and some likely selection effects, the gap narrows after invoking evolution in the number density of absorbers and allowing for the incompleteness and inhomogeneity of samples examined. On the latter count the gap might be bridgeable by stretching the parameters of the theory. It is concluded that although the intervening galaxies hypothesis is a possible natural explanation to account for the absorption line systems and may in fact do so in several cases, it seems too simplistic to be able to account for all the available data. It is further stressed that the statistical techniques described here will be useful for future studies of complete and homogenous samples with a view to deciding the extent of applicability of the IGH.

  19. Practical Study on HVAC Control Technology Based on the Learning Function and Optimum Multiple Objective Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Haruka; Dazai, Ryota; Kaseda, Chosei; Ikaga, Toshiharu; Kato, Akihiro

    Demand among large office buildings for the energy-saving benefits of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) System are increasing as more and more people become concerned with global environmental issues. However, immoderate measures taken in the interest of energy conservation may encroach on the thermal comfort and productivity level of office workers. Building management should satisfy both indoor thermal comfort and energy conservation while adapting to the many regulatory, social, climate, and other changes that occur during the lifespan of the building. This paper demonstrates how optimal control of the HVAC system, based on data modeling and the multi-objective optimal method, achieves an efficient equilibrium between thermal comfort and energy conservation.

  20. Objective measures of Physical Activity, Fractures and Falls: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS)

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Jane A.; Harrison, Stephanie L.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Danielson, Michelle E.; Orwoll, Eric; Mackey, Dawn C.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Self-reported physical activity (PA) has been linked to lower hip fracture and fall rates. The objective of this study was to determine the association between objectively measured PA, fractures and falls. Design/Setting/Participants 2731 men (mean age 79 yrs) recruited at 6 US clinical sites into a longitudinal cohort study. Measurements Total and active energy expenditure (EE) and minutes per day spent in sedentary and moderate intensity activities were measured using the multi-sensor SenseWear Pro Armband (SWA)for at least 5 days. Energy expended at a metabolic equivalent (MET >3) was termed active EE. Incident non-spine fractures and falls were identified every 4 months. Results 759 (28.2%) men fell at least once over 12 months of follow-up; 186 (6.8%) men experienced ≥1 fracture over an average follow-up of 3.5± 0.9 years.The association between PA and falling varied by age (p interaction=0.02). Men the lowest active EE had a lower risk of falling (relative risk (RR) =0.75; p trend = 0.08)while men >80 yrs, with the lowest active EE had a higher risk of falling, RR=1.43, p trend=0.09. In multivariate models including health status, men in the lowest quintile of active EE had a significantly higher risk of fracture, hazard ratio (HR)=1.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10, 3.00), p trend=0.04. Men with less than 33 minutes/day of moderate activity had a 70% increased risk of fracture, HR=1.70(95% CI, 1.03, 2.80). Conclusion Age modifies the association between PA and falling. Interventions aimed at >30 minutes of moderate PA per day may reduce fracturesextending existing PA guidelines to the oldest old, the fastest growing proportion of those over age 65. PMID:23855842

  1. Geometry as Objective Science in Elementary School Classrooms: Mathematics in the Flesh. Routledge International Studies in the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the origins of geometry in and out of the intuitively given everyday lifeworlds of children in a second-grade mathematics class. These lifeworlds, though pre-geometric, are not without model objects that denote and come to anchor geometric idealities that they will understand at later points in their lives. Roth's analyses…

  2. An ERP Study on Self-Relevant Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyakoshi, Makoto; Nomura, Michio; Ohira, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    We performed an event-related potential study to investigate the self-relevance effect in object recognition. Three stimulus categories were prepared: SELF (participant's own objects), FAMILIAR (disposable and public objects, defined as objects with less-self-relevant familiarity), and UNFAMILIAR (others' objects). The participants' task was to…

  3. Atlas of the Messier Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Binnewies, Stefan; Friedrich, Susanne; Schroeder, Klaus-Peter

    2008-11-01

    Preface; How to use this book; The life of Charles Messier; The observations of Charles Messier; The catalog of Charles Messier; Statistics of the Messier objects; Observation of the Messier objects; Photography of the Messier objects; The objects themselves; Glossary; List of figures; Table of sources.

  4. AIMS Library - A community resource for sorghum genomic studies and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum genome sequence is completed. A systematically mutagenized population linking gene function to sequence is becoming increasingly urgent. A project was initiated to develop an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) library using (EMS) ethyl methane sulfonate for sel...

  5. Revitalising the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort: background, aims and design.

    PubMed

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Lund, Rikke; Batty, G David; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2004-09-01

    Recent research indicates that factors operating during childhood are related to adult health. Thus, longitudinal studies with information on subsequent phases may be key to understanding later health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to describe the history and design of a Danish birth cohort, and its revitalisation. In 1965, information from birth certificates for 11 591 of a total of 12 270 males born in 1953 in the Metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark were traced. These boys were the study population of a sociological investigation conducted with the aim of describing social mobility. At age 12 years, 9537 of these cohort members completed a questionnaire in school, which included cognitive measures and information on social aspirations and leisure time activities. In 1966 educational performance tests were administered for these boys and, in 1968, mothers of 2890 cohort members were interviewed regarding family social backgrounds. With the establishment of the Civil Registration System (CRS) in 1968, it was possible to identify 11 532 cohort members. In 2002 we began the process of revitalising this study with the aim of investigating the influence of early life factors on later health. We succeeded in ascertaining the vital status of all subjects in the CRS. This showed that 863 subjects had died between 1968 and 2002. Linkages to the Register of Causes of Death, the National Hospital Register, Psychiatric Central Register and Danish Cancer Registry have been completed. In total, 7969 cohort members had been hospitalised for any somatic illness and, according to the Psychiatric Central Register, 1382 men had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital or ward. In the Cancer Registry we found 363 of our study participants. Analyses exploring the influence of social conditions in early life, birth dimensions, and childhood cognition on adult health experience are at various stages of completion. A questionnaire-based postal follow-up survey is

  6. Social Studies Objectives, Second Assessment. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    Major social studies objectives delineated in this booklet provide a framework for the measurement of student achievement in the social studies. The booklet is arranged in four chapters. The first chapter describes the development of social studies objectives; the other chapters respectively list the social studies objectives for the specific age…

  7. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…

  8. Optical and Near Infrared Study of the Cepheus E Outflow, a Very Low Excitation Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreiga-Crespo, A.; Ayala, S.; Garnavich, P.; Curiel, S.; Raga, A.; Bohm, K.; Raymond, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we explore the link between the physical properties of the outflow as determined from optical imaging and spectroscopy, and compare these results with those obtained from observations in the near infrared.

  9. Chicago Healthy Aging Study: Objectives and Design

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Amber; Reid, Kathryn; Kim, Daniel; Garside, Daniel B.; Lu, Brandon; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Zee, Phyllis; Liu, Kiang; Stamler, Jeremiah; Daviglus, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators in the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (CHAS) reexamined 1,395 surviving participants aged 65–84 years (28% women) from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry (CHA) 1967–1973 cohort whose cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles were originally ascertained at ages 25–44 years. CHAS investigators reexamined 421 participants who were low-risk (LR) at baseline and 974 participants who were non-LR at baseline. LR was defined as having favorable levels of 4 major CVD risk factors: serum total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL and no use of cholesterol-lowering medication; blood pressure 120/≤80 mm Hg and no use of antihypertensive medication; no current smoking; and no history of diabetes or heart attack. While the potential of LR status in overcoming the CVD epidemic is being recognized, the long-term association of LR with objectively measured health in older age has not been examined. It is hypothesized that persons who were LR in 1967–1973 and have survived to older age will have less clinical and subclinical CVD, lower levels of inflammatory markers, and better physical performance/functioning and sleep quality. Here we describe the rationale, objectives, design, and implementation of this longitudinal epidemiologic study, compare baseline and follow-up characteristics of participants and nonparticipants, and highlight the feasibility of reexamining study participants after an extended period postbaseline with minimal interim contact. PMID:23669655

  10. A multi-wavelength interferometric study of the massive young stellar object IRAS 13481-6124

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, Paul A.; Kraus, Stefan; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Linz, Hendrik; van Boekel, Roy; Henning, Thomas; Lacour, Sylvestre; Monnier, John D.; Stecklum, Bringfried; Tuthill, Peter G.

    2016-02-01

    We present new mid-infrared interferometric observations of the massive young stellar object IRAS 13481-6124, using VLTI/MIDI for spectrally-resolved, long-baseline measurements (projected baselines up to ~120 m) and GSO/T-ReCS for aperture-masking interferometry in five narrow-band filters (projected baselines of ~1.8-6.4 m) in the wavelength range of 7.5-13μm. We combine these measurements with previously-published interferometric observations in the K and N bands in order to assemble the largest collection of infrared interferometric observations for a massive YSO to date. Using a combination of geometric and radiative-transfer models, we confirm the detection at mid-infrared wavelengths of the disk previously inferred from near-infrared observations. We show that the outflow cavity is also detected at both near- and mid-infrared wavelengths, and in fact dominates the mid-infrared emission in terms of total flux. For the disk, we derive the inner radius (~1.8 mas or ~6.5 AU at 3.6 kpc), temperature at the inner rim (~1760 K), inclination (~48°) and position angle (~107°). We determine that the mass of the disk cannot be constrained without high-resolution observations in the (sub-)millimeter regime or observations of the disk kinematics, and could be anywhere from ~10-3 to 20M⊙. Finally, we discuss the prospects of interpreting the spectral energy distributions of deeply-embedded massive YSOs, and warn against attempting to infer disk properties from the spectral energy distribution. Based in part on observations with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer of the European Southern Observatory, under program IDs 384.C-0625, 086.C-0543, 091.C-0357.

  11. A Study of the Questioning Behavior of Teachers in the Science Curriculum Improvement Study Teaching the Unit on Material Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Allan Kiichi

    The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has identified two main types of lessons: invention lessons, where the teachers introduce concepts, and discovery lessons in which children apply the concepts to new situations. The transcripts of tape recordings of the same sequence of four lessons, two invention and two discovery, of four teachers in the…

  12. Anticipatory care planning and integration: a primary care pilot study aimed at reducing unplanned hospitalisation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Adrian; Leak, Paul; Ritchie, Lewis D; Lee, Amanda J; Fielding, Shona

    2012-01-01

    Background Anticipatory care for older patients who are frail involves both case identification and proactive intervention to reduce hospitalisation. Aim To identify a population who were at risk of admission to hospital and to provide an anticipatory care plan (ACP) for them and to ascertain whether using primary and secondary care data to identify this population and then applying an ACP can help to reduce hospital admission rates. Design and setting Cohort study of a service intervention in a general practice and a primary care team in Scotland. Method The ACP sets out patients’ wishes in the event of a sudden deterioration in health. If admitted, a proactive approach was taken to transfer and discharge patients into the community. Cohorts were selected using the Nairn Case Finder, which matched patients in two practices for age, sex, multiple morbidity indexes, and secondary care outpatient and inpatient activity; 96 patients in each practice were studied for admission rate, occupied bed days and survival. Results Survivors from the ACP cohort (n = 80) had 510 fewer days in hospital than in the 12 months pre-intervention: a significant reduction of 52.0% (P = 0.020). There were 37 fewer admissions of the survivors from that cohort post-intervention than in the preceding 12 months, with a significant reduction of 42.5% (P = 0.002). Mortality rates in the two cohorts were similar, but the number of patients who died in hospital and the hospital bed days used in the last 3 months of life were significantly lower for the decedents with an ACP than for the controls who had died (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045 respectively). Conclusion This approach produced statistically significant reductions in unplanned hospitalisation for a cohort of patients with multiple morbidities. It demonstrates the potential for providing better care for patients as well as better value for health and social care services. It is of particular benefit in managing end-of-life care. PMID:22520788

  13. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  14. Finding the object'' proceedings addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.; Devaney, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to discuss finding the object -- that is, how software engineers imagine, invent, design, or recycle objects and their behaviors for object-oriented software engineering. The workshop organizers (and, as we subsequently discovered, several of the workshop participants) felt that this issue is crucial to successful object-oriented software engineering (after all, finding objects is what the projects is all about, isn't it ). Unfortunately, when previous workshops have had the opportunity to review and discuss techniques practitioners use to find objects, too often the results were heated debates on what is an object '' which becomes all consuming. We believed that, given appropriate control over the question of which kind of object'' is being discussed (which meant tell us what object you are trying to find, then tell us your method), a workshop to concentrate on techniques for finding objects would be quite appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Lung-protective ventilation initiated in the emergency department (LOV-ED): a study protocol for a quasi-experimental, before-after trial aimed at reducing pulmonary complications

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Brian M; Ferguson, Ian; Mohr, Nicholas M; Stephens, Robert J; Briscoe, Cristopher C; Kolomiets, Angelina A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In critically ill patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) are associated with increased mortality, survivor morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation. Studies conclusively demonstrate that initial ventilator settings in patients with ARDS, and at risk for it, impact outcome. No studies have been conducted in the emergency department (ED) to determine if lung-protective ventilation in patients at risk for ARDS can reduce its incidence. Since the ED is the entry point to the intensive care unit for hundreds of thousands of mechanically ventilated patients annually in the USA, this represents a knowledge gap in this arena. A lung-protective ventilation strategy was instituted in our ED in 2014. It aims to address the parameters in need of quality improvement, as demonstrated by our previous research: (1) prevention of volutrauma; (2) appropriate positive end-expiratory pressure setting; (3) prevention of hyperoxia; and (4) aspiration precautions. Methods and analysis The lung-protective ventilation initiated in the emergency department (LOV-ED) trial is a single-centre, quasi-experimental before-after study testing the hypothesis that lung-protective ventilation, initiated in the ED, is associated with reduced pulmonary complications. An intervention cohort of 513 mechanically ventilated adult ED patients will be compared with over 1000 preintervention control patients. The primary outcome is a composite outcome of pulmonary complications after admission (ARDS and VACs). Multivariable logistic regression with propensity score adjustment will test the hypothesis that ED lung-protective ventilation decreases the incidence of pulmonary complications. Ethics and dissemination Approval of the study was obtained prior to data collection on the first patient. As the study is a before-after observational study, examining the effect of treatment changes over time, it is being conducted with waiver of

  16. The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Bergström, G; Berglund, G; Blomberg, A; Brandberg, J; Engström, G; Engvall, J; Eriksson, M; de Faire, U; Flinck, A; Hansson, M G; Hedblad, B; Hjelmgren, O; Janson, C; Jernberg, T; Johnsson, Å; Johansson, L; Lind, L; Löfdahl, C-G; Melander, O; Östgren, C J; Persson, A; Persson, M; Sandström, A; Schmidt, C; Söderberg, S; Sundström, J; Toren, K; Waldenström, A; Wedel, H; Vikgren, J; Fagerberg, B; Rosengren, A

    2015-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started. PMID:26096600

  17. Interventions aimed at improving the nursing work environment: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nursing work environments (NWEs) in Canada and other Western countries have increasingly received attention following years of restructuring and reported high workloads, high absenteeism, and shortages of nursing staff. Despite numerous efforts to improve NWEs, little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to improve NWEs. The aim of this study was to review systematically the scientific literature on implemented interventions aimed at improving the NWE and their effectiveness. Methods An online search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, ABI, Academic Search Complete, HEALTHstar, ERIC, Psychinfo, and Embase, and a manual search of Emerald and Longwoods was conducted. (Quasi-) experimental studies with pre/post measures of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, study populations of nurses, and quantitative outcome measures of the nursing work environment were required for inclusion. Each study was assessed for methodological strength using a quality assessment and validity tool for intervention studies. A taxonomy of NWE characteristics was developed that would allow us to identify on which part of the NWE an intervention targeted for improvement, after which the effects of the interventions were examined. Results Over 9,000 titles and abstracts were screened. Eleven controlled intervention studies met the inclusion criteria, of which eight used a quasi-experimental design and three an experimental design. In total, nine different interventions were reported in the included studies. The most effective interventions at improving the NWE were: primary nursing (two studies), the educational toolbox (one study), the individualized care and clinical supervision (one study), and the violence prevention intervention (one study). Conclusions Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, and published studies on this topic show weaknesses in their design. To advance the field, we recommend that

  18. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  19. The Development of the Learning Object Standard Using a Pedagogic Approach: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Yazrina; Jenkins, John; Yusoff, Mohammed

    Education is moving towards revenue generation from such channels as electronic learning, distance learning and virtual education. Hence learning technology standards are critical to the sector's success. Existing learning technology standards have focused on various topics such as metadata, question and test interoperability and others. However,…

  20. Artworks as dichotomous objects: implications for the scientific study of aesthetic experience

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue that has been studied from both scientific and art theoretical perspectives, namely the dichotomous nature of representational artworks. Representational artworks are dichotomous in that they present us with two distinct aspects at once. In one aspect we are aware of what is represented while in the other we are aware of the material from which the representation is composed. The dichotomy arises due the incompatibility, indeed contradiction, between these aspects of awareness, both of which must be present if we are to fully appreciate the artwork. Examples from art history are given to show how artists have exploited this dichotomy in a way that conditions our response to their work. I hypothesize that the degree of manifest dichotomy in a work determines the strength of its aesthetic effect, and propose this could be experimentally tested. I conclude that scientific studies of aesthetic experience should take the dichotomous nature of artworks into account. PMID:26106312

  1. Artworks as dichotomous objects: implications for the scientific study of aesthetic experience.

    PubMed

    Pepperell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue that has been studied from both scientific and art theoretical perspectives, namely the dichotomous nature of representational artworks. Representational artworks are dichotomous in that they present us with two distinct aspects at once. In one aspect we are aware of what is represented while in the other we are aware of the material from which the representation is composed. The dichotomy arises due the incompatibility, indeed contradiction, between these aspects of awareness, both of which must be present if we are to fully appreciate the artwork. Examples from art history are given to show how artists have exploited this dichotomy in a way that conditions our response to their work. I hypothesize that the degree of manifest dichotomy in a work determines the strength of its aesthetic effect, and propose this could be experimentally tested. I conclude that scientific studies of aesthetic experience should take the dichotomous nature of artworks into account. PMID:26106312

  2. Cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of the conceptual knowledge for common objects and familiar people: a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current

  3. Cognitive and Anatomical Underpinnings of the Conceptual Knowledge for Common Objects and Familiar People: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current

  4. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: the role of objects.

    PubMed

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included. PMID:24148875

  5. The Effects of Simultaneous Prompting on Teaching Expressive Identification of Objects: An Instructive Feedback Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Acar, Gazi; Kurt, Onur

    2003-01-01

    This study with three adolescents with mental retardation examined whether the use of a simultaneous prompting procedure would result in improved performance when expressively identifying first aid materials. All three students learned the identifications and maintained them after training. Students also acquired and maintained some of the…

  6. A Study of the Scope, Sequence, and Objectives of Elementary School Science as Revealed by State Science Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Verdine E.

    Thirty-one state guides, published or revised between 1955 and 1964, were studied to examine (1) the major areas of science included, (2) the sequence of presentation by grades, (3) the recommended science concepts to be taught at each grade level, (4) the stated objectives of elementary school science as revealed by the guides, and (5) laboratory…

  7. Study of the Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Individual Objective Performance within a University Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Shontarius D.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and individual objective performance. While the LMX literature suggests a positive correlation between LMX and performance, a closer look at the research examined showed that the performance measurements were based on subjective measurements rather than objective…

  8. Toward Objective, Morphology-Based Taxonomy: A Case Study on the Malagasy Nesomyrmex sikorai Species Group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Csősz, Sándor; Fisher, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world's greatest biodiversity hotspots, meriting special attention from biodiversity scientists. It is an excellent testing ground for novel techniques in taxonomy that aim to increase classification objectivity and yield greater taxonomic resolving power. Here we reveal the diversity of a unique and largely unexplored fragment of the Malagasy ant fauna using an advanced combination of exploratory analyses on quantitative morphological data allowing for increased objectivity in taxonomic workflow. The diversity of the Nesomyrmex sikorai species-group was assessed via hypothesis-free nest-centroid-clustering combined with recursive partitioning to estimate the number of morphological clusters and determine the most probable boundaries between them. This combination of methods provides a highly automated and objective species delineation protocol based on continuous morphometric data. Delimitations of clusters recognized by these exploratory analyses were tested via confirmatory Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Multivariate Ratio Analysis (MRA). The final species hypotheses are corroborated by many qualitative characters, and the recognized species exhibit different spatial distributions and occupy different ecological regions. We describe and redescribe eight morphologically distinct species including six new species: Nesomyrmex excelsior sp. n., N. modestus sp. n., N. reticulatus sp. n., N. retusispinosus (Forel, 1892), N. rugosus sp. n., N. sikorai (Emery, 1896), N. striatus sp. n., and N. tamatavensis sp. n. An identification key for their worker castes using morphometric data is provided. PMID:27097219

  9. Toward Objective, Morphology-Based Taxonomy: A Case Study on the Malagasy Nesomyrmex sikorai Species Group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Csősz, Sándor; Fisher, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world’s greatest biodiversity hotspots, meriting special attention from biodiversity scientists. It is an excellent testing ground for novel techniques in taxonomy that aim to increase classification objectivity and yield greater taxonomic resolving power. Here we reveal the diversity of a unique and largely unexplored fragment of the Malagasy ant fauna using an advanced combination of exploratory analyses on quantitative morphological data allowing for increased objectivity in taxonomic workflow. The diversity of the Nesomyrmex sikorai species-group was assessed via hypothesis-free nest-centroid-clustering combined with recursive partitioning to estimate the number of morphological clusters and determine the most probable boundaries between them. This combination of methods provides a highly automated and objective species delineation protocol based on continuous morphometric data. Delimitations of clusters recognized by these exploratory analyses were tested via confirmatory Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Multivariate Ratio Analysis (MRA). The final species hypotheses are corroborated by many qualitative characters, and the recognized species exhibit different spatial distributions and occupy different ecological regions. We describe and redescribe eight morphologically distinct species including six new species: Nesomyrmex excelsior sp. n., N. modestus sp. n., N. reticulatus sp. n., N. retusispinosus (Forel, 1892), N. rugosus sp. n., N. sikorai (Emery, 1896), N. striatus sp. n., and N. tamatavensis sp. n. An identification key for their worker castes using morphometric data is provided. PMID:27097219

  10. The Cooperative Health Research in South Tyrol (CHRIS) study: rationale, objectives, and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pattaro, Cristian; Gögele, Martin; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Melotti, Roberto; Schwienbacher, Christine; De Grandi, Alessandro; Foco, Luisa; D'Elia, Yuri; Linder, Barbara; Fuchsberger, Christian; Minelli, Cosetta; Egger, Clemens; Kofink, Lisa S; Zanigni, Stefano; Schäfer, Torsten; Facheris, Maurizio F; Smárason, Sigurður V; Rossini, Alessandra; Hicks, Andrew A; Weiss, Helmuth; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    The Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study is a population-based study with a longitudinal lookout to investigate the genetic and molecular basis of age-related common chronic conditions and their interaction with life style and environment in the general population. All adults of the middle and upper Vinschgau/Val Venosta are invited, while 10,000 participants are anticipated by mid-2017. Family participation is encouraged for complete pedigree reconstruction and disease inheritance mapping. After a pilot study on the compliance with a paperless assessment mode, computer-assisted interviews have been implemented to screen for conditions of the cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, genitourinary, nervous, behavioral, and cognitive system. Fat intake, cardiac health, and tremor are assessed instrumentally. Nutrient intake, physical activity, and life-course smoking are measured semi-quantitatively. Participants are phenotyped for 73 blood and urine parameters and 60 aliquots per participant are biobanked (cryo-preserved urine, DNA, and whole and fractionated blood). Through liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis, metabolite profiling of the mitochondrial function is assessed. Samples are genotyped on 1 million variants with the Illumina HumanOmniExpressExome array and the first data release including 4570 fully phenotyped and genotyped samples is now available for analysis. Participants' follow-up is foreseen 6 years after the first visit. The target population is characterized by long-term social stability and homogeneous environment which should both favor the identification of enriched genetic variants. The CHRIS cohort is a valuable resource to assess the contribution of genomics, metabolomics, and environmental factors to human health and disease. It is awaited that this will result in the identification of novel molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:26541195